UNCLOS

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pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

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Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

The Rule of Law The second reason to doubt the eruption of an Arctic War lies in UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Contrary to popular perception the Arctic is not a ruptured piñata. On land, its international political borders are uncontested. For the Arctic Ocean, there are now clear procedural rules for laying claim to its seabed, and indeed any other seabed. Most importantly, just about every country in the world seems to be following them. UNCLOS was negotiated over a nine-year period from 1973 to 1982 and has emerged as one of the most sweeping, stabilizing international treaties in the world. As of 2009 it was ratified by 158 countries, with many more in various stages of doing so. Of the eight NORC countries, seven have ratified UNCLOS. The one glaring holdout—the United States of America—is obeying all UNCLOS rules and sending signals that it will eventually ratify the treaty.

Her real claim to the North Pole was not from a flag, but from the geological samples collected by this and many other Russian expeditions in the Arctic. These data would prove that the Lomonosov Ridge—an underwater mountain chain, rising some three thousand meters above the seafloor, that bisects the Arctic Ocean—was geologically attached to Russia’s continental shelf. This would win her sovereignty of a huge chunk of ocean floor—possibly including the North Pole—in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). UNCLOS and geology are critically important to this story, as we shall see shortly. But in late 2007 the world’s eyes were transfixed by that flag, not sediment samples. The great global economic contraction was still a year away. Energy demand was soaring and resurgent Russia, fueled by hundred-dollars-a-barrel oil and Putin’s steely gaze, was growing increasingly assertive on the world stage.

It began in the 1960s with major discoveries in Alaska, Canada, and the West Siberian Lowland and shows no signs of abating. World interest in the Arctic, in particular, is fueled either by environmental concern for its threatened ecosystems, or excitement over perceived new bonanzas in oil and gas. The newest frontier is the Arctic seabed. The previous chapter discussed the geopolitical commotion this dawning realization has spawned, and the critical importance of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). A 2008 auction offered by the U.S. Minerals Management Service sold a whopping $2.8 billion worth of Arctic offshore leases; the Canadian government similarly won record-breaking bids for leases in the Beaufort Sea.408 In 2009 a first comprehensive assessment of the Arctic Ocean’s oil and gas potential was published in Science by the U.S. Geological Survey, and the associated data files were released to the public.409 This assessment, which is still incomplete and ongoing, suggests that nearly a third of the world’s undiscovered natural gas and 13% of its undiscovered oil lies north of the Arctic Circle (see maps pp. viii-xi).


pages: 286 words: 87,870

The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World by Jay Bahadur

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collective bargaining, failed state, private military company, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning

The metaphor was not entirely apt; unlike the streets of London, on the high seas it is not a crime under international law to carry firearms, even when they consist of a rather suspicious assortment of Kalashnikovs and rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) permits the seizure of “pirate ship[s] or aircraft” without actually catching the occupants in an act of piracy but also without clarifying what constitutes adequate grounds to do so. This omission is especially problematic given that a Somali fishing boat with a few Kalashnikovs stashed in the bottom could as easily contain legitimate fishermen as pirates. The danger is that by prosecuting suspects for “conspiracy to commit piracy,” countries would be giving an unprecedented interpretation to UNCLOS, one that unfairly targets all seafaring Somalis. So far, the Seychelles has been the only country to pass such a law. The international naval effort, Harbour conceded, represented only part of the solution to the piracy crisis, which in the end had to be resolved on the ground.

* * * Since ancient Rome, pirates have been labelled as hostis humani generis—“enemies of all mankind”—and piracy has been considered a crime of universal jurisdiction, giving states the right to arrest and prosecute suspected offenders outside national boundaries, such as the high seas. Two principal instruments of modern international law define the procedures for exercising this jurisdiction: the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA Convention). Of the two, the SUA Convention is considered to be the more robust, as it contains a broader definition of piracy and includes explicit instructions for extraditions amongst its signatories. In practice, this permits the master of a ship to deliver captured pirates to another state party, thereby theoretically allowing nearby acceding countries like Kenya, Djibouti, Yemen, and Tanzania to prosecute offenders.

The legal argument used to reject the appeal rested on two principles: first, that piracy on the high seas was a crime under the Kenyan penal code; second, that piracy was a crime under international customary law, or jus gentium, and thus the Kenyan High Court was justified in extending its jurisdiction beyond the nation’s borders. Ibid., 4, 8–9. 11. “Jail Sentence for Somali pirates,” BBC News, November 1, 2006, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news. 12. Quoted in Gathii, “Jurisdiction to Prosecute Non-National Pirates,” 11–12. Article 101 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea defines piracy as follows: (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b). 13.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World by Tim Marshall

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9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

Running gas pipelines will not be possible in many places, and building a complex liquefaction infrastructure at sea, especially in tough conditions, is very expensive. However, the financial and strategic gains to be made mean that the big players will try to stake a claim to the territories and begin drilling, and that the potential environmental consequences are unlikely to stop them. The claims to sovereignty are not based on the flags of the early explorers but on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This affirms that a signatory to the convention has exclusive economic rights from its shore to a limit of two hundred nautical miles (unless this conflicts with another country’s limits), and can declare it an exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The oil and gas in the zone are therefore considered to belong to the state. In certain circumstances, and subject to scientific evidence concerning a country’s continental shelf, that country can apply to extend the EEZ to 350 nautical miles from its coast.

See also Islamic State/ISIS civil war, 5 and Russia, 22–23, 35 Taiwan/Republic of China (ROC), 36–37, 38–39, 43, 54, 55, 56–57, 58, 82, 208, 229 Tajikistan, 4–5, 8–9, 20, 36–37, 46, 49–50, 51 Takeshima/Dokdo Islands, 193, 206 Taliban, 4–5, 181–88 Tamil Nadu, 172 Tanzania, 109, 112, 114, 119, 120, 127, 130, 131 Tel Aviv, 153, 156 terrorism, 28, 106, 179, 182–83, 186, 188 Texas, 62–63, 67, 70–71, 222 Thailand, 36–37, 53, 55, 78–79, 168–69, 191 Thar Desert, 168–69, 180 Theroux, Paul, 48 Thule, 240–41, 243 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989), 44 Tibet, 7, 36–37, 41, 43–44, 46–50, 51, 178, 179, 188–90 Tibetan Plateau, 36–37, 40, 47 Tierra del Fuego, 215, 218 Tigris River, 133, 135, 139 Tikrit, 139, 141, 148, 150 Transistria, 29, 30 Transjordan, 142 Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), 219–20 Triple Entente (1907), 99–100, 136 Tripolitania, 116–17 Truman, Harry, 199 Turkey, 8–9, 29, 32, 86–87, 93, 133, 141, 145–46, 157, 159, 161–64 control of Bosporus, 22, 23, 163–64 and Iran, 163 and Russia, 32–33, 80 water supplies, 261 Turkmenistan, 8–9, 20, 133, 158 Tutsi, 119 Twain, Mark, 64 Uganda, 109, 112, 119, 120, 126–27, 131 Uighur people, 50–51 Ukraine, 1, 6, 8–9, 14–16, 20, 21–22, 23–27, 29, 29, 30, 33, 45, 77, 86–87, 91, 96, 102–3, 107 Umayyid Caliphate, 139, 173 UNASUR, 234 United Arab Emirates (UAE), 82–83, 133, 148 United Kingdom (UK), 86–87, 96–97, 103–5 in Afghanistan, 184–85 and China, 43, 44 colonial period, 43, 44, 66–67 and European Union (EU), 100–101, 103, 104–5 Falkland Islands/Las Malvinas, 234, 237–38 and France, 75–76 GIUK (Greenland/Iceland/UK) gap, 23, 86–87, 104, 252 and Iceland, 256 immigrants, 105–6 in India/Pakistan, 172, 173, 178 in the Middle East, 136–37, 141–42, 152–53 naval capacity, 75, 78, 104 Triple Entente (1907), 99–100, 136 and United States, 66–67, 75, 78, 238 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 249, 254 Human Development Index, 119, 120 and Korea, 200 Security Council, 128, 131 United States, 62–63, 64–85. See also names of specific states and Afghanistan, 4–5 and Africa, 84 and Arctic/Arctic Circle, 243, 249, 253–54 and Canada, 62–63, 65, 66 and China, 38–39, 78–83 Cold War, 81, 94, 107, 118, 198–200, 205, 221, 235, 251–53 colonial period, 66–70 and Cuba, 72–73, 195 drones, 124–25, 148–49, 183, 186–87 and drugs, 224–25 energy resources, 33, 82, 84 geography in dictating foreign policy, 7 and Germany, 75 Hispanic population, 71, 222 and India, 191–92 and Iran, 82–83 and Iraq, 84 and Israel, 83 and Japan, 74, 75, 78–79, 81, 200, 208–13 and Korea, 79–80, 194, 198–200 languages, 71, 80, 89, 222 laser technology, 262–63 and Latin America, 83, 226–27, 229–30, 231, 235 and Mexico, 62–63, 66, 70–71, 222–23 Native American nations, 66, 67, 69, 71–72 naval capacity, 38–39, 53–54, 72–74, 75, 78, 79, 82–83, 160 prospects for, 64, 84–85 and Russia, 77–78 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 28, 182–83, 186, 188 space exploration, 262 and Spain, 67, 69–73 strategic depth, 6, 62–63, 64–73 and United Kingdom, 66–67, 75, 78, 238 U.S.

Scientific American blog, September 8, 2012. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/09/08/breaking-the-ice/. Grydehøj, Anne, Adam Grydehøj, and Maria Akrén. “The Globalization of the Arctic: Negotiating Sovereignty and Building Communities in Svalbard, Norway.” Island Studies Journal 7, no. 1 (2012), 99–119. United Nations Convention of Law of the Sea, Part V: Exclusive Economic Zone, UNCLOS Treaty. http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part5.htm. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, The Arctic: Exploration Timeline, Polar Discovery, 2009. http://polardiscovery.whoi.edu/arctic/330.html. INDEX A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition. Clicking on a page number will take you to the ebook location that corresponds to the beginning of that page in the print edition.


pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George

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Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, William Langewiesche

They are the ones who clean your cruise cabin and work in the engine room, who bring your gas, your soybeans, your perfumes and medicine. Seafaring can be a good life. And it can go wrong with the speed of a wave. On paper the seas are tightly controlled. The Dutch scholar Grotius’s 1609 concept of mare liberum still mostly holds: a free sea that belongs to no state but in which each state has some rights. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is known as the umbrella convention with reason: its 320 articles, excluding annexes, aim to create ‘a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment’.

For three years, all his enquiries got nowhere. Other interested parties were also trying to get answers, from the FCO to Nautilus International, the UK seafarers’ union of which Captain Milloy had been a member. Still nothing appeared, because there was nothing to oblige Panama to do anything. The procedure that should follow a marine casualty is clearly laid out by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), all the major instruments of international maritime law. All specify that flag states should carry out prompt investigations into any accident involving loss of life. MARPOL is the most insistent, requiring a report of an incident involving harmful substances to be ‘made without delay to the fullest extent possible’.

US Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, US Water Transportation Statistical Snapshot, February 2011. $1.3 billion a year, Bloomberg Businessweek, editorial, ‘How the Jones Act blocks natural disaster relief’, 1 January 2013. – US fleet has declined by 82 per cent since 1951 ‘Comparison of US and foreign-flag operating costs’, US Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, September 2011, p.26. 9 A legal order for the seas and oceans United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Preamble, p.25. 10 Consensual but rough Baroness Jane Campbell has called for an inquiry into Akhona’s death on the grounds that Safmarine Kariba was a UK-flagged ship. As she said in the House of Lords in 2011, ‘For women, living and working on board ship requires great dedication, tolerance and self-belief. Often they will be the only female on board, with a group of men used to a male only environment.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

These tiny Kurile islands are the reason why the Soviet Union, and now Russia, never signed a peace treaty with Japan ending their conflict. Over the years, various attempts to settle the issue have failed, despite generous offers by the Japanese to fund development projects in the Russian Far East, help develop ports and infrastructure, and initiate joint ventures. About 50,000 Russians have settled there, and when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) took effect, the islands acquired not only a 12-mile territorial sea but also a 200-mile maritime exclusive economic zone (EEZ), enhancing their value. As to the Japanese, for all their bluster they cannot afford to play hardball with a Russia whose energy resources they badly need. The Russians will be on their Kurile outposts for awhile yet. At the opposite end of Eurasia, Russia's relationships with the West, and especially with the European Union, are more complicated.

The end of the Cold War led to the end of many of those dictatorships, but the new threat of Islamic terrorism, in part the direct result of an earlier foreign-policy error in Afghanistan, created a new set of circumstances only the outlines of which are visible today. Although there is much concern about the supposedly novel unilateralism in American policy today, this is nothing new. The United States may not have signed on to the Kyoto protocols or other recent treaties, but neither did it ratify the much older UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) or a number of other international agreements with pre-2000 datelines. What is new, however, is worldwide American interven-tionism in response to the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, a byproduct of which is an inconsistent campaign to install or advocate democracy in countries ruled by authoritarian regimes (inconsistent because it exempts stronger regimes such as China as well as others whose resources are crucial to the American economy, such as Saudi Arabia).

But in countless contexts, from keeping the peace in East Asia to making peace possible in Eastern Europe, from combating AIDS in Subsaharan Africa to pressing Sudan on the rights of its Southerners, from extending free trade in the Americas to ending the nuclear threat in rogue-state Libya, the United States has played a key role in making this a better world. Certainly the United States could and should do better; in terms of per capita aid to poorer countries, for example, the American government ranks near the lowest among the rich countries (but private donations are among the most generous). The United States' decision not to participate in the Kyoto, UNCLOS, International Criminal Court, and other current muhinational initiatives may be justifiable in the context of their particular impact on this superpower, but to the world it appears to place national interests before global concerns. Inconsistencies in the pursuit of doctrines regarding freedom and democracy create worldwide political uncertainties on which America's adversaries are capitalizing.


pages: 399 words: 120,226

Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett

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British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

But, justifiably, there is little faith in the ability of many local officials to investigate crimes that they would prefer to ignore or in which they are indirectly or directly implicated. Defining the crime had become something of a political football. When piracy takes place in the waters of one nation—no matter the national origin of ship, crew, or cargo—that country wants to call it a robbery at sea and they expect to handle it. This was and still is part of the problem: Many piratical events today under the law are territorial matters. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) definition is very specific: Any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft and directed: On the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such a ship or aircraft, or against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft . . .

In January 2002 two police boats, pursuing an Indonesian longboat carrying fifty-four illegal immigrants including several women, were bombarded with firebombs. When police attempted to board, they were attacked by the desperate immigrants armed with parangs and axes. 35 These boats exchange cut timber, copra, and palm oil from Indonesia for cartons of soft drinks, live chickens, and kerosene in Malaysia, an age-old tradition of commerce between the two nations. 36 Article 105 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) allows the seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft: On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates and arrest the persons and seize the property on board. Article 111 permits hot pursuit within limits: The hot pursuit of a foreign ship may be undertaken when the competent authorities of the coastal State have good reason to believe that the ship has violated the law and regulations of that State.

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Shamal Shaw, Graham Shell Shell Malaysia Trading She-tou (the Snakeheads) Shikishima Shipboard Procedures Operating Manual (Petroships) Ship hijackings Alondra Rainbow Anna Sierra Cheung Son Fu Tai Hualien No. 1 Inabukwa Ship hijackings, (continued) organized crime syndicates and Petchem Petro Ranger Selayang Ten-yu ShipLoc tracking device Singapore Singapore Bay Singapore Marine Police Singapore Straits Singh Slocum, Joshua Slutsk Socotra Somalia So San South China Sea Southern Boarding Ground Southern Red Sea Spain Special Air Service (SAS) Spotswood, Alexander Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Star Aquarius Staten Island Ferry Stevenson, Doug Stolt Nielsen Company Stolt Venture Stowaways Straits of Hormuz Stresa Suez Canal Suharto regime Suicide bombers Suli Sumarlin, Ade Sumatra Sunda Straits Surabaya, Indonesia Swain, Captain John SWAT teams Syria Taiwan Tamil guerrillas Tanjung Balai Tanker War Tanzania Tarapore, Homi Ten-yu Terra-Marine Agencies Terrorism (see also Piracy) Achille Lauro seizure by Basque separatists container ships and manning policies and Ocean Silver attack relationship to piracy river traffic and September 11, 2001, attacks suicide bombers and training and USS Cole attack Thailand Than Maung Myint, Captain Theresa Tides Tirta Niaga IV Titanic Titanic (movie) Traffic Separation Scheme Travnik, Viktor Twillinger Two-hull system Udoye, Vincent Chibueze U Ne Win Unicorn United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Constabulary (UKAEAC) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) United Philippines Lines Unmanned Machinery Space system Uranium U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 U.S. Seventh Fleet U.S. Sixth Fleet U.S. Special Forces U.S. State Department USNS Niagara Falls USS Cole Val de Loire Valiant Carrier attack on Vessel Particulars Questionnaire Vessel Traffic Information Service VHF radio Vietnam Vietnamese boat people Vietnam War Vung Tau, Vietnam Wahhabism Walking the plank Warlords Warren, James Wasim Water ballast tanks Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Weather Wellington, HQS Wellington Offshore, Ltd.


pages: 158 words: 45,927

Brexit: What the Hell Happens Now?: The Facts About Britain's Bitter Divorce From Europe 2016 by Ian Dunt

Boris Johnson, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy security, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, open borders, Silicon Valley, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

For more details on farm subsidies and the types of farms which require them see (https://fullfact.org/economy/farming-subsidies-uk/) Farms concerned with livestock like beef and sheep would be particularly vulnerable. For more on the beef industry’s reliance on subsidies: (http://beefandlamb. ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/p_cp_inthebalance.pdf) In practical terms that means we control economic activity taking place up to 200 miles out to sea. The 200 miles rule is part of the UN Law of the Sea Convention (http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e. pdf#page=37) This would not suit the British palate. UK vessels land around 400,000 tonnes of fish each year in the UK, alongside up to 300,000 tonnes abroad. Britain remains a net importer of fish, however, with net imports of around 220,000 tonnes in 2014, worth £1.2bn. (http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN02788/SN02788.pdf) This partly explains why the fishing industry was so stridently pro-Brexit during the campaign.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Washington formally supported a “regional” solution to the South China Sea disputes, and, crucially, announced that the “freedom of navigation” in international waters constituted an American national interest—signaling Washington’s indispensable role in and commitment to ensuring regional stability. To demonstrate its solidarity with ASEAN, Washington encouraged the establishment of a binding code of conduct in the disputed areas, in accordance with the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and the relevant provisions of international law, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Although not a direct party to the UNCLOS, the US nevertheless maintains that in practice it observes it and encourages signatories, particularly China, to behave within the boundaries of international law and related treaty obligations. Washington’s critics, however, maintain that the US is using the maritime disputes as a pretext to isolate China, increase arms exports to allies, and justify as well as further expand its already significant military presence in the region.


pages: 241 words: 83,523

A Swamp Full of Dollars: Pipelines and Paramilitaries at Nigeria's Oil Frontier by Michael Peel

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banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, energy security, informal economy, megacity, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, trade route, UNCLOS, wage slave

I ask Captain Wagner later what he feels he would have the authority to do if he came across a kidnapping or attack on an oil installation. Lawyers say a complex blend of international agreements and domestic rules governing piracy is causing disagreements about when and how other ships can intervene. Some countries feel that they do not have the power for their ships to act under the 26-year-old United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the framework for international maritime rules. The convention authorizes ‘repression STARK FISH ILLITERATES , BUT NOT AND FISHING JUNKIES 145 of piracy’, but only on the high seas rather than in national territorial waters. It also threatens states with financial penalties if they seize ships ‘without adequate grounds’. Captain Wagner acknowledges his powers are limited while operating in the Gulf of Guinea, although he says he thinks he would be able to respond to an incident of piracy.

G. 43 Balewa, Sir Tafawa 43, 50 Balogun, Tafa 177 Bari, Daniel Orumiegha- 165 Bayelsa State 8, 23, 31, 106, 108, 110, 183 Alamieyeseigha, DSP, governor 105–13, 132–3, 189, 201 Poverty Eradication Committee 108 Bealer, Jay 141 Benn, Hilary 170 Benue River 5–6 Benue State 8 Biafra, see civil war Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 81 bin Laden, Osama 9 Black Faces, White Masks 191 Blair, Tony 122 Bonga oilfield 142 Bongo, Omar 150, 151 Bonny Island 27, 145 Bookshop House 68, 70 BP 23, 41 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company 41 Brass 32, 34–5, 38, 39, 44–5, 107 British cemetery 44–5 Charles, Charles 45 Chatteris, Henry Byrne 45 HMS St George 45 Sutton, William 45 Taylor, George John 45 Briggs, Boma 18 Britain Aberdare, Lord 40 banking crisis 75 Blair, Tony 122 British oil 31 Brown, Gordon 122, 143 Chamberlain, Joseph 40 Churchill, Winston 41, 49, 90 civil war, involvement in 47–58 civil war, UK involvement in 48–61 colonial relationship with Nigeria xvi, 24, 31, 32, 35, 38, 40, 41, 42, 76–7, 169 Elizabeth II, Queen 201–202 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Financial Services Authority 122, 131 Goldie, Sir George 36–7, 40 Grey, Sir Ralph 42 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Kirk, Sir John 38–9 Macmillan, Harold 31 Oil Rivers Protectorate 36 post-independence relationship with Nigeria xvii, 48, 50, 57, 60 Royal Niger Company 32, 33–4, 35, 36–40, 191, 199 Stewart, Michael 54, 55 Straw, Jack 17, 201 Thatcher, Margaret 74, 116 Thomas, George 54 Thomas, Sir Philip 201 Unilever 33 United Africa Company 33, 34, 36 Wilson, Harold 48, 50, 51, 54 Brown, Gordon 122, 143 Buhari, Muhammadu 17 buses, Lagos 71, 96–103 Chiguzor 97–103 Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (‘MOT’) 99, 100 National Union of Road Transport Workers 70–71, 98–100, 101 Obalende terminus 100, 103 Bush, George W. 149 Cape Verde islands 147, 153 Chamberlain, Joseph 40 Chang, Clifton 155 Chelsea Hotel, Abuja 132–3 Chevron xvi, 6, 166, 186–8 Chiguzor 97–103 213 China in Cape Verde 153 expansion in Africa 139, 140, 146, 153–4, 168, 169, 203 exploration contracts xvii–xviii Dangote Group 153, 203 Sinoma International Engineering 154 Churchill, Winston 41, 49, 90 Citibank 124–5 civil war (1967–70) 44, 47–59 death toll in 52 Gowon, General Yakuba 51, 58 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Ironsi, Major-General Johnson Umunnakwe Aguiyi- 50–51 January Boys 50 Ojukwu, General Chukwuemeka 47–58, 181 Shell 48, 52, 54–5 Stewart, Michael 54 Thomas, George 54 Wilson, Harold 48, 50, 51, 54 Clifford, Reuben Wilson 189–90, 191 Community Primary School One 171–2 Comrade 180–83, 186, 193 Congo 82 corruption xvi, xvii, 18, 59, 90, 103, 105, 114–15, 158, 161, 167, 171, 177, 202–203 ‘area boys’ urban gangs 67–73, 92 Balogun, Tafa 177 banks 106, 109–13, 115–132 Citibank 124–5 UBS 110–12 214 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) 109, 112, 113, 114, 177, 202 Ribadu, Nuhu 202–203 electoral 10, 16–17, 50, 107–108, 204 international 145–6 Transparency International 146 transport system 103, 109 Crowder, Michael 40–41 Curtis, Richard 171 Dangote Group 153 Sinoma International Engineering 154 Dariye, Joshua 113 Daukoru, Edmund 203 Daura, Ahmadu 123 debt crisis, see foreign debt, Nigerian Dechaine, Lieutenant-Colonel Rene 140, 152 Delta State 113 Dutch 35 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Dallas, Alexander 152 Dallas 137 Bealer, Jay 141 Chang, Clifton 155 Esono, Pablo 141 Florio, Lieutenant Frank 150 Hendrickson, Commander Bob 141, 148, 149 Hollister, Jay 144 Jones, Ansel 137–8 Kaichi Maru 144 Kurta, Rear Admiral Anthony 140 Montalvo, Lieutenant Frank 151 Nowell, Commodore John 140, 150 Nzang, Lieutenant Placido 141, 155 Tiny, Jimmy 143 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 144 Wagner, Captain 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 152 Dangosu, Giedia 24 Dangote, Aliko 203 Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) 109, 112, 113, 114, 177, 202 economic collapse see foreign debt, Nigerian Egbesu 5, 13, 183, 191, 192, 198 Ekwueme, Alex 59, 61–4 Elf 151 Elizabeth II, Queen 201–202 Emmanuel, Henry 193–4 Energy Information Administration, US 6, 145 Eni 6, 29, 146 Enron 146 Enugu 47 Equatorial Guinea 141, 142 Mbasago, President Obiang Nguema 141 Ernest 182 Esono, Pablo 141 European Union xviii ExxonMobil xvi, 6, 159 Eze, Kenneth 84–7 Fanon, Franz 191 50 Cent 81 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES financial crisis, international 75, 145, 150, 168 Florio, Lieutenant Frank 150 foreign debt, Nigerian 5 8–64, 122, 160, 171 Africa Economic Digest 60, 63 Ekwueme, Alex 59, 61–4 Paris Club 61, 64, 171 Synge, Richard 60, 63, 209 Wolfensohn, James (World Bank) 63 France relationship with Nigeria 36, 59 Freeman, Commander Timi 184–98 Friedman, Thomas 141 G8 summit (2005) 170, 171 Gabon 118, 150 Bongo, Omar 150, 151 Dechaine, Lieutenant-Colonel Rene 140, 152 Gana, Peter 120 Port-Gentil 150, 152 Gazprom xviii Gbomo, Jomo 180 Germans 10 Ghana 43, 51, 60–61, 76, 118 Accra 44 Nkrumah, Kwame 43 Godson 184–98 ‘Golden Arches’ theory 141 Goldie, Sir George 36–7, 40 The Good, the Bad and the Ugly 21 Gowon, General Yakuba 51, 58 Grey, Sir Ralph 42–3 Grimu, Richard 33 Gulf of Guinea xiii, 138, 141, 145, 147, 154 215 Gusau, General Mohammed Aliyu 119 Halliburton 145–6 Stanley, Jack 145–6 Hendrickson, Commander Bob 141, 148, 149 HMS St George 45 Hobbes, Thomas 75, 86 Hollister, Jay 144 ‘Horatius’, poem 53 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Iblubor, Blessing 16 Ibori, James 113–14, 202 MER Engineering 114 Icelanders 10 Igbo people 41, 47, 49, 50, 51 civil war and Biafra 47–9 Ijaw people 5, 7, 8, 18, 19, 21, 108, 161, 164, 181, 183, 186, 198 Ikebiri I 185–7, 189 Ododo, Francis 185–7 independence, Nigerian 43, 44, 169 Inengite, Chief Osobere 24–7, 29, 170 Inengite, Clifford 29–30 Integrate Production System Surveillance (IPSS) 162 International Maritime Bureau 142 Ironsi, Major-General Johnson Umunnakwe Aguiyi- 50–51 Islam al-Qaeda 9 bin Laden, Osama 9 in Nigeria 9, 41 Itsekiri people 164 Iweala, Ngozi Okonjo- 74, 158 216 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Izon language 30, 33 Jaja, Tamunosisi Gogo 172–4 January Boys 50 Jones, Ansel 137–8 Joseph, Colin 109 Kaichi Maru 144 Kalabar River 3 Kirk, Sir John 38–9 KKK 10 Korokorose 185, 192–7 Kuluama I 188–92 Clifford, Reuben Wilson 189–90, 191 Community Development Council 189 Orumo, Emmanuel 189 Kunle 179, 182 Kuramo Beach 80–87 Bala 83 Bullet 83 Dreams bar 84 Eze, Kenneth 84–7 Le Meridien Eko hotel 80, 81 Queen 83 Sammy’s Bar 80 Scorpion 81–4 Varieties Bar 81, 82 Kurta, Rear Admiral Anthony 140 Lagos xvi, xviii, xix, xx, 36, 67, 73–80 Balogun market 69 Bookshop House 68, 70 Broad Street 70 buses 71, 96–103 Campos Square 70, 73 Ikeja district 93 Kuramo Beach 80–87 Odunlami Street 68 okadas 89–96, 205 Orile 102 Osodi 99, 100, 103 Somolu 90 Third Mainland Bridge 78, 100 transport system 90–103, 205 Victoria Island 77, 80, 205–206 Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (‘MOT’) 99, 100 Leviathan 75 Liberia 9, 14, 70, 79, 172, 188, 197 life expectancy of Nigerians 73 Live 8 60, 171 Macaulay, Herbert 67 Macaulay, Thomas Babington 53 Macbeth 15 Macmillan, Harold 31 Mann, Simon 142 Marathon 143 Martins 181 Mathews, Michael 124 Mbasago, President Obiang Nguema 141 McCarthy, Cormac 76 McKenzie, Glenn 180–99, 210 MEND, see Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta Middle East 6 concerns about disruption in xviii, 9, 139, 203 elections 17 Saudi Arabia oil exports 6 minibuses 71 Miss World contest (2002) xix Mistry, Rohinton 206 Mobile Police 184 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Molue see buses, Lagos Monfrini, Enrico 115, 117–30 Gusau, General Mohammed Aliyu 119 Swiss Federal Office of Justice 126 Montalvo, Lieutenant Frank 151 Montero, Kaizer xiv–xv, xx Morgan Procurement 124 MOSEND see Movement for the Survival of the Ethnic Nationalities in the Niger Delta Motorcycle Operators Association of Lagos State 90–94 Adio, Innocent 95 Agumba, Leonard 94–5 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Gbagada branch 94 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) 21, 22, 163, 179–99 Freeman, Commander Timi 184–98 Gbomo, Jomo 180 Olotu 197–9 Movement for the Survival of the Ethnic Nationalities in the Niger Delta (MOSEND) 181 National Archives 35, 37, 42, 43, 54 National Intelligence Council, US xvii National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency 27–8 National Petroleum Corporation xviii 217 National Union of Road Transport Workers 70–71, 98–100, 101 Ndibe, Okey 79 Niger Delta xiii, 3–22, 23–45 background and people 5–6 Benue River 5–6 disruption and militancy in 3–22, 7, 8, 10 history of oil discovery in 23–45 housing 25 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 3, 187 Niger River 5–6, 36 village life in xvii, 18, 28–9, 189–92, 195–7 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 3, 187 Niger River 5–6, 36 Nigeria, civil war see civil war Nigeria, creation of as new country 41, 42 Lugard, Flora 41 Nigeria, foreign debt see foreign debt, Nigerian Nigeria, independence see independence, Nigerian Nigeria, religion see religion Nigerian Family Support Programme 124 Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation 125, 183 Nitel 126 Nkrumah, Kwame 43 Nowell, Commodore John 140, 150 Nyingife, Sunday 29, 30 Nzang, Lieutenant Placido 141, 155 218 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Obasanjo, Olusegun (president of Nigeria 1999–2007) 8, 16, 17, 19, 24, 62, 63, 114, 116, 129, 146, 155, 158, 176, 186 1978 Land Use Act 9, 186 Odi 8 Odili, Peter 10, 172–6 Odioma 165 Bari, Daniel Orumiegha- 165 Ododo, Francis 185–7 Odugbemi, Sina 90–103 Ogoni 7, 161 oil export levels xvii, 6, 7, 27, 52, 58, 145 spills xv, 27–8 stealing of xvi, 13, 15, 17–19, 143, 143, 168, 171 world prices xvi, xvii, 19, 58, 60, 90, 109, 139, 145, 154, 160, 167–8, 203 oil companies Agip 192, 195 BP 23, 41 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company 41 Chevron xvi, 6, 166, 186–8 Elf 151 Eni 6, 29, 146 ExxonMobil xvi, 6, 159 Shell xv, xvi, 6, 7, 15, 18, 23, 28, 41, 42, 146, 157–70, 198 Bonga oilfield 142 in Oloibiri 25–9 interest in civil war 48, 52, 54–5 London office 157–70 Omiyi, Basil 157–70, 198 Total 6, 29, 146 Oil Rivers Protectorate 36 oil spills xv, 27–8 National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency 27–8 Ojukwu, General Chukwuemeka 47–58, 181 okadas 89–96, 205 Adio, Innocent 95 Agumba, Leonard 94–5 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Palm Grove Unit, Motorcycle Operators Association of Lagos State 90–94 riots, Ikeja district 93 Oko 61 Oloibiri 23–7, 170, 181 Inengite, Chief Osobere 24–7, 29, 170 Inengite, Clifford 29–30 Nyingife, Sunday 29, 30 Oloibiri Oil and Gas Research Institute 24 Shell in 25–9 Oloibiri Oil and Gas Research Institute 24 Olotu 197–9 ‘Operation Fire for Fire’ 161 Operation Locust Feast 19 Oputa, Charly Boy 89, 90, 94 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 146 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Orumo, Emmanuel 189 palm oil xvi, 32, 34, 32, 37 1895 Akassa uprising 32–5, 38–9, 107 Paris Club 61, 64, 171 Paul, A.A. 195 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Pax Christi 163 People’s Democratic Party 30, 107, 172, 202 Odili, Peter 172–6 piracy 142–3, 144–5 Sirius Star 142 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 144 Plateau State 113 police 21, 161–2 Balogun, Tafa 177 Mobile Police 184 ‘Operation Fire for Fire’ 161 Supernumerary (Spy) police 162 Port Harcourt 3, 4, 13, 17, 20, 23, 51, 52, 162, 167, 175, 176, 179, 180, 202 Port-Gentil, Gabon 150, 152 Portuguese 35, 76 Poverty Eradication Committee, Bayelsa State 108 Powell, Colin xix The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power 151 religion 9, 41, 71, 102 Ribadu, Nuhu 202–203 Rivers State 17, 171–6 budget 174–6 Community Primary School One 171–2 Government House 173, 174–6 Jaja, Tamunosisi Gogo 172–4, 175 Odili, Peter 172–6 State Assembly building 173 The Road 76 Royal Dutch Shell see Shell Royal Niger Company 32, 33–4, 35, 36–40, 191, 199 219 Unilever 33 United Africa Company 33, 34, 36 Wallace, William 38 Russell, Henry 34 Russia Gazprom xviii Georgia conflict 150 oil exports 6 relationship with Nigeria xviii, 139, 146, 168, 203 Sagbama 107 Salisbury, Marquess of 38, 40 Sangama 18 São Tomé and Príncipe xiii–xx, 139–42 agua petróleo xiii–xv, xvi, xx, 139 Saro-Wiwa, Ken 7, 8, 22, 158, 161 Scorpion 81–4 Second World War 42 September 2001 terrorist attacks xviii, 161, 203 Shad-Ro Services 162 Shagari, Shehu 59 Shell xv, xvi, 6, 7, 15, 18, 23, 28, 41, 42, 146, 157–70, 198 in Oloibiri 25–9 interest in civil war 48, 52, 54–5 Bonga oilfield 142 London office 157–70 Omiyi, Basil 157–70, 198 Siemens 126 Simeon 183–99 Sirius Star 142 slavery 32, 35–6, 40, 76, 153 Smith, M.

G. 43 Balewa, Sir Tafawa 43, 50 Balogun, Tafa 177 Bari, Daniel Orumiegha- 165 Bayelsa State 8, 23, 31, 106, 108, 110, 183 Alamieyeseigha, DSP, governor 105–13, 132–3, 189, 201 Poverty Eradication Committee 108 Bealer, Jay 141 Benn, Hilary 170 Benue River 5–6 Benue State 8 Biafra, see civil war Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 81 bin Laden, Osama 9 Black Faces, White Masks 191 Blair, Tony 122 Bonga oilfield 142 Bongo, Omar 150, 151 Bonny Island 27, 145 Bookshop House 68, 70 BP 23, 41 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company 41 Brass 32, 34–5, 38, 39, 44–5, 107 British cemetery 44–5 Charles, Charles 45 Chatteris, Henry Byrne 45 HMS St George 45 Sutton, William 45 Taylor, George John 45 Briggs, Boma 18 Britain Aberdare, Lord 40 banking crisis 75 Blair, Tony 122 British oil 31 Brown, Gordon 122, 143 Chamberlain, Joseph 40 Churchill, Winston 41, 49, 90 civil war, involvement in 47–58 civil war, UK involvement in 48–61 colonial relationship with Nigeria xvi, 24, 31, 32, 35, 38, 40, 41, 42, 76–7, 169 Elizabeth II, Queen 201–202 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Financial Services Authority 122, 131 Goldie, Sir George 36–7, 40 Grey, Sir Ralph 42 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Kirk, Sir John 38–9 Macmillan, Harold 31 Oil Rivers Protectorate 36 post-independence relationship with Nigeria xvii, 48, 50, 57, 60 Royal Niger Company 32, 33–4, 35, 36–40, 191, 199 Stewart, Michael 54, 55 Straw, Jack 17, 201 Thatcher, Margaret 74, 116 Thomas, George 54 Thomas, Sir Philip 201 Unilever 33 United Africa Company 33, 34, 36 Wilson, Harold 48, 50, 51, 54 Brown, Gordon 122, 143 Buhari, Muhammadu 17 buses, Lagos 71, 96–103 Chiguzor 97–103 Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (‘MOT’) 99, 100 National Union of Road Transport Workers 70–71, 98–100, 101 Obalende terminus 100, 103 Bush, George W. 149 Cape Verde islands 147, 153 Chamberlain, Joseph 40 Chang, Clifton 155 Chelsea Hotel, Abuja 132–3 Chevron xvi, 6, 166, 186–8 Chiguzor 97–103 213 China in Cape Verde 153 expansion in Africa 139, 140, 146, 153–4, 168, 169, 203 exploration contracts xvii–xviii Dangote Group 153, 203 Sinoma International Engineering 154 Churchill, Winston 41, 49, 90 Citibank 124–5 civil war (1967–70) 44, 47–59 death toll in 52 Gowon, General Yakuba 51, 58 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Ironsi, Major-General Johnson Umunnakwe Aguiyi- 50–51 January Boys 50 Ojukwu, General Chukwuemeka 47–58, 181 Shell 48, 52, 54–5 Stewart, Michael 54 Thomas, George 54 Wilson, Harold 48, 50, 51, 54 Clifford, Reuben Wilson 189–90, 191 Community Primary School One 171–2 Comrade 180–83, 186, 193 Congo 82 corruption xvi, xvii, 18, 59, 90, 103, 105, 114–15, 158, 161, 167, 171, 177, 202–203 ‘area boys’ urban gangs 67–73, 92 Balogun, Tafa 177 banks 106, 109–13, 115–132 Citibank 124–5 UBS 110–12 214 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) 109, 112, 113, 114, 177, 202 Ribadu, Nuhu 202–203 electoral 10, 16–17, 50, 107–108, 204 international 145–6 Transparency International 146 transport system 103, 109 Crowder, Michael 40–41 Curtis, Richard 171 Dangote Group 153 Sinoma International Engineering 154 Dariye, Joshua 113 Daukoru, Edmund 203 Daura, Ahmadu 123 debt crisis, see foreign debt, Nigerian Dechaine, Lieutenant-Colonel Rene 140, 152 Delta State 113 Dutch 35 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Dallas, Alexander 152 Dallas 137 Bealer, Jay 141 Chang, Clifton 155 Esono, Pablo 141 Florio, Lieutenant Frank 150 Hendrickson, Commander Bob 141, 148, 149 Hollister, Jay 144 Jones, Ansel 137–8 Kaichi Maru 144 Kurta, Rear Admiral Anthony 140 Montalvo, Lieutenant Frank 151 Nowell, Commodore John 140, 150 Nzang, Lieutenant Placido 141, 155 Tiny, Jimmy 143 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 144 Wagner, Captain 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 152 Dangosu, Giedia 24 Dangote, Aliko 203 Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) 109, 112, 113, 114, 177, 202 economic collapse see foreign debt, Nigerian Egbesu 5, 13, 183, 191, 192, 198 Ekwueme, Alex 59, 61–4 Elf 151 Elizabeth II, Queen 201–202 Emmanuel, Henry 193–4 Energy Information Administration, US 6, 145 Eni 6, 29, 146 Enron 146 Enugu 47 Equatorial Guinea 141, 142 Mbasago, President Obiang Nguema 141 Ernest 182 Esono, Pablo 141 European Union xviii ExxonMobil xvi, 6, 159 Eze, Kenneth 84–7 Fanon, Franz 191 50 Cent 81 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES financial crisis, international 75, 145, 150, 168 Florio, Lieutenant Frank 150 foreign debt, Nigerian 5 8–64, 122, 160, 171 Africa Economic Digest 60, 63 Ekwueme, Alex 59, 61–4 Paris Club 61, 64, 171 Synge, Richard 60, 63, 209 Wolfensohn, James (World Bank) 63 France relationship with Nigeria 36, 59 Freeman, Commander Timi 184–98 Friedman, Thomas 141 G8 summit (2005) 170, 171 Gabon 118, 150 Bongo, Omar 150, 151 Dechaine, Lieutenant-Colonel Rene 140, 152 Gana, Peter 120 Port-Gentil 150, 152 Gazprom xviii Gbomo, Jomo 180 Germans 10 Ghana 43, 51, 60–61, 76, 118 Accra 44 Nkrumah, Kwame 43 Godson 184–98 ‘Golden Arches’ theory 141 Goldie, Sir George 36–7, 40 The Good, the Bad and the Ugly 21 Gowon, General Yakuba 51, 58 Grey, Sir Ralph 42–3 Grimu, Richard 33 Gulf of Guinea xiii, 138, 141, 145, 147, 154 215 Gusau, General Mohammed Aliyu 119 Halliburton 145–6 Stanley, Jack 145–6 Hendrickson, Commander Bob 141, 148, 149 HMS St George 45 Hobbes, Thomas 75, 86 Hollister, Jay 144 ‘Horatius’, poem 53 Hunt, Sir David 56–7 Iblubor, Blessing 16 Ibori, James 113–14, 202 MER Engineering 114 Icelanders 10 Igbo people 41, 47, 49, 50, 51 civil war and Biafra 47–9 Ijaw people 5, 7, 8, 18, 19, 21, 108, 161, 164, 181, 183, 186, 198 Ikebiri I 185–7, 189 Ododo, Francis 185–7 independence, Nigerian 43, 44, 169 Inengite, Chief Osobere 24–7, 29, 170 Inengite, Clifford 29–30 Integrate Production System Surveillance (IPSS) 162 International Maritime Bureau 142 Ironsi, Major-General Johnson Umunnakwe Aguiyi- 50–51 Islam al-Qaeda 9 bin Laden, Osama 9 in Nigeria 9, 41 Itsekiri people 164 Iweala, Ngozi Okonjo- 74, 158 216 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Izon language 30, 33 Jaja, Tamunosisi Gogo 172–4 January Boys 50 Jones, Ansel 137–8 Joseph, Colin 109 Kaichi Maru 144 Kalabar River 3 Kirk, Sir John 38–9 KKK 10 Korokorose 185, 192–7 Kuluama I 188–92 Clifford, Reuben Wilson 189–90, 191 Community Development Council 189 Orumo, Emmanuel 189 Kunle 179, 182 Kuramo Beach 80–87 Bala 83 Bullet 83 Dreams bar 84 Eze, Kenneth 84–7 Le Meridien Eko hotel 80, 81 Queen 83 Sammy’s Bar 80 Scorpion 81–4 Varieties Bar 81, 82 Kurta, Rear Admiral Anthony 140 Lagos xvi, xviii, xix, xx, 36, 67, 73–80 Balogun market 69 Bookshop House 68, 70 Broad Street 70 buses 71, 96–103 Campos Square 70, 73 Ikeja district 93 Kuramo Beach 80–87 Odunlami Street 68 okadas 89–96, 205 Orile 102 Osodi 99, 100, 103 Somolu 90 Third Mainland Bridge 78, 100 transport system 90–103, 205 Victoria Island 77, 80, 205–206 Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (‘MOT’) 99, 100 Leviathan 75 Liberia 9, 14, 70, 79, 172, 188, 197 life expectancy of Nigerians 73 Live 8 60, 171 Macaulay, Herbert 67 Macaulay, Thomas Babington 53 Macbeth 15 Macmillan, Harold 31 Mann, Simon 142 Marathon 143 Martins 181 Mathews, Michael 124 Mbasago, President Obiang Nguema 141 McCarthy, Cormac 76 McKenzie, Glenn 180–99, 210 MEND, see Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta Middle East 6 concerns about disruption in xviii, 9, 139, 203 elections 17 Saudi Arabia oil exports 6 minibuses 71 Miss World contest (2002) xix Mistry, Rohinton 206 Mobile Police 184 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Molue see buses, Lagos Monfrini, Enrico 115, 117–30 Gusau, General Mohammed Aliyu 119 Swiss Federal Office of Justice 126 Montalvo, Lieutenant Frank 151 Montero, Kaizer xiv–xv, xx Morgan Procurement 124 MOSEND see Movement for the Survival of the Ethnic Nationalities in the Niger Delta Motorcycle Operators Association of Lagos State 90–94 Adio, Innocent 95 Agumba, Leonard 94–5 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Gbagada branch 94 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) 21, 22, 163, 179–99 Freeman, Commander Timi 184–98 Gbomo, Jomo 180 Olotu 197–9 Movement for the Survival of the Ethnic Nationalities in the Niger Delta (MOSEND) 181 National Archives 35, 37, 42, 43, 54 National Intelligence Council, US xvii National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency 27–8 National Petroleum Corporation xviii 217 National Union of Road Transport Workers 70–71, 98–100, 101 Ndibe, Okey 79 Niger Delta xiii, 3–22, 23–45 background and people 5–6 Benue River 5–6 disruption and militancy in 3–22, 7, 8, 10 history of oil discovery in 23–45 housing 25 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 3, 187 Niger River 5–6, 36 village life in xvii, 18, 28–9, 189–92, 195–7 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 3, 187 Niger River 5–6, 36 Nigeria, civil war see civil war Nigeria, creation of as new country 41, 42 Lugard, Flora 41 Nigeria, foreign debt see foreign debt, Nigerian Nigeria, independence see independence, Nigerian Nigeria, religion see religion Nigerian Family Support Programme 124 Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation 125, 183 Nitel 126 Nkrumah, Kwame 43 Nowell, Commodore John 140, 150 Nyingife, Sunday 29, 30 Nzang, Lieutenant Placido 141, 155 218 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS Obasanjo, Olusegun (president of Nigeria 1999–2007) 8, 16, 17, 19, 24, 62, 63, 114, 116, 129, 146, 155, 158, 176, 186 1978 Land Use Act 9, 186 Odi 8 Odili, Peter 10, 172–6 Odioma 165 Bari, Daniel Orumiegha- 165 Ododo, Francis 185–7 Odugbemi, Sina 90–103 Ogoni 7, 161 oil export levels xvii, 6, 7, 27, 52, 58, 145 spills xv, 27–8 stealing of xvi, 13, 15, 17–19, 143, 143, 168, 171 world prices xvi, xvii, 19, 58, 60, 90, 109, 139, 145, 154, 160, 167–8, 203 oil companies Agip 192, 195 BP 23, 41 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company 41 Chevron xvi, 6, 166, 186–8 Elf 151 Eni 6, 29, 146 ExxonMobil xvi, 6, 159 Shell xv, xvi, 6, 7, 15, 18, 23, 28, 41, 42, 146, 157–70, 198 Bonga oilfield 142 in Oloibiri 25–9 interest in civil war 48, 52, 54–5 London office 157–70 Omiyi, Basil 157–70, 198 Total 6, 29, 146 Oil Rivers Protectorate 36 oil spills xv, 27–8 National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency 27–8 Ojukwu, General Chukwuemeka 47–58, 181 okadas 89–96, 205 Adio, Innocent 95 Agumba, Leonard 94–5 Dada, Timothy 95–6 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Palm Grove Unit, Motorcycle Operators Association of Lagos State 90–94 riots, Ikeja district 93 Oko 61 Oloibiri 23–7, 170, 181 Inengite, Chief Osobere 24–7, 29, 170 Inengite, Clifford 29–30 Nyingife, Sunday 29, 30 Oloibiri Oil and Gas Research Institute 24 Shell in 25–9 Oloibiri Oil and Gas Research Institute 24 Olotu 197–9 ‘Operation Fire for Fire’ 161 Operation Locust Feast 19 Oputa, Charly Boy 89, 90, 94 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 146 Orimogunje, Olufemi 91–4 Orumo, Emmanuel 189 palm oil xvi, 32, 34, 32, 37 1895 Akassa uprising 32–5, 38–9, 107 Paris Club 61, 64, 171 Paul, A.A. 195 INDEXAND JUNKIES STARK ILLITERATES Pax Christi 163 People’s Democratic Party 30, 107, 172, 202 Odili, Peter 172–6 piracy 142–3, 144–5 Sirius Star 142 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 144 Plateau State 113 police 21, 161–2 Balogun, Tafa 177 Mobile Police 184 ‘Operation Fire for Fire’ 161 Supernumerary (Spy) police 162 Port Harcourt 3, 4, 13, 17, 20, 23, 51, 52, 162, 167, 175, 176, 179, 180, 202 Port-Gentil, Gabon 150, 152 Portuguese 35, 76 Poverty Eradication Committee, Bayelsa State 108 Powell, Colin xix The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power 151 religion 9, 41, 71, 102 Ribadu, Nuhu 202–203 Rivers State 17, 171–6 budget 174–6 Community Primary School One 171–2 Government House 173, 174–6 Jaja, Tamunosisi Gogo 172–4, 175 Odili, Peter 172–6 State Assembly building 173 The Road 76 Royal Dutch Shell see Shell Royal Niger Company 32, 33–4, 35, 36–40, 191, 199 219 Unilever 33 United Africa Company 33, 34, 36 Wallace, William 38 Russell, Henry 34 Russia Gazprom xviii Georgia conflict 150 oil exports 6 relationship with Nigeria xviii, 139, 146, 168, 203 Sagbama 107 Salisbury, Marquess of 38, 40 Sangama 18 São Tomé and Príncipe xiii–xx, 139–42 agua petróleo xiii–xv, xvi, xx, 139 Saro-Wiwa, Ken 7, 8, 22, 158, 161 Scorpion 81–4 Second World War 42 September 2001 terrorist attacks xviii, 161, 203 Shad-Ro Services 162 Shagari, Shehu 59 Shell xv, xvi, 6, 7, 15, 18, 23, 28, 41, 42, 146, 157–70, 198 in Oloibiri 25–9 interest in civil war 48, 52, 54–5 Bonga oilfield 142 London office 157–70 Omiyi, Basil 157–70, 198 Siemens 126 Simeon 183–99 Sirius Star 142 slavery 32, 35–6, 40, 76, 153 Smith, M.


pages: 295 words: 92,670

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

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Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS

Other legal concepts that inform the modern international law of the sea also stem indirectly from the Treaty of Tordesillas: the right of innocent passage, the definitions of territorial waters, internal waters, a nation’s exclusive economic zone and the definition of the continental shelf. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which came into force as a binding international convention on November 16, 1994, owes its origin to the conflict and debates in the centuries following the Treaty of Tordesillas. Although not every signatory country has ratified the convention, only twenty of the world’s countries have refused to recognize or sign it, and it is the closest the international community will likely ever come to consensus on governing an enormous part of the natural world that is common to nearly all. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is the culmination of a legal and philosophical process that began in the late fifteenth century, when Portuguese mariners discovered a sea route to India and the Spice Islands by sailing around Africa, and Columbus first crossed the Atlantic Ocean.

From these foundations, many generations of refinement eventually produced other ideas such as innocent passage, and fishing and mineral rights within an “exclusive economic zone,” which is now based on the continental shelf, the twelve-mile limit or the two-hundred-mile limit, depending on the region. The philosophical principles conceived in the early seventeenth century by thinkers such as Grotius, to provide the intellectual basis for a challenge to the absolutism that underpinned the Treaty of Tordesillas, became the foundation for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. { epilogue } THE PHANTOM DISAPPEARS AFTER THE moral and spiritual foundation of the Treaty of Tordesillas was eroded by the Protestant Reformation, its intellectual foundation was increasingly challenged in the sophisticated legal and philosophical treatises of the seventeenth century. It would not be long before even the Spanish and Portuguese admitted their defeat.

It blocked possible reconciliation between European religious factions because accepting the secular and spiritual authority of the pope would have denied other nations a role in international exploration, travel and commerce. The intellectual arguments inspired by the Treaty of Tordesillas, beginning most famously with Hugo Grotius’s Mare Liberum, began the philosophical progression towards the modern concepts of the freedom of the seas and international relations, and ultimately led to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. More prosaically, for centuries the treaty has directed the colonial actions of nations and has resulted in the political geography of the world as we know it today. The Treaty of 1494 had a significant impact on the colonial, cultural and political shape of the world by determining the pattern of European colonization not only in Central and South America, but also in North America and Southeast Asia.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

India and China have two outstanding disputes in mountainous areas that are of strategic value only if one side is shooting down at the other. Even peaceful diplomatic haggling—the two sides have exchanged maps for decades while waiting for the upper hand—demonstrates latent animosities unbecoming of powers that wish to be seen as great and benevolent. The World Court at The Hague has border dispute cases piling up, and overlapping maritime claims are now being registered according to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. But who will arbitrate these hundreds of potential flashpoints? There is no better time to remap the world and move beyond the arbitrary postcolonial borders that have become the hand-me-down suits of international relations that never quite fit. This was President Woodrow Wilson’s vision after World War I: to promote ethnic self-determination but also to embed nations as equals into economic and other institutional bonds such as the League of Nations.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

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airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

Another loophole allows large paper mills to claim $6 billion in tax credits per year for mixing diesel fuel in with a wood byproduct they already burn; the law with the loophole was intended to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels.15 A variety of loopholes make video games one of the most highly subsidized industries in the U.S. And, so as not to entirely pick on the U.S., the International Whaling Commission's loophole for research that Japan exploits to hunt whales commercially is another example. Although it's hard to prove, there are many examples of laws believed to be deliberately written with loopholes to benefit someone. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provisions on international fisheries are deliberately ambiguous, making much of it impossible to enforce. Also at the UN, Security Council Resolution 1441—used to justify invading Iraq—seems to have been designed to be ambiguous enough to both support and oppose the use of force. More generally, loopholes are ways institutional pressure is subverted by defectors to do things it wasn't originally intended to do.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

When tensions ratchet toward the boiling point, they can be pulled back as a sign of goodwill. Now that China has acquired this latest technology, it is no longer dependent on foreign oil companies less willing to partner with it in disputed waters; it can just go it alone. China is building far more HYSY-like platforms than it is aircraft carriers. China, Vietnam, and the Philippines are all signatories to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, widely considered the “constitution for the seas,” yet historical claims stemming from previous wars and bilateral agreements have trumped respect for its provisions. China’s now infamous “9-dash line” map—most recently issued with ten dashed lines—depicts sovereign claims hanging downward like a tongue along the Vietnamese coast, along Borneo island, and past the Philippines to Taiwan.


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

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Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

An excellent site for current debates on the commons is the recently published issue of the UK movement journal Turbulence (December 5, 2009), http://www.turbulence.org. 4. See on this subject the important article by Ana Isla, “Who Pays for the Kyoto Protocol?” (2009), where the author describes how the conservation of the biodiversity has provided the World Bank and other international agencies with the pretext for the enclosure of the rain forests, on the ground that they represent “carbon sinks” and “oxygen generators.” 5. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, passed in November 1994, establishes a two-hundred-mile offshore limit, defining an Exclusive Economic Zone, where nations can exploit, manage, and protect resources, from fisheries to natural gas. It also sets regulations for mining in deep sea and for the use of resulting profit. 6. As described by Wikipedia, Ostrom’s work focuses on common pool resources, and “emphasizes how humans interact with ecosystems to maintain long-term sustainable resource yields.” 7.


pages: 1,509 words: 416,377

Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty by Bradley K. Martin

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, four colour theorem, illegal immigration, informal economy, kremlinology, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, stakhanovite, UNCLOS, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

But I am not persuaded that international and inter-Korean considerations played only a minimal role in motivating the Pueblo’s capture. (Judging from the lack of a citation, it appears Lerner may not have been cognizant of Baldwin’s important arguments for an international view of the incident in “Patrolling the Empire.”) 39. Armbrister, Matter of Accountability, pp. 263, 284. Washington claimed that the Pueblo was legally situated in international waters when captured and cited the 1958 convention on the law of the sea, which guaranteed ships on the high seas immunity from the jurisdiction of other nationalities. Pyongyang, however, had never signed the convention. Pyongyang went to great lengths to claim that the ship was inside North Korean territorial waters, and to that extent bolstered Washington’s argument that the territorial waters issue was relevant. However, in the state of war still obtaining between North Korea and the United States, peacetime rules such as the 1958 convention would hardly seem applicable to an enemy spy ship.