UNCLOS

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pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

The Rule of Law The second reason to doubt the eruption of an Arctic War lies in UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Contrary to popular perception the Arctic is not a ruptured piñata. On land, its international political borders are uncontested. For the Arctic Ocean, there are now clear procedural rules for laying claim to its seabed, and indeed any other seabed. Most importantly, just about every country in the world seems to be following them. UNCLOS was negotiated over a nine-year period from 1973 to 1982 and has emerged as one of the most sweeping, stabilizing international treaties in the world. As of 2009 it was ratified by 158 countries, with many more in various stages of doing so. Of the eight NORC countries, seven have ratified UNCLOS. The one glaring holdout—the United States of America—is obeying all UNCLOS rules and sending signals that it will eventually ratify the treaty.

Her real claim to the North Pole was not from a flag, but from the geological samples collected by this and many other Russian expeditions in the Arctic. These data would prove that the Lomonosov Ridge—an underwater mountain chain, rising some three thousand meters above the seafloor, that bisects the Arctic Ocean—was geologically attached to Russia’s continental shelf. This would win her sovereignty of a huge chunk of ocean floor—possibly including the North Pole—in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). UNCLOS and geology are critically important to this story, as we shall see shortly. But in late 2007 the world’s eyes were transfixed by that flag, not sediment samples. The great global economic contraction was still a year away. Energy demand was soaring and resurgent Russia, fueled by hundred-dollars-a-barrel oil and Putin’s steely gaze, was growing increasingly assertive on the world stage. Two months later, when the news hit about the record-shattering low in the amount of summertime Arctic sea ice,325 the image of uncorked shipping lanes, vast new energy reserves, and Russians planting flags in a brand-new ocean proved too much to resist.

It therefore constitutes one of the most agreed-upon rulebooks in international law and is a highly effective agent of order. The cornerstone of UNCLOS is the creation of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending from a country’s coastline for 200 nautical miles (about 230 statute miles) outward into the ocean. A country has sole sovereignty over all resources, living and nonliving, within its EEZ. It has the right to make rules and management plans and collect rents for the management and exploitation of these resources. The invention of these zones has greatly reduced “tragedy-of-the-commons” overfishing and other resource pressures and disputes in the world’s coastal oceans. That’s not to say UNCLOS is perfect. Now, disputes break out over island specks because they anchor a claim to a 200 nm radius circle on the surrounding seafloor.


pages: 286 words: 87,870

The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World by Jay Bahadur

collective bargaining, failed state, private military company, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning

This estimate is based on the cost to the shipping companies; once financial, legal, and private security fees are tacked on, the total cost of delivering a ransom roughly doubles. CHAPTER 10: THE LAW OF THE SEA 1. Marie Woolf, “Pirates Can Claim UK Asylum,” Times (London), April 13, 2008, http://www.thetimes.co.uk. 2. Preceding the UNCLOS treaty of 1982, Somalia was one of a handful of states to claim a territorial sea of two hundred nautical miles, through its Law No. 37 of 1972. One of the primary motivators behind UNCLOS was the need to standardize the width of territorial seas, which the convention achieved by limiting its signatories to a territorial sea of twelve nautical miles. Though Somalia was amongst the first countries to ratify UNCLOS, Law No. 37 was never subsequently repealed, leaving an ambiguity surrounding the status of Somalia’s territorial seas. “From the behaviour of states patrolling the waters off the coast of Somalia it would seem clear that they assume that the external limit of the Somali territorial sea is 12 miles,” writes Tullio Treves, a judge at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in Hamburg.

The metaphor was not entirely apt; unlike the streets of London, on the high seas it is not a crime under international law to carry firearms, even when they consist of a rather suspicious assortment of Kalashnikovs and rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) permits the seizure of “pirate ship[s] or aircraft” without actually catching the occupants in an act of piracy but also without clarifying what constitutes adequate grounds to do so. This omission is especially problematic given that a Somali fishing boat with a few Kalashnikovs stashed in the bottom could as easily contain legitimate fishermen as pirates. The danger is that by prosecuting suspects for “conspiracy to commit piracy,” countries would be giving an unprecedented interpretation to UNCLOS, one that unfairly targets all seafaring Somalis. So far, the Seychelles has been the only country to pass such a law. The international naval effort, Harbour conceded, represented only part of the solution to the piracy crisis, which in the end had to be resolved on the ground.

It was probably the closest thing to an admission of guilt that anyone was ever going to get out of Hassan. * * * Although his appeal was rejected, Hassan’s lawyer raised an interesting legal challenge. At the time, the Kenyan penal code contained no explicit provisions specifying how to treat suspects captured on the high seas; in essence, Kenya had never implemented its obligations under UNCLOS and the SUA Convention in its domestic legal system. This all changed in February 2009, when the Kenyan parliament passed the Merchant Shipping Act. Adopting the UNCLOS definition of piracy, the legislation explicitly assumed jurisdiction over piracy offences regardless of “whether the ship … is in Kenya or elsewhere,” whether the offences were “committed in Kenya or elsewhere,” and irrespective of the nationality of the person committing the act.12 By unilaterally extending its extraterritorial jurisdiction over non-nationals, argues Kenyan legal scholar James Gathii, the Kenyan government “exceed[ed] the bases for jurisdiction in the SUA Convention.”13 It was precisely to avoid this kind of conflict that the UN had advocated the shiprider option; with Kenyan law enforcement representatives posted on foreign warships to arrest pirate suspects at the source, Kenya’s jurisdiction over them would not be in question.


pages: 441 words: 113,244

Seasteading: How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity From Politicians by Joe Quirk, Patri Friedman

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Celtic Tiger, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Dean Kamen, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, stem cell, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, young professional

Beyond 200 nautical miles is the high seas, where ocean industries in cooperation with international governing bodies have developed a polycentric system of rules managing 45 percent of the planet’s surface that is unclaimed by countries. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an international agreement signed by 167 countries—excluding the United States, which generally takes the position that most of the substantive portions of UNCLOS reflect long-standing customary international law. UNCLOS defines the limits of a nation’s jurisdiction at sea in three zones of decreasing sovereignty. The first 12 nautical miles are a nation’s “territorial waters,” where land-based governments have the same power they have on land. The area 12 to 24 nautical miles from the coast is a sort of buffer called the “contiguous zone,” where a state may pursue vessels that break certain laws or pose a threat to the coastal nation.

Prelude floating liquefied natural gas facility: December 3, 2013 Shell press release. Accessed July 13, 2016. www.shell.com/global/aboutshell/media/news-and-media-releases/2013/shell-floats-hull-for-worlds-largest-floating-facility.html. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS): Part V—Exclusive Economic Zone (II). (n.d.). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 489-510. Online version: PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA. (n.d.), accessed February 17, 2016, www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part5.htm. 45 percent of the planet’s surface that is unclaimed by countries: Global Ocean Commission, (n.d.). “Governing the High Seas,” accessed February 17, 2016, www.globaloceancommission.org/the-global-ocean/the-global-governance-gap. See also infographics at: http://theterramarproject.org/#&panel1-1.

When people love seasteads as much as they love cruise ships, permanent voluntary societies will evolve from the temporary voluntary societies we have now. The cruise ship industry has already profitably pioneered the market niche of mobile crafts with de facto legal autonomy that compel land nations to compete to please them. Q: Isn’t the ocean an untamed wilderness? Landlubbers don’t hear much about UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. This is evidence of how well it functions. Myriad ocean industries in concert with maritime lawyers have already civilized the seas, fostering global cooperation among diverse cultures. We wish we could say that for some old land cities. The untamed wildernesses today are lawless lands, not oceans. People do not populate a domain without developing rules, and markets cannot prosper without them.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

Scientific American blog, September 8, 2012. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/09/08/breaking-the-ice/. Grydehøj, Anne, Adam Grydehøj, and Maria Akrén. “The Globalization of the Arctic: Negotiating Sovereignty and Building Communities in Svalbard, Norway.” Island Studies Journal 7, no. 1 (2012), 99–119. United Nations Convention of Law of the Sea, Part V: Exclusive Economic Zone, UNCLOS Treaty. http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part5.htm. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, The Arctic: Exploration Timeline, Polar Discovery, 2009. http://polardiscovery.whoi.edu/arctic/330.html. INDEX A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition. Clicking on a page number will take you to the ebook location that corresponds to the beginning of that page in the print edition.

Running gas pipelines will not be possible in many places, and building a complex liquefaction infrastructure at sea, especially in tough conditions, is very expensive. However, the financial and strategic gains to be made mean that the big players will try to stake a claim to the territories and begin drilling, and that the potential environmental consequences are unlikely to stop them. The claims to sovereignty are not based on the flags of the early explorers but on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This affirms that a signatory to the convention has exclusive economic rights from its shore to a limit of two hundred nautical miles (unless this conflicts with another country’s limits), and can declare it an exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The oil and gas in the zone are therefore considered to belong to the state. In certain circumstances, and subject to scientific evidence concerning a country’s continental shelf, that country can apply to extend the EEZ to 350 nautical miles from its coast.

In 2012, it had to rely on a Russian ship to resupply its research base in Antarctica, which was a triumph for great-power cooperation, but simultaneously a demonstration of how far behind the United States has fallen. No other nation presents a challenge, either: Canada has six icebreakers and is building a new one; Finland has eight; Sweden, seven; and Denmark, four. China, Germany, and Norway have one each. The United States has another problem. It has not ratified the UNCLOS treaty, effectively ceding two hundred thousand square miles of undersea territory in the Arctic because it has not staked a claim for an EEZ. Nevertheless, it is in dispute with Canada over potential offshore oil rights and access to the waters in the Canadian archipelago. Canada says they are an “internal waterway,” the United States says they are a strait for international navigation not governed by Canadian law.


pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George

Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, Jones Act, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

They are the ones who clean your cruise cabin and work in the engine room, who bring your gas, your soybeans, your perfumes and medicine. Seafaring can be a good life. And it can go wrong with the speed of a wave. On paper the seas are tightly controlled. The Dutch scholar Grotius’s 1609 concept of mare liberum still mostly holds: a free sea that belongs to no state but in which each state has some rights. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is known as the umbrella convention with reason: its 320 articles, excluding annexes, aim to create ‘a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment’.

For three years, all his enquiries got nowhere. Other interested parties were also trying to get answers, from the FCO to Nautilus International, the UK seafarers’ union of which Captain Milloy had been a member. Still nothing appeared, because there was nothing to oblige Panama to do anything. The procedure that should follow a marine casualty is clearly laid out by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), all the major instruments of international maritime law. All specify that flag states should carry out prompt investigations into any accident involving loss of life. MARPOL is the most insistent, requiring a report of an incident involving harmful substances to be ‘made without delay to the fullest extent possible’.

$1.3 billion a year, Bloomberg Businessweek, editorial, ‘How the Jones Act blocks natural disaster relief’, 1 January 2013. – US fleet has declined by 82 per cent since 1951 ‘Comparison of US and foreign-flag operating costs’, US Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, September 2011, p.26. 9 A legal order for the seas and oceans United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Preamble, p.25. 10 Consensual but rough Baroness Jane Campbell has called for an inquiry into Akhona’s death on the grounds that Safmarine Kariba was a UK-flagged ship. As she said in the House of Lords in 2011, ‘For women, living and working on board ship requires great dedication, tolerance and self-belief. Often they will be the only female on board, with a group of men used to a male only environment.


pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

“United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,” December 10, 1982, United Nations, www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf. The United States signed but never ratified the Law of the Sea Treaty, which established rules for territorial seas, navigational rights, economic zones, and resource exploitation. U.S. strategic interests would be well served by ratification and full participation in arrangements relating to the treaty, but the Senate has refused to do so, alleging (unconvincingly) that the treaty would infringe U.S. sovereignty. See Stewart M. Patrick, “Everyone Agrees: Ratify the Law of the Sea,” The Internationalist (blog), CFR.org, June 8, 2012, http://blogs.cfr.org/patrick/2012/06/08/everyone-agrees-ratify-the-law-of-the-sea/; and Thomas Wright, “Outlaw of the Sea: The Senate Republicans’ UNCLOS Blunder,” ForeignAffairs.com, August 7, 2012, www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/oceans/2012-08-07/outlaw-sea. 12.


pages: 158 words: 45,927

Brexit: What the Hell Happens Now?: The Facts About Britain's Bitter Divorce From Europe 2016 by Ian Dunt

Boris Johnson, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy security, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, open borders, Silicon Valley, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

For more details on farm subsidies and the types of farms which require them see (https://fullfact.org/economy/farming-subsidies-uk/) Farms concerned with livestock like beef and sheep would be particularly vulnerable. For more on the beef industry’s reliance on subsidies: (http://beefandlamb. ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/p_cp_inthebalance.pdf) In practical terms that means we control economic activity taking place up to 200 miles out to sea. The 200 miles rule is part of the UN Law of the Sea Convention (http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e. pdf#page=37) This would not suit the British palate. UK vessels land around 400,000 tonnes of fish each year in the UK, alongside up to 300,000 tonnes abroad. Britain remains a net importer of fish, however, with net imports of around 220,000 tonnes in 2014, worth £1.2bn. (http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN02788/SN02788.pdf) This partly explains why the fishing industry was so stridently pro-Brexit during the campaign.


pages: 399 words: 120,226

Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett

British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Defining the crime had become something of a political football. When piracy takes place in the waters of one nation—no matter the national origin of ship, crew, or cargo—that country wants to call it a robbery at sea and they expect to handle it. This was and still is part of the problem: Many piratical events today under the law are territorial matters. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) definition is very specific: Any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft and directed: On the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such a ship or aircraft, or against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft . . .

In January 2002 two police boats, pursuing an Indonesian longboat carrying fifty-four illegal immigrants including several women, were bombarded with firebombs. When police attempted to board, they were attacked by the desperate immigrants armed with parangs and axes. 35 These boats exchange cut timber, copra, and palm oil from Indonesia for cartons of soft drinks, live chickens, and kerosene in Malaysia, an age-old tradition of commerce between the two nations. 36 Article 105 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) allows the seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft: On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates and arrest the persons and seize the property on board. Article 111 permits hot pursuit within limits: The hot pursuit of a foreign ship may be undertaken when the competent authorities of the coastal State have good reason to believe that the ship has violated the law and regulations of that State.

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Shamal Shaw, Graham Shell Shell Malaysia Trading She-tou (the Snakeheads) Shikishima Shipboard Procedures Operating Manual (Petroships) Ship hijackings Alondra Rainbow Anna Sierra Cheung Son Fu Tai Hualien No. 1 Inabukwa Ship hijackings, (continued) organized crime syndicates and Petchem Petro Ranger Selayang Ten-yu ShipLoc tracking device Singapore Singapore Bay Singapore Marine Police Singapore Straits Singh Slocum, Joshua Slutsk Socotra Somalia So San South China Sea Southern Boarding Ground Southern Red Sea Spain Special Air Service (SAS) Spotswood, Alexander Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Star Aquarius Staten Island Ferry Stevenson, Doug Stolt Nielsen Company Stolt Venture Stowaways Straits of Hormuz Stresa Suez Canal Suharto regime Suicide bombers Suli Sumarlin, Ade Sumatra Sunda Straits Surabaya, Indonesia Swain, Captain John SWAT teams Syria Taiwan Tamil guerrillas Tanjung Balai Tanker War Tanzania Tarapore, Homi Ten-yu Terra-Marine Agencies Terrorism (see also Piracy) Achille Lauro seizure by Basque separatists container ships and manning policies and Ocean Silver attack relationship to piracy river traffic and September 11, 2001, attacks suicide bombers and training and USS Cole attack Thailand Than Maung Myint, Captain Theresa Tides Tirta Niaga IV Titanic Titanic (movie) Traffic Separation Scheme Travnik, Viktor Twillinger Two-hull system Udoye, Vincent Chibueze U Ne Win Unicorn United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Constabulary (UKAEAC) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) United Philippines Lines Unmanned Machinery Space system Uranium U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 U.S. Seventh Fleet U.S. Sixth Fleet U.S. Special Forces U.S. State Department USNS Niagara Falls USS Cole Val de Loire Valiant Carrier attack on Vessel Particulars Questionnaire Vessel Traffic Information Service VHF radio Vietnam Vietnamese boat people Vietnam War Vung Tau, Vietnam Wahhabism Walking the plank Warlords Warren, James Wasim Water ballast tanks Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Weather Wellington, HQS Wellington Offshore, Ltd.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

The end of the Cold War led to the end of many of those dictatorships, but the new threat of Islamic terrorism, in part the direct result of an earlier foreign-policy error in Afghanistan, created a new set of circumstances only the outlines of which are visible today. Although there is much concern about the supposedly novel unilateralism in American policy today, this is nothing new. The United States may not have signed on to the Kyoto protocols or other recent treaties, but neither did it ratify the much older UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) or a number of other international agreements with pre-2000 datelines. What is new, however, is worldwide American interven-tionism in response to the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, a byproduct of which is an inconsistent campaign to install or advocate democracy in countries ruled by authoritarian regimes (inconsistent because it exempts stronger regimes such as China as well as others whose resources are crucial to the American economy, such as Saudi Arabia).

These tiny Kurile islands are the reason why the Soviet Union, and now Russia, never signed a peace treaty with Japan ending their conflict. Over the years, various attempts to settle the issue have failed, despite generous offers by the Japanese to fund development projects in the Russian Far East, help develop ports and infrastructure, and initiate joint ventures. About 50,000 Russians have settled there, and when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) took effect, the islands acquired not only a 12-mile territorial sea but also a 200-mile maritime exclusive economic zone (EEZ), enhancing their value. As to the Japanese, for all their bluster they cannot afford to play hardball with a Russia whose energy resources they badly need. The Russians will be on their Kurile outposts for awhile yet. At the opposite end of Eurasia, Russia's relationships with the West, and especially with the European Union, are more complicated.

But in countless contexts, from keeping the peace in East Asia to making peace possible in Eastern Europe, from combating AIDS in Subsaharan Africa to pressing Sudan on the rights of its Southerners, from extending free trade in the Americas to ending the nuclear threat in rogue-state Libya, the United States has played a key role in making this a better world. Certainly the United States could and should do better; in terms of per capita aid to poorer countries, for example, the American government ranks near the lowest among the rich countries (but private donations are among the most generous). The United States' decision not to participate in the Kyoto, UNCLOS, International Criminal Court, and other current muhinational initiatives may be justifiable in the context of their particular impact on this superpower, but to the world it appears to place national interests before global concerns. Inconsistencies in the pursuit of doctrines regarding freedom and democracy create worldwide political uncertainties on which America's adversaries are capitalizing.


The Outlaw Ocean: Journeys Across the Last Untamed Frontier by Ian Urbina

9 dash line, Airbnb, British Empire, clean water, Costa Concordia, crowdsourcing, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, forensic accounting, global value chain, illegal immigration, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Maui Hawaii, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, standardized shipping container, statistical arbitrage, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

“Think of the word ‘seafood’ itself”: Based on interviews in 2017 with Paul Greenberg. For more of Greenberg’s perspective on the subject, see Paul Greenberg, Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food (New York: Penguin Books, 2011); Paul Greenberg, “Ocean Blues,” New York Times Magazine, May 13, 2007. The nineteenth-century British: Carlos Espósito et al., Ocean Law and Policy: Twenty Years of Development Under the UNCLOS Regime (Leiden: Koninklijk Brill NV, 2017). This belief carried into the twentieth century: Daniel Hawthorne and Minot Francis, The Inexhaustible Sea (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1954). Since the 1990s, ships: “Automatic Identification System Overview,” U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Center website, Oct. 23, 2018. As the 2015 capture: David Manthos, “Avast! Pirate Fishing Vessel Caught in Palau with Illegal Tuna & Shark Fins,” SkyTruth, March 4, 2015.

The prosecutor also said that the family of Andrade did not want Robelo to be jailed, probably because they believed she was genuinely trying to help men find work. CHAPTER 9 THE NEXT FRONTIER Arguably the least policed: Oversight of the ocean subsurface is fractured, and rules vary by depth. Although the water column and the seabed below two hundred meters are interconnected, they are managed on a sector-by-sector basis. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an umbrella framework for international ocean management. Multilateral regional fishery management organizations regulate commercial fisheries harvests; the International Maritime Organization manages shipping; and the International Seabed Authority regulates mining of the international seabed. But the management of other activities like dumping, laying submarine internet cables, bio-prospecting for new medicinal discoveries, and military weaponry testing that affect the ocean column or floor are regulated by a single-sector approach or virtually not at all.

., “BNP Activist Slaughtered,” Independent, Nov. 19, 2003; “4 Kidnapped Fishermen Rescued in Sundarbans,” United News of Bangladesh, Feb. 4, 2014; “4 Pirates Held in Laxmipur,” United News of Bangladesh, Aug. 31, 2013; “5 Kidnapped Fishermen Rescued in Sundarbans,” Financial Express, July 7, 2014; “8 Fishermen Injured by Bullets in Bay,” Financial Express, Feb. 17, 2015; “10 Suspected Terrorists Killed in Bangladesh Gun Battle,” Japan Economic Newswire, Sept. 30, 2004; “25 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans,” United News of Bangladesh, May 24, 2014; “40 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans; 15 Hurt,” United News of Bangladesh, Feb. 17, 2014; “50 Fishermen Kidnapped,” Dhaka Herald, Nov. 3, 2013; “68 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans, Sea,” Bangladesh Chronicle, Sept. 15, 2013; “70 Abducted Fishermen Rescued, 26 Boats Seized,” New Nation, Oct. 4, 2013; “100 Fishermen Abducted,” New Nation, Aug. 18, 2013. Moni’s claims pivoted: It’s worth fleshing out the fuller list of terminology. Under UNCLOS, Article 101, for an act to be considered piracy, it must meet all the following criteria: That the attack (1) involved either (a) illegal acts of violence or detention, (b) voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft, or (c) the act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an illegal act of violence or detention, or voluntary participation in the operation of a ship used for piracy; (2) was committed for private ends; (3) was committed by the crew or passengers of a private ship; and (4) occurred on the high seas or outside the jurisdiction of any State (meaning more than twelve nautical miles from a country’s shoreline).


pages: 535 words: 151,217

Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment

The Nine-Dash Line became, by the stated policy of the Politburo, the outer limit of Chinese sovereignty, and it has remained so through successive Beijing regimes, no matter what others might say. The Nine-Dash Line, drawn by China as a series of penciled lines on a postwar map of the South China Sea, showed the area of ocean still claimed by the Chinese as their own. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy insists it can act with impunity within the line; others, the United States included, dispute the claim, hotly.* [UNCLOS and CIA.] And they say a great deal. There are scores of islands within the line, most notably the Spratly Islands down south, close to the Philippines, and the Paracel Islands up north, near Hainan. The governments of Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Vietnam, and even Taiwan all insist they have historic claim to the Spratlys. Vietnam and Taiwan say the same about various Paracel Islands.

., 31, 39–42, 46–47, 66–67 Truro Shoal, 396 Tsingtao beer, 9n Tsing Yi Island, 195, 200 tsunamis, 62, 259, 379, 382 Tuamotu Islands, 438 tube worms (Riftia pachyptila), 324–25 Tumbes, Peru, 249 tuna, 366, 368 Tung Chao Yung, 194–201 Tung Chee Hwa “C. H.,” 198, 200–201 Tupaia, Raiatean priest, 431–32 Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands), 214, 272 Twain, Mark, 132 typhoons, 22, 237–46, 248, 254, 258–59, 261, 378. See also cyclones; hurricanes defined 236n Haiyan, 237–43, 240, 245, 254, 264 Tip, 237, 246 Yunya, 383 Ukraine, 407, 410 UNCLOS Exclusive Economic Zone, 394 undersea resources, 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 79, 289, 346, 350 Unification Church, 25 United Flight 154, 1–4, 6–8, 11–12, 20–21 United Nations, 201, 297 Able test and, 59 headquarters, 105 Command Military Armistice Commission, 171, 175 Commission of Inquiry report on North Korea, 181n deep-sea mining and, 333 United States, 295 China and, 118–19, 378, 386–425 colonies and, 190 El Niño and, 261 Hawaii becomes colony of, 351–52 Japan and, 88, 91, 115–16, 118 Korea and, 155, 178, 183 Marshall Islands and, 12–17, 45–46 Micronesia and, 11–12 military bases, 379–81, 390–91, 418–19 missile tests and, 375 nuclear tests and, 12–14, 17, 19, 32–33, 41, 46–64 ocean protection and, 367 Pueblo and, 152–76, 187 surfing and, 134–37, 142 Vietnam War and, 27, 206–11, 211 U.S.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Washington formally supported a “regional” solution to the South China Sea disputes, and, crucially, announced that the “freedom of navigation” in international waters constituted an American national interest—signaling Washington’s indispensable role in and commitment to ensuring regional stability. To demonstrate its solidarity with ASEAN, Washington encouraged the establishment of a binding code of conduct in the disputed areas, in accordance with the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and the relevant provisions of international law, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Although not a direct party to the UNCLOS, the US nevertheless maintains that in practice it observes it and encourages signatories, particularly China, to behave within the boundaries of international law and related treaty obligations. Washington’s critics, however, maintain that the US is using the maritime disputes as a pretext to isolate China, increase arms exports to allies, and justify as well as further expand its already significant military presence in the region.


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

So there is ample reason for a rising China to think of that strategic waterway possessively, as the United States has historically regarded its own nearby Caribbean.18 Several nations in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines, have traditionally taken a very different view, supported by the United States.19 In January 2013, the Philippines instituted arbitration proceedings against the PRC under UNCLOS Annex VII with the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague. China adopted a position of nonacceptance and nonparticipation in the proceedings.20 China also responded with land reclamation in the Spratlys, including the construction of artificial islands for military purposes, and by erecting oil rigs in the Paracels.21 In July 2016 the PCA rendered its ruling in favor of the Philippines.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

These treaties, effectively nullified by America’s refusal to infringe its sovereign rights, include the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty; the Kyoto Protocol; the Convention on Discrimination Against Women; the Conventions on the Rights of the Child; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Chemical Weapons Convention; the Land Mine Ban Treaty; the International Criminal Court; and the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Here then is the paradox: sovereignty, the state’s defining essence and greatest virtue, is impressively impervious to encroachment, resistant to pooling, and defiant in the face of the brute facts of our new century’s interdependence. Never before has sovereign power been used so effectively to impede and thwart collective action. In the world of independence, sovereignty works; in the world of interdependence, it is dysfunctional.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

LNG, 39–40 withdrawal from Paris Agreement, 382 Tunisia, 236 Turkey and Eastern Mediterranean petroleum resources, 257 and global order after First World War, 200–202 and Iraqi oil infrastructure, 232 and ISIS, 269 and Khashoggi affair, 305 and Qatar and Russian gas pipelines, 85, 104 and Saudi Arabia, 306–7 and Syrian civil war, 245 Turkmenistan, 120, 179–80 Turkomans, 202 Tusk, Donald, 102 Twitter, 237, 382 Uber, 358–65, 367, 369, 372 Uchiyamada, Takeshi, 338 Uighurs, 180 Ukraine and collapse of Soviet Union, 73–74 and current geopolitical challenges, 426 and East-West tensions, 90–93 and gas supplies to Europe, 110 and Gazprom, 80–82 and politics of U.S. shale production, 55 and Russian annexation of Crimea, 94–98 and Russian gas exports, 102, 104–5, 107–8, 110, 112, 113 and Russian geopolitical strategy, 78–80 and Russian political isolation, 246 United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arab Spring protests, 241 and Iranian nuclear ambitions, 225, 228 and price war among petroleum producers, 313 and Saudi Arabia, 300–302, 306 and Yemen conflict, 251–52 United Arab Republic, 243 United Kingdom. See Britain and the United Kingdom United Nations, 148, 203, 226, 239, 251–52, 284, 379–80 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 144–46, 152 United Nations Security Council, 223 United States abundance of natural gas, 420 and China, 150, 165–76, 188–89, 425–26 and first oil imports from the Middle East, 52 as gas exporter, 31–40 and green deal proposals, 321–23, 391–93 and Iran, 209, 220–28 and Iraq War, 217 and ISIS, 267, 270–71 and Latin American energy markets, 41–45 manufacturing renaissance, 25–28, 29–30 and mujahedeen fighters in Afghanistan, 297 and Nasser’s Arab nationalism, 203, 204 oil and gas production leadership, xiv, 114 and Persian Gulf conflicts, 210–19 and pipeline battles, 46–48, 49–51, 50 pivot to Asia, 181 and price war among petroleum producers, 314, 316 and push for renewable energy sources, 398–99 and Russian geopolitical strategy, 78–80, 95–96, 114, 115–16, 118, 122 and Russian interests in Central Asia, 124–25 and Saudi Arabia, 303, 308 Security Council, 223 and shale gas and oil production, xiii–xiv, 3–6, 9–10, 14–17, 24, 52–57, 58–66 and Syrian civil war, 246 terrorist attacks against, 208, 216, 221, 222, 226, 228, 237, 249, 264–65 as top oil producer, 65 and Ukrainian independence, 80 and varied approaches to climate change, 413–14 and Yemen conflict, 249, 251 See also specific U.S. institutions U.S.