WikiLeaks

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pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

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4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.

First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.

It later emerged that the US state department had written to the company on 27 November – the eve of the cables’ launch – declaring that WikiLeaks was deemed illegal in the US. On Monday 6 December, the credit card giant MasterCard followed suit, saying that WikiLeaks “contravened rules”. On Tuesday, Visa Europe did the same. These were popular and easy methods of donating online; seeing both closed down shut off much of WikiLeaks’ funding. (Critics pointed out that, while WikiLeaks was judged off-limits, the Ku Klux Klan’s website still directed would-be donors to a site that takes both MasterCard and Visa.) It was a wounding blow and left Assange struggling to pay his and WikiLeaks’ growing legal bills. These salvoes against WikiLeaks did not go unanswered: they triggered a backlash against the backlash. Fury raged online at such a demonstration of political pressure and US corporate self-interest.


pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

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1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Its main projects are FarmSubsidy.org and FishSubsidy.org, which document government payments to farmers, fishers, and others working in those industries across Europe. See also VoteWatch.eu, which collects and displays the full records of the European Parliament. WikiLeaks resources: –– WikiLeaks (WikiLeaks.ch). A non-profit media organization dedicated to bringing important news and information to the public that provides an innovative, secure and anonymous way for independent sources around the world to leak information to our journalists. A list of mirror sites can be found at WikiLeaks.info. –– WikiLeaks Central (WLCentral.org). A hub for news, analysis and action run by volunteers supportive of WikiLeaks that covers censorship and freedom of information topics in all forms. –– The Bradley Manning Support Network (BradleyManning.org). An ad hoc, international grassroots effort to help accused whistle blower Pfc.

Last November, as Cablegate began to break open, blogger Aaron Bady wrote a long essay called “Julian Assange and the Computer Conspiracy; ‘To destroy this invisible government,’” pointing to these essays and offering exactly that analysis of Assange’s philosophy. WikiLeaks’ Twitter account then tweeted a link to Bady’s post, reading, “Good essay on one of the key ideas behind WikiLeaks.”10 If anything, Assange’s greatest contribution to global enlightenment is that the idea of a viable “stateless news organization,” to use Jay Rosen’s phrase, beholden to no country’s laws and dedicated to bringing government information into public view, has been set loose into the world. Even if Assange goes to jail and WikiLeaks is somehow shut down, others are already following in his footsteps. Or, 173 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY as futurist Mark Pesce nicely put it, “The failures of WikiLeaks provide the blueprint for the systems which will follow it.”11 Since Cablegate, several independent WikiLeaks-style projects have announced themselves, including: BrusselsLeaks. com (focused on the European Union); BalkanLeaks.eu (focused on the Balkan countries); Indoleaks.org (focused on Indonesia); Rospil.info (focused on Russia); two competing environmental efforts each claiming the name GreenLeaks; and the Al-Jazeera Transparency Unit, which in late January 2011 began publishing (in tandem with The Guardian) a cache of documents from inside the Palestinian Authority that exposed much of the secret Palestinian negotiating strategy with Israel.12 Some recent graduates of the CUNY Journalism School launched a simple tool for publishers interested in attracting whistleblowers called Localeaks.13 And even The New York Times announced that it was exploring creating a special portal for would-be leakers.

Stone This book is not a treatise on WikiLeaks, nor is it meant to be an exhaustive discussion of the future of secrecy or privacy, or a comprehensive exploration of all the ways the Internet is changing politics, governance, and society. It has been, however, called into existence by WikiLeaks and the urgent debates that have been ignited by the actions of its founder Julian Assange and his supporters around the world. But readers should be forewarned—I am not aiming to untangle every knotty question raised by WikiLeaks, nor do I think it would be wise to try, given how quickly that story continues to develop and change. But with the current volley of books appearing about Assange, WikiLeaks, and the ins-and-outs of his relations with various major news organizations, there’s a danger of missing the bigger story of what WikiLeaks really represents. I have conceived of this book as a report from the trenches where a wide array of small-d democracy and transparency activists are hard at work using new tools and methods to open up powerful institutions and make them more accountable, and to situate WikiLeaks in that movement.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

“Worse than a military attack,” the Republican congressman Peter King expostulated in November 2010, urging that WikiLeaks be categorized as a “terrorist organization.”23 Vice President Joe Biden accused Julian Assange of being a “high-tech terrorist.” Hunt him down like bin Laden, exhorted Sarah Palin.24 “Yes, WikiLeaks is a terrorist organization,” said Fox News.25 The basis of this overblown charge was that WikiLeaks was waging a “cyber-war” on the United States that placed “vital interests” at risk—particularly the flows of information necessary to track down and capture “terrorists”—thus putting American lives in danger. When WikiLeaks invited the US government to name a single cable whose publication put anyone at significant risk of harm, the State Department’s legal advisor wrote back formally declining to name a specific danger, but nonetheless ordered WikiLeaks to shut down its websites, cease publication, and destroy all the information it held.26 This charge of “terrorism” was not merely lazy or overexcited: there was real power behind it.

When it later emerged that a member of parliament could use his parliamentary privilege to ask the secretary of state for justice a question about the matter, Trafigura went so far as to seek a “super-injunction” against the Guardian newspaper, again with the help of Carter Ruck, which prevented the paper from reporting on the parliamentary exchange.6 The previous year, the Swiss bank Julius Baer had suffered a similar squirming fit after WikiLeaks began releasing documents about the company’s operations that alleged its involvement in the concealment of assets for influential political figures, money laundering, and tax evasion. The company overreached in its response to the WikiLeaks revelations. It obtained an injunction against WikiLeaks, obstructing the circulation of the documents it found embarrassing, but this was not enough. It felt compelled to try to shut down WikiLeaks entirely, suing both the organization and its online domain registrar. It initially gained an injunction but, after a furious public backlash and a series of counter-actions filed by WikiLeaks supporters, was forced to back down. The negative publicity was even more damaging for the company when a former employee who had supplied the incriminating information came forward in 2011 with thousands more documents pertaining to high-net-worth clients, which he said would shed more light on the company’s practices7 and on the wealthy individuals avoiding tax.

Finer, “Iraqi Sunnis Battle to Defend Shiites,” Washington Post, August 14, 2005. 19Department of Defense, “Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq,” June 2007, Report to Congress, at defense.gov; Fred Kaplan, “Western Targets: The Iraqi Insurgency Is Still Primarily an Anti-Occupation Effort,” Slate, February 9, 2006. 20International Council on Security and Development, “Eight Years after 9/11 Taliban Now Has a Permanent Presence in 80% of Afghanistan,” press release, September 10, 2009, available at uruknet.info; Antonio Giustozzi, Koran, Kalashnikov, and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), pp. 108–9. 21“Leverage Xenophobia,” Washington Post, April 10, 2006. 22General Sir Richard Dannatt, “Address to the International Institute for Strategic Studies,” September 21, 2007, at mod.uk. 23“King: WikiLeaks Release ‘Worse than Military Attack,’” CBS New York, November 28, 2010, at newyork.cbslocal.com. 24Chris McGreal, “Is WikiLeaks Hi-Tech Terrorism or Hype? Washington can’t decide,” Guardian, February 5, 2011. 25K. T. McFarland, “Yes, WikiLeaks Is a Terrorist Organization and the Time to Act Is NOW,” Fox News, November 30, 2011, at foxnews.com. 26David Leigh and Luke Harding, WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange’s War on Secrecy (London: Guardian, 2011). 27This phrase is from a chat with Assange, discovered by US authorities. Kim Zetter, “Jolt in WikiLeaks Case: Feds Found Manning-Assange Chat Logs on Laptop,” Wired, December 19, 2011. 28Ed Pilkington, “Bradley Manning Treated More Harshly than a Terrorist, Lawyer Argues,” Guardian, July 12, 2012; Ed Pilkington, “Bradley Manning’s Treatment Was Cruel and Inhuman, UN Torture Chief Rules,” Guardian, March 12, 2012. 29See Richard Jackson, Marie Breen Smyth, and Jeroen Gunning, eds, Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda (Oxford: Routledge, 2009); and Marie Breen-Smyth, ed., The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012). 30Steve Inskeep, “State Department Defends America’s Image Abroad,” National Public Radio, March 27, 2006. 31George W.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

As a result, one of the report’s major recommendations was to encourage independent media and human rights organisations to host their websites closer to the “core” of the network – at hypergiant providers like Amazon and Google – in order to take advantage of their expertise and resources when it came to fending off DDoS. Amazon’s actions against WikiLeaks had “complicated” that conclusion, Ethan wrote. Stuck between exposure to crippling cyber-attacks at the edge of the network, and the risk of political pressure and censorship at the network’s core, it looked like the real world was closing in on WikiLeaks. What’s more, amid rumours of pressure from the highest ranks of the US State Department, first PayPal, then Mastercard and Visa choked WikiLeaks’ ability to receive donations, refusing to process any more payments destined for WikiLeaks and, in PayPal’s case, cutting off access to their account. But if extra-judicial censorship of WikiLeaks was as easy as a few phone calls from the powers-that-be, it was also about to turn out to be impossible.

Somewhere inside the heart of every member of the audience at 26c3 is the hope that this same power can be harnessed for political causes. “If more people have just half the courage of some of the WikiLeaks volunteers, then the world would be a better place,” says Daniel. “Well,” he goes on, “We think courage is contagious”. This final call to arms earns the two WikiLeaks men a five-minute standing ovation. I find I’m on my feet as well. But as much as I’m participating in what has essentially turned into something more like a prayer meeting, I’m also curious. For one thing, I’m intrigued to see anyone associating themselves with WikiLeaks at all. When the organisation launched, it made its representatives very hard to find, and although I know friends of mine from Open Rights Group days have advised WikiLeaks, I’ve never met anyone before who claims to run it. I’m here to learn about hackers, not journalists, but something about this presentation makes me want to know more.

Daniel seems a lot less ready to criticise the mainstream media than Julian, but he does admit that, “for various reasons”, there’s a gap in investigative journalism. It’s an expensive investment, he says, and he sees WikiLeaks as “a complementary effort to try and make it cheap again”. Both men are aware that a part of their future lies in partnering with the press. For Daniel, the key realisation working with WikiLeaks is that “things given away for free are not worth anything. By creating scarcity you somehow create value”. Early experiments with offering exclusive access to material to particular newspapers have produced mixed results, but WikiLeaks will continue to trial this approach. And despite their fiscalised state, Julian also understands the value journalists offer WikiLeaks: “Contextualisation, adapting something to a local community or a political mood at that particular moment, making it emotional and hyping it up: these are very important things that journalists do.”


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

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4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, Occupy movement, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Impressed and perhaps unable to help himself, Assange had opened the main WikiLeaks Twitter account and posted to its nearly one million followers: “WikiLeaks supporters, LulzSec, take down CIA…who has a task force into WikiLeaks,” adding: “CIA finally learns the real meaning of WTF.” Soon after a few news agencies and websites reported that WikiLeaks was supporting LulzSec, he deleted the first tweet. He didn’t want to be publicly associated with what were clearly black hat hackers. Instead, he decided it was time to quietly reach out to the audacious new group that was grabbing the spotlight. On June 16, the day after Ryan set his botnet on CIA.gov, an associate of WikiLeaks contacted Topiary. “I’ve got a contact in WikiLeaks that wants to talk to you,” the person said, then directed him to a new IRC server that could serve as neutral ground for a private discussion.

When the Stratfor hackers got wind of news that Sabu had asked for money for the e-mails they had stolen, they were shocked, and quickly transferred the e-mails to WikiLeaks’s server for free. WikiLeaks has not denied, publicly or in private, that Sabu asked for money from the organization. But if WikiLeaks had paid for them, American authorities might have had a much stronger case against Assange. It seems doubtful that the FBI had the time or inclination to decide from the top down that it wanted to play along and try to nab WikiLeaks, but perhaps an agent somewhere had the idea to nudge Sabu to ask Assange for money, and see what came of it. Once WikiLeaks had the Stratfor e-mails, it formed partnerships with twenty-five media organizations, including Rolling Stone and Russia Reporter, and published a drip-feed of confidential information. WikiLeaks called them the Global Intelligence Files. News commentators noted that this marked the first time WikiLeaks was sourcing files from data that had been hacked by Anonymous.

Then q went on to explain why he and Assange had contacted LulzSec: they wanted help infiltrating several Icelandic corporate and government sites. They had many reasons for wanting retribution. A young WikiLeaks member had recently gone to Iceland and been arrested. WikiLeaks had also been bidding for access to a data center in an underground bunker but had lost out to another corporate bidder after the government denied them the space. Another journalist who supported WikiLeaks was being held by authorities. Assange and q appeared to want LulzSec to try to grab the e-mail service of government sites, then look for evidence of corruption or at least evidence that the government was unfairly targeting WikiLeaks. The picture they were trying to paint was of the Icelandic government trying to suppress WikiLeaks’s freedom to spread information. If they could leak such evidence, they explained, it could help instigate an uprising of sorts in Iceland and beyond.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

A sizeable number of trolls still claimed the Anonymous moniker, but this stream of ultracoordinated motherfuckery was clearly on the wane. No, the intrigue saturating the conference was due to another player in town: the whistleblowing sensation WikiLeaks. More specifically, interest coalesced around the recent trove of documents and footage a young army private (then) named Bradley Manning had leaked, which WikiLeaks had then laid at the feet of the world. Founded in 2006, the driving concept behind WikiLeaks had been simple: provide both a safe house and clearing house for leaks. And for a couple of years, WikiLeaks circulated countless leaks but failed to draw significant attention from established media institutions like the New York Times. This lack of attention was not due to unworthiness. In fact, some of these leaks—like the news that the multinational company Trafigura had illegally dumped toxic waste off the Ivory Coast—were shocking and yet absent from the mainstream news media.

This decision revitalized AnonOps to such a degree that the group’s IRC server became a fountain of nonstop activity for over a year, surpassing WikiLeaks as the primary hacker-activist hub of the Internet. But, before we describe this whimsical decision, we would do well to keep in mind its infamous outcome: AnonOps’ support of WikiLeaks via a massive DDoS campaign in the aftermath of the whistleblowing organization’s most contentious release yet. On November 28, 2010, WikiLeak’s publicly released 220 of 251,287 classified US diplomatic cables—the most extensive leak of classified materials ever, timed to coincide with in-depth analyses by the Guardian, the New York Times, El Pais, Le Monde, and Der Spiegel (each publication had received selected cables from WikiLeaks in advance). The US government was furious, and a trio of powerful companies—Amazon, MasterCard, and PayPal (among others)—bowed to its influence, refusing to process donations or host servers for WikiLeaks.

They decided instead to give the cache to WikiLeaks. Hammond simply went to the WikiLeaks IRC server (largely behind Sabu’s back). “When talking to WikiLeaks,” Hammond recounted to me, “they first asked to authenticate the leak by pasting them some samples, which I did, [but] they didn’t ask who I was or even really how I got access to it, but I told them voluntarily that I was working with antisec and had hacked Stratfor.” Soon after, he arranged the handoff. When Sabu found out, he insisted on dealing with Assange personally. After all, he told Hammond, he was already in contact with Assange’s trusted assistant “Q.” (Later, Wired.com’s Kevin Poulsen broke a story about Q an Icelandic teenager Sigurdur “Siggi” Thordarson voluntarily became an FBI informant in August 2011, handing thousands of WikiLeaks chats and documents over to law enforcement.


pages: 230 words: 60,050

In the Flow by Boris Groys

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illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, WikiLeaks

This eBook is licensed to Edward Betts, edward@4angle.com on 04/01/2016 CHAPTER 11 WikiLeaks: The Revolt of the Clerks, or Universality as Conspiracy In our epoch we have become accustomed to protests and revolts in the name of particular identities and interests. The revolts in the name of universal projects, such as liberalism or communism, seem to belong to the past. But the activities of WikiLeaks serve no specific identities or interests. They, rather, have a general, universal goal: to guarantee the free flow of information. Thus, the phenomenon of WikiLeaks signals a reintroduction of universalism into politics. This fact alone makes the emergence of WikiLeaks highly significant. We know from history that only universalist projects can lead to real political change. But WikiLeaks signals not only a return of universalism but also the deep transformation that the notion of universalism has undergone during recent decades.

But WikiLeaks signals not only a return of universalism but also the deep transformation that the notion of universalism has undergone during recent decades. WikiLeaks is not a political party. It does not offer any universalist vision of society, political programme or ideology designed to ‘spiritually’ or politically unify mankind. Rather, WikiLeaks offers a sum of technical means that would allow universal access to any specific, particular content. Universality of ideas is here replaced by universality of access. WikiLeaks offers not a universalist political project but a universal information service. The ethos of WikiLeaks is the ethos of civil, administrative service – globalized and universalized. In his famous essay La trahison des clercs (1927), Julien Benda aptly described this ethos, along with a new universal class defined by this ethos.

It is obvious that the corporations operating the different aspects of the Internet are totally inscribed in global capitalist markets. But what to say about WikiLeaks? Its attacks are directed more against state censorship than against the flow of capital. One can formulate the following hypothesis concerning the attitude of WikiLeaks toward capitalism: For WikiLeaks, capital is not universal enough because it is ultimately dependent on the patronage of nation states and relies on their political, military and industrial power. That is the reason why the mainstream Internet corporations collaborate with state censorship and block the free flow of information through different means of protection. As a rule, we think of capitalism as a power that corrupts the state – the democratic, universalist nation state. But WikiLeaks indirectly reverses this accusation. And, indeed, one can see the situation from another perspective: Capitalism does not fulfil its global promise because it has been permanently corrupted by the nation states and their security interests.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

These included a letter by State Department legal adviser Harold Koh, in which he wrote that the “violation of the law is ongoing” as long as WikiLeaks continues to publish the leaked diplomatic cables. As Harvard legal scholar Yochai Benkler pointed out in a group e-mail discussion with colleagues about WikiLeaks and the State Department’s actions (which I am quoting with his permission), Koh’s assertion was patently “false, as a matter of constitutional law.” The Justice Department has not managed to bring a viable case to a court of law against WikiLeaks or any other entity involved with publishing the cables. Benkler argued the government had no case unless it could prove that somebody involved with WikiLeaks directly conspired with Manning. What Benkler and many other constitutional scholars find insidious about the US government’s approach to WikiLeaks is that since the government has no genuine case against the publishers, its assertion of WikiLeaks’ illegality—no matter how groundless—“leaves room for various extralegal avenues that can be denied as not under your control to do the suppression work.”

But without clear transparency and accountability about how, when, and under what specific circumstances personal information is being collected and used, citizens have good reason to worry about the growth of the state’s “panoptic” power. WIKILEAKS AND THE FATE OF CONTROVERSIAL SPEECH WikiLeaks and several news organizations that the whistle-blowing organization had chosen as partners published the first batch of classified US diplomatic cables, leaked by disgruntled US Army Private Bradley Manning, in November 2010. Vice President Joseph Biden declared WikiLeaks’ leader, Julian Assange, to be a “digital terrorist.” Senator Joe Lieberman declared that “WikiLeaks’ illegal, outrageous, and reckless acts have compromised our national security and put lives at risk around the world.” Meanwhile, the WikiLeaks “Cablegate” website, dedicated to showcasing the leaked diplomatic cables, came under distributed denial of service attacks of unknown origin.

Assange decided to move the storage and publication of his website’s data to another web-hosting service, run by Amazon, which is known for its robustness in defending against cyber-attacks and thus often used by small human rights groups that lack sufficient in-house technical expertise to defend themselves. Two days after Assange moved the Cablegate site to Amazon, Amazon headquarters received a call of complaint from Lieberman’s office. Shortly thereafter, Amazon booted WikiLeaks. The senator responded with a statement: “I wish that Amazon had taken this action earlier based on WikiLeaks’ previous publication of classified material. The company’s decision to cut off WikiLeaks now is the right decision and should set the standard for other companies WikiLeaks is using to distribute its illegally seized material.” Amazon later insisted that it had acted independently of Lieberman’s phone call. At any rate, legally Amazon was off the hook. Controversial speech hosted on Amazon’s web servers is not protected in the same way that speech is constitutionally protected in public spaces.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

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affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks

With Snowden safely on board the Airbus A330-300, Assange put out a statement. He claimed personal credit for the entire rescue operation. He said WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden’s ticket. While in Hong Kong, the organisation had also given Snowden legal advice. Assange would subsequently liken his role, in an interview with the South China Morning Post, to that of a ‘people smuggler’. Proprietorially claiming Snowden as the latest star player for Team WikiLeaks, the statement said: ‘Mr Edward Snowden, the American whistleblower who exposed evidence of a global surveillance regime conducted by US and UK intelligence agencies, has left Hong Kong legally. He is bound for a democratic nation via a safe route for the purposes of asylum, and is being escorted by diplomats and legal advisers from WikiLeaks.’ Moscow journalists dumped their Sunday leisure plans and scrambled to Terminal F of Sheremetyevo International Airport, where Snowden was due to transit.

One was Henry Dunckley, a 19th-century Baptist social critic who used the nom de plume in the Manchester Examiner. The other was Clement Walker, a 17th-century Somerset parliamentarian during the English civil war who was eventually locked up and died in the Tower of London. Significantly, verax is also an antonym of mendax. Mendax means ‘deceiving’ and was the handle used by Julian Assange of WikiLeaks when he was a young Australian hacker. WikiLeaks, with their electronic mass-leaking of US army files from Afghanistan, and of State Department diplomatic cables from all over the world, had recently plunged the US administration into uproar. Perhaps Snowden’s allusion was deliberate. Outwardly, his life continued as before. Read with hindsight, his girlfriend’s blog entries seem poignant. On 1 March, Mills writes that she will be an ‘international woman of mystery’ and that her Friday show later the same evening has a ‘007’ theme.

Assange’s view of the world was essentially self-regarding and Manichaean, with countries divided up into those that supported him (Russia, Ecuador, Latin America generally) and those that didn’t (the US, Sweden and the UK). As Jemima Khan, one of many demoralised former WikiLeaks supporters, put it: ‘The problem with Camp Assange is that, in the words of George W Bush, it sees the world as being “with us or against us”.’ On Sunday 23 June 2013, Snowden’s lanky figure, wearing a grey shirt and carrying a backpack, arrived at Hong Kong’s Chek Lap Kok airport. With him was the young WikiLeaks worker, Sarah Harrison. It was a hot and humid morning. The pair were nervous. They checked in at the Aeroflot counter for flight SU213 to Moscow, and made their way through normal departure channels. Snowden was holding the safe-conduct pass issued by Narvaez, Assange’s friend, and couriered to him by Harrison.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

These two core values of Wikipedia—that anyone can edit it and that everything is transparent—are part of the attraction of the “wiki” in WikiLeaks. While WikiLeaks actually started as a wiki, it is no longer one. But WikiLeaks is a place that wants to bring radical transparency to the world’s largest institutions and prove that anyone—even a lowly private in the U.S. Army—can be powerful beyond imagination. What is the role of secrecy in democracy and diplomacy, and what does it mean in a digital age where secrecy and privacy have nearly disappeared? It’s an important question, because whatever WikiLeaks’s future, Internet-fueled leaks are certain to rise again. Assange sees WikiLeaks as a new force in the world, one that works to bring accountability to large institutions like the U.S. government. In a series of blog posts explaining the purpose of WikiLeaks, he writes, “the more secretive or unjust an organization is, the more leaks induce fear and paranoia in its leadership and planning coterie. … Since unjust systems, by their nature, induce opponents, and in many places barely have the upper hand, mass leaking leaves them exquisitely vulnerable to those who seek to replace them with more open forms of governance.”28 To Assange WikiLeaks is something between the accountability journalism of newspapers and the transparency activism of the open-source movement.

Manning allegedly had access to the files through the U.S. military’s online data-management tools and copied them to share online on WikiLeaks. Julian Assange, a computer programmer and activist, had been working with a team to build WikiLeaks into a known repository for whistleblowers and a trusted source for journalists. He turned the steady supply of material from Manning into wave after wave of disclosures and leaks, starting with a video of U.S. Army soldiers in a helicopter hunting down two Reuters journalists in Iraq. The mother lode was more than half a million “confidential” State Department cables that turned the institutions of diplomacy on their head and caused political uproars in dozens of countries. Understanding WikiLeaks WikiLeaks raises intriguing questions about ethics, journalism, privacy, and governance in an age when the Internet has made the mass storage and publication of information practically free to anyone.

. … Since unjust systems, by their nature, induce opponents, and in many places barely have the upper hand, mass leaking leaves them exquisitely vulnerable to those who seek to replace them with more open forms of governance.”28 To Assange WikiLeaks is something between the accountability journalism of newspapers and the transparency activism of the open-source movement. By his count, WikiLeaks has released more classified documents than the rest of the world press combined: “That’s not something I say as a way of saying how successful we are—rather, that shows you the parlous state of the rest of the media. How is it that a team of five people has managed to release to the public more suppressed information, at that level, than the rest of the world press combined? It’s disgraceful.”29 Some political leaders in the West have labeled Assange as a terrorist and even gone so far as to call for his death. Former Republican presidential candidate Mike Huckabee called for the head of “whoever” did WikiLeaks,30 former Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin called for the person behind WikiLeaks to be “hunted down like Bin Laden,”31 and Vice President Joe Biden explicitly denounced Assange as a “digital terrorist.”32 Others see him as a journalist and a hero.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

PayPal announced that it would no longer allow individuals to send money to WikiLeaks’s account, citing a letter from the US government declaring WikiLeaks’s engagement in illegal behavior. MasterCard and Visa followed suit, making it much harder for sympathizers around the world to contribute to the legal and technical defense of the website. Despite this pressure, the WikiLeaks organization survived. The leaked documents are still available around the Web on dozens of mirror websites to anyone who wants to see them (aside from federal employees), while the group has popped up in subsequent scandals from the NSA domestic spying revelations to the Syria Files, a release of over two million e-mails from the Syrian regime, including personal e-mails from Bashar al-Assad. More importantly, WikiLeaks’s model has proved powerful, inspiring copycat attempts like Local Leaks, a website associated with Anonymous.

Companies like PayPal, Bank of America, MasterCard, and Visa were targeted because they stopped processing payments to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, following its controversial publication of US diplomatic cables. The Zimbabwe government’s websites were targeted after its president’s wife sued a newspaper for US$15 million for publishing a WikiLeaks cable that linked her to the blood diamond trade. The Tunisian government was targeted for censoring the WikiLeaks documents as well as news about uprisings in the country (in a poignant twist, a noted local blogger, Slim Amamou, who had supported Anonymous in the effort, was arrested by the old regime and then became a minister in the new regime that the effort helped put into power). The British government was threatened with similar attacks if it extradited WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. As Anonymous went after bigger and more powerful targets, the group garnered more and more attention.

Manning would bring in CDs with music on them and then overwrite the music with file upon file of classified data. As he wrote, “I listened and lip-synced to Lady Gaga’s Telephone while exfiltratrating [sic] possibly the largest data spillage in american history.” In April 2010, WikiLeaks published a provocatively titled video, “Collateral Murder,” depicting an edited, annotated video from a US Army Apache attack helicopter firing on civilians in Iraq, including two Reuters reporters. WikiLeaks followed this up in July and October 2010 by releasing immense troves of classified documents relating to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. While Manning had originally wanted to remain anonymous, as was the WikiLeaks model, his facilitator, Assange, instead sought to achieve maximum publicity. The video was first displayed at a news conference at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. For the classified documents, Assange worked with the New York Times, the Guardian, and Der Spiegel to verify, analyze, and present the documents to the public.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Eventually, though, the technology used by these platforms will be so sophisticated that they will be effectively unblockable. When WikiLeaks lost its principal website URL, WikiLeaks.org, due to a series of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks and the pullout of its Internet service provider (which hosted the site) in 2010, its supporters immediately set up more than a thousand “mirror” sites (copies of the original site hosted at remote locations), with URLs like WikiLeaks.fi (in Finland), WikiLeaks.ca (in Canada) and WikiLeaks.info. (In a DDoS attack, a large number of compromised computer systems attack a single target, overloading the system with information requests and causing it to shut down, denying service to legitimate users.) Because WikiLeaks was designed as a distributed system—meaning its operations were distributed across many different computers, instead of concentrated in one centralized hub—shutting down the platform was much more difficult than it seemed to most laymen.

These groups will continue to demand attention from the governments and institutions they attack, and their threats may come to be taken more seriously than one might expect judging from today’s activities, which mostly seem like stunts. The story of WikiLeaks, the secrets-publishing website we discussed earlier, and its sympathetic hacker allies is an illustrative example. The arrest of WikiLeaks’ cofounder Julian Assange in December 2010 sparked flurries of outrage around the world, particularly among the many activists, hackers and computer experts who believed his indictment on sexual-assault charges was politically motivated. Shortly thereafter, a series of cyber attacks crippled, among others, the websites for Amazon, which had revoked WikiLeaks’ use of its servers, and MasterCard and PayPal, which had both stopped processing donations for WikiLeaks. This campaign, officially titled Operation Avenge Assange, was coordinated by Anonymous, a loosely knit collective of hackers and activists already responsible for a string of prominent DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology and other targets.

This campaign, officially titled Operation Avenge Assange, was coordinated by Anonymous, a loosely knit collective of hackers and activists already responsible for a string of prominent DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology and other targets. During Operation Avenge Assange, the group vowed to take revenge on any organization that lined up against WikiLeaks: “While we don’t have much of an affiliation with WikiLeaks, we fight for the same reasons. We want transparency and we counter censorship. The attempts to silence WikiLeaks are long strides closer to a world where we cannot say what we think and are unable to express our opinions and ideas. We cannot let this happen.… This is why we intend to utilize our resources to raise awareness, attack those against and support those who are helping lead our world to freedom and democracy.” The corporate websites were back online within several hours, but their disabling was very public and could have affected millions of customers.

Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

In response to the question, “Name two countries that you think pose the biggest threat to you,” Israel received 88 percent, the United States 77 percent, and Iran 9 percent among those aged thirty-six and over and 11 percent among those thirty-six and under. 2010 Arab Public Opinion Survey. 16. Ian Black, “WikiLeaks Cables: Tunisia Blocks Site Reporting ‘Hatred’ of First Lady,” Guardian (London), 7 December 2010. Ian Black, “Profile: Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali,” Guardian (London), 14 January 2011. See also Amy Davidson, “Tunisia and WikiLeaks,” New Yorker, Close Read blog, 14 January 2011. 17. Steven Erlanger, “French Foreign Minister Urged to Resign,” New York Times, 3 February 2011. 18. Charlie Savage, “Soldier Faces 22 New WikiLeaks Charges,” New York Times, 2 March 2011. 19. Scott Shane, “Court Martial Recommended in WikiLeaks Case,” New York Times, 12 January 2012. 20. Stephanie Condon, “Obama Says Bradley Manning ‘Broke the Law,’” CBSNews.com, 22 April 2011. 21.

How does the United States square its trumpeting of the free flow of information and democratic rights of expression with its response to WikiLeaks? The profession of dedication to rights is always tinged with a fundamental hypocrisy: rights if we want them, not if we don’t. The clearest example of this is support for democracy. It’s pretty well established over many decades that the United States supports democracy only if it accords with strategic and economic objectives. Otherwise it opposes it. The United States is by no means alone on that, of course. The same is true of terror, aggression, torture, human rights, freedom of speech, whatever it might be. So the line that the enormous trove of information that was disseminated through WikiLeaks was somehow compromising U.S. security doesn’t wash. It compromised the security that governments are usually concerned about: their security from inspection by their own populations.

Many of the classified documents have little to do with genuine security but a lot to do with preventing the population from knowing what the government is up to. I think that’s been true of what I’ve seen of WikiLeaks, too. Take the one example I mentioned, Ambassador Patterson’s comments about Pakistan and the danger of the Bush-Obama policy destabilizing a country with one of the biggest nuclear weapons programs in the world, in fact, one that’s growing fast and interlaced with jihadi elements. That’s something the population ought to know about, but it has to be kept from them. You have to describe our policies in terms of defending ourselves from attack when you’re in fact increasing the threat of attack. That’s true over and over again. There are other interesting WikiLeaks exposures. At the time of the military coup in Honduras in 2009, the embassy in Honduras carried out an extensive investigation to determine whether the coup was legal or illegal, and they concluded, “The Embassy perspective is that there is no doubt that the military, Supreme Court and National Congress conspired on June 28 in what constituted an illegal and unconstitutional coup against the Executive Branch.”10 That assessment was sent back to Washington, which means the Obama administration knew about it, but they discarded the finding and, after various steps, ended up supporting the military coup, as they still do.11 For people who want to understand Obama’s thinking about freedom and democracy, that’s important information.


pages: 547 words: 160,071

Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

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airport security, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day

Suelette Dreyfus INTRODUCTION TO UNDERGROUND, SECOND EDITION BY SUELETTE DREYFUS Who are computer hackers? Why do they hack? Underground tried to answer these questions when it was first published in 1997. The questions still seem relevant more than a decade later. WikiLeaks, the world-famous publisher of documents leaked in the public interest, grew out of the computer underground described in this book. It has been said that WikiLeaks’ stories ‘have changed the way people think about how the world is run’.1 To understand WikiLeaks, you need to know the back story: Underground is that story. Underground is the back story because it reveals a world of people who use technology to solve problems with ‘thinking from outside the box’. This goes back to the earliest definition of a hacker, which doesn’t imply any illegal activity, but, rather, simply reflects someone who can find clever technical solutions to hard problems.

This goes back to the earliest definition of a hacker, which doesn’t imply any illegal activity, but, rather, simply reflects someone who can find clever technical solutions to hard problems. It is this kernel of unusual creativity, not their illegal activities, that makes the hackers in Underground so interesting. This kernel carried through to WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks revealed the creative application of technology, in the form of secure, anonymous online publishing, to the hard problem of getting governments and corporations to tell the truth. The founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and I worked on Underground for almost three years. He brought exceptional technical understanding and a detailed knowledge of the computer underground while I brought years of experience as a professional journalist and technology writer. CNN.com’s news blog declared Julian to be ‘the most intriguing person of the year’ at the end of 2010 based on the results of its online poll.

The contrast between appearance and reality in the world at large has only become sharper in the decade since Underground was first published. Few things have illustrated that more aptly than WikiLeaks. The material released via WikiLeaks has shown that many companies and governments are every bit as sneaky and self-serving as the hackers they railed against in courtrooms from London to New York in the 1990s. The moral high ground they stood upon has eroded, crumbling beneath the evidence of revealed US diplomatic cables, war logs and corporate documents. Many would argue their sins are greater, for they have not only broken laws, they have broken the very laws they were entrusted to protect and enforce. The themes emerging from the computer underground in this book weave throughout the current WikiLeaks saga: obsession, refusal to bow to authority, the desire to view information that is somehow forbidden, and the need to ‘free’ that information.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

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3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

It’s difficult to overstate how big a threat to the existing world order WikiLeaks was perceived to be in late 2010. There has been revelation after revelation – the Bradley Manning leaks, the video of US soldiers shooting at Reuters cameramen, the ‘friendly fire’ and civilian casualties, then the leak of another 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq war. WikiLeaks had caught the imagination of those opposed to the US and other governments. Many wanted to help. PayPal was the main means by which WikiLeaks was able to receive funds for its activities and, in 2010, its donors gave around one million dollars. But on December 4th 2010, under pressure from the US government, PayPal froze the WikiLeaks account. Domain name providers and other payment systems followed suit and refused to handle WikiLeaks’ business. Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time.

I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage.’ Five days later PC World magazine published an article – Could the WikiLeaksScandal Lead to New Virtual Currency?39It was the most prominent site yet to mention Bitcoin and suggested it may be the answer to WikiLeaks’ funding problems. A sudden flood of traffic overwhelmed Bitcoin’s website and it went down. When it came back up again, Satoshi wrote, ‘It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.’ Then Bitcoin was mentioned on Slashdot again, alongside WikiLeaks and the outspoken libertarian US congressman, Ron Paul.

Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time. WikiLeaks was starved of funds. And, unbeknownst to most, the organization was crumbling from within due to a falling-out between Daniel Domscheit-Berg, WikiLeaks’ number two, and Assange. One poster at BitcoinTalk thought that Bitcoin would be a means to help WikiLeaks. Others jumped at the idea. ‘Bring it on,’ said one. ‘Let’s encourage WikiLeaks to use Bitcoins and I’m willing to face any risk or fallout from that fact.’ Then wiser heads stepped in and a long discussion ensued.38 Early developers such as Jeff Garzik, Bruce Wagner and others felt that the last thing they should do was bring the attention of authorities to Bitcoin this early in its evolution. ‘It could permanently marginalize Bitcoin, keeping it out of the mainstream for good.


pages: 283 words: 77,272

With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald

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Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Instead, the administration did something else entirely: it launched an all-out war on WikiLeaks itself. Numerous reports quickly surfaced that the Obama DOJ was actively attempting to indict WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, an Australian citizen, under the Espionage Act of 1917—which, if successful, would be the first time in U.S. history that a nongovernment employee was convicted of espionage for publishing classified material. Meanwhile, a very sophisticated cyberattack temporarily drove WikiLeaks offline. Overt pressure from American government officials resulted in Australia threatening to revoke Assange’s passport. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee, publicly warned companies not to associate with WikiLeaks in any way, after which the assets of WikiLeaks were frozen and the organization’s accounts with MasterCard, Visa, PayPal, and Bank of America were terminated, impeding the group’s ability to raise funds.

Perhaps nothing better illustrates the reprehensible double standard than the Obama administration’s actions against the whistle-blowing site WikiLeaks. Throughout 2010, WikiLeaks published thousands of documents relating to U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which revealed shocking abuses and outright criminality on the part of the American occupiers. The files showed American soldiers firing on unarmed civilians and journalists, covering up multiple killings of civilians, and adopting a formal policy of turning a blind eye to systematic human rights abuses perpetrated by Iraqi forces right under the Americans’ noses. Needless to say, none of these revelations resulted in any criminal investigations from the Obama administration. In December, WikiLeaks released another trove of information: numerous diplomatic cables that had been sent from U.S. embassies around the world.

As David Corn of Mother Jones reported: During an April 14, 2009, White House briefing, I asked press secretary Robert Gibbs if the Obama administration would cooperate with any request from the Spaniards for information and documents related to the Bush Six. He said, “I don’t want to get involved in hypotheticals.” What he didn’t disclose was that the Obama administration, working with Republicans, was actively pressuring the Spaniards to drop the investigation. Those efforts apparently paid off, and, as this WikiLeaks-released cable shows, Gonzales, Haynes, Feith, Bybee, Addington, and Yoo owed Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton thank-you notes. The release of the WikiLeaks cable prompted the Philadelphia Daily News’s Will Bunch to write a scathing column titled “The Day That Barack Obama Lied to Me.” Recalling his interview with the candidate who had committed to look into Bush crimes, Bunch wrote: “The breakdown of justice in this country is far from exceptional. In fact, it’s contemptible.


pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

On April 5, 2010, the site uploaded a video it provocatively titled “Collateral Murder,” which recorded an Apache helicopter in Iraq as it (mistakenly) gunned down two Reuters journalists and a dozen Iraqi civilians, most of whom were unarmed. The video precipitated outcries from across the globe and intense coverage in the foreign press. At home, it prompted an explosion of commentary and debate in the blogosphere and, after WikiLeaks produced seventy thousand classified documents on the Afghanistan war, a harsh condemnation from the Department of Defense: “We deplore WikiLeaks for inducing individuals to break the law, leak classified documents, and then cavalierly share that secret information with the world, including our enemies.” But those were just the first tremors. In December 2010, WikiLeaks sent shock waves through governments around the globe when it posted 6,000 secret U.S. diplomatic cables (out of a total of 150,000 in its possession) revealing, among other embarrassing details of U.S. statecraft, that the United States was waging a more or less secret war in Yemen and that Hillary Clinton had directed diplomatic staff abroad to spy on foreign officials (in contravention of the UN charter).

In Tunisia, anti-regime activists read with interest U.S. diplomats’ description of the egregious corruption and self-dealing by the country’s ruling strongman Ben Ali (he would be dislodged by a popular uprising one month later). Republican congressman Peter King called for WikiLeaks to be designated a foreign terrorist organization and for Assange to be criminally prosecuted. Bill O’Reilly fantasized on air about Assange being killed by a U.S. predator drone. Vice President Joe Biden called WikiLeaks “terrorists,” and reports surfaced that Attorney General Eric Holder had commissioned an inquiry to see if Assange could be tried under the 1917 Espionage Act. WikiLeaks’ defenders pointed to a simple, powerful principle: Citizens of a democratic republic have a right to know what their government is doing. Daniel Ellsberg, who struck his own blow for openness during the Vietnam War by leaking the infamous Pentagon Papers to the New York Times, defended Assange in precisely these terms.

If you look at polls, everyone hates Congress, they hate the Democrats, they hate the Republicans even more, they hate big business; they hate banks and they distrust scientists, so why should we believe what these pointy-headed elitists are telling us? We don’t trust anything else, we don’t trust them.” Even Assange himself has come, I think, to recognize this central problem. An early manifesto he wrote about WikiLeaks activities in 2006 called “State and Terrorist Conspiracies” laid out a truly radical vision in which the goal of WikiLeaks was to destroy the “authoritarian conspiracy” that lay behind what he called “unjust regimes.” By leaking information from within, WikiLeaks would lead these institutions to grow paranoid and no longer able to communicate with themselves, spelling their demise. But by 2011, Assange’s views had evolved. Rather than wanting to use leaks as a means of destroying institutions from the inside, he told interviewer David Frost he was trying to save them from themselves.


pages: 233 words: 73,772

The Secret World of Oil by Ken Silverstein

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business intelligence, clean water, corporate governance, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Google Earth, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

“Sometimes we have special guests, and they like to be entertained,” Gutseriev explained to her. Later Gutseriev went into the energy business—he was understatedly described in a US diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks as “not known for his transparent corporate governance.” He did well. He regularly appears on Forbes’s list of the richest Russians, with a fortune estimated in 2012 at around $6.7 billion. A decade earlier, though, Gutseriev was down and seemingly out. In 2002, the Kremlin fired him as the head of state-owned oil firm Slavneft for resisting the company’s privatization, according to the WikiLeaked cable. That same year, however, he sought to regain his position by arranging for three busloads of armed guards to take over its Moscow offices. They withdrew after occupying the building for several days, according to an account in the Russian press.

Competition with China for influence in the region and growing trade ties—the United States buys more than half of Cambodia’s apparel production, its primary export—are among the factors behind the political warming. But a US diplomatic cable written in 2007 and released by WikiLeaks pointed to another reason for the rapprochement: the discovery of massive extractable resources, including gold, bauxite, and other minerals, plus potentially large reserves of oil and gas. Doing business in Cambodia is not easy, though. The WikiLeaks cable said corruption in the country was “systemic and pervasive” and expressed concern that Cambodia might become “the Nigeria of Southeast Asia.” One Western investor I talked to described the situation as “a nightmare,” saying, “Anything having to do with licenses, natural resources, or concessions—that’s where you have problems and where you always have military and government officials looking for money.”

Kazakhstan sits at the heart of the Caspian Sea region, in Central Asia, and the WikiLeaks cables paint the same rough portrait of other energy-rich nations of the region. In one diplomatic missive, a US diplomat compares Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev to Sonny Corleone. Like Don Vito’s kid, Aliyev was prone to overreact when he perceived challenges “to his authority or affronts to his family dignity, even minor ones,” said a 2009 cable, in a reference to the president’s tendency to lock up critics and shut down newspapers. As the dispatch explained, “He typically devises [foreign policy] with pragmatism, restraint and a helpful bias toward integration with the West, yet at home his policies have become increasingly authoritarian and hostile to diversity of political views.” Another WikiLeaked cable from January 2010 said that observers in Baku, the capital, often note that today’s Azerbaijan is run in a manner similar to the feudalism found in Europe during the Middle Ages: a handful of well-connected families control certain geographic areas, as well as certain sectors of the economy … As a result, an economy already burgeoning with oil and gas revenues produces enormous opportunity and wealth for a small handful of players that form Azerbaijan’s elite.


pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

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air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

All quotations of Indha Adde come from the author’s interview, unless otherwise noted. 192 five specific terrorists: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI2425, from Ambassador William Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Somalia: A Strategy for Engagement,” June 2, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/06/06NAIROBI2425.html. “Fazul [Abdullah Mohammed], [Saleh Ali Saleh] Nabhan, [Abu Talha] el-Sudani, [Ahmed] Abdi [Godane] and [Aden Hashi] Ayrow must be removed from the Somali equation.” 192 “start an open war in Mogadishu”: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI1484, from Ambassador William M. Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Ambassador to Yusuf: Alliance Against Terror Not Directed at TFG,” April 4, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/04/06NAIROBI1484.html. 193 small, regional Islamic courts: Cedric Barnes and Harun Hassan, “The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu’s Islamic Courts,” Journal of Eastern African Studies 1 (2) (July 2007). 193 twelve courts united: Author interview, Abdirahman “Aynte” Ali, June 2011. 193 receiving shipments: Schiemsky et al., “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia,” p. 15.

Africa Report No. 95, July 11, 2005, p. 9. 200 “the special group”: International Crisis Group, “Somalia’s Islamists,” Africa Report No. 100, December 12, 2005, p. 11. 200 Italian cemetery: Ali, “The Anatomy of al Shabaab,” p. 28. 200 “headline-grabbing assassinations”: Ibid. 201 video teleconferences: Naylor, “Years of Detective Work Led to al-Qaida Target.” 201 took control of Mogadishu: “Islamic Militia Claims Mogadishu,” CNN.com, June 5, 2006. 201 “wonderful piece of news”: Transcript, “Islamic Militia Takes Control of Somali Capital,” NewsHour, PBS, June 6, 2006. 202 “establish a friendly relationship”: Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, letter to governments and international organizations, “The Union of Islamic Courts in Mogadishu Break the Silence,” June 6, 2006, www.hiiraan.com/news/2006/jun/somali_news6_7.aspx. 202 “invite an investigative team”: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI2640, from Ambassador William Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Islamist Advances, Prospects for Dialogue, but Still No Admission of the Al Qaida Presence,” June 15, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/06/06NAIROBI2640.html. The cable includes the text of a letter sent from Sheikh Sharif on June 14. 202 “litmus test”: Ibid. 202 “moderate”: See US diplomatic cable 07NAIROBI5403, from Ambassador Michael Ranneberger, US Embassy Nairobi, “Somalia—Sheikh Sharif and the Future Role of Islamic Courts Moderates,” January 1, 2007, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2007/01/07NAIROBI5403.html. 202 “contemplate killing Sharif”: Jon Lee Anderson, “The Most Failed State,” New Yorker, December 14, 2009. 202 “onto everybody’s radar screen”: Author interview, Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, March 2011.

All quotations of Gartenstein-Ross are from the author’s interview. 202 “There is instability in Somalia”: Transcript, “President’s Remarks to the Travel Pool at Laredo Border Patrol Sector Headquarters,” June 6, 2006. 203 insane maze of roadblocks: Mohammed Olad Hassan, “Life Under Somalia’s Islamists,” BBC.news.co.uk, July 11, 2006. 203 ports and the airport: “Mogadishu’s Port Reopened,” AlJazeera.com, August 23, 2006. 203 felt safer: Xan Rice, “Mogadishu’s Miracle: Peace in the World’s Most Lawless City,” Guardian, June 25, 2006. 203 US officials acknowledged: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI3441, from Economic Counselor John F. Hoover, US Embassy Nairobi, “Horn of Africa, State-USAID Humanitarian Cable Update Number 8,” August 8, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/08/06NAIROBI3441.html. 203 “some semblance of order”: Author interview, Ismail Mahmoud Hurre, June 2011. 203 “rally with Ethiopia”: Memorandum from “Ennifar” (likely Azouz Ennifar, Deputy Special Representative for UN mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea), “Meeting with US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs,” June 26, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/wiki/US_encouraged_Ethiopian_invasion_of_Somalia:_UN_meeting_memo_with_Jenday_Frazer,_Secretary_of_State_for_African_Affairs,_2006. 204 training its notorious Agazi: Michael R. Gordon and Mark Mazzetti, “U.S.


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Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

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AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

The amazing thing about Tails is that it is designed from the ground up for privacy, so there are no settings to jiggle or opt-outs required. Using Tails was my only and best glimpse into an alternate universe where privacy could be the default. At his military court proceedings, Bradley Manning, the U.S. Army private who leaked documents to WikiLeaks, described how he connected with WikiLeaks using Tor and Jabber for encrypted chats. “The anonymity provided by TOR and the Jabber client and the WLO’s [WikiLeaks Organization’s] policy allowed me to feel I could just be myself, free of the concerns of social labeling and perceptions that are often placed upon me in real life,” Manning said in his statement to the court. Of course, encryption ultimately didn’t save Manning. He was betrayed by a friend—a hacker named Adrian Lamo, who turned Manning in to the FBI.

Short, simple passwords, such as dictionary words, have very low entropy because they can easily be guessed. Longer passwords that contain many types of symbols, letters, and numbers often have larger entropy because it takes more guesses to figure them out. Julian Assange knew this when he created the following password to the WikiLeaks cables database: AcollectionOfDiplomaticHistorySince_1966_ToThe_PresentDay#. It is fifty-eight characters long, with very few symbols, and easy to remember. Of course, the reason we know his password is that the Guardian newspaper published it in a book about WikiLeaks. So, obviously, it wasn’t a secure password in other respects. Entropy is frustratingly difficult to estimate. A long password can have low entropy if it is comprised of simple words and easy grammar. I started to become obsessed with measuring the entropy of the passwords I had created.

Julian Assange, a longtime Cypherpunk, transformed the relationship between journalists and their sources with his 2006 launch of the WikiLeaks encrypted drop box that promised complete anonymity to people who wanted to leak information. Other Cypherpunks focused on building “liberation technology” to help liberate people from oppressive regimes. Moxie Marlinspike in San Francisco built encryption apps—RedPhone and TextSecure—for Android phones. Nathan Freitas and the Guardian Project in New York built apps to bring encrypted calls and Tor to cell phones. The U.S. government funded some projects, such as Tor, in the name of Internet freedom, while at the same time the Justice Department was investigating Tor developer Jacob Appelbaum for his involvement in WikiLeaks. And Phil Zimmermann, the founder of Pretty Good Privacy, went the capitalist route.


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Themis planned to set up an analysis cell that would feed the law firm information about “adversarial entities and networks of interest,” according to a proposal the team created. The CEO of HBGary, Aaron Barr, said the team should collect information about WikiLeaks’ “global following and volunteer staff,” along with the group’s donors, in order to intimidate them. “Need to get people to understand that if they support the organization we will come after them,” Barr wrote in an e-mail. He suggested submitting fake documents to WikiLeaks in hopes that the site would publish them and then be discredited. Barr also urged targeting “people like Glenn Greenwald,” the blogger and vocal WikiLeaks supporter, and he said he wanted to launch “cyberattacks” on a server WikiLeaks was using in Sweden, in order to “get data” about WikiLeaks’ anonymous sources and expose them. Team Themis never had the chance to launch its espionage and propaganda campaign.

The Los Angeles Police Department is another Palantir customer, as is the New York Police Department, which runs an intelligence and counterterrorism unit that many experts believe is more sophisticated than the FBI’s or the CIA’s. Though Team Themis failed, the US government has turned to other private cyber sleuths to go after WikiLeaks and help with other investigations. Tiversa, a Pittsburgh-based company, grabbed headlines in 2011 when it accused WikiLeaks of using peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, like those used to swap music downloads, to obtain classified US military documents. WikiLeaks, which claims only to publish documents that it receives from whistleblowers, called the allegations “completely false.” Tiversa gave its findings to government investigators, who had been trying to build a case against Assange. Tiversa’s board of advisers includes prominent security experts and former US officials, such as General Wesley Clark, former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO forces in Europe and onetime Democratic presidential candidate, and Howard Schmidt, who was Barack Obama’s cyber security adviser in the White House.

In the fall of 2010, just as the website WikiLeaks was preparing to release potentially embarrassing information on Bank of America, including internal records and documents, Justice Department officials contacted the bank’s lawyers and encouraged them to get in touch with Hunton & Williams, a Washington law firm. It had put together a trio of small tech companies to run a kind of cyber propaganda operation against opponents of the US Chamber of Commerce, the leading business lobbyist in Washington. The group planned to scour websites and social media with data-mining technology and build dossiers on the Chamber’s opponents. Hunton & Williams asked the trio, which operated under the name Team Themis, if they could do the same job for supporters of WikiLeaks, and also if they could locate where the organization was storing classified information it got from its anonymous sources.


pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

Ambassador Robert Godec in a July 2009 cable released by WikiLeaks. Relying on such assessments, some observers hold that the WikiLeaks “documents should create a comforting feeling among the American public that officials aren’t asleep at the switch”—indeed, the cables are so supportive of U.S. policies that it is almost as if Obama is leaking them himself (or so Jacob Heilbrunn writes in The National Interest). “America should give Assange a medal,” says a headline in the Financial Times. Chief foreign policy analyst Gideon Rachman writes that “America’s foreign policy comes across as principled, intelligent and pragmatic . . . the public position taken by the U.S. on any given issue is usually the private position as well.” In this view, WikiLeaks undermines the “conspiracy theorists” who question the noble motives that Washington regularly proclaims.

Instead of taking practical steps toward reducing the nightmarish threat of nuclear weapons proliferation in Iran or elsewhere, the United States is moving to reinforce control of the vital Middle Eastern oil-producing regions, by violence if other means do not succeed. The War in Afghanistan: Echoes of Vietnam August 1, 2010 The War Logs—a six-year archive of classified military documents about the war in Afghanistan, released on the Internet by the organization WikiLeaks—documents a grim struggle becoming grimmer, from the U.S. perspective. And for the Afghans, a mounting horror. The War Logs, however valuable, may contribute to the unfortunate and prevailing doctrine that wars are wrong only if they aren’t successful—rather like the Nazis felt after Stalingrad. Last month [July 2010] came the fiasco of General Stanley A. McChrystal, forced to retire as commander of U.S. forces in Afghanistan and replaced by his superior, General David H.

Army poll in April [2010], the military operation is opposed by 95 percent of the population, and five out of six regard the Taliban as “our Afghan brothers”—again, echoes of earlier conquests. The Kandahar plans were delayed, part of the background for McChrystal’s leave-taking. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that U.S. authorities are concerned that domestic public support for the war in Afghanistan may erode even further. In May [2010], WikiLeaks released a March [2010] CIA memorandum about how to sustain Western Europe’s support for the war. The memorandum’s subtitle: “Why Counting on Apathy Might Not Be Enough.” “The Afghanistan mission’s low public salience has allowed French and German leaders to disregard popular opposition and steadily increase their troop contributions to the International Security Assistance Force [ISAF],” the memorandum states.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

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4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

A FEW MONTHS earlier the big concern plaguing the Bitcoin forum was how to attract new users, but now the problem was how to deal with the influx of new users, their potentially malicious behavior, and their competing interests. These problems became particularly pronounced after Bitcoin’s next big jump into the spotlight. In November, WikiLeaks, the organization founded by a regular participant in the old Cypherpunk movement, Julian Assange, released a vast trove of confidential American diplomatic documents that revealed previously secret operations around the world. The large credit card companies and PayPal came under immediate political pressure to cut off donations to WikiLeaks, which they did in early December, in what became known as the WikiLeaks blockade. This move pointed to the potentially troubling nexus between the financial industry and the government. If politicians didn’t like the ideas of a particular group, government officials could ask banks and credit card networks to deny the unpopular group access to the financial system, often without requiring any judicial approval.

The financial industry seemed to provide politicians with an extralegal way to crack down on dissent. The WikiLeaks blockade went to the core of some of the concerns that had motivated the original Cypherpunks. Bitcoin, in turn, seemed to have the potential to counteract the problem. Each person on the network controlled his or her coins with his or her private key. There was no central organization that could freeze a person’s Bitcoin address or stop coins from being sent from a particular address. A few days after the WikiLeaks blockade began, PCWorld wrote a widely circulated story that noted the obvious utility of Bitcoin in the situation: “Nobody can stop the Bitcoin system or censor it, short of turning off the entire Internet. If WikiLeaks had requested Bitcoins then they would have received their donations without a second thought.”

It wasn’t clear if Bitcoin could actually be used in this particular instance, but whatever the practical possibilities, the blockade was helping elevate the debate around Bitcoin beyond the rather narrow issues of privacy and government money-printing that had been dominant in the early days. Here was a broader philosophical issue that could attract a wider audience, and the forums were full of new members who had been drawn in by the attention. One new user, a young man in England named Amir Taaki, proposed making Bitcoin donations to WikiLeaks. Amir argued this could raise Bitcoin’s profile at the same time that it could help WikiLeaks raise money. This kicked off a vigorous debate on the forum. A number of programmers worried that the Bitcoin network was not ready for all the traffic—and government scrutiny—that might come if it started to be used for controversial donations. “It is extraordinarily unwise to make Bitcoin such a highly visible target, at such an early stage in this project.


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

The Age of Deception: Nuclear Diplomacy in Treacherous Times (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2011), 141–47. 26 Karl Vick, “Iran’s President Calls Holocaust ‘Myth’ in Latest Assault on Jews,” Washington Post, Foreign Service, December 15, 2005. 27 “06Kuwait71, Kuwait’s Country Wide Radiation Monitoring System,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Kuwait to the State Department in Washington, DC, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06KUWAIT71.html. 28 The assessment comes from Ariel (Eli) Levite, deputy director general of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, in a September 2005 US State Department cable from the Tel Aviv embassy, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2005/09/05TELAVIV5705.html. 29 “06TelAviv293, Iran: Congressman Ackerman’s January 5 Meeting at,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Tel Aviv, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06TELAVIV293.html. See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months.

See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months. See “06Cairo601, Iran; Centrifuge Briefing to Egyptian MFA,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06CAIRO601.html. 31 “06TelAviv688, Iran-IAEA: Israeli Atomic Energy Commission,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06TELAVIV688.html. 32 Ibid. 33 “Iran Defiant on Nuclear Deadline,” BBC News, August 1, 2006, available at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5236010.stm. 34 “07Berlins1450, Treasury Under Secretary Levey Discusses Next,” US State Department cable from the embassy in Berlin, July 2007, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2007/07/07BERLIN1450.html. The cable mentions that at least thirty Iranian front companies had been established for procurement.

Steven Lee Myers, “An Assessment Jars a Foreign Policy Debate About Iran,” New York Times, December 4, 2007. 43 Germany’s deputy national security adviser Rolf Nikel told US officials in early 2008 that the NIE report complicated efforts to convince the German public and German companies that sanctions against Iran had merit. US State Department cable, February 2008, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2008/02/08BERLIN180.html. See also wikileaks.org/cable/2007/12/07BERLIN2157.html. With regard to the Israeli comments, according to a US State Department cable published by WikiLeaks in May 2009, IDF intelligence chief Maj. Gen. Amos Yadlin made the comments to Congressman Robert Wexler. See wikileaks.cabledrum.net/cable/2009/05/09TELAVIV. The NIE had other repercussions. A German-Iranian trader named Mohsen Vanaki was on trial in Germany for smuggling dual-use equipment to Iran.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

Big sites need hosting, and that costs money. WikiLeaks was the target of this in 2010, with US credit card processors cutting off all donations to the site. Despite not getting money from US contributors, WikiLeaks survived and got good press from being the victim of clearly abusive conduct by the US government and financial industry. So attacking a site will often just make it stronger. The very fact that authorities target a leaks site promotes its accuracy and importance. It is also technically hard to sustain. In 2011, Bank of America hired three firms to attack Wikileaks. One of the firms, HBGary Federal, was hacked by Anonymous, and the plan was discovered. Emails and documents uncovered in the hack outline several proposed attacks on WikiLeaks: Feed the fuel between the feuding groups.

Run a media campaign to push the radical and reckless nature of WikiLeaks activities. Sustain pressure. Does nothing for the fanatics, but creates concern and doubt among moderates. Search for leaks. Use social media to profile and identify risky behavior of employees. Once a leak is out and attacks on the website that released the information are shown to be useless, the next step is to attack the motives, sanity, and loyalty of the leaker. When there is a leak, the American press (when the leak concerns American secrets) focuses on the messenger and his motives, rather than the message. This isn't necessarily a conspiracy as much as how US media, and indeed much of US society, prefers style over substance. The most significant trove of documents that WikiLeaks published came from Chelsea née Bradley Manning, who has been described in the media as mentally unstable, reckless, and naive.

The World Trade Centers, as they were for al-Qaida. In December 2010, PayPal, Visa, and Mastercard (among other firms) froze WikiLeaks' account, cutting off donations to that site. In retaliation, Anonymous organized "Operation Payback," a "distributed denial of service" attack on those firms' web servers. Thousands of people around the world ran scripts on their PCs that sent request after request to PayPal's servers, overloading them, until no-one could use them. Under the CFAA, this gave the FBI a mandate to arrest them and prosecute them, which started about three years later, in October 2013. Operation Payback was very significant. It was ostensibly a non-violent protest against the banks and payments processors who had tried to strangle WikiLeaks. However, what it really signified was the escalation of the war between the Spider and Para-state, and the digital revolution.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

It is possible that blockchain mechanisms might be the most efficient and equitable models for administering all transnational public goods, particularly due to their participative, democratic, and distributed nature. A notable case in which jurisdictional nation-state entities were able to effect centralized and biased control is WikiLeaks. In the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing case in 2010, individuals were trying to make financial contributions in support of the WikiLeaks organization but, strongarmed by centralized government agendas, credit card payment networks and PayPal, refused to accept such contributions, and WikiLeaks was effectively embargoed.75 Bitcoin contributions, had they been possible at the time, would have been direct, and possibly produced a different outcome. The Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), a nonprofit organization that supports personal freedoms, and other related organizations are similarly located in jurisdictional locations at present, which could always mean the operation of curtailed agendas if authorities were to exercise influence over the organization and individuals involved.

Currency, Contracts, and Applications beyond Financial Markets The potential benefits of the blockchain are more than just economic—they extend into political, humanitarian, social, and scientific domains—and the technological capacity of the blockchain is already being harnessed by specific groups to address real-world problems. For example, to counter repressive political regimes, blockchain technology can be used to enact in a decentralized cloud functions that previously needed administration by jurisdictionally bound organizations. This is obviously useful for organizations like WikiLeaks (where national governments prevented credit card processors from accepting donations in the sensitive Edward Snowden situation) as well as organizations that are transnational in scope and neutral in political outlook, like Internet standards group ICANN and DNS services. Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models.

First, I cover the basic definitions and concepts of Bitcoin and blockchain technology, and currency and payments as the core Blockchain 1.0 applications. Second, I describe Blockchain 2.0—market and financial applications beyond currency, such as contracts. I then envision Blockchain 3.0, meaning blockchain applications beyond currency, finance, and markets. Within this broad category are justice applications such as blockchain governance, uplifting organizations (like WikiLeaks, ICANN, and DNS services) away from repressive jurisdictional regimes to the decentralized cloud, protection of IP, and digital identity verification and authentication. Fourth, I consider another class of Blockchain 3.0 applications beyond currency, finance, and markets, for which the blockchain model offers scale, efficiency, organization, and coordination benefits in the areas of science, genomics, health, learning, academic publishing, development, aid, and culture.


pages: 186 words: 49,595

Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera

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citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks

Technology companies had become deeply enmeshed in American power. Tunisia’s cyberwars escalated to even greater heights when Anonymous, the decentralized internet group that promotes online freedom, launched Operation Tunisia. During the Tunisian uprising, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange released a series of incriminating cables detailing embezzlement and nepotism by the Ben Ali oligarchy, information that further fueled the revolt. When the government tried to block access to the cables, Operation Tunisia used the Twitter hashtag #OpTunisia to inform Tunisians about backdoor ways to access the WikiLeaks cables and protect themselves online. Anonymous also managed to hack and take down high-profile Tunisian governmental websites, including those of the stock exchange, the government Internet Agency, the Office of the President and Prime Minister, the Ministry of Industry, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

In all likelihood, a Mubarak-regime electronic militia organized the assault on Abbas’s account. Abbas contacted YouTube directly to reinstate the videos, but to no avail. He then reached out to the US Embassy in Cairo and requested that they contact Google, which owns YouTube, on his behalf. The details of Abbas’s request to the embassy appear in an embassy cable dated December 2007, which was made public by WikiLeaks. It reads: Prominent Egyptian blogger, human rights activist and winner of the 2007 Knight-Ridder International Journalism Award, Wael Abbas, contacted us November 17 to report that YouTube removed from his website two videos exposing police abuses—one of a Sinai bedouin allegedly shot by police and thrown in a garbage dump during the past week’s violence … and the other of a woman being tortured in a police station.

In September 2013, Abbas was one of thirty-five activists, including the founders of the 6th of April Facebook page, named in a complaint to the Egyptian public prosecutor. He was called in for questioning on suspicion of treason and working with a foreign government. The names of the activists were taken from a confidential US embassy memo from 2007 entitled “Outreach to Egyptian Democracy and Human Rights Activists,” made public by WikiLeaks in August 2011. This memo details meetings with Egyptian activists from the blogosphere, civil society, and the opposition press. At the time of writing, the fate of those activists remains unclear. What is certain is that activists often risk their own security, credibility, and public standing when they are on record as working with the US government. Their contact with the US government can range from very superficial encounters, like attending a reception or receiving training from a third party funded by USAID, to more suspect activities like participating in closed-door briefings with US officials.


pages: 372 words: 109,536

The Panama Papers: Breaking the Story of How the Rich and Powerful Hide Their Money by Frederik Obermaier

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banking crisis, blood diamonds, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, family office, high net worth, income inequality, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, out of africa, race to the bottom, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

And yet in Mossack Fonseca’s systems the company appears to have remained active for another year after it was sanctioned. Another year during which Mossfon apparently broke a US embargo.23 6 From the Waffen-SS to the CIA and Panama 259 gigabytes. 260. 261. This makes our mountain of data the largest leak in the history of journalism. Larger than Offshore Secrets. By way of comparison, the diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks amounted to 1.7 gigabytes; the HSBC Files, based on Hervé Falciani’s documents, 3.3 gigabytes; the Luxembourg Tax Files 4 gigabytes; the WikiLeaks Afghanistan protocols 1.4 gigabytes. Of course, it isn’t the size of a leak that matters. 260 gigabytes of meaningless files are, in the final analysis, no more than meaningless files. Also, it is very hard to imagine 260 gigabytes. Well, let us tell you: 260 gigabytes represent almost a million emails and several million pages of secret documents.

The advantage with data is that it’s not self-important or verbose. It doesn’t have a mission and it isn’t looking to deceive you. It’s simply there, and you can check it. Every good dataset can be collated with reality and that’s exactly what you must do as a journalist before you start to write. At some stage you also have to consider very carefully which part of the data you’re going to exploit. WikiLeaks was different. The coordinators of that whistle-blowing website simply posted data on the Internet without any journalists filtering the information. That was the basic idea – and not a bad one at that. [Obermayer]: How would we get the data? [john doe]: I would like to assist but there are a couple of conditions. You need to understand how dangerous and sensitive some of this information is.

Makhlouf’s aunt Anisa is the widow of the late president Hafis al-Assad, the current ruler’s father. Rami and Bashar played together when they were young, and today they are close allies – one the head of state, the other the businessman on whose money and connections Assad can count at all times. The US State Department classifies Rami Makhlouf as a ‘financier of the regime’, as one can read in a diplomatic cable sent in 2007 that was published by WikiLeaks. As far as anyone can tell, Makhlouf’s wealth has less to do with diligence and hard work than with unscrupulousness and brutality. ‘Rami Makhlouf has used intimidation and his close ties to the Assad regime to obtain improper business advantages at the expense of ordinary Syrians,’ said Stuart Levey in 2008, who was under-secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the US Department of the Treasury and who, in an ironic twist, now works for HSBC – the very bank that the ICIJ’s HSBC Files investigation revealed had done business with Makhlouf for many years.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

His impotent threats, like so many of those Anonymous has targeted, were sheepishly removed a short time later after his site was brought down again. Then Anonymous went after the RIAA because it sought legal action against file sharing site Limewire. In December 2010, Amazon, Paypal, Bank of America, PostFinance, MasterCard, and Visa decided to stop processing donations for the global news leak network WikiLeaks, which had recently caused global controversy by posting sensitive internal documents. These payment-processing sites had bowed to political pressure, refusing to work with WikiLeaks. In retaliation, Anonymous launched DDoS attacks against several of these companies, successfully bringing down the websites for MasterCard and Visa. A 16-year-old boy from the Netherlands was arrested in relation to the attack, and the FBI is probably still investigating. HBGary Federal Hack In February 2011, Aaron Barr, the chief executive of the security firm HBGary Federal, announced that he’d infiltrated Anonymous and would reveal his findings in an upcoming conference.

Some have speculated that Sony’s reputation is so damaged that it will be forced to exit the “console wars.” Some representatives of Anonymous have denied involvement on behalf of the collective, but the coincidence is remarkable. The similarly silly and anonymous hacker group Lulz Security has claimed responsibility for the attack. On May 29, 2011, Lulz Security also successfully hacked PBS in retribution for an episode of Frontline that was perceived as unfair to WikiLeaks. Because they’re operating anonymously and in a lulzy fashion (for example, posting news stories about Tupac Shakur’s New Zealand whereabouts), they may as well be operating under the Anonymous banner. Their methods, motivations, and aesthetic are identical, however they don’t seem to recruit or share Anonymous’s populist ideals. And unlike Anonymous, they’re a discreet group of skilled individuals which could conceivably be dismantled.

He argues that the effort is essential because Sony was attempting to acquire private information about people who had merely viewed an online jailbreaking guide. The idea that merely reading a piece of information could make you a legal target is terrifying. Here’s an analogy: Making a bomb is illegal. But should you be arrested just for looking up the fact that gunpowder is made of Potassium nitrate, sulphur and charcoal in a rough 75/10/15 ratio? When one looks at what Anonymous and WikiLeaks have been able to achieve, it almost seems possible that the utopian future of Anonymouse’s dreams is attainable. He foresees a perhaps stateless world in which large organizations behave because they have no other choice. When information moves freely, corporations and civic leaders will be relentlessly held accountable by an informed public. Anonymouse is optimistic that the efforts of Anons will contribute to the breaking down of cultural and national barriers.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

It’s groups and networks—which are distributed and often span borders—that hold power; hierarchies and states, confined as they are to fixed territories and programs of action, are outfoxed at every turn. This notion of the almost God-given superiority of networks informs Shirky’s interpretation of WikiLeaks, the one transnational network to rule them all. Thus, in a later speech, Shirky argues that “there was no way the State Department could go to WikiLeaks and have a conversation that hinged on or even involved anything called the national interest. Julian [Assange] is not a U.S. citizen, he is an Australian citizen. He was not operating on U.S. soil, he was in Iceland. The Pentagon Papers conversation took place entirely within the national matrix, and the WikiLeaks conversation took place outside of it.” Groups win; nation-states lose. Networks good; hierarchies bad. Global good; local bad. The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated.

But this, of course, is true only if one assumes that platforms like PayPal operate in an absolute power vacuum, completely immune to pressures that countries, institutions, and hierarchies might exert on those engaged in the transactions as well as on PayPal itself. PayPal may have obviated the theoretical need for banks—but its investors still need a bank to cash their checks from PayPal, so no technoescape actually takes place. Consider the role that PayPal has played in the WikiLeaks saga: yes, it was initially a great tool to raise money for Assange’s cause, but the moment WikiLeaks took on the US government, PayPal ran away from Assange (freezing WikiLeaks’s account) in much the same way that Peter Thiel wants to run from reality. Likewise, as of July 2012, PayPal had revised how it deals with file-sharing sites, requiring any sites that want to use PayPal to solicit membership fees from users to ensure that they host no illegal files. Instead of subverting the power of the entertainment industry—as Thiel’s belief in technoescapism would suggest—PayPal has become a useful tool in perpetuating that power.

The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated. A conversation about the national interest between the transglobal network that is (was?) WikiLeaks and the US government actually did take place. In fact, according to at least some credible reports, WikiLeaks did offer the State Department the opportunity to review the diplomatic cables and highlight what should be redacted—an opportunity that the ugly and messy hierarchy of the State Department reportedly declined (Mark Stephens, one of Assange’s numerous ex-lawyers, once claimed that two cables were actually removed at their request). Assange himself often complains that the US government thwarted his highly mobile, distributed, and transnational network, not least because Washington can target—not directly but through rhetoric—the very intermediaries, from credit card companies to technology providers, that enable such networks.


pages: 413 words: 119,379

The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis

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Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Karofi and Lawal Ibrahim, ‘Dahiru Barau Mangal—Enter Yar’Adua’s “Mr-Fix-It”,’ Daily Trust, 10 August 2008, http://allafrica.com/stories/200808110682.html. 8. Northern Nigerian sources speaking to US embassy officials, as reported in US Embassy Cable, ‘Nigeria: Kano Businessman Alleges Yar’Adua Corruption’, 21 February 2008, WikiLeaks, 8 December 2010, www.wikileaks.org/plusd/​cables/08ABUJA320_a.html. A textile industry consultant corroborates the estimated fee. 9. Ibid. 10. Nasir El-Rufai, interview with author, Abuja, April 2013. 11. Former EFCC official, interview with author, Abuja, April 2013. A November 2008 cable from the US embassy in Abuja, published in September 2011 by WikiLeaks, reported, ‘Ribadu also expressed concern for his former EFCC colleague and friend, Ibrahim Magu; he claims Magu is in danger because of his specific knowledge of the President’s relationship with Dahiru Mangal (an influential wealthy northern businessman who is currently under investigation and has ties to the Yar’Adua family and administration) and a money laundering operation which fronts as a legitimate company.’

Rukmini Callimachi, ‘Civil War Feared in Guinea as Militia Grows’, Associated Press, 6 December 2009, www.sify.com/news/civil-war​-feared-in-guinea-as-militia-grows​-news-international-jmgbujcggadsi.html. The presence of Israeli and South African instructors at the training camps in Forecariah is also reported elsewhere, such as US Embassy in Rabat, ‘Guinea: Update on Dadis Camara’s Health’, diplomatic cable, 17 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 4 December 2010, https://wikileaks.org/cable​/2009/12/09RABAT988.html. 34. Israel Ziv, LinkedIn profile, http://il.linkedin.com/in/zivisrael, accessed 2 May 2014. 35. Global CST website, accessed 2 May 2014; US Embassy in Bogota, ‘Colombian Defense Ministry Sours on Israeli Defense Firm,’ diplomatic cable, 1 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 6 April 2011, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2009/12/09BOGOTA3483.html. 36. Multiple interviews with people who have investigated Global CST and Dadis’s ethnic militia as well as associates of Kenan yielded an incomplete picture of the work the company did in Guinea.

The Monuc team recorded that Anvil accepted that the army used its vehicles but denied that they were used to transport loot or corpses, and that it admitted paying some of the soldiers. 29. Bill Turner, e-mail exchange with author, October 2014. 30. US Embassy Kinshasa, ‘Augustin Katumba, President’s Alleged Treasurer and Enforcer, Steps Down as Head of National Assembly’s Ruling Coalition; His Influence Could Remain’, 14 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 1 September 2011, www.wikileaks.org/cable/2009​/12/09KINSHASA1080.html. 31. UN Security Council, ‘Fourth Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’, 21 November 2008, www.securitycouncilreport.org/​atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3​-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC%20S%202008%20728.pdf. 32. For the size of Nkunda’s force, see ‘Eastern Congo: Why Stabilisation Failed’, International Crisis Group, 4 October 2012, www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions​/africa/central-africa/dr-congo​/b091-eastern-congo-why-​stabilisation-failed.aspx.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Another NSA database, MYSTIC: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The NSA stores telephone metadata: David Kravets (17 Jan 2014), “Obama revamps NSA phone metadata spying program,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/obama-nsa. If you use encryption: I do not know whether this includes all encrypted SSL sessions. My guess is that the NSA is able to decrypt a lot of SSL in real time.

we know it is doing so: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The agency’s 2013 budget: Barton Gellman and Greg Miller (29 Aug 2013), “‘Black budget’ summary details U.S. spy network’s successes, failures and objectives,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/black-budget-summary-details-us-spy-networks-successes-failures-and-objectives/2013/08/29/7e57bb78-10ab-11e3-8cdd-bcdc09410972_story.html.

The UK censors pornography: Ben Quinn (10 Oct 2011), “Biggest four UK ISPs switching to ‘opt-in’ system for pornography,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/oct/11/pornography-internet-service-providers. Anthony Faiola (28 Sep 2013), “Britain’s harsh crackdown on Internet porn prompts free-speech debate,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/britains-harsh-crackdown-on-internet-porn-prompts-free-speech-debate/2013/09/28/d1f5caf8-2781-11e3-9372-92606241ae9c_story.html. the US censored WikiLeaks: Ewen MacAskill (1 Dec 2010), “WikiLeaks website pulled by Amazon after U.S. political pressure,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-website-cables-servers-amazon. Russian law requiring bloggers: Neil MacFarquhar (6 May 2014), “Russia quietly tightens reins on web with ‘Bloggers Law,’” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/07/world/europe/russia-quietly-tightens-reinson-web-with-bloggers-law.html.


pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin

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airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

The number of secrets has become so enormous that the people in charge of keeping them can’t possibly succeed. That is one lesson from the WikiLeaks disclosures. The leaked State Department cables were allegedly first available to a disgruntled army private with a history of instability because the government wasn’t giving even a basic level of protection to those documents, and because his colleagues allowed him to bring a rewritable CD-ROM with Lady Gaga’s music into work, not realizing it could act as the black bag into which a quarter of a million sensitive diplomatic cables could be dumped and carted away. In the government-wide security and counterintelligence investigation that has followed the WikiLeaks disclosures, government experts have learned that most federal agencies have little understanding of how to protect their sensitive information, according to people involved in the review.

In August 2007, eighteen FBI agents, some with their guns drawn, burst into his home with only his wife and children present, to raid his files during an investigation into his alleged role in helping the New York Times develop its seminal warrantless surveillance story in 2004. The government dropped his case nearly four years later, in April 2011, after Tamm’s career had been ruined and he faced financial peril. The Justice Department is also mulling an indictment on espionage charges against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange for publishing tens of thousands of pages of classified U.S. diplomatic cables and war-related field reports, some of them allegedly provided by a young army private first class, who is also under arrest. Regardless of Assange’s publicly stated bias against U.S. policies and the allegations against his personal behavior, this unprecedented trove of material has allowed reporters around the world to write some of the most insightful and revealing stories of our time.

At any one time, he could find as many as 15,000 listings for very specialized positions that required a top secret clearance. Between 2006 and 2010 he cataloged 182,000 such job announcements in his files. As he did so, Arkin started to count government organizations and private companies working at the “secret” level of classification. Something is classified secret5 if its unauthorized disclosure would cause “serious damage” to national security. For instance, many of the State Department cables published by WikiLeaks are classified secret because they provide candid assessments of foreign leaders and agreements. Routine field reports from military units are also classified secret on the theory that they might provide useful tidbits to an enemy. He was quickly overwhelmed by the volume. There were simply too many organizations and companies to track. Had he been looking prior to September 11, he would have expected to see evidence of a significant number of such programs, but the post-9/11 quantity was mind-boggling.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

See UglyGorilla wars: announced on Twitter, 59–60; informational attacks during, 34 weak states, 80–84, 94 weaponry, defining periods of political history, 153 We Are All Khaled Said, 79 We Are All Laila, 239 “We Are All” meme, 78–79 Wen Jiabao, 192 West, media targets in, 116–17 whistle blowers, 235–36, 237, 238. See also Assange, Julian; Manning, Chelsea; Snowden, Edward; WikiLeaks wicked problems, 112 WikiLeaks, 13, 43–44, 201, 216 Wilson, Chris, 121 Witness Project, 20 World Bank, 55, 56, 251 World Social Forum, 49–50 Xi Jinping, 192 Xinhua news agency, 191 Yahoo!, 248 Yang, Guobin, 186 Yeltsin, Boris, 37 youth, attraction of, to digital media, 239–40 YouTube, 8–9, 45; in Turkey, 116; white supremacist videos on, 217 Zapatistas (Zapatista Liberation Army), 38, 47–53, 135, 229 zero-day exploits, 236 Zhang, Haiyan, 177a Zimbabwe, 92; anarchy in, 94; infrastructure deals with China, 114; receiving Chinese training on networks, 215 ZTE, 113–14 Zuckerman, Ethan, 138

Yet the power to set standards for the global internet rests with a handful of opaque, quasi-governmental, global organizations like the Internet Society and the International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).9 And plenty of technical standards with serious implications for our privacy are set by specialized engineering committees that are susceptible to corporate influence. Infrastructural challenges come from the Chinese government, which has direct control over its technology users and is exporting hardware to other countries so that its infrastructure network can grow. And there are the technology insurgents. There’s a lot of digital muckraking that happens with The Pirate Bay and WikiLeaks. Each month some embarrassed government tries to deal with a major information scandal by going after hackers and whistle blowers. There’s no doubt that political communication in many countries has changed radically since the internet arrived. Blogging, tweeting, crowd sourcing, and collaborating online was once the sport of geeky narcissists. Now these activities shape the national policy agenda in most countries.

Its operations are not always successful, sometimes doing damage more than raising awareness. When overwhelmed, governments have begun to address Anonymous as an equal in negotiation. The government of the Philippines has tried to engage with the group by making concessions and involving it in national cyberstrategy.18 Internet pundits have added to the chaos of international politics. Julian Assange’s online WikiLeaks project exposed diplomatic correspondence and upset many delicately balanced relationships among states and between power brokers. Both Assange and Edward Snowden decided that democracies were the least likely to provide them with just treatment as whistle blowers. The Russians gave Assange an online talk show and have sheltered Snowden. Moreover, many kinds of authoritarian regimes like Russia now employ their own social media gurus to engage with the public.


pages: 239 words: 73,178

The Narcissist You Know by Joseph Burgo

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Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Paul Graham, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

He feels superior in understanding to those in Washington who are responsible for the computer system he has hijacked. He enjoys the experience of thumbing his nose at authority and taking charge himself. With the founding of WikiLeaks, Assange found an even larger stage upon which to express his grandiose sense of self. He surely felt a passionate devotion to his cause—uncovering the government lies that preserve its power over the individual—but as the enterprise gained notoriety and he became a cult hero to millions, he increasingly saw himself as a sort of celebrity guru, often insisting that one person or another was in love with him, or wanted to be him. In his account of their years together at WikiLeaks, Daniel Domscheit-Berg paints a portrait of Assange as a man obsessed with his image, unwilling to share credit with collaborators, hostile to those who didn’t accord him due respect, and contemptuous of even those who supported him.14 He treated his collaborators as if they were his subjects.

In Three Cups of Tea, Greg Mortenson portrays himself as a preternaturally selfless man, a monklike crusader for the educational rights of young girls in Afghanistan. Both men turned out to be masters of cultivating public perception. Although their charitable foundations, LiveStrong and the Central Asia Institute, did much good, a closer look at the psychology of these men reveals the features of Extreme Narcissism and points toward core shame.9 Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks and tireless crusader against the secrecy of entrenched power, for a time appeared to be another hero in our feckless world. Standing up for truth, transparency, and the rights of the individual to access secret government information, Assange at first seemed to be a selfless advocate for the little man. He turned out to be a Grandiose Narcissist more interested in public acclaim and enjoying his “rock star” status than in pursuing the truth.

Assange’s grandiosity had an increasingly paranoid flavor. He identified with historical figures who had been persecuted, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the Russian dissident, or even Jesus Christ. One of his favorite activities was to scour the Internet for references to himself, especially by his detractors, and he seemed to have an “unending capacity to worry about his enemies.”15 Even before the founder of WikiLeaks became famous, he often insisted that government agents were trailing him or eavesdropping on his phone calls. Once the Afghanistan War logs were released and he may actually have been trailed, Assange routinely demanded that followers search the bushes for “assassins” before he would emerge from the car. He told taxi drivers to pull onto side streets because he believed he was being followed.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

.… But once you factor in money spent on schooling, the earnings I’ve received outside of aggregation-oriented writing positions is still in the bloodiest shade of red imaginable. It’s unlikely the numbers will ever even out.”43 4 UNEQUAL UPTAKE Not long after WikiLeaks released its enormous cache of classified diplomatic cables, making the private observations of jaded attachés public for all to see, I spent a Saturday afternoon at a quickly assembled conference trying to make sense of the implications. The conversation hinged on the tangled theme of media, technology, and politics. Does WikiLeaks represent a new kind of transnational investigative journalism? Has the Web made us all reporters? Is transparency an unambiguous good? Should all information be free, to everyone, everywhere? The United States government had been caught off its guard and the audience was electrified by the possibilities of networked people power.

Deep investigations into questions about what had caused the blowout, the devastation of the local ecosystem and economy, the health risks associated with fuel and dispersants, and the work needed to be done monitoring the four thousand oil platforms and twenty-seven thousand old oil wells, many of them leaking, were well beyond the scope of any individual. Even Julian Assange had been unable to act independently, joining up with major news organizations like the New York Times and the Guardian to release the thousands of cables. WikiLeaks had been organized initially around the premise that the public would sift through and interpret raw data, collaboratively writing necessary analysis, making sense of the issues and evidence without professional censors and meddling middlemen. That turned out to be “not at all true,” Assange lamented. “Media are the only channels that have the motivation and resources required to have a real impact.” It wasn’t that the WikiLeaks mastermind had lost faith in people to think for themselves; rather, he recognized that they lacked the time the task required and the power to legitimize and publicize the results.

“There’s this divide between what the community needs and wants to read and what they are willing to pay for. There’s a missing social contract. I think those two things can be married, but it’s going to be a long time before it’s figured out.” Nick Davies is a prominent journalist who has been outspoken about the shortcomings of his chosen profession. An award-winning investigative reporter who brokered the Guardian’s collaboration with WikiLeaks to publish the Afghanistan war logs and broke the phone-hacking scandal that prompted an ongoing investigation into Rupert Murdoch’s empire, his 2008 book Flat Earth News (subtitled An Award-Winning Reporter Exposes Falsehood, Distortion and Propaganda in the Global Media) exhaustively documents how contemporary journalism has been corrupted by ever-intensifying commercial pressure.28 When clear returns are demanded, risks cannot be taken.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

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airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K

They are a different sort of actor. On the other hand, Microsoft probably has better systems in place to prevent infiltration by rogue programmers. WikiLeaks is another stateless organization. WikiLeaks sits somewhere between a loose organization of activists and the personal mission of a single individual named Julian Assange. It exposes information that governments and powerful corporations would rather keep secret. In this way it is very much like an organization of journalists. But because it is not a commercial enterprise, and because it is not moored within a country, it's much more difficult to corral. And this scares countries like the United States. Compare WikiLeaks to a traditional newspaper. That newspaper is in a societal dilemma with all the other newspapers in that country. Societal Dilemma: Newspapers publishing government secrets.

In mid-2004, the New York Times learned about the NSA's illegal wiretapping of American citizens without a warrant, but delayed publishing the information for over a year—until well after the presidential election. Presumably there are things the New York Times has learned about and decided not to publish, period. WikiLeaks changes that dynamic. It's not an American company. It's not even a for-profit company. It's not a company at all. And it's not really located in any legal jurisdiction. It simply isn't subject to the same pressures that the New York Times is. This means the government can't rely on the partial cooperation of WikiLeaks in the same way it can rely on that of traditional newspapers.5 In a blog post about the topic, Clay Shirky referred to the Supreme Court ruling in the Pentagon Papers case that said it's illegal to leak secrets but not illegal to publish leaks: The legal bargain from 1971 simply does not and cannot produce the outcome it used to.

Reputational: Society ostracizes those who turn against their own people. Institutional: Laws against war crimes. Security: None. In 2005, Captain Ian Fishback exposed the U.S.'s use of torture in Iraq because of his religious convictions. Similarly, Bradley Manning had to deal with two competing societal dilemmas in 2010 when he allegedly became a whistle-blower and sent 250,000 secret State Department cables to the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks, which made them public.5 Like the Libyan pilots, he chose to defect from the government and cooperate with what he perceived as the country as a whole. His subsequent treatment by the U.S. government—which incarcerated him, stripped him of due process, and tortured him—is in part a societal pressure by the government to prevent copycat defections. In previous eras, the king might have put his head on a pike for all to see.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

Today, there are 4 million US citizens who hold Top Secret security clearance, of whom 500,000 are contractors.31 Robert Greiner, who was the CIA station chief in Islamabad, Pakistan, at the time of the 9/11 attacks, said in 2010 that he believed at least half of the staff working at the CIA’s counterterrorism center were private contractors.32 Former NSA employee Edward Snowden exposed the dangers of mass surveillance being managed by private enterprise when he leaked documents in 2013 proving how easy it was for firms such as Booz Allen Hamilton to view and store information on citizens. It is nothing less than a privatized, modern-day Stasi. The claim that “the world is a battlefield” reflects a military ideology pursued by both Democrat and Republican administrations, as has been detailed by investigative journalist Jeremy Scahill. This view is only bolstered by WikiLeaks documents, released in 2010, that uncovered a large number of previously unreported murders committed by privatized security and intelligence forces in the Afghan and Iraq conflict zones.33 These ghost-figures operate in the shadows in dozens of countries, kidnapping, interrogating, and killing suspects without oversight.34 Modern-day mercenary companies, justified by the state as essential in fighting terrorism, have been completely integrated into America’s endless war.

He also said that the Karzai regime had decided to remove the PMCs because it “had intelligence” they were “causing trouble” with locals, and were not helping the state to grow. What he did not discuss was these companies being run by relatives of Hamid Karzai himself, including his brothers. One of the former Afghan president’s siblings, Ahmed Wali Karzai, who had been murdered in Kandahar in 2011, was a notorious drug-dealing warlord. WikiLeaks documents released in 2010 hinted that one of his main activities had been controlling trucking on Highway 1, Afghanistan’s national ring road, by demanding bribes. Sediqqi fretted about the destabilizing conduct of the militants who had taken refuge in Pakistan, including the Taliban, and who launched attacks on Afghanistan from there. He did not sound overly optimistic that this would change in the near future.

“The Haitian people put away their economic and political differences and worked together, in dignity and solidarity, to collectively survive,” wrote Mark Schuller and Pablo Morales in the introduction to their book Tectonic Shifts.2 Unfortunately, Haiti, like other poor nations, had long been at risk of exploitation, and the earthquake provided a significant opportunity for this to occur, as was evident from WikiLeaks cables released in 2011. Then US ambassador to Haiti, Kenneth Merten, headlined a February 1, 2010 cable “The Gold Rush Is On.” He went on to explain his excitement: “As Haiti digs out from the earthquake, different companies are moving in to sell their concepts, products and services. [Then] President Preval met with Gen Wesley Clark [the former US presidential candidate was working for a Miami-based construction company] and received a sales presentation on a hurricane/earthquake resistant foam core house designed for low income residents.”


pages: 200 words: 47,378

The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos

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AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, ethereum blockchain, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks

Because while I can do all of those things and they’re very powerful, there are some things I can’t do. I am not talking about buying drugs. That’s not really that interesting. What I am talking about are simple things — for example, donating to an activist organization like WikiLeaks. A few years ago, WikiLeaks was completely cut off from the world’s financial system simply with extrajudicial pressure applied on the few major payment providers: Visa, MasterCard, the banking transfer system, PayPal, etc. Without any legal process, without any conviction, and perhaps, in my opinion, without absolutely any crime other than revealing the truth of crime, WikiLeaks was cut off from the world’s financial system. This is now happening not just to activist organizations; it’s happening to entire countries. The dream of nation-states, to create a totalitarian financial system, died on January 3rd, 2009, with the invention of bitcoin and the mining of the genesis block.

We subject ourselves to this mechanism that has now streamlined itself, and like the factory that can only produce little red firetrucks, this is a system that can only deliver privileged financial services for a tiny elite sliver of the population worldwide, with totalitarian surveillance tied up in regulations of each country, with barriers on the borders not permitting international trade. A financial system where the government can apply pressure to stop you trading with WikiLeaks, because they don’t like them, but you can still send donations to the Ku Klux Klan—and that’s not a joke. That’s exactly what happened. They have built a system that can only do one thing: enslave us. That can only do one thing: impoverish us. That system removes freedom in the most efficient possible way to deliver profits. That system is broken, and it doesn’t scale. But if that is what you’re trying to do, it’s the most efficient you’ve ever seen.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

US District Court for the Eastern District of Columbia, sworn affidavit dated 21 June 2011 in the case of US v Jeffrey Alexander Sterling (with some passages redacted), http://perma.cc/3VHS-H7UZ 78. see photograph and text in New York Times, ‘The War Logs’, 26 July 2010, A8 79. but see Matt Sledge, ‘Bradley Manning Sentencing Testimony Suggests WikiLeaks Not Responsible for Any Deaths’, Huffington Post, 8 March 2013, http://perma.cc/3SCZ-73DC 80. see Timothy Garton Ash, ‘WikiLeaks Has Altered the Leaking Game for Good. Secrets Must Be Fewer, But Better Kept’, The Guardian, 30 March 2011, http://perma.cc/6V73-QMSR 81. see the editorial ‘The Times and Iraq’, New York Times, 26 May 2004. See also Margaret Sullivan, ‘The Disconnect on Anonymous Sources’, New York Times, 12 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/opinion/sunday/the-public-editor-the-disconnect-on-anonymous-sources.html, which reports that back in 2004 the use of anonymous sources had been the top concern of Times readers 82. see Margaret Sullivan, ‘The Disconnect on Anonymous Sources’, New York Times, 12 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/opinion/sunday/the-public-editor-the-disconnect-on-anonymous-sources.html?

The US supports such technologies to promote the spread of good things (democracy, human rights, free speech) and opposes them to prevent the spread of bad ones (terrorism, cybercrime, child pornography, infringements of intellectual property). But who decides what is good or bad? The United States. A State Department spokesperson, asked to explain the apparent inconsistency between her criticism of the Indian government for blocking sites the Indian government considered dangerous and Washington’s own stance on Wikileaks, said: ‘WikiLeaks didn’t have to do with freedom of the internet. It had to do with . . . the compromise of US Government classified information’.87 While governments must naturally assert perfect consistency, there is a tension here, as America’s left hand points in a different direction to and sometimes wrestles with its right. In a reference to Hillary Clinton, this has been called the Clinton Paradox.88 With these reservations, it is nonetheless fair to say that the United States remains at once the most powerful and the most consistently pro–free speech state in the early-twenty-first-century world.

Whether or not you follow Karl Popper’s specific critique of Plato, there is a superabundance of history to demonstrate how inadequate this Platonic answer is. The truth is that there is no single key, but rather an awkward, uncomfortable, shifting combination of checks and balances. The executive, the legislature and the judiciary (in British terms: government, parliament and the courts) all have a part to play, as does the media. But as we saw in chapter 4, in the internet age nobody quite knows where the media begin and end. For example, is WikiLeaks part of the media? Or is it, as the title of a film about it suggested, the fifth estate? What about networks of bloggers, citizen journalists, civil society activists and NGOs? Are they a sixth estate? Where do we fit into this picture the use of information and communications technologies, such as encryption and Tor, to counter the repressive potential of those same technologies? I shall touch only briefly on the roles that can be played by executive, judiciary and legislature, say a few words about the media and then argue that all these constraints will be inadequate without the contribution of two particular kinds of free speech: leaking and whistleblowing.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

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airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

.* Recent attacks are among the most effective ever seen in the corporate world, but that’s a record made to be broken. Finally comes the threat posed by info-anarchists and technically sophisticated criminals. In 2010, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange barely missed becoming Time magazine’s Person of the Year after the release of thousands of politically sensitive documents badly embarrassed Washington and other governments around the world.5 In 2011, efforts by several governments to shut him and WikiLeaks down made him the world’s first cybermartyr. In response, an army of info-anarchists operating under the name Anonymous launched cyberattacks on those governments and denial-of-service attacks on financial services companies PayPal and MasterCard after they severed ties with WikiLeaks. Other companies have become targets of online criminals. Sony has suffered raids on personal information involving tens of millions of customers.

climate change and, 94 as debtor nation, 65, 158, 187 decline of, 63–66 defense program of, 12, 71, 76, 186, 191 entitlement programs in, 12–13, 65, 190 federal debt of, 3, 12, 34, 38, 51, 60, 62, 81, 172, 186, 189 fiscal stimulus in, 11 in G2 with China, 155–84 growing divergence with Chinese economic policies, 62–63, 77 intellectual property laws and, 84 Internet protocol in, 89 leadership role of, 3, 5, 14–15, 24, 25, 40–41, 111, 129, 154, 195 loss of manufacturing jobs in, 64 military commitments of, 187 nuclear program of, 59 oil exported by, 47–48 outsourcing by, 126–27 Pakistan’s relationship with, 115 pollution caused by, 158 poor infrastructure of, 186, 189 possibility of Chinese war with, 170–74 reduced role of, 194, 195 smart grids in, 73 taxes in, 190 trade by, 116–17, 120, 143, 153, 154, 158, 163 unemployment in, 77 in withdrawal from Iraq, 32 in world currency and debt crises, 38 United States and the World Economy, The (Bergsten), 157–58 urbanization, 52, 99, 104–5, 118 Uzbekistan, 135 Varyag, 23 vegetable oil, 100 Venezuela, 25, 48, 138, 168, 177, 182 state capitalism in, 78 Vietnam, 23, 70, 114, 121, 129, 140–41, 194 multinationals in, 80 rice exported by, 102 water security in, 105 Vietnam War, 49 Voice of America, 92 WAPI, 86 war on terror, 11 wars, 123 prevention of, 68 Warsaw Pact, 53 Washington, George, 7 Washington Consensus, 42, 46, 174 water, 68 security of, 3, 5, 97, 104–7, 129–30, 140, 147 Wells, H. G., 86–87 Wen Jiabao, 8, 12, 21, 143 Western Europe, 46–47 oil imported by, 47 West Germany, 45, 46, 47, 53, 82, 165 Wi-Fi, 86 WikiLeaks, 75 World Bank, 4, 28, 29–30, 99, 104, 118, 134, 135 American and European influence in, 42, 43–44 creation of, 39, 43 in world currency and debt crises, 38 World Brain (Wells), 86–87 World Trade Organization, 60 Doha Round, 103 World War I, 3, 11, 40, 141, 167, 170 World War II, 11, 38–40, 56–57, 151, 170, 187 Xinhua, 8, 62, 70 Yanukovych, Viktor, 138 Yeltsin, Boris, 54 Yemen, 14, 67, 114 chaos in, 112, 175, 183 yen, 83 Yom Kippur War, 48–49 yuan: China accused of manipulation of, 79–80, 154, 161–62 as international currency, 83 Yugoslavia, 32 Zambia, 119, 120 Zimbabwe, 7–8, 130, 131–32 Zoellick, Robert, 157 ALSO BY IAN BREMMER The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations?


pages: 1,590 words: 353,834

God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, Index librorum prohibitorum, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

See generally transcript of “Abuse Victims Seek Court Date with Vatican,” National Public Radio, with hosts Linda Wertheimer and Renee Montagne, December 22, 2008. Riazat Butt, “Vatican to Be Sued over Sex Abuse Claims,” The Guardian, December 15, 2008, 23. 87 As for the Sodano-Rice meeting, see 11-25-05 WikiLeaks Vatican Unhappy with Lawsuits Cable, 05VATICAN538_a; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05VATICAN538_a.html. 88 Ibid, WikiLeaks. Also, “Vatican’s Global Importance Evident In Leaked Cables,” EWTN, Catholic News Agency, December 14, 2010. “Pope Wants Exemption from U.S. Law,” Vermont Guardian (Texas), May 31, 2005. 89 Ibid, “Vatican’s Global Importance Evident In Leaked Cables,” EWTN; See 01-08-02 WikiLeaks, “Vatican PM Wants His Money Cable, See also Berry, Render Unto Rome, 119-20. 02VATICAN83_a; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/02VATICAN83_a.html. 90 John L. Allen Jr., “Vatican Ask Condoleezza Rice to Help Stop a Sex Abuse Lawsuit,” National Catholic Reporter, March 2, 2005. 91 Karen Terry et al., The Nature and Scope of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States, 1950–2002, prepared by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice for the U.S.

Chapter 17: Il Crack Sindona 1 Paul Hofmann, “War Raids Incite Anti-U.S. Feelings in Italy,” The New York Times, January 3, 1973, 8. In the State Department that year, 1973, there was a flurry of diplomatic cable traffic over the “Vatican’s ‘contacts’ with Communists” in Vietnam. It was about fears the Pope might reach out to the Vietcong. See generally 09-25-73 WikiLeaks Vatican “Contacts” with Communists Cable: 1973ROME10199_b; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973ROME10199_b.html; also 09-28-73 WikiLeaks Audience with Pope Paul VI (Held at Vatican Suggestion) Cable: 1973ROME10410_b; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973ROME10410_b.html. 2 “Two Bombings in Milan,” The New York Times, January 16, 1973, 14. 3 Paul Hofmann, “El Al Employe [sic] in Rome Is Shot to Death by an Arab: 3 Seized at Beirut Airport,” The New York Times, April 28, 1973, 6. 4 Paul Hofmann, “Italian Neo-Fascists Are Linked to a Synagogue Fire in Padua,” The New York Times, April 30, 1973, 3. 5 “Anarchist Seized in Blast in Milan,” The New York Times, May 18, 1972, 7. 6 Paul Hofmann, “If Surge of Gunfire Is a Sign, Sicilian Mafia Is in Trouble,” The New York Times, May 15, 1973, 41. 7 Paul Hofmann, “Italians Suspect Violence Is Plot: International Police Aid Is Asked After Milan Blast,” The New York Times, May 21, 1973, 9. 8 “Again Italy’s Premier: Mariano Rumor,” The New York Times, July 9, 1973, 3. 9 Ibid. 10 “Milan Offices Bombed,” The New York Times, July 29, 1973, 3. 11 “Libyan Jets Attack an Italian Warship off African Coast,” The New York Times, September 22, 1973, 2. 12 William D.

., Tremlett, “Nazi Gold Taints Fatima.” 81 Pope John Paul quoted in Jocelyn Noveck, “In Historic Speech at Holocaust Memorial, Pope Says Church Deeply Saddened,” Associated Press, International News, Jerusalem, March 23, 2000. 82 Author interview with Elan Steinberg, April 2, 2006. 83 See 10-31-02 WikiLeaks Vatican Archives: Archivist Confirms Partial Opening for Nazi Germany and WWII Documents Cable: 02Vatican5356_a, https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/02VATICAN5356_a.html; and 03-13-03 WikiLeaks Holocaust Museum Delegation Works in Secret Archives, Offers Collaboration to Catalogue Closed Records Cable: 03vatican1046_a, https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/03Vatican1046_a.html. 84 Authers and Wolffe, The Victim’s Fortune, 321–23. 85 Joseph B. Treaster, “Settlement Approved in Holocaust Victims’ Suit Against Italian Insurer,” The New York Times, February 28, 2007, reporting on a federal judge’s approval of the settlement reached in 2006.

Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Washington has made clear that any country that refuses to extradite Snowden will face harsh punishment. The United States will “chase him to the ends of the earth,” Senator Lindsey Graham warned. But U.S. government spokespersons assured the world that Snowden will be granted the full protection of American law—referring to those same laws that have kept U.S. Army soldier Bradley Manning (who released a vast archive of U.S. military and diplomatic documents to WikiLeaks) in prison for three years, much of it in solitary confinement under humiliating conditions. Long gone is the archaic notion of a speedy trial before a jury of peers. On July 30 a military judge found Manning guilty of charges that could lead to a maximum sentence of 136 years. Like Snowden, Manning committed the crime of revealing to Americans—and others—what their government is doing. That is a severe breach of “security” in the operative meaning of the term, familiar to anyone who has pored over declassified documents.

One persistent example is the mislabeled “free trade agreements”—mislabeled because they radically violate free trade principles and are substantially not about trade at all, but rather about investor rights. These instruments are regularly negotiated in secret, like the current Trans-Pacific Partnership—not entirely in secret, of course. They aren’t secret from the hundreds of corporate lobbyists and lawyers who are writing the detailed provisions, with an impact revealed by the few parts that have reached the public through WikiLeaks. As the economist Joseph E. Stiglitz reasonably concludes, with the U.S. Trade Representative’s office “representing corporate interests,” not those of the public, “The likelihood that what emerges from the coming talks will serve ordinary Americans’ interests is low; the outlook for ordinary citizens in other countries is even bleaker.” Corporate-sector security is a regular concern of government policies—which is hardly surprising, given their role in formulating the policies in the first place.

House of Representatives, 28 Uruguay, 153 Utah, 174 Veblen, Thorstein, 54 Venezuela, 123, 153 Vietnam, 30, 45–46, 131 Waage, Hilde Henriksen, 128 Washington, 36, 41–42, 45, 48, 66, 79, 81, 85, 107, 110–112, 121–123, 125, 132, 143, 156, 160, 171, 179, 181, 187–188 Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 87 Weisglass, Dov, 73 Wellman, Jane, 39 West Bank, 69–70, 75, 77, 82, 127–128, 183, 185–186 Western Xinjiang, 81 White Knight, 139 WikiLeaks, 46, 159 Wilcox, Fred, 30 Wolf, Martin, 38 Wood, Gordon S., 150 World Bank, 53 World Court, 84 World War II, 29, 31, 40, 89, 117, 154, 177 Yemen, 105 Zedillo, Ernesto, 42 Zenko, Micah, 142 NOAM CHOMSKY is widely regarded as one of the foremost critics of U.S. foreign policy in the world. He has published numerous groundbreaking books, articles, and essays on global politics, history, and linguistics.


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

A third way that the Internet has democratized knowledge is by making what is known more transparent—particularly with regard to information held by governments. The most obvious and controversial example of this is WikiLeaks, a nonprofit organization that publishes news leaks and classified governmental information online. Its disclosure of videos and documents related to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars in 2010 and 2011 caused a worldwide uproar. Supporters defended it as a tool for exposing the important facts that are relevant and needed in order for citizens to make informed democratic decisions. Critics denounced the organization as putting the lives of soldiers and diplomats at risk. Of course, both of these claims can be true—and whether or not WikiLeaks is ultimately beneficial or harmful, it is just the most visible example of the use of the Internet to enforce or encourage transparency.

., 93, 122–23 Surowiecki, James, 120 Syria, 83 “system 1” cognitive processing, 29 “system 2” cognitive processing, 39 tablets, xvii, 9 taboos, 52, 53 targeted advertising, 9, 90, 91, 105 technê, 170 technology: changes in, 73 debate over advances of, xvii and ethical values, 89–90 and understanding, 179–84 unthinking commitment to, 11–12 telepathy: communication by, 192 thought experiment on, 96–97, 104 teleportation, Internet as, xvi television, 167–68 terrorism, as justification for abuses of privacy, 92, 100 testimony: of experts, 35, 120 knowledge through, 24–25, 114–16 misplaced trust in, 33 reliability of, 123–25, 181 restriction on legal, 147 Texas, Republican Party platform in, 61–62 “things in themselves,” 85 “Third Industrial Revolution,” 8 This American Life, 78 Threadless, 136–37 Tibet, Chinese relations with, 81 time travel, written word as, xv–xvi “tokens,” 69 topology, 112–13 Torah, 48 tracking, see data mining transparency, 85–86 of knowledge, 90, 109, 137–38 and power, 107–9 trends, 157 tribes, 43–46 TripAdvisor, 116 trust: basis for, 14, 36–38, 179 credibility in, 40, 46, 50, 119–20, 126, 131 epistemic, 195 in Google-knowing, 24–25 in receptive knowledge, 28, 30, 37, 131 in testimony, 33 trust-tags, 40 truth: attitudes toward, 75–77 bias and, 43–50, 84–86 control and distortion of, 65–67 devaluing of, 58, 74, 111, 148 discerning and determining, 17–19, 67–74, 83–86, 90, 130 falsifying facts in the name of, 78–83 and freedom, 62 Internet in personal search for, 65–66 obscured, 75–76 skeptical challenges to accepted, 34 see also objectivity, objective truth T-shirt design, 137 Tube map, 112–13 Turing, Alan, 81–82 Turkers, 136, 141 Twitter, tweeting, xvii, 8, 24, 31–32, 43, 81–82 in political activism, 65–66 tracking by, 160–61 understanding: creativity in reaching, 174–77, 181, 183 in digital form of life, 155–78 through experience, 16, 173–74 and explaining, 165–67, 182 knowledge based on, 15–17 knowledge vs. other forms of knowledge, 6, 16–17, 90, 154, 164–65, 181 moment of sudden insight in, 175, 176–77 as personally cognitive, 176–77, 181–82, 184 and procedural knowledge, 167–74 process of, 163–67, 174–77 reciprocal relationship between motor skills and, 167–74 as reflexive, 183–84 technology and, 179–84 universal and particular in, 171 United Nations, 143 universities, 148–54 value judgment, 51–55, 57 verification, 83 “veritic luck,” 203 video map of cultural history, 161–62 Vienna Circle, 128–29 Virginia, University of, 151 von Neumann, John, 116 voting patterns, 121, 123 “wag the dog” illusion, 52 Warren, Samuel, 89–90, 94, 101 Washington Post, 95, 99 Web 1.0, 7 Web 2.0, 74, 134–36, 143, 144, 148, 167, 174 defined, xvii, 7 Web 3.0 (“smart Web”), 7, 155 Websites, 69 Weibo, 65 Weinberger, David, 84–85, 111, 119, 125–28, 131 Westen, Drew, 51 “What is Justified Belief” (Goldman), 194 Wieseltier, Leon, 11 WikiLeaks, 137–38 Wikipedia, 24, 31, 133, 135 in fact-checking, 56, 130 as joint enterprise, 119 wikis, defined, 129 Wired, 136, 156 wiretapping, 101, 109 wisdom, 16–17 knowledge vs., xvii, 4 Wisdom of Crowds, The (Surowiecki), 120 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 10 World Wide Web: as a construction, 69, 70, 129 privacy policies on, 105 written word: digital knowledge compared to, xv–xvi, 125–26, 127–28 print revolution in, 134 as static, 85 X-Men, 96 YouTube, 8, 32, 128 zero marginal cost economy, 140 Zöllner, Johann Friedrich, 58–59 Also by Michael Patrick Lynch In Praise of Reason: Why Rationality Matters for Democracy Truth as One and Many True to Life: Why Truth Matters Truth in Context: An Essay on Pluralism and Objectivity About the Author Michael Patrick Lynch is a professor of philosophy and the director of the Humanities Institute at the University of Connecticut.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

We see it in a politics of radial transparency aligned with another politics of radical privacy, in journalists’ self-congratulation at the use of social media in the Arab Spring as supposedly outlining an anterior stratum of crowds and power (absent in their coverage of the shock economies of Haiti, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Louisiana, for example), in how Wikipedia formalizes taxonomic consensus from a heteroglossia of interests and how WikiLeaks inverted the ocular and occult body of the state, or in how Google cloud services both circumvent and circumscribe state authority in China and in how much of China's direct perception of computational supply chains is invisible to Californian search engines. Both events and pseudoevents are plentiful and it's hard to know what signals a new situation and what is trivial: the Google Earth stand-off between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, Prism and Data.Gov, hyperbolic packet-routing topologies, Dot-P2P and OpenDNS, net neutrality and the golden shield, downloadable guns 3D printed out of synthetic biopolymers paid for with Bitcoins, the National Security Agency (NSA) versus Unit 6139, NSA versus Anonymous, Anonymous versus Syrian Electronic Army, NSA versus Syrian Electronic Army versus ISIL versus FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) versus North Korea versus Samsung versus Apple versus European Parliament, and on and on.

See, for example, Nikolai von Kreitor, “The Concept of Grossraum in Carl Schmitt's Jurisprudence: The Historical Necessity of a New Russian Grossraum,” August 7, 1970, http://www.amerika.org/globalism/the-concept-of-grossraum-in-carl-schmitts-jurisprudence-nikolai-von-kreitor/. This is the language of today's Russian Eurasianists, France's Nouvelle Droite, Japanese imperial revisionists, as well, it must be said, of some voices on the European Left. 34.  For a melodramatic but not uninformed account, see Julian Assange, When WikiLeaks Met Google (N.p.: OR Books, 2014). 35.  See, for example, the European Schengen Cloud, or Brazil's proposed “independent Internet”: http://www.itworld.com/article/2705173/networking-hardware/bric-nations-plan-their-own–independent-internet.html. 36.  Chris C. Demchak and Peter J. Dombrowski, “Rise of a Cybered Westphalian Age: The Coming Age,” Strategic Studies Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2011): 31–62. 37. 

It is at this level of The Stack that the modern coherence of the state, which would produce one sort of public, and the operations of platforms, which would produce another, can come into conflict, overlapping and interlacing one another without universal jurisdiction or resolution, but it is also where they can reinforce each other with more pervasive forms of ambient governance. The geopolitics of the Cloud is everywhere and wants everything: the platform wars between Google, Facebook, Apple, and Amazon, anonymized servers routing the angry tweets from street battles, Anonymous going up against Mexican drug cartels, WikiLeaks crowd-sourcing counterespionage, Tor users building on top of Amazon Web Services services, carriers licensing content, content providers licensing bandwidth, proprietary fiber networks connected trading centers, and on, and on. It might seem at first blush that these events, each perhaps pushing legal boundaries in its own way, should be understood as disruptive contaminations of a standing political order—acts of resistance to the system, even.


pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

” [ CHAPTER FOUR ] THE SIREN SONG OF “FREE” WHY NEWSPAPERS STRUGGLED ONLINE No newspaper editor has devoted more thought to the Internet’s potential than Alan Rusbridger, who runs the London-based Guardian. In 1996, when most newspapers were still figuring out how to put stories online, Rusbridger, who had been named top editor the previous year, started the Guardian Online as a separate division. During the dot-com bust, as other newspapers cut online staff, he kept investing in digital journalism. More recently, he delivered some of the smartest coverage of the U.S. diplomatic cables from WikiLeaks, dealing with Julian Assange to get the information and asking readers what was worth searching for in the trove of documents. Although more news outlets have started charging for content, Rusbridger believes Internet “paywalls” could hurt journalism itself. “That might be the right direction in business terms, while simultaneously reducing access and influence in editorial terms,” Rusbridger said in a January 2010 speech at the London College of Communication.

The demand for U.S. movies isn’t likely to change soon; countries with homegrown film businesses rarely produce effects-driven popcorn fare like Wolverine. But exporting them relies on international recognition of copyright, which the Internet is eroding. Movies also shape the world’s idea of what the United States stands for, as a cable written by an American diplomat in Saudi Arabia released on WikiLeaks showed. “It’s still all about the War of Ideas here, and the American programming on [the television channels] MBC and Rotana is winning over ordinary Saudis in a way that [the U.S.-funded satellite channel] ‘Al Hurra’ and other U.S. propaganda never could,” read the May 2009 message.25 Titled “David Letterman: Agent of Influence,” it mentioned Friends and Desperate Housewives as being particularly popular.

A 2005 MPAA-funded LEK study, “The Cost of Movie Piracy,” showed that studios lost $6.1 billion to piracy, but the MPAA has retracted the parts of that study related to illegal downloading among college students. 21. This ratio was used in the March 2010 Terra Consultants study, “Building a Digital Economy: The Importance of Saving Jobs in the EU’s Creative Industries.” 22. According to Nash Information Services. 23. According to BigChampagne. 24. This ratio was also used in the Terra Consultants study. 25. Robert Booth, “WikiLeaks Cable: Jihad? Sorry, I Don’t Want to Miss Desperate Housewives,” Guardian, December 7, 2010. 26. Ricardo H. Cavazos Cepeda, Douglas C. Lippoldt, and Jonathan Senft, “Policy Complements to the Strengthening of IPRs in Developing Countries” (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 104, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 14, 2010). 27. David Lieberman, “Disney Chief Offers a Ray of Encouragement to UltraViolet Movie Coalition,” USA Today, November 11, 2010. 28.


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon

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8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

Yourdon: Is he the one that provided it to the WikiLeaks guy, to [Julian] Assange? Or is that someone else? Strassmann: No, Ames provided to the Russians. Yourdon: Yeah. I thought he was the more traditional one. Who is the guy who gave all of the Wiki stuff? Strassmann: Oh, you know, a low-level sergeant. Yourdon: But the same problem? Strassmann: Same problem, exfiltration. And by the way, the stuff that is being reported is defective. The stuff that is reported that he downloaded, he cut a CD, and sent out by mail for WikiLeaks. Yourdon: Really? Strassmann: So now you are dealing with a problem. I have several trays in there [pointing to his desktop computer] with CDs. Now, are you going to permit people to burn their own CDs? And, you know, today on a DVD, you can put a big database. Right now, WikiLeaks has a list of all the people who had accounts in the Cayman Islands.

., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S. Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65

Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Confronting online content they didn’t want to be public, they instinctively fought back—without realizing how such aggression might backfire. Even when some of them scored a victory in temporarily removing the harmful content from the Internet, they usually helped fuel more interest in what it was they were trying to hide. In fact, an entire organization called WikiLeaks has been built to ensure that all controversial documents that someone wants to get off the Web have a dedicated and well-protected place to stay online. Even the omnipotent American military are finding it hard to take sensitive content off the Internet, as they discovered when WikiLeaks released the video of a 2007 Baghdad air strike that killed several Reuters news staffers as well as a trove of documents related to the war in Afghanistan. The logic behind the Streisand Effect, however, does not have much to do with the Internet. Throughout history there has hardly been a more effective way to ensure that people talk about something than to ban discussions about it.

Even though the notion of “information sovereignty”—the idea that governments might have legitimate concerns over the nationalities and allegiances of those who mediate their information markets—has been somewhat discredited by the fact that so many Chinese and Cuba propaganda officials like to invoke it in their speeches, it is poised to rise in importance in proportion to the role of the Internet in international politics. (Judging by its nervous response to transnational information powerhouses like WikiLeaks, the U.S. government is increasingly concerned about its information sovereignty as well.) Given the amount of research and technology money coming out of America’s defense and intelligence communities, it’s hard to find a technology company that does not have a connection to the CIA or some other three-lettered agency. Even though Google does not publicize this widely, Keyhole, the predecessor to Google Earth, which Google bought in 2005, was funded through In-Q-Tel, which is the CIA’s for-profit investment arm.

Is it really reasonable to believe that Internet users in authoritarian countries, many of whom have little experience with democratic governance, will suddenly start wearing Thomas Jefferson’s avatar in cyberspace? Isn’t it a bit premature to start touting the benefits of a medium the West itself does not yet know how to comfortably embed into its own political institutions? After all, one can’t be calling for imposing more restrictions on sites like WikiLeaks, as many American policymakers did in the summer of 2010, and be disparaging China and Iran for similar impulses. If it turns out that the Internet does help to stifle dissent, amplify existing inequalities in terms of access to the media, undermine representative democracy, promote mob mentality, erode privacy, and make us less informed, it is not at all obvious how exactly the promotion of so-called Internet freedom is also supposed to assist in the promotion of democracy.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Amazon Web Services, one of the major players in the space, hosts thousands of Web sites and Web servers and undoubtedly stores the personal data of millions. On one hand, the cloud gives every kid in his or her basement access to nearly unlimited computing power to quickly scale up a new online service. On the other, as Clive Thompson pointed out to me, the cloud “is actually just a handful of companies.” When Amazon booted the activist Web site WikiLeaks off its servers under political pressure in 2010, the site immediately collapsed—there was nowhere to go. Personal data stored in the cloud is also actually much easier for the government to search than information on a home computer. The FBI needs a warrant from a judge to search your laptop. But if you use Yahoo or Gmail or Hotmail for your e-mail, you “lose your constitutional protections immediately,” according to a lawyer for the Electronic Freedom Foundation.

Halbrook, “‘Arms in the Hands of Jews Are a Danger to Public Safety’: Nazism, Firearm Registration, and the Night of the Broken Glass, St. Thomas Law Review 21 (2009): 109–41, 110, www.stephenhalbrook.com/law_review_articles/Halbrook_macro_final_3_29.pdf. 145 the cloud “is actually just a handful of companies”: Clive Thompson, interview with author, Brooklyn, NY, Aug. 13, 2010. 145 there was nowhere to go: Peter Svensson, “WikiLeaks Down? Cables Go Offline After Site Switches Servers,” Huffington Post, Dec. 1, 2010, accessed Feb. 9, 2011, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-down-cables-go-_n_790589.html. 145 “lose your constitutional protections immediately”: Christopher Ketcham and Travis Kelly, “The More You Use Google, the More Google Knows About You,” AlterNet, Apr. 9, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.alternet.org/investigations/146398/total_information_awareness:_the_more_you_use_google,_the_more_google_knows_about_you _?

Walker social capital social graph Social Graph Symposium Social Network, The Solove, Daniel solution horizon Startup School Steitz, Mark stereotyping Stewart, Neal Stryker, Charlie Sullivan, Danny Sunstein, Cass systematization Taleb, Nassim Nicholas Tapestry TargusInfo Taylor, Bret technodeterminism technology television advertising on mean world syndrome and Tetlock, Philip Thiel, Peter This American Life Thompson, Clive Time Tocqueville, Alexis de Torvalds, Linus town hall meetings traffic transparency Trotsky, Leon Turner, Fred Twitter Facebook compared with Últimas Noticias Unabomber uncanny valley Upshot Vaidhyanathan, Siva video games Wales, Jimmy Wall Street Journal Walmart Washington Post Web site morphing Westen, Drew Where Good Ideas Come From (Johnson) Whole Earth Catalog WikiLeaks Wikipedia Winer, Dave Winner, Langdon Winograd, Terry Wired Wiseman, Richard Woolworth, Andy Wright, David Wu, Tim Yahoo News Upshot Y Combinator Yeager, Sam Yelp You Tube LeanBack Zittrain, Jonathan Zuckerberg, Mark Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Introduction Chapter 1 - The Race for Relevance Chapter 2 - The User Is the Content Chapter 3 - The Adderall Society Chapter 4 - The You Loop Chapter 5 - The Public Is Irrelevant Chapter 6 - Hello, World!


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

His inspiration came from another cypherpunk from the mailing list named John Young, who in 1996 founded the website cryptome.org as a place to publish leaked documents – especially any confidential government records and reports. Assange had contacted Young in 2006, saying ‘you knew me under another name from the cypherpunk days’. He told Young of his plan to create a new organisation, which he called WikiLeaks, which he believed would change the world: ‘New technology and cryptographic ideas permit us to not only encourage document leaking, but to facilitate it directly on a mass scale. We intend to place a new star in the political firmament of man.’ For almost a decade, the cypherpunk mailing list was the centre of the crypto world. Hundreds of people used it to propose and learn ciphers, evade detection, discuss radical politics.

Today there are hundreds of people like Amir and Miguel working on ingenious ways of keeping online secrets or preventing censorship, often in their own time, and frequently crowdfunded by users sympathetic to the cause. One is Smári McCarthy. Smári is unashamedly geeky: a computer whizz and founding member of the radical Icelandic Pirate Party. He used to work with Julian Assange in the early days of WikiLeaks. Smári isn’t really a cypherpunk – he resists any association with Ayn Rand’s philosophy – but he does believe that privacy online is a fundamental right, and worries about state surveillance of the net. He also believes that crypto is a key part of a political project. He wants you to encrypt all your emails with PGP, even (or especially) those you send to friends and family members. The reason, he explains, is to provide ‘cover traffic’ for those who do need to keep things secret.

But they are rarely linked to other sites, and the URL addresses are a meaningless series of numbers and letters: h67ugho8yhgff941.onion rather than the more familiar .com or .co.uk. To make matters worse, Tor Hidden Services frequently change addresses. To help visitors, there are several ‘index’ pages that list current addresses. In 2013, the most well known of these index pages was called the Hidden Wiki. The Hidden Wiki looks identical to Wikipedia, and lists dozens of the most popular sites in this strange parallel internet: the WikiLeaks cache, censorship-free blogs, hacker chat forums, the New Yorker magazine’s whistleblower drop box. In late 2013 I was browsing the Hidden Wiki, searching for the infamous dark net market Silk Road. As I scrolled down, I suddenly spotted a link for a child pornography website. I stopped. There was nothing strikingly different about it – a simple link to an address comprised of a string of numbers and letters, like every other website listed here.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Not a great deal is known about its founders, except that WikiLeaks describes the group as comprising Chinese dissidents, hackers, computer programmers, lawyers, and journalists.6 To protect their sources (and their own identities), they spread assets, encrypt everything, and move telecommunications and people around the world to activate protective laws in different national jurisdictions. But who watches WikiLeaks? Can it be fully trusted? The jury is out, but so far its track record is good. And when you put WikiLeaks together with the events in Iran and other places you can begin to see why dictators everywhere are wondering when this new citizen power is going to come knocking on their door. Indeed, the Pentagon may wonder whether WikiLeaks can be held to account when sensitive information leaks to the public.

And they are always innovating—using the latest Internet-based technologies to amplify their impact. Take WikiLeaks, a self-proclaimed “intelligence service of the people” with a mission to abolish official secrecy. The whistle-blowing site made headlines when in April 2010 an anonymous tipster posted a video the Pentagon claimed to have lost of U.S. helicopter crews enthusiastically killing Iraqis on a Baghdad street in 2007. That event, in itself, might not have made headlines, except among the dead were two reporters with the Reuters news agency. The explosive leak, which sent shock waves around the world and had the Pentagon in a conniption, is merely the tip of the iceberg. In just a few short years, WikiLeaks has released more than a million confidential documents from highly classified military secrets to text messages of those killed in the 9/11 attacks.

Its annual Freedom in the World report is a respected global benchmark assessment of the state of political rights in 192 countries and 14 related and disputed territories. 4. “Undermining Democracy: 21st Century Authoritarians,” Freedom House (June 2009). 5. James Gwartney and Robert Lawson, “Ten Consequences of Economic Freedom,” National Center for Policy Analysis (July 30, 2004). 6. We do know, however, that WikiLeaks was founded by an Australian (Julian Assange) who lives in East Africa. 7. Evgeny Morozov, “Think Again: The Internet,” Foreign Policy (May/June 2010). 8. Experts suggest that the differences between Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are far less significant than what unites them. In the aftermath of their failed attempts to overturn the election results, many pro-democracy activists started to question whether Mousavi truly embraces their ideals.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The number and reach of these highly profitable transnational organized cyber-crime rings have grown, and the security intelligence firm CrowdStrike was actively tracking more than fifty such major organizations globally. Besides transnational organized crime syndicates, hacktivists—politically motivated cyber attackers—represent one of the most influential and powerful groups in cyberspace. Anonymous, LulzSec, AntiSec, WikiLeaks, and the Syrian Electronic Army fall into this group and launch their attacks in retaliation for perceived injustices. Personalities such as Julian Assange, Chelsea (Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden have become household names for challenging some of the world’s most powerful institutions and for releasing data that others would most certainly have preferred remain hidden. While Assange, Manning, and Snowden have been propelled onto the covers of newspapers around the world, other hacktivist groups prefer that their individual members remain discreetly hidden in subordination to the organization itself and its broader agenda.

One such notable example is Anonymous, a self-described leaderless organization whose members have become recognizable in public for wearing Guy Fawkes masks. The group’s motto, “We are Anonymous. We are legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us,” manifests its organizational ethos: “The corrupt fear us. The honest support us. The heroic join us.” When MasterCard, Visa, and PayPal all agreed to stop funneling donations to Julian Assange’s WikiLeaks organization, Anonymous responded by launching a series of effective cyber attacks against the financial firms. Anonymous is strongly against what it perceives to be rigid antipiracy laws, and it took credit for an earlier attack against the Sony PlayStation Network in response to Sony’s support of U.S. antipiracy legislation known as the Stop Online Piracy Act. Anonymous views itself as hacking for good and has taken on a wide variety of social causes, including its support of activists throughout the Middle East during the Arab Spring.

Eventually, your personal details will fall into the hands of criminal cartels, competitors, and even foreign governments. While big data may be the new oil, our personal data are more like weapons-grade plutonium—dangerous, long lasting, and once they are leaked, there’s no getting them back. Even the federal government is realizing it too can fall victim to this problem. Just look at the 2010 WikiLeaks debacle and the hundreds of thousands of classified diplomatic cables Private Chelsea (Bradley) Manning was able to steal while working as an army intelligence analyst in Iraq. Of course just a few years later, the world would meet Edward Snowden, who used his skills and access as an NSA system administrator to steal millions of highly classified files from America and its allies and share them with journalists for publication online.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

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3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

In a future world of abundance, everyone will be motivated to be open and generous. Bizarrely, the endgame utopias of even the most ardent high-tech libertarians always seem to take socialist turns. The joys of life will be too cheap to meter, we imagine. So abundance will go ambient. This is what diverse cyber-enlightened business concerns and political groups all share in common, from Facebook to WikiLeaks. Eventually, they imagine, there will be no more secrets, no more barriers to access; all the world will be opened up as if the planet were transformed into a crystal ball. In the meantime, those true believers encrypt their servers even as they seek to gather the rest of the world’s information and find the best way to leverage it. It is all too easy to forget that “free” inevitably means that someone else will be deciding how you live.

Broadly speaking, that narrative counterpoises the inclusiveness, quickness, and sophistication of online social processes against the sluggish, exclusive club of old-fashioned government or corporate power. It’s a narrative that unites activists in the Arab Spring with Chinese and Iranian online dissidents, and with tweeters in the United States, Pirate Parties in Europe, nouveau high-tech billionaires, and “folk hero” rogue outfits like WikiLeaks. That particular idea of revolution misses the point about how power in human affairs really works. It cedes the future of economics and places the entire burden on politics. In our digital revolution, we might depose an old sort of dysfunctional center of power only to erect a new one that is equally dysfunctional. The reason is that online opposition to traditional power tends to promote new Siren Servers that in the long run are unlikely to be any better.

CHAPTER 17 Clout Must Underlie Rights, if Rights Are to Persist Melodramas Are Tenacious My conviction that building a strong middle class in the information economy must underlie the pursuit of rights unfortunately pits me against the kinds of rascals I would otherwise tend to feel more organically at home with. It would perhaps feel better to go with the flow and celebrate outfits like WikiLeaks, but I believe that would ultimately be a self-defeating choice. We who are enthusiastic about the Internet love the fact that so many people contribute to it. It’s hard to believe that once upon a time people worried about whether anyone would have anything worthwhile to say online! I have not lost even a tiny bit of this aspect of our formative idealism from decades ago. I still find that when I put my trust in people, overall they come through.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

However, he was laid off because of lack of funds in 2002, after which he apparently lost faith in the project (in his farewell message he skeptically wrote that “Wikipedia still might succeed brilliantly”; Berstein, 2011). Since then he has been very critical of it. In 2007 he launched his own online encyclopedia website, Citizendium. Clearly, both being let go from Wikipedia and having his cofounder status questioned left Sanger resentful. Nonetheless, as late as December 2010, when criticizing WikiLeaks and addressing Julian Assange, he mentioned his former affiliation rather than his later projects: “Speaking as Wikipedia’s co-founder, I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people” (Crovitz, 2010). Identifying himself as Wikipedia’s cofounder might have created the impression that he was speaking for the Wikipedia community or the Wikimedia Foundation, but his view was far from unanimously shared by Wikipedians.

([[User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/Archive_122]]) At the time of this writing, discussion of the changes is still under way, yet it is quite clear that Wales recognized that his resignation from operational influence has further legitimized his strategic authority. 1 7 4    L e a d e r s h i p T r a n s f o r m e d Modes of Leadership in Open Collaboration While the founder’s exit has been shown to be a natural stage in organizational development, in this case the limitation of Wales’s involvement was both consciously planned and a contingent process of management models and philosophies open-community leadership, both to some extent present in the free/ libre and open-source-software (F/LOSS) environment. E. G. Coleman (2011) points out that digital-generation communities may be governed by principles as diverse as those of WikiLeaks (with one charismatic leader making all decisions and monopolizing the limelight) to those of Anonymous (an antileader and anticelebrity group). Even though rarely falling on the extremes of that continuum, large open-collaboration projects tend to rely on two kinds of models: a democratic community-decision-making process (elections, representation) and “benevolent dictatorship” (Raymond, 1998, 1999/2004).

See also edit wars RfAs (requests for adminship), vii, 37, 37–39; analysis of questions in, 42; compared to frat pledges, Thunderdome, 43; defenders of, 44–45; effect of recall rarity on, 58; Essjay’s successful, 109; as opportunity for revenge, stalking, 90; parodies of, 42; preparing for, 92–93; proposals for repairing, 44; and refusal for homophobic comment, 130; as “running the gauntlet,” 41; as sole community power over admins, 54–55 RFCs (requests for comment), 61, 112, 138 Ritzer, George, 188 rollbackers, 33 Rops, Félicien, 167 Roth, Philip, 21 RS (reliable source) requirement, 21, 78, 111 rules/norms/policies: on article ownership, 20–22, 158–159; on child protection, 171; on conflicts of interest, 19–20, 156; on content, 20–22, 157; on decision making, 18–19; democratic and participative character of, 123; English Wikipedia word count of, 99; on etiquette/personal behavior, 17–18, 20, 117; principles override letter of, 97, 121; Sanger’s role in designing, 156; as set by each Wikimedia project, 98; as taking precedence over people, 159 rules of etiquette (EQ), 18 “running the gauntlet,” 41 Russian Wikipedia, 12, 15, 141, 233n15 Saint Teresa painting (Rops), 167 Sanger, Lawrence M., 10, 80, 123, 184; on anti-expert tendencies of Wikipedia, 122; on article quality, 80; and Citizendium project, 123; on future of “special authority,” 184; and Nupedia, 10; and por­ nography charges against Wikimedia Commons, 167; role of, in founding of Wikipedia, 155–157, 159; and statement to Assange and WikiLeaks, 156 Santana, Adele, 107–108 saturation level, 38, 191, 192 Saxe, John Godfrey, 9 SB Johnny (admin, bureaucrat), 165–166 I n d e x    2 9 1 schisms/forking, 126, 133, 144–148, 179 schmucks and losers, free labor only for, 182 Search Conference method, 63–64, 83 search engines, 146–147, 200, 209 secret ballot proposals, 44 “secret” e-mail list issue, 53 Seer (admin), x Seigenthaler, John, 228n7 self-organization, 150–151 self-promotion, 88 semiautomatic corrections, 38 servant-leadership model, 174 service awards, 26 sexism in categorization, 16 Sheeran, Michael, 62 Shirky, Clay, 60, 149, 186 “Show preview,” 95 Signpost, Wikipedia, 74, 139, 235–236n2 Simple Wikipedia, 192 Sinnreich, Aram, 103 slang and abbreviations: glossary of, 203– 225; as intimidating to newcomers, 102, 122; status enhanced by knowledge of, 123 Snottywong (user), 142–143 social dominance strategies, 52–54 socialization among Wikipedians, 24 social signaling through user pages, 27–28 societal rule, technology as form of, 188 Society of Friends, 62 sociotechnical communities (STC), 123 sociotechnical system, 100 sock-puppetry, 118, 164, 231n10 “soft bureaucracies,” 151 software application, quality of, 40 SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act, U.S.), 141, 172, 188 Space Cadet (editor), 68 Spanish Wikipedia (Enciclopedia Libre), 12, 15, 35, 146, 148 “specific-expertise” seats on board of trustees, 129 stalemate conflict trajectory, 79, 80–81, 83 stalking, 110–111, 113–114 Stallman, Richard, 175 Starling, Tim, 65 start-up culture, 179 status: of adminship, 46–48, 140; as available to nonexperts, 29, 106; based on peer recognition, 22–23, 30; “big men” must show modesty to maintain, 31; and egalitarianism, 55–57; and fake credentials, 113, 119; featured- and good-article designations and, 24; gradations of, 32; issues with Wales’s, 162–170, 178; as lockin mechanism, 55; rules apply to all levels of, 18, 157; service awards demonstrating, 26–27; speed leading to greater, 40; stewards’ ability to remove, 34; and understanding rules and slang, 123 STC (sociotechnical communities), 123 steward(s), 33–35, 36, 197; competition among, 40; need for programmer communication with, 137; number of, 41; as “slaves,” 46; and Wales’s status, 33, 165–166, 168, 177 stigmas as easy to conceal online, 117–118, 199 Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA, U.S.), 141, 172, 188 stratification, 31–32, 85, 101–103, 115 straw polls, 63 structured discourse, control through, 92–96 stubs, 12–13 suppression, 34 surveys, 14–17.


pages: 442 words: 135,006

ZeroZeroZero by Roberto Saviano

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, call centre, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open borders, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Another cable, which predates their meeting, talks of potential ties between Firtaš and Mogilevic, suggested by their shared investment in certain offshore companies and the fact that they have the same lawyer. These ties had already been noted in a previous intermediary gas company, Eural Trans Gas. But that same lawyer sues the Guardian for publishing documents circulated by WikiLeaks’s Julian Assange in an article by Luke Harding titled “WikiLeaks Cables Link Russian Mafia Boss to EU Gas Supplies.” In the correction that the London paper was forced to print on December 9, 2010, “to clear up any subsequent mistranslation or misunderstanding of their meeting,” Firtaš denies having any connection to Mogilevic other than a simple acquaintance. The gas affair affects the vital interests of an entire continent.

Don Semën was in prison for nearly all of the most dramatic phase of the Russian-Ukrainian gas war. But what has he got to do with it? In 2006 Julija Timošenko had already told the BBC: “We have no doubt that Mogilevic is the person behind the entire RosUkrEnergo operation.” Hers is one of the loudest among the many accusing voices that fell on deaf ears for years, until a document surfaced and caught the notice of public opinion in the West. It’s one of the secret files published by WikiLeaks: a cable from Kiev dated December 10, 2008, from the American ambassador William Taylor. It refers to a meeting with Dmitro Firtaš, the Ukrainian oligarch behind RosUkrEnergo, in which he warned Taylor that Timošenko planned to eliminate his company both for personal interests and internal political conflicts, for which she was willing to make concessions to Putin, thus strengthening his influence in Europe.

., 245–46, 254 Trevi, Gloria, 101 Treviño Morales, José, 252–53 Treviño Morales, Miguel Ángel (El Z40), 98, 103, 252 Treviño Morales, Omar (El Z42), 98–99 Trimboli, Rocco, 230 Trinidad Cerón, Luis Alberto (El Guicho), 61 tripulantes (ship’s crew), 291–92, 297, 299, 300 Troika restaurant, 274 tropane alkaloids, 113–14 Trujillo, Carlos (Griselda Blanco’s first husband), 359–60 Truxillo coca, 114 Turatello, Francis (Angel Face), 212 Turin, 298, 331 Turkey, 215, 232 Twenty-first Motorized Cavalry Regiment, Mexican, 60 Ufa (sniffer dog), 345 U Holubů restaurant, 275 Ukraine, 260, 276, 277, 279, 285–87 UniCredit Bank, 193 Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity), 83 Union Frigo Transport Logistic, 196–97 United Nations, 74, 207–9, 250 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 207–9, 250 United Sacred Crown, 296–97 United States: access routes to, 20–23, 39–40, 42, 49, 57, 59 cocaine market of, 34, 38–39, 51–53, 59, 73–77, 127, 289 Colombian relations with, 127, 131, 148–49, 154–66, 189 drug enforcement in, 19–34, 64–65, 97, 148–66, 168, 294–95 extraditions to, 41, 59, 131, 148–51, 162–66, 282, 285, 366 illegal immigration to, 102, 289 Italian relations with, 168, 178, 185–86 Mexican border of, 20–22, 39–40, 44, 53, 57, 60, 61, 69–70, 102, 289–90, 328 Mexican relations with, 28, 31, 41, 58, 158, 366 Russian mafia in, 262, 268, 273–74, 276, 279, 289, 294 war on terror of, 155–57, 187, 242, 254–55 Uralmaševskaja crime group, 269–70 Uribe, Álvaro, 155, 157, 166 Uribe Escobar, Mario, 166 Vado Ligure, Italy, 291, 329 Valdez Villarreal, Edgar (Barbie), 42–43 Valencia, Armando (Maradona), 158 Valencia, Erick (El 85), 67 Vallanzasca, Renato, 212 Valtur vacation resorts, 227 Van Kleef, Leon, 234–36 Varela, Wílber (Soap), 135 Vásquez Romero, Luis Roberto, 353, 354–55 Vega, Baruch, 149–51, 158–59, 162 Vendemini, Valter, 199 Venezuela, 164, 179–80, 202, 233, 238, 291 Ventrans, 180, 196 Ventrici, Francesco (El Gordo; Fatty), 175–76, 177, 180, 182–84, 190, 192, 195–200 Ventura Moussong, Juan Carlos, 365 Veracruz, Mexico, 67–68 Vibonesi group, 193 Vibo Valentia, Italy, 172, 175–76, 183, 191, 204–5, 254 Vida loca, La, 348–56 Vieira, João Bernardo, 316 Villarreal Barragán, Sergio (El Grande), 50 VM Trans, 196–97 Volkov, Aleksandr, 273–74 Vološin, Vladimir, 273–74 Volpiano, Italy, 344 Voltan, Mattia, 297–98, 299 Vory v zakone organization, 264–65, 271, 273, 285 Voz de Durango, La, 368 Voz de Michoacán, La, 64 Voz y Solución, 64 Wachovia Bank, 243–46, 249–50, 253 Wall Street, 247, 254, 273–74 Waridel, Paul Eduard (The Turk), 232–34 “white petrol,” 38, 57 WikiLeaks, 286–87 wiretapping, 181, 202, 228–30, 237, 298, 362 witness protection programs, 157–60, 164, 362 Woods, Martin, 243–46, 249–50, 252, 253 Woods, Ray, 332 Woods M5 Associates, 249 World Drug Report (2012), 207–9 yachts, 296–300 YBM Magnex International, 251, 276–77, 286 YouTube videos, 43, 67, 94 Yugoslavia, 219, 257 Yuma, Ariz., 290 Zacazonapan, Mexico, 68 Zambada García, Ismael (El Mayo), 30, 41, 55–56, 66, 363, 365 Zapata, Emiliano, 62 Zola, Émile, 348 Looking for more?


pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Or that you never scribbled your randomly generated eighteen-character computer password on a Post-it because you just could not seem to commit it to memory, no matter how hard you tried? If they’re being honest, most people with security clearances will start looking a little red in the face. I remember a particularly surreal period during my stint at the Defense Department. When the first WikiLeaks cables became public, every media outlet in the world began quoting from the leaked documents. At the Pentagon, however, we were all warned not to even read any of those stories quoting leaked documents, because classified documents remain classified even if they’re splashed all over the front page of the New York Times.58 Thus, anyone who read media quotes from any leaked classified documents above his or her clearance level was accessing unauthorized information.

It forced the frequent use of bizarre circumlocutions to avoid accidentally messing up: “If it is the case that classified information is contained in a Washington Post article, a fact I can neither confirm nor deny, that would be a security breach, and we certainly wish people would not read or discuss any such material that might or might not be genuine and might or might not be classified.” As I noted earlier, some classified material obviously should be kept secret. Even the most ardent WikiLeaks supporter might accept that launch codes for U.S. nuclear weapons don’t belong in the public domain, and the claim that we need to protect “intelligence sources and methods” isn’t a frivolous one. Some of the intelligence the United States collects comes from individuals who pass information at great personal risk. Even when the information itself has little value to the United States, revealing that we have it can lead foreign organizations to identify our source—sometimes with lethal consequences.

“Weekly Situation Report on International Terrorism,” Central Intelligence Agency, December 17, 1974, www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB90/dubious-01a.pdf. 56. Executive Order 12958, ”Classified National Security Information,” 60 Federal Register 19825, April 20, 1995, www.fas.org/sgp/clinton/eo12958.html. 57. Gotein and Shapiro, Reducing Overclassification Through Accountability; PIDB, “Transforming the Security Classification System.” 58. Eric Lipton, “Don’t Look, Don’t Read: Government Warns Its Workers Away from WikiLeaks Documents,” New York Times, December 4, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/12/05/world/05restrict.html. Chapter 6: Future Warfare 1. See “US Military Cybersecurity by the Numbers,” Nextgov, March 19, 2015, www.nextgov.com/cybersecurity/2015/03/us-military-cybersecurity-numbers/107637/; Federal News Radio, “DHS Defends FY 2016 Cyber Budget Before Senate Subcommittee,” April 15, 2015, http://federalnewsradio.com/budget/2015/04/dhs-defends-fy-2016-cyber-budget-before-senate-subcommittee/. 2.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

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back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Linux’s only condition was that nobody was allowed to commercialize the product. Out of the Open Source movement came the ‘wiki’: a user-editable website which leaves an audit trail of changes, designed to facilitate collaborative work among groups without any prior role-designation or command hierarchy. As a tool it looks like nothing special. But its first two global uses were to prove revolutionary: Wikipedia and WikiLeaks. Wikipedia was not only a commercial challenge to the encyclopaedia business: it expanded the supply of in-depth and dependable knowledge, and reduced the price to zero. And not just knowledge of stable and finished episodes. Shirky points out—and I have personal experience of this—that the Wikipedia page devoted to the London bombings of 7 July 2005 was at all times during the first twenty-four hours more reliable and comprehensive than reports from the mainstream media.

Shirky points out—and I have personal experience of this—that the Wikipedia page devoted to the London bombings of 7 July 2005 was at all times during the first twenty-four hours more reliable and comprehensive than reports from the mainstream media. I can attest to the fact that the mainstream media noticed this immediately: it was a talking point among my colleagues in press and broadcasting that the “new” version of news was the dispassionate assembly of the facts, easily eclipsing confused rewrites of online “articles” as the detailed events filtered out. The second big wiki—WikiLeaks—has yet to finish exploding in the faces of dictators, spies, torturers, crooks and politicians. But leaving aside its political impact, what’s important here is the creation process itself: what Shirky calls the ‘unmanaged division of labour’. This process did not appear out of the blue; it can trace a direct lineage to the liberation movements of the hippy Sixties. In her brilliant cyber-memoir, technology writer Becky Hogge describes how survivors of the LSD fraternity in California ‘quit drugs for software’, seeding a techno-revolution that would create the mouse, the pixel, the Apple Mac, the Internet, hacking and free software.15 Their goals were made explicit in two famous statements by Stewart Brand, the visionary founder of the Whole Earth Catalog: ‘Like it or not, computers are coming to the masses’; and ‘Information wants to be free’.

I. 46 Len-len 193–96, 209 Liberal Democrats 43–44, 46 liberalizers 31 Libya 25, 31, 119; National Transitional Council 178 Life and Fate (Grossman) 129 Lilico, Andrew 121 link-shorteners 75 Linux 139–40 @littlemisswilde 41–42, 44, 45, 135–36, 138 living conditions, urban slums 196–99 London: anti-capitalist demonstrations 33; arrests 61–62; Day X, 24 November 2010 41–42, 46–48; the Dubstep Rebellion 48–52; Fortnum & Mason 60–61; HM Revenue and Customs building 51; Hyde Park 60; Millbank riot 42–44; Millbank Tower 43; Museum Tavern 1; National Gallery teach-in 53, 53–54; Oxford Circus 60; Palladium Theatre 51; Parliament Square 49, 51, 52–53; Piccadilly Circus 58; police–student confrontation 50–51; Regent Street 58; Ritz Hotel 60; Tate Modern 53; trade-union demonstration, March 2011 57–61; Trafalgar Square 47; Victoria Street 50; Victorinox 59 London School of Oriental and African Studies, occupation of 44–46 López, Fernando 166–67, 170 Lopez, Gina 200–2 Lopez Inc. 200–2 Loubere, Leo 174 Loukanikos (riot dog) 94, 96 L’Ouverture, Toussaint 149 LulzSec 151 McIntyre, Jody 51 McPherson, James 182 Madison, Wisconsin revolt 184–87 Madrid 33 Mahalla uprising, 2008 10, 71 Maher, Ahmed 83 Mahfouz, Asmaa, @AsmaaMahfouz 11, 177 Mahmoud (Zamalek Sporting Club ultra) 16–17 Makati, Manila 204–6 malnutrition 9 Mandelson, Peter 17, 26, 114 Manila 33; Estero de Paco 200–2; Estero de San Miguel 196–99; Makati 204–6; waterways 200–2 manipulated consciousness 29–30 Manufacturing Consent (Chomsky and Herman) 28–29 Mao Tse Tung 46 Marxism 141–45 Marx, Karl 46, 141–45, 174, 187, 188–89, 190, 192 Masai with a mobile, the 133–34 Masoud, Tarek 27 Masry Shebin El-Kom textile factory 22–23 mass culture 29–30 Matrix, The (film) 29 Meadows, Alfie 51 media, the 28–29 @mehri912 34 Meltdown (Mason) 31–32 memes 75, 150–52, 152 Merkel, Angela 96, 98, 99, 112 Michas, Takis 103 Middle East: balance of power 178; Facebook usage 135; failure of specialist to understand 25–27 Milburn, Alan 114 Miliband, Ed 58, 60, 188 Millbank riot 42–44 Millennium Challenge 2002 82–83 Miller, Henry 128 misery 209 mobile telephony 75–76, 133–34 modernism 28 mortgage-backed securities 106–8 Moses, Jonathan 48 Mousavi, Mir-Hossein 33–34 movement without a name 66 Mubarak, Alaa 17–18 Mubarak, Gamal 8, 10, 17–18, 26 Mubarak, Hosni 9, 10, 14, 15, 18–19, 19–20, 26, 31 Murdoch, Rupert 31, 106, 148–49 Muslim Brotherhood 21, 177 NAFTA 166–67 Napoleon III 172, 191 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 19 National Gallery teach-in 53, 53–54 nationalism 124 Native Americans 162, 163 Negri, Toni 42 Netanyahu, Binyamin 180 network animals 147 networked individualism 130, 130–33, 141 networked protests 81–82, 85 networked revolution, the 79–85; erosion of power relations 80–81; informal hierarchies 83; networked protests 81–82; network relationships 81; swarm tactics 82–83 network effect, the 2, 74–75, 77; erosion of power relations 80–81; strength 83; usefulness 84 network relationships 81 Nevins, Allan 182 New Journalism 3 News Corporation 148—49 News of the World 49; phone hacking scandal 61, 148–49 New Unrest, social roots of 65–66, 85; demographics of revolt 66–73; information tools 75–76; the networked revolution 79–85; organizational format 77–78; technology and 74–79; the urban poor 70–72 New York Times 170 1984 (Orwell) 30, 129 Nomadic Hive Manifesto, The 53–54 @norashalaby 13 North Africa: demographics of revolt 66; students and the urban poor 71 Obama, Barack 72, 116–18, 120, 122, 162, 167, 170, 180, 183, 187 OccupiedLondon blog 88–89 Occupy Wall Street movement, the 139, 144, 187, 210 Office for National Statistics 115 Ogden-Nussbaum, Anna, @eponymousthing 184 Oklahoma 153, 153–56 Oldouz84 36, 37 Olives, Monchet 202–4 online popularity 75 On the Jewish Question (Marx) 143 Open Source software 139–40 Operation Cast Lead 33 organizational format, changing forms of 77–78 Organisation of Labour, The (Blanc) 187 organized labour 71–72, 143 Ortiz, Roseangel 161 Orwell, George 30, 129, 208, 210 Owen, Robert 142 Palafox, Felino 204–5 Palamiotou, Anna 97 Palestine 25, 121, 179, 180 Palin, Sarah 181, 182 PAME (Greek trade union) 90 Papaconstantinou, George 91, 97 Papandreou, George 88, 96 Papayiannidis, Antonis 103 Paris 39; 1968 riots 46; revolution of 1848 171, 172 Paris Commune, the 1, 72–73, 84, 132 PASOK 89, 91, 98, 99 Paulson, Hank 110 Petrache, Ruben 203–4 Philippines: Calauan, Laguna Province 202–4; Estero de Paco, Manila 200–2; Estero de San Miguel, Manila 196–99, 205–6, 206–9; Gapan City 193–96; Makati, Manila 204–6; New People’s Army 203 Philippines Housing Development Corporation 198 philosophy 29 phone hacking scandal 61, 148–49 Picasso, Pablo 127, 128, 132 Pimco 170 Poland 172 police car protester (USA) 4 Policy Exchange think tank 55 political mainstream, youth disengagement from 89–90 popular culture 65, 176 Porter, Brett 154, 155, 156 Port Huron Statement, the 129–30, 145 Portugal 92, 112, 188 postmodernism 28 poverty 121–22, 210, 211 Powell, Walter 77 power, refusal to engage with 3 power relations, erosion of 80–81 Procter & Gamble 23 propaganda of the deed 62 property 48 property bubble collapse 106–8 protectionism 124 protest, changing forms of 54–57 pro-Western dictators, support for 31 Prussia 191 Puente 165 Putnam, Robert 134 Quantitative Easing II 120–23 radicalization 33, 37, 47–48 radical journalists 149 Ramírez, Leticia 165 Real Estate Tax Authority Workers (Egypt) 19 Really Free School, the 1–2 @rebeldog_ath 96 reciprocity 77 Reed Elsevier 146 Reider, Dimi 179 Research and Destroy group 38–39 revolt, demographics of 66, 66–73 revolutionary wave 65 revolution, definition 79–80 revolutions: 1848 171–73, 173–75, 191, 192; 1917 173; 1968 173; 1989 173 Reynalds, Jeremy 159–60, 162–63 rice crops 195 Riches, Jessica, @littlemisswilde 41–42, 44, 45, 135–36, 138 Rimbaud, Arthur 132 River Warriors 201 Roads to Freedom (Sartre) 129 Road to Wigan Pier, The (Orwell) 208 Romer, Christina 117 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 169–70 Rove, Karl 30–31, 32 Rowan, Rory 54 Said, Edward 26–27 Said, Khaled 11, 148 @Sandmonkey 13 Sandra (Joy Junction resident) 160 Santa Cruz, University of California 37–39 Sarkozy, Nicolas 91–92, 98 @sarrahsworld 11–12, 14, 135 Sartre, Jean-Paul 129 Saudi Arabia 121 savings, and investment 107 Savio, Mario 4 SB1070 (USA) 164, 165–66, 166–67 self-esteem, and consumption 80–81 self-interest 111 self-reliance 68 self, the, social networks impact on 136–38 Sennett, Richard 68, 80–81, 131 Sentimental Education (Flaubert) 171 el-Shaar, Mahmoud 22 Shafiq, Mohammed 20–22 Shalit, Gilad 179 shared community 84 Sharp, Gene 83 Sharpton, Al 184 Shirky, Clay 138, 139, 140, 146 Sinclair, Cameron 199, 208 Sioras, Dr Ilias 90–91 Situationist movement 46–47 Situationist Taliban 1 slum-dwellers 68; numbers 198 social capital 134 social democracy 145 social housing 199 Socialist International 19–20 social justice 177, 191, 192, 209, 210 social media 7, 74–75, 77; collective mental arena 137; lack of control 37; power of 34–35; role of 56; and the spread of ideas 151 social micro-history 173 social networks 77, 82; impact of 147; impact on activism 138–41; and the self 136–38 social-republicanism 187 solidaristic slum, the 207 Solidarity 42 ‘Solidarity Forever’ (song) 42 Soviet Union 28 Spain 66, 104, 105, 188 Spanish Civil War 209–10 species-being 143 @spitzenprodukte (art activist) 1 spontaneous horizontalists 44–46 spontaneous replication 55 Starbucks Kids 79 Steinbeck, John 153, 155, 159, 163, 164, 169 Stephenson, Paul 52 Stiglitz, Joseph 118 Strategy Guide (Sharp) 83 Strauss-Kahn, Dominique 188 strongman threat, the 177–78 student occupations 37–39, 44–46, 53, 53–54 students: economic attack on 38; expectations 67–68; population 70 Sudan 25 Suez Canal Port Authority 19 Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) (Egypt) 18, 20 surveillance 148 swarm tactics 82–83 swine flu epidemic 9 Switzerland 123 syndicalism 175–76 synthesis, lack of 57 Syria 25 tactics 54–57 Tahrir Square, Cairo 6, 69, 89, 139; chants 191, 211; Day of Rage, 28 May 15–17; demonstration, 25 January 10–14; numbers 13; Twitter feeds 13; volunteer medics 20–22 Taine, Hippolyte 73 Tantawi, General 19 Tarnac Nine, the 189 Tea Party, the 117–18, 124–25, 180–81 tear gas 93–94, 100–1 technology 65, 66, 74–79, 85, 133–36, 138–39; and the 1848 revolutions 173–74 Tehran, Twitter Revolution 34–37 teleology 131, 152 Tent City jail, Arizona 164–67 Territorial Support Group 50 Thatcher, Margaret 106 @3arabawy 10, 22, 71 Third Way, the 31 Time magazine 36 Tim (human rights activist) 1–2 Tim (Joy Junction resident) 160 Tocqueville, Alexis de 192 totalitarianism 147–48 toxic debt 110–11 trade wars 122, 124–25 transnational culture 69 Transparency International 119 Trichet, Jean-Claude 112 Truman Show, The (film) 29 trust 57 Tunisia: Army 178; economic growth 119; inflation 121; organized workforce 72; revolution 10, 11, 25–26; unemployment 119 Turkle, Sherry 136 Twitpic 75 Twitter and tweets 3, 74, 137–38; #wiunion 184, 185; @Ghonim 13; @mehri912 34; @norashalaby 13; @rebeldog_ath 96; @Sandmonkey 13; Egyptian revolution 13, 14; importance of 135–36; Iranian revolution and 33–37; Madison, Wisconsin revolt 184; news dissemination 75; real-time organization 75; reciprocity 77; user numbers 135; virtual meetings 45 Twitter Revolution, Iran 33–37, 78, 178 Ukraine 177–78 UK Uncut 54–57, 58, 61 ultra-social relations 138 unemployment: America 159–63; Egypt 119; Spain 105; Tunisia 119; youth 66, 105, 119–20 UN-Habitat 199 Unison 57 United Nations, The Challenge of Slums 198–99 United States of America: agriculture 154–56; Albuquerque 159, 159–63; Arizona 164–67, 183; armed struggle 181–83; Bakersfield, California 168–70; budget cuts 156, 161, 167, 170; California 168–70; campus revolts, 1964 4; Canadian River 159; cattle prices 156; collapse of bipartisan politics 116–19; culture wars 179, 180–84; current-account deficit 107; debt 118; deportations 166; devaluation 123; Dodd–Frank Act 167; the Dust Bowl 154–55; economic decline 183–84; economic growth 170; Federal budget 156, 161; fiscal management 183; fiscal stimulus 117–18; fruit pickers 169; hamburger trade 156; healthcare bill 180, 183; homeless children 160; homelessness 159–63; Indiana 116–17, 125; Interstate 40 157, 170; job market 161; Joy Junction, Albuquerque 159–63; Madison, Wisconsin revolt 184–87; minimum wage workers 158; the Mogollon Rim 163; motels 157–58, 162–63; the New Deal 169–70; Oklahoma 153, 153–56; Phoenix, Arizona 164–67; police car protester 4; political breakdown, 1850s 182–83; property bubble 106–8; Quantitative Easing II 120–23; radical blogosphere 184; the religious right 118; repossessions 168; Route 66 157–59; San Joaquin valley 169; SB1070 164, 165–66, 166–67; State Department 178; states’ rights 183; student occupation movement 37–39; the Tea Party 117–18, 124–25, 180–81, 186; Tent City jail, Arizona 164–67; Tucson, Arizona 182; undocumented migrants 164–67; unemployment 159–63; wages 108; war spending 162; welfare benefits 162, 170 Unite Union 55 university fees 44, 47, 50, 54 urban poor 70–72 urban slums 191; Calauan, Laguna Province 202–4; clearance policies 198–99; education levels 207; Estero de Paco, Manila 200–2; Estero de San Miguel, Manila 196–99, 205–6, 206–9; Gapan City, Philippines 193–96; improvement policies 199, 205–6; internet access 207; labour force 208; living conditions 196–99; Moqattam, Cairo 6–10; population numbers 198 Vail, Theodore 74 Vanderboegh, Mike 181 Van Riper, Lieutenant General Paul 82 Venizelos, Evangelos 97–98 Vietnam War 129 virtual meetings 45 virtual societies 134 Vodafone 54–55 Vradis, Antonis 87–89 wages 108, 112 Walker, Scott 184 Walorski, Jackie 116–17 Walt, Stephen M. 26 war, threat of 178 Warwick University, Economics Conference 67–68 Washington Times 35 Wasim (Masry Shebin El-Kom delegate) 23 water supplies 194 wave creation 78 wealth, monopolization of 108 We Are Social 148 Weeks, Lin, @weeks89 184 Wellman, Barry 130 Wertheim, Margaret 136 White House, the 92 ‘Why the Tunisian revolution won’t spread’ (Walt) 26 WikiLeaks 140 Wikipedia 46, 140 wikis 140–41 #wiunion 184, 185 Wobblies 176 Women’s liberation 132 Woods, Alan 33 Woollard, Edward 43 working class 68, 71–72, 79–80, 145; culture 72; revolutions, 1848 172–73 World of Yesterday, The (Zweig) 128 World Trade Organization 122 Yemen 25, 119, 121 youth 68; alienation 62; British 41–42, 44, 53–54; culture 70; disconnected 190; disengagement from political mainstream 89–90; radicalization 33, 37, 47–48; unemployment 66, 119–20 YouTube 75; Egyptian revolution on 11, 14, 15; Iranian revolution on 34, 35 Zamalek Sporting Club, ultras 16–17 Zapatistas 1 Zekry, Musa 5–6, 7, 23–24 Zola, Emil 191 Zweig, Stefan 128, 132–33, 152, 176 Copyright This revised and updated second edition first published by Verso 2013 First published by Verso 2012 © Paul Mason 2012, 2013 All rights reserved The moral rights of the author have been asserted Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 www.versobooks.com Verso is the imprint of New Left Books ISBN: 978-1-781-68245-6 (e-book) British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Typeset in Fournier by MJ Gavan, Truro, Cornwall Printed by ScandBook AB, Sweden


pages: 347 words: 94,701

Don't Trust, Don't Fear, Don't Beg: The Extraordinary Story of the Arctic 30 by Ben Stewart

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3D printing, Desert Island Discs, Edward Snowden, new economy, oil rush, Skype, WikiLeaks

He hung a pod and two occupants from another Cairn oil platform, halting exploratory drilling operations for two days. After the Danish navy removed the pod, Frank led a team of eighteen activists who scaled the platform and presented a petition to the captain containing fifty thousand names calling for an end to Arctic oil drilling. Frank and the others were arrested and helicoptered to Greenland, where they were jailed for two weeks. WikiLeaks had just published a quarter of a million cables from US embassies across the world. They showed how the scramble for resources in the Arctic was sparking military tensions in the region – with NATO sources worried about the potential for armed conflict between Russia and the West. The cables showed the extent to which Russia was manoeuvring to claim ownership over huge swathes of the Arctic. One senior Moscow source revealed that a famous 2007 submarine expedition by the explorer Artur Chilingarov to plant a Russian flag on the seabed beneath the North Pole was ordered by Vladimir Putin’s United Russia party.

Dominique 248 Prirazlomnaya platform: Arctic 30 operation against, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew Arctic Sunrise observes 11–12 history of 132 previous Greenpeace assault on 14, 130 Putin’s video link with 339–40 Pussy Riot 56, 64, 87, 166, 171–2, 343 and Amnesty Bill 329, 331 Putin, Vladimir 166–71, 172–6 passim and Amnesty Bill 330–1 Arctic 30’s case spoken of by 63, 330–1 becomes President 175 becomes Prime Minister 175 blueprint for rule of 175–6 childhood of 174 demonstrations after inauguration of 171 FSB headed by 175 furious with Greenpeace 168 Gazprom congratulated by 339–40 in KGB 174–5 McCartney’s letter to 199–200 Naidoo’s draft letter to 186–9 Nobel laureates write to 199 and Pussy Riot 166 and Russia, Sixsmith’s take on 169–72, 345–6 and Russian economy 169–70 and Winter Olympics 172, 345–6 Putin’s Oil (Sixsmith) 169 Rainbow Warrior, The (film) 248 Rainbow Warrior (vessels) 15, 248, 341, 343 Red-haired Horse, The 238, 241 Remnick, David 96 Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai 93 Rogers, Iain 349 leaves Russia 335 Rondal, Fabien 136, 159–60 appointed to lead ground team 52 and Ball’s secreted memory card 163–4 camera memory card handed to 182 and prisoners’ letters 159, 160 Roosevelt, Franklin 90 Russell, Bertrand 93 Russell, Colin: bail applications of 296–9, 326–7; denied 299–300; granted 327 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 110 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 321 Russia: Amnesty Bill in 329–33 Arctic Sunrise occupied and towed by, see under Arctic Sunrise Bolshevik Revolution in 90 Committee for State Security (KGB) in 93, 95, 96, 174–5, 255–6 Dutch year of friendship with 50 energy essential to 169–70, 175 Federal Security Bureau (FSB) in 50, 55, 121, 147, 239–40, 291; drugs-find claim of 189–93; Litvinov interviewed by 207–11, 252–5; and possible raid on Greenpeace office 185–6; Putin appointed to head 175; suspected false intelligence from 168 Germany turns on 91 Investigative Committee in 56, 147, 185, 252 and ITLOS, see International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Kresty jail in, see SIZO-1, St Petersburg Murmansk SIZO-1 isolation jail in, see SIZO-1 isolation jail, Murmansk Prague entered by tanks of 94 protest against, over Czechoslovakia invasion, see Litvinov, Pavel and Putin, Sixsmith’s take on 169–72, 345–6 seabed flag of 129, 170, 176 state capitalism in 176 and WikiLeaks cables 129 Winter Olympics in 172, 331, 345 Russian Social Democratic Labour Party 89 Saarela, Sini: aboard Ladoga 26–7, 42 abuse directed at 341 and Amnesty Bill 330 appeal of 183 Arctic connection felt by 42 back on Arctic Sunrise 42–3 bail application of 305, 307–8; granted 308 banner demands release of 30 celebrity status of 341 described 13–14 early campaigning of 42 initial interrogation of 57 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 leaves Russia 336–7 letters to 160–1 and Mikhail Ulyanov 339–41, 347–8 postponement of hearing concerning 67–8 Prirazlomnaya platform climbed before by 14, 130 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 313–15 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 117, 157–8; and letter to ground team 183–4; letters smuggled to 160–1; open letter from 177; and surplus potatoes 157–8, 161, 177–9, 201, 218–19, 323 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 282, 283, 291–2, 299–300 Willcox’s reunion with 319 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Sadri, James 50 Sami people 42 Sasha (inmate) 243–4 Sauven, John 127–8, 165–7, 199 Scaroni, Paolo 199 Schmidt, Andreas 132 Scofield, Paul 93 Seeger, Pete 247 Selma 245–6 Sergei (inmate) 111 Shell 131–2 Simons, Daniel 50, 133–4 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 192 as ITLOS witness 260–1 leaves Russia 185 legal team recruited by 133 secret police harass 133–4 Sinyakov, Denis 35, 343 and Amnesty Bill 331–2, 343 appeal of 183 bail granted to 303 jail sentence pronounced on 64 letter from former cellmate of 345 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 143–4 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 295 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Sixsmith, Martin 168–72, 174, 345–6 SIZO-1, Murmansk: activists’ arrival at 68–9 activists leave 268–70 activists’ time in, see individual activists/crew black and red zones if 104 boss cells in 101, 103, 105 deep searches in 225–6 ‘Don’t Trust Don’t Fear Don’t Beg’ motto of 108 gay men in 106 Hewetson’s ‘review’ of 220–2 letters smuggled to and from prisoners in 159–61 library in 143–4 prisoners still fighting regime in 345 rope network (doroga) in 5–10, 75, 85, 99, 102, 103–4, 112–15, 123 routine in 85 surviving, crash course in 102–7 women’s tapping code in 84, 117, 144–5, 204 women’s zone in 107–8 ‘woollen’ cells in 76–7 SIZO-1, St Petersburg (Kresty), see individual activists/crew: activists’ arrival at 278–9 described 276 escapes from 277–8 SIZO-4, St Petersburg: activists’ arrival at 279 officials’ tour of 286 SIZO-5, St Petersburg: activists’ arrival at 279 officials’ tour of 285–6 Slaiby, Pete 138 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr 88, 92–3, 143–4, 277, 343 banned works of 93 Speziale, Camila: and Amnesty Bill 332 bail application of 305, 307 cell of 70–1 father’s letter to 271 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 onboard detente orchestrated by 47 platform pod occupied by 16 previous work of 118 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 313–14 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 68–71, 78, 84, 117–18, 203–4; Harris’s tapping code with 84, 145, 204; and T-shirt gift from family 162 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 292 Willcox’s reunion with 319 Stalin, Joseph 89–90, 91, 97, 244 Stepan (inmate) 74–5, 79 Stolypin, Pyotr 258 Stravinsky, Igor 93 Suchkov, Andrey 288 Sunday Times 274 Suu Kyi, Aung San 199 Suzie Q (RHIB) 22–3 Teulings, Jasper 50, 136, 260–1, 322 Trotsky, Leon 89 (See also Lev Broshtein) Tsyplenkov, Sergey 185 Turner, James 130 Tutu, Desmond 198 Ukraine 343 Under the Green Roof 87 Vasilieva, Tatiana 189, 194 Vasily (inmate) 279–80, 288, 309 Vettel, Sebastian 160 Vitaly (inmate) 101–3, 104–8, 109–10, 179, 229, 241, 269 Voight, Jon 248 Wałęsa, Lech 199 Wallace, George 245 Weber, Kruso: aboard Ladoga 26, 42 appeal of 180–1 back on Arctic Sunrise 42–3 banner demands release of 30 leaves Russia 336–7 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 263 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew WikiLeaks 129 Willcox, Elsie 244–5 Willcox, Henry 244 Willcox, Maggy 247, 249, 343 Willcox, Pete: bail granted to 312–13 birth and early life of 244–7; and trip to USSR 246–7 captains Seeger’s boat 247 commandos and coastguard officers faced by 15 described 14 diary entries of: in SIZO-1, Murmansk 243–4, 249–50, 263, 265; in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 281, 285, 295–6, 301, 305, 312–13 earlier arrests of 248 first Greenpeace captaincy of 247 first protest of 245–6 home return of 343 marriages of 249 and Mikhail Ulyanov 341 piracy charges against 247 portrayed in Rainbow Warrior movie 248 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew Rainbow Warrior captained by 15, 248 release of, on bail 319 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise self-questioning by 313 in SIZO-1, Murmansk, diary entries of 243–4, 249–50, 263, 265 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 312–13; diary entries of 281, 285, 295–6, 302, 305, 312–13 strip-searched and fingerprinted 60 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Willcox, Roger 244, 246 Winter Olympics 172, 331, 345 Yakushev, Ruslan 30 Yeltsin, Boris 175, 278 Yuri (inmate) 7, 10, 109, 112–15, 142, 148, 194–5, 203, 206, 207, 252, 267–8, 269 charges against 6 Zaspa, Dr Katya 134 bail application of 302–3; granted 303 Publishing in the Public Interest Thank you for reading this book published by The New Press.

Dominique 248 Prirazlomnaya platform: Arctic 30 operation against, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew Arctic Sunrise observes 11–12 history of 132 previous Greenpeace assault on 14, 130 Putin’s video link with 339–40 Pussy Riot 56, 64, 87, 166, 171–2, 343 and Amnesty Bill 329, 331 Putin, Vladimir 166–71, 172–6 passim and Amnesty Bill 330–1 Arctic 30’s case spoken of by 63, 330–1 becomes President 175 becomes Prime Minister 175 blueprint for rule of 175–6 childhood of 174 demonstrations after inauguration of 171 FSB headed by 175 furious with Greenpeace 168 Gazprom congratulated by 339–40 in KGB 174–5 McCartney’s letter to 199–200 Naidoo’s draft letter to 186–9 Nobel laureates write to 199 and Pussy Riot 166 and Russia, Sixsmith’s take on 169–72, 345–6 and Russian economy 169–70 and Winter Olympics 172, 345–6 Putin’s Oil (Sixsmith) 169 Rainbow Warrior, The (film) 248 Rainbow Warrior (vessels) 15, 248, 341, 343 Red-haired Horse, The 238, 241 Remnick, David 96 Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai 93 Rogers, Iain 349 leaves Russia 335 Rondal, Fabien 136, 159–60 appointed to lead ground team 52 and Ball’s secreted memory card 163–4 camera memory card handed to 182 and prisoners’ letters 159, 160 Roosevelt, Franklin 90 Russell, Bertrand 93 Russell, Colin: bail applications of 296–9, 326–7; denied 299–300; granted 327 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 110 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 321 Russia: Amnesty Bill in 329–33 Arctic Sunrise occupied and towed by, see under Arctic Sunrise Bolshevik Revolution in 90 Committee for State Security (KGB) in 93, 95, 96, 174–5, 255–6 Dutch year of friendship with 50 energy essential to 169–70, 175 Federal Security Bureau (FSB) in 50, 55, 121, 147, 239–40, 291; drugs-find claim of 189–93; Litvinov interviewed by 207–11, 252–5; and possible raid on Greenpeace office 185–6; Putin appointed to head 175; suspected false intelligence from 168 Germany turns on 91 Investigative Committee in 56, 147, 185, 252 and ITLOS, see International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Kresty jail in, see SIZO-1, St Petersburg Murmansk SIZO-1 isolation jail in, see SIZO-1 isolation jail, Murmansk Prague entered by tanks of 94 protest against, over Czechoslovakia invasion, see Litvinov, Pavel and Putin, Sixsmith’s take on 169–72, 345–6 seabed flag of 129, 170, 176 state capitalism in 176 and WikiLeaks cables 129 Winter Olympics in 172, 331, 345 Russian Social Democratic Labour Party 89 Saarela, Sini: aboard Ladoga 26–7, 42 abuse directed at 341 and Amnesty Bill 330 appeal of 183 Arctic connection felt by 42 back on Arctic Sunrise 42–3 bail application of 305, 307–8; granted 308 banner demands release of 30 celebrity status of 341 described 13–14 early campaigning of 42 initial interrogation of 57 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 leaves Russia 336–7 letters to 160–1 and Mikhail Ulyanov 339–41, 347–8 postponement of hearing concerning 67–8 Prirazlomnaya platform climbed before by 14, 130 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 313–15 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 117, 157–8; and letter to ground team 183–4; letters smuggled to 160–1; open letter from 177; and surplus potatoes 157–8, 161, 177–9, 201, 218–19, 323 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 282, 283, 291–2, 299–300 Willcox’s reunion with 319 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Sadri, James 50 Sami people 42 Sasha (inmate) 243–4 Sauven, John 127–8, 165–7, 199 Scaroni, Paolo 199 Schmidt, Andreas 132 Scofield, Paul 93 Seeger, Pete 247 Selma 245–6 Sergei (inmate) 111 Shell 131–2 Simons, Daniel 50, 133–4 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 192 as ITLOS witness 260–1 leaves Russia 185 legal team recruited by 133 secret police harass 133–4 Sinyakov, Denis 35, 343 and Amnesty Bill 331–2, 343 appeal of 183 bail granted to 303 jail sentence pronounced on 64 letter from former cellmate of 345 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 143–4 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 295 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Sixsmith, Martin 168–72, 174, 345–6 SIZO-1, Murmansk: activists’ arrival at 68–9 activists leave 268–70 activists’ time in, see individual activists/crew black and red zones if 104 boss cells in 101, 103, 105 deep searches in 225–6 ‘Don’t Trust Don’t Fear Don’t Beg’ motto of 108 gay men in 106 Hewetson’s ‘review’ of 220–2 letters smuggled to and from prisoners in 159–61 library in 143–4 prisoners still fighting regime in 345 rope network (doroga) in 5–10, 75, 85, 99, 102, 103–4, 112–15, 123 routine in 85 surviving, crash course in 102–7 women’s tapping code in 84, 117, 144–5, 204 women’s zone in 107–8 ‘woollen’ cells in 76–7 SIZO-1, St Petersburg (Kresty), see individual activists/crew: activists’ arrival at 278–9 described 276 escapes from 277–8 SIZO-4, St Petersburg: activists’ arrival at 279 officials’ tour of 286 SIZO-5, St Petersburg: activists’ arrival at 279 officials’ tour of 285–6 Slaiby, Pete 138 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr 88, 92–3, 143–4, 277, 343 banned works of 93 Speziale, Camila: and Amnesty Bill 332 bail application of 305, 307 cell of 70–1 father’s letter to 271 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 onboard detente orchestrated by 47 platform pod occupied by 16 previous work of 118 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 313–14 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 68–71, 78, 84, 117–18, 203–4; Harris’s tapping code with 84, 145, 204; and T-shirt gift from family 162 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 292 Willcox’s reunion with 319 Stalin, Joseph 89–90, 91, 97, 244 Stepan (inmate) 74–5, 79 Stolypin, Pyotr 258 Stravinsky, Igor 93 Suchkov, Andrey 288 Sunday Times 274 Suu Kyi, Aung San 199 Suzie Q (RHIB) 22–3 Teulings, Jasper 50, 136, 260–1, 322 Trotsky, Leon 89 (See also Lev Broshtein) Tsyplenkov, Sergey 185 Turner, James 130 Tutu, Desmond 198 Ukraine 343 Under the Green Roof 87 Vasilieva, Tatiana 189, 194 Vasily (inmate) 279–80, 288, 309 Vettel, Sebastian 160 Vitaly (inmate) 101–3, 104–8, 109–10, 179, 229, 241, 269 Voight, Jon 248 Wałęsa, Lech 199 Wallace, George 245 Weber, Kruso: aboard Ladoga 26, 42 appeal of 180–1 back on Arctic Sunrise 42–3 banner demands release of 30 leaves Russia 336–7 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 263 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew WikiLeaks 129 Willcox, Elsie 244–5 Willcox, Henry 244 Willcox, Maggy 247, 249, 343 Willcox, Pete: bail granted to 312–13 birth and early life of 244–7; and trip to USSR 246–7 captains Seeger’s boat 247 commandos and coastguard officers faced by 15 described 14 diary entries of: in SIZO-1, Murmansk 243–4, 249–50, 263, 265; in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 281, 285, 295–6, 301, 305, 312–13 earlier arrests of 248 first Greenpeace captaincy of 247 first protest of 245–6 home return of 343 marriages of 249 and Mikhail Ulyanov 341 piracy charges against 247 portrayed in Rainbow Warrior movie 248 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew Rainbow Warrior captained by 15, 248 release of, on bail 319 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise self-questioning by 313 in SIZO-1, Murmansk, diary entries of 243–4, 249–50, 263, 265 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 312–13; diary entries of 281, 285, 295–6, 302, 305, 312–13 strip-searched and fingerprinted 60 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Willcox, Roger 244, 246 Winter Olympics 172, 331, 345 Yakushev, Ruslan 30 Yeltsin, Boris 175, 278 Yuri (inmate) 7, 10, 109, 112–15, 142, 148, 194–5, 203, 206, 207, 252, 267–8, 269 charges against 6 Zaspa, Dr Katya 134 bail application of 302–3; granted 303 Publishing in the Public Interest Thank you for reading this book published by The New Press.


pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

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access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

I felt the same kind of exhilaration I felt at that time: suddenly, everything appeared to be possible; the world was not necessarily doomed to political cynicism and bureaucratic enforcement of absurd ways of life. The symptoms of a new revolutionary era, an age of revolutions aimed at exploring the meaning of life rather than seizing the state, were apparent everywhere, from Iceland to Tunisia, from WikiLeaks to Anonymous, and, soon, from Athens to Madrid to New York. The crisis of global financial capitalism was not necessarily a dead end – it could even signal a new beginning in unexpected ways. Throughout 2011 I began to collect information on these new social movements, discussed my findings with my students at the University of Southern California, and then gave some lectures to communicate my preliminary thoughts at Northwestern University, at the College d’Etudes Mondiales in Paris, at the Oxford Internet Institute, at Barcelona’s Seminar on Communication and Civil Society in the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, and at the London School of Economics.

They debated everything – rejecting a rotten government, calling for true democracy, asking for a new electoral regime, defending the rights of the regions against centralism – but also asked for jobs, as a large proportion of the young demonstrators were unemployed and requesting better education. They were outraged by the control of both politics and the economy by the clan of the Trabelsi, the family of the second wife of Ben Ali, whose crooked deals had been exposed in the diplomatic cables revealed by WikiLeaks. They also discussed the role of Islam in providing a moral guide against corruption and abuse. Yet, this was not an Islamic movement, in spite of the presence of a strong Islamist current among the protesters, for the simple reason that there is widespread influence of political Islamism in the Tunisian society. But secularism and Islamism coexisted in the movement without major tensions. Indeed, in terms of the community of reference, this was a national Tunisian movement that used the national flag and sang the national anthem as a rallying cry, claiming the legitimacy of the nation against the appropriation of the nation by an illegitimate political regime backed by the former colonial powers, particularly France and the United States.

Also, new Facebook facial recognition software can automatically tag people in photographs, and this was resented, given the lack of trust in that Facebook will not protect privacy if subpoenaed by authorities. Therefore, some skilled occupiers were trying to use alternatives to Facebook, such as N-1, Ning or Diaspora. Others engaged in working on an “Occupy Facebook” called Global Square, widely publicized by WikiLeaks. A functional prototype was supposed to be available sometime in 2012. In the words of the developers: The aim of the platform should not be to replace the physical assemblies but rather to empower them by providing the online tools for local and (trans)national organization and collaboration. The ideal would be both to foster individual participation and to structure collective action. The Global Square will be our own public space where different groups can come together to organize their local squares and assemblies.8 However, overall, the movement relied mainly on commercially available platforms that were ready to be used.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

THE MUASHER DOCTRINE Support for democracy is the province of ideologists and propagandists. In the real world, elite dislike of democracy is the norm. The evidence is overwhelming that democracy is supported only insofar as it contributes to social and economic objectives, a conclusion reluctantly conceded by the more serious scholarship. Elite contempt for democracy was revealed dramatically in the reaction to the WikiLeaks exposures. Those that received the most attention, with euphoric commentary, were cables reporting that Arabs support the U.S. stand on Iran. The reference was to the ruling dictators of Arab nations; the attitude of the public went unmentioned. The operative principle was described by Marwan Muasher, former Jordanian official and later director of Middle East research for the Carnegie Endowment: “The traditional argument put forward in and out of the Arab world is that there is nothing wrong, everything is under control.

The wording was unambiguous: “NATO welcomes Ukraine’s and Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic aspirations for membership in NATO. We agreed today that these countries will become members of NATO.” With the “Orange Revolution” victory of pro-Western candidates in Ukraine in 2004, State Department representative Daniel Fried rushed there and “emphasized U.S. support for Ukraine’s NATO and Euro-Atlantic aspirations,” as a WikiLeaks report revealed.17 Russia’s concerns are easily understandable. They are outlined by international relations scholar John Mearsheimer in the leading U.S. establishment journal, Foreign Affairs. He writes that “the taproot of the current crisis [over Ukaine] is NATO expansion and Washington’s commitment to move Ukraine out of Moscow’s orbit and integrate it into the West,” which Putin viewed as “a direct threat to Russia’s core interests.”

Supreme Court Universal Declaration on the Rights of Mother Earth Uruguay Uzbekistan Valls, Manuel Vane, Henry, the Younger Vatican II Vázquez Carrizosa, Alfredo Veblen, Thorstein Veil (Woodward) Venezuela Vietnam War Vincennes, USS (cruiser) Violent Politics (Polk) Visions of Freedom (Gleijeses) Voices From the Other Side (Bolender) Voices from the Plain of Jars (Branfman) voter apathy Waage, Hilde Henriksen Waal, Alex de wage labor wage stagnation Wahhabi-Salafi doctrines Walker, Scott Wall Street Journal Waltz, Kenneth Warburg, James Warde, Ibrahim Ware, Norman Warner, Geoffrey war on drugs war on terrorism Warren, Steve Warsaw Pact “War Scare Was for Real, The” (intelligence study) Washington, George Washington Post water, privatization of Watergate affair Wealth of Nations (Smith) Weisglass, Dov Weizman, Ezer West Africa West Bank westward expansion whistle-blowers Wieseltier, Leon WikiLeaks Williams, Roger Wilson, Woodrow Winthrop, John Wolf, Martin Wolfowitz, Paul women’s rights Wood, Gordon Woodward, Bob workers. See also labor movement; wage labor World Bank World People’s Conference on Climate Change World War I World War II Yarborough, William Yeltsin, Boris Yemen Yglesias, Matthew Yifrah, Shimon Yugoslavia Zarif, Javad Zarqawi, Abu Musab al- Zawahiri, Ayman al- Zelikow, Philip Zertal, Idith Zionism Zola, Émile Zughayer, Kemal ALSO BY NOAM CHOMSKY Hegemony or Survival Imperial Ambitions Failed States What We Say Goes Power Systems ABOUT THE AUTHOR NOAM CHOMSKY is the author of numerous best-selling political works, including Hegemony or Survival and Failed States.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

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1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

“Trade policy and rules actually drive climate change in a very structural way in respect of food systems,” Shrybman stressed in an interview.31 The habit of willfully erasing the climate crisis from trade agreements continues to this day: for instance, in early 2014, several negotiating documents for the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership, a controversial new NAFTA-style trade deal spanning twelve countries, were released to the public via WikiLeaks and the Peruvian human rights group RedGE. A draft of the environment chapter had contained language stating that countries “acknowledge climate change as a global concern that requires collective action and recognize the importance of implementation of their respective commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).” The language was vague and nonbinding, but at least it was a tool that governments could use to defend themselves should their climate policies be challenged in a trade tribunal, as Ontario’s plan was.

Speaking to the 1997 U.N. climate conference that adopted the Kyoto Protocol, Nauru’s then-president Kinza Clodumar described the collective claustrophobia that had gripped his country: “We are trapped, a wasteland at our back, and to our front a terrifying, rising flood of biblical proportions.”16 Few places on earth embody the suicidal results of building our economies on polluting extraction more graphically than Nauru. Thanks to its mining of phosphate, Nauru has spent the last century disappearing from the inside out; now, thanks to our collective mining of fossil fuels, it is disappearing from the outside in. In a 2007 cable about Nauru, made public by WikiLeaks, an unnamed U.S. official summed up his government’s analysis of what went wrong on the island: “Nauru simply spent extravagantly, never worrying about tomorrow.”17 Fair enough, but that diagnosis is hardly unique to Nauru; our entire culture is extravagantly drawing down finite resources, never worrying about tomorrow. For a couple of hundred years we have been telling ourselves that we can dig the midnight black remains of other life forms out of the bowels of the earth, burn them in massive quantities, and that the airborne particles and gases released into the atmosphere—because we can’t see them—will have no effect whatsoever.

Steven Shrybman, “Trade, Agriculture, and Climate Change: How Agricultural Trade Policies Fuel Climate Change,” Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, November 2000, p. 1. 31. Sonja J. Vermeulen, Bruce M. Campbell, and John S.I. Ingram, “Climate Change and Food Systems,” Annual Review of Environment 37 (2012): 195; personal email communication with Steven Shrybman, April 23, 2014. 32. “Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)—Environment Consolidated Text,” WikiLeaks, January 15, 2014, https://wikileaks.org; “Summary of U.S. Counterproposal to Consolidated Text of the Environment Chapter,” released by RedGE, February 17, 2014, http://www .redge.org.pe. 33. Traffic refers to containerized port traffic, measured by twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). From 1994 to 2013 global containerized port traffic increased from 128,320,326 to an estimated 627,930,960 TEUs, an increase of 389.4 percent: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, “Review of Maritime Transport,” various years, available at http://unctad.org.


pages: 229 words: 67,869

So You've Been Publicly Shamed by Jon Ronson

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4chan, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, Clive Stafford Smith, cognitive dissonance, Desert Island Discs, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, PageRank, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, urban planning, WikiLeaks

He’s spent his career representing anarchists and communists and squatter groups and Hamas, and now he was representing Mercedes. The crime she was accused of (and would later plead guilty to: she is awaiting sentencing as I write this) is that in November 2010 she and thirteen other 4chan users DDoSed PayPal as revenge for them refusing to accept donations to WikiLeaks. You could donate to the Ku Klux Klan via PayPal, but not to WikiLeaks. The FBI showed up at her Las Vegas apartment one morning at 6 a.m. ‘I answered the door and they said, “Mercedes, do you mind putting your pants on?” To be honest, being arrested is really fun. You get to troll the FBI, you get to wear fancy handcuffs, you get to pick the music in the car. But the indictment was boring. I napped through it.’ I spent a few hours with Mercedes.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

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Firefox, patent troll, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Chapter 14 – Books, Documents, and Fonts A sampling of books and documents that you can download: Academic textbooks and instructors’ solutions manuals Comic books and anime Computer source code Course notes and reports Dictionaries, thesauri, references, and usage books Fiction and nonfiction of many periods, genres, and languages Foreign-language instruction Knitting patterns Magazines Maps, atlases, and travel guides Musical scores and songbooks Programming, computer, and technical books Religious texts Screenplays and scripts Tests and test-preparation guides Training courses, tutorials, and seminars WikiLeaks archives PDF Files The most common format for books is Portable Document Format or PDF (.pdf). PDF is a fixed page-layout format, meaning that you can’t change a PDF file’s font, text size, page size, page numbers, margins, columns, gutters, or whitespace. PDF works best for highly formatted documents like magazines, brochures, and screenplays, or typographically complex works like technical manuals, design specifications, math books, academic texts, and music, architecture, and art books.


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

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Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Kabir, run by Arvind Kejriwal and Manish Sisodia, key figures in Team Anna, has received $400,000 from the Ford Foundation in the last three years.6 Among contributors to the India Against Corruption campaign there are Indian companies and foundations that own aluminum plants, build ports and Special Economic Zones (SEZs), run real estate businesses, and are closely connected to politicians who oversee financial empires that run into thousands of crores of rupees. Some of them are currently being investigated for corruption and other crimes. Why are they all so enthusiastic? Remember, the campaign for the Jan Lokpal Bill gathered steam around the same time as embarrassing revelations by Wiki­leaks and a series of scams, including the 2G spectrum scam, broke, in which major corporations, senior journalists, and government ministers and politicians from the Congress as well as the BJP seem to have colluded in various ways as hundreds of thousands of crores of rupees were being siphoned off from the public exchequer. For the first time in years, journalist-lobbyists were disgraced, and it seemed as if some major captains of Corporate India could actually end up in prison.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

These are now at risk, as a single, glaring, ominous statistic makes clear: In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the majority of American households made no economic gains at all. For the rest of the world, the stakes are just as high, perhaps even higher. Consider a list of some of the major events in world affairs at the end of 2010 and the beginning of 2011. In November 2010, a website called WikiLeaks began releasing more than 250,000 classified diplomatic cables of the American government, some of them embarrassing to it and to the governments of other countries, cables that had apparently been supplied by a single low-ranking member of the American armed forces who had obtained access to them. In December 2010, China went to extraordinary lengths to disrupt the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony for one of its citizens, Liu Xiaobo, a democracy advocate serving an eleven-year prison sentence for “inciting subversion of state power.”

We are going through a period of history with a very high VUCA rating. The world is turbulent because it has multiple sources of turbulence: bullying governments, such as China’s; repressed and angry societies, such as those in the Arab world; the forces of nature, which are, as ever, powerful and unpredictable, as the devastation in Japan reminded us; and lone individuals, such as the source of the WikiLeaks cables, empowered—indeed super-empowered—by two of the defining trends of our era: globalization and the IT revolution. In this unstable world, the United States stands out as both a beacon and a supplier of stability. Americans sometimes underestimate the importance, and the value, of American power for other countries. (It doesn’t help that other countries are not routinely lavish, or even public, in their appreciation for what the United States does in the world, even when they do appreciate it.)

.; high-speed train from New York to; public school system; snowy winters in; terrorist attack on, see September 11, 2001; transit system in Washington, George Washington magazine Washington Post Washington Wizards basketball team Watergate scandal Waterloo, Battle of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill Weekly Standard Weingarten, Randi Welles, Orson Wellington, Duke of West Alabama Chamber of Commerce Whalen, Bill Whig Party Whitney, Meredith Whole New Mind, A (Pink) Wichita (Kansas) Wiki WikiLeaks Wikipedia Wilde, Oscar Williams, Tennessee Williams College Wilmington (Delaware) Wilson, Woodrow wind power Winklevoss, Cameron and Tyler Wired magazine Wisconsin Wisconsin, University of World Bank World Economic Forum (Tianjin, China; 2010) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World Series World Trade Center, terrorist attack on, see September 11, 2001 World War I World War II; African American aviators in; economy during; scientific research during; veterans of World Wide Web WTOP radio station X Xi’an (China) Xu, Kevin Young Y Yale–New Haven Teachers Institute Yale University; Law School; School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Ye, Lynnelle Lin Yemen Yeung, Angela Yu-Yun Ying, Lori YouTube Z Zellweger, Renée Zhang Huamei Zhao, Alice Wei Zhou, Linda Zimbabwe Zuckerberg, Mark Zynga A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHORS Thomas L.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

* * * Among the close-knit cryptography community invited to review Nakamoto’s work were members of the Cypherpunk movement, a loose association of tech-minded activists who had first gained notoriety in the 1990s with their efforts to use cryptographic privacy tools to force radical political and cultural change. This effort bore some fruit: transparency crusader Julian Assange and his activist publishing organization, WikiLeaks, grew out of this movement. To the Cypherpunks, the idea of an anonymous digital cash system was nothing new. It had been one of their first big ideas, but no one had yet turned it into something viable. Several had attempted to build digital cash systems, one had even got tantalizingly close, but ultimately no system had reached any kind of critical mass, and the cause had fizzled out. At first glance, bitcoin seemed similar to its predecessors.

One product they developed was the Cypherpunk version of an anonymous message remailer, which hid the identity of a person sending an e-mail and prevented the recipient from replying to it, all in the name of stopping governments or corporations from snooping on people’s daily communications. Other products had more subversive objectives—for example, May’s audacious BlackNet project, a precursor to WikiLeaks, which solicited secret information with the promise of encryption and payments in untraceable digital money. A few products were downright scary. Jim Bell, who like May was formerly employed by Intel, proposed an anonymous market for assassinations. The idea was that people could anonymously contribute to a bounty that they would pay to have a particular influential person killed, the assumption being that the market would put a greater price on the heads of those most egregiously abusing a position of authority.

Gox and trust industries Turing Festival 20Mission Twitter Uber U-Haul Ulbricht, Ross Ultimate Frisbee unbanked people Unenumerated Unfair Trade, The (Casey) UnionPay Union Square Partners United Kingdom Utah utilities value: of bitcoins of coins of cryptocurrencies of dollar of gold intrinsic of money van der Laan, Wladimir Vaurum venture capitalists (VCs) Ver, Roger Verisign Verizon Vessenes, Peter VHS Virgin Group VirtEx Visa Vodafone Volabit Volcker, Paul Voltaire Voorhees, Erik voting Wall Street Wall Street Journal Walmart Washington State wealth bitcoin and Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) Web Designs WeChat Wedbush Securities Weill, Sanford Wei Dai Weimar Republic welfare state Wells Fargo Western Union Whelan, Jason Whelan, John WikiLeaks Wikipedia Willard, Rik William III, King Williams, Mark T. Wilson, Cody Wilson, Fred Winklevoss, Cameron and Tyler Wise, Josh Women’s Annex Wood, Gavin work World Bank Wright, Frank Lloyd Wuille, Pieter Xapo XIPH Foundation Xpert Financial XRP Y2K threat Yahoo Yang, Jerry Yap Y Combinator Yellen, Janet Yermack, David YouTube YTCracker Yunus, Muhammad ZeroBlock Zhang, Ng Zimbabwe Zimmerman, Phil Zobro, Jonathan Zoosk Zuckerberg, Mark Zug Also by Michael J.


pages: 402 words: 129,876

Bad Pharma: How Medicine Is Broken, and How We Can Fix It by Ben Goldacre

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data acquisition, framing effect, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income per capita, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Simon Singh, WikiLeaks

Thomas Smith – American Bar Association Health eSource October 2008 Volume 5 Number 2 [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/aba_healt h_esource_home/Volume5_02_smith.html 22 WikiLeaks cables: Pfizer ‘used dirty tricks to avoid clinical trial payout’ – Business – The Guardian [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/09/wikileaks-cables-pfizer-nigeria 23 US embassy cable Monday 20 April 2009, 16:00, Abuja 000671 ‘Pfizer reaches preliminary agreement for $75m settlement’ [cited 2012 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/203205 24 WikiLeaks cables: Pfizer ‘used dirty tricks to avoid clinical trial payout’ – Business – The Guardian [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/09/wikileaks-cables-pfizer-nigeria 25 Jonathan Kimmelman, Charles Weijer, and Eric M Meslin, ‘Helsinki discords: FDA, ethics, and international drug trials,’ The Lancet 373, no. 9657 (January 3, 2009): 13–14. 26 Goodyear MDE, Lemmens T, Sprumont D, Tangwa G.

This all took place in 1996, and was the inspiration for John le Carré’s novel The Constant Gardener. You may think 1996 was a long time ago, but the facts in these matters are always on a delay, and in contentious or litigated issues the truth can move very slowly. In fact, Pfizer only settled the case out of court in 2009, and several disturbing new elements of what is clearly an ongoing saga emerged in the WikiLeaks diplomatic cables made public in 2010.22 One US diplomatic cable describes a meeting in April 2009 between Pfizer’s country manager and US officials at the American embassy in Abuja, where smears of a Nigerian official involved in the litigation are casually discussed. According to [Pfizer’s country manager], Pfizer had hired investigators to uncover corruption links to Federal Attorney General Michael Aondoakaa to expose him and put pressure on him to drop the federal cases.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

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additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

Kenyan lawyer Ory Okolloh and a blogger called “M” launched a watchdog site in 2006 on Kenya’s corrupt political scene. 34 Iranian-American Kelly Golnoush Niknejad started TehranBureau.com to gather and spread news directly from fellow Iranians during the popular uprising after the 2009 presidential elections, with foreign journalists banned from the country. 35 Sami Ben Gharbia, a blogger and civil society activist, helped incite anti-regime demonstrations in Tunisia by using his group blog to spread devastating tales of corruption contained in the US diplomatic cables released through WikiLeaks. These new actors are enriching the scope of political discourse around the world. They operate outside the channels and beyond the control of traditional political organizations, both government- and party-related. They are ubiquitous and, when facing repression, they can also be highly elusive. But technology is simply the tool. The bigger picture is a cascading diffusion of power that has put individuals in an unprecedented position not only to bypass political institutions developed over decades but also to influence, persuade, or constrain “real” politicians more directly and more effectively than any classical political theorist could have imagined.

The bigger picture is a cascading diffusion of power that has put individuals in an unprecedented position not only to bypass political institutions developed over decades but also to influence, persuade, or constrain “real” politicians more directly and more effectively than any classical political theorist could have imagined. HEDGE FUNDS AND HACKTIVISTS Left in a room together, John Paulson and Julian Assange might soon be at each other’s throats. Paulson runs Paulson & Co, one of the world’s largest hedge funds. Assange is the founder of WikiLeaks, the Web-based organization that specializes in divulging the secret information of governments and corporations. And yet they have one very significant thing in common: both symbolize a new breed of actors who are transforming national politics by limiting the power of governments. With their ability to move billions of dollars at the speed of light away from a country 92 whose economic policies they distrust, hedge funds are just one of the many financial institutions whose decisions constrain the power of governments.

After World War II even more impressive creatures, the superpowers, came to perch on top of this group. And the dawn of the twenty-first century, with the Soviet Union consigned to the history books, found just one player paramount: the sole superpower, the hegemon, the United States. For the first time in history, many argued, the struggle for power among nations had produced one single, clear, and maybe even final winner. Consider the evidence from WikiLeaks, which released a trove of more than 250,000 US diplomatic cables that, as the organization’s leader Julian Assange luridly put it, “show the extent of U.S. spying on its allies and the UN; turning a blind eye to corruption and human rights abuse in ‘client states’; backroom deals with supposedly neutral countries; lobbying for U.S. corporations; and the measures U.S. diplomats take to advance those who have access to them.”3 The reaction of experienced analysts such as Jessica Mathews, the president of the Carnegie Endowment in Washington, is that this is not a surprise: “This is precisely what hegemony has always been.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Certainly online eyes remain much less valuable than offline ones, with average advertising rates of the printed edition of a major newspaper being around ten times its online cost.36 The same is true of the value of offline versus online readers, with the Newspaper Association of America estimating that the average print reader is worth around $539 versus the $26 value of the online reader.37 And free certainly isn’t working as an economic model for online newspapers. Take, for example, the world’s third most frequently visited news website, the London Guardian. In spite of breaking the News of the World phone hacking scandal and the Edward Snowden and WikiLeaks stories, the Guardian has reported operating losses of more than £100 million since 2010, with a stunning £50 million lost just between 2012 and 2013.38 No wonder the Guardian is experimenting with a robot-generated print edition called #Open001, which replaces editors with algorithms to select relevant stories for publication.39 But robots can’t write the kind of high-quality journalism that distinguishes the Guardian from most of its rivals.

Mielke amassed personal data with the same relentlessness that Google’s Street View car collected the emails, photos, and passwords of online German citizens between 2008 and 2010—a privacy breach that Johannes Caspar, the German regulator in charge of the investigation into Google’s behavior, described as “one of the biggest data-protection rules violations known.”8 But, as a violator of our online data, Google faces stiff competition from its rival Facebook. TechCrunch’s Natasha Lomas suggests that Facebook’s “creepy data-grabbing ways,” such as the 2013 harvesting of the personal contact information of 6 million of its users, or that secret 2012 study to control the emotions of 689,000 of its users,9 make it the “Borg of the digital world.”10 WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who knows a thing or two about spying himself, even accuses Facebook of being the “greatest spying machine the world has ever seen.”11 So is Facebook really the greatest spying machine in world history—greater than either the Stasi, the CIA, or Google? Citing Google’s Street View car privacy violations, the German privacy regulator Johannes Caspar might doubt Assange’s assertion, as probably would privacy watchdogs in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy who collectively told Google in the summer of 2013 that the company would face legal sanctions unless it changed its 2012 policy of unifying personal data collected from all its different services.12 Others would also award this dubious honor to Google.


pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

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air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks

A green pin meant an AMS-IX location, red showed private carrier-owned buildings, and blue indicated a data center that had fallen out of use. If I zoomed out to the scale of the country as a whole, the pins blanketed the screen, all leaning in the same direction, like windmills. It struck me as a startling example of the Netherlands’s transparency: here, pulled together in one place on the open web, was the same information that WikiLeaks had deemed sensitive enough to bother leaking. And yet nobody seemed to care. The map had been there for two years already, apparently unmolested. It also clarified a broader point that I’d been circling for months. It showed the Internet’s small-scale geography, with the data centers clustered into defined Internet neighborhoods, like the industrial parks surrounding Schiphol Airport, the “Zuidoost” just southeast of the city center, and the academic area known as Science Park Amsterdam.

See also MAE-East undersea cables AC-1, 202–3, 216–17, 218 and connecting to unconnected places, 197–98 globalization and, 193, 197 as important to Internet, 9 as invisible, 194 latency of, 198–99 location of, 194 Main One, 218 maps of, 14, 16–17 Porthcurno and, 202–16 Portugal and, 191–92, 194, 217–26, 267 SAT-3, 191–92, 197 SEACOM, 192, 197 at 60 Hudson Street (New York City), 174 South Africa and, 191–93, 197 South Asia and, 196 of Tata Communications, 194–202, 218–26 WACS, 218–26 See also specific landing station or hub United Arab Emirates, 197 universities history of Internet and, 43–49, 51, 52, 53 See also specific institution University of California—Los Angeles (UCLA): history of Internet and, 36, 39–49, 51 University of California—Santa Barbara, 43 University College London, 50, 52 University of Karlsruhe, 137 University of Minnesota, 110 University of Pennsylvania, 52 University of Utah, 43 Up in the Air (Kirn), 38 UUNet, 56, 59, 60 Verizon, 19, 79, 86, 98, 102, 110, 121, 151, 152, 165, 166, 196 Vienna, Virginia: peering and, 128 Vietnam, 201 Virginia data storage in, 230 See also Ashburn, Virginia Voldemort Industries, 242, 243 Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker, 172 WACS (West Africa Cable System), 218–26 Washington, D.C. expansion of Internet and, 50 fiber optic connections to, 26 history of Internet and, 50 structure of Internet and, 27 Western Union, 172–73 Westesson, Par, 159–62, 189 Westnet, 53 White, E. B., 70 WikiLeaks, 149 Wired.com, 106 Witteman, Job, 131–33, 134, 135, 145, 150, 154–56, 157 World War II, 12, 39, 204–5 Worldcom, 84 Wu, Tim, 54 Xbox games, 233 XEROX, 52 Xlink, 138 Yahoo, 57, 79, 120, 235, 250 Yellowstone Regional Internet Exchange (YRIX), 111 Young, Nolan, 235–36, 237, 238, 241, 242, 244, 253 YouTube, 30, 79, 108, 119, 122, 200, 240 Zuckerberg, Mark, 70, 267 About the Author ANDREW BLUM writes about architecture, infrastructure, and technology for many publications, including the New Yorker, the New York Times, BloombergBusinessweek, Slate, and Popular Science.


pages: 377 words: 110,427

The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz by Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig

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affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, deliberate practice, Donald Trump, failed state, fear of failure, Firefox, full employment, Howard Zinn, index card, invisible hand, John Gruber, Lean Startup, More Guns, Less Crime, post scarcity, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, semantic web, single-payer health, SpamAssassin, SPARQL, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, unbiased observer, wage slave, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor

You got the sense that, deep down, they didn’t even think the First Amendment applied when copyright was at issue, which means that if you did want to censor the Internet, if you wanted to come up with some way that the government could shut down access to particular websites, this bill might be the only way to do it. If it was about pornography, it probably would get overturned by courts, just like the adult bookstore case. But if you claimed it was about copyright, it might just sneak through. And that was especially terrifying, because, as you know, because copyright is everywhere. If you want to shut down WikiLeaks, it’s a bit of a stretch to claim that you’re doing it because they have too much pornography, but it’s not hard at all to claim that WikiLeaks is violating copyright, because everything is copyrighted. This speech, you know, the thing I’m giving right now, these words are copyrighted. And it’s so easy to accidentally copy something, so easy, in fact, that the leading Republican supporter of COICA, Orrin Hatch, had illegally copied a bunch of code into his own Senate website.


pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

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algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K

The next day, we learned how all this openness can be turned on its head, lending the explosive impact of jet liners and the population density of modern skyscrapers to a few guys armed with box cutters. That’s when the dream of a connected world revealed itself rather as the nightmare of a world vulnerable to network effects. Whether it’s a congressman losing his job over an errant Tweet, a State Department humiliated by the release of its cache of cables on WikiLeaks, or a corporation whose progressive consumers just learned their phones were assembled in Chinese sweatshops, connectedness has turned every glitch into a potentially mortal blow, every interactor into a potential slayer. It may seem glib to equate a terrorist attack with a public relations snafu, but from the perspective of the institutions now under seemingly perpetual assault, it is the same challenge: how can they better respond to the crises emerging seemingly from anywhere and everywhere, all the time?

But the zero-sum logic of game theory can still work, as long as it is actualized in a culture characterized by closedness. This is why corporations functioning in this fashion gain more power over laborers who are competing rather than unionizing; it’s why real estate agents can jack up prices more easily in a market where “comps” are not available; and it’s why a larger government can push around developing nations more easily when its cables aren’t being posted on the Internet by WikiLeaks. Less networking and transparency keeps everyone acting more selfishly, individualistically, and predictably. In the controlled information landscape, these strategies worked pretty well for a long time. A closed, top-down broadcast media gave marketers and public relations specialists a nation of individuals with whom to communicate. You, you’re the one—or so the commercials informed each of us.


pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

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1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

That was the stated rationale and reasoning for being in Afghanistan. It was to hunt down those responsible for 9/11.” Josh Stieber spoke at the end of the event. Stieber was deployed with the army to Iraq from February 2007 to April 2008. He was in Bravo Company 2-16 Infantry, which was involved in the July 2007 Apache helicopter attack on Iraqi civilians depicted on a controversial video released in April 2010 by WikiLeaks, an organization that publishes anonymous submissions of and commentary on sensitive government and corporate documents. Stieber, who left the army as a conscientious objector, has issued a public apology to the Iraqi people. “This was not by any means the exception,” he said of the video, which showed helicopter pilots nonchalantly gunning down civilians, including a Reuters photographer and children, in a Baghdad street:It is inevitable given the situation we were going through.

Conference of Catholic Bishops Van Agtmael, Peter Van Itallie, Jean-Claude Vietnam War and protest Violence Wall Street bailouts and Bell and communists manipulation and dishonesty on and Obama and World War I, Wallace, Graham Wallace, Henry Walling, William English Walzer, Michael War brutal and savage reality of and liberal class veterans See also Afghanistan war; Iraq war; Permanent war; World War I; World War II Warhol, Andy Warren, Earl Watergate Weather Underground Weavers Weber, Max Weisman, Fred Welfare Welles, Orson Wellstone, Paul West Bank White, Edward Douglas Whyte, William H. Wicker, Ireene Wieseltier, Leon WikiLeaks Wilson, Woodrow Winfrey, Oprah Wolin, Sheldon Women’s rights and equality Woods, Tiger Works Progress Administration (WPA) World War I, and conscription and crumbling of antiwar movement declaration of war end and aftermath of and end of liberal era and end of progressivism and industrial warfare and intellectuals and mass culture and mass propaganda and nationalism and repression of dissent World War II, Wright, Ann Wright, Ronald Yemen YouTube Yugoslavia Zuspann, Gary Zwally, Jay Nation Books New York www.nationbooks.org Copyright © 2010 by Chris Hedges Published by Nation Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group 116 East 16th Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10003 Nation Books is a co-publishing venture of the Nation Institute and the Perseus Books Group All rights reserved.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

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A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, complexity theory, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

But they weren’t connected to a global network with the potential to amplify their opinions and experiences to hurricane strength. And that little thing we call “linking” makes all the difference. Any dictator will tell you that in order to control the state, you must control the media. So ask yourself: who controls the media today? And which way are the trends heading? In February 2010, a nonprofit organization called WikiLeaks began releasing classified cables between the US State Department and its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world. It was the largest leak of classified material in the history of the world, and there was nothing the US government could do about it. Once information is released to a network, it can’t be pulled back. Wikileaks has demonstrated definitively that no secret, corporate or political, is safe for long.

(Gerstner), How IBM Rediscovered Customers, Top-Down, Leader-Driven Change Whole Foods Market, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams–Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, It Takes Trust to Build Relationships agile management and, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams–Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams Golden Rule and, It Takes Trust to Build Relationships WikiLeaks (organization), Power in the Network Wikipedia site, What is a Platform? Wladawsky-Berger, Irving, People First X Xerox (company), How Xerox Missed the PC Revolution, How Xerox Missed the PC Revolution, What Kinds of Companies have been Successful with a Podular Approach? Z Zale Jewelers, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams Zappos (company), Balancing the Front Stage and the Back Stage, Moral Authority Amazon and, Balancing the Front Stage and the Back Stage moral authority and, Moral Authority Appendix B.


pages: 103 words: 32,131

Program Or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age by Douglas Rushkoff

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banking crisis, big-box store, citizen journalism, cloud computing, East Village, financial innovation, Firefox, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, WikiLeaks

That’s because on the net, mythologies fall apart and facts rise to the surface. Many are dedicated to promoting this phenomenon. Technology sites sponsor contests to see who can reveal the inner workings of upcoming products before the manufacturers release them—much to the consternation of Silicon Valley CEOs and their marketing departments. Meanwhile, and much more significantly, sites like WikiLeaks and Memory Hole provide cover for activists with information they want to release to the public. Whether it’s damning transcripts from a corporation’s board meeting or the Afghan War policy documents of the Pentagon, the real facts now have a way to rise to the surface. We may hear what these institutions are saying to us, but now we also know what they actually did last summer. . . The beauty—and, for many, the horror—is that actions are even more memetic than words.

Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomksy

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British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The permanent eviction of the inhabitants of Diego Garcia (ca. 1973) to make way for US military operations is a continued issue of contention. Recent news of the UK government’s plan to create a marine protection area has further inflamed the issue; a leaked diplomatic cable confirmed suspicions it was a move to deny Chagossians the right of return: “BIOT’s former inhabitants would find it difficult, if not impossible, to pursue their claim for resettlement on the islands if the entire Chagos Archipelago were a marine reserve.” WikiLeaks, s.v. “Cable 09LONDON1156, HMG Floats Proposal for Marine Reserve Covering,” May 2009. On GPS and Kwajalein Atoll, see Vltchek, note 1, chap. 3. 56 In 2009 the Pentagon sent an “urgent operational need” funding request to Congress to fast-track the development and testing of the Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP), a thirty-thousand-pound bunker-busting bomb designed to hit underground targets.


pages: 684 words: 173,622

Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief by Lawrence Wright

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Albert Einstein, call centre, Columbine, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks

., p. xv. 23 “Operating Thetan”: What Is Scientology?, p. 167. 24 “neither Buddha nor Jesus”: Ability, unsigned, undated (probably 1958), issue 81, reprint of an editorial from Certainty, vol. 5, no. 10. 25 “Note several large”: WikiLeaks, “Church of Scientology Collected Operating Thetan Documents,” March 24, 2008, wikileaks.org/wiki/Church_of_Scientology_collected_​Operating_Thetan_documents; Revised Declaration of Hana Whitfield, Church of Scientology vs. Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz, US District Court, Central District of California, April 4, 1994. 26 “Laughter comes from the rear”: WikiLeaks, “Church of Scientology Collected Operating Thetan Documents,” March 24, 2008, wikileaks.org/wiki/Church_of_Scientology_​collected_Operating_Thetan_documents. 27 “The material involved”: Hubbard, “Ron’s Journal ’67,” taped lecture. 28 “parlor tricks”: Interview with Jefferson Hawkins. 29 “OT Phenomena”: Advance!

On the other hand, he had already paid for the complete package, so why not continue and see what happened? “Maybe there is something, and I’m missing it,” he told himself. When Haggis reached OT VII, which was the peak at the time, he still felt confused and unsatisfied. At the top of the OT pyramid, the thetan was promised the ability to control “thought, life, form, matter, energy, space and time, subjective and objective.” The final exercise (according to documents obtained by WikiLeaks—Haggis refused to talk about it) was “Go out to a park, train station or other busy area. Practice placing an intention into individuals until you can successfully and easily place an intention into or on a Being and/or a body.” But even if you could do that, how would you know if you succeeded? If you were transmitting the intention “Scratch your head” and a person did so, was he responding to your psychic order or was it simply coincidental?


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

Proper redress mechanisms could allow the centers to drop from surveillance a theater critic who frequently judges certain plays to be a “bomb.”54 That kind of confusion may sound absurd, but remember that computer search functionalities are “dumb” in important ways. As programmer/philosopher David Auerbach has observed: The government may be further behind than we think; FBI director Robert Mueller admitted in the 9/11 hearings that FBI databases only searched one word at a time: “flight” or “school” but not “fl ight school.” More recently, the cables released by 160 THE BLACK BOX SOCIETY WikiLeaks at the end of 2010 each contain a handful of tags, à la Twitter. The CBC observed that one cable discussing Canada was tagged “CN” rather than “CA,” designating Comoros instead of Canada, and a few cables were tagged with the nonexistent tag “CAN.” It’s safe to assume that these tags were also assigned manually. The haphazardness and errors of government intelligence are not reassuring for national security, but neither are they reassuring for privacy mavens.

(MERS), 120 Mozilo, Angelo, 111 Mueller, Robert, 48, 159 Murdoch, Iris, 89 310 INDEX National Environmental Policy Act, 12 National Security Agency (NSA), 20, 42, 43, 47, 51, 56, 123, 154, 156; corporate, 184–185; and fusion center surveillance, 183; and Google, 49–50; and Obama administration, 155, and Snowden affair, 50, 157 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations (NRSROs), 109 Neighborhood Economic Development Advocacy Project, 41 New Deal, 11, 98– 99, 137 New Economics Foundation, 200 New York Stock Exchange, 43–44 Newman, Nathan, 40 NINJA loans, 108 Nissenbaum, Helen, 53, 160 Obama administration, 13, 132, 152, 155, 170; Foreclosure Fraud Task Force, 178–179 Obama, President Barack, 74, 178 obfuscation, 6–7, 9, 14, 53, 103, 134, 138 Occupy Wall Street, 44, 76, 186 Office of Financial Research, 182 O’Neil, Cathy, 153 opacity, 7; fi nance concerns, 102–103, 115, 135; proposals for legal reform, 174–175; reputational concerns, 51, 57 Orwell, George, 17 Packer, George, 161 Page, Larry, 71, 81 Pariser, Eli, 79 Partnership for Civil Justice, 44 Partnoy, Frank, 7, 105, 122 pattern recognition, 15, 20, 28, 180 Patterson, Mark, 161 Paul, Ron, 48 personality tests, 36–37, 56 Peston, Robert, 122 Peterson, Christopher, 120 Philippon, Thomas, 200 Piketty, Thomas, 87 Plato, 190 political economy, 99–100, 216, 305–306 Poynter, Benjamin, 63 Prins, Nomi, 135 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, 158 Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 23 privacy, 3, 11, 23, 26, 142–143, 160–169; health, 26, 146–147, 151; laws of, 2, 21, 26, 146–147, 152, 157; online, 53–54, 56, 80– 81, 143–145, 184, 194, 197, 215; personal, 2–4, 16, 26, 53; policy, 49, 80, 143–144 profi ling: proposals for legal reform, 145–146, 160; reputational concerns, 20, 25, 28, 32, 37, 56 Progressive Era, 11, 13 Project on Government Oversight, 175 Publicity Act of 1910, 11 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 186 qualified transparency, 142, 160–161, 163 Rakoff, Jed, 172–174, 176 Ramirez, Edith, 40 Recorded Future, 34 red flag, 3, 20, 93 Rosenthal, Lawrence, 155 runaway data, 21, 26, 32 Safe Harbor Framework, 145 Sarbanes- Oxley Act (SOX), 112, 172 Savage, Dan, 72 Schmidt, Eric, 11, 19 Schwed, Fred, 135 scoring, 191, 208; fi nance concerns, 102, 138; proposals for legal reform, 140, 148, 152–153; reputational concerns, 21, 24–26, 34–35, 41; search concerns, 69 Securities Act of 1933, 11 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 207, 209; fi nance concerns, 109, 131; proposals for legal reform, 140, 162, 170, 174–175, 177, 178 Securities Exchange Act of 1934, 11 Shorrock, Tim, 50 Shteyngart, Gary, 190 Sinclair, Upton, 186–187 Snowden, Edward, 50, 51, 142 Solove, Daniel, 49 Special Operations Division (SOD), 47 Stark, David, 59 Stop Online Piracy Act, 203 Stout, Lynn, 133 Stross, Randall, 82 INDEX 311 subprime, 23, 41, 107, 109, 111, 115, 168, 181, 206 Sullivan, Danny, 70 Summers, Lawrence, 105 Sunlight Foundation, 10 super PAC, 11 Sweeney, Latanya, 39 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 156 Turbeville, Wallace, 200 Turow, Joseph, 33, 88 Twitter, 5, 7, 9, 14; proposals for legal reform, 160, 163; search concerns, 60, 66, 75, 76–78, 80 Taibbi, Matt, 135, 138 Taleb, Nassim, 134 Target, 28–29, 31, 53, 146, 148, 180 tax havens, 171 technolibertarianism, 196 Terhune, Chad, 27 terms of ser vice, 144 terrorism, 4, 21, 43–46, 48–49, 56–57, 155–156, 161, 183–186 Tett, Gillian, 137 too big to fail, 50, 133, 135, 141, 177–178, 201, 210 Torch Concepts, 49 Tourre, Fabrice, 122 trade secret, 2, 12, 14, 15, 29, 40, 51, 82, 83, 189, 193, 217 Transparency International, 10 transparency, 4, 8, 13, 16, 193, 209, 217; proposals for legal reform, 140, 142, 147, 157, 174–175, 187; qualified, 160–161, 163; reputational concerns, 21; search concerns, 61, 66, 69–70, 72, 78, 91 Vaidhyanathan, Siva, 65, 208 violations, 50, 119, 145, 184 Virginia Terrorism Threat Assessment Report, 48 Walmart, 36, 85, 97 Warren, Elizabeth, 178 Washington Joint Analytical Center (WJAC), 49 Weizenbaum, Joseph, 193 White, Laurence, 193 White, Mary Jo, 177 WikiLeaks, 76–77, 160 willful blindness, 173 Winner, Langdon, 98 Wu, Tim, 62, 98 YouTube, 9, 65, 68, 73, 163, 205; Google and, 93– 94; history of, 92– 93; scandals on, 204 Zittrain, Jonathan, 62, 74 Zuckerberg, Mark, 74


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

For example, Twitter hosts a feature called Twitter Trends, which identifies hot topics and issues of current interest that are “trending.” Questions have been raised about whether the algorithms companies use to spot and rank trends might be programmed to reflect the biases of the management that oversees them, consciously or otherwise. Julian Assange’s supporters suspected that Twitter deliberately finagled the trending during the WikiLeaks scandal.36 Industry watchers are beginning to ask, how we can maintain “algorithm neutrality”? Tarleton Gillespie, a professor of communications at Cornell University, says that algorithm manipulation is not entirely out of the question, especially when the algorithms are created by commercial players who might see a pecuniary or ideological rationale for tampering with the data. He writes: The debate about tools like Twitter Trends is, I believe, a debate we will be having more and more often.

., 61 technological employment/unemployment, 7, 122, 266–269 telegraph(s), impact of, 22, 46, 50, 51, 71, 194 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 206–210 textile industry, 31, 39–40, 124–125, 212 thermodynamic efficiencies, 10–15, 70–73, 78, 91, 143–144, 186 the third Industrial Revolution. see Collaborative Commons The Third Industrial Revolution (Rifkin), 11 3D printing, 89–108 and automobiles, 98–99 and bioprinting body parts/organs, 246–247 and construction of buildings, 96–97 and customization, 91 democratizing the replicator, 93–99 differs from conventional manufacturing, 90–92 efficiency and productivity of, 90 and feedstock, 48, 89, 95–98, 101–102 and furniture, 96 and lunar buildings, 97 and a makers infrastructure, 99–104 marketing of, 91 and micro infofacturing, 89–92 and a neo-Gandhian world, 104–108 and the Solar-Sinter, 95–96 and Xerox, 95 ThredUP, 236, 258 Thrun, Sebastian, 114–115 Time, 253 time bank(s), 261 The Times of London, 44 Tie Society, 236 TIR Consulting Group, 15, 191 Torvalds, Linus, 175 Toyota, 54, 99, 230 “The Tragedy of the Commons” (Hardin), 155–158 transborder park(s), 183 Treaty to Share the Genetic Commons, 167–168 TrustCloud, 258 Twitter becoming an online monopoly, 204–205 and algorithm manipulation, 203 changes the concept of privacy, 76 as communication, 151, 234, 248, 302 exploiting the Commons for commercial ends, 199–200, 310 and freedom, 226 as a podium for activism, 189 referenced in news and entertainment reporting, 201–202 revenue and market share, 201 and the WikiLeaks scandal, 203 as tracking tool, 245 Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 60 Udacity, 115 unemployment and blue-collar workers,123–124 due to technological advancement, 7, 121–128 and repercussions of job loss, 132 and white-collar workers, 126 United Nations, 21, 213 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 274 Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), 285 Internet Governance Forum (IGF), 196 United States Centers for Disease Control, 245 Department of Defense, 96, 125, 142, 294–295 Department of Energy, 87, 295 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 87 Federal Trade Commission, 202, 291 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 122, 219 income disparity in the, 277–278 Justice Department, 129 National Academy of Sciences, 293–294 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 288 Patents and Trademark Office (PTO), 165–166 postal service, 45–46, 113, 125–126, 163–164 transmission grid, vulnerability of, 293–296 Treasury, 259, 291 upcycling, 91, 236 UPS, uses Big Data, 11–12 urbanization, caused by printing/rail industry, 53 Urbee, 98–99 utilitarian value, Hume and Bentham’s theory of, 62–63 Utopia (More), 31 Vail, Theodore Newton, 49–50 vehicle(s). see automobile(s) Verizon, 51, 54, 148, 198 Vernadsky, Vladimir, 183 vertical integration/vertically integrated companies and centralized management of production and distribution, 46–47 and removal of costly middle men, 23, 46, 232 see also Collaborative Commons Vietor, Richard H.


pages: 452 words: 134,502

Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy

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4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

The argument was that taking down a URL, rather than focusing on the specific, illegal content constituted an unfair prior restraint, blocking the potential publication of perfectly legitimate content. 4 H acking P olitics : T L D R Aaron Swartz If you wanted to censor the Internet, if you wanted to come up with a way the government could shut down access to particular websites—this bill might just be the only way to do it. If you said it was about pornography, it’d probably get overturned by the courts—just like that adult bookstore case. But by claiming it was about copyright, it might just sneak through. And that was terrifying, because copyright was absolutely everywhere. If you wanted to shut down WikiLeaks, it’d be a bit of a stretch to claim you were doing it because they were distributing child pornography. But it wouldn’t be hard at all to claim they were violating copyright. Patrick Ruffini (Republican Party political strategist, cofounder of Engage) When I first read the bill that October, the notion that a bill like this could see the light of day was jaw-dropping. On the one hand, elected officials celebrated the Internet, used it in their campaigns, and extolled its disruptive potential in visits to Silicon Valley.

Which means that if you wanted to censor the Internet, if you wanted to come up with a way the government could shut down access to particular websites—this bill might just be the only way to do it. If you said it was about pornography, it’d probably get overturned by the courts—just like that adult bookstore case. But by claiming it was about copyright, it might just sneak through. And that was terrifying, because copyright was absolutely everywhere. If you wanted to shut down WikiLeaks, it’d be a bit of a stretch to claim you were doing it because they were distributing child pornography. But it wouldn’t be hard at all to claim they were violating copyright. Because everything is copyrighted. These words are copyrighted. And it’s so easy to accidentally copy something. So easy, in fact, that we found the leading Republican supporter of COICA, Orrin Hatch, had illegally copied a bunch of code into his own Senate website.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Structural change happens every few decades; systems change only every few centuries. Structural change makes the world complicated; systems change makes it complex. International relations among states are complicated, while today’s global network civilization is complex. Financial feedback loops destabilize markets, and corporations can be more influential than countries, while ISIS, Occupy Wall Street, and WikiLeaks are all quantum in nature: everywhere and nowhere, constantly metastasizing, capable of sudden phase shifts. If planet Earth had a Facebook account, its status should read “It’s Complex.” Connectivity is the main cause of this complexity. Globalization is almost always written about in terms of how it operates within the existing order rather than how it creates a new one. Yet connectivity is the change emerging from within the system that ultimately changes the system itself.

The intersection of demographic and technological flows creates new opportunities for Facebook groups and other cloud communities to emerge more rapidly, globally, and in greater number, generating flash mobs of allegiance that force us to evolve our political concepts beyond states. Social networks provide the tools for people to shape their welfare by motivating members, financing activities, and sparking political action. The WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange, argues that the Internet enables connected groups to anneal into empowered collectives that can act on their principles. The taxonomy of influential actors is thus expanding to include terrorist networks, hacker units, and religious fundamentalist groups who define themselves by what they do rather than where they are. Global connectivity gradually undermines national roots and augments or replaces them with a range of transnational bonds and identities.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

gloats one US Apache weapons operator after two cars drive into the helicopter’s line of cannon fire and their passengers scatter to be gunned down in turn. ‘Oooh, my bitch is fucking done, dude!’ screams another. ‘Dude, look at it! We fucked those people all to shit down there!’49 Advert for a US Bell Super Cobra attack helicopter. Although there are many examples, the 2010 release via WikiLeaks of the so-called ‘Collateral Murder’ video – captured in 2007 – exposes these logics with the most brutal clarity. This captured the digital video sensed by the helicopter, and beamed direct to the pilot and gunner’s helmet-sights, of an US Apache helicopter as it gunned down two Reuters journalists and ten colleagues in Baghdad. ‘Look at those dead bastards’, one pilot says, after the first shells explode and the bodies lie dismembered on the ground.

., 155 Wark, McKenzie, 245, 245n3 Washington, D.C., 248 Washko, Travis, 267 Wazir, Sadaullah, 76 Weimar, 179–80 Weisman, Leslie Kames, 154 Weizman, Eyal, 1–2, 72–3, 75n27, 294, 295 Wells, H. G., 138, 220 Wenchai, 233 Wesley, John, 323–4 West Bank, 295 West Virginia, 289 West Wits, 385 What Is to Be Done about Law and Order (Andyouno), 107n26 Wheeler, Tony, ixn1 White, Allon, 325 WikiLeaks, 113 Williams, Robbie, 315 Williams, Seville, 352–3 Will There Be a Plane in Every Garage?, 95–6 Wood, Anthony, 239, 241 Woolworth Building, 134, 158 World Cup, xiii, 124, 126, 270 World Health Organization (WHO), 252–3, 256 World Trade Center, 60n24, 143, 155–6, 156–7n22, 168–70, 172–3, 211, 241, 293, 310–2, 311 World War II, 57, 62, 65, 66n40, 222, 273, 304, 340, 355, 357 Wyly, Elvin, 193 Yamasaki, Minoru, 155, 172–3 Yeang, Ken, 238n51 Yemen, 73 Yongsan, 240–1 York, England, 284 Young, Liam, 375–6 Yousef, Ramzi, 170 Zambia, 381n44 Zapatistas, 21 Zimbabwe, 46 Zinn, Howard, 62–3 Zionist colonisers, 294 Zionist Israel, 295 Zokwana, Senzeni, 386 Zoran Island, 301 Zurita, Raúl, 50


pages: 577 words: 149,554

The Problem of Political Authority: An Examination of the Right to Coerce and the Duty to Obey by Michael Huemer

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Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, framing effect, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Phillip Zimbardo, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Carson, Kevin A. 2008. Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. N.p.: Booksurge. Cashman, Greg. 1993. What Causes War? An Introduction to Theories of International Conflict. New York: Lexington Books. Cashman, Greg, and Leonard C. Robinson. 2007. An Introduction to the Causes of War: Patterns of Interstate Conflict from World War I to Iraq. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. CBS News. 2011. ‘WikiLeaks: Bradley Manning Faces 22 New Charges’, CBS News, 2 March, www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/03/02/national/main20038464.shtml. Accessed March 10, 2011. Center for Responsive Politics. 2011. Reelection Rates over the Years, www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/reelect.php?cycle=2006. Accessed March 15, 2011. Center for Systemic Peace. 2011. Polity IV Annual Time-Series 1800–2010 (dataset from Polity IV project), www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/inscr.htm.

Wikileaks. 2010. Collateral Murder (video), www.collateralmurder.com/. Accessed March 10, 2011. Williams, Juan. 1987. Eyes on the Prize. New York: Viking Penguin. Wilson, Edward O. 2000. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 25th anniversary ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, James Q. 1990. ‘Against the Legalization of Drugs’, Commentary 89: 21–8. Wing, Nick. 2010. ‘Mike Huckabee: WikiLeaks Source Should Be Executed’, Huffington Post, November 30, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/30/mike-huckabee-wikileaks-execution_n_789964.html. Accessed March 10, 2011. Wingo, Ajume. 2003. Veil Politics in Liberal Democratic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wittman, Donald. 1995. The Myth of Democratic Failure: Why Political Institutions Are Efficient. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, working poor, X Prize

And ProPublica, of course, is just the tip of the iceberg. There are thousands of organizations—some of them focused on journalism, some of them government-based, some of them new creatures indigenous to the Web—that create information that can be freely recombined into neighborhood blog posts or Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative journalism. ProPublica journalists today can get the idea for an investigation from a document on WikiLeaks, get background information from Wikipedia, or download government statistics or transcripts from data.gov or the Sunlight Foundation. They can even get funding directly from Kickstarter. Once again, the power of the system comes not just from the individual peer networks, but from the way the different networks layer on top of one another. You cannot measure the health of journalism simply by looking at the number of editors and reporters on the payroll of newspapers.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

They are constrained by rival power centres including the transnational, provincial, local and even the individual. Micro-powers are now capable of constraining macro-powers such as national governments. The digital age undermined many of the barriers that used to protect public authority, rendering governments much less efficient or effective as the governed, or the public, became better informed and increasingly demanding in their expectations. The WikiLeaks saga – in which a tiny non-state entity confronted a mammoth state – illustrates the asymmetry of the new power paradigm and the erosion of trust that often comes with it. It would take a book dedicated to the subject alone to explore all the multifaceted impacts of the fourth industrial revolution on governments, but the key point is this: Technology will increasingly enable citizens, providing a new way to voice their opinions, coordinate their efforts and possibly circumvent government supervision.


pages: 264 words: 79,589

Kingpin: How One Hacker Took Over the Billion-Dollar Cybercrime Underground by Kevin Poulsen

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Apple II, Brian Krebs, Burning Man, corporate governance, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, index card, McMansion, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, packet switching, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, traffic fines, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zipcar

He oversees cybercrime, privacy, and political coverage for Wired.com and edits the award-winning Threat Level blog (wired.com/threatlevel), which he founded in 2005. He’s broken numerous national stories, including the FBI’s use of spyware in criminal and national security investigations; a hacker’s penetration of a Secret Service agent’s confidential files; and the secret arrest of an Army intelligence officer accused of leaking documents to whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks. In 2009 he was inducted into MIN’s Digital Hall of Fame for online journalism and in 2010 was voted one of the “Top Cyber Security Journalists” by his peers.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

This is the social contract between the service provider and the users (take it or leave it). While complaining and petitioning might change certain aspects of a business, it will never sway companies from making money or growing their data sets. THERE ARE NO “COPIES.” Thinking about your content (words, pictures, and videos) in terms of someone else having a “copy” is a mistake as well. This is the same mistake that many traditional organizations made when looking at WikiLeaks. There are no copies. The picture you have on your camera that you then post to Facebook is not a copy in both locations. There is a second original version that now exists in another place. The same can be said of everything digital—from your text messages and emails to your tweets. You can’t have privacy online using the same definitions we used in a pre-digital world. If you want privacy on any digital channel (and this includes your own email!)


pages: 294 words: 80,084

Tomorrowland: Our Journey From Science Fiction to Science Fact by Steven Kotler

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Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, epigenetics, gravity well, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Louis Pasteur, North Sea oil, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, theory of mind, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The FBI has far greater resources at its disposal than the Secret Service (almost 36,000 people work there, compared to roughly 6,500 at the Secret Service), yet, five years ago, the FBI concluded the only way it could keep up with biological threats was by involving the whole of the life science community in the endeavor. So why go further? Why take the seemingly radical step of releasing the president’s genome to the rest of the world instead of just a security-cleared group? As the aforementioned Wiki-leaked, State Department cables makes clear, the surreptitious gathering of genetic material has already begun. It would not be surprising if the president’s DNA has already been collected and analyzed and our adversaries are merely waiting for the right opportunity to exploit the results. The assault could even be homegrown, the result of increasingly divisive party politics and the release of unscrupulous attack ads.


pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

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Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, invisible hand, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

In an earlier era, public companies could safely rank investors in importance by the size of their holdings. Executives could be confident of their ability to control proprietary information and to manage aggrieved employees without triggering broader problems for the firm. Social media have upended those assumptions. Today, any lone consumer tapping on a tablet in an Internet café, any citizen with one share of stock, or any disgruntled worker with WikiLeaks in mind has the potential to sway a Wall Street behemoth’s fortunes. Facebook, Twitter, and other social media can turbocharge investor, consumer, or community activism because cyberspace is an unprecedented force multiplier. Social media can be a low-cost, high-impact tool for assertive campaigns in the capital market, and it radically drives down their cost. United Airlines, for instance, suffered a consumer uprising in 2009 that became a case study of the corporation as victim of social media attack.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

If there is an archetype for Web 2.0, in the way that Linux is an archetype for open-source software, it is surely Wikipedia, the remarkable encyclopedia that anyone can edit. Wikipedia is so identified with web-based collaboration that its name has been incorporated into book titles (Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything) and related initiatives such as the leaked document site WikiLeaks. In Benkler’s The Wealth of Networks, Wikipedia plays a prominent role as an exemplar of “commons-based peer production.” But Wikipedia turned out to be more the exception than the rule. While there are other not-for-profit large-scale collaborative platforms (OpenStreetMap, for example), no other non-­commercial site has reached anything resembling Wikipedia’s influence. As Sue Gardner, then Executive Director of the Wikimedia Foundation, wrote in 2011: Wikipedia represents the fulfilment of the original promise of the internet: that it’s a kind of poster child for online collaboration in the public interest.


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Bearers of local currency vouchers do not benefit from the same level of consumer protection as banknotes issued by either the Bank of England or the authorised commercial issuing banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland” (Naqvi and Southgate 2013: 1). 47 See http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/april2004/040704bajabeachclub.htm and http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/06/09/spain.club/index.html. 48 M is for mobile; pesa is Swahili for money. 49 https://squareup.com/wallet. 50 Although it is not exactly seigniorage, the term goes some way toward capturing the idea that this is essentially a fee that is charged for the mere use of money, like the opposite of demurrage. As Maurer points out, “We may need a better vocabulary for fees, rents, taxes, tribute—not everything, as the Islamic bankers remind us, is usury” (Maurer 2011: 11). 51 Payment service providers wield significant power in other ways, too, as exemplified by the involvement of Bank of America, VISA, MasterCard, PayPal and Western Union in the WikiLeaks case. CONCLUSION I turned the corner; the dark octagonal window indicated from a distance that the shop was closed. In Calle Belgrano, I took a cab. Sleepless, obsessed, almost joyful, I reflected on how nothing is less material than money, inasmuch as any coin whatsoever (a twenty-centavo piece, let us say) is, strictly speaking, a repertory of possible futures. Money is abstract, I repeated, money is future time.

See also First World War; Second World War; Vietnam War; violence war against terror, 43 Warburton, Peter, 199 Warren, Josiah, 342 Warwick, University of, 73n30 waste, 12–13, 151; and the gift, 186; and money, 175, 184, 204; versus utility, 164 Wave and Pay, 377 Weber, Florence, 292 Weber, Max, 109, 247, 276n, 292, 302, 317; on capitalism and religion, 143, 155, 175; on charisma, 247; on Knapp, 103; on money and the modern state, 217; on prices, 109n25; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 156, 175; on taxation, 217 Weimar inflation, 131n57, 142, 224, 387 welfare. See social welfare Wendt, Alexander, 220 Wergild, 24, 302 Western Union, 380n Westphalia. See Peace of Westphalia Westphalian system, 216–27, 238 Where’s George?, 226 Wherry, Frederick, 164n Whuffie, 214, 316, 381 WikiLeaks, 380n Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 390 workers, 59, 72, 73, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 242, 244, 345, 352; and cooperatives, 84; and consumers, 81, 86, 356; in Proudhon, 353–54; in the public sector, 77, 88, 126. See also migrant workers; workers’ associations; workers’ movement workers’ associations, 323–24 workers’ movement, 81n World Bank, 241 world money, 70, 298 World Trade Center (WTC), 197–98 World Trade Organization (WTO), 99, 239, 241 Wray, Randall, 103, 300, 359–60, 374; on the Eurozone, 107n, 255; and Ingham, 110–11; on Knapp, 104, 359; and neochartalism, 106–8 Wriston, Walter, 392, 393 writing, 36, 37, 41n, 42, 297; versus speech, 180–81.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

Advised by industry icons Jeff Jarvis and Nicco Mele (who describes the Guardian’s model in his recent book, The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath), the Guardian has been audacious in its efforts to reinvent journalism. Here are some of the paper’s initiatives: In 2007, the Guardian offered a free blogging platform for thought leaders and created online forums and discussion groups [Community and Crowd]. Developers offered an open API to the paper’s website so they could leverage content on the site [Algorithms]. Investigative reporting for the millions of WikiLeaks cables fully crowdsourced [Community & Crowd]. The Guardian has institutionalized the crowdsourcing of investigative reporting and has successfully used that approach on several occasions, including after obtaining public documents from Sarah Palin’s tenure as governor of Alaska. Similarly, in 2009, when the UK government bowed to public pressure and released two million pages of parliamentary expense reports, the Guardian asked its readership to find any newsworthy needles in that vast haystack of words.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

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4chan, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

In the past, when government officials had come knocking on Twitter’s door demanding information about people on the service for any number of reasons, Ev, Biz, Goldman, and Crystal, who managed Twitter’s support team, had always said no, “not without a warrant.” Such a stance would become the conviction of Twitter over the years. And it would be the DNA that made it a different kind of company in Silicon Valley. Twitter, with Amac at its legal helm, would eventually fight a court order to extract Occupy Wall Street protesters’ tweets during protests. It would stand up to the Justice Department in a witch hunt for WikiLeaks supporters online. And in stark contrast to Facebook, Twitter would eventually allow newcomers to opt out of being tracked through the service. Facebook had a completely different approach to free speech and tracking, often infringing people’s privacy and sometimes removing content that violated its strict terms of service. Facebook also demanded people use their real names and dates of birth on the site.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

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3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Accessed May 19, 2015. http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/2014%20Reports/nielsen-global-e-commerce-report-august-2014.pdf. 5 Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World. (New York, Basic Books, 1994, Reprint 1995) 6 Zetter, Kim. “Bullion and Bandits: The Improbable Rise and Fall of E-Gold.” Wired.com. September 6, 2009. Accessed May 20, 2015. http://www.wired.com/2009/06/e-gold/. 7 Barnes, Julian and Jeanne Whalen. “PayPal Drops WikiLeaks Donation Account.” The Wall Street Journal, December 4, 2010. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704767804575654681242073308. 8 “Transfer fees.” The Economist. December 15, 2010. Accessed March 15, 2015. http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2010/12/remittances. 9 Vigna, Paul, and Michael Casey. “BitBeat: Wedding Bells on the Blockchain.” MoneyBeat. September 26, 2014.


pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen

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air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

When Dyncorp worked on a State Department contract to handle police training in Bosnia in the late 1990s, its personnel were accused of involvement in sex trafficking—a scandal so rich that it later formed the basis for a movie starring Rachel Weisz. Yet despite its track record, Dyncorp was given contracts to provide police training in Afghanistan and Iraq. In Afghanistan, Dyncorp was caught up in another scandal when its contractors reportedly paid for young “dancing boys” to entertain Afghan policemen, an incident that was described in a State Department cable released by WikiLeaks. But fortunately for Dyncorp, these allegations of misdeeds by its personnel were overshadowed by Blackwater. After Blackwater’s guards were involved in a 2007 shooting incident in Baghdad’s Nisour Square in which at least seventeen Iraqi civilians were killed, pressure mounted in Washington for the government to dump Blackwater and give its business to other firms. Dyncorp was there to pick up the pieces.


pages: 276 words: 93,430

Animal: The Autobiography of a Female Body by Sara Pascoe

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, presumed consent, rolodex, WikiLeaks

No door to close to keep yourself safe from future attacks. What keeps surprising me is how relaxed some people seem about men using women’s bodies. Like there’s something ‘natural’ or understandable about it. I’ll give you an example. In 2010, a warrant was issued by Swedish police for the arrest of Julian Assange. The case gained a lot of publicity because of Assange’s pre-existing notoriety as the co-founder of the WikiLeaks website. He was accused of rape by one woman and of molestation by another. In both cases the alleged assault took place AFTER consensual sex. In the first account, a woman who willingly had sex with Assange one night, at her apartment, awoke the next morning to find that he was having penetrative intercourse with her against her will. There is no way that this isn’t an incredibly complicated moral issue, right?


pages: 538 words: 121,670

Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress--And a Plan to Stop It by Lawrence Lessig

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asset-backed security, banking crisis, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Edward Glaeser, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Martin Wolf, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, place-making, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The “sole and express purpose” of that conference was to promise amendments to the Articles of Confederation to “render the federal constitution adequate to the exigencies of Government & the preservation of the Union.”4 Amendments. Not a new Constitution. But quickly the organizers of that convention convinced those present (and not every state even deigned to send a delegate) to meet in secret. (No WikiLeaks to fear.) The windows were shut. And for almost three months the Framers banged away at a document that we continue to revere today. They took to this exceptional path because they recognized that sometimes an institution becomes too sick to fix itself. Not that the institution is necessarily blind to its own sickness. But that it doesn’t have the capacity, or will, to do anything about it. Sometimes an institution, like an individual, needs an intervention, from people, from friends, from outside.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

The country’s attorney general and Mugabe loyalist Johannes Tomana was alleged to have taken the Malingani ranch from its white owner, Kenned Hood. Hood said he had been “chased off” his property, which was also home to ten giraffes, sixty antelopes, thirty buffaloes, five lions, and two cheetahs. Paul Mangwana, former minister of empowerment, was said to have taken the Wanezi block ranch, while local senator and former governor Josiah Hungwe took Mwenezi ranch. WikiLeaks later published U.S. diplomatic cables repeating many of the assertions. Early in 2011, the German government lodged a complaint alleging that one of its citizens had his land stolen. Willy Pabst was the owner of the Sango ranch on the Save Valley Conservancy. Berlin claimed that Maluleke had “made it quite clear that he wanted a partnership without paying for it.” The complaint said Pabst’s property was protected under the 1995 Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement between the two countries.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

And as recently as 2003, Deng’s handpicked and equally pragmatic successors were openly criticizing provincial leaders for overstating local growth numbers in an attempt to advance their careers. That is, of course, how technocracy is supposed to work—objectively. Increasingly, though, China’s government has twisted that ideal, manipulating numbers to fit a political mission. In a cable revealed in 2010 by WikiLeaks, Chinese premier Li Keqiang was quoted acknowledging that official GDP numbers are “man made,” and saying that he looks to more reliable numbers—on bank loans, rail cargo, and electricity consumption—to get a fix on the actual growth rate. Independent economists then started tracking these numbers as the “LKQ Index,” which has shown in recent years that actual growth is falling well below the official target.


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

Firm Acknowledges Syria Uses Its Gear to Block Web,” The Wall Street Journal, October 29, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203687504577001911398596328.html. the FBI violated the law thousands of times: “Patterns of Misconduct: FBI Intelligence Violations from 2001–2008,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 23, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, www.eff.org/wp/patterns-misconduct-fbi-intelligence-violations. Amazon and Paypal cut off Wikileaks: Rebecca MacKinnon, “WikiLeaks, Amazon and the New Threat to Internet Speech,” CNN, December 3, 2010, accessed March 26, 2013, www.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/12/02/mackinnon.wikileaks.amazon/. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”: John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996, accessed March 26, 2013, projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. The free, open-source Tor: The Tor Project is online here: www.torproject.org/ (ac-cessed March 26, 2013); other modes of encrypted communications are detailed in “Learn to Encrypt Your Internet Communications,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, accessed March 26, 2013, ssd.eff.org/wire/protect/encrypt.


pages: 467 words: 116,094

I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

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call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

Drug addiction affects 100,000 people in Britain directly, and many more indirectly; it is responsible for an enormous drain on health-care resources, a large proportion of acquisitive crime, and the fastest-growing group of HIV infection. That we should apparently neglect our obligations in such an important field is astonishing. LIBEL NMT Is Suing Dr Peter Wilmshurst. So How Trustworthy Is This Company? Let’s Look at Its Website . . . Guardian, 11 December 2010 You will hopefully remember – from the era before WikiLeaks – that US medical-device company NMT is suing NHS cardiologist Peter Wilmshurst over his comments about the conduct and results of the MIST trial, which sadly for NMT found no evidence that their device prevents migraine. The MIST trial was funded by NMT, and Wilmshurst was lead investigator until problems arose. Wilmshurst has already paid £100,000 of his own money to defend himself, risking his house, and has spent every weekend and all his annual leave, unpaid, dealing with this, at great cost to his family.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

The point is not that killing ten civilians is OK, but rather that in any previous war, even a few years ago, this kind of civilian death would barely have caused a ripple of attention. Civilian deaths, in sizable numbers, used to be universally considered a necessary and inevitable, if perhaps unfortunate, by-product of war. That we are entering an era when these assumptions no longer apply is good news indeed.183 Goldstein’s assessment was confirmed in 2011 when Science magazine reported data from WikiLeaks documents and from a previously classified civilian casualty database of the American-led military coalition. The documents revealed that around 5,300 civilians had been killed in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2010, the majority (around 80 percent) by Taliban insurgents rather than coalition forces. Even if the estimate is doubled, it would represent an extraordinarily low number of civilian deaths for a major military operation—in the Vietnam War, by comparison, at least 800,000 civilians died in battle.184 As big as the change in American attitudes toward war has been, the change in Europe is beyond recognition.

immorality of imperial indirect deaths in interstate intrastate; see also civil war magnitude of major military horizon in “new,” in nonstate societies power-law distribution of private probability of proxy territorial timing of total trends in see also specific wars war games warlords agglomeration of knights as War of Attrition game War of the Holy League War of the League of Augsburg War of the Spanish Succession War of the Triple Alliance War on Drugs Warrior Gene theory Wars of Religion Washington, George Waters, Muddy Wathaurung aborigines Watts, Duncan wealth: accumulation of creation of and decline of violence plunder of as zero-sum weapons antipersonnel biological black market for chemical dirty (radiological) bombs long-distance of mass destruction in military revolution nuclear in schools technology of Weber, Max Weber’s Law Wegner, Daniel Weinberg, Alvin Wellington, Duke of Wells, H. G. West, Rebecca Western society: declines in violence compared with societies hostility to accomplishments humanistic movements in non-Western societies see also modernity western U.S. Westphalia, Peace of White, Matthew Who, The Wiesel, Elie Wiessner, Polly WikiLeaks Wilde, Oscar Wilkinson, Deanna Willard, Dan Willer, Robb Williamson, Laila Willkie, Wendell Wilson, James Q. Wilson, Margo Wilson, Woodrow Wimer, Christopher Winfrey, Oprah Wirth, Christian witchcraft Witness (film) Wollstonecraft, Mary Wolpert, Daniel women: and abortion Amazons in American West antiwar views of attitudes toward competition for and domestic violence feminism feminization genital mutilation of in harems and Islam as leaders male control of as pacifying force peace activists postpartum depression as property rape of, see rape rights of self-defense for “Take Back the Night,” torture of violence against violence by violence over; see also sexual jealousy World Bank world government World Health Organization (WHO) World War I and antiwar views and influenza pandemic as literary war and nationalism onset of poison gas in and World War II World War II causes of destructiveness of and ethnic cleansing London Blitz in and Pearl Harbor and poison gas Wotman, Sara Wouters, Cas Wrangham, Richard Wright, Quincy Wright, Robert Xhosa people Yamaguchi, Tsutomu Yanomamö people Yates, Andrea Yemen Young, Liane Young, Maxwell Younger, Stephen young men: African American aggression of in American West in bachelor cults and code of honor and crime in criminal gangs and dominance and drug culture homicides by in prison socialization of terrorists tribal elders defied by Yugoslavia Zacher, Mark Zambia Zebrowitz, Leslie Zelizer, Viviana zero-sum games Zimbardo, Philip Zimring, Franklin Zipf, G.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

See his “Boycott Microsoft Bing,” The New York Times, November 20, 2009. 306 Li Changchun James Glanz and John Markoff, “Vast Hacking by a China Fearful of the Web,” The New York Times, December 4, 2010. The Times article reported Li as the official whose name was excised in a May 9, 2009, U.S. State Department cable from the Beijing embassy to the secretary of state. This was one of several cables released to certain press sources by WikiLeaks that had relevance to Google’s activities in China, with information that confirmed, and in a few cases added to, my reporting on the difficulties between Google and the Chinese government. 308 Apparently someone had hacked into Google Google has been circumspect on the details of the attack, but Adkins shared an overview at the June 15, 2010, Forum of Incident Response Security Teams (FIRST) Conference in Miami.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Before we parted, he pulled me aside to say that all that his men needed were antitank and antiaircraft weapons and they could finish Assad off. “Couldn’t Obama just let the Mafia send them to us?” he asked. “Don’t worry, we won’t use them against Israel.” Some diplomats saw all of this coming. On January 21, 2014, I wrote a column in The New York Times quoting a November 8, 2008, cable from the U.S. Embassy in Damascus to the State Department that had been unearthed by WikiLeaks. This was in the middle of the Syrian drought. The embassy was telling the State Department that Syria’s U.N. food and agriculture representative, Abdullah bin Yehia, was seeking drought assistance from the U.N. and wanted the United States to contribute. Here are a few key passages: The U.N. Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs launched an appeal on September 29 requesting roughly $20.23 million to assist an estimated one million people impacted by what the U.N. describes as the country’s worst drought in four decades … Yehia proposes to use money from the appeal to provide seed and technical assistance to 15,000 small-holding farmers in northeast Syria in an effort to preserve the social and economic fabric of this rural, agricultural community.