Donner party

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Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (And Other Concerns) by Mindy Kaling

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Berlin Wall, Burning Man, Donner party, East Village, illegal immigration, index card, medical residency, pre–internet, rent control, Saturday Night Live, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

It’s always been incredibly challenging for me to put pen to page, because writing, at its heart, is a solitary pursuit, designed to make people depressoids, drug addicts, misanthropes, and antisocial weirdos (see every successful writer ever except Judy Blume). I also have a nice office at work, but I use it primarily as a messy closet. The Internet also makes it extraordinarily difficult for me to focus. One small break to look up exactly how almond milk is made, and four hours later I’m reading about the Donner Party and texting all my friends: DID YOU GUYS KNOW ABOUT THE DONNER PARTY AND HOW MESSED UP THAT WAS? TEXT ME BACK SO WE CAN TALK ABOUT IT! My high school newspaper interviewed me a few years ago and wanted a photo of me writing, so I had my coworker Dan Goor take this of me looking polished and writerly at my work desk. It is so fraudulent it makes me laugh. I’ve found my productive-writing-to-screwing-around ratio to be one to seven.


pages: 801 words: 242,104

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond

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clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

When people are trapped together with no possibility of emigration, enemies can no longer resolve tensions merely by moving apart. Those tensions may have exploded in mass murder, which later nearly did destroy the colony of Bounty mutineers on Pitcairn itself. Murder could also have been driven by food shortage and cannibalism, as happened to the Mangarevans, Easter Islanders, and—closer to home for Americans—the Donner Party in California. Perhaps people grown desperate turned to mass suicide, which was recently the choice of 39 members of the Heaven’s Gate cult near San Diego, California. Desperation might instead have led to insanity, the fate of some members of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, whose ship was trapped by ice for over a year in 1898-1899. Still another catastrophic ending could have been starvation, the fate of Japan’s garrison stranded on Wake Island during World War II, and perhaps exacerbated by a drought, typhoon, tsunami, or other environmental disaster.

That explosion of environmental and population problems in the form of civil unrest and warfare is a frequent theme in this book, both for past societies (the Easter Islanders, Mangarevans, Maya, and Tikopians) and for modern societies (Rwanda, Haiti, and others). The signs of warfare-related cannibalism among the Anasazi are an interesting story in themselves. While everyone acknowledges that cannibalism may be practiced in emergencies by desperate people, such as the Donner Party trapped by snow at Donner Pass en route to California in the winter of 1846-47, or by starving Russians during the siege of Leningrad during World War II, the existence of non-emergency cannibalism is controversial. In fact, it was reported in hundreds of non-European societies at the times when they were first contacted by Europeans within recent centuries. The practice took two forms: eating either the bodies of enemies killed in war, or else eating one’s own relatives who had died of natural causes.

Warren bedrock bees, as pollinators Belgian Antarctic Expedition Betancourt, Julio Bhopal chemical plant BHP mining company big business chemical industry fishing industry logging industry long-term planning in mining industry non-environmentalist reputation of oil industry pollution-intensive profit motive of and public opinion regulation of in resource extraction responsibility to shareholders Big Hole Basin biodiversity losses Bismarck Archipelago Bitterroot River, as “impaired stream,” Bitterroot Stock Farm Bjergo, Allen Bolle Report (1970) borax mining Borneo, illegal logging in Bosch, Juan bottom-up environmental management Australia Inuits New Guinea Southwestern U.S. Tikopia and tragedy of the commons Bougainville copper mine BP (British Petroleum) Buffalo Creek, West Virginia Burundi: genocide in independence of business, see big business Cahokia, collapse of Canada: Franklin Expedition in Inuit in logging in Native Americans in settlements of Canela y Lázaro, Miguel cannibalism: of Anasazi anthropologists’ objections to of Donner Party on Easter Island in Leningrad siege on Mangareva on Pitcairn and warfare carbon isotope analyses carbon sink Carson, Rachel Catherwood, Frederick CFCs, harmful effects of Chardón, Carlos chemical industry chestnut blight Chevron Corporation Chevron Niugini Chevron Texaco Chicago Zoological Society Chile: and Easter Island fishing in mining in wine palm of wood imports from China agriculture climate change in conquering Nature in Cultural Revolution in cultural values of deforestation in development projects in economic growth of emigration from environmental problems of First World goals of food in foreign investment in geography of global connectedness of Grain-to-Green program grassland in Great Leap Forward in health problems in land ownership in map natural disasters in Olympic Games in per-capita environmental impact of political unity in population control in population of shifting environmental thinking in species diversity in top-down decision-making in trade with warlords in water diversion project in western, development of chlorofluorocarbons Christianity, exclusivity of chronic wasting disease (CWD) Churchill, Winston Clark Fork River Superfund site Clean Water Act Clearcut Controversy (Montana) climate change and forest fires in global warming in tree ring studies and water levels Club of Rome coal mining collapse: comparative method of study of complex societies in five-point framework of past vs. modern societies and power cycling use of term Colorado, mining in Colorado River, diversion of Columbus, Christopher comparative studies consumer influence Cook, Capt.


pages: 448 words: 84,462

Testing Extreme Programming by Lisa Crispin, Tip House

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c2.com, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, Donner party, Drosophila, hypertext link, index card, job automation, web application

Q2: Pretend your customer can't stand the executable format. Create or mock up a spreadsheet for him that corresponds to the executable test in question 1. Chapter 18. Test Design and Refactoring On the last day of our XP road trip, we'll be leaving the Great Plains behind and heading up into the mountain passes. Hopefully, all the work we've done up to this point will keep us from getting buried in an avalanche or stranded like the infamous Donner party. (Customers may complain when the system isn't right, but they get awfully annoyed when you eat them ;-) In this chapter, we're going to talk about some simple test design. "Whoa!" you may say. "We're already writing executable tests—isn't the time for design long past?" No, actually, the time for overdesign is past. The right time for just-in-time-design is always "now," and that's the kind of design we want to talk about.

All acceptance tests on an Extreme Programming project must be automated. We could just say that and go on with the book. It's tempting. But if we did that, some of you wouldn't take it seriously, and you'd end up with a bunch of manual tests. Don't go there. On an Extreme Programming project, a manual test may be worse than no test at all. On our XP road trip, manual testing might lead us to a misadventure similar to that of the aforementioned Donner Party. In this chapter, we're going to explain our stance on test automation. In the following few chapters, we're going to talk about various avenues we could take to automate our tests. Your team can consider the various options we present and adopt the ones that will help you on your own journey. Do cases ever arise where you wouldn't automate a test? Our experience is that, indeed, we could have a valid reason not to automate a test.


pages: 536 words: 79,887

A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains by Isabella Lucy Bird, Daniel J. Boorstin

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Columbine, Donner party, Internet Archive

.: 70, 136-40, 183, 184, 186, 225 Evans' in, 137-38, 186 financial panic in, 119-20, 191, 197-98 Indians in, 139, 140, 183 "Denver stage road": 170, 172-74 Denver wagon road: see Denver stage road Devil's Gate: 108, 237 Dewy, Mr. and Mrs.: 112, 118, 124, 186, 204 Digger Indians: see Indians Divide: see Continental Divide Divide of the Arkansas: see Arkansas Divide Donner Lake, Calif.: 19-21 Donner party: 20-21 E Edwards, "Griff": 110, 111, 118, 186, 200, 201, 213, 233, 238 Mrs. Edwards, 84, 134, 186 English: women's reputation in America, 17 criticism of, 46, 52, 143, 163 "High Toners," 176-77 Estes Park: 5, 39, 44, 55, 58, 72, 73, 81, 82, 86, 94, 101, 104-9, 116-17, 159, 186, 198, 208, 212-13, 236, 237, 241, 246 accommodations in, 73, 82, 109-12, 226 life in, 102, 113-14, 118, 124, 201-3, 216-18 Page 253 wildlife, 104, 114, 123 vegetation, 107-8 access to, 108-9 inhabitants of, 109, 110, 112-13, 119, 201 skunks, 115-16 Mirror Lake, 116, 118 snowbound in, 132-34 wolves, 210, 212 winter fishing, 225 see also Evans, Griffith Evans, Griffith: 81-82, 107, 109-11, 113, 118-22, 126, 134, 201, 213, 219, 234, 238, 239, 241 and "Rocky Mountain Jim" Nugent, 113, 216, 239, 241, 248 Denver home of, 137-38; 186 family, 111, 137-38 ranch in Estes Park, 73, 81, 109-10 see also Estes Park F Fairplay: 171, 179 Fall River: 210-11 Farming, in Colorado: 147, 149 see also irrigation Financial panic: see Denver, financial panic in Fishing, winter: 225 Fodder, Mr.: 248-49 Foot Hills: 37-38, 105, 150, 183, 188 Fort Collins: 32, 34-36, 71 Fort Laramie, Wyo.: 25 Fountain River: 156-58 Freightage, business: 181 wagons, 12, 26, 174, 178, 180-81 Frost-fall: 248 G Garden of the Gods: 155-56 "Gem of the Sierras": see Donner Lake Georgetown: 188-92, 195 mining, 192-94 Glen Eyrie: 152, 155, 156 Golden City: 187, 188 Gray's Peak: 55, 97, 139 "Great Divide, The": see Continental Divide Great Gorge of the Manitou: see Manitou "Great Lone Land, The": 53-54 Great Platte Canyon, ranch at: 141-42 Great Salt Lake, Utah: 24 Greeley Temperance Colony: 29, 30-33, 249 accommodations in, 31-32 temperance in, 31, 182 Greeley Tribune: 74 Green Lake: 188, 191, 192, 194 "Grundy, Mrs


pages: 753 words: 233,306

Collapse by Jared Diamond

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clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

When people are trapped together with no possibility of emigration, enemies can no longer resolve tensions merely by moving apart. Those tensions may have exploded in mass murder, which later nearly did destroy the colony of Bounty mutineers on Pitcairn itself. Murder could also have been driven by food shortage and cannibalism, as happened to the Mangarevans, Easter Islanders, and—closer to home for Americans—the Donner Party in California. Perhaps people grown desperate turned to mass suicide, which was recently the choice of 39 members of the Heaven's Gate cult near San Diego, California. Desperation might instead have led to insanity, the fate of some members of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, whose ship was trapped by ice for over a year in 1898-1899. Still another catastrophic ending could have been starvation, the fate of Japan's garrison stranded on Wake Island during World War II, and perhaps exacerbated by a drought, typhoon, tsunami, or other environmental disaster.

That explosion of environmental and population problems in the form of civil unrest and warfare is a frequent theme in this book, both for past societies (the Easter Islanders, Mangarevans, Maya, and Tikopians) and for modern societies (Rwanda, Haiti, and others). The signs of warfare-related cannibalism among the Anasazi are an interesting story in themselves. While everyone acknowledges that cannibalism may be practiced in emergencies by desperate people, such as the Donner Party trapped by snow at Donner Pass en route to California in the winter of 1846-47, or by starving Russians during the siege of Leningrad during World War II, the existence of non-emergency cannibalism is controversial. In fact, it was reported in hundreds of non-European societies at the times when they were first contacted by Europeans within recent centuries. The practice took two forms: eating either the bodies of enemies killed in war, or else eating one's own relatives who had died of natural causes.


pages: 423 words: 129,831

The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

That we could thank the interstates for shrinking the distances between our cities, and the untidy growth of those cities beyond Lewis Mumford's worst nightmare; for the "Edge City" of shopping and office space springing up on beltways in any number of metropolitan areas, and the "big-box" stores that were fast becoming ubiquitous features of suburban interchanges. They'd tamed rivers and bays, high plains and remote reaches of blackwater swamp where earlier roads dared not venture. You could set your cruise control (an automotive feature that would have been needless had the interstates not come along) and at seventy miles per hour, in climate-controlled comfort, summit the Sierra Nevada pass that claimed the Donner party. The year after the Ellipse dinner, his health failing, Turner sold the Arlington house and went to live with his son Marvin's family in Goldsboro, North Carolina. He had developed cancer and, as he neared and passed ninety, a slowly progressing dementia; still, when in January 1999 the Transportation Research Board named him the first recipient of its Frank Turner Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Transportation, he made it to Washington.


pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten

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1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor

She was born in 1934, but her ancestors had migrated to California in the nineteenth century from points east such as Virginia, Arkansas, the Carolinas, and Illinois, places where the failed dreams of financial bounty led to a great migration to where the crops were rumored to grow as tall and hearty as poplar trees. They had endured long, grinding treks by covered wagon across the Oregon Trail and barely survived the Humboldt Sink in Nevada (where the Donner-Reed party met its garish end; Didion’s great-great-great grandmother Nancy Hardin Cornwall was a Donner party member), settling in California’s Central Valley, whose vast, flat, alluvial plains seemed to hold the promise of eternal prosperity. As a young child Didion heard the stories of her ancestors and their great struggles to tame this unsettled territory, forging new identities as farmers from the soil of the last undeveloped region in the country. Sacramento, where Didion was raised by a homemaker and an Air Force officer who served on the local draft board and then drifted into local real estate, was an exurb adrift in uneasy suspension from the rest of the state.


pages: 385 words: 25,673

Word Freak: Heartbreak, Triumph, Genius, and Obsession in the World of Competitive ScrabblePlayers by Stefan Fatsis

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deliberate practice, Donner party, East Village, forensic accounting, Golden Gate Park, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Saturday Night Live

En route to Jon and Lynn’s Upper West Side apartment to ring in the new year with a few games, I stopped in a Barnes & Noble and bought every Scrabble-related book on the shelf, including (a mistake, I later learned) the third edition of the OSPD. To record the first step of my journey, we photographed the board. Weeks later, I called John Williams to propose a friendly game. My goal: to lose, and lose badly. After all, this was supposed to be a journey. Odysseus wandered around for ten years. Columbus’s crew nearly mutinied before he happened upon land. The Donner party starved in the mountains. “You just might win,” Williams says as we sit down to play in his midtown hotel room. “Yeah, right,” I reply, clinging to my script. Williams plays CARED to open the game, scoring 22 points. I draw a bingo — a play using all seven of one’s tiles, worth an extra 50 points — on my first turn: LEAPING, which I place below the last two letters of CARED, forming EL and DE.


pages: 560 words: 158,238

Fifty Degrees Below by Kim Stanley Robinson

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airport security, bioinformatics, Burning Man, clean water, Donner party, full employment, invisible hand, iterative process, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, North Sea oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method

No one liked gratitude, but many people were cold enough to take what he gave them. Cotton and cardboard were no longer hacking it. The stubborn ones were likely to die. The newspapers reported that a few hundred already had. Frank could scarcely believe some of the stories in the Post about the dumb things people had done and were still doing. They could be six inches from safety and not recognize it. It was as John Muir had said of the Donner Party; a perfectly fine winter base camp, botched by ineptitude. But they didn’t know. It was a technique, and if you didn’t have it you died. It wasn’t rocket science but it was mandatory. Frank had to be careful not to get careless himself. He stayed out all day every day, and part of him was beginning to think he had it wired, so that he spent longer sessions out. Sometimes he discovered he was so ravenous or thirsty that he was going to keel over; he blew into the coffee shops shivering hard, only to discover white patches on his chin, and fiendishly pinpricking fingers and ears.


pages: 501 words: 145,097

The Men Who United the States: America's Explorers, Inventors, Eccentrics and Mavericks, and the Creation of One Nation, Indivisible by Simon Winchester

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British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, Donner party, estate planning, Etonian, full employment, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, James Watt: steam engine, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Plutocrats, plutocrats, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

He lived in the mountains and knew full well the problems of finding a way through them. Maybe he had at last found the answer, and he would take Judah up into the hills and have him gaze at a vista he had seen himself some days before, then let him draw what Doc Strong suspected were the inevitable conclusions. The two men went to the local livery stable and secured a pair of strong horses. They then started up the trail—unmarked, except for some relic scars of the Donner party and their rescuers of fourteen years before. It took some hours as they hacked their way through the sweet-smelling pines and over small creeks, gaining altitude steadily, the air cooling, the breeze rising. Finally they reached a summit, at eight thousand feet or so, and Doc Strong gestured to Judah to look before him, eastward, and to prepare to be amazed. As indeed he was. There was no mistaking what he was seeing.


pages: 506 words: 167,034

Riding Rockets: The Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut by Mike Mullane

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, feminist movement, financial independence, invisible hand, Magellanic Cloud, placebo effect, Potemkin village, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, space pen, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Like Chinese coolies, the Mullane boys would saw, hack, lever, or sheer-muscle any obstacle out of the way. Not that some of these excursions didn’t put us in peril, like the time we were deep into the mountains of southern New Mexico when the radiator boiled over. It was obvious from the virgin dust there had been no traffic for many days, possibly weeks, maybe never. This was long before the days of cell phones. There would be no call to a tow truck. We were facing Donner Party extinction. My dad, an expert at repairing planes, always carried an extensive set of tools in the car. Unfortunately, it seemed every time we broke down we were missing that one tool we needed. Apparently, our station wagon didn’t have the engine of a C-124. On this occasion, though, no tool was going to help us. We needed water and there was none around. But my dad was nothing if not resourceful.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management

One of these was William Underwood, who led the switch from glass jars to tin cans, perfected in the 1840s, and who would soon become famous for America’s first registered trademark, granted in 1867 to his Underwood’s deviled ham and turkey.20 Another of the earliest entrepreneurs of canned food was Gail Borden, whose entrepreneurial career was worthy of his contemporary, Horatio Alger: “According to legend, he had been shocked by the Donner Party disaster,”21 in which a group of pioneers snowbound in 1846 in the Sierra Nevada resorted to cannibalism for survival. Borden was determined to perfect a method for reducing or “condensing” food so that it would provide nourishment in a relatively small package. The invention which made his name and fortune was condensed milk, which he patented in 1856. Soon the Civil War would provide a ready market for his canned nourishment among the northern troops and sealed his success as an early pioneer of canned food.