Yom Kippur War

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pages: 632 words: 171,827

Israel: A Concise History of a Nation Reborn by Daniel Gordis

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-oil, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2005), p. 101. 10“Kissinger and Ismail Conduct Secret Meetings,” Center for Israel Education, http://israeled.org/kissinger-ismail-conduct-secret-meetings/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015]. 11Quandt, Peace Process, p. 455. 12Mordechai Bar-On, Moshe Dayan: Israel’s Controversial Hero (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2012), p. 156. 13Tekumah, Episode 10 at 8:07. 14Mitch Ginsburg, “Mossad’s Tip-Off Ahead of Yom Kippur War Did Not Reach Prime Minister, Newly Released Papers Show,” Times of Israel (September 20, 2012), http://www.timesofisrael.com/newly-released-papers-detail-depth-of-mishandling-of-yom-kippur-war-warnings/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015]. 15Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 432. 16Landau, Arik, p. 98. 17Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), p. 416. 18Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 330. 19Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 440. 20Herbert Druks, The Uncertain Alliance: The U.S. and Israel from Kennedy to the Peace Process (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 113. 21Amir Oren, “CIA Report on Yom Kippur War: Israel Had Nuclear Arsenal,” Ha’aretz (February 13, 2013), http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/cia-report-on-yom-kippur-war-israel-had-nuclear-arsenal.premium-1.501101 [Last viewed December 8, 2015]. 22Tekumah, Episode 10 at 32:00. 23Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 442. 24Abraham Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Schocken Books, 2004), p. 497. 25Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 460. 26Motti Regev and Edwin Seroussi, Popular Music and National Culture in Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), p. 67. 27Translation from the Hebrew by the author. 28Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, p. 499. 29Robert Slater, Rabin: 20 Years After (Israel: KIP-Kotarim International Publishing, 2015). 30Tekumah, Episode 20 at 37:55. 31Tekumah, Episode 7 at 45:30. 32Assaf Inbari, HaBaita (Tel Aviv: Yediyot Sefarim, 2009), p. 242 [Translations by Daniel Gordis]. 33There was a brief exception in 1982, when Israeli troops faced the Syrian army, but that never led to genuine war with Syria. 34Tekumah, Episode 13 at 11:40. 35Gil Troy, Moynihan’s Moment: America’s Fight Against Zionism as Racism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 18.

Berris, Israel: A History, p. 330. 19Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 440. 20Herbert Druks, The Uncertain Alliance: The U.S. and Israel from Kennedy to the Peace Process (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 113. 21Amir Oren, “CIA Report on Yom Kippur War: Israel Had Nuclear Arsenal,” Ha’aretz (February 13, 2013), http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/cia-report-on-yom-kippur-war-israel-had-nuclear-arsenal.premium-1.501101 [Last viewed December 8, 2015]. 22Tekumah, Episode 10 at 32:00. 23Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 442. 24Abraham Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Schocken Books, 2004), p. 497. 25Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 460. 26Motti Regev and Edwin Seroussi, Popular Music and National Culture in Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), p. 67. 27Translation from the Hebrew by the author. 28Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, p. 499. 29Robert Slater, Rabin: 20 Years After (Israel: KIP-Kotarim International Publishing, 2015). 30Tekumah, Episode 20 at 37:55. 31Tekumah, Episode 7 at 45:30. 32Assaf Inbari, HaBaita (Tel Aviv: Yediyot Sefarim, 2009), p. 242 [Translations by Daniel Gordis]. 33There was a brief exception in 1982, when Israeli troops faced the Syrian army, but that never led to genuine war with Syria. 34Tekumah, Episode 13 at 11:40. 35Gil Troy, Moynihan’s Moment: America’s Fight Against Zionism as Racism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 18.

Hence the refrain that had Israel in its grip, and which still evokes goose bumps among a population that continues to sing the song: You promised peace; You promised spring at home and blossoms; You promised to keep your promises; You promised a dove. When that song appeared in 1995, more than two decades after the Yom Kippur War, no dove had come. Israel was a country with a still-broken heart, a country still at war. Even the religious holiday of atonement, Yom Kippur, would never be the same in the Jewish state. A religious holiday of deep personal introspection had been transformed into—and remains to this very day—an annual remembrance of incompetence, grief, loss, and the shattering of Israeli illusions. In many ways, the Yom Kippur War irrevocably shattered part of Israel’s soul. THE WAR HAD PROFOUND political ramifications, as well. As early as November 13, 1973, Menachem Begin attacked both Golda Meir and the government in the Knesset for what he said was their incompetent handling of the war.


pages: 722 words: 225,235

The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich

Boycotts of Israel, friendly fire, Mahatma Gandhi, Yom Kippur War

Moshe Dayan v’Milkhemet Yom Kippur [Moshe Dayan and the Yom Kippur War]. Tel Aviv: Edanim, 1992. Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Cohen, Eliot, and John Gooch. Military Misfortunes. New York: Vintage Books, 1991. Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War, vol. 1, The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973‒1989. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990. Dan, Uri. Rosh Gesher [The Bridgehead]. Tel Aviv: E.L. Special Edition, 1975. Davis Institute for International Relations. Milkhemet Yom Hakippurim [The Yom Kippur War: A New View]. Symposium on the war’s twenty-fifth anniversary. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1998. Dayan, Moshe. Avnei Derekh [Milestones]. Jerusalem: Edanim, 1982. Dupuy, Trevor. Elusive Victory. New York: HarperCollins, 1978. Gal, Reuven. The Yom Kippur War: Lessons from the Psychologist’s Perspective.

Tel Aviv: Steimatzky, 1975. Hirst, David, and Irene Beeson. Sadat. London: Faber & Faber, 1981. Insight Team of the Sunday Times. Insight on the Middle East. London: Andre Deutsch, 1974. Iraqi Defense Ministry. Zva Iraq b’Milkhemet Yom Kippur [The Iraqi Army in the Yom Kippur War]. Translation from Arabic to Hebrew. Tel Aviv: Ma’archot, 1986. Israelyan, Victor. Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Kahalani, Avigdor (ed.). Ani Nishba lekha [The Yom Kippur War—Fighters’ Stories]. Tel Aviv: Keter Publishing, 2003. Kahalani, Avigdor. Oz 77 [Seventy-seventh Battalion]. Tel Aviv: Shocken, 1975. Karsh, Efraim, ed. Between War and Peace: Dilemmas of Israeli Security. London: Frank Cass, 1996. Kedar, B. Z. Sipuro Shel Gdud Makhatz [Story of a Strike Battalion].

Four years after his flight to Jerusalem, Islamic fundamentalists gunned him down in Cairo as he reviewed a military parade marking the anniversary of the war. The other major victor of the Yom Kippur War was a man who had been six thousand miles from the battlefield. Henry Kissinger had with dazzling statesmanship stage-managed a scenario in which both sides could claim victory while acknowledging, to themselves at least, victory’s awful price. It was this realization that made compromise possible. In the process, the secretary of state deftly managed to nudge aside the Soviet Union and tie the leading country in the Arab world to the United States. The Yom Kippur War had a major impact on the world’s armies. The success of the Sagger and RPG in the early days of the war evoked widespread eulogies for the tank. Closer study brought revision.


pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, mass immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

Even Arik had bought into the clichés. Sadat had reached out before the Yom Kippur War, there were hints of a truce that could have been expanded into negotiations, but Israeli leaders ignored his overtures. Now Sadat comes to Jerusalem, and the truth is exposed for all to see. Arik’s conclusions were being debated by Israelis. Some said that if only Israel had withdrawn from the banks of the Suez Canal before the war—as Dayan had wanted to do but Golda did not—Sadat might have begun a peace process rather than a war process. Yet even some on the left acknowledged that Sadat had needed a military victory to bolster his credibility among Egyptians before his journey to Jerusalem. Meanwhile, the war continued to claim its victims. The IDF’s chief of staff during the Yom Kippur War, David “Dado” Elazar, died of a heart attack at age fifty-one, broken by the commission of inquiry that had turned him into the scapegoat for the war’s failures.

The reconnaissance battalion was supposed to lead the crossing of the canal, but lacked sufficient vehicles to reach it. 237 commander of the 71st Battalion: Abraham Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Schocken, 2004), 404; Yisrael Harel, ed., Abirei Lev (Brave-Hearted Men, Keren Hatzanhanim, n.p., n.d.), 42. 240 assault on the so-called Chinese Farm: In the first night of the operation in the Chinese Farm, the 14th Armored Brigade, under the command of Amnon Reshef, lost 120 soldiers. Another 62 were wounded. No IDF brigade had ever suffered such losses in so short a time. The following night, the 890th Brigade, the paratroopers’ brigade of draftees, lost 41 soldiers and over 100 wounded. 240 “My guys are fighting there”: Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, 362; unpublished account written by Hanan Erez. 241 The first six boats: Harel, Abirei Lev , 32. 242 Arik radioed Danny: Ibid., 32. 244 “God’s Little Corner”: Ibid, 36. 246 It was the eve of Simchat Torah: Harel, Abirei Lev, 45.

See also Gush Emunim security fence, 533 Sephardim, 219–20, 362, 393 71st Battalion members of, xviii, 78, 237–39, 545–56n52, 549n229 role in capturing Jerusalem, 72–76, 78, 86 Sereni, Enzo, xvi, 36–37, 116, 150, 195 Shamir, Moshe, 152, 186, 188, 417, 425, 548n152 Sharm el-Sheikh, 367, 535 Sharon, Ariel criticism of the left, 492 as defense minister, 365, 385 dismissal, 402–3 during Lebanon War, 387, 390–91 as Likud leader, 276 and Sabra and Shatilla massacres, 401 and Sadat, 323 and settlement movement, 281, 335–36, 354, 365, 392 during Sinai War, 48 during Six-Day War, 47 Sharon, Ariel (cont.) during Yom Kippur War, 233–35, 245 walk on Temple Mount, 530 Shavuot, 29, 109, 113, 170, 471 Shdemot (magazine), 124, 144–45 Sheikh Jarrah, 66, 535 Shemer, Naomi “Jerusalem of Gold,” 59–60, 85, 132–33, 298 and Meir Ariel, 98, 103, 132–33 and Yamit evacuation, 374 Shilo, 327, 405 Shin Bet, 163, 213–14, 285, 356, 417–18, 452, 485, 521, 555n418 shmitta, 30, 444 Shoah (film), 431–32 Shtiglitz, Yisrael (Ariel), xv, 95–96, 373 Silwan, 448 Simchat Torah, 246–48, 254, 550n246 Sinai, 2, 112. See also Yamit biblical references to, xx, 20, 109, 390 IDF operations during Six-Day War, 35, 53, 67–68, 80, 145 IDF operations during Yom Kippur War, 227, 231–34, 239, 244, 252 1956 campaign, 57, 59 withdrawal from, 142, 220–21, 324, 334–35, 255, 357, 364–67, 371–79, 446 66th Battalion, 72, 86–87, 118, 549n229 Soviet Union alignment with Arab nations during wars, 128, 130, 219, 227, 244, 296, 458 emigration from, 220, 457, 482 role played for kibbutzniks, 5–6, 17, 38–39, 127, 130, 136–38, 147, 545n38 Stalinism, 5–6, 38–39, 137–38, 527 Stempel-Peles, Moshe, xv, 58, 67, 91, 109, 129, 165, 176 Stern Group, the, 289, 339 Suez Canal, 112, 237 and Kanaf, 173–74, 197 simulation of crossing, 139, 165–66 after the Six-Day War, 158 during Yom Kippur War, 227, 230, 236, 241, 248, 253, 270, 325, 550n237 suicide bombings, xxii, 425, 491, 495, 515, 516, 531, 532 Sukkoth, 26, 194–95, 231–32, 246, 434–35, 519–20, 522–23 Sultan Yakub, 386 Sussman, Sandy, xv, 148–50, 228 Talmei Yosef, 375 Tamouz, 306–8, 433 Tehiya (political party), 373 Tekoa, 505 Tel Aviv University, 35, 52, 325, 430, 453 Tel Mond Prison, 447 Temple Mount, iv, 66 ban on Jewish prayer at, 337 capture of, during Six-Day War, 86–90, 92, 95–96, 108 following Six-Day War, 113, 118, 120 plot to bomb, 340, 356, 421 symbolism of, 204–5, 449, 504, 537 This Is the Land (newspaper), 189 tikkun olam, 31, 396 Tomb of the Patriarchs, 151–52, 486–87.


pages: 401 words: 119,488

Smarter Faster Better: The Secrets of Being Productive in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg

Air France Flight 447, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, digital map, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, hiring and firing, index card, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Toyota Production System, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

Levy, “Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure,” Political Science Quarterly 124, no. 3 (2009): 461–88; Uri Bar-Joseph and Rose McDermott, “Personal Functioning Under Stress Accountability and Social Support of Israeli Leaders in the Yom Kippur War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 52, no. 1 (2008): 144–70; Uri Bar-Joseph, “ ‘The Special Means of Collection’: The Missing Link in the Surprise of the Yom Kippur War,” The Middle East Journal 67, no. 4 (2013): 531–46; Yaakov Lapin, “Declassified Yom Kippur War Papers Reveal Failures,” The Jerusalem Post, September 20, 2012; Hamid Hussain, “Opinion: The Fourth Round—A Critical Review of 1973 Arab-Israeli War,” Defence Journal, November 2002, http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/nov/4th-round.htm; P. R. Kumaraswamy, Revisiting the Yom Kippur War (London: Frank Cass, 2000); Charles Liebman, “The Myth of Defeat: The Memory of the Yom Kippur War in Israeli Society,” Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 3 (1993): 411; Simon Dunstan, The Yom Kippur War: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007); Asaf Siniver, The Yom Kippur War: Politics, Legacy, Diplomacy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

And the response of Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, “Has Goal Setting Gone Wild, or Have Its Attackers Abandoned Good Scholarship?” The Academy of Management Perspectives 23, no. 1 (2009): 17–23. investigators concluded The Commission of Inquiry, The Yom Kippur War, an Additional Partial Report: Reasoning and Complement to the Partial Report of April 1, 1974, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: 1974). all to blame Mitch Ginsberg, “40 Years On, Yom Kippur War Intel Chiefs Trade Barbs,” The Times of Israel, October 6, 2013; “Eli Zeira’s Mea Culpa,” Haaretz, September 22, 2004; Lilach Shoval, “Yom Kippur War Intelligence Chief Comes Under Attack 40 Years Later,” Israel Hayom, October 7, 2013. “You are lying!” Ibid. CHAPTER FIVE: MANAGING OTHERS shoo them away As mentioned in the chapter, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Frank, Christie, and Colleen Janssen were all provided with summaries of this chapter and asked to respond to the details of this reporting.

“We proved you can change how people act by asking them to think about goals differently,” said Kerr. “Once you know how to do that, you can get pretty much anything done.” V. Twenty-seven days after fighting concluded in the Yom Kippur War, the Israeli parliament established a national committee of inquiry to examine why the nation had been so dangerously unprepared. Officials met for 140 sessions and heard testimony from fifty-eight witnesses, including Prime Minister Golda Meir, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, and the head of the Directorate of Military Intelligence, Eli Zeira. “In the days that preceded the Yom Kippur war, the Research Division of Military Intelligence had plenty of warning indicators,” investigators concluded. There was no justification for Israel to have been caught off guard. Zeira and his colleagues had ignored obvious signs of danger.


pages: 530 words: 154,505

Bibi: The Turbulent Life and Times of Benjamin Netanyahu by Anshel Pfeffer

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, different worldview, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, high net worth, illegal immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Four weeks later, however, he was back in uniform commanding a reserved armored division. His soldiers would cross the Suez Canal, finally turning the tide of the Yom Kippur War in Israel’s favor. The election, postponed by the war to December 31, proved a disappointment. Likud did far better than Begin’s Herut ever had, receiving nearly a third of the votes and thirty-nine Knesset seats. But despite the public anger over the war’s results, Golda Meir’s Labor Party, running as “The Alignment” in an alliance with the socialist Mapam (Mifleget HaPoalim HaMeuhedet, or United Workers Party), held on with a plurality of fifty-one seats, enough to form a coalition. Begin encouraged his crestfallen colleagues. “Even though Labor won this election, after what happened in the Yom Kippur War to the nation and the government, they must lose power,” he said. “It’s just a question of time.”8 Not everyone was convinced.

Most of the students in his social circle were Israelis studying in neighboring universities. Those were the friends Miki invited to meals at their tiny dorm apartment. When he was required to present a paper with a fellow student, it would invariably be another Israeli. Of course, Israelis studying in the United States were themselves another Israeli elite. And just like many of them, when the Yom Kippur War broke out in October 1973, Netanyahu rushed to return home and fight. IN THE EARLY 1970S, Israel’s main borders were relatively calm. Despite the Egyptian Army moving antiaircraft missile batteries to the Suez Canal Zone, the ceasefire agreed upon in August 1970 held for over three years. The Syrian border remained quiet as well—Israel’s control of the Golan Heights preventing shelling or incursions into Israeli territory.

Bibi was contemplating a three-headed election against Kadima and Labor, which was headed by his nemesis, Barak. One evening on a television talk show he told a story from the war about meeting Major General Sharon, who had commanded the crossing of the Suez Canal, the crucial turning point on the Egyptian front. He later repeated it in an interview with the New York Times. In the talk-show interview, he put it this way: I knew him in the Yom Kippur War. It was the third or the fourth day of the war. It was a makeshift force of Sayeret Matkal and we arrived there on the bank of the Canal, to help Arik, the IDF. The Egyptians had destroyed there some 200 tanks in the day or two before. We got into his command vehicle. There were three of us: Ariel Sharon; Ehud Barak, who commanded the unit; and your servant. It was interesting, because no one knew we had been there, three prime ministers.


The Case for Israel by Alan Dershowitz

affirmative action, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, different worldview, facts on the ground, Jeffrey Epstein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, Yom Kippur War

The occupation certainly contributed to an increase in the number and lethality of terrorist attacks by Palestinians, though terrorism had been rampant since the 1920s, and the PLO, which was committed to terrorism as the primary means for liberating all of Palestine, had been established before the occupation began. c15.qxd 6/25/03 8:24 AM 15 Page 100 Was the Yom Kippur War Israel’s Fault? THE ACCUSATION The Yom Kippur War was Israel’s fault. THE ACCUSERS “The responsibility for the new military flare-up in the Middle-East lies wholly and completely with the Tel Aviv leaders. . . . Israel continues its aggression started in 1967 against the Arab countries.” (Soviet general secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev, October 9, 1973.1) “Our victory in the war shattered forever the illusion of our neighbours’ invincible military prowess.

The attacks also took place during Ramadan, a period when Muslim leaders often claim an attack on them would violate religious principles and show disrespect for Islam. No one disputes that the Egyptians and Syrians, who inflicted considerable casualties on the Israelis, started the Yom Kippur War. Their goal was to recover the land lost to Israel from the Six-Day War—the war the Egyptians started, despite the fact that the Israelis fired the first shot. In the end, the Egyptians accomplished that goal and recovered the entire Sinai after making a cold peace with Israel. The Syrians failed in their effort to regain the Golan Heights because they refused to make any kind of peace with Israel. Israel learned some important lessons from the Yom Kippur War. First and foremost, it learned how vulnerable it was to a surprise attack, even with expanded borders. In preparation for its attack, Egypt had obtained large quantities of Scud missiles that “could reach Israel’s population centers.”3 Again, the Arab goal was to kill as many civilians as possible, despite the fact that deliberately attacking civilian targets is a war crime and a violation of international law.

Perhaps it has been this reality that has motivated Israeli soldiers to fight so fiercely in defense of their country. What Morris had said about the motivations and incentives of Israeli fighters during the War of Independence was equally true during c15.qxd 6/25/03 102 8:24 AM Page 102 THE CASE FOR ISRAEL the Yom Kippur War: They were fighting “in defense of [their] loved ones” who “faced slaughter should they be defeated.” 7 Israel ultimately prevailed in the war but with enormous casualties. Remarkably, the Egyptians and the Syrians, despite their eventual defeat, regarded and still regard the Ramadan War (as they call what the Israelis call the Yom Kippur War) as a victory. In a speech on October 16, 1973, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat told his people, “The Egyptian armed forces have achieved a miracle by any military standard. . . . [T]hese forces took the initiative, surprised the enemy and threw him off balance.”


pages: 427 words: 127,496

Mossad: The Greatest Missions of the Israeli Secret Service by Michael Bar-Zohar, Nissim Mishal

airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, illegal immigration, Stuxnet, traveling salesman, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Nahum Barnea, Yedioth Ahronoth, December 13, 1989 (H) “The Spy Who Loved Me: The Husband of Sylvia Rafael …,” Zadok Yechezkeli, Yedioth Ahronoth, February 25, 2005 (H) The Head of the Mossad watched the killing of a terrorist leader in Paris, Washington correspondent, Yedioth Ahronoth, July 23, 1976 (H) “Avner’s Liquidation Squad Avenged the Killing of the Athletes in Munich,” Yochanan Lahav, Yedioth Ahronoth, April 29, 1984 (H) “Revenge Now,” Eitan Haber, Yedioth Ahronoth, October 3, 2005 (H) “The Planner of the Munich Massacre: ‘I Do Not Regret It,’” YNET, March 17, 2006 (H) “Death of Muhamad Uda, One of the Planners of the Munich Massacre,” wire services, Haaretz, July 3, 2010 (H) CHAPTER 13: THE SYRIAN VIRGINS Interviews with Avraham (Zabu) Ben-Zeev, Emanuel Allon, Amnon Gonen, others (anonymously) “Our Forces in the Heart of Damascus,” Gadi Sukenik, Yedioth Ahronoth, October 17, 2005 (H) CHAPTER 14: “TODAY WE’LL BE AT WAR!” Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Angel, Ashraf Marwan, The Mossad and the Yom Kippur War, Kinneret-Zmora-Bitan –Dvir, Or Yehuda, 2010 (H) Bregman, Aharon, Israel’s Wars 1947–1993 (London: Routledge, 2000) Bregman, Aharon, A history of Israel (London: Palgrave Macmilan, 2002) Shalev, Arie, Defeat and Success in Warning: The Intelligence Assessment Before Yom Kippur War, Maarachot, Ministry of defense publications, 2006 (H) Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Watchman Who Fell Asleep: The Yom Kippur Surprise, Zmora-Bitan, 2001 (H) Haber, Eitan, Today We’ll Be at War! (Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth, 1987) (H) Zeira, Eli, Myth Against Reality: The Yom Kippur War (Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth, 1993, new edition 2004) (H) Landau, Eli, Eli Tavor, Hezi Carmel, Eitan Haber, Yeshayahu Ben-Porat, Jonathan Gefen, Uri Dan, The Mishap, Special edition, Tel-Aviv 1973 (H) “Meeting the Mossad—Ira Rosen Meets the Former Head of One of the World’s Top Spy Agencies,” CBS, 60 Minutes, May 12, 2009 “Dead ‘Mossad Spy’ Was Writing Exposé,” Uzi Mahanaymi, Sunday Times, June 1, 2007 “Who Killed Ashraf Marwan,” Howard Blum, New York Times, July 13, 2007 “Was the Perfect Spy a Double Agent?”

Apparently, Aman’s chiefs regarded the Angel not as an intelligence source but as the Mossad’s representative in the office of Egypt’s president, who was supposed to report, in full detail, everything that happened there. They ignored the fact that, in spite of his senior position, the Angel was only a spy, who produced excellent reports but did not always know everything, as is the case with any other spy. During the Yom Kippur War that broke out that day, the Angel kept supplying Israel with first-rate intelligence. When the Egyptians fired two Scud missiles at IDF troop concentrations, a reassuring report by the Angel calmed the Israelis. The Egyptian Army had no intention of using more missiles during the fighting, he said, and Egypt wouldn’t escalate the war against Israel. The Yom Kippur War ended on October 23. In the Golan Heights, the Syrian Army had been routed, and the Israeli cannons were positioned twenty miles from Damascus. In the south, the Egyptians had occupied a strip five miles wide on the Israeli shore of the Suez Canal, but their Third Army was completely surrounded by the Israelis, who had established a bridgehead in Egyptian territory, broken the Egyptian lines, and attained new positions barely sixty-three miles from Cairo.

As he climbed the army hierarchy, the first thing he did in every new office he was assigned to was to hang on the wall a large photo of an old Jew, wrapped in his prayer shawl, kneeling in front of two SS officers, one holding a bat and the other a gun. “This old man is my grandfather,” Dagan would tell visitors. “I look at the picture, and I know that we must be strong and defend ourselves so that the Holocaust never happens again.” The old man, indeed, was Dagan’s grandfather, Ber Ehrlich Slushni, who was murdered in Lukov a few seconds after the photograph was taken. During the Yom Kippur War, in 1973, Dagan was among the first Israelis to cross the Suez Canal in a reconnaissance unit. In the 1982 Lebanon War, he entered Beirut at the head of his armored brigade. He soon became the commander of the South Lebanon security zone, and there the adventurous guerilla fighter reemerged from the starched colonel’s uniform. He resurrected the principles of secrecy, camouflage, and deception of his Gaza days.


pages: 600 words: 165,682

The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977 by Gershom Gorenberg

anti-communist, bank run, colonial rule, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, old-boy network, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

The United Kibbutz Movement and the Merom Golan Settlement CARMEL BAR, army veteran, settler RAFAEL BEN-YEHUDAH, organizer YEHUDAH HAREL, organizer, settler KOBI RABINOVICH, army tank veteran, settler EYTAN SAT, organizer YITZHAK TABENKIN, socialist theoretician and ideological leader of the movement The Religious Settler Movement YOEL BIN-NUN, student at Merkaz Harav, Gush Emunim ideologue YEHUDAH ETZION, student at Har Etzion yeshivah, founder of Ofrah settlement MENACHEM FELIX, settler in Hebron and Kiryat Arba, organizer of Sebastia settlement bids BENNY KATZOVER, settler at Hebron and Kiryat Arba, organizer of Sebastia settlement bids TZVI YEHUDAH KOOK, rabbi, spiritual leader and head of the Merkaz Harav yeshivah MOSHE LEVINGER, rabbi, founder of the Hebron settlement and Kiryat Arba, a leader of Gush Emunim MOSHE MOSKOVIC, activist in reestablishment of Etzion Bloc settlements HANAN PORAT, student at Merkaz Harav, settler at Kfar Etzion, a leader of Gush Emunim ELIEZER WALDMAN, rabbi, settler in Hebron and Kiryat Arba, Gush Emunim activist Israel Defense Forces DAVID ELAZAR, head of Northern Command in 1967, chief of staff in Yom Kippur War SHLOMO GAZIT, Dayan’s coordinator of Israeli government activities in the occupied territories MORDECHAI GUR, head of paratroopers in 1967, chief of staff following Yom Kippur War MORDECHAI HOD, commander of Israel Air Force in 1967 UZI NARKISS, head of Central Command in 1967 ARIEL SHARON, head of Southern Command, later a Knesset member and adviser to Prime Minister Rabin Israeli Writers NATHAN ALTERMAN, poet, founder of the Movement for the Whole Land of Israel HAIM GOURI, poet and journalist, veteran of the Palmah pre-state militia YISRAEL HAREL, Orthodox journalist, activist in the Movement for the Whole Land of Israel CHAIM SABBATO, memoirist of the Yom Kippur War MOSHE SHAMIR, novelist, former leftist turned supporter of the Whole Land of Israel NAOMI SHEMER, popular songwriter, creator of “Jerusalem of Gold,” Whole Land advocate Settlement Opponents and Critics LATIF DORI, Mapam party activist ARIE ELIAV, Labor Party secretary-general ODED LIFSHITZ, member of Kibbutz Nir Oz, organizer of Mapam kibbutzim against expulsion of Sinai Bedouin AMOS OZ, novelist, kibbutz member YOSSI SARID, protégé of Pinchas Sapir, Knesset member Arab Political and Cultural Figures SULEIMAN HUSSEIN UDAH ABU HILU, sheikh of a Bedouin tribe in northeastern Sinai YASSER ARAFAT, leader of Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization HAFIZ AL-ASAD, president of Syria HUSSEIN IBN TALAL, king of Jordan MUHAMMAD ALI AL-JABARI, mayor of Hebron GAMAL ABDEL NASSER, president of Egypt ZAID AL-RIFAI, adviser to King Hussein, prime minister of Jordan ANWAR AL-SADAT, president of Egypt, succeeding Nasser AZIZ SHEHADEH, Ramallah lawyer, formerly from Jaffa, advocate for a Palestinian state alongside Israel RAJA SHEHADEH, son of Aziz Shehadeh; memoirist FADWA TUQAN, Palestinian poet United States Officials MCGEORGE BUNDY, former national security adviser, special coordinator for Mideast policy (Johnson administration) GERALD R.

Peres and Rafi party and resolution of June 19, 1967, and Sebastia and settlement plan and Sinai and Six-Day War and West Bank and Yom Kippur War and Dead Sea de Borchgrave, Arnaud Defense Ministry Deganiah Bet Deganiah Democratic Movement for Change Diaspora Jews Diklah Dinitz, Sincha Dir al-Balah Dir Yassin massacre of 1948 Di-Zahav Dome of the Rock conspiracy to blow up Dori, Latif Drori, Ya’akov Druckman, Haim Druse Dulles, John Foster East Bank East Jerusalem. See also Jerusalem Eban, Abba Meir and economic integration Education Ministry Efrat, Yonah Efratah Egypt Khartoum and negotiations and Resolution 242 and Six-Day War and War of Attrition and Yom Kippur War and Eichmann, Adolf Eilat Ein Gedi Ein Tzurim Ein Yabrud Eisenhower, Dwight Elazar, David Eldad, Yisrael elections of 1965 of 1969 of 1973–74 of 1977 of 1984–2000 Eliav, Arie Elkins, Michael Elon Moreh settlers.

See also Etzion Bloc; Hebron; Nablus; Sebastia; and other specific settlements and towns Allon and Arab employment and Arab leaders in Arab residents’ status and debate over holding Begin and Dayan and Egypt-Israel accord of 1974 and Egypt-Israeli negotiations of 1975 and deadlock with Jordan Eliav and Eshkol and ethnic struggle in, post-Sebastia evacuation of settlements in extraterritorial status of settlers in growth of settlements in, post-1984 Gush Emunim settlements Hussein negotiations and international law and intifada in Israeli population in Israelis visit, in 1967 joint rule concept Jordan seizes in 1949 “Judea and Samaria” as name of Khartoum and Labor vote on settlement, of 1977 map of, xx Meir and military rule of municipal electons of 1976 northern settlements in Oslo Accords and outposts in, post-1998 Palestinian demonstrations in Palestinian state proposals and Palestinian terrorists in Peres and PLO and post-Sebastia debates and “quality of life” settlements in Rabat summit and Rabin and rebellion in, foreseen resolution of June 19, 1967, and Sebastia compromise and self-rule plan for, proposed settlement of, post-1967 settlement policy changes of 1976 Sharon and Six-Day War and Six-Day War and future of Transjordan conquers Yom Kippur War and Western values, fundamentalist attack on Western Wall West Jerusalem When Prophecy Fails (Festinger) Whole Land of Israel elections of 1977 and Labor advocates of Likud and Oslo Accords and Six-Day War and Tabenkin’s vision of Wilson, Evan work brigades tactic World War I World War II World Zionist Organization Wretched of the Earth, The (Fanon) Wye summit of 1998 Yadin, Yigal Yadlin, Aharon Yadlin, Asher Yafeh, Adi Yamit. See also Avshalom Center Yariv, Aharon Yehudah Halevi Yemen Yeshivat Hakotel Yom Kippur War (1973) Young Guard of National Religious Party youth movements Zadok, Haim Zambia Ze’evi, Rehavam Zeira, Eli Zemer, Hannah Zionism.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

”17 CHAPTER 2 Battlefield Entrepreneurs The Israeli tank commander who has fought in one of the Syrian wars is the best engineering executive in the world. The tank commanders are operationally the best, and they are extremely detail oriented. This is based on twenty years of experience—working with them and observing them. —ERIC SCHMIDT ON OCTOBER 6, 1973, as the entire nation was shut down for the holiest day of the Jewish year, the armies of Egypt and Syria launched the Yom Kippur War with a massive surprise attack. Within hours, Egyptian forces breached Israel’s defensive line along the Suez Canal. Egyptian infantry had already overrun the tank emplacements to which Israeli armored forces were supposed to race in case of attack, and hundreds of enemy tanks were moving forward behind this initial thrust. It was just six years after Israel’s greatest military victory, the Six-Day War, an improbable campaign that captured the imagination of the entire world.

Wires were found on the ground leading to stricken Israeli tanks. The commanders had discovered Egypt’s secret weapon: the Sagger. Designed by Sergei Pavlovich Nepobedimyi, whose last name literally means “undefeatable” in Russian, the Sagger was created in 1960. The new weapon had initially been provided to Warsaw Pact countries, but it was first put to sustained use in combat by the Egyptian and Syrian armies during the Yom Kippur War. The IDF’s account of its own losses on both the southern and northern fronts was 400 tanks destroyed and 600 disabled but returned to battle after repairs. Of the Sinai division’s 290 tanks, 180 were knocked out the first day. The blow to the IDF’s aura of invincibility was substantial. About half of the losses came from RPGs, the other half from the Sagger. The Sagger was a wire-guided missile that could be fired by a single soldier lying on the ground.

Talpiot has the distinction of being both the most selective unit and the one that subjects its soldiers to the longest training course in the IDF—forty-one months, which is longer than the entire service of most soldiers. Those who enter the program sign on for an extra six years in the military, so their minimum service is a total of nine years. The program was the brainchild of Felix Dothan and Shaul Yatziv, both Hebrew University scientists. They came up with the idea following the debacle of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. At that time, the country was still reeling from being caught flat-footed by a surprise attack, and from the casualties it had suffered. The war was a costly reminder that Israel must compensate for its small size and population by maintaining a qualitative and technological edge. The professors approached then IDF chief of staff Rafael “Raful” Eitan with a simple idea: take a handful of Israel’s most talented young people and give them the most intensive technology training that the universities and the military had to offer.


The King of Oil by Daniel Ammann

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, business intelligence, buy low sell high, energy security, family office, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, Yom Kippur War

“Rudy,” 111–17, 120–34, 138–44, 167–68 alleged “sham transactions” by Marc Rich and, 120–22 announcement of indictment against Marc Rich, 8, 116–17 on Clinton pardon of Marc Rich, 242 legal obstruction by Marc Rich and, 139–41 political aspects of case against Marc Rich, 141–43 RICO strategy against Marc Rich, 122–23, 139–40 Swiss government and Marc Rich, 125–34 unconditional surrender of Marc Rich, 123–24 Glencore International AG, 235 Globalization, 89–91, 267–68 Global warming, 265 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 275 Goldman Sachs, 175 Gold standard, 57 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 158 Gore, Al, 11, 135, 241–42, 244 Government regulations, 118–19, 267 Grand Hotel Dolder (Zurich), 167–70 Gray, John, 275 Greatest strength of Marc Rich, 19–20 Green, Israel, 61 Green, Libby, 61 Green, Michael, 111, 120–21, 123 Green, Pincus “Pinky,” 60–62, 66–67, 229 case against Marc Rich, 8, 115, 117 Clinton pardon of, 66–67, 239–41, 245–46, 253 founding of Marc Rich + Company, 73–76 oil trading and, 70–71, 82, 83–84, 92–94, 185 Green, Sadie, 61 Griffel, Anita, 197 Griffel, Tali, 197–200 Grotenrath, Mary Jo, 162 Guevara, Ernesto “Che,” 45–46 Gulf of Aqaba, 54, 65–66 Gulf Oil, 55–57, 101, 183–85 Gulf War, 155 Hachuel, Jacques, 75–76, 81, 83, 100, 175 Hackel, Alexander “Alec,” 75–76, 83, 113, 115, 191, 229 Harkin, Tom, 250 Hart, Hugh, 188 Harvard Business School, 85 Heartfield, John, 19 Hefner, Hugh, 108 Hemingway, Ernest, 23–24 “High-trust” societies, 87 Hill, Ken, 5, 10, 67, 154–57, 160, 164–65, 230 Hitler, Adolf, 26, 29, 50, 214 Hoffmann-La Roche, 235 Holder, Eric, 255–57 Holocaust, 12–13, 28–29 House Committee on Government Operations, 133, 164, 165–66 House Committee on Government Reform, 2, 16, 17, 137–38, 165–66, 177–78, 250–51, 255–57 Hull, Cordell, 31 Hunt for Marc Rich, 151–66 Hussein, Saddam, 231–32, 265 Ibárruri Gómez, Dolores, 23–24 IMF (International Monetary Fund), 186–87 Immigrant mentality, 18 Indonesia, 54 Indictment of Marc Rich, 8, 116–17 Industrial espionage, 78–79 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 106–7, 122–23, 124 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 186–87 International Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (IMAC), 126–27, 284n Interpol, 152, 159, 161, 162 Red Notice, 133–34 Iran, 90–102, 195 hostage crisis (1979), 95–97, 99, 116–17 Khomeini’s return, 93–95 Monsieur Ndolo and, 182–83 nationalization of oil fields, 57–58 oil shock of 1979, 97–102 Rich as informal mediator between Israel and, 207–8 secret oil pipeline, 64–70, 72–74, 79–80, 207–8 trade embargo, 8, 54, 96–97, 116–17, 137, 141 Yom Kippur War, 70–72 Iran-Contra affair, 141, 170 Iranian Consortium, 101, 282n Iran Revolution, 90–97, 190–91 Iraq, 54, 57–58, 231–32 Iraq War, 265 IRS (Internal Revenue Service), 106–7, 122–23, 124 Isikoff, Michael, 241–42 Islamic (Iran) Revolution, 90–97, 190–91 Islamist fundamentalism, 270–71 Israel assistance to Mossad by Marc Rich, 203–8, 259 daughter Gabrielle’s grave in, 212–13 Iran Revolution and, 92–94, 102–4 Palestinians and, 94, 247–49, 259, 270 reconciliation between Egypt and, 198–200 Rich as informal mediator between Iran and, 207–8 secret oil pipeline, 64–70, 79–80, 207–8 Six-Day War, 54, 65, 198 Spain and Franco and, 50 terrorist attack (1985), 197–98 Yom Kippur War, 71–72 Italy, 70, 86–87 Jaffe, Amy Myers, 104 Jagger, Mick, 7 Jamaica, 162, 181, 185–89, 194 James Baker Institute, 104 Japan, 87 Jesselson, Ludwig, 40, 48, 63, 71–74, 76 Jewish Diaspora, 39–40 John Templeton Foundation, 275 Jones, Geoffrey, 85 Jordan, 54, 248 Juan Carlos I of Spain, 246 Justice Department, U.S., 106–24, 128, 135–36, 151–59, 167–73, 200–201, 244–45 Kansas City, Missouri, 33–34 Kekst, Gershon, 244 Kennedy, Edward, 250 Kennedy, John F., 11 Khomeini, Ruhollah Musavi, 93–104 business dealings with Marc Rich, 98–102 Iran hostage crisis and, 95–97, 99 return to Iran, 93–95 Khuzestan, 91 Kickbacks, 16, 177–78 Kissinger, Henry A., 111 Kopp-Iklé, Elisabeth, 148–49, 212 Korean War, 35, 37, 43 Korngold, Eric “Maxie,” 34–35 Kristallnacht, 26 Kroll, Inc., 158 Kuwait, 54, 57–58, 104 Laingen, Bruce, 95–96 Landes, David S., 27 Lang, Josef, 162–63 Lebanon, 160, 247, 270 Lebedkin, Max, 221–22 Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris), 10 Lehman Brothers, 175 Leutert, Jürg, 125–27, 130–33 Levi, Michael, 142 Lewinsky, Monica, 251, 258 Libby, I.

THE AMERICAN DREAM A Jewish Tradition • The First Trade • To Create a Market • Sensitive Assignments • Fidel Castro’s Cuban Revolution • Friends in Fascist Spain • American Hero 5. THE CRUDE AWAKENING The World’s First Oil Embargo • The Seven Sisters • A Wave of Oil Nationalizations • “I Was the Right Person at the Right Time” • Pincus Green 6. ISRAEL AND THE SHAH Top-Secret Pipeline in Israel • Trading with the Shah of Persia • Crude Middleman • Yom Kippur War • The Breaking Off 7. MARC RICH + COMPANY Swiss Secrecy • Vendetta • Thanks to Iranian Oil • The Oil Shock of 1974 • Faster, Longer, More Aggressive • The Invention of the Spot Market • The Secret of Trust • “Don’t Let Them Eat Your Soul” • Pioneer of Globalization 8. TRADING WITH THE AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI Khomeini’s Return • Iran Hostage Crisis • The Second Oil Shock of 1979 • “We Had Oil Available, and Our Competitors Did Not” • Israel’s Salvation 9.

He then ran so afoul of the law that he landed on the FBI’s Most Wanted list. The United States government offered a high reward for his capture and chased him all over the world. Rich’s is one of the most amazing careers of the twentieth century, a career that is tightly woven with great events in world history: Fidel Castro’s revolution in 1959; the decolonization of Africa in the 1960s; the Yom Kippur War and the oil shock of 1974; the fall of the shah of Persia and the seizure of power by the Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran in 1979; apartheid South Africa in the 1980s; and the crumbling of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. Marc Rich and his business partners were on the scene when these events happened. Thanks to their know-how, their hard work, and their considerable aggression, they were able to react to these events to their benefit more than their competitors ever could.


pages: 826 words: 231,966

GCHQ by Richard Aldrich

belly landing, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, lateral thinking, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, South China Sea, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

memo, ‘United States/Europe Relations’, 17.08.73, CAB 164/1235. 48 Heath to Nixon, 04.09.73, ibid. 49 Nixon to Heath, 09.09.73, PREM 15/1981. 50 Tickell (Washington) to Wiggin (FCO), ‘Talks on MBFR–The Problem’, 12.10.73, FCO 41/1242. 51 Sykes (Washington) to Brimelow (FCO), 13.08.73, DEFE 13/981. 52 Bergman and Meltzer, Yom Kippur War, Real Time, pp.123–7. 53 Le Bailly to ‘?’, 01.01.83, Folder 3, Box 7, Le Bailly papers, CCC. 54 Le Bailly to ‘Charlie’, 01.07.82, Folder 3, Box 7, Le Bailly papers, CCC. 55 Andrew, President’s Eyes Only, pp.391–2. 56 Notes of an interview by Henry Brandon with Richard Helms, File 8 ‘Helms’, Box 57, Henry Brandon papers, LC. 57 NRO memo for Dr McLucas, ‘November Forecast of NRP Satellite and Aircraft Overflight Activities’, 19.10.73, National Security Archive. See also JCS Memo for the Members of Special Committee, ‘Proposed SR–71 Deployment’, 08.10.73, ibid. 58 Account by Colonel Jim Wilson, ‘OL-Griffiss AFB, Rome, New York, 1973 Yom Kippur War’, http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmater/griffiss.html. 59 See also Brugioni, ‘The Effects of Aerial and Satellite Imagery’. 60 Van der Art, Aerial Espionage, p.67 61 Siniver, Nixon, Kissinger and US Foreign Policy Making, pp.201–3. 62 William Colby/Kissinger, 9.40 a.m., 24.10.73, Kissinger Telecons, NPM, NARA 63 Heath (PM) to Bridges (T), 28.10.73, PREM 15/1382. 64 Note by the Assessments Staff, ‘The US Alert of 25 October’, 29.10.73, ibid. 65 Smith (CAB) to Bridges (T), ‘The American Alert of 25 October 1973’, ibid; Hunt (Cab Sec) to Heath (PM), ‘Crisis Management’, 19.12.73, ibid. 66 Overton (FCO), ‘US/UK Relations’, 12.11.73, FCO 82/306. 67 Simons (Washington Embassy) to Herman (JIC), JIC 2/3, ‘New Director of Central Intelligence (DCI)’, 12.01.73, DEFE 13/891. 68 Mumford (MoD) to Carrington (Def Sec), 07.11.73, ibid.

AB Cryptoteknik 213 ‘ABC’ trial (1977–78) 8, 359–61, 423, 459 Abernethy, Barbara 70 Abu Hamza al-Masri 542 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 19 Adams, Gerry 500 Aden (Yemen) 6, 156, 164, 345 Admiralty Signals Division 137 Admoni, Nahum 471 Adye, John 427, 431, 476, 483, 494, 495, 598, 608 aerial reconnaissance 31, 59 Afghanistan 387, 420, 421, 510, 511, 533–9 Africa 99, 148, 182, 268, 299, 336, 454–5, 479 Aid, Matthew 521 Aiken, John 326, 327, 328, 331 Airborne Rafter programme 267, 538 Aitken, Jonathan 493–5 al-Badr, Imam 163–4 al-Jazeera 513–14 al-Qaeda 9, 509–11, 513–14, 517, 532 Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Lord 45 Aldeburgh (Suffolk) 286 Aldridge, Peter 449 Alexander, A.V. 123–4 Alexander, Hugh 25, 27, 78, 96, 599 Allen, Lew 357 Allied Commission for Austria and London 170 Alp, Saffet 314 Alvear, Soledad 519 American Office of Naval Intelligence 143 American Type-777 satellite 348 Amery, Julian 162–3, 295 Ames, Aldrich 385, 444 Amory, Robert 158 Amsterdam 487 Anaya, Admiral Jorge 389, 393, 395 Anderson, Jack 344 Andrew, Christopher 2, 362 Anglo-American-Commonwealth sigint 64, 82, 152 Anglo-American relations 7–8; and Balkans 472–5; and Berlin tunnel operation 172–6; changing nature of 441–3, 449–50; and cost of cooperation 222–3; and Cuba 341–2; deterioration in 281–95, 333; and Far East 151–2; and global sigint 89–101; gradual improvement in 295–8; impact of politics on 278; and liberating of Axis sigint 47–56; and Nimrod programme 268–70, 273–4; and Project Sandra 322–3; and public disclosure of sigint material on 355–7, 358, 361–2; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; shared problems 333–4; and sigint 7–8, 38–46, 91–2; and sigint satellite and computer revolution 347–54, 437–8; successful Russian intercepts 279–81; and Suez crisis 157–9; and Third World bases 334–9; and trade unions at GCHQ 421–2, 429; in Turkey 302; and Venona Project 72–88; in wartime 38–46 Angola 357, 454–5 Ankara 58, 254, 302, 303, 305, 310–11, 313, 315, 318, 330 Annan, Kofi 523–4 Antalya (Turkey) 326 Anti-Christ Doom Squad 487 Anti-Smuggling Task Force (Hong Kong) 477 AQ Khan network 531 Aquarius (computer) 349 Arab-Israeli War (1973) see Yom Kippur War Arab states 109 Arafat, Yasser 277 Aral Sea 306 Arbuthnot, Mrs 70 Arctic Circle 133, 136–9, 144–6, 147, 265 Argentina 307–8, 388–415 Argentine Air Force 401, 408, 410, 415 Argentine Army 396 Argentine Navy 395, 405, 408 Argus satellite 377 Arlington Hall (US Army code-breaking centre, Washington) 45, 74, 77, 80, 83 arms control 203, 257, 287, 288, 290 Armstrong, Sir Robert 416, 425, 427, 428, 430–1 Army Intelligence Corps 230 Army Security Agency 80 as-Sallal, Abdullah 163–4 Ascension Island 162, 278, 321, 392, 414 Ash, Timothy Garton 465 Athens 324, 330 Atlantic, Battle of (WWII) 42, 60 Atlas (computer) 349–50 Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADMS) 249 Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) 261 Atomic Energy Intelligence 155 atomic and nuclear weapons 2, 5, 36, 45; and Anglo-US arms control 287–9; at Los Alamos 75, 76, 82; British 163, 249; Chinese 155; need for better intelligence on 253, 255, 321–3; Soviet 107–8, 112, 114, 116, 119, 131–2, 148, 157, 173, 301–2; spiralling of arms race 438–9; US 249; US put on alert (1973) 293–4 Atomic Weapons Establishment (Aldermaston, Berkshire) 418–19 Attlee, Clement 73, 86 ATV 432 Aubrey, Crispin 358–9, 360 Auckland (New Zealand) 487 Audiotel 480 Augsburg (Germany) 48 Austin, Harris M. 115 Australia 79, 80, 85–8, 89, 90, 92–4, 98, 154, 164, 165, 167, 168, 213, 467, 477, 487, 533; Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) 86–7, 88; Central Bureau 92; Defence Signals Branch (DSB) 151, 153, 213; Defence Signals Department (DSD) 348; Royal Australian Air Force 150; Royal Australian Navy 266; Royal Australian Signals 166 Austria 96, 371, 384 Automatic Data Processing 353 Ayios Nikolaos (Cyprus) 156, 162, 163, 230, 234, 327, 328, 358–9, 360, 383, 384 Azerbaijan 109 Bad Aibling (Germany) 423 Bad Godesberg (Germany) 215 Badger’s Lair (SAS training exercise) 249–50 BAE Systems Ltd 544 Baghdad (Iraq) 161, 468, 469, 471, 524 Baghdad Pact 161 Bahia Paraios (Argentinean ship) 394, 395 Bahrain 347 Baillie, George 122 Bain, Helen 445 Baldwin, Stanley 18, 72, 400 Balgat (Turkey) 303 Bali bombing (2002) 511, 513 Balkanabteilung (German code-breaking HQ) 50 Balkans 51 Baltic 112, 114, 116, 125, 285 Baltic Sea 273 Bamford, James 263, 361–2, 521 Bandaranaike, Solomon 160 Bank of England 241, 487 Banner, Gordon 312–16, 318 Barbieri, Major 52, 53–4 Barents Sea 114, 115 Barker, Nick 391–2 Barkley, Howard 77 Barsby, Mrs 374–5 Basra (Iraq) 466, 525 Battle of Britain 29 Bay of Pigs crisis (1961) 8, 226 BBC 330, 348, 429, 501, 517, 523–4; BBC Scotland 459 Beach, Sir Hugh 380, 381 Bearman, Sid 595 Beasley, Tony 133–9 Beaumanor Hall (Leicestershire) 63 Beijing 476 Belbasi (Turkey) 302 Belfast 261, 500, 501 Belgium 442, 492 Bell, Rod 409, 410 Benitez, Rafael 114, 115 Benjamin, Ralph 216 Benn, Tony 227 Bennett, Ralph 59 Bentinck, Victor Cavendish 67 Bergen (Norway) 450 Bergold, Harry 295 Beria, Lavrentii 107 Berlin 112, 127–8, 130, 196–7, 227, 228, 253, 270, 369, 370, 372, 478; Berlin Blockade (1948) 71, 113; Berlin Cryptographic Centre 50; Berlin tunnel 169, 170, 172–6, 373, 477 Berlusconi, Silvio 532 Berry, John 358–9, 360 Betts, Richard 600 Beulmann, Major 50 Bevin, Ernest 70 BfV (German domestic security service) 452–3 bin Laden, Osama 511, 513, 514, 549 Binalshibh, Ramzi 514 Bingham, Lord 481 Birch, Frank 43 Bitburg (Germany) 131 Black, Jeremy 407, 408 black chambers 4, 14 ‘Black Friday’ (29 October 1948) 81, 108, 119, 169, 280 Black Sea 112, 131–2, 301, 302, 311, 313, 317, 319 Blair, Tony 4, 436, 497–8, 500, 504, 506, 509, 515, 517, 519, 530, 532 Blake, George 173, 174–5, 176, 178, 179, 238, 385 Bleckede 127 Bletchley Park 103, 186, 188, 221, 354, 549; Americans at 39, 43; and breaking ‘Red’ 25–6; closure of 67–71; and cypher security 54–9; expansion and reorganisation 27–8, 62–3; GCHQ as successor to 1, 5; Huts Three and Six 23, 25, 36, 48, 64–5, 119, 121, 356, 362–3, 364, 387; and machine-based espionage 5; military emphasis at 22–3; post-war role 60–1, 63–7; release of records on 355; SIS GC&CS moves to 22–8; takeover of Axis sigint effort 47–54; tight security measures at 69; unmasking of 362–3; wartime value and achievements 59–60, 61–3; wartime work of 1–2, 5, 25–9, 30, 31–46, 109–10 Blix, Hans 520 Block, Lieutenant 145 Bloomer-Reeve, Carlos 394, 412 ‘Blue Book’ 2–3, 395–6 Bluff Cove (Falklands) 400 Blum, Eberhard 450, 452 Blunkett, David 510, 522 Blunt, Anthony 36, 37, 83, 188, 224, 225, 364, 367 Board of Trade 241 Bodsworth, William 69, 80 Boizenburg (Germany) 127 Bolivia 52, 300 Bonnet, Georges 52 Bonsall, Arthur ‘Bill’ 110 Bontoft, Gerry 352 Borehamwood (aka ‘Department B’, London) 181, 182, 190 Borisenko, Alexsandr Ivanovich 236, 237 Borneo 6, 148, 164–8, 250 Bosnia 8, 9, 471–4, 512 BOSS (South African secret service) 357 Bourbon (Soviet radio intercepts) 75 Boyce, Ed 377 Bracknell (Berkshire) 113 Bradley, General Omar 116 Bradshaw, Mike 423 Brauntoltz, George 432 Bremerhaven (Germany) 116 Brezhnev, Leonid 245, 247 Brezhnev Doctrine 244 Bride (UK code-name for Venona) 80 Bridges, Sir Edward 42, 141–2, 181 Brinks Mat bullion robbery (1983) 505 British Army 14–15, 63, 451, 469, 472; 9 Signals Regiment 162, 327, 383–4; 13 Signals Regiment 166, 228, 493; 14 Signals Regiment 524, 525, 534; 40 Commando 525; British Army on the Rhine 248, 412; First Armoured Division 467, 525; Queen’s Dragoon Guards 525; ‘Rhino Force’ 467; Royal Armoured Corps 248; satellites 198, 208–9, 223, 243, 258, 262–3, 340, 342, 344, 345–8, 347–8, 376, 377, 401, 415, 421, 437–8, 441, 442–3, 445–7, 460–1, 478; sigint units 162, 166–7, 218–19, 228, 327, 383–4, 493, 524, 525, 534; Special Air Service (SAS) 164, 165, 168, 248–51, 359, 409, 410, 411, 468, 472, 475, 536, 583; Special Boat Service (SBS) 333, 409, 410, 411, 443, 468; Special Operations Executive (SOE) 36, 51; Special Reconnaissance Squadron 248 British European Airways (BEA) 129 British Indian Ocean Territories (BIOT) 334 ‘British Intelligence and Weapons of Mass Destruction’ (Butler Report) 2 British Leyland 367–8 British Military Mission (Brixmis) 123, 245–6, 247, 252 British Nuclear Fuels Ltd 500 British Psychological Society 433–4 British Tabulating Machine Company 349 British Telecom 545; Medium Wave Tower (Holyhead) 500 Britten, Douglas 230–8, 369, 382 Broadcasting Standards Authority 481 Broadside operation (US Embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 Brockway, Ernst 383 Brook, Sir Norman 142, 219–20 Brooks, Richard 399 Brooks Field (Michigan) 120 Brown, Gordon 498 Brundrett, Sir Frederick 177, 178 Brunei, Sultan of 164, 586 BRUSA agreement (1943) 43, 44, 121, 151 Brussels 179, 253 Brzezinski, Zbigniew 448 Buffham, Benson 381, 424 Bufton, Air Vice Marshal 207 bugging operations 176–82, 193, 196–7, 473–4, 479, 482, 499 Bulganin, Nikolai 140 Bulgaria 518, 519 Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND, German foreign intelligence service) 214–15, 422–3, 438, 447–51, 452–4, 455, 456, 471, 472, 524 Bundy, William ‘Bill’ 50, 356, 363, 364 Bunyan, Tony 361 Burgess, Guy 8, 37, 73, 82, 83, 84–5, 224, 225, 238, 367 Burma 65 Burrough, John 598 Burton, Sir Edmund 527 Burton-Miller, T.R.W. 57, 191, 577 Bush, George H.W. 356–7 Bush, George W. 511, 517, 532 Butler, Lord 2, 428, 482, 529–31, 610 Byers, Stephen 506–7 Byrnes, Jimmy 53 ‘C’ (head of SIS) 16, 24, 67 Cabell, Charles 96 Cabinet Office Intelligence Coordinator 241, 245, 264, 353, 354, 360, 387, 399, 504 Cable, Danielle 505, 506 Cable, James 278 cable vetting 238–41 Cable & Wireless 240, 312, 392 Caccia, Harold 171 Cadogan, Sir Alexander 23–4, 26, 39, 45, 70 Cairncross, John 36–7, 73, 82, 364 Cairo (Egypt) 58, 159, 179, 185 Callaghan, James 324, 325, 330, 333, 361, 391 Calvi, Roberto 407 Calvocoressi, Peter 59, 61 Cameron, Stephen 505 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) 368 Campbell, Alastair 517, 523, 530 Campbell, Duncan 8, 358, 360, 361, 362, 423, 458–9 Canada 38, 89, 93, 95, 97–8, 178, 447, 533; Canadian CBNRC 348; Canadian Communications Security Establishment (CSE) 381, 447; Canadian Joint Intelligence Committee 92 Canine, Ralph 101, 174, 336 Canyon satellite 376 Cape Canaveral (Florida) 322, 437, 461 Cape Matapan, Battle of (1941) 60 Capenhurst Tower (Cheshire) 500–1 Caraman, Mihai 253–4 Carey-Foster, William 185, 188, 228 Carlile of Berriew, Lord 543–4 Carpenter, Harry 598 Carrington, Lord 282–3, 284, 294, 389, 394, 396, 423–4 Carsamba (Turkey) 311–12 Carter, Jimmy 390, 448 Carter, Marshall 264, 272, 273–4, 350 Carter, Pat 448 Cartwright, Ian 328 Carver, Michael 334 Casey, Bill 457 Caspian Sea 112, 132, 161, 301, 302 Castle, Barbara 240 Castro, Fidel 226, 341 Catroux, Georges 52 Caucasus 131, 157 Caviar (Soviet encyphered traffic) 49, 69 Cayan, Mahir 309, 310–15, 314 Caygill, David 445 Celebes 167 Cellnet 481 Cemgil, Sinan 306 Central Gunnery School (Leconfield) 126 Central Signals Establishment 113–14 Ceylon 58, 69, 160, 259, 352 Chagos Islands 278, 335 Chamberlain, Neville 3, 18 Charles, Prince 482 Cheadle (Cheshire) 34, 63, 231 Chechnya 494–5 chemical weapons 470–1, 516 Chevaline project (upgrading of Polaris) 438–40, 459 Cheyne, Bill 166 Chicago Islands 278 Chicksands (Bedfordshire) 63, 360, 535 Chifley, Ben 86, 88, 94 Chile 357, 394, 396, 517 China 98, 129, 150–5, 193–5, 256, 273, 277, 282, 285, 376, 475–8; Chinese Communist Party 150; People’s Liberation Army 151 Chinese language teaching 598 Ching Peng 149, 150 Chippewa Falls (Minnesota) 350 Chirac, Jacques 520–1 Chitty, Brigadier 55 Chiverton, Roy 476 Chum Hom Kok (Hong Kong) 475–6 Church, Frank 356, 357 Church Committee 356, 357 Churchill, Winston 84; addiction to ‘Ultra’ intelligence 1; and airborne incidents 128, 129; and bugging operations 177; comments on the Belgians and Dutch 52; and cypher security 56; and diplomatic intelligence 41; and elint airborne operations 124; and Kuznetsov-Marshall affair 187, 189; meets Stalin 47; as recipient of sigint 3, 5, 40; supports work at Bletchley 26–7, 59, 65, 362 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 85, 87, 91; and Bay of Pigs 8, 226; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and counter-espionage coup 253–4; and Cyprus 324, 326–7; Foreign Broadcast Information Service 155; and invasion of Czechoslovakia 246; and invasion of the Falklands 399; Jewish sympathisers in 97; and Korean War 100; and Libyan terrorism 457; and Middle East 157, 158; and Nixon administration 4, 278; Office of National Estimates 151; revelations concerning 356–8; Russian spies in 444; security measures 101, 381; and shooting of Che Guevara 300; and Soviet weapons 108, 439; Special Activities Division 514–15; and Turkey 472; and U-2 spy planes 142, 226, 292, 296; and use of communication satellites 348; and Venona Project 77, 82; and Zinnia 322 Cianchi, Commander 54 CIB3 (Metropolitan Police anti-corruption squad) 506 City of London 487, 510 Civil Service 381, 421, 427; Civil and Public Servants Association (CPSA) 419–20; Civil Service Medical Officers Group 382; Civil Service Order in Council (1982) 431; Civil Service Union (CSU) 418, 420, 422–3; First Division Association 435; Society of Civil and Public Servants 426 Claret operations (1964–66) 165–8 Clarke, Kenneth 481, 482 Clarke, Liam 608 Clarke, Peter 266–7 Clarke, William F. 66 Cleveland, Paul 444–5 Clifford, Clark 333 Clinton, Bill 492 Clipper Chip (encryption bypass system) 492 Cobra (Cabinet emergency planning committee) 509–10, 527, 532, 610 Cobra Mist (Over the Horizon Radar) 285–7 code-breakers 2, 6, 198; and Anglo-American relationship 38–46; Australian 92; and Berlin tunnel operation 174; collaboration with Baltic states 31; combined operations 15–16; and computers 340, 348–9, 350–1; and decypherment of ‘Fish’ messages 28; diplomatic 27–8, 37, 43–4, 52–3; during WWII 25–9, 30–46, 58–9; Egyptian 164; and ending of WWII 61; expansion of 63–4; Far Eastern 40; Finnish 32, 35, 91; and French intercepts 52, 53, 209; and global sigint 96; importance of Hong Kong to 151; international work 16–17; and internet 493; Italian 52–4; military operations 14–15, 19–20; move from Bletchley to Cheltenham 5; naval 15; and Pelton affair 444; and personal computing and the internet 488; as Post Office department 14; pre-WWII 22–5; and Prime case 380; quadripartite meeting on computer hackers and encryption 489; revival on eve of WWI 14–15; Russian focus 17–19, 33–8, 169; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; and supply of intelligence reports 2–4, 6–7; and telephone tapping 170–1; and use of cypher machines 21–2; value of 60; and Venona Project 72, 74–88; wartime secrecy 354 COINS (Community On-line Intelligence System) 353 Colby, William ‘Bill’ 293, 327, 329, 330 Cold War 47, 377, 420; airborne incidents 125–33; benefits of intelligence in 175–6; Berlin blockade 71; calming of nerves in 257–8; computing in 349; end of 461, 465, 477, 478–9, 493; flashpoints 203; high profile espionage activity in 8; and planning for future war 247–53; seaborne incidents 133–47; secret service operations 484; sigint in 1, 2, 5, 107–24, 125–47, 402; Soviet nuclear weaponry 108; telephone and bugging operations 169–82; thawing of 195–7; and Venona Project 72–88 Cole, David 379, 380 Coleman, Don 131 Coleridge (Soviet teletype system) 78 Colombia 486, 538 Colonial Office 150 Colorob (computer) 349 Colossus (computer) 28, 48, 68, 70, 349 Combined Cypher Machine 98 Comet aircraft 121–2, 268, 273, 295 Cominstum (digest of hot material) 96 comint (communications intelligence) 96, 101, 110, 111, 122, 123, 228, 252–3, 266, 385, 402, 413 Comintern (Communist International) 19, 30, 37–8, 79 Commonwealth 85–8, 89, 92, 95, 97, 148, 266, 352, 447 Communications Branch of the National Research Council (CBNRC) 94 Communications Data Bill (2009) 543 Communications-Electronics Security Department 241–2 Communications Trials Ship (purpose-built sigint ship) 260–2 Communist Party of Great Britain 19, 188, 367–8, 417 Communist Party of India 87 Communist Party of USA 87 Comprehensive Comparative Radar Library 266 computers 198, 219, 220, 222, 340–1, 342–3, 348–54, 458, 486–93, 507, 507–8, 513, 527–8, 546–8 comsec (communications security) 90, 191–3, 195–7, 211, 218, 241–2, 377 Confederation of British Industry (CBI) 241 Conflict (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Congo crisis (1960) 336 Control Orders 543 Cook, Robin 498 Cooney Hill psychiatric hospital (Gloucester) 382 Cooper, Arthur 598 Cooper, Frank 423 Cooper, Josh 20, 34, 213 Coote, John 136, 137, 138, 143 Copenhagen (Denmark) 179 Corona (satellite) 208 Corporal (battlefield missile system) 249 Cosby, Bill 327 Costello, John 364 Cot, Pierre 53 counter-terrorism 456, 516, 528 Cox, Arthur 301 Crabb, Lionel ‘Buster’ 140–3, 207 Cradock, Percy 193–4, 294 Crankshaw, Edward 34, 35–6, 64 Cray super computers 350–1 Crete 157, 265, 292 Croatia 471–4 Croft, John 37–8 Cromer, Rowley 287–8, 294, 297, 337 Croslieve Mountain (Northern Ireland) 501 Crossman, Richard 227 Cruise missiles 511, 513 Crypto AG 212–15, 457 CSE (Communications Security Establishment) Watton 131 Cuba 226, 341–2; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 203, 253, 260 Cukr, Baclav 112 Cummings, Mansfield (aka ‘C’) 16 Cunningham, Andrew 91 Current Intelligence Groups 291, 396 Currie, Laughlin 87 Currier, Prescott 39 Curry, John 79 Curzon, George 15, 16, 18 cyber attacks 487–93 cypher machines; capture of 48–9, 264; Chinese capture of 194, 195; commercial origins of 20; development and use of 20–2, 57, 192; military 54; online 28, 210; and proposed Anglo-US collaboration 98–9; radiation or emanation from 215–18; supplying to NATO countries 209–15; see also Enigma Cypher Policy Board 42, 56–7 cypher security 54–9, 98–9, 191 Cyprus 7–8, 154, 155–6, 159, 161, 162–3, 219, 229, 234, 235, 259, 265, 277, 285, 292, 294, 295, 302, 319, 320–34, 337, 338, 345, 348, 356, 359, 369, 372, 382, 383–4, 419, 423, 466, 471, 504; Cyprus Eight 385 Czechoslovakia 203, 244–7, 253, 387; Czech Air Force Association 112 D-Notice affair (1967) 226, 238–41, 242, 362–3 Damascus (Syria) 159, 291, 300 Darwin (Falklands) 410 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 489 data-mining 486, 546–8 Daubney, Claude 103 Davies, Philip 27 de Gaulle, Charles 52, 195 de Grey, Nigel 35, 43 Deaf Aid (elint reception and analysis kit) 123 Dean, Patrick 142 Decabral, Alan 506 Defcon 3 (US nuclear alert) 293–4 Defence Intelligence and Security Centre (Chicksands) 63, 360, 535 Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) 245, 246, 353, 369, 397, 402, 414, 527–8 Defence Reviews 329 Defence Signals Branch 93, 151, 153, 213, 578 Demos-1 (Hong Kong sigint station) 475–6 Demos-4 (Hong Kong sigint station) 476 Denham, Flight Sergeant 126 Denmark 442, 533 Denmark Hill (Metropolitan Police intercept station, London) 37 Denniston, Alastair 15, 18, 21, 24–5, 27, 28, 31, 34, 38, 40, 43–4, 70, 79 Denton Green, Robert 400, 402, 403, 407 Department of Economic Affairs 241 Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) 487 détente 247 Detica (security company) 544 Dexter, Harry 87 Dhekelia 163, 233, 327 Diana, Princess of Wales 479–83 Dictionary (keywords/predesignated phrases system) 343 Diego Garcia 321, 332, 335–9, 597 Dieppe raid (1942) 55 Diffie, Whitfield 490 Dimbleby, Jonathan 524 Dingli (Malta) 32, 156, 162 diplomatic intelligence 27–8, 37, 43–6, 52–3, 62, 69, 148, 159, 164, 176–82, 349, 355, 377 Diplomatic Protection Squad 506 Diplomatic Wireless Service (DWS) 58–9, 123, 181, 185–90, 192, 262, 417, 418, 585 Director General of Intelligence (DGI) 246 Directorate of Scientific Intelligence 123 Discovery (space shuttle) 437 Diyarbakir (Turkey) 300, 301–2, 306 Dobrynin, Anatoly 454 Domazet, Davor 472 domestic surveillance and intercepts 540–50 Donoughue, Bernard 3, 325 Doran, Frank 126 Doublecross system 229, 255 Douglas-Home, Sir Alec 163, 282, 312–13 Dozier, James 407, 452 Drake, Edward 94 Drew, John 229 drugs 486, 503, 514, 538 Drumheller, Tyler 529–30 Drummond (Argentine frigate) 395 DS.19 (MoD unit) 368 Dubček, Alexander 244 Dublin 501 Dudley-Smith, Russell 49, 55, 261 Duff, Antony 360, 399 Duffton, Nancy 435 Dulles, Allen 157, 158, 174, 176, 203 Dulles, John Foster 157 Dunderdale, ‘Biffy’ 21 Dunlap, Jack 355 Dunnell, Peter 127 Dwyer, Peter 82 East Africa 335–6 East Asia 120 East Germany 123, 131, 195–7, 345, 370, 379, 385, 453, 605 East-West summit (Paris, 1960) 204 Eastcote (London Signals Intelligence Centre) 62, 68–9, 79, 80, 103, 191, 349 Eastern Bloc 123, 175, 244, 245, 247, 256, 267, 282, 447, 465 Eastern Europe 33, 53, 78, 99, 119, 256, 284 Easton, James 82 Eavesdropper revelations (1976) 358, 359 Echelon (Anglo-US communications network) 7 economic intelligence 240–1 Ecuador 52 Eden, Anthony 46, 85, 129, 140, 141, 142–3, 155–6, 160, 178, 189 Eemnes (Netherlands) 415 Eger (Norwegian ship) 117 Egypt 58, 109, 155–9, 259, 263–4, 271, 277, 290–2, 295, 320, 467 Eichmann, Adolf 307–8 Eisenhower, Dwight D. 140, 157, 158, 202, 205, 219 Electrical Trades Union 368 Electronic Warfare Conferences 122, 123, 307–10 elint (electronic intelligence); air-based 111–14, 118–19, 122, 124, 250–2, 267–73; and Anglo-American relations 111–12; and European cooperation 591; in Germany 247, 250–1; and invasion of the Falklands 401, 413; and jamming of Whetstone monitoring station 190; land-based 117–20, 123; naval 114–17; near the Soviet Union 169; postwar expansion 110; rejection of 247; in Turkey 306; wartime use of 110 Elizabeth II, Queen 480, 482 Elkins, Robert 143 Elliott Brothers Ltd 598 Ellis, James 490, 492 Elmers School (GC&CS Diplomatic Sections) 23 email 488, 507, 513–14, 521–3, 541 embassies 151; Anglo-US-Canadian intercepts in Moscow 280–1; attacks and raids on 193–5; as forward listening stations 31; KGB in 82–3, 283–4; and MI5 watcher operations 183–90; security headache 195–7; sifting of waste-baskets in 56; spies in 84; tapping and bugging operations 171, 176–82, 193, 197–8, 281, 477; ultra-secret short-range sigint stations in 244–5; worldwide collection of intercepts from 45, 53, 79, 112, 159, 242–3, 385 Employment Select Committee of the House of Commons 424 Engulf (Egyptian Embassy cypher machine operation) 216 Enigma (German cypher machine) 1, 20–2, 23, 25–6, 27, 35, 38, 39, 42–3, 43, 51, 68, 78, 80, 354, 387 EOKA (Cypriot guerrilla force) 163 Episkopi (Cyprus) 234 Erim, Nihat 306, 312, 315 Eritrean Liberation Front 336 Escobar, Pablo 538, 549 Ethiopia 299, 334, 335–6 European Convention on Human Rights 433, 483 European Economic Community (EEC) 284 European Principals Meeting 450–1 European Union (EU) 540 Evatt, Dr H.V. 85, 86 Evere (NATO-GCHQ cell) 254, 255–7 Exocets (sea-skimming missiles) 390, 406–7, 414, 415 Faisal, King 160–1 Falkland Islands 6, 424, 429, 441, 442, 452, 467; Argentinean ambitions towards 389–92; Argentinean invasion of 392–3, 394–401; British troops on 408–14; comint and elint on 401, 413; diplomatic exchanges with 403–4; effect of war on British sigint 415; French help on 415; improvised communications with GCHQ 402–3; inadequate intelligence on 392–401; leaseback idea 392; naval action 404–8; near-miss air disaster 408; Norwegian help on 401, 442; scrap-metal incident 393–4; surprise attack on 388–9; Task Force sent to 398, 401, 403, 404–8; US denies pre-knowledge 601 Famagusta (Cyprus) 163, 235, 327, 328 Far East 39, 69, 78, 93, 129, 148–51, 164–8 Farrell, Terry 496 Faslane naval base (Scotland) 145, 146 Fatah (Palestinian organisation) 304, 308 FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) 76–7, 81 Federation of Malaysia 164–8 Ferranti 349, 598 ‘ferrets’ (flying intelligence stations) 111–14, 203–7 Fetherstone-Haugh, Timothy 383 Fetterlein, Ernst 17–18 Fieldhouse, Admiral 392 Fiji 446 Finland 31, 32, 76, 83, 91, 371, 489 First World War 14, 15, 16–17 Firyubin, Nikolay 279–80 Fischer, David 407 Fish (encyphered teleprinter) 28, 48, 49, 51 Fitz, Harold 127 Fleet Headquarters (Northwood) 400, 401, 402 Fletcher, WPC Yvonne 455–6 Florida 341 Flowers, Tommy 28, 349 Foden, Arthur 242 Foot, Michael 433 Ford, Gerald 297 Foreign and Commonwealth Office 16, 22, 45, 46, 56, 58, 66, 70, 83, 103, 128, 171, 172, 190–1, 192, 220–1, 239, 245, 273, 281, 287, 333, 335, 339, 353, 355, 360, 392–3, 398, 417, 420, 428; South-East European Department 317; Technical Maintenance Service 182 Forest Moor (wireless station near Harrogate) 96 Fort Bridgelands (Kent) 63 Fort Knox (Kentucky) 101 Fort Meade (NSA HQ, Washington) 102, 157, 174, 223, 271, 513, 528 Förvarets Radionstalt (FRA) 91 Foss, Hugh 21, 64 Fox, Katherine 598 FRA (Swedish sigint service) 421, 438, 456, 483–4 France 21, 32, 44, 52, 52–3, 109, 130, 268, 442, 445, 450, 467, 492 Franks, George 382 Free French 28, 52 Freedom of Information Act 482–3 Freeman, John 279 Freeman, Peter 531 French Guyana 415 Friedman, William 39, 44, 95, 213, 214 Friedrich, Lt Colonel 50 Fuchs, Klaus 72, 82, 83, 87, 104, 238 Fyjis-Walker, Richard 316 Fylingdales (Yorkshire) 287 Gaddafi, Muammar 455, 457, 531 Gagarin, Yuri 301 Gaitskell, Hugh 141 Galvin, John 474 Gambier-Parry, Richard 57, 181, 186, 188 Gamma-Guppy (Soviet intelligence intercepts) 244–5 Gardner, Meredith 75, 79, 80 Garner, Joe 249 Gates, Robert 457 GC&CS (Government Code and Cypher School) 361; and Anglo-American collaboration 40–1; civil achievements 28–9; and cypher security 56–7; diplomatic centre at Berkeley Street 27–8, 37, 43–4, 52–3; divided into civil and military sections 27–8; and European collaboration 20–2; military interests 19–20; post-war role 61, 63–7; relocation to Bletchley 22–7; Russian interests 17–19, 30–2; setting up of 16 GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) 1, 31, 104; and al Qaeda 511–12; Benhall 350, 360, 497, 526; and Bosnian-Croatian conflict 472–5; Bude (formerly CSO Morwenstow) 342, 343–4; budget figures 587; building of ‘Doughnut’ 9, 497, 526, 527–8; ceases exchanging intelligence with NSA 289–90; and changing nature of global threats 504–5; and closer relationship with MI5 and SIS 503–4; and Cobra Mist/Orford Ness problems 285–7; code-breaking and intelligence-gathering 6–8; combined NATO-GCHQ cell at Evere 254, 255–7; computers in 527–8; cooperation with NSA 222–3, 278, 282–3, 346, 347–54, 438, 448–58, 461; declining position of 422–3, 438, 441; development of new systems 342–54; diplomatic initiatives 108–9; Directors of 551–2; domestic surveillance and interceptions 540–50; DWS operations 186; E Division (Personnel) 425, 427; and economic intelligence 493; Empress Building (Earl’s Court) 382; encryption problems in banking and commerce 487–93; and end of Empire 148–55; expansion of 79, 169; F Division 476; file storage 598; funding of 219–23, 334, 458, 493, 494, 495; Free Trade Union 430; future purpose of 485; and global sigint 92, 94, 95–100; and Gulf War (1991) 466, 469; H Division (mathematicians and cryptographers) 432; and hoax letters prank 469–70; increased intelligence operations 120, 121–4; influence on foreign policy 321; installation of dedicated computer unit 507–8; and internal surveillance 9–10; and internet 100; and invasion of the Falklands 392–403, 405–6, 411; and IRA 498–503; and Iraqi dossiers 516–17, 530; J Division (Special sigint—Russian) 346, 374, 376, 419, 429, 434–5, 438, 495; J-Ops 429, 434–5, 438; K Division (non-Russian sigint) 218, 222, 402, 420–1, 478, 495; and KGB espionage 108, 189, 424–5; and Korean War 101; language problem 512–13, 516; legal identity of 484–5; and Libyan Embassy affair 455, 456; London office (Palmer Street) 192, 497; loss of Hong Kong listening station 475–8; merger with com sec 241–2; and Middle East 155–64; moles in 368–85; move to Cheltenham (1952) 102–3, 120–1, 122, 191; need for 8–9; ‘need to share’ problem 503–4; Nimrod programme 267–70, 271–4; and Noye affair 505–7; Oakley 360, 380, 427, 496, 497, 526; ocean-going activities 6, 136; organisation overviews 563–5; overhaul of operations 493–7; positive vetting at 227–8; post-war organisation and location 67–71; and Princess Diana 482, 483; and problems with ‘special relationship’ 441–3; promotion and career structures 576; purpose-built sigint ship 260–4; R Division (security) 425; reads HVA traffic 605; reinstatement of unions at 497–8; relationship with private companies 240; removal of trade unions at 416–36; and Russian problem 46, 71, 75, 78, 169, 299; S Division 261; secret pact with armed services 5–6, 117–18, 132–3; size of 227; ‘Station X’ 69; as successor to Bletchley Park 1, 5; suicides connected to 382–3; and supply of cypher machines to NATO 209–15; T Division 123; Tempest 216–18; Trade Union Campaign 498; Turkish operations 300–1, 311–19; unmasking of 355–64; use of deaf and dumb civilian personnel 153; use of name ‘GCHQ’ 61, 67; and use of polygraph at 425–6; and Venona Project 77–81; visibility of 1, 2, 8, 341, 436, 484; W Division 261; and War on Terror 533, 539–40; and West German defections 455–6; whistleblower in 521–3; X Division 6, 350, 353; Z Division (use of sigint) 388, 503; Zionist interests 109 GEC-Marconi 433 General Belgrano (Argentine cruiser) 404–6 General Strike (1926) 18 Geneva (Switzerland) 178; Peace Conference (1954) 178 George VI, King 59, 191 Georkadijis, Polycarpos 323–4 Geraldton (DSD site, Australia) 477 Germany 15, 29, 30, 31, 32–3, 44, 47–50, 55, 62, 78, 96, 127–9, 130, 142, 170–1, 219, 229, 247, 256, 270, 492; Army 26, 29, 43, 47; High Command (OKW) 49, 349; Navy 42; see also East Germany; West Germany Gezmiş, Deniz 310, 311 Giant Reach (SR-71 flights from US to Middle East) 292–3 Gibraltar 162, 398, 415 Gibson, Sir Peter 502 Gilbey, James 479–81 Glazebrook, George 92 Glidwell, Mr Justice 430–1 Glover, Sir James 413 Godfrey, Admiral 32 Golan Heights 297 Golden Valley Hotel (Cheltenham) 432–3 Goldsmith, Lord 522–3 Golombek, Harry 25 Goodpaster, Andrew 256 Goonhilly Downs (Cornwall) 342–3, 597 Goose Green (Falklands) 404, 410, 411 Gorbachev, Mikhail 456 Gordievsky, Oleg 385, 478 Gore Booth, Sir Paul 339 Gosport (Hampshire) 134 Gouzenko, Igor 85 Government Communications Staff Federation 428, 429 Government and Overseas Cable and Wireless Operators Association 418 Government Technical Assistance Centre (GTAC) 507, 547 Government Telecommunications Advisory Centre 504 Gow, Ian 482 Gowrie, Lord 428 Grab (Galactic Radiation and Background) satellite 208 Grant (MI5 computer scheme) 528 Grantham, Sir Alexander 152 Granville (Argentine frigate) 395 Grechko, Andrei 245 Gredjeva, Nina Michailovna 189 Greece 163, 259, 319, 320, 324, 334, 450, 472 Green Light (US special atomic demolition munitions programme) 249 Greenhill, Denis 239, 284 Greenock naval base (Scotland) 144 Greenpeace 446 Grey (US diplomatic code) 40 Grindley, Mike 430 Gromyko, Andrei 205, 206 Groupe de Synthèse et Prévision (France) 284 GRU (Soviet Military Intelligence) 88, 173, 230 Guardrail (US airborne tactical sigint systems) 251–2, 272 Guernica bombing (1937) 22 Guevara, (Ernesto) Che 300 Gulf War (1990–91) 452, 465–71, 529 Gulf War (2003) 479, 516–26 Gun, Katharine 521–3 Gurdon, Adam 396 Gurkhas 164–5 Gurney, Sir Henry 149 Habbaniya (Iraq) 20 Hagelin, Boris Jnr 212–13 Hagelin, Boris Snr 212 Hagelin (cypher machine) 56, 78 Haig, Alexander 403–4 Halifax, Lord 24 Hall, Theodore 73 Hallock, Richard 74–5 Hamilton, Alexander 432 Hampshire, Sir Stuart 221–5, 260 Handel, Michael 362 Hankey, Lord 36 Hanley, Michael 361, 587 Hanley, William J. 305, 306 Hanslope Park (Buckinghamshire) 57, 58, 182, 185, 186, 187, 192, 196, 418 Hanssen, Robert 444 Hardy, Tim 166 Harland & Wolff 261 Harman, Harriet 368 Harrier jets 403, 404, 407, 408, 441 Harris, Robert 59 Hart, Herbert 225 Harty, Russell 359 Harvest (computer) 350 Hashmi, Jabron 535 Hastings, Edward 95 Hawaii 92 Hawkes, John 216 Hay, Malcolm 15 Hayden, Michael 508 Hayter, William 97 Healey, Denis 168, 245, 256, 399, 426, 429, 433 Heath, Edward 4, 239, 279, 315, 337, 338, 439 Heliopolis (Egypt) 92, 155, 162 Hellenbroich, Heribert 452–3 Hellman, Martin 490 Helmand province (Afghanistan) 534, 535 Helms, Richard 292, 356 Hemblys-Scales, Roger 86 Henderson, Nicholas 2–3 Hennessy, Peter 90, 577 Herman, Michael 261, 287, 419, 421, 435 Heseltine, Michael 426 Hibberson, Anthony 189 Hill, Jim 86–7 Hill, Major 120 Hillenkoeter, Roscoe 85 Hillgruber, Andreas 59 Hinsley, Harry 59, 64 Hiroshima 2 Hiss, Alger 88 Hitler, Adolf 3, 5, 29, 30, 31, 32–3, 48, 221, 290 Hoad, Norman 132 Hokkaido (Japan) 112 Holden Agreement (1942 & 1944) 43 Hollis, Sir Roger 79, 86, 182, 367 Holmberg, Elena 389–90 Home Office 507, 538, 544 Honest John (battlefield missile system) 249 Honeywell (computers) 458 Hong Kong 19, 30, 32, 96, 100, 151–5, 219, 256, 277, 419, 475–8 Hooper, Joe 191, 222, 223, 228, 273–4, 285–6, 343, 353, 419, 448, 466, 585 Hoover Commission 219 Hosenball, Mark 358 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee 440, 459 House of Commons Select Committee on Employment (1985) 433–4 Howard, Edward Lee 384, 444, 447 Howard, Michael 364 Howarth, Jack 189 Howe, Geoffrey 426, 427–8, 429, 431–2, 436, 460 Howse, Philip 79, 84 Hughes, Chief Inspector 187 Hughes, Robert D. 111 Hungary 46, 158 Hunt, Sir John 329–30, 337–8, 356–7, 361 Hunters Stones Post Office Tower 346 Hurd, Douglas 495 Hurley, Michael 144–6 Hurn, Roger 495, 526 Hussein, King 161, 164, 290 Hussein, Saddam 467, 516, 524, 525 Husum-Milstedt (intercept station, Germany) 50 Hutton, Lord 529 Huxley, Aldous 549 HVA 605 Iacobescu, Ion 253 IBM 350, 352, 489 Igloo White (ground sensors) 252 Imre, Nahit 254 Incirlik (Turkey) 326 India 4, 18, 19, 30, 32, 85, 95, 178, 334 Indonesia 153, 164–8 Information Research Department 156 Ingebrigsten, Jan 450 Ingham, Bernard 428 Inman, Bobby Ray 399, 422, 601 Intelligence Assault Units 47–8 Intelligence and Security Committee 484–5, 529, 539 Intelligence Services Act (1994) 484–5, 488 Intelligence Support Activity 168 Intelsat 342 Intercept Control Centre 250 Intercept Modernisation Programme (IMP) 543–5, 547–8 International Control Commission on Vietnam 178 International Regulations on Sigint (IRSIG) 90 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 533 internet 8, 488, 507–8, 541, 544–5 IRA 345, 455, 479, 481–2, 494, 498–503, 593 Iran 109, 112, 155, 268, 295, 299, 302, 421, 467, 472, 605 Iran, Shah of 299 Iraq 155, 156, 160–2, 259, 295, 320, 465–71, 479, 516–17, 528–31; 124 Electronic Warfare Regiment 525 IRSIG (Instructions and Regulations concerning the Security of Signals Intelligence) 503–4 Iscot (wartime Comintern traffic) 37–8 ISI (Pakistani intelligence service) 514 Ismailia (Egypt) 32, 185 Ismay, General Hastings ‘Pug’ 27 Israel 97, 164, 263–4, 277, 290–1, 293, 307–8, 415, 471; Israeli Sea Corps 264–5 Istanbul 307, 309, 310, 316, 318 Italy 19, 44, 52, 96, 345, 452; Italian Cryptographic Bureau 54–5 ITT (telecoms company) 341, 342 Ivy Bells (undersea cable-tapping) 384 Jakarta (Indonesia) 167, 168 Japan 17, 29, 39, 40, 44, 65, 100, 110, 152, 445, 446 Jebb, Gladwyn 64 Jenkins, Roy 51 Johnson, Lyndon B. 50, 238, 353 Johnson, Robert 346 Johnstone, Sir Charles 164 Johnstone, Colonel Hugh 327–8, 359, 360 Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 67; and Arab states 109; Chevaline project 440; circulation of BJs 70; collection of elint on Soviet air-defence capabilities 132; considers Soviet threats a bluff 204; Crabb incident 141–2; D-Notice affair 239; deployment of equipment in Eastern Bloc 123; failures and inaccuracies of 108, 245–6, 387–8; focus on economic, technological and scientific subjects 241; French cooperation 284–5; intelligence failures 387–8; and invasion of the Falklands 391, 395–7; and Iraq 466; Joint Intelligence Committee Far East 167; and new technology 353; and Palestine 97; and possible Soviet move inside Eastern Europe 256; rethinking of European targets 345; review of aerial and submarine surveillance 207; review of GCHQ spending 221; and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 245–6; and Soviet Union 46; and surprise Soviet nuclear attacks 321; and Turkish invasion of Cyprus 319, 325; and Vienna tunnel 171; and Yemen Civil War 164 Joint Technical Services Language School (Tangmere, Surrey) 370 Jones, Eric 46, 121, 132, 142, 159, 188, 191, 197, 418, 585 Jones, Colonel H. 411 Jones, R.V. 102–3, 110, 111, 579 Jordan 157, 164, 308 Joseph, Keith 286 Jowell, Tessa 498 July Bomb Plot (1944) 221 Kabul (Afghanistan) 533 Kagnew (Ethiopia) 335–6 Kaiser, Michael 240–1 Kapustin Yar (Soviet Union) 112, 131, 301 Karadſić, Radovan 473 Karamursel (Turkey) 301 Karlshorst (Germany) 371 Katanga (Congo) 336 Kazakhstan 107 Keepnet (recording equipment) 458 Keith, Bruce 69, 93, 94 Kelly, Gerry 500 Kennan, George 177 Kennedy, Jacqueline 180 Kennedy, Paul 59 Kenya 125, 334, 370, 511 Ker, Leonard Douglas 189 Kern, Dick 449–50 Kerr, Sir Archibald Clark 84 Key Recovery (or Key Escrow) 492, 506–7 KGB (Russian secret service) 137, 230, 285, 419, 538; agents working for 36–7, 185–90, 224–5, 231–7, 354–5, 369–85; and Airborne Rafter programme 267; defections from 478–9; Eight Directorate 377; expulsion from London embassy 283–4; intercepts on 53, 96; microwave intercepts 281; and miners’ strike (1982) 368; and release of material on GCHQ 355; Sixteenth Directorate 377; surveillance operations 4, 183–5, 190–1; tapping and bugging operations 170, 173, 175–82, 193; and Tempest 216–17; and Venona Project 72–88, 98, 104 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 514, 515 Khrushchev, Nikita 4, 140, 142, 173, 179, 180, 202, 204 kidnapping and hostage-taking 452, 513–14; in Turkey 302–19; see also terrorists, terrorism Kiev (Soviet Union) 126 Killian, James R. 219 King, Tom 426, 427 Kingsdown (Kent) 34 Kinnock, Neil 433 Kipling, Rudyard 13–14 Kirknewton airbase (Scotland) 118 Kirkpatrick, Sir Ivone 130 Kissinger, Henry 277–81, 283–4, 287–90, 292, 293, 294–7, 319, 324, 326, 329, 330, 331, 337–8, 403, 441, 444 Kizildere (Turkey) 312–19 Klemme, General 50 Klugman, James 36, 188 Knockholt (Kent) 120 Knox, Dilly 21 Kohl, Helmut 453 Kola Peninsula (Soviet Union) 118, 136 Komer, Robert 303 Korea 6 Korean War (1950–53) 99–101, 116, 118–19, 120, 129, 152, 178 Kosovo 8, 512 Kosygin, Alexei 280 Koza, Frank 517–18, 521 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) 150–1 Kubat, Ferit 313, 314 Kuching (Malaysia) 166 Kurchatov, Igor 107 Kurku, Ertugrul 313–14, 315 Kursk (Soviet Union) 36–7 Kuwait 465–70, 524 Kuznetsov, Pavel 183–8 La Belle discothèque (West Berlin) 457 Labuan (Malaysia) 166 Lagos, Ricardo 519 Lamphere, Robert 76–7 Lander, Stephen 494 Lange, David 444–5 Langley (Virginia) 292, 441 Laos 446 Larnaca (Cyprus) 384 Latakia (Syria) 331 Law, John 312–16, 318 Lawson, Nigel 460 Le Bailly, Louis 246, 286–7, 291, 439 Leach, Henry 395 Lebanon 161, 308 Lee, Raymond 39, 40–1 Libya 109, 295, 334, 455–8, 531; Libyan People’s Bureau (London) 455–6 Liddell, Guy 367 Light Electronic Warfare Teams (LEWTs) 534–5 Limassol (Cyprus) 325 Lindsay, Michael 151 Little, Peter 420–1 Little, Rod 402 Little Sai Wan (Hong Kong) 153, 475 Livebait (comparison of different signals) 458 Llanos, Gonzales 408 Lobban, Ian 542 Lockerbie incident (1988) 457–8, 605 Lockhart, John Bruce 171 Lockheed 476 Loehnis, Clive 31, 197, 210–11, 223, 466 Lohan, Sammy 239 Lombardo, Juan 393, 395 London bombings (2005) 532–6 London Communications Security Agency (LCSA) 103, 191–3, 210, 211, 213, 217, 585 London Communications Security Board 585 London Processing Group (LPG) 372–3 London Signals Intelligence Board 51–2, 109, 142; London Signals Intelligence Centre 69; London Signals Intelligence Committee 267, 268 Longfellow (Soviet cypher system) 78 Lonsdale, Gordon 238 Lord (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Luanda (Angola) 59, 455 Lucas, George 144, 145 Luftwaffe 26, 33–4, 35, 36, 43, 50 Luga airport (Malta) 295 Luneburg Heath (Germany) 127 Lunn, Peter 171, 172, 174 Lyalin, Oleg 283 Lyttelton, Oliver 149 MacArthur, General Douglas 45 McCormack, Alfred 45 Macdonald, Ken 543, 548 McGuinness, Martin 500 Machon, Annie 456 Mackay of Clashfern, Lord 484–5 Mackenzie King, William Lyon 94 Maclean, Donald 8, 37, 72, 73, 76, 82, 84, 87, 104, 238, 367 McManners, Hugh 409, 410 Macmillan, Harold 3–4, 143, 179, 204–7, 226, 364 McNamara, Robert 168 McNeill, Hector 224 Magdeburg (Germany) 50 Magic (Japanese cypher) 29, 39, 41, 44, 69 Maguire, Harold 268, 269 Major, John 398, 484 Makarios, Archbishop Mihail 163, 296, 320, 323–5, 328, 330 Malatya (Turkey) 306 Malaya 6, 30, 38, 125; Malayan Communist Party (MCP) 149, 150; Malayan Emergency 149–51 Malaysia see Federation of Malaysia Malinovsky, Rodion 204 Malta 156, 162, 295 Maltby, Ted 58, 79, 187 Manchester University 349 Manchuria 19 Mandelson, Peter 498 Manhattan Project (Los Alamos atomic bomb project) 75, 76, 82, 219 Manningham-Buller, Dame Eliza 515 Mao Tse-tung 4, 151, 193, 195 Marchetti, Victor 356 Marconi (company) 311 Marconi, Guglielmo 13 Marenches, Alexandre de 442 Marr-Johnson, Patrick 77 Marshall, George 42 Marshall, William 184–90 Martin, William H. 176, 355, 423 Marychurch, Peter 428, 434, 445, 448, 449, 451, 458–60 Mask operation 19 Mason, Roy 332 Mathison, Alan 25 Mauborgne, Joseph 18 Mauritius 334, 335, 338 Mazzini, Giuseppe 14 Medical Research Council 434 Mediterranean 16, 44, 114, 273, 295, 319 Meir, Golda 290–1 Menendez, Mario 412–13 Mentyukov, Igor 201–2 Menwith Hill (Yorkshire) 345–6, 347, 421, 449 Menzies, Sir Stewart 23–4, 26, 27, 28, 38, 39, 42, 45, 51–2, 55, 67, 82, 142 Methods to Improve (MTI) 220 Mexico 15, 517, 519–20 Meyer, Cord 358, 595 Meyer, John C. 271, 272 MI5 see Security Service MI6 see Secret Intelligence Service Middle East 7, 15, 16, 19–20, 32, 34, 41, 51, 97, 148, 155–64, 181, 182, 271, 277, 282, 290–5, 299, 320, 333, 334, 336, 376, 385, 454, 467, 472, 479, 494; Middle East Technical University (Ankara) 303, 304; Middle East War (1973) see Yom Kippur War Middle Six countries 519 Millward, Bill 63, 121, 221–2, 253 Milne, Alasdair 459 Milner, Ian 86 Milner-Barry, Stuart 25, 27, 364, 387 Milošević, Slobodan 473 Ministry of Defence (MoD) 240, 272, 286–7, 291, 312, 368, 423, 456, 495, 510 missiles see rockets and missiles MIT (Turkish National Intelligence Agency) 304, 314 Mitchell, Bernon F. 176, 355, 423 Mitchell, Graham 367 Mitchell, J.R. 118 Mitterrand, François 414–15 Mladić, Ratko 473, 474 mobile phones 492–3, 505, 538, 541, 548 Modin, Yuri 82–3, 84 Moffit, Bill 296–7 Molotov, Vyacheslav 178–9 Monterey (California) 332 Montgomery, Field Marshal Bernard Law 58, 85 Moon-bounce project 262–3 Morgan, Gerry 78 Moriarty, D.M. 587 Morocco 334 Morris, Gareth 433 Morwenstow (Cornwall) 342 Moscow 4, 18, 19, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45, 47, 53, 59, 74, 82, 84, 86, 104, 126, 148, 151, 175, 176–8, 179, 185, 186, 189, 201, 203, 205, 284, 465; Moscow Peace Treaty (1942) 32 Mossad (Israeli secret service) 291, 299–300, 307–8, 444, 472 Mottram, Richard 577 Mount Tumbledown (Falklands) 413 Mountbatten, Lord Louis 110, 143, 192 Mowlam, Mo 500 Mubarak, Hosni 467 Mullah Dadullah 535 Muller, Wilma 127 Mullet Creek (Falklands) 397 Munich Crisis (1938) 3, 22 Murmansk (Soviet Union) 133, 143 Murray, Len 416–17, 426, 427, 428 Muslims 472, 473, 474, 537, 538, 542 Mustard (Enigma key) 35 Mutual Balanced Force Reduction programme 287–9, 319 Mutual Weapons Development Programme 211 Nagasaki (Japan) 2 Nan-Szu-Pu (Taiwan) 152 Narvik raid (1940) 55 Narwal (Argentine trawler) 407–8 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 155–6, 161, 164 National Central Electronic Reconnaissance Agency (NSEI, Croatia) 473 National Council for Civil Liberties 361 National Criminal Intelligence Service 504 National Infrastructure Security Coordination Centre 609 National Security Agency (NSA) 7; and al Qaeda 510–12; and Berlin tunnel operation 174; and BND 422–3, 438, 447–51, 452–4, 455; and Bosnian-Croatian conflict 472–5; ceases intelligence exchange with GCHQ 289–90; and commercial encryption 488, 489; cooperation with GCHQ 222–3, 278, 282–3, 346, 347–54, 438, 441–3, 448–58, 461; creation of 101–2; data silo in Utah 546; development of new systems 345–6; development of Technical Research Ships 260; and documents on Princess Diana 483; and downing of Powers’ U-2 202–3; elint and comint responsibilities 122–3; funding of 334, 346; influence on foreign policy 321; and internet 8, 508; and invasion of the Falklands 398, 399, 415; and North Korea 100; and polygraph 434; and Prime case 376; public mention of 242–3, 355, 358, 361–2; relationship with US armed services 271–2; and Russian nuclear forces 119; Russian spies in 384–5, 444; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; and strategic elint 267; and Suez crisis 157, 158; and Tempest 216–18; and trade unions at GCHQ 421–2, 424, 429; Turkish operations 300–19; use of security measures 381; visibility of 341; and Yom Kippur War 291–2 National Service 117, 153, 219, 229, 369 NATO 126, 130, 209–15, 217–18, 242, 247, 248, 253–7, 268–9, 270, 272, 283, 300, 319, 328, 345, 429, 448, 452, 456, 467, 533, 534; Military Committee 256; Nuclear Planning Group 332; Special Committee 257 Nauticus Corporation 265 Naval Intelligence 32, 116, 143 Naval Mechanics School (Buenos Aires) 389 Nave, Eric 19 Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) 31 Neff, Paul 50, 76 Netherlands 442, 443 ‘Never Again’ agreement (1982) 440–1 New People’s Army (Philippines) 452 New Zealand 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 164, 165, 438, 442, 444–7, 448, 487; Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) 445–6 Newman, Dr 145 Newman, Max 28, 70 Nicoll, Douglas 387–8, 396, 421, 529 Nicoll Report (1981) 388 Nicosia (Cyprus) 326 Nimrods 268–70, 271–4, 326, 414, 415, 442, 474, 515, 536, 537 9/11 9, 509–14, 531 Nixon, Richard M. 4, 277–8, 279, 281, 283–4, 288, 290, 293, 297–8, 304–5, 325–6, 337, 338, 434 Noakes, John 348 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 608 Noise Investigation Bureau 110 Nokia (telecoms company) 489 Norland, Selmer 48, 78 North Atlantic Council 254 North Cape, Battle of (1943) 60 North Korea 100, 120, 129, 175, 264 Northern Ireland 329, 498–503; Peace Process 501 Northwood Hills (communications security establishment) 192, 400, 401, 402, 469 Norway 55, 99, 116–17, 134, 139, 269 Nott, John 395, 396, 397–8, 414–15, 429, 601 Noye, Kenneth 505–6 Nuclear Planning Group 255 Oakleigh Park North (Soviet-radio monitoring station, Whetstone) 190–1 O’Connor, Morris J. 144, 145 Odette (Army intercept equipment) 474, 525, 534, 536–7 Odom, William ‘Bill’ 214, 385, 413, 434, 442–4, 446–52, 454–5, 457, 458, 471, 476 Oedipus (computer) 349 Oeljeschaeger, Major 50 Office of Strategic Services 87, 91 Official Secrets Act 8, 359, 360, 363, 383, 522 oil 298, 336, 356 Okinawa (Japan) 152 OKK-5 (Soviet codebook) 35 Oldfield, Maurice 82, 358 Omagh (Northern Ireland) 501–3 Oman 271, 345 Omand, Sir David 9, 272, 398, 495–7, 498 one-time pads (encryption system) 18–19, 20, 56, 74, 81, 83, 108 Operation Citadel (1943) 36 Operation Claret (1956) 140–2 Operation Damage (Comet sorties in the Mediterranean) 273 Operation Debenture (1954) 152–3 Operation Defiant (1955) 137 Operation Desert Storm (1991) 467–9 Operation Duster (sigint flight operations during Yom Kippur War) 295 Operation Gold (1948) 97 Operation Halfmoon (1948) 96 Operation Hem (sigint flight operations during Yom Kippur War) 295 Operation Musketeer (1956) 156–9 Operation Nigeria (against journalists and their sources) 506 Operation Overlord (1944) 59 Operation Pat (Comet sorties over the Baltic) 273 Operation Sanjak (1955) 137–9 Operation Storm (1995) 472–3 Operation Tartan (1955) 136–7 Operation Trail Hammer 536 Orford Ness (Suffolk) 285–7, 322 Organ, Helena see Prime, Helena Orion (sigint satellite) 437 Ormsby Gore, David 206 Orwell, George 549 Oshima, Baron 29 Ottawa (Canada) 57, 85, 92, 94, 97 Over the Horizon Radar 285–7, 322 Owen, Dr David 299–300, 332–3, 360, 391 Padeborn (Germany) 248 Pakistan 323, 334, 384, 513–14, 519, 537 Palestine 97, 109, 155, 156, 320 Paris 21, 25, 52, 53, 158, 194–5, 243, 284–5, 510 Parker-Bowles, Camilla 480, 482 Parliamentary Select Committee on Foreign Affairs 529 Patagonia 393 Patchett, Brian 228–30, 369 Paterson, Brian 507 Pearl, Daniel 514 Pearl Harbor attack (7 December 1941) 29, 290 Peking 150, 151, 194 Pelton, Ronald 384–5, 443–4, 447 Penkovsky, Oleg 322–3 Penney, William 192 Pepper, David 526, 527, 528, 532, 539 Perkar (Ceylon) 160 Perkins, Alice 495 Permanent Secretaries Committee on the Intelligence Services (PSIS) 219–20, 241, 260, 423 Perrin, Ken 267, 270, 363 Peshawar (Pakistan) 384 Petersfield (Hampshire) 133 PGP (Pretty Good Privacy, code-making programme) 490–1 Philby, Kim 37, 82–3, 84–5, 225, 226, 238, 242, 354–5, 367, 385 Philco (telecoms company) 350 Philippines 445 Phillips, Cecil 75, 79 Pilsey Island (Sussex) 140 Pincher, Chapman 17, 226, 238, 239, 240, 242, 386 Pine Gap (Australia) 345 Pinner (Middlesex) 68, 69 Pinochet, Augusto 519 Pirinclik Air Base (Turkey) 301–2, 306 Pither, Judith 383 Plessey (telecoms company) 212, 267–8, 311, 433 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation) 277 Poets Systems (Soviet cypher machines) 78, 81 Poland 21–2, 31, 46, 178, 387, 421, 515 Polaris missile system 266, 322, 335, 337, 438–40 Pollard, Jonathan 444 Polyarnoe (Soviet Union) 34, 36 polygraphs 381, 383, 424–6, 433–4, 444 Port Said (Egypt) 156 Port Stanley (Falklands) 390, 397, 413 Portsmouth (Hampshire) 134 Portugal 44 Poseidon (missile system) 439 positive vetting 88, 227–8, 229, 229–30 Posner, Gerald 483 Post Hostilities Planning (PHP) Committee 46, 85 Post Office 241, 286; develops fibre-optic cables 604; Research Department (Dollis Hill) 28, 68, 171, 172, 349; ‘Secret Department’ 14 Potts, Archie 154–5 Poulden, Teddy 93, 94, 352–3, 354 Powell, Jonathan 500 Powers, Gary 8, 201–7, 208, 226 Prague 244; Prague Spring (1968) 387 Prime, Geoffrey 8, 368–86, 423, 424, 425, 444, 447, 600 Prime, Helena 374–5 Prime, Rhona 375, 378–9 Princeton University 350 Prior, James 422 Profumo affair (1963) 8, 226, 228 Project Clipeus (British ADM programme) 249 Project Cobra Shoe (US intelligence station on Cyprus) 323, 348, 356 Project K (NSA HQ) 102 Project Minaret (US illegal monitoring of domestic radicals) 357 Project Sambo (tracking low-frequency submarine radio transmissions) 378 Project Sandra (intelligence facility on Cyprus) 321–3, 348, 356 Public Interest Immunity certificates 505 Public Key Cryptography 489–93, 508, 512 Public Record Office (Kew) 355 Puerto Belgrano (Argentina) 393 Punta Arenas (Chile) 414 Purple (Japanese cypher machine) 29, 38 Purves, Peter 348 Pym, Francis 423 Pyramider satellite 377 Quinlan, Sir Michael 493 Racal (telecoms company) 401, 433, 469, 524, 590 radar 110, 126, 132, 133, 136, 138, 145, 154, 202, 266, 285–7, 301–2, 306, 406, 408, 466 Radcliffe, Lord 239–40 Radcliffe Inquiry into Security in the Civil Service (1962) 381, 418 Radio Corporation of Cuba 341 Radio Operators (GCHQ) 15, 185, 186, 228, 261, 382, 418, 419, 420, 422, 432, 435, 458 Radio Reconnaissance Teams (Afghanistan) 535 Radio Security Service 37, 58, 79, 221 Radio Warfare Special Branch 133, 134 Rainbow Warrior (Greenpeace ship) 446 Rangoon (Burma) 110 Rattan (Soviet radio intercepts) 75 RC-135 ‘Looking Glass’ aircraft 273 Reagan, Ronald 398, 403, 457 ‘Real IRA’ 501, 502 Reenan, Cyril 479, 480 Rees-Mogg, Lord William 481 Reeve, James 196, 197 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) (2000) 547 Reid, John 516 Reijn, Joop van der 308 Reilly, Patrick 205, 206 rendition programmes 539–40 Rendle, John 578 Rennie, John 156 Res (reserved cypher material) 44–5 Review of Intelligence Requirements and Resources (1994) 493 Review of Intercept as Evidence (2004) 541 Rhodes, Miriam 378 Rhodesia 3, 209 Ribbentrop, Joachim von 31 Richards, Brooks 387 Richards, Francis 504, 511, 526 Riddington, Tony 598 Ridley, Nicholas 392 Rimington, Stella 372, 494, 521 Ring of Five 442–3 Ritter, Scott 470–1 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) 513 Roake, Alfie 147, 265 Robinson (computer) 349 Robinson, Robin 493 rockets and missiles 5, 108, 110, 131, 169, 201–2, 203, 207, 266, 271, 301, 306, 315, 322–3, 335, 337, 376, 390, 439–40, 510, 511, 515, 525 Rockex (UK cypher machines) 57–8, 194 Rolf, Vic 213 Romania 52, 256, 257, 284; foreign intelligence service (DGIE) 253–4 Rome 372 Rommel, Erwin 5 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 39, 41, 47, 73, 84, 87 Rose, Michael 472, 473, 474 Rosenberg, Ethel and Julius 83 Rosenheim (Germany) 48 Roussilhe, François 254–5 Rowe, Vivian 402 Rowlands, Ted 390, 399–400, 401 Rowlett, Frank 44, 174 Rowntree Foundation 361 Royal Air Force (RAF) 369, 537: 192 Squadron (monitoring aircraft unit) 113, 122, 125, 149, 159; 199 Squadron (radio wafare unit) 113, 125, 131; invited onto Blue Peter children’s programme 348; loss of Avro Lincoln (1953) 125–9, 580; and Malayan Emergency 149–50; near-miss incidents 131; negotiations on air corridors 129–30; 100 Countermeasure Group 112; as part of GC&CS 20; RAF Akrotiri 273, 295, 296, 323, 325; RAF Brampton 469; RAF Brawdy 377; RAF Brize Norton 204, 375; RAF Celle 128; RAF Crail 369; RAF Digby 230, 231, 237; RAF Gatow 112, 370, 383; RAF Habbaniya 155, 161–2, 230; RAF Hammersley Hayes 231; RAF Lakenheath 116, 142; RAF Leconfield 126; RAF Mildenhall 257, 273, 284, 297; RAF North Luffenham 153; RAF Northolt 537; RAF Oakhanger 262; RAF Pergamos 162, 323; RAF Scharfoldendorf 128; RAF Sharjah 271; RAF Strike Command 270; RAF Upper Heyford 457; RAF Watton 112–14, 122, 125, 131, 159; RAF Wythall 153; RAF Wyton 273, 295; ‘Rock Apes’ Regiment 154; sigint and elint operations 110–14, 116–18, 121–2, 124, 131–3, 153, 154, 206, 218–19, 269–70, 272–3, 285–7; Signals Units 153, 154, 161; surveillance operations 537–8; and U-2 overflight programme 202; Y stations in Kent and Cheshire 34, 63, 111 Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Procedure 425–6 Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 499 Royal Marines 390, 391, 394, 402, 411, 413, 524, 535; Y Troop 524, 525, 535 Royal Navy 159, 441, 474, 477; and Buster Crabb incident 140–2; HMS Affray 133; HMS Albion 259; HMS Anderson (sigint station in Ceylon) 69, 92, 93, 94, 160; HMS Antrim 409, 410; HMS Ardent 410; HMS Conqueror 404; HMS Coventry 406; HMS Dolphin 265; HMS Endurance 391–2, 394, 396; HMS Glamorgan 410; HMS Glasgow 406; HMS Hermes 402–3, 411; HMS Invincible 407; HMS Maidstone 139; HMS Mariner 134; HMS Mercury (RN Signals School) 133, 134, 139; HMS Pickle 134; HMS Pucklechurch 133, 134; HMS Sheffield 406; HMS Sir Galahad 400; HMS Superb 259; HMS Taciturn 144–6; HMS Totem (later Dakar) 137, 264, 265; HMS Truculent 133; HMS Truelove 134; HMS Truncheon 264, 265; HMS Turpin 135–9, 140, 143, 146–7, 264; influence on GC&CS 16; intercept sites at Scarborough and Winchester 63; Kipling story involving 13; Provost Branch 139; and radio station at Polyarnoe 34; ‘Room 40’ code-breakers 15; sigint and elint operations 6, 114, 133–9, 143–7, 218–19, 264–7 Royal Radar Establishment (Malvern) 501 Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) 501, 502–3; RUC Special Branch 499, 502, 503 Rumsfeld, Donald 511 Rushworth, Edward 48, 78 Russian Mafia 504 Ryolite satellites 345, 346, 376, 421 Sabah (Borneo) 165 Sabri, Naji 530 Sadat, Anwar 296 Sadi, Sener 314 Safford, Laurance 39 Samford, General 101 Samsun (Turkey) 301, 311 San Carlos Water (Falklands) 408–11 San Francisco 92 Sangin province (Afghanistan) 535 Santa Fe (Argentine submarine) 397 Sarafand (Palestine) 20, 32, 155, 162 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 473, 474 Sarawak 165 Sarell, Sir Roderick 308, 312, 313, 315, 319 Saudi Arabia 164, 467, 468 Saunders, Andrew 458 Savimbi, Joseph 454 Scan Odd (airborne radar) 121 Scarborough (Yorkshire) 63 Scargill, Arthur 416 Scarman, Lord 431 Scarus (portable interception kit) 534 Schlesinger, James 294–5, 326, 329, 330, 332 Schmidt, Hans 21 Schröder, Gerhard 520 Schulze, Reinhard and Sonja 455–6 Scott-Farnie, G.R. 34 SCUD missiles 251, 468, 469 SDECE (French secret intelligence service) 442 Second World War 135, 335; end of 47–50, 59–60; events leading up to 22; and improved communications 5; and release of sigint material 355–6; Russian interceptions in 30, 31–2; sigint and code-breaking in 2, 5, 28–9, 32–46, 250 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS; MI6) 1, 57, 82, 91, 97; agents sent into the Eastern Bloc 123; at Bletchley 23, 27; and Automatic Data Processing 353; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and bungled surveillance operations 140–2; buys missiles on the open market 407; closer relationship with MI5 and GCHQ 503–4; considered organisational basket-case 24; and Cyprus radio station 156; and end of influence over sigint 142; and Enigma decypherment 21; funding of 494; move to Broadway Buildings 17; move to Century House (1966) 195; move to Vauxhall Cross 496–7; no trade unions in 417; obsession with Russia 17, 31; origins of 14; and Penkovsky 322–3; and post-war re-absorption of GC&CS 67; recruitment to 61; Section V 37; Section VIII 57–9; Section Y (Carlton Gardens) 171, 178, 372; Technical Collection Service 132; and Yemen 164 Secret Service Committee 15 Security Commission 368–9, 381–2, 384 Security Service (MI5) 1, 57, 182, 361; and Automatic Data Processing 353; Britten affair 237; bugging operations 177; closer relationship with SIS and GCHQ 503–4; and CND 368; fears concerning Communists in trade unions 418–19; funding of 494; interception of telegrams and telexes 239; and John Cairncross 37; and Libyan Embassy affair 456; no trade unions in 417; origins of 14–17; and Peter Wright 223, 224; and polygraph 433–4; and possible sub-agents 382; problems with Orford Ness 287; and sigint security 70–1; ‘Squidgygate’ affair 482; and Venona 79, 84, 85, 86; ‘watchers’ operations 183–90; and West German defections 455–6; Whetstone radio monitoring station 190–1 Selby-Bennett, Harry 134, 139 Selwyn Lloyd, John 128, 158, 159 Semipalatinsk (Soviet Union) 107, 302 Services Liaison Department 70 Sexton, Jamie 305 Seychelles 334, 335 Shanghai 19 Sharq el-Adna (radio station) 156 Shayler, David 521 Shedden, Sir Frederick 86, 92 Sheldon, Robert 459 Shergold, Harry ‘Shergy’ 142 Short, Clare 523–4 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles 441 Sigaba (US cypher machine) 98–9 Sigdasys project (improved flow of sigint to front-line units) 451, 456 Sigint Conference (1946) 95 Sigint Electronic Warfare Operation Centre (Afghanistan) 535 sigint satellites 437–8 sigint ships 259–67 Sigint/EW Operations Centre in Regional Command (South) 534 SIGMod 539 signals intelligence (sigint); in Afghanistan 534–9; airborne 121–2, 125–33, 144, 202–7, 223, 251–2, 257, 267–74, 295, 377; and allied cut-offs 444–7; American 39–40, 143–4, 271–2, 273–4; benefits of 401–2; blue jackets (BJs) 17, 70–1; bugging 176–82; cost of 218–23; Croatian success 473–5; and Cuba 341–2; cypher security 57, 191–3; in Cyprus 320–39; D-Notice affair 238–41; defections from 228–9; dependence on SAS-type activities 250–1; and ‘Dodgies’ or Mystery Trips 6; and domestic/ international blurring 344; during Cold War 1, 5, 8, 108–24, 125–47, 257–8; during WWII 2, 5, 32–46, 57–8; expansion in India 30; failures of 253–5; and Far East 148–51, 164–8; GCHQ at heart of 5–10; German 35, 49–50, 62; global alliances 89–101; ground-based 117–20, 252–3; and Gulf War (1991) 468; in Hong Kong 151–5; importance of bases 151–5, 277–8; and Indonesia-Malaya confrontation 164–8; and invasion of Czechoslovakia 245–6; and invasion of Falklands 397–415; and Iraq War (2003) 525–6; and Kipling 13–14; legalities of 344; and making/influencing of foreign policy 321; in medieval times 4; and Middle East 155–64; modern formation of 58; and political leaders 2–4, 7; and private companies 17; problem of language 512–13; public disclosure of 356–64; rethinking of targets 345; relations between Western allies 444–7; release of wartime material on 355; and rescuing of enemy matériel 47–56; risks 203; and Russians 33–8, 280–1; seaborne 114–16, 133–47, 208, 259–67, 377–8; security disasters 228–38; size of 227–8; and speed of communication 4–5; support for front-line units 449; tactical units 250–2; and Third World 169; in Turkey 300–19, 330–1; value and importance of 60, 62–71 Signals Intelligence Centre 93 Signals Intelligence Service (USA) 74 Sillitoe, Sir Percy 86, 190 Silvey, Reg 412 Simakov, Alexander 478–9 Simkin, Anthony 187 Sinclair, Hugh ‘Quex’ 16, 22, 23 Sinclair, Sir John 142 Sinews (Sigint NEW Systems) 496 Singapore 19, 40, 96, 164, 166, 167 Singleton, Valerie 348 Sinkov Mission (1941) 39 Sinn Féin 500 Sinop (Turkey) 301 Six-Day War (1967) 253, 263–4, 271, 284 Skardon, William 87, 188 Skynet (communications satellite) 347–8, 403, 408, 438 Slessor, John 190–1 Slim, Field Marshal William 65 Sly, Ken 153–4, 375 Smallwood, Sir Denis 271 Smith, F.M. 302 Smith, Ian 3 Smith, Jack 151 Smith, Jacqui 543 Smith, Rupert 474–5 Smiths Industries 495 Snow, Leading Seaman ‘Snowy’ 135 social intelligence 178–9 Solidarity (Polish trade union) 432, 465 Somerville, John 121, 317–18, 419, 420, 428 Sony 480–1 Soothsayer (Army intercept equipment) 537 SOSUS (undersea microphones) 377 South Africa 209, 446, 454 South Georgia 390, 391, 393–6, 409 South-East Asia Command 110 Southern Thule 389, 390–1 Soviet Air Force 118, 119, 360; Air Defence Command 201; Strategic Air Command 256; Strategic Rocket Force 256 Soviet Army 175, 371; General Staff 255–6 Soviet Communist Party 19, 368 Soviet Navy 114–16, 133, 256, 301; Naval Intelligence 73; Northern Fleet 136 Soviet Union 33–8, 336, 349; apparent war preparations 255–7; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and biological weapons 611; capture of German cryptographic assets 50–1; Cold War espionage 8; elint on invasion of the Falklands 401; end of Cold War 493; enters WWII 28; ‘ferret’ programmes 112; Hitler’s invasion of 29, 32–3, 290; invasion of Czechoslovakia 244–7; Italian code-breaking concerning 52, 54; nuclear weapons 107–8, 112, 114, 116; and post-war confrontation 47; raid on Arcos building 18; Red Army 46, 78, 245–6, 249, 319; release of UK intelligence material 355; secret submarine missions against 6; and ‘strayed’ aircraft 126–33; successful sigint operations against 279–81, 344, 361; Turkish (Anglo-US) operations against 301–2; UK-US obsession with 17–19, 30–2, 45–6, 321–3; and Venona Project 72–88; and Yom Kippur War 291 Spain 44, 505, 533 Special Branch 141, 150, 151, 166, 187, 453, 456, 459, 509 Special Liaison Units 57–8 Special Radio Installation Flight (SRIF) 114 Spedding, David 494 spy planes 257, 267–74, 292–3, 296–7, 538 ‘Squidgygate’ affair (1990) 479–82 SR-71 Blackbird Mach 3 reconnaissance aircraft 284, 292–3, 296–7 Stalin, Joseph 31, 33, 46, 47, 173 Standard Cable & Wireless Ltd 17 Standard Telegraph & Cable Ltd 342 Stankovic, Milos 473 Stanmore (Middlesex) 62, 68 Stannard, Robert ‘Fred’ 210–11, 213, 218, 242 Starmer, Keir 543 State Research Association 361 stay-behind patrols 247–50 Stella Polaris (sale of Russian codebooks) 91 Stephanie operation (Canadian embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 Stephenson, Sir Hugh 207, 221 Stevens, Geoffrey 40, 45, 50, 94 Stewart, Brian 353 Stewart, Michael 228 Stockholm 192 Straw, Jack 505, 519 Stripp, Alan 109 submarines 6, 114–17, 125, 133–9, 142–7, 197, 259, 264–7, 337, 377–8, 384, 397, 404 Suez Crisis (1956) 156–9, 160, 181, 182, 213 Sugar (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Sugar Grove (West Virginia) 262 Suharto, President 168 Sukarno, President 164, 165, 167–8 Sunay, Cevdet 311 Super Antelope programme (modernising/upgrading Polaris submarines) 337 Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) 256 surveillance operations 4, 183–90, 197, 201–7, 208–9, 247–53, 292–3, 295, 296–7, 322, 368, 406, 421, 472, 480–1, 500, 506, 537–8, 540–50 SUSLO (Special United States Liaison Officer based in UK) 381 Sutton Common (Cheshire) 500 Sweden 31, 212, 214, 269 Switzerland 52, 212, 214, 215, 457, 492 Sykes, Richard 297, 298, 335, 593 Syria 156, 157, 271, 291, 300, 301–2, 304, 308, 336, 344 Tai Mo Shan (New Territories) 154 Taipei 195 Taiwan 152, 195, 323 Taliban 535, 537 Tanzania 511 Taper (Soviet cypher traffic) 54, 108 Tartus (Syria) 331 TASS News Agency 190 Taylor, Telford 43 Tebbit, Kevin 498, 504 Technical Committee of London Signals Intelligence Committee 267 Technical Radio Interception Committee 131 Tedder, Lord 5 Tel Aviv 157–8, 180 telephone tapping and intercepts 170–6, 180, 244–5, 299, 340, 341–6, 376, 377, 474–5, 479–83, 486, 499, 500–1, 523, 541–5 Tempest (radiation/emanation phenomenon) 209, 215–18 Templer, Sir Gerald 150, 219 terrorists, terrorism 9, 168, 277, 307, 320–1, 452, 531; and 9/11 509–15; domestic 539; and Heathrow plot (2003) 515–16; and IRA 498–503; Libyan 455–8; see also kidnapping and hostage-taking Teufelsberg (Germany) 478 Thatcher, Margaret 8; and Falklands conflict 298, 396, 400, 403–4; and mole-mania 363, 367; 1987 general election 433; obsession with secrecy 492; and polygraph 434; and removal of trade unions from GCHQ 415, 416–17, 423, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430–1, 435; and tightening of the Official Secrets Act 363; and Zircon project 442, 460 Third World 203, 259, 334 Thistlethwaite, Dick 255 Thomas, Richard 544 Thomas, Teddy 234 Thompson, Julian 402, 410–12 Thompson, Ralph 94 Thompson-CSF (arms company) 489 Thomson, Mike 131 Thorneycroft, Peter 163 Thorpe, Peter 535 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989) 476 Tickell, Crispin 290 TICOM (Target Intelligence Committee) teams 48–56, 76, 78 Tiltman, John 19, 31–2, 42, 44, 67, 78, 79, 96, 213 Tirpitz (German battleship) 35 Titchner, Lambert 186 Tito, Josip 4 Tomlinson, Richard 521 Tonkin, Derek 330, 333 Tornado Multi-Role Combat Aircraft 345 Toumlin, George 432 Tovey, Brian 167, 414, 415, 421–2, 423, 424, 428, 433, 442, 448, 461, 490 trade unions 317, 368, 389, 416–36, 497–8 Trades Union Congress (TUC) 416, 417, 419, 426, 427, 509 Travis, Edward 27, 28, 36, 43, 48, 49, 53, 56, 60, 67–9, 69, 92, 94, 101, 121 Trawlerman (DIS computer scheme) 527–8 Trend, Burke 221, 240, 241, 242, 269–70, 288, 322–3, 354, 364 Trevor-Roper, Hugh 221 Tromsø 134 Truman, Harry S. 73, 85, 91, 101, 108, 109, 116 TRW Inc (telecoms company) 377 Tryst operation (British Embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 ‘Tunny’ (German cypher machine) 28, 349 Turing, Alan 2, 25, 27, 349, 492 Turkey 52, 109, 131–2, 157, 268, 269, 299–319, 325–8, 330–1, 334, 338, 357, 423, 472; Air Force 312–13, 313; Army 315; Foreign Ministry 312–13 Turkish People’s Liberation Army (TPLA) 300, 303–19 Turkish People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) 300, 308–10, 312 Turnbull, Andrew 524 Turner, Charles 312–16, 318 TUSLOG (US Logistics Organisation in Turkey) 302 Tuxedo (British nuclear weapons stockpile in Cyprus) 163 25 Mayo (Argentine aircraft carrier) 404 Typex (UK cypher machine) 56, 98 Tyuratam (Soviet Union) 306 U-2 spy planes 142, 226, 292, 296, 332, 471 UK-USA Technical Conference (1946) 95 Ukraine 472, 533 UKUSA (UK-USA signals intelligence agreements) 7, 213, 241, 273, 376, 577; combined comsec/sigint agencies 242; and deterioration of Anglo-US relationship 285; development of 89–95; and elint 111; existence of 1948 aagreement 577; and GCHQ 95–9, 222; and Hong Kong 152; and Israel 471; and Korea 99–101; and satellite collection 437–8; second-party members 444, 447; standardisation of equipment in 424; third-party members 209, 447, 452; and tightening of security 381; value of British Empire to 149 Ultra (WWII decrypts) 1, 24, 26, 32–8, 41, 42, 43, 57, 59, 60, 62, 72–3, 113, 354, 362, 363 Underwater Development Establishment 145 Unit 8200 (Israel sigint agency) 470 United Nations 66, 295, 336, 445–6, 472, 523–4; Monitoring, Inspection and Verification Commission 520; Protection Force 472; Security Council 517, 522; Security Council Resolution 1373 511–12; Special Commission (UNSCOM) 470–1 United States; and Cold War espionage 8; Communications Intelligence Board 97, 152; cyphers worked on by GC&CS 17, 29; Department of Defense 295; Division of Scientific Intelligence 322; Europe Command 180; Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board 263; Information Service 305; National Photographic Intelligence Center 296; National Reconnaissance Office 449, 458; National Security Council 334; and proposed German-Mexican alliance 15; and UKUSA intelligence treaty 89 University of Pennsylvania 426 Unye (Turkey) 313, 316 US Air Force 96, 101, 129, 152; 47th Radio Squadron 118; Griffiss Air Force Base (New York) 292; Johnson Air Force Base (North Carolina) 293; Security Service 118, 120, 301; Strategic Air Command 272 US Army 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 52, 74–5, 77, 91, 94, 99, 102, 336, 413, 474; Intelligence Support Activity 452; Marines 525; Security Agency 99, 152, 302, 345–6; Seventh Army Corps 467; Special Forces 249; US Army Air Force 110–11 US Navy 39, 40, 42, 43, 75, 91, 97, 99, 143, 207; US Naval Intelligence 157; Radio Research Station Program 262; Security Group 115, 301; Sixth Fleet 323–4; USS Belmont 260; USS Cochino 112–17, 135; USS Georgetown 260; USS Jamestown 260; USS Liberty 260, 263–4; USS Muller 260; USS Oxford 260; USS Pueblo 260, 264; USS Stickleback 143; USS Tusk 114–15; USS Valdez 260, 605; USS Vincennes 408 USM-49 (US sigint base in Turkey) 303 Vampire (UK intercept unit) 474, 534 ‘Vasiley’ (KGB officer) 232–4 Vass, Sir Douglas 423 Vassall, John 226, 238 Vatican 52 Venona project (intercepted Russian messages) 445–6; and Anglo-American collaboration 72, 78–80; and British Commonwealth 85–8; exploitation of reprinted pages 74–5; and exposure of agents 80–8; extreme secrecy of 73, 77–8; first code-breaks 75–6; and global sigint 90, 94, 98; and Manhattan Project 76; size and importance of 72–3; Soviets alerted to work on 73, 80–1 Vernon, Mike 422, 423 Viehoff (Germany) 50 Vienna 169, 170–1, 172, 372, 373, 375, 376 Vienna Summit (1961) 180 Vietnam 153, 167, 168, 178, 203, 376, 446 Vietnam War 123, 243, 252, 269, 271–2, 277, 279–80, 298, 356, 387 Virgin 545 Vladivostok 129 Voice of Egypt (radio station) 156 Wait, Dave 385–6 Wal Bin Chang 153 Waldegrave, William 429 Walker, John 264, 377, 384, 447 Walker, Walter 165, 166 War Office 22 War on Terror 533, 539–40 Warsaw Pact 114, 244, 245, 247, 248, 251, 253, 257–8, 319, 321, 369, 402, 465 Washington 7, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 57, 64, 74, 77, 82, 83, 90, 92, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 111, 119, 121, 143, 151, 157, 203, 205, 212, 243, 253, 292, 325, 329, 335, 355–6, 381, 413 Watchkeeper 450 drone 536 Watergate House (London) 15–16 Watergate scandal (1973) 4, 279, 288, 290, 293, 297, 298, 325–6, 356 Wavendon Manor (radio station, Buckinghamshire) 49 weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 516, 520, 523, 526, 528–31 Weatherill, Bernard 459 Weinberger, Casper 441 Weisband, William 80–1, 169 Welchman, Gordon 25, 26, 27, 43, 57, 61, 64, 65, 362–3, 364, 387 Wenger, Joseph 42, 53, 79, 95, 243 West Germany 345, 442, 447–9, 455–6 West Irian 167 West, Lord 544 West, Nigel 88 Western Union 240 Whaddon Hall (Buckinghamshire) 23, 57, 181 Wharfe, Ken 483 White, Ray 501 White, Sir Dick 142, 176, 181, 187, 225, 241–2, 243, 245, 246, 264, 285–6, 353, 354, 364, 453 Whitelaw, Willie 404, 426, 427 Wieck, George 214 Wiesbaden (Germany) 158 Wigg, George 227–8, 240 Wilkes, Detective Sergeant 378 Wilkinson, Peter 206 Williams, Sir Anthony 392–3 Wilson, Edmund 42, 54, 57, 68, 576 Wilson, Harold 225; and Anglo-US relations 356–7; antagonism towards the press 239, 242; and Chevaline project 440; and Cyprus problem 325, 329; and Diego Garcia 338; fascinated and terrified by intelligence and espionage 3, 168, 226–7, 357; and Radcliffe Committee 239–40; and Skynet 438; and U-2 flights from Cyprus 295–6; and Vietnam War 277 Wilson, Jim 292 Wilson, Richard 527 Winnifrith, John 418 Winterbotham, Frederick 35, 354 Wolfenden, Jack 383 Woodward, Admiral Sandy 402–3, 407, 408, 410–11 Wormwood Scrubs prison 238, 385–6 Wreford-Brown, Christopher 404–5 Wright, Georgina 317 Wright, Peter 216, 223, 224, 267, 363, 492, 538, 587–8 Wyllie, Sean 490 Y services (armed forces listening units) 26–7, 33–5, 63, 68, 103, 111, 117, 411 Yarallakos (Cyprus) 320, 328 Yardley, Herbert O. 38 Yemen 148, 163–4 Yom Kippur War (1973) 277, 290–5, 320, 337, 387 York, Duchess of 482 Young, Courtney 86 Yugoslavia 256, 257, 284, 471–5, 503, 512, 534 Yunnan (China) 151 ‘Yuri’ (KGB officer) 231–3 ‘Zhora’ (Weisband’s code name) 80–1 Zimmermann, Phil 490–1 Zimmermann Telegram (1917) 15 Zinnia (missile-detection system) 322–3 Zinser, Aguilar 519–20 Zionist movement 97, 109 Zircon project (GCHQ sigint satellite) 415, 438, 442–3, 449–50, 458–61 Acknowledgements On 9 December 1993 the Lord Chancellor, Lord Mackay of Clashfern, introduced the Intelligence Services Act in the House of Lords.

GCHQ made a significant contribution from its sigint sites in Asia, especially Hong Kong, even though North Vietnamese cyphers were notoriously secure. The gruelling war stretched American intelligence resources to breaking point, rendering assistance from GCHQ all the more valuable. Alongside Vietnam, there was the challenge of an improving relationship between the West and China. The early 1970s also witnessed a dramatic upsurge in Middle East terrorism, with Yasser Arafat and the PLO becoming a major sigint target. In October 1973 the Yom Kippur War suddenly erupted when Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel. This was followed in short order by the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. During these dramatic events sigint proved to be the main source of information for world leaders, often constituting two thirds of the intelligence which reached their desks. As a result the sigint bases came to be regarded as so valuable that in some cases their protection steered foreign policy.


The Battle for Jerusalem, June 5-7, 1967 by Abraham Rabinovich

Boycotts of Israel, invention of gunpowder, Yom Kippur War

Doron Mor, deputy commander of the 66th Battalion, returned to his kibbutz, Merhavia. He obtained a degree in geology and became a leading authority on the geology of the Golan Heights. Nir Nitzan, the deputy company commander on Ammunition Hill, fought alongside Dodik Rutenberg again in the Yom Kippur War. He joined the regular army, rising to lieutenant colonel before retiring. Dodik Rutenberg, the company commander who fought on Ammunition Hill, in the Yom Kippur War was battalion commander of the 66th, a post he inherited from Yossi Yaffe. Rutenberg was badly wounded during the Yom Kippur War in the Suez ambush. Cut off deep inside the city and Israeli forces outside unable to reach his troops, Rutenberg retained command despite his wounds and led his men out through the Egyptian lines after darkness, supported by another officer as he hobbled.

Johnnie Hyman, who won a hand-to-hand battle with a Jordanian soldier at Abu Tor, returned to his law practice but was killed in battle on the Golan Heights in the Yom Kippur War. Eli Kadar, the company commander who fought at Abu Tor and led his men into Old City through Dung Gate, served as military governor of Hebron after the war. He is today proprietor of a large Jerusalem restaurant. Meir (Mike) Ronnen, gunnery sergeant in the trench opposite Ammunition Hill, is art editor of the Jerusalem Post. Yonkele Rotblit, the lieutenant who lost a leg on Abu Tor, became a popular songwriter and sometime performer. 10TH (HAREL) BRIGADE The brigade fought on the southern front in the Yom Kippur War, crossing the Suez Canal on a floating bridge to join the strike on the Egyptian rear. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index Tracing 411 Un Ben-Ari, brigade commander, a reserve general in the Yom Kippur War, was seconded to the southern front after the Egyptian breakthrough.

He rose to the rank of general. Returning to his civilian career as an engineer, he became director of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. Yossi Fratkin, commander of the 28th Battalion, tends his crops on the moshav of Tel Adashim in the Jezreel Valley. Mordecai Gur, brigade commander, was military attaché in Washington during the Yom Kippur War and returned home to become chief of staff. It was under him that the Israeli army was reorganized as a result of the hard lessons of the Yom Kippur War. He entered politics upon leaving the army, becoming a Labor Party Knesset member and a cabinet minister. He has made no secret of his intention to eventually seek the premiership. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index Tracing 407 Yaac Haimovitch, the private who won the nation’s highest award on Ammunition Hill, received his engineering degree from the Technion and works at a top military research and development firm.


pages: 225 words: 64,595

Catch-67: The Left, the Right, and the Legacy of the Six-Day War by Micah Goodman

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, European colonialism, mass immigration, one-state solution, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Peace began to take its first steps from the political periphery toward the center in the years between the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War. This was when Yaakov Rotblit wrote his “Shir LaShalom” (Song for Peace), whose lyrics included this plea: “Bring about the day!” Intellectuals such as Amos Oz and Yeshayahu Leibowitz called for an end to the occupation of the territories. But their voices remained at the edge of public discourse in these interwar years. Moshe Dayan’s exhortation that “we have returned to the holiest of our holy places, never to part from it again” was a more accurate representation of the mood of the day. The change in direction took place only after the Yom Kippur War, and mostly came about after the peace process with Egypt began. (For Dayan, see “40th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, at http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/aboutisrael/state/jerusalem/pages/40th%20anniversary%20of%20the%20reunification%20of%20jerusalem.aspx.) 10.

Moshe Dayan, “Not from the Arabs but Ourselves We Seek Roy’s Blood,” Davar, 2 May 1956 [Hebrew]; Dayan, A New Map, New Relationships (Tel Aviv: Maariv Press, 1969) [Hebrew]. 3. Shimon Peres, David’s Sling (New York: Random House, 1970), 9–10. 4. Conversely, some scholars argue that Egypt was not ready to reach an agreement and deliberately made offers that Israel could not accept. For elaboration, see Boaz Vanetik and Zaki Shalom, “The White House Middle East Policy in 1973 as a Catalyst for the Outbreak of the Yom Kippur War,” Israel Studies 16, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 53–78. See also Yigal Kipnis, 1973: The Road to War (Charlottesville, Va.: Just World Books, 2013), especially the introductory chapter. 5. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (Auckland, N.Z.: Floating Press, 2008), 6. 6. For strong evidence of this shift, consider the emergence of the Meretz Party. Meretz was established as a merger between various factions that clashed on socioeconomic issues but shared a common view on diplomatic policy.

., 222n3 Buzaglo, Meir, 125, 213n9 Camp David Accords, 47–48, 103, 146–147, 192n26, 198n16, 219n17 Camp David summit (2000), 47–48, 103, 198n16, 206n12, 219n17 Catastrophe (Nakba), 75, 76–77 catch (use of term), 138–140, 146 Catch-22 (Heller), 138 Catch-67, 138–140, 146 civil rights for Palestinians, 27–31, 35, 71, 82, 87–90, 96–97, 160–161, 207n5, 208n10 Clinton Parameters (2000), 47, 103, 149, 210n11, 216n7 colonialism, 122–124, 181n15, 212n4 creative innocence, 202nn12,14 crowd psychology, 120–122 Dayan, Moshe, 21, 37–38, 100, 196n9 debate: “catch” in, 138–140, 146 decline of political debate, x–xi emotional traps in, 7–14 identity politics in, 120–122 in Talmud, 5–7, 14, 127–129, 177–178 democracy, 57, 70, 87–88, 187n17 demographics: after Six-Day War, 32–33, 193n30 forecasts of natural growth, 84, 207n5 growth rate of Arab population, 34, 207n5 of Jews in Israel, 27–28, 32–35, 69–71, 82–87, 139–140, 160–161, 207n5, 220n20 of Palestinians, 32–34, 75–76, 82–85, 205nn5,7, 222n2 security and, 32–34, 69–73, 82–84, 86–87, 138, 193n30, 220n20 Disengagement Plan, 33, 57–60, 118–119, 202n14 Divergence Plan, 141, 156–159, 163–164, 168, 222nn2,3, 224n12, 225n2 Don-Yehiya, Eliezer, 182n2 East Jerusalem, 99, 158, 207n5, 223n6 Eban, Abba, 103 Egypt, xiv agreement for partial withdrawal by Israel, 147 Camp David Accords, 47–48, 103, 146–147, 192n26, 198n16, 219n17 peace negotiations with Israel, 43–45, 192n26, 195n4 in Six-Day War, 43, 99 United Arab Republic, 1 Yom Kippur War, 43, 196n9 Eldad, Israel, 33, 34 Eliyahu, Mordechai, 202n14 emotional barriers in Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 7–12, 38, 74–79, 148, 204nn2,3, 205n8, 206nn11,12, 218n12 Eshkol, Levi, 99 Ettinger, Yoram, 83–84, 86, 207n5 evacuations of settlements, 56–57, 109, 202n12, 220n20, 224n10 fear in Jewish history, 7–10, 24, 38, 98, 180n10, 183nn2,3, 184n4 Filber, Yaakov, 56 First Aliyah, 55 First Intifada (1987), 32, 46–47, 199n18 Froman, Menachem, 126 Gahlat (Pioneering Torah Scholar Group), 200n3 Gaza Strip, xiv, 1, 33, 57, 118–119, 195n42 Glick, Caroline, 207n7 Golan Heights, 1, 43 Greater Israel, 4, 29–32, 46, 52, 70–71, 120, 192n24 Greenberg, Uri Zvi, 33 Green Line, 144, 152, 215n4, 219n19 Gush Katif, 57, 202n14 HaLevi, Hayim David, 109–110 Halevy, Efraim, 219n16 Hamas, 122–123, 204n3, 218n13 haqq al-wda (right of return), 76–79, 148, 205n8, 206n11 Hashomer Hatzair, 196n9 Hazan, Yaakov, 196n9 Hebrew language, 171–172 Hendel, Yoaz, 223n6 Herzl, Theodor, 116, 171, 182n1, 189n20, 190n21 Heschel, Abraham Joshua, 213n9 hudna, 149–150, 219n16 humiliation: in Palestinian historical consciousness, 9–12, 74–79, 148, 180n14, 205n8 rise of the West, 10–11, 74–75, 204nn2,3 trauma of 1948 war, 148, 218n12 Hussein ibn Talal (King of Jordan), 99, 100–101 IDF (Israel Defense Forces): impact of service on soldiers, 32, 98 Jewish security in State of Palestine, 220n20 in Jordan Valley, 143–145, 216n7, 217n11 Lebanon War, 197n11 military administration in territories, 8–9, 96–97, 108–109 War of Independence, 41, 70–72, 75–78, 148, 205n8, 218n12 Yom Kippur War, 43, 196n9.


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Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David by Lawrence Wright

Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Mahatma Gandhi, open borders, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

Begin campaigned against withdrawing from Sinai, saying that the Israeli-Egyptian disengagement agreement that Kissinger had crafted was a bad deal that compromised Israel’s security. “Such withdrawals could only bring the enemy to our doorstep,” he warned. His policy was simple: “The West Bank, the Golan heights, the Gaza Strip, and Sinai are all ours.” Something else was at work in that election, however. Before the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Holocaust was a subject rarely treated in Israeli daily life. There was an attitude of embarrassment about Jews who had gone so unresistingly to their deaths—like sheep to slaughter, as was often remarked—as if their submissiveness would contaminate the new Jewish nation. It was exactly such passivity that the nation of Israel was created to overcome. From its inception, the country had been run by bold pioneers and brawny sabras untainted by exposure to genocide.

Israelis were strong, not weak; aggressive, not passive. Their hands were callused and they had dirt under their nails. They could take apart a machine gun or pilot a jet. Jews, on the other hand, were haunted, complicated, neurotic. They were not always good “human material,” to use a phrase that Dayan and others sometimes invoked—not the kind of people needed to build a muscular new society. The Yom Kippur War changed that. The sense of peril that Israelis experienced in the first days of the conflict unleashed the horrifying realization that had always stalked their imagination but which they had refused to acknowledge: it could happen to them. Just because they were Israelis they had not transcended the possibility of extinction that encircled the Jewish people. In this moment of rage and vulnerability, Menachem Begin’s voice began to sound more reasonable.

Mondale, whom the Israelis saw as a far more sympathetic figure than Carter, spent hours with Begin appealing to his image of himself as a historic figure, but to little avail. For Begin, the question of Sinai was existential. The peninsula was the buffer that lay between Israel and its historic enemy. No matter what paper was signed, it would never replace 130 miles of mountains and sand standing between Israel and the Suez. Sinai had been the margin of salvation in the Yom Kippur War. The settlements were the vital outposts that would slow the enemy’s advance. History had been cruel when Jews put their trust in others. The crisis meeting among the Israelis ended with no solution. Afterward, General Avraham Tamir, the Israeli military adviser at Camp David, quietly approached Weizman with a plan to contact General Ariel Sharon, the chief architect of Israel’s settlement program.


pages: 109 words: 33,946

Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging by Sebastian Junger

banking crisis, Credit Default Swap, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, income inequality, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, Yom Kippur War

Killing seems to traumatize people regardless of the danger they’re in or the perceived righteousness of their cause. Pilots of unmanned drones, who watch their missiles kill human beings by remote camera, have been calculated to have the same PTSD rates as pilots who fly actual combat missions in war zones. And even among regular infantry, danger and trauma are not necessarily connected. During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, when Israel was simultaneously invaded by Egypt and Syria, rear-base troops had psychological breakdowns at three times the rate of elite frontline troops, relative to the casualties they suffered. (In other words, rear-base troops had fairly light casualties but suffered a disproportionately high level of psychiatric breakdowns.) Similarly, more than 80 percent of psychiatric casualties in the US Army’s VII Corps came from support units that took almost no incoming fire during the air campaign of the first Gulf War.

The same is true for armies in other countries: Sri Lankan special forces experience far more combat than line troops, and yet in 2010 they were found to suffer from significantly lower rates of both physical and mental health issues. (The one mental health issue they led everyone else in was “hazardous drinking.”) And Israeli commanders suffered four times the mortality rate of their men during the Yom Kippur War, yet had one-fifth the rate of psychological breakdown on the battlefield. All this is a new way to think about battlefield trauma, however. For most of America’s history, psychological breakdown on the battlefield, as well as impairment afterward, has been written off to neuroses, shell shock, or simple cowardice. When men have failed to obey orders due to trauma, they have been beaten, imprisoned, “treated” with electrocution, or simply shot as a warning to others.

We did a study of seventeen-year-olds who had lost their father in the military, compared to those who had lost their fathers to accidents. The ones whose fathers died in combat did much better than those whose fathers hadn’t.” According to Shalev, the closer the public is to the actual combat, the better the war will be understood and the less difficulty soldiers will have when they come home. During the Yom Kippur War of 1973, many Israeli soldiers were fighting on the Golan Heights with their homes at their backs. Of the 1,323 soldiers who were wounded in that war and referred for psychiatric evaluation, only around 20 percent were diagnosed with PTSD, and less than 2 percent retained that diagnosis three decades later. The Israelis are benefiting from what the author and ethicist Austin Dacey describes as a “shared public meaning” of the war.


pages: 649 words: 185,618

The Zionist Ideas: Visions for the Jewish Homeland—Then, Now, Tomorrow by Gil Troy

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, demand response, different worldview, European colonialism, financial independence, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Silicon Valley, union organizing, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Her heartbreaking song, “We Are Both from the Same Village,” written shortly after 1967, encapsulated the great cost of war, balancing any national jingoism with collective mourning for many lost lives. The lyrics speak of “Yosele” and “Zevele,” two soldiers from Nahalal whose friendship inspired Shemer. In fact, both Yosef Regev and Ze’ev Amit survived the 1967 war—but Zevele was killed during the Yom Kippur War six years later. In 1973 Shemer illuminated the sense of loss balanced by determination triggered by the Yom Kippur War with “Lu Yehi” / “May it Be.” In 1991 the song she wrote to comfort her sister after her brother-in-law’s death, “Al Kol Eileh” / “Over All This,” illustrating the rollercoaster of Israeli life, also took on national significance. Her phrase urging personal continuity, “Do not uproot what’s been planted,” became a rallying cry for settlers opposing territorial withdrawals.

Chaim Herzog (1918–97) A vindication of the fundamental concepts of the equality of nations and of self-determination. In November 1975, Chaim Herzog, a famous lawyer, radio commentator, and military intelligence officer recently appointed as Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations, opposed the General Assembly’s infamous “Zionism Is Racism” resolution 3379, with the following speech. The Jewish people were reeling, traumatized by the bloody Yom Kippur War of 1973, now hurt by the world’s repudiation of their national movement. Zionism needed defending and reframing—a new justification in a changing world. Herzog’s restatement of Zionism’s defining principles resonated widely, affirming the Zionist dream, nearly thirty years after Israel’s founding. While opposition to antisemitism still fueled the movement, Herzog celebrated the young democratic and socialist state’s accomplishments.

His 1966 book, The Liberation of the Jew, championed the Zionist solution—as did his 1975 book Jews and Arabs. This reluctant Zionist still preferred universalism. The oppression of the Jew, however, was so total that it required an equally comprehensive solution. Zionism was a legitimate national liberation movement, comparable to other post-colonial movements. I “approve of the liberation and the national development of the Arabs,” he wrote after the Yom Kippur War. “Why should I not wish for the same things for my own people?” Subsequently, this courageous, increasingly iconoclastic and unpopular French intellectual resisted the post-modernist’s prejudices. In his 1975 essay “Who Is an Arab Jew?” Memmi debunked the anti-Zionist myth that Muslims treated Jews well in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula until Israel’s founding soured everything. “Never, I repeat, never—with the possible exception of two or three very specific intervals such as the Andalusian, and not even then—did the Jews in Arab lands live in other than a humiliated state, vulnerable and periodically mistreated and murdered, so that they should clearly remember their place,” he wrote.


pages: 531 words: 139,948

The Lion's Gate: On the Front Lines of the Six Day War by Steven Pressfield

defense in depth, facts on the ground, New Journalism, trade route, Yom Kippur War

No Victor, No Vanquished: The Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978. Oren, Michael B. Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Parker, Richard B. The Six-Day War: A Retrospective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. Pawel, Ernst. The Labyrinth of Exile: A Life of Theodor Herzl. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989. Quandt, William B. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1993. Rabin, Yitzhak. The Rabin Memoirs. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. Rabinovich, Abraham. The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5–7, 1967. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1987. ———. The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East.

The next morning a message came for him from Tel Aviv. As soon as Dayan read it, he went into the trailer alone with Shmulik and locked the door. The two men did not emerge for several minutes. When Dayan finally came out, he and his driver climbed straight into their jeep and drove away. My junior operations officer was Lieutenant Yosi Ben-Hanan. Six years later as a tank battalion commander in the Yom Kippur War, he would win the Itur HaOz, the Medal of Courage, for his heroism fighting the Syrians on the Golan Heights. Yosi, now, watched Dayan and his jeep speed away. “Is this it?” he asked me. “Has the cabinet given Dayan supreme command?” 25. “BECAUSE I WAS NOT AT NEBI YUSHA” I grew up in Jerusalem, next door to the home of a young man who had been a hero of the War of Independence in 1948.

I realize that my legs are pinned. It’s true what they say about your life flashing before you. Mine does now. Still I try one last time. It works. I’m up into the turret. At this point I can no longer control my voice. I cry for my mother and hurl myself clear of the flaming tank. Moti Shoval, Recon sergeant: I am standing right there when Kahalani’s tank takes a direct hit. Six years from now, in the Yom Kippur War, Kahalani with a handful of tanks will hold off more than a hundred Syrian tanks in the Valley of Tears on the Golan Heights. He will be awarded the Itur HaGvura, Israel’s highest decoration for valor, and become a legend in the armored corps. Now he is consumed by flame. We can see Kahalani spill out of the turret and plunge to the sand. He is naked except for his belt and his boots.


pages: 455 words: 131,569

Predator: The Secret Origins of the Drone Revolution by Richard Whittle

Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, indoor plumbing, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, precision agriculture, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Yom Kippur War

Nordeen, Air Warfare in the Missile Age (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002), pp. 123–48. The SAMs had also inflicted: Robert S. Bolia, “Overreliance on Technology in Warfare: The Yom Kippur War as a Case Study,” Parameters, the U.S. Army’s Senior Professional Journal, U.S. Army War College (Summer 2004): 46–56. nearly three times the speed of sound: “Israeli Aircraft, Arab SAMS in Key Battle,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 22, 1973, p. 14. According to Aviation Week, the Soviet-supplied SA-6 “Gainful” antiaircraft missile, used in combat for the first time during the Yom Kippur War, reached a speed of Mach 2.98. used since the 1930s: Laurence R. Newcome, Unmanned Aviation: A Brief History of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Reston, Va.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004), pp. 57–58.

See also Wizzo X-45A drone Yale Aviation Club Yale Daily News Asian Expedition Yank magazine Yemen Yom Kippur War Yugoslavia Zawahiri, Ayman al- Zuni rocket As a twenty-six-year-old air force officer, Abe Karem placed tenth in his category while representing Israel at the free-flight model World Championships in Austria. Free-flight modeling inspired Karem and schooled him in designing drones with uncommon flight endurance. By the time Karem was in his early thirties, he was director of preliminary design for Israel Aircraft Industries—and a determined dreamer. Designing a decoy to fool Egyptian and Syrian defenses that devastated Israel’s air force in the 1973 Yom Kippur War led Karem to an epiphany: a remote-control drone armed with antitank missiles might defeat—or, better yet, deter—another invasion of Israel.

After initial setbacks, the ground troops of the Israel Defense Forces repelled the invaders, establishing a bridgehead on the Egyptian side of the Suez and holding the Golan Heights. Under pressure from their respective superpower allies, the United States and the Soviet Union, Israel and its foes had signed cease-fire agreements two days before Dotan came to Karem. Whether or not those bargains held, though, the Israeli Air Force was going to need a way to counter those Arab air defenses in the future. In the four short weeks of what history would dub the Yom Kippur War, Israeli air losses had been devastating. Mobile batteries of Soviet-built SA-2, SA-3, and SA-6 surface-to-air missiles, or SAMs—supplied to Egypt and Syria by Moscow, operated with the help of Soviet advisers, and supplemented by thousands of advanced antiaircraft guns—had cost Israel not just one hundred warplanes but also its far more precious pilots. The SAMs had also inflicted untold Israeli casualties on the ground by making it difficult for the Air Force to provide Israeli ground troops effective close air support with attacks on enemy land forces.


pages: 217 words: 61,407

Twilight of Abundance: Why the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutish, and Short by David Archibald

Bakken shale, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), means of production, mutually assured destruction, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, peak oil, price discovery process, rising living standards, sceptred isle, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The fall of grain prices in the Depression resulted in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, the first farm act to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Prices rose into the Second World War and then started a sixty-year decline that was mainly caused by the green revolution of Norman Borlaug. A big spike in 1973 was caused by a severe drought in Russia and the higher fuel costs associated with the oil embargo of the Yom Kippur War. Grain prices are now on an uptrend that will take them to the levels of a century ago and beyond. The last U.S. grain stockpile scheme was the Farmer-Owned Grain Reserve program under the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977. This was designed to buffer price movements and to provide reserves against crop failures by subsidizing on-farm grain storage. It was repealed by the Clinton administration in 1996.

The weapons being built to fill the Saudi order may well take the Pakistanis the rest of the decade to produce. Interestingly, just as nuclear weapons have been coming to the fore across the Middle East, the ability of countries in the region to wage conventional wars has declined dramatically. The reason is that all the players now import a high proportion of their food requirements. For example, the last time Egypt and Syria attacked Israel was in the Yom Kippur War of 1973, when they had populations of 38 million and 8 million, respectively. Today their population levels have risen to 84 million and 20 million, and all of that increased population is being fed with imported grain. It is hard to project power conventionally when your own population is on the edge of serious food shortages, and thus likely starvation. FAILED STATE IS BAKED IN THE CAKE While Pakistan remains a highly dysfunctional society, it is still a significant exporter of grain, unlike Egypt and Syria.

The only target that could satisfy the amount of emotional investment in remembering the century of humiliation is Japan. MILITARY READINESS The Chinese do not yet have all the weapons they would like to have for future conflicts. They are having trouble making nuclear-powered submarines and engines for jet fighters. Still, they may not feel the need to wait for their technological abilities in those areas to catch up. In 1973, prior to the Yom Kippur War, Israel thought that Egypt and Syria would not attack it, because Russia had refused to supply Egypt with Mig-23 aircraft and had delayed delivery of SCUD missiles. Egypt attacked nevertheless, relying upon superiority in numbers of less advanced aircraft types. A 2008 RAND study concluded that the current U.S. qualitative advantage in the form of F-22 fighter aircraft could be offset by the larger number of air-to-air missiles that squadrons of Chinese Su-27–type aircraft could engage with.9 The qualitative difference between U.S. aircraft and Chinese aircraft and air defense systems is likely to be small enough that the Chinese do not need to wait for the J-20, J-31, and other stealthy types of aircraft to be brought into service if they have enough of current types.


pages: 221 words: 67,240

The Other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent by Tom Śegev, Roane Carey, Jonathan Shainin

conceptual framework, facts on the ground, Internet Archive, open borders, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Both in New York and Tel Aviv, when journahsts cease collecting facts and asking questions, and instead turn to beating the war drums—yesterday, Maariv editor Amnon Dankner ran a front-page article devoted to smashing, killing, trampling, and destroying—it's time to say good-bye, at least in the meantime, to a free press. After the war, in a week or two, or a month, or maybe much longer, reporters will have to confiront the things they wrote and said. Or maybe they won't. The archives are full of dusty folders full of the articles that appeared before the Yom Kippur War, and those extolling the consensus around the invasion of Lebanon. Nobody has yet really paid for what was written then, and already a new bill is mounting. April 3,2002 BREAK THE MIRROR NOW Man Pappe THE RECENT EVENTS in Palestine take us back to distant and more recent destinations. The strongest sense is the recurrence of the 1948 catastrophe, the nakba. More than fifty years on, there is a sense that the future of Mandatory Palestine was not as yet decided, and that its future was to be determined by force and not by negotiations.

Someone who knows stuff that is beyond me, the little guy. And that even if sometimes politicians let us down, the "miUtary echelon" is always on guard, day and night, keeping us safe, each and every one of their decisions the result of sacred necessity. Yes, they cheated us, the soldiers of the intifadas, exacdy as they had cheated the generation that was beaten to a pulp in the War of Attrition and in the Yom Kippur War, exactly as they had cheated the generation that sank deep into the Lebanese mud during the Lebanon invasions. And our parents' generation continues to be silent. In a painfiil process that took several years, I finally understood that I was raised on two contradictory value systems. I think most people discover even at an earlier age they must choose between two value systems: an abstract, de- * Eitam now leads the National Religious Party and serves in Ariel Sharon's cabinet.

If the army is dominated by shamelessness, and if purely military actions by the Palestinians, such as successful attacks on army outposts and checkpoints, are included under the rubric of terrorism, the settlers' camp is doing all it can to label our inability to cope with the Palestinians' war of independence as the "Rosh Hashanah War." This half-baked attempt to create symmetry between a just war and a campaign of colonialist suppression is not merely a curiosity: It is the desecration of the memory of those who fell in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. It won't be long before we are told that the battle in which tank crews risked their lives on the banks of the Suez Canal and the efforLill which an IsraeliJiaiikdestroys-aj'al^.stiniaii carj;ontaii^^ andher three children is_thesarQ£, war. We should take note here of an interesting phenomenon. The number of Israeli civilian casualties in the past year is far greater than the number of soldiers who have been killed or wounded.


pages: 1,071 words: 295,220

Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel's Targeted Assassinations by Ronen Bergman

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

When security forces arrived on the scene, the terrorists shouted that if twenty of their comrades in Israeli prisons were not released by 6 A.M., they would kill all their hostages. The normally aggressive Golda Meir, who had not yet been replaced as prime minister, was prepared to concede to the terrorists’ demands. After the shock of the Yom Kippur War, the conclusions of the inquiry, and the angry protest demonstrations against her, Meir did not want her last act as prime minister to be one that endangered the lives of children. The cabinet endorsed her recommendation. However, Minister of Defense Dayan, also about to be replaced, disagreed. The fallout from the Yom Kippur War had had the opposite effect on him: After thousands of protesters in Tel Aviv had demanded his resignation, Dayan saw his political career on the brink of a humiliating conclusion, and he wanted to project determination and authority.

In addition, Sayeret Matkal placed surveillance devices deep inside Sinai in Operation Consulate, hooking up to the main communications cables of the Egyptian military and making parts of their top secret conversations accessible to AMAN. Interviews with “Constantine,” November 2011, Ehud Barak, January 13, 2012, and Levin, May 10, 2017. On the matter of Ashraf Marwan’s recruitment and handling and his possible involvement in the Egyptian deception prior to the Yom Kippur War, see Bergman and Meltzer, The Yom Kippur War: Moment of Truth, 31–41, 470–522 (Hebrew). Dayan climbed to the top of the mountain fortress of Masada Davar, April 17, 1973. Chief of staff Elazar, in a letter to Zamir Quotes from scanned documents printed in Zamir, With Open Eyes, photo insert after 128. confidence can too easily slip into overconfidence Interview with Barak, January 13, 2012. Kissinger launched a secret diplomatic initiative Kissinger to President Nixon, Washington, February 25–26, 1973.

Israeli units crossed the canal and, after surrounding the enemy forces on the western side of the waterway, advanced toward Cairo, reaching a point only sixty miles from the Egyptian capital. The Syrians were driven out of the Golan, and Israeli forces advanced until they were within artillery range of Damascus. But the victory came at a heavy cost. More than 2,300 Israeli soldiers died in the Yom Kippur War, a war that could have been prevented through negotiation, or at least prepared for with adequate prior intelligence. A wave of protest swept through Israeli society, which led to the establishment of a commission of inquiry and the forced resignation of chief of staff Elazar and AMAN chief Zeira, along with other top officers. The war dispelled, at least temporarily, Israelis’ sense of military and espionage supremacy and, thus, their sense of security.


pages: 1,042 words: 273,092

The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan

access to a mobile phone, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, Stuxnet, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, yield management, Yom Kippur War

Hughes, ‘Britain, the Transatlantic Alliance, and the Arab–Israeli War of 1973’, Journal of Cold War Studies 10.2 (2008), 3–40. 25‘The Agranat Report: The First Partial Report’, Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 4.1 (1979), 80. Also see here U. Bar-Joseph, The Watchman Fell Asleep: The Surprise of Yom Kippur and its Sources (Albany, NY, 2005), esp. pp. 174–83. 26A. Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter that Transformed the Middle East (New York, 2004), p. 25; Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive II, p. 160. 27G. Golan, ‘The Soviet Union and the Yom Kippur War’, in P. Kumaraswamy, Revisiting the Yom Kippur War (London, 2000), pp. 127–52; idem, ‘The Cold War and the Soviet Attitude towards the Arab–Israeli Conflict’, in N. Ashton (ed.), The Cold War in the Middle East: Regional Conflict and the Superpowers, 1967–73 (London, 2007), p. 63. 28H. Kissinger, Years of Upheaval (Boston, 1982), p. 463. 29‘Address to the Nation about Policies to Deal with the Energy Shortages’, 7 November 1973, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States [PPPUS]: Richard M.

In the Soviet Union, the focus was on containing the situation. Pressure was put on Egypt’s President Sadat behind the scenes to agree a ceasefire, while the Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko – a consummate political survivor – personally pressed President Nixon and his newly appointed Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, to act jointly to prevent a ‘real conflagration’ that might easily lead to war spreading.28 The real significance of the Yom Kippur War, so named because the attack began on the Jewish holy day, lay not in the attempts by Washington and Moscow to work together, nor even in the spectacular results which saw one of the great military reversals in history as Israel went from being within hours of extinction to shattering the invading forces and advancing on Damascus and Cairo. In fact, what was remarkable was the way the Arabic-speaking world acted together – as a caliphate in all but name.

Turning down the air-conditioning in federal buildings, allowing ‘appropriate relaxation of [government] employee dress standards’ and greater use of car-sharing, as President Nixon ordered in a memorandum in June 1973, were all very well, but such measures were unlikely to resolve the problem.37 In the meantime, the oil producers in the Middle East made hay. With uncertainty about supply spooking the market and the Muslim nations of OPEC using oil as what the King of Saudi Arabia called a ‘weapon in a battle’, prices raced almost out of control. In the last six months of 1973, the posted price rose from $2.90 per barrel to $11.65.38 Even when the Yom Kippur War came to an end after three weeks of bitter fighting, things never went back to normal. Indeed, the redistribution of capital from the west simply accelerated: the collective revenues of the oil-producing countries rose from $23 billion in 1972 to $140 billion just five years later.39 Cities boomed, transformed by cash that funded the building of roads, schools, hospitals and, in the case of Baghdad, a new airport, monumental architecture and even a stadium designed by Le Corbusier.


Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

(The฀anarchist฀Verloc,฀listening฀to฀the฀diplomat฀ Vladimir,฀in฀Joseph฀Conrad,฀The฀Secret฀Agent) The฀Spectre฀that฀Haunts฀Europe฀(and฀America) The฀ events฀ that฀ are฀ the฀ subject฀ of฀ our฀ concern฀ –฀ the฀ bombing฀ of฀ the฀World฀Trade฀Center฀in฀February฀฀and฀again฀on฀/;฀the฀ attack฀ on฀ the฀ USS฀ Cole;฀ the฀ bombing฀ of฀ US฀ Embassy฀ in฀ Kenya;฀ the฀ bombs฀ in฀ Bali,฀ Madrid,฀ Delhi,฀ Sharm-el-Sheikh,฀ London฀ and฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ / Amman฀ –฀ have฀ their฀ proximate฀ origins฀ thirty-plus฀ years฀ ago฀ in฀ .฀The฀deeper฀roots฀go฀back฀to฀the฀First฀World฀War฀and฀even฀ yet฀further฀down฀to฀the฀Crusades฀themselves.฀But฀let฀us฀look฀at฀the฀ proximate฀cause฀in฀the฀first฀instance.฀ The฀ last฀ serious฀ conflict฀ between฀ Israel฀ and฀ Arab฀ states฀ took฀ place฀in฀.฀The฀Yom฀Kippur฀War฀began฀well฀for฀the฀Arabs฀but฀ ended฀ in฀ defeat.฀ There฀ was฀ also,฀ however,฀ a฀ reassertion฀ of฀ Arab฀ economic฀power฀as฀the฀Organisation฀of฀Petroleum฀Exporting฀Countries฀ (OPEC)฀ quadrupled฀ the฀ price฀ of฀ crude฀ oil.฀ Not฀ all฀ members฀ of฀ OPEC฀ were฀ Arab฀ countries,฀ but฀ many฀ were.฀ Iran,฀ a฀ non-Arab฀ Muslim฀ country฀ with฀ Shi’a฀ rather฀ than฀ Sunni฀ followers,฀ was฀ also฀ an฀ important฀ member;฀ its฀ ruler,฀ the฀ Shah,฀ was฀ an฀ ambitious฀ and฀ pro-Western฀ leader.฀ The฀ quadrupling฀ of฀ the฀ oil฀ price฀ was฀ a฀ huge฀ shock฀ for฀ the฀ oil-dependent฀ Western฀ economies฀ and฀ it฀ cost฀ them฀ ฀per฀cent฀of฀their฀national฀income,฀which฀was฀transferred฀to฀the฀ OPEC฀countries,฀mainly฀Saudi฀Arabia,฀the฀Gulf฀Emirates฀and฀Iran.฀ It฀ was฀ the฀ largest฀ such฀ transfer฀ in฀ recent฀ history.฀ It฀ amounted฀ to฀ $฀ billion฀ at฀ ฀ prices,฀ and฀ at฀ today’s฀ prices฀ about฀ ten฀ times฀ that฀amount.

.฀ It฀ was฀ after฀ the฀ ฀ and฀ ฀ wars฀ that฀ the฀ American฀line฀on฀Israel฀hardened.฀Outside฀Israel,฀America฀has฀the฀ largest฀ concentration฀ of฀ Jews฀ and฀ they฀ have฀ achieved฀ status฀ and฀ prosperity฀there.฀Israel฀has฀cultivated฀American฀Jewry฀as฀its฀solid฀ support฀in฀times฀of฀trouble.฀Even฀so,฀there฀have฀been฀many฀moves฀ by฀the฀US฀to฀bring฀the฀two฀sides฀together. The฀Camp฀David฀Accords฀of฀฀were฀a฀first฀step฀after฀the฀Yom฀ Kippur฀War,฀which฀saw฀an฀Arab฀leader,฀Anwar฀Sadat฀of฀Egypt,฀willing฀to฀sit฀down฀with฀an฀Israeli฀prime฀minister,฀Menachem฀Begin,฀ to฀do฀a฀deal.฀Later฀still฀the฀Oslo฀Accords฀were฀signed฀in฀฀by฀ Yitzak฀ Rabin฀ and฀ Shimon฀ Peres฀ with฀ Yasser฀ Arafat.฀ Both฀ Sadat฀ and฀Rabin฀were฀assassinated฀by฀their฀own฀ungrateful฀peoples.฀The฀ internal฀divisions฀within฀the฀Israeli฀nation฀between฀the฀left/Labour฀ Party฀ vision฀ of฀ Rabin฀ and฀ Peres฀ and฀ the฀ right/Likud฀ vision฀ of฀ Netanyahu฀and฀Sharon฀meant฀that฀after฀฀and฀Likud’s฀coming฀ to฀power,฀the฀Oslo฀Accords฀were฀sabotaged.

฀Dr฀Ian฀ Pakistan and฀Afghanistan฀ and฀Bangladesh฀,฀– education฀ establishment฀– and฀Kashmir฀,฀– Partition฀from฀India฀–,฀ political฀system฀ Palestine Bin฀Laden฀on฀,฀–,฀,฀ –,฀– democratic฀elections฀()฀,฀  dismemberment฀by฀Israel฀and฀ Jordan฀ first฀nomination฀as฀site฀for฀Jewish฀ homeland฀– Hamas฀,฀,฀,฀ Israel–Palestine฀issue฀– Jewish฀nationalist฀movement฀in฀ refugees฀ Palestine฀Liberation฀Organisation฀ (PLO)฀,฀ Pan-African฀Movement฀ The฀Passion฀(film)฀ Peace฀Corps฀ People’s฀Will฀see฀Narodnaya฀Volya Peres,฀Shimon฀ Picasso,฀Pablo฀ Picot,฀Georges฀ PLO฀see฀Palestine฀Liberation฀ Organisation Pol฀Pot฀ Popper,฀Karl฀ Portugal฀ Prague฀Spring฀()฀ Princip,฀Gavrilo฀,฀ Proudhon,฀Pierre-Joseph฀,฀ Puritanism฀,฀ Qana฀–,฀ Qur’an need฀for฀further฀study฀ need฀for฀poetic฀translation฀ place฀in฀Muslim฀education฀ status฀among฀Muslims฀–,฀ Rabin,฀Yitzak฀ racism,฀and฀immigration฀ Rasmussen,฀Anders฀Fogh฀– Reagan,฀Ronald฀ Red฀Army฀(anarchist฀group)฀ Red฀Brigades฀   religion growth฀of฀Western฀tolerance฀ –,฀– and฀ideology฀– and฀politics฀ and฀war฀– see฀also฀Buddhism;฀Christianity;฀ Islam ‘Road฀Map’฀ Robeson,฀Paul฀ Rooker,฀Lord฀ Rose,฀Flemming฀ Rushdie,฀Salman฀– Russia s฀economy฀ anarchism฀in฀ and฀Chechnya฀,฀,฀ see฀also฀Soviet฀Union Russian฀Revolution฀()฀– Rwanda฀ Sadat,฀Anwar฀ Saddam฀Hussein฀,฀ Sartre,฀Jean-Paul฀ Saudi฀Arabia and฀Bin฀Laden฀–,฀– siting฀of฀US฀troops฀in฀,฀– and฀Wahhabism฀–,฀– Savonarola,฀Girolamo฀ Second฀World฀War฀(–)฀–,฀  Sen,฀Amartya฀,฀ /,฀events฀of฀– Sharon,฀Ariel฀,฀,฀ Shi’a in฀Iraq฀ origins฀and฀beliefs฀,฀,฀ Shihan฀(weekly)฀ Shlaim,฀Avi฀,฀ Siddhartha฀ Sidique฀Khan,฀Mohammad฀–,฀ Sikhs฀,฀ Silone,฀Ignazio฀ Sinn฀Fein฀ Smith,฀Adam฀–,฀,฀– Socialist฀International฀ Somalia฀,฀ South฀Africa฀,฀ South฀Korea฀,฀ Soviet฀Union and฀Afghanistan฀–,฀,฀ – under฀Communism฀– effects฀of฀collapse฀– establishment฀and฀collapse฀– Muslim฀republics฀within฀–,฀ – Stalin’s฀regime฀,฀,฀–,฀ see฀also฀Russia Spain฀,฀,฀ Spender,฀Stephen฀ Sri฀Lanka฀ Stalin,฀Josef฀,฀,฀–,฀ Stern฀Gang฀ Strauss,฀David฀Friedrich฀– Suez฀crisis฀()฀ Sunnis in฀Iraq฀ Shi’a฀split฀from฀,฀ Sykes,฀Sir฀Mark฀ Sykes–Picot฀Agreement฀()฀,฀  syndicalism฀ Syria฀,฀,฀ Taiwan฀ Taliban฀ taliban:฀origin฀of฀word฀ Tamil฀Tigers฀ Tanwir,฀Shehzad฀– terrorism and฀anarchism฀– anti-capitalist฀–,฀– and฀Communism฀–  ฀  and฀Islam฀,฀– modern฀prevalence฀ and฀nationalism฀,฀– nature฀of฀modern฀– state฀terrorism฀ Thailand฀ Thatcher,฀Margaret฀,฀ Thoreau,฀Henry฀David฀ Tito,฀Marshal฀,฀ Puritan฀contribution฀ reasons฀for฀Muslim฀hostility฀– religious฀tolerance฀ Vietnam฀War฀(–)฀,฀,฀฀  war฀against฀terror฀–,฀ Usman,฀Caliph฀ usury฀ Vietnam฀War฀(–)฀,฀,฀ Turkey฀,฀,฀ Ummayad฀caliphate฀ Umar,฀Caliph฀– umma,฀nature฀of฀,฀– United฀Nations Bin฀Laden฀on฀– Human฀Development฀Index฀ and฀invasion฀of฀Iraq฀()฀ and฀Israel–Palestine฀issue฀,฀ ,฀,฀ political฀inequality฀ and฀Rwanda฀ and฀USA฀,฀ USA and฀Afghanistan฀– anarchism฀in฀– and฀anti-capitalist฀terrorism฀– anti-war฀movement฀ Bin฀Laden฀on฀,฀–,฀–,฀ –,฀ Bin฀Laden’s฀links฀with฀ civil฀rights฀movement฀,฀ and฀Communism฀ function฀for฀Global฀Islamism฀ and฀globalisation฀– and฀Israel–Palestine฀issue฀ Jews฀in฀ and฀Northern฀Ireland฀–,฀ – Wahhabism฀–,฀–,฀ war฀against฀terror฀–,฀ Warren,฀Justice฀Earl฀ Weathermen฀ Die฀Welt฀(newspaper)฀ West฀Bank฀,฀ women,฀treatment฀of฀,฀,฀– World฀Bank฀ World฀Trade฀Center first฀bombing฀()฀ Twin฀Towers฀attack฀()฀see฀ / World฀War฀I฀see฀First฀World฀War World฀War฀II฀see฀Second฀World฀War Wye฀River฀Agreement฀()฀ Yom฀Kippur฀War฀()฀ Yousef,฀Ramzi฀ Yugoslavia฀,฀,฀,฀ Zapatistas฀ Zawahiri,฀Ayman฀al-฀,฀ Zia฀ul-Haq฀,฀ Zimbabwe฀ Zionism modern฀nature฀ origins฀and฀development฀–,฀ – see฀also฀Israel;฀Jews REVELATION


pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Stone, Oliver Stoph, Willi Strasbourg Strategic Defense Initiative (American; ‘Star Wars’) Strauss, Franz Josef Strong, Anna Louise student demonstrations student exchanges student loans Suez Canal Yom Kippur War (1973) Suez crisis (1956) Sukarno, President of Indonesia Sun Microsystems (corporation) Sunderland ‘supplyside’ economics Suslov, Mikhail Sussex University Suzdal Svoboda, Ludvík Swanson, Robert A. Sweden: automobile industry and Finland health care and Kurdish nationalism Lutheran Church price and wage control sterilization of Lapps ‘Swedish model’ taxation trade with Germany trade unions Swindon Switzerland Sydney Syria: Egyptian-Syrian union Kurdish population Öcalan in Soviet aid Yom Kippur War (1973) Szamuely, Tibor Szasz, Thomas, The Myth of Mental Illness Szklarska Poręba Tadzhikistan Tadzhiks Taiwan: Chiang Kai-shek’s mausoleum economic power Kuomintang (Nationalist) government land reforms US relations with Talbott, Strobe Talebani, Celal Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de Tamerlane Tanzania Taraki, Nur Mohammed Targowice, Convention of (1792) Tarnovsky, A.

Religion, the sacred position of Mecca, the ancient glories of the caliphate, in many quarters a vainglorious belief that Arab civilization, so long despised as useless, would triumphantly return, white horses included, to down the infidel and particularly the Jewish enemy (Mohammed’s first target 1,400 years before, as it happened) - all of it really about those paper dollars. In mid-September 1973 OPEC met in Vienna and advanced a new deal with the oil companies, which were to lose their property substantially: an ultimatum followed. Then on 6 October the oil companies nervously offered a price rise of 15 per cent at Vienna; and OPEC demanded 100 per cent. That very day, Egyptian and Syrian troops had launched their surprise attack on the Israeli lines. The Yom Kippur war had its origins in 1967, when Nasser had been humiliatingly defeated essentially in the first hours of that war. Before it Israel had seemed more or less indefensible, along the 1949 armistice line, but in 1967, with the West Bank and the Sinai, her territory had been rounded off and even Jerusalem was safe from Jordanian artillery. Meanwhile the Arabs had fought among themselves and King Hussein of Jordan only just survived attacks by the Syrians and Palestinians, who regarded him as a traitor: in 1967, thanks to having been let down by allies, he lost half his kingdom.

On the 24th a second UN resolution was put through because the Russians could foresee the collapse of their allies, and under American pressure the Israelis accepted it, their forces now even threatening Cairo. The Russians had mobilized airborne divisions for a move to the Middle East when the ceasefire came, but Sadat himself was not enthusiastic. Of course, it was yet another Arab defeat, in the end, but there was something to show for it. The upshot of the Yom Kippur war was not clear-cut. The French and the Germans made difficulties for Israel; Bonn refused the Americans an air bridge over Germany. At the end of the year all sides did meet for the first time and in mid-January 1974 there was a new arrangement - a neutral zone on the east bank. Egypt restored diplomatic relations with the USA in 1974 and broke with the USSR in 1976; two years later, on American territory (Camp David, the President’s official retreat), there was an Egyptian-Israeli peace.


pages: 535 words: 147,528

1948. A Soldier's Tale – the Bloody Road to Jerusalem by Uri Avnery, Christopher Costello

invisible hand, Yom Kippur War

I’ll head for home, he decides. The clicking of his crutches fills the street with echoes. Pity that Mishka isn’t around any more. He would have known how to put it. Plate 1. Samson’s Foxes. Avnery as temporary communication man, fourth from the left, with his friend and later deputy editor Shalom Cohen on the far right. Third from the left is the future General Albert Mandler, killed in the Yom Kippur war Plate 2. Avnery’s camp in Kibbutz Hulda, just before he left for the battle of Latrun, May 1948 Plate 3. Returning from the battle of Latrun. A moment of rest during the tiring retreat on foot. Avnery is first on the right Plate 4. Avnery’s squad during the retreat, exhausted. Everybody wears the famous “sock hats,” a symbol of the war. In the background is the Arab village of Hulda Plate 5.

Czera Czertenko – birth name of Tzvi Tzur, who was later to become the Israeli Defense Forces’ Chief of the General Staff, and then the Chief of the Mossad, the Israeli external intelligence service. Eleven Days of Decision 1. Swing boy – ‘Swing’ was the counter-culture of the ‘30s and ‘40s that centered around swing music. 2. Fellah – (Arabic) – peasant or farmer (Fellaheen in the plural). 3. Albert Mandler – a later general of the Israeli army, who fell in the Yom Kippur War of 1973. 4. Ekron – small village south of Tel Aviv. 5. Camp Sarafand – one of the largest military camps in the center of the country, built by the British after the First World War. 6. Farouk – the King of Egypt from 1936 to 1952. 7. Ramat Gan – small town north of Tel Aviv. 8. Gadna – Hebrew abbreviation for “youth battalions,” paramilitary training organization. 9. Spitfire – British single-engined fighter aircraft. 10.

Remains in parliament for two legislative periods until 1973 1967 June: Six Day War. Israeli Army conquers Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, Jordanian-controlled areas West of Jordan River (West Bank), and Golan Heights, after Egyptian government forces expel UN observers from Israeli-Egyptian border and block Israeli shipping through Red Sea 22 November: UN Security Resolution 242 calls for Israeli withdrawal and peace settlement 1973 6 October: Start of “Yom Kippur War” (October War). Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat launches surprise attack on Israeli Army along Suez Canal on Jewish Day of Atonement, and Syria attacks Golan Heights. Israeli Army initially under threat but finally gains upper hand. Though a military defeat for Sadat, the war is a political success, paving the way for the first negotiations with Israel 1974 First secret contacts between Uri Avnery and official representatives of the PLO in London 1975 Israeli Council for Israeli-Palestinian Peace founded 1977 19 November: Surprise visit to Israel by Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat, opens new stage in relations between Israel and its neighbor.


pages: 409 words: 118,448

An Extraordinary Time: The End of the Postwar Boom and the Return of the Ordinary Economy by Marc Levinson

affirmative action, airline deregulation, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, falling living standards, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, intermodal, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linear programming, manufacturing employment, new economy, Nixon shock, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, yield curve, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Abandoning her Cadillac limousine, Queen Juliana, age sixty-four, cheerfully hopped on a bicycle to visit her grandchildren. To those uninvolved with the difficult decisions behind it, Holland’s first car-free Sunday of 1973 was a bit of a lark.1 Four weeks earlier, Egyptian and Syrian armies had burst through Israel’s defensive lines, routing Israeli troops and threatening to overrun the entire country in what became known as the Yom Kippur War. When the United States and the Netherlands funneled weapons to Israel, Arab oil-producing countries retaliated. Led by Saudi Arabia, they had already been demanding more money for their oil, raising the official price from $3.20 per barrel in January to $5.11 on October 16. Now they turned the valves even tighter and cut off the Netherlands and the United States altogether. Gloom descended across Europe.

“Stock prices continued to retreat yesterday as investors registered deep concern over the direction of interest rates,” the New York Times reported on August 6. “We’re in a bear market,” a knowing stock analyst affirmed in the following day’s paper. On August 13, the Times quoted an expert who predicted a further 5 percent drop before stocks hit bottom. At that point, an investor who had bought shares on October 5, 1973, the last trading day before the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War, would have lost one-fifth of his money over less than nine years—before figuring in the diminished buying power of a dollar. Adjusting for inflation, $1,000 invested across the thirty Dow Jones stocks back when the first oil crisis began was worth a scant $370 in 1982. Investors had cast an overwhelming vote of no confidence in the US economy. Then, on August 13, share prices ticked up. The stock market seemed to have found a bottom.

See North American Free Trade Agreement Nakasone, Yasuhiro, 178 National Bureau of Economic Research, 48, 134 National Energy Act, 109 national income: ratio of government debt to, 151 National Westminster Bank, 82, 84 nationalism, 267; in France, 206–208, 209, 210, 214; in Spain, 211 natural gas: deregulation of, 102, 103, 104, 108–109, 110, 113 Nazi Germany, 146, 190 Nazi Party, 27–28, 29 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 41 Netherlands, 1, 23, 30, 224; labor share in, 141; labor/trade unions in, 169; ungovernability in, 156; welfare state in, 18 new economics, 26, 261 new industries: vs. raw materials, 45–46 New International Economic Order, 43 The New York Times, 54, 231 Newsweek, 70 Nixon, Richard, 2, 3, 70–71, 119–120, 157; anti-inflation policy of, 106; Cost of Living Council and, 107; economic forecasts and, 65, 66; economic policy of, 47–49; employment and, 50; energy czar appointment by, 100, 108 (see also Simon, William); energy sector and, 102; environmentalism and, 61; inflation and, 48, 50; interest rates, unemployment, and inflation and, 55–56; monetary policy and, 51; oil crisis of 1973 in, 99–100; population growth and, 61; re-election of, 56, 180; regulation and, 108; Smithsonian agreement and, 55; Speer analogy and, 102, 108; treasury secretary appointment by, 101, 110 (see also Simon, William); unemployment and, 48, 235; Vietnam and, 48; wage and price controls and inflation and, 53–54; Watergate scandal and, 156; Watergate scandal and resignation of, 101, 110 Nixon administration, 222 Nixon Shock, 53 Nordhaus, William, 59 North America, 140; bank loans to Third World and, 241; debt crisis in, 247; economic slowdown in, 3–4; economy at close of World War II in, 17; income per person in, 6; postwar productivity in, 24; productivity bust in, 268; productivity slowdown in, 265; ungovernability in, 156–160 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 142 Northern Europe, 81, 212 Northern Ireland, 4, 167 Norway, 1–2; anti-tax movement in, 153, 154; income distribution in, 136–137 nuts and bolts industry, 125–126 Obama, Barack, 9 oil: deregulation of, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104–106, 107–108, 109, 110, 113 oil crisis of 1973, 1–3, 68–79, 81–97, 155; Arab-Israeli conflict and, 69, 70–71; Aramco and, 69–70, 71; in Canada, 2, 71, 240; economic stagnation and stagflation and, 78; economy based on cheap oil and, 79; in Europe, 1–2, 3; Federal Reserve and, 72, 74, 77, 78, 94, 96; in France, 72–73, 77, 78; in Great Britain, 72, 74–75, 77, 167; impact on global financial system (banks and brokerage houses) and, 81–97; inflation and, 74–77, 78; in Italy, 72; in Japan, 2–3, 72, 74, 77–78, 115–119, 122–124, 240; oil price increases and production cuts and, 72, 73–74, 95; productivity bust and, 78–79; Saudi Arabia and, 1, 67, 68–71, 73, 95; Seven Sisters (US and European oil companies) and, 68–69; in Soviet Union, 162; in Sweden, 166; Third World development and, 239–240; UN Security Council Resolution 242 and, 71; in United States, 1, 2, 3, 67, 68–79, 99–100, 240; welfare state and, 148; in West Germany, 72, 74, 177; Yom Kippur War and, 73. See also economic crisis of 1970s oil crisis of 1979 (or second oil crisis), 171, 173, 174, 176–177, 219–220 oil production cuts and price increases: oil crisis of 1973 and, 72, 73–74, 95 oil shortages, 58. See also oil crisis of 1973; oil crisis of 1979 Olson, Mancur, 158–160 OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC oil crisis of 1973. See oil crisis of 1973 operation scale-down, 118 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 72–73 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 67, 69.


pages: 336 words: 113,519

The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds by Michael Lewis

Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, endowment effect, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, loss aversion, medical residency, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, New Journalism, Paul Samuelson, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical model, the new new thing, Thomas Bayes, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

” * * * In the history of Danny and Amos, there are periods when it is difficult to disentangle their enthusiasm for their ideas from their enthusiasm for each other. The moments before and after the Yom Kippur war appear, in hindsight, less like a natural progression from one idea to the next than two men in love scrambling to find an excuse to be together. They felt they were finished exploring the errors that arose from the rules of thumb people use to evaluate probabilities in any uncertain situation. They’d found decision analysis promising but ultimately futile. They went back and forth on writing a general interest book about the various ways the human mind deals with uncertainty; for some reason, they could never get beyond a sketchy outline and false starts of a few chapters. After the Yom Kippur war—and the ensuing collapse of the public’s faith in the judgment of Israeli government officials—they thought that what they really should do was reform the educational system so that future leaders were taught how to think.

Regret was sufficiently imaginable that people conjured it out of situations they had no control over. But it was of course at its most potent when people might have done something to avoid it. What people regretted, and the intensity with which they regretted it, was not obvious. War and politics were never far from Amos and Danny’s minds or their conversations. They watched their fellow Israelis closely in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur war. Most regretted that Israel had been caught by surprise. Some regretted that Israel had not attacked first. Few regretted what both Danny and Amos thought they should most regret: the Israeli government’s reluctance to give back the territorial gains from the 1967 war. Had Israel given back the Sinai to Egypt, Sadat would quite likely never have felt the need to attack in the first place. Why didn’t people regret Israel’s inaction?

“The background to what I was thinking was that I had just changed my life,” he said. “I’d changed my wife. The counterfactuals were with me all the time. I was constantly comparing my life to what it might have been.” In this curious state of mind, he found his thoughts settling on a nephew, Ilan. Ilan had been a twenty-one-year-old navigator in the back of an Israeli fighter during the Yom Kippur war. After the war, he had sought out Danny and asked him to listen to an audiotape he had kept from it. He’d been in the backseat of the fighter when an Egyptian MiG got behind them, locking in for a kill. On the tape, you could hear Ilan scream at his pilot, “Break! Break! Break! He’s on our tail!” As Ilan played the tape, Danny noticed that the young man was shaking; for some reason, he wanted his uncle to hear what had happened to him.


pages: 251 words: 79,822

War by Sebastian Junger

friendly fire, RAND corporation, Yom Kippur War

They found that the men who were “slow” to jump off the tower were more than twice as likely to fail out of the program as “fast” jumpers, and those who refused to jump at all were almost guaranteed to fail. One of the most puzzling things about fear is that it is only loosely related to the level of danger. During World War II, several airborne units that experienced some of the fiercest fighting of the war also reported some of the lowest psychiatric casualty rates in the U.S. military. Combat units typically suffer one psychiatric casualty for every physical one, and during Israel’s Yom Kippur War of 1973, frontline casualty rates were roughly consistent with that ratio. But Israeli logistics units, which were subject to far less danger, suffered three psychiatric cases for every physical one. And even frontline troops showed enormous variation in their rate of psychological breakdown. Because many Israeli officers literally led from the front, they were four times more likely to be killed or wounded than their men were — and yet they suffered one-fifth the rate of psychological collapse.

The study went on, questionnaire after questionnaire, to attempt to pry from the minds of thousands of soldiers what exactly enabled them to function in an environment as hellish and confusing as modern combat. All things being equal, some men make better soldiers than others, and some units perform better than others. The traits that distinguish those men, and those units, could be called the Holy Grail of combat psychology. They could be called the basis for what people loosely refer to as “courage.” An Israeli study during the 1973 Yom Kippur War found that high-performing soldiers were more intelligent, more “masculine,” more socially mature, and more emotionally stable than average men. Moreover, attack divers who exhibited behavioral problems in tightly run kibbutz communities turned out to be far better fighters than “conformist” divers who never got in trouble. At the other end of the spectrum, eight out of ten men who suffered psychological collapse in combat had a problem at home: a pregnant wife, a financial crisis, a recent death in the family.

New York Times, April 28, 2008. Gray, J. Glenn. The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle. Bison Books, 1959. Grossman, Lt. Col. Dave. On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill. Back Bay Books, 1995. Keeley, Lawrence H. War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Oxford University Press, 1996. Levav, Itzhak, MD, Haim Greenfeld, and Eli Baruch, MD. “Psychiatric Combat Reactions During the Yom Kippur War.” American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 136, No. 5, May 1979. Marlowe, David H. “Psychological and Psychosocial Consequences of Combat and Deployment with Special Emphasis on the Gulf War.” Rand Corporation, 2000. Rohde, David, and David E. Sanger. “How the ‘Good War’ in Afghanistan Went Bad.” New York Times, August 12, 2007. Shah, Taimoor, and Carlotta Gall. “NATO and Afghan Troops Clash with Taliban in Strategic Area Near Kandahar.”


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

With a newly enhanced surveillance role thanks to a Second Amendment agreed to by its Interim Committee in 1976 (whose members decided that Jamaica would be a nice place to meet), the IMF was fast becoming the world’s financial policeman. Third, the quadrupling of oil prices at the end of 1973 – triggered by an oil embargo imposed by Arab nations on Western nations regarded as being overly sympathetic to Israel following the Yom Kippur War of that year – had left the world facing a huge ‘petrodollar’ problem. Saudi Arabia and other oil producers suddenly had more dollars than they knew what to do with. These petrodollars were increasingly recycled through the world financial system, leading to the creation of so-called ‘external imbalances’ – large and, in some cases, unsustainable balance of payments deficits, particularly in Latin America – that in time would require treatment by the IMF.

(i), (ii), (iii) Brazil (i) Federal Reserve and (i) France (i) Germany and Switzerland (i) hyperinflation (i) interest rates and (i) Italy (i) Japan (i) Keynes on (i) Latin America (i) options (i) UK (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) US (i), (ii) information technology (IT) (i) Inquisition (Spanish) (i) Institute for Economics and Peace (i) Institute for Fiscal Studies (i) interest rates (i), (ii), (iii) at or close to zero (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)n30 effect of (i) options (i) Internal Revenue Service (i) International Court of Justice (i) International Monetary Fund (IMF) Asian view of (i) balance of payment deficits and (i) Blanchard (i) early days of (i), (ii) effects of American dominance (i) Federal Reserve and (i)n21 foreign dollar holders (i) Góes’s paper (i) heads of (i) industrial nations and (i) Labour Cabinet and (i) meetings (i) Nixon’s announcement and (i), (ii) strengthens (i), (ii) Troika and (i) International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (i) International Socialism (i) iPhones (i) Ipsos MORI (i) Iran coming in from the cold (i) loss of trust in UK (i) pre-revolution (i) SCO application (i) Shi’a (i) US and Europe approach (i) West makes overtures (i) Iraq (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Ireland (i), (ii), (iii) Irish potato famine (i) Iron Curtain (i), (ii), (iii) Islam/Islamic (i) see also Muslims coins (i) fall of Constantinople (i) Saudi Arabia and Iran (i) Seljuk Turks convert (i) Spain and (i) Umayyad Caliphate (i) Islamic State (ISIS) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) isolationism credible political alternative (i) globalization and (i) interwar period (i), (ii) Trump (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) US, late 19th century (i) Israel freedom statistics and (i) Gaza and Hamas (i) Iran concerns (i) living standards (i) military expenditure (i) Suez Crisis (i) Yom Kippur War (i) Istanbul (i) Italy American troops stationed (i) asylum seekers (i) drop in living standards (i), (ii) G7 (i) goes cap in hand to US (i) Italians in England (i) joins EEC (i) League of Nations (i) lira plummets (i), (ii) Mussolini (i) population statistics (i) position in EU (i) regional variances (i) warship tonnage (i) Jamaica (i) James II, King (i) Japan ageing population (i), (ii) an industrial power (i) Asian Development Bank and (i) capital flows into China (i) China and (i) Congress want sanctions (i), (ii) Disney in (i) income disparities (i) invades Manchuria (i) late 1980s (i) League of Nations (i) living standards (i), (ii) Pearl Harbor (i) per capita incomes (i) remarkable defeat of Russia (i)n5 Senkaku and Kuril Islands (i) TPP (i) US Treasury securities (i) yen falls (i) yen rises (i) Jefferson, Thomas (i), (ii) Jerusalem (i) Jesus Christ (i) Jews (i), (ii) Jiangsu province (China) (i) jihadists (i) job polarization (i) Jobbik (i) Johnny Rotten (i) Johnson, Lyndon B.

(i) West Bank (i) West Germany (i) see also Germany West Indians (i), (ii) Westphalia, Peace of (i) White, Harry Dexter (i), (ii), (iii)n4 WikiLeaks (i) Wilhelm I, Kaiser (i) Wilhelm II, Kaiser (i) William of Orange (i) Williamson, John (i)n3 Wilson, Woodrow (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Wirtschaftswunder (i) Wizard of Oz, The (Victor Fleming) (i) Wolfe, Tom (i) World Bank Asian Development Bank and (i) creation of (i), (ii) limitations (i) meetings (i) Millennium Development Goal (i) World Economic Forum (i), (ii) World Trade Organization (WTO) early failure (i) GATT and (i) GOFF and (i) opposition to (i) poorest countries and (i) possible undermining of (i) tobacco companies and (i) Wrocław (i) Xi Jinping (i), (ii) Xiongnu (i) Yamaichi (i) Yaroslavsky (i) Yemen (i), (ii) Yiwu (i) Yom Kippur War (i) Yorubas (i) Yugoslavia (i), (ii) Yunnan province (China) (i), (ii) Zheng, Admiral (i) Zollverein (i) Zoroastrianism (i) Zurich (i)


One Up on Wall Street by Peter Lynch

air freight, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, buy and hold, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, fixed income, index fund, Irwin Jacobs, Isaac Newton, large denomination, money market fund, prediction markets, random walk, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

During that period the great events, and the market reactions to them, were as follows: President Nixon imposes price controls (market up 3 percent); President Nixon resigns (market down 1 percent) (Nixon once remarked that if he weren’t the president he’d be buying stocks, and a Wall Street wag retorted that if Nixon weren’t president, he’d be buying stocks, too); President Ford’s Whip Inflation Now buttons are introduced (market up 4.6 percent); IBM wins a big antitrust case (market up 3.3 percent), Yom Kippur War breaks out (market up slightly). The decade of the 1970s was the poorest for stocks of any of the five since the 1930s, and yet the major-percentage one-day changes were all up—on the days just mentioned. The event of most lasting consequence was OPEC’s oil embargo, October 19, 1973 (another lucky October 19!), which helped take the market down 16 percent in three months and 39 percent in twelve months.

It was at this so-called G7 conference that the major industrial nations agreed to coordinate economic policy and to allow the value of the dollar to decline. After that decision was announced, the general market rose 38 percent over six months. It had a more dramatic impact on specific companies that benefited from the lower dollar, and whose stocks doubled and tripled in price in the following two years. As on October 19, 1987, I was in Europe at the time of both the Yom Kippur War and the G7 conference, but at least on those occasions I was out visiting companies instead of losing golf balls. Trends and gradual changes stick in my mind. The period of conglomeration in the mid to late 1960s resulted in many major companies diworseifying, falling apart, and then not recovering for another fifteen years. Many have never come back, and others, such as Gulf and Western, ITT, and Ogden, have reemerged as turnarounds.

., 57 Vicker’s International Holdings Guide, 136 Vicker’s Weekly Insider Report, 143 Victor Talking Machine, 71–72 Vietnam War, 50, 52 Viskase, 133 Volvo, 36, 70, 212, 251 Vonnegut, Kurt, 60 Vulcan Materials, 141 Wall Street: caution of, 59–60 lag of, 57–60, 95, 101–2 standard industry classifications of, 59 see also stock market; stocks Wall Street Journal, 17, 38, 77, 143, 167 Wall Street Week, with Louis Rukeyser, 279 Wal-Mart Stores, 12, 33, 59–60, 66, 129, 219, 247 as fast-growing company, 112, 114, 118 stock chart of, 114 Wang Laboratories, 101 Wards, 153 Warehouse Club, 153, 268 Warner Communications, 247–48 Washington Post, 141 Washington Public Power Supply System, 72 Waste Management, 110, 137, 145, 246, 281 Weinberg, Harry, 256 Welch, Jack, 18 Wendy’s, 223 Wesray, 279 Westernbank/Puerto Rico, 26 Westin Hotels, 211 West Point-Pepperell, 90, 188–89 Wexner, Leslie, 57 Wharton College, 52 What’s Wrong with Wall Street, 281 whisper stocks, 157–59 White, Weld, 57 Wilson, Robert, 275 Winchester Disk Drives, 38–39 Windex, 62 Wojnowski, Tom, 194 Woodfield Mall, 57 Worlds of Wonder, 158 W. R. Grace, 34 Wright Aeronautical, 71 Xerox, 62, 63, 64–65, 88, 152, 160 Yom Kippur War, 277 York Int., 134 Zantac, 98 Zapata, 269 Zion’s Bancorp, 26 * Throughout the day I’m constantly referring to stock charts. I keep a long-term chart book close to my side at the office, and another one at home, to remind me of momentous and humbling occurrences. What most people get out of family photo albums, I get out of these wonderful publications. If my life were to flash before my eyes, I bet I’d see the chart of Flying Tiger, my first tenbagger; of Apple Computer, a stock I rediscovered thanks in part to my family; and Polaroid, which makes me remember the new camera that my wife and I took on our honeymoon.


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

The almanac might also have noted that in September 1970—soon after Nixon made it clear that he was withdrawing slowly, and bloodily, from Vietnam—threats by Nixon to Moscow helped to stop Syrian tanks from crossing far­ ther into Jordan and toppling King Hussein's pro-Western gov­ ernment. One could also note that in 1973 and 1974 Kissinger, serving Nixon and then Gerald Ford, manipulated the Yom Kippur War toward a stalemate that was convenient for American interests, and then brokered agreements between Israel and its Arab adversaries for a separation of forces. These deals allowed Washington to re-establish diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria for the first time since their rupture following the Six-Day War, in 1967. The agreements also set the context for the Egypt­ ian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979 and helped stabilize relations between Israel and Syria to this day.

State Department, 4-5,14, 96, 138,145,182 urban areas, 22, 87,106 in Turkey, 34-36, 38 / 197 and Vietnam War, 132-33,145-52 and violence-prone youths, 76-78 in West Africa, 4-7, 8,17, 49 see also specific cities utopianism, 170,171 V Vance, Cyrus, 127,143 Vancouver, 94,107 van Creveld, Martin, The Transformation of War, 44-48 Venezuela, 63 Vietnam War, 108,139,171 Nixon/Kissinger policy on, 132-33, 139,140,144-52,155 violence: as human trait, 45-46,175-76 male youth, 76-78 Vlahos, Michael, 47-48 voter turnout, 63, 87, 89-90 W Wall Street Journal, The, 99 war, 9,18,19, 41, 43-50 and crime, 48-49, 99-104 cultural and racial, 26-29 and dangers of peace, 169-85 environmentally driven, 21-24 future of, 43-50,184-85 as human trait, 45-46,175-76 and intelligence business, 105-10 and mass murder, 99-104 in Medieval Europe, 46-47 Nixon/Kissinger policies, 132-33, 145-52 and religion, 47-48 technology, 48,106-7,129,171,183 World War I delegitimization of, 170, 177 see also specific wars Washington, George, 95 water, 20, 35, 53 rising levels, 20, 24-25, 53 shortages, 20, 21, 24, 25 in Turkey, 36-37, 41 198 / I N D E X Weinberger, Caspar, 139 West Africa, 3-18, 32, 38, 43,48, 51, 55-57,166 borders, 12-16, 40,42, 57 colonialism, 10-15 crime in, 4-7,12-15, 26,49, 55 disease in, 3, 7, 9,16-18 economy in, 10-15 environmental problems, 7-9,18, 25 government in, 7-15,48, 63,81 polygamy in, 6-7,11 population growth, 6-18, 55 religion in, 6,15, 35 slums in, 9-12,16,17 urban areas, 4-8,17,49 literacy rates, 62,122,123 in military, 108 World Almanac, The, 147-48 World Economic Forum, 76, 77, 80 "world government," 80-83 World War 1,18,130,134,138,182, 184 and delegitimization of war, 170, 177 World War II, 45, 54,101,171,178 events leading to, 128,131-35, 170-71 war criminals, 102 West Africa, 12 Yom Kippur War, 148 Yugoslavia, 12, 52,182 Wiener, Neil I., 76 Wiesel, Elie, 134-35 Wilson, Woodrow, 138 women, 167 family planning, 122,123 Y Z Zinni, Gen. Anthony C , 172 Zionism, 134,178 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ROBERT D . KAPLAN is a correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly and the author of six previous books on travel and foreign af­ fairs that have been translated into a dozen languages. His best­ seller Balkan Ghosts was chosen by The New York Times Book Review as one of the best books of 1993 and by Amazon.com as one of the top ten travel books of all time.


Britannia Unchained: Global Lessons for Growth and Prosperity by Kwasi Kwarteng, Priti Patel, Dominic Raab, Chris Skidmore, Elizabeth Truss

Airbnb, banking crisis, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clockwatching, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, glass ceiling, informal economy, James Dyson, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, long peace, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Neil Kinnock, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, pension reform, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Walter Mischel, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Academic Daniel Isenberg points out that this impetus came right from the very top, with Presidents Chaim Weizmann and Ephraim Katzir both coming from a scientific background.13 However, the Israeli economy cannot be said to have truly flourished until the 1990s. As late as 1985 the country was suffering from hyperinflation, reaching 445 per cent at one point. A strict programme of economic reforms, including liberalisation, curbs on deficit spending, and high interest rates managed to stem the tide. The Economic Stabilisation Plan, cutting spending and devaluing the shekel, reversed what appeared to be an inevitable decline following the Yom Kippur War of 1973 – and is a telling example of the benefits of fiscal discipline from the state. For despite the instincts that may have driven entrepreneurial endeavour, the early State of Israel was also hampered by a risk-averse state, with high job security and limited competition. This combination merely led to stagnation. Until the 1980s, innovation was stifled by a welfare state that celebrated caution and shied away from risk taking.

Neville 38 PriceWaterhouseCoopers 94 private enterprise, used for social ends 26–7 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD) 36, 38, 39–41, 44, 57, 105, 115 prudence 24, 27–9, 33 public services, investment in 12, 28–9, 31 ‘quants’ 44, 45, 47–8 Reagan, Ronald 38–9 reality television 75–6, 115 142 Britannia Unchained Recent Work Capability Assessments 70 The Red Paper on Scotland 26 Reich, Robert 25 Reilly, Cait 74 Reinhart, Carmen M. 21, 22 resources, running out 9 risk 99 and innovation 91–2 risk-aversion 86–8, 91, 92 see also failure Robinson, Derek (‘Red Robbo’) 8 Rogoff, Kenneth S. 21, 22, 29 Rolls Royce 8 Romer, Christina 22 Rossli, Ashraf 1 Rousseff, Dilma 101 Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts (RSA) 61 Sahami, Mehran 60 Sainsbury’s, and migrant workers 64 Samuels, Tim 64 Sand Hill Road 93–4 Saragoza, Eric 54 Sarkozy, Nicholas 66 SAT (Standard Assessment Tasks) tests 39 Save the Children 71 Scandinavia, labour market reform 4 Schleicher, Andreas 38, 39, 40, 41 Science Museum, London 56 science and technology 38–60 attitudes to 48–51 securitisation 35 Sedi 103 seed capital 84, 98 see also venture capital Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme 98 Seedrs 98 Sela, Yonatan 86 Sequoia Capital 98 Silicon Roundabout (London) 55, 97, 112 Silicon Valley 93–4, 95, 97, 554 Simon, Leslie 48 Singapore 5, 66, 113 smart phones 55 Smith, Adam 20 Snow, C.P. 46 social mobility 11, 76–7 The Social Network (film) 48 solar energy sector, subsidies 85 Songkick 98 South Korea 4–5, 113 education 43–4, 55 working hours 66 Soviet Union 86, 89, 105 collapse of 10 SpaceX 95 Spain 3, 41, 52, 66 Spotify 98 Standard & Poor’s 47 Stanford University (US) 60, 93, 97 Stephens, Philip 28 strikes 8–9, 66, 69, 114–15 Stringer, Sir Howard 58 Süddeutsche Zeitung 40 Suez crisis (1956) 8 Sugar, Alan 75, 76 Summers, Larry 25 sustainable development 4, 10 see also economic growth Sweden 30, 32 Switzerland 30, 32, 52 Tang, Jessie 72 Tata, Ratan 64 taxation 12, 28–9, 31, 37, 88, 109, 110 impact on working hours 68–9 increases under New Labour 29 taxi drivers, work ethic 61–3 Tech City (London) 97 tech industry 51–5 international collaboration 53–4 low-wage workers 54 and tech skills 54–5 Technological Incubators Program (Israel) 79, 83–4 technology see science and technology; tech industry Index Thatcher, Margaret 9, 10, 11, 114–15 Toynbee, Polly 31 trade unions 8, 9, 63, 69 Trudeau, Pierre Elliot 14–15 True Flash Filing System 81 Tug, Tuggy 72 TweetDeck 55, 98 Twitter 93 unemployment 20, 23 Canada 14, 16, 18, 34 Europe 66 UK 70, 73, 74, 77, 87 Unison union 70 United Kingdom (UK) attitudes to academic achievement 45–7, 59 debt 10, 12, 30–3, 115 and deficit 19–21, 27, 29–33 economic decline 7–11, 12–13, 115 economic growth 9–10, 12, 114, 115 education 4–5, 12, 31, 42–3, 44–8, 51–60 failure of 57–8, 115 maths teaching methods 56–7 and parental aspiration 57, 59 performance in PISA tests 40, 41, 57, 115 and science and technology 51–3, 54–60, 115 tuition fees 60 end of empire 4, 8, 10, 114 and entrepreneurship 76, 91, 97–8 and European Union 10 government subsidies 85 graduate jobs market 44–5 innovation 98, 114 intellectual capital 52, 53, 112 patent applications 95–7 pensions 3, 63, 69–70, 110 population growth 100, 107–8 productivity 61, 66–7, 77 public spending 3, 27–8, 31, 114, 115 143 regulation and red tape 5, 30, 37, 87–8, 98, 109 relationship with US 8, 10, 90 research and development 88 and risk-aversion 86–8, 91, 92 strikes 8–9, 69, 114–15 taxation 12, 28–9, 31, 37, 88, 109, 110 technology companies 97–8 trade union power 8, 9, 63, 69 universities 52–3, 57, 58, 97 rise in science and tech applicants 59–60 venture capital 94, 98 welfare policies 109, 110 and dependency 2, 67, 68, 70–1, 77, 109 unsustainability of 106 Winter of Discontent (1978) 9, 114 and work ethic 2, 61–77, 111–12 working hours 65, 66, 68, 77 young Britons 75, 108–11 and entrepreneurship 76 unemployment 74, 77 United States (US) attitude to bankruptcy 91 cost of patent process 96 and debt 22, 24, 31 Declaration of Independence 90 and economic freedom 36 education 12, 38–9, 40, 42, 46, 57 entrepreneurial spirit 90, 93–4, 96–7 and global financial crisis (2007–08) 19, 32, 37 investment in IT sector 93–4 women in tech careers 49 worker productivity 57, 67 working hours 65, 66, 68 universities non-courses 43, 46–7 see also United Kingdom (UK), universities urban riots (2011) 1, 75 USB flash drive 80–1 144 Britannia Unchained Varga, Getúlio 104 Velez, Leila 103–4 venture capital 5, 80, 84–5, 93–5, 98 see also seed capital Vietnam 54, 89 vocational training 74 Wall Street Journal 9, 14, 36, 96 Wanless report 29 Wei, Nat 59 Weizmann, Chaim 83 Wenzhou, China 95 Willetts, David 67 Wilshaw, Sir Michael 59 Wilson, Harold 114 Wolf, Martin 26 Wolley, Trevor 45 women and tech careers 48–9, 50–1 working and cost of childcare 71 Woos, Jaejoon 22 work ethic 2, 5, 13, 61–77 and entrepreneurship 67–8 Europeans 65–6 impact of childcare costs 71 impact of welfare system 68, 70–1, 74, 77 Japan 106 migrant workers 63–4 and role models 74–7 role of schools 73–4 worklessness 67 Workers’ Party (Brazil) 101 working hours 65, 66 effect of unionisation 69 impact of tax rates 68–9 World Economic Forum 35, 87 Wriston, Walter 20 X Factor 45, 75 Yes Minister 47 Yom Kippur War (1973) 83 YouTube 1, 95 Yozma programme (Israel) 83, 84–6 Zappos 98 Zhou, Biyan 42 Zuckerberg, Mark 76 Zynga 95


pages: 183 words: 59,209

Pumpkinflowers: A Soldier's Story of a Forgotten War by Matti Friedman

Ayatollah Khomeini, friendly fire, Yom Kippur War

That kibbutz was one of the country’s most successful communal farms before a feud in the 1950s between Stalinists and moderate socialists tore it into two separate communes right next to each other, both called Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov, a fence between them. By the time Alter was growing up no one could really remember what it all had been about. One of Alter’s favorite songs was the Hebrew ballad “Children of Winter ’73,” which has kids born after the Yom Kippur War chastising their parents for promising them peace and failing to deliver. Actually no one promised anyone anything, but it’s still a popular song, and a line from it is engraved on Alter’s tombstone. When you see it there what stands out isn’t the text but that number, 73. On the night of February 4 news of the crash reached one of the kibbutz members, a woman named Bruria, in the middle of a movie.

She collapsed near the net. She doesn’t remember much after that, only that when the green men reached her she was on the ground looking up, begging them to say he was just wounded. 30 THE NEXT DAY the whole kibbutz took the dirt road past the aqueduct built by members in 1938 to the little cemetery overlooking orchards along the Jordan. They buried her son near his namesake from the Yom Kippur War, and near his friend Alter. It took Orna time to walk upright again. But when she could she joined forces with Bruria. She made the campaign to get the army out of Lebanon her reason for living. She turned out to have a knack for organization and for slogans. She was relentless. Soon she was spending a month with a few other women outside the official residence of the president in Jerusalem, sitting on the sidewalk with a sign that read WE ARE DYING AND YOU ARE SILENT.


pages: 225 words: 61,388

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Live Aid, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Statistical records from the 1960s are scant, and estimates of the miles of tarred road and railway track, the numbers of bridges and airports, that aid helped build remain unclear. As such, the true value of the surfeit of aid that had gone to Africa remains open to debate, but by the beginning of the 1970s there was still not much infrastructure to speak of. The foreign aid agenda of the 1970s: the shift to a poverty focus On 17 October 1973, Arab states placed an embargo on oil as a retaliation for US support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War. In just a few months, the price of petrol quadrupled, sending the global economy into turmoil. As oil prices soared, oil-exporting countries deposited the additional cash with international banks, which in turn eagerly sought to lend this money to the developing world. Lax economic and financial policies (for example, the low amounts central banks required commercial banks to keep in reserve) meant that the volume of lending to even the poorest and most un-creditworthy countries around the world was enormous.

(Przeworski et al.) 43 White, Harry Dexter 11 World Bank aggressive aid programmes 21 and aid diversion risk 39 aid history 11–13, 16, 17 aid to Nigeria 107 and Argentinian bonds 95–6 concessional loans 85 and corruption 52 debt relief programme 53–4 developing local bond markets 91–2 election of Justin Lin Yifu 153 and the GEMLOC Program 90 and governance reform 23 and international capital markets 92 leading aid donor 25 Operations Evaluation Department 55 and remittances 134–5 views on aid 50 World Trade Organization (WTO) 117 World Vision (charity) 7 Xu Jianxue 104–5 Yom Kippur War 15 Yunus, Muhammad 126 Zaire see Congo, Democratic Republic of Zambeef 4 Zambia aggressive privatization programme 21 Benguela railway 106 and Chinese business 104–5 and the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission 111 economic ruin 47 first bond 89, 93 and foreign mining investment 102 and the HIPC programme 53 and microfinance 128–9 population 124 primary sources of export revenue 71–2 share of SMEs 125 and the Tanzam Railway 103–4 trade-oriented commodity-driven economy 146 Zimbabwe 108, 116, 147 Zoellick, Robert 112 Zulus 33


pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng

Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Co-operation between a ‘major British oil company . . . and European companies’ would benefit Britain, as it was in Britain’s interests ‘to help to secure the EEC’s long term oil supplies’. The Iraqis, it was recognized by British diplomats, wanted to develop their oil reserves to promote their general economic development. Unfortunately, the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War in October 1973 delayed Shell’s plans. At the end of that month, Patrick Wright, the head of the Middle East Department at the Foreign Office, had the ‘impression that Shell were not proceeding actively with this scheme’.34 But it was simply political circumstance, not any qualms about the nature of the Iraqi regime, which put the brakes on an oil deal with Iraq. Even after the Yom Kippur War, the Foreign Office official Stephen Egerton, an Old Etonian and Cambridge-educated Classics scholar in his late thirties, frankly admitted in December of that year that the ‘Iraqi regime is repressive and on occasion hostile; but it is apparently well in control’.

More broadly it conferred on Saddam Hussein a prestige and authority in the Arab world which only Nasser, in recent times, had managed to enjoy. After all, the nationalization of the IPC echoed Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal, sixteen years before. ‘Oil for the Arabs’ had become the new rallying cry of Arab nationalists since Israel’s humiliating victory in the 1967 war. The same cry would become especially resonant in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War of 1973.23 Saddam constantly boasted of his achievement in snatching Iraq’s oil wealth from the greedy hands of the imperialists and giving it back to the Iraqi people. In a meeting of oil department bureaucrats on 1 June 1983, the eleventh anniversary of the nationalization of the IPC, he recalled that the real national independence of Iraq had not begun in 1921, nor even with the Ba’athist coup of July 1968; Iraq’s real independence, he claimed, dated from 1 June 1972.24 Always keen to burnish his credentials as an Arab nationalist, he would talk about how his relatives had been killed by the British, how his forefathers had fought bravely against the Turks.

A favourite pastime was to appear at the door of a house and ask any boy who happened to open the door, ‘Where is your father?’ ‘He is asleep.’ ‘Wake him and tell him that President Saddam would like to share your breakfast.’39 Saddam’s charismatic style was supported by huge oil revenues. The price of oil quadrupled in the latter half of the 1970s, while Iraq’s production of the fuel soared. The Iraqis now owned 100 per cent of the revenues. The Yom Kippur War had induced the Arab oil-producing states to test their economic strength by encouraging them to force up the price of oil, which had been a little over US$3 a barrel on 1 October 1973; oil cost over US$11 a barrel just three months later on New Year’s Day, 1974.40 There now flowed a torrent of wealth into the country: Iraq’s oil revenues increased from US$575 million in 1972 to over US$26 billion in 1980, an increase of nearly fifty times, in nominal terms, in just eight years.41 These were heady days in Baghdad and in Iraq generally.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Being a Jewish New Yorker, he also revived my memories of days in the Catskills, never losing his amusement at the breakneck speed of my cultural immersion, and through our close friendship I also got my first real understanding of the steel-like bond that families like his felt with Israel. For most of that October he was monitoring news bulletins first thing in the morning to check the progress of ‘our’ forces in the Yom Kippur War. I had another friend whose brother was fighting in the Israeli army, and around me at Syracuse, which had a heavily Jewish student body and faculty, there was no doubt where most sympathies lay, in contrast to the attitude to Vietnam, where many Americans of their age were still bogged down, and about which a healthy majority of my fellow students was either angry to the core or, at least, profoundly uneasy and weary.

His main problem, though, was the economy. However much he might deserve international acclaim for bringing Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin together to sign the Camp David Accords and break down some of the barriers between Egypt and Israel, on the home front everything seemed stagnant. There was an energy crisis. In Nixon’s time the OPEC oil embargo on the United States as a consequence of its support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War had exacerbated a problem that had been building up for a decade. America couldn’t pump enough oil to satisfy demand, and new environmental protections were putting extra limits on production. In 1974, a speed limit of 55mph was placed on all highways to cut gasoline consumption. But it was Carter who reaped the whirlwind. A few days after he entered the White House he delivered an address to the nation from his fireside, wearing a cardigan and talking like an off-duty teacher, in which he described a challenge that he said was the moral equivalent of war.

., 74–5 WikiLeaks, 182, 189, 290 Williams, Tennessee, 237 Wilson, Harold, 50 Winchester, Simon, 56–7 Wolfe, Tom, 42 Wolfowitz, Paul, 143 Wonder, Stevie, 121, 169 Woods, Rose Mary, 53 Woodward, Bob, 38, 57, 58, 80 Wordsworth, Dorothy, 38 ‘Wordsworth, Pornography and Mr Nixon’ (Naughtie), 38 World, The, 29 World at One, The, 5, 75, 106, 109 World-Telegram, 29 World Trade Center (WTC), 33, 63, 137 Worsthorne, Claudie, 50 Worsthorne, Peregrine, 50 WVNS, 209 Wynette, Tammy, 102, 103 xenophobia, 186, 206 Yasgur, Max, 19 Yearling Row Ranch, 100 YMCA, 43, 51 Yom Kippur War, 45, 69 Young, Andy, 155 Young Republicans, 154 Ziad Abu Ein, 78–80 Ziegler, Ron, 56 We hope you enjoyed reading this Simon & Schuster ebook. Join our mailing list to get updates on new releases, deals, recommended reads, and more from Simon & Schuster. CLICK HERE TO SIGN UP Already a subscriber? Provide your email again so we can register this ebook and send you more of what you like to read.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In March 1971, Texas reached maximum productive capacity, unable to increase supply to ease upward pressure on prices. At the time, the United States imported about 3.2 million barrels of oil per day. Over the next five years, that figure nearly doubled, and OPEC gained crucial market leverage. With each passing year, the cartel’s output decisions became more critical to the stability of oil and gasoline prices in Europe and the United States. The turning point came with the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, another Arab-Israeli conflict that provoked OPEC to again test its oil weapon. This time, the cartel members discovered they had the power to inflict real pain on the world’s most powerful economy. In retaliation for Washington’s support for Israel, OPEC members cut oil shipments to the United States and incrementally removed oil from the market at large. Weeks before the war and embargo began, oil sold for $2.90 per barrel.

., 86–87 Wen Jiabao, 8, 12, 21, 143 Western Europe, 46–47 oil imported by, 47 West Germany, 45, 46, 47, 53, 82, 165 Wi-Fi, 86 WikiLeaks, 75 World Bank, 4, 28, 29–30, 99, 104, 118, 134, 135 American and European influence in, 42, 43–44 creation of, 39, 43 in world currency and debt crises, 38 World Brain (Wells), 86–87 World Trade Organization, 60 Doha Round, 103 World War I, 3, 11, 40, 141, 167, 170 World War II, 11, 38–40, 56–57, 151, 170, 187 Xinhua, 8, 62, 70 Yanukovych, Viktor, 138 Yeltsin, Boris, 54 Yemen, 14, 67, 114 chaos in, 112, 175, 183 yen, 83 Yom Kippur War, 48–49 yuan: China accused of manipulation of, 79–80, 154, 161–62 as international currency, 83 Yugoslavia, 32 Zambia, 119, 120 Zimbabwe, 7–8, 130, 131–32 Zoellick, Robert, 157 ALSO BY IAN BREMMER The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? The Fat Tail: The Power of Political Knowledge for Strategic Investing (with Preston Keat) The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall Managing Strategic Surprise: Lessons from Risk Management and Risk Assessment (with Paul Bracken and David Gordon) New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (with Raymond Taras) Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States (with Raymond Taras) Soviet Nationalities Problems (with Norman Naimark) * The New York Post probably pushed the envelope as far as it would go with the headline “Booty Gaul


pages: 261 words: 65,534

Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time by David Prerau

British Empire, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

—Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy In 1973, the outbreak of war would again have a major influence on the story of daylight saving time—but this time indirectly. On October 6, which marked Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement), the holiest day of the Jewish calendar, Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a surprise attack against Israel on two fronts in an effort to force Israel to surrender previously captured territories. Thus began the fourth Arab-Israeli War, known as the Yom Kippur War or the October War. When Western allies, including the United States, aided Israel with supplies, the oil-producing Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) retaliated. On October 17, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other Arab states, which together controlled a large portion of the world’s oil, cut oil production, raised prices, and declared a complete embargo on oil exports to the United States.

Ward, 154 Willson, Professor Robert, 85 Wilmington, DE, 186, 187 Wilson, John, MP, 63 Wilson, President Woodrow, xi, 71, 84, 85, 89, 103, 108–110 Wingo, Representative Otis, 89 Winnipeg, Manitoba, 160 Wisconsin, 38, 106, 119, 165 Wollaston, Dr. William Hyde, 35 World War I (the Great War), 51–55, 94, 100, 101, 103, 114, 133, 135 World War II (Second World War), 141, 145, 151, 152, 159, 183, 190, 192, 217 Wright, Judge Caleb, 186 Wright, Wilbur, 21 Wyoming, 173 Yale University, 121 Yatesville, PA, 165 Yom Kippur War, 189 “You Can Have It—I Don’t Want It—Daylight Saving Time” (song), 129 Yugoslavia, 145, 185, 205


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And Then All Hell Broke Loose: Two Decades in the Middle East by Richard Engel

East Village, friendly fire, invisible hand, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype, Yom Kippur War

The Jews below can look up and see Muslims worshipping on land where their temples once stood. It is a religious conflict set in stone. It is also hard for Americans to appreciate the passions stirred by Sharon. Regarded by some as Israel’s greatest field commander, he’s a tough-guy hero to many Israelis for his assault of the Sinai during the 1967 war and his encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army in 1973, widely viewed as the decisive moment in the Yom Kippur War. To Palestinians, though, he is evil incarnate because of his role in the Lebanon War, in which he failed to stop the massacre in 1982 of thousands of Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps. Israeli troops encircled Sabra and Shatila and illuminated the sky while pro-Israeli Christian militiamen (the Phalanges) entered the camps and slaughtered hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Palestinians.

Bush and, 64, 75–76, 87, 128, 129, 156 Islam and, 129 statue of, 85 Sunnis and, 8, 86, 93, 94, 97, 101 Sadr, Mohammed Sadiq al-, 85–86 Sadr, Muqtada al-, 95, 102, 118 Sagami, Saddam, 141–42 Sahhaf, Mohammed Saeed al-, 77–78, 84, 95 Salafi Muslims, 35, 40–42, 200 ISIS and, 194–95 jihadis, 35–36, 38, 45, 46 Wahhabi, see Wahhabis Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 168 Sallum, 158, 160, 162 Salmaniya Medical Complex, 157 Sana’a, 213 Saracens, 3 Satanism, 45 Sattar, Abu, 75 Saud, Amir Abdullah bin, 40 Saud clan, 40–41 Saudi Arabia, 4, 9, 35, 36, 45, 46, 117, 136, 151, 201, 207, 208, 216, 217 Bahrain and, 157 Engel’s first trip to, 38–39 oil in, 41–42, 47, 207 rehabilitation program in, 140–43, 145 Wahhabism and, 40–42, 47 sayyids, 92, 118 Second Intifada, 50, 56, 60, 62–64, 115 September 11 attacks, see 9/11 attacks sex trade, 139–40 sexuality, 15, 18, 38 homosexuality, 20, 43, 44–45 shabiha, 177–78, 185, 188, 189 Shalit, Gilad, 111–12 sharia law, 44 Sharm el-Sheikh, 154 Sharon, Ariel, 56–57, 58, 60, 63 Shatila, 57 Shia Muslims (Shiites), 2, 4, 9, 29, 34, 85–86, 91–98, 102, 107, 131, 156, 184, 209, 216 Alawite, 172, 181 in Bahrain, 157 elections and, 105 Hezbollah and, see Hezbollah in Iran, 93, 108 ISIS attacks on mosques of, 200–201 and kidnapping of Engel and crew, 189 minority status of, 93 Saddam and, 8 shabiha, 177–78, 185, 188, 189 Sicily, 65 Sidon, 4 Siniora, Fouad, 115–16, 119, 123 Sirte, 160, 163, 164, 169 Sisi, Abdel Fattah el-, 209 Sistani, Ali al-, 94, 95, 97, 102 smartphones, 152, 174 Somalia, 167, 201 Sousse rampage, 200 Soviet Union, 5, 45 Spain, 3 Spanish Inquisition, 195 suicide bombings, 99, 135, 137, 193, 211 Palestinian, 60–62 Sulayman, Khalid, 143–46 Sunni Muslims, 4, 9, 22, 29, 34, 72, 86, 91–98, 101, 102, 106, 107, 111, 117, 131, 133, 136, 137, 140, 156, 157, 172, 174, 181, 184, 189, 207, 209, 216 elections and, 105 ISIS and, see ISIS and kidnapping of Engel and crew, 189 in Mosul, 191–94 Saddam and, 8, 86, 93, 94, 97, 101 Wahhabis, see Wahhabis Syria, 1, 4–6, 9, 11, 34, 134, 142, 152, 169, 171–90, 206, 208, 213, 214 Aleppo, 166, 178, 180, 182, 183, 189, 195, 197, 217 chemical weapons in, 182–83, 190, 198 Damascus, see Damascus Daraa, 166, 171–72 Engel in, 114, 138, 171, 174–90, 195–98, 218 Engel and crew kidnapped in, 171, 184–89, 195, 197, 217–19 Free Syrian Army, 177, 179, 185, 195–98, 202 Ghouta attack in, 190 Homs, 177 Houla massacre in, 177–78 Iraq and, 138 Iraqi refugees in, 139 ISIS and, see ISIS Lebanese in, 114, 120 map of, 170 Obama and, 182–83 officials killed by bomb in, 179 Palmyra, 199–200 Qamishli, 175 Raqqa, 199 Tal Abyad, 199 uprising and civil war in, 138, 156, 163, 166, 171–90 US intervention and, 181, 190 Tabligh wa Dawa, 36–38, 43, 45 Ta’e, Uday al-, 71, 78, 84 Taher, 184, 187 Tahrir Square: demonstrations in, 151–54, 157, 166–67 shooting in front of Egyptian Museum, 23–27, 51 Tal Abyad, 199 Taliban, 17–18, 46, 130, 137, 144 Tanzania, 27 technology, 152 Internet, 131, 135–36, 141, 142, 152, 155, 172, 180, 215 phones, 152, 174, 180 Tehran, 150 Tel Aviv, 61, 123 Temple Mount, 55–58, 63 terrorism, 27, 67, 87, 132–33, 138, 146–47 Iraq war and, 146, 147 real estate law of, 142 war on, 130, 139, 146–47 Tigris River, 76, 78, 84, 94, 103 Tobruk, 158, 159, 162, 163 Today, 188 Todd, Chuck, 182 Topkapi Palace Museum, 39 Tora Bora, 130, 144 Trabelsi, Leila, 151 Transjordan, 4 Tripoli, Lebanon, 135 Tripoli, Libya, 160–68 Tulkarm, 51, 62 Tunis, 150–51 Bardo National Museum in, 200 Tunisia, 6, 136, 150–52, 159, 166, 205–6, 208 Sousse rampage in, 200 Turkey, 173–75, 188, 194, 206, 209, 214 Istanbul, 29, 156–57 Tyre, 4, 120, 122 Umayyads, 92 Umm al-Fahm, 123 Umm Qasr, 79, 83 Unification Church, 16 United Arab Emirates, 4–5 United Nations (UN), 62, 64, 97, 119, 178 and war between Israel and Lebanon, 122, 124 Security Council, 123, 216, 217 UNESCO, 199 United States, 5, 6, 9, 11, 35, 36, 38, 91 in Afghanistan war, 129–30 CIA of, 46, 129, 130, 137, 146, 174, 194 Crusades and, 30, 34, 139 Fifth Fleet of, 157 in Gulf War (1991), 8, 60, 64, 82, 86, 93, 155 Middle East policy of, 5, 35, 155, 156, 157, 169, 181, 209, 216–17 Iran nuclear deal and, 216 Iraq invaded by, 50, 70, 72, 76–87, 93, 95, 102, 107, 108, 115, 128–30, 132, 146, 215 in Iraq war, see Iraq war Marines of, 135 State Department of, 174 Syrian uprising and, 181, 190 veterans in, 131 Uthman, 92 Uzo Hotel, 159–60 Vietnam War, 125 Vikings, 29 Wahhab, Mohammed Ibn, 40 Wahhabis, 4, 21, 36, 38–43, 195 jihadists, 45 Ottomans and, 39–40 Saudi Arabia and, 40–42, 47 spread of, 41–42 Wailing Wall (Western Wall), 56 Wajjeh, 112–13 Wall Street Journal, 172 weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), 64, 86, 129, 131, 132 Wedeman, Ben, 158, 159 West Bank, 11, 53–55, 58, 60, 61, 64, 124, 214 map of, 48 Operation Defensive Shield in, 62 WGBH, 63 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 3, 33 Williams, Brian, 192 Winograd Commission, 121 witchcraft, 45 women, 15, 18, 20 World, The, 63 World War I, 32–34 Middle East reorganized following, 1, 3, 4, 6, 33–35, 138 World War II, 5, 35, 105, 126, 159 Wye River Memorandum, 53 Yazid, 92–93 Yemen, 168, 213 Yom Kippur War, 57 Young Turks, 3, 32–33 YouTube, 172, 215 Zarfar, 71, 72–73, 75 Zarqa, 133 Zarqawi, Abu Musab al-, 96–98, 102, 105, 133, 143, 181, 205, 215 bin Laden and, 96, 98, 107, 131–32 death of, 106–7, 132 Internet and, 131 ISIS and, 96, 107, 132, 191, 192 videos of, 96, 132 Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 27–28 bin Laden and, 27–28, 143 Zawiya, 161 Zintan, 165–66 Zionism, 19–21, 51, 77 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2016 by Engel Productions, Inc.


pages: 247 words: 68,918

The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The First Wave—Oil as a Weapon State capitalism first began to pay dividends for a few resource-rich countries with the formation of OPEC in 1960.36 National oil companies have been around since the 1940s, but only in late 1973 did the world’s most important commodity become one of its most potent foreign-policy weapons. That’s when OPEC cut production to several countries and imposed embargoes on the United States and the Netherlands in retaliation for their support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The price of crude oil, which had barely increased in real terms since the end of World War II, quadrupled from $3 to $12 per barrel in a matter of weeks. For OPEC member states, the crisis put an end to decades of perceived political and economic impotence, and the price shock forced the United States into a deep recession, triggered inflation, generated various forms of oil and gasoline rationing in America and Europe, and boosted the foreign-exchange reserves of the Soviet Union—buttressing its economy at a crucial historical moment.

Trotsky, Leon Troubled Asset Recovery Program (TARP) Troubled Asset Relief Program troubled assets Tuleyev, Aman Tunisia Turkey Twitter Tymoshenko, Yulia Ukraine Ukraine International Airlines Union Carbide United Arab Emirates United Malays National Organization (UMNO) United Nations United Nations Human Development Report United States Chinese trade with in financial crisis military of in oil embargo oil production in trade by Uzbekistan Vale Venezuela Vietnam von Mises, Ludwig Walmart Warsaw Pact Washington Mutual Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) Webb, Jim Welch, Jack Wen Jiabao Westinghouse Will, George World Bank World Economic Forum World Trade Organization (WTO) World War I World War II Yanukovych, Viktor Yeltsin, Boris Yom Kippur War yuan Yudhoyono, Susilo Bambang Yugoslavia Yukos Oil Company Yushchenko, Viktor Zakaria, Fareed Zhao Ziyang Zhu Rongji Zhu Xinli Zimbabwe Zubkov, Viktor Zuma, Jacob Zyuzin, Igor a The Washington Consensus comprises three major ideas: fiscal and budgetary discipline; a market economy, including property rights, competitive exchange rates, privatization, and deregulation; and openness to the global economy through liberalization of trade and foreign direct investment.


pages: 801 words: 229,742

The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by John J. Mearsheimer, Stephen M. Walt

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, David Brooks, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, invisible hand, oil shock, Project for a New American Century, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

In an attempt to disguise American involvement and thereby limit repercussions in the Arab world, the tanks were shipped to Israel by West Germany, which in turn received replacements from the United States.11 In terms of the absolute amount of U.S. aid, however, the real sea change took place following the Six-Day War in June 1967. After averaging roughly $63 million annually from 1949 to 1965 (more than 95 percent of which was economic assistance and food aid), average aid increased to $102 million per year from 1966 to 1970. Support soared to $634.5 million in 1971 (roughly 85 percent was military assistance) and more than quintupled after the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Israel became the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance in 1976, a position it has retained ever since. Support for Israel shifted from loans to direct grants during this period, with the bulk of U.S. aid consisting of military assistance rather than economic or technical support. According to Clyde Mark of the Congressional Research Service (CRS), the official research arm of the U.S.

dual containment strategy “dual loyalty,”; as anti-Semitic slander Duke, David Dulles, John Foster Durbin, Richard Dymally, Mervyn Eagleburger, Lawrence Eastern Europe East Jerusalem Eban, Abba Eckstein, Yechiel economic aid Economist Edelman, Eric Editor & Publisher Edwards, John Egeland, Jan Egypt; Gaza raid (1955); peace process with Israel; Six-Day War; Suez War; U.S. aid to; War of Attrition; Yom Kippur War Eisenhower, Dwight D., Middle East policy of Eisenhower Doctrine Eitan, Rafael Eizenstat, Stuart Eldar, Akiva Ellsworth, Brad Enderlin, Charles energy companies engagement strategy Engel, Eliot Entebbe hostage rescue (1976) environment Epstein, Benjamin, The New Anti-Semitism Erbil Eshkol, Levi espionage European Union EU-3 Evans, John V. Fadlallah, Sayyid Muhammed Husayn Fahrenheit 9/11 (documentary) Falwell, Jerry Fatah Feinberg, Abraham Feith, Douglas; Iraq war and Feldman, Shai F-15 aircraft Financial Times Findley, Paul Finkelstein, Norman; Beyond Chutzpah; A Nation on Trial First Aliyah First Intifada Fisk, Robert Flapan, Simha Fleischer, Ari FMF aid Ford, Gerald; Middle East policy Foreign Affairs Foreign Policy Research Institute Forster, Arnold, The New Anti-Semitism Fortune magazine Forward Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD) Foxman, Abraham France; anti-Semitism; arms sales to Iraq of; arms supplies to Israel from Frankel, Glenn Frankel, Max Franklin, Larry Freedman, Helen Freedman, Samuel French Jews Freund, Michael Friedberg, Aaron Friedman, Howard Friedman, Murray, The Neoconservative Revolution: Jewish Intellectuals and the Shaping of Public Policy Friedman, Thomas L.

Israel policy Israel Defense Forces (IDF); atrocities committed by; in Lebanon war; and Operation Defensive Shield Israel Democracy Institute Israeli Air Force Israeli Arabs, discrimination against Israeli-Palestinian conflict; anti-Americanism and; First Intifada; human rights issues in; and Israeli victim myth; and Jerusalem issue; moral rationale for U.S. support of Israel in; 1948 war; after 9/11; Second Intifada; and settlement policy; Six-Day War; strategies for ending; terrorism and; and two-state solution; and UN partition plan; “virtuous Israelis” vs. “evil Arabs” myth and; Yom Kippur War; see also Arab-Israeli peace process; specific wars Israel lobby; academia and; agenda of; George W. Bush humiliated by; campaign finance reform and; Christian Zionists in; Congress and; conservatism of; and counterlobby; critics of charged with anti-Semitism; definition of; diversity and differences on policy issues within; and “dual loyalty” issue; groups in; as guiding policy process; Iran and; Iraq war and; Lebanon and; legitimacy of; literature on; media and; modus operandi of; more open debate within; neoconservative role in; objectionable tactics of; oil and; vs.


pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The Europeans both relied on U.S. power and distrusted it. And, the EEC, in the process of expansion, was becoming more difficult to manage. In 1973 it gained four new nations: Great Britain, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway. The community’s internal differences made every problem with the United States seem greater than it was. Acrimony peaked when most European nations and Japan sided with the Arabs in the Yom Kippur war. They did so because of Middle East oil. President Pompidou of France told Kissinger, “You rely on the Arabs for about a tenth of your consumption. We are entirely dependent upon them.”67 Even though the Europeans were exempt from the boycott, they were victims of reduced production. The results first hit the European automobile industry. Europe was much more dependent than the United States on the auto.

Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Hearing on Multinational Corporations and United States Foreign Policy, Part 7, (1974), 504. 30. “Meeting with Oil Company Executives,” Memorandum of Conversation, secret, Oct. 26, 1973, 3, KT00872, Kissinger Transcripts, accessed via Digital National Security Archive, The George Washington University, http:// nsarchive.chadwyck.com/home.do (hereafter DNSA). 31. Victor Israelyan, Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War (College Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995). 32. “Meeting with Oil Company Executives,” Oct. 26, 1973, 3–4. 33. “The Oil War,” n.d., CIA-RDP 01194A000100450001–5, Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA Records Search Tool (CREST), National Archives (NA). 34. Steven A. Schneider, The Oil Price Revolution (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 103. 35. Kissinger to Brent Scowcroft, Jan. 30, 1972, Ball and Kissinger, Feb. 10, President and Kissinger, Feb. 14, box 24, Kissinger telecoms, NSC papers, Nixon Presidential Materials, NA. 36.

Willis, Mark Wills, Gary Wilson, Woodrow Wimpisinger, William Wolfowitz, Paul women, in party politics Woodcock, Leonard workers, U.S. See also productivity, U.S.: distribution in economic sectors income and perquisites World Bank World Energy Conference World Trade Organization Wright, Gavin Wright, Jim Wriston, Walter Yamani, Ahmed Zaki Yarborough, Ralph Yeo, Edwin H., III Yom Kippur War. See Arab-Israeli War of 1973 Young, Andrew Young, Kenneth Zeiler, Thomas


pages: 309 words: 85,584

Nine Crises: Fifty Years of Covering the British Economy From Devaluation to Brexit by William Keegan

banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, congestion charging, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial thriller, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, inflation targeting, Just-in-time delivery, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, Parkinson's law, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, transaction costs, tulip mania, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War

There were two factors behind this quite dramatic increase in the price of oil. The first was that, after the devaluation of the US dollar associated with the break-up of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system in 1971–73, the oil producers were noticing the impact on their revenue – the price being quoted then, as now, in dollars. But the real force was imparted by the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War between Arab states and Israel between 6 and 25 October 1973. Israel was invaded by Egyptian and Syrian forces. With the West, led by the US, supporting Israel, the Saudi king called for Arab solidarity, and the Arab states imposed an embargo on shipments of oil to the oil importers. What made it so serious was that Saudi Arabia was the world’s biggest exporter of oil. This precipitated the use of ‘the oil weapon’ by the Arab oil producers generally, and spread to the other oil-exporting countries and the rise of OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) as a serious economic and political force.

Northcote 1 Parkinson, Cecil 1, 2 Patten, Chris 1, 2 Pennant-Rea, Rupert 1, 2, 3, 4 Pimlott, Ben 1 Pinochet, Augusto 1 Plaza Agreement 1, 2 Pöhl, Karl Otto 1, 2, 3 policymakers 1 The Politics of Harold Wilson 1 poll tax 1 Pompidou, Georges 1, 2 Portes, Jonathan 1 Powell, Charles 1 Powell, Enoch 1, 2 Prince, Chuck 1 Pringle, Robert 1 Prior, Jim 1 Private Eye 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Proctor, Sir Dennis 1 Pryce, Vicky 1 PSBR (public sector borrowing requirement) 1, 2, 3 Putin, Vladimir 1, 2 Radice, Giles 1 Rajan, Raghuram 1 Raphael, Adam 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 RBS (Royal Bank of Scotland) 1, 2, 3 Reading, Brian 1 Reagan, Ronald 1, 2 Reid, John 1 Reid, Margaret 1, 2 retail prices index 1 Richards, Steve 1 Richardson, Albert 1 Richardson, Gordon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Roberts, Richard 1, 2 Robertson, Sir Dennis 1 Robinson, Robert 1 Rodger, Bill 1 Rogaly, Joe 1, 2, 3 Rogers, Sir Ivan 1, 2, 3 Rolls-Royce 1, 2 Rothermere, Lord 1 Rowland, Tiny 1 Royal Economic Society 1, 2 RPI (retail price index) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 RPM (retail price maintenance) 1 Rusbridger, Alan 1 ‘sadomonetarism’ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Samuelson, Paul 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas 1 Say, Jean-Baptiste 1 Schlesinger, Helmut 1, 2 Schmidt, Helmut 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Scott Fitzgerald, F. 1 Scott Trust 1 Scottish referendum 1 Scowcroft, Brent 1, 2 SDP (Social Democratic Party) 1 secondary banking crisis 1 The Secondary Banking Crisis 1 Sellers, Peter 1 Selsdon Man approach 1, 2 Sen, Amartya 1, 2 Sergeant, Patrick 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Shanks, Michael 1, 2 Sharpe, Graham 1, 2 Short, Clare 1 A Short Walk Down Fleet Street 1 Simon, William 1, 2 Simons, David 1 single currency 1, 2, 3, 4 single market 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Sissons, Michael 1 Six Days in September 1, 2 Smith, John 1, 2, 3, 4 Snowden, Philip 1, 2 Social Chapter 1, 2 Socialist Commentary 1 Soros, George 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 The Spectator 1, 2 The Spectre of Capitalism 1, 2 The Stagnant Society 1, 2 Stalin, Joseph 1 Star Chamber 1, 2 Stephens, Philip 1 Stephenson, Hugh 1 Stiglitz, Joseph 1 Stonefrost, Hilary 1 Stowe, Ken 1 Strand Group 1 Strauss-Kahn, Dominique 1, 2, 3, 4 sub-prime crisis (US) 1 Suez Crisis (1956) 1 Sun 1 Sunday Telegraph 1, 2 Sunday Times 1, 2, 3 Thatcher, Margaret 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 ERM entry 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Euroscepticism 1, 2, 3 Falklands War 1, 2, 3 ‘household economics’ 1 monetarism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 relationship with Howe 1, 2, 3, 4 relationship with Lawson 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 single market 1, 2 Thorneycroft, Peter 1, 2, 3 Thornton, Michael 1 three-day week 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ‘threshold agreement’ 1 Thucydides 1 The Times 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Timmins, Nicholas 1 Today programme 1 Toynbee, Polly 1 Transport and General Workers’ Union 1 Trelford, Donald 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Truman, Harry S. 1 Trump, Donald 1, 2, 3 TUC (Trades Union Congress) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Tucker, Sir Paul 1 UKIP 1, 2, 3 Unelected Power 1 Upper Clyde Shipbuilders 1 ‘U-turns’ 1 VAT 1, 2 Vicky (Victor Weisz) 1 Vietnam War 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 The View from No. 11 1 Volcker, Paul 1, 2 Walker, Peter 1, 2 Wall, Sir Stephen 1, 2, 3 Walters, Sir Alan 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Wapshott, Nicholas 1 Wass, Sir Douglas 1, 2, 3 Watkins, Alan 1, 2, 3, 4 Webb, Sidney 1 The Weekly Wail 1 Westland affair 1 Whelan, Charlie 1 White, Bill 1 Whittam Smith, Andreas 1, 2 Whittome, Alan 1 Who Runs the Economy? Control and Influence in Economic Policy 1, 2 Wilding, Peter 1 Williams, Glanville 1 Wilson, Harold 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 devaluation crisis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 EEC entry 1, 2 unions 1, 2, 3 Vietnam War 1, 2, 3 Winter of Discontent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Wolf, Martin 1, 2, 3 World Bank 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Wren-Lewis, Simon 1 Yeo, Ed 1, 2, 3 Yom Kippur War 1 Young, Hugo 1, 2 Zinoviev, Grigory 1 ALSO BY WILLIAM KEEGAN FICTION Consulting Father Wintergreen A Real Killing NON-FICTION Who Runs the Economy? (with Rupert Pennant-Rea) Mrs Thatcher’s Economic Experiment Britain Without Oil Mr Lawson’s Gamble The Spectre of Capitalism 2066 and All That The Prudence of Mr Gordon Brown Saving the World? Gordon Brown Reconsidered Mr Osborne’s Economic Experiment Six Days in September (with David Marsh and Richard Roberts) COPYRIGHT First published in Great Britain in 2019 by Biteback Publishing Ltd Westminster Tower 3 Albert Embankment London SE1 7SP Copyright © William Keegan 2019 William Keegan has asserted his right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 to be identified as the author of this work.


pages: 309 words: 84,038

Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War

In effect, FoE became the lead British organization lobbying for cycling infrastructure. Because it had allied itself with an environmental organization, the bicycle industry believed it was well placed during the OPEC oil crisis, which started in October 1973. The crisis was caused by an embargo issued by the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries protesting against the West’s support of Israel in the Yom Kippur war. The price of oil skyrocketed and motorists were asked to economize in their use of fuel. Instead, and predictably, long lines formed at filling stations. In November, British motorists were issued ration books. In February 1974, the chairman of the Transport 2000 campaign group argued that “if the energy crisis means anything it means a complete change in transport priorities, with less emphasis on private motoring.”

., 123–129 Washington Area Bicyclist Association (WABA), 127–128, 229–231 Watergate, 122–123 ways, defined, 16–17 Weiss, Eben “Bikesnob,” 159 Wentworth, Marchant “Lucky,” 124, 126 Western Avenue (England), 34–38, 40, 50, 199–200 Westfield bicycles, 52 White, Paul Dudley, 55–58, 55, 64, 135, xv White Bicycle Plan, 194–195 Wiggins, Bradley, 227 Wijkgroep de Pijp, 198 Wilkinson, Bill, 129, 135–136 Williams, Howard, 25 Williams, John, 152 Wilson, S. S., 113–114 Wittenberg, Jan, 192 Woodbury, Norman, 70 World War I, 24, 50, 185–186 World War II, 51–53, 61, 188–190 Yom Kippur War, 94 York-to-Malton bypass, 38–40 Young, George, 102–104 Island Press | Board of Directors Pamela B. Murphy (Chair) Terry Gamble Boyer (Vice-Chair) Author Deborah Wiley (Secretary) Chair Wiley Foundation, Inc. Tony Everett (Treasurer) Decker Anstrom Board of Directors Discovery Communications Paula A. Daniels Cofounder Center for Good Food Purchasing Melissa Shackleton Dann Managing Director Endurance Consulting Katie Dolan Environmental Writer Margot Ernst Alison Greenberg Executive Director Georgetown Heritage Lisa A.


pages: 394 words: 85,734

The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason

active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Oil producers suddenly found that their black gold, when denominated in yellow gold, was worth a fraction of what it used to be. Members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which regulated the price of oil through agreed cutbacks on aggregate oil output, were soon clamouring for coordinated action (i.e. reductions in production) to boost the black liquid’s gold value. At the time of Nixon’s announcement, the price of oil was less than $3 per barrel. In 1973, with the Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbours apace, the price jumped to between $8 and $9, thereafter hovering in the $12 to $15 range until 1979. In 1979 a new upward surge began that saw oil trade above $30 well into the 1980s. And it was not just the price of oil that scaled unprecedented heights. All primary commodities shot up in price simultaneously: bauxite (165 per cent), lead (170 per cent), tin (220 per cent) and silver (1065 per cent) are just a few examples.

., 165; attitude towards Britain, 69; and bank regulation, 10; New Deal, 45, 58–9 Roosevelt, Theodore (‘Teddy’), 180 Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), 6, 151, 156; takeover of ABN-Amro, 119–20 Rudd, Kevin, 212 Russia, financial crisis, 190 Saudi Arabia, oil prices, 98 Scandinavia, Gold Standard, 44 Scholes, Myron, 13 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 19 Schuman, Robert, 75 Schumpter, Joseph, 34 Second World War, 45, 55–6; aftermath, 87–8; effect on the US, 57–8 seeds, commodification of, 163 shares, in privatized companies, 137, 138 silver, prices, 96 simulated markets, 170 simulated prices, 170 Singapore, 91 single currencies, ICU, 60–1 slave trade, 28 SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises), 186 social welfare, 12 solidarity (asabiyyah), 33–4 South East Asia, 91; financial crisis, 190, 191–5, 213; industrialization, 86, 87 South Korea see Korea sovereign debt crisis, 205 Soviet Union: Africa, 79; disintegration, 201; Marshall Plan, 72–3; Marxism, 181, 182; relations with the US, 71 SPV (Special Purpose Vehicle), 174 see also EFSF stagflation, 97 stagnation, 37 Stalin, Joseph, 72–3 steel production, in Germany, 70 Strauss-Kahn, Dominique, 60, 254, 255 Summers, Larry, 230 strikes, 40 sub-prime mortgages, 2, 5, 6, 130–1, 147, 149, 151, 166 success, paradox of, 33–5, 53 Suez Canal trauma, 69 Suharto, President of Indonesia, 97 Summers, Larry, 3, 132, 170, 173, 180 see also Geithner–Summers Plan supply and demand, 11 surpluses: under capitalism, 31–2; currency unions, 61; under feudalism, 30; generation in the EU, 196; manufacturing, 30; origin of, 26–7; privatization of, 29; recycling mechanisms, 64–5, 109–10 Sweden, Crash of 2008, 155 Sweezy, Paul, 73 Switzerland: Crash of 2008, 155; UBS, 148–9, 151 systemic failure, Crash of 2008, 17–19 Taiwan, 191, 192 Tea Party (US), 162, 230, 231, 281 technology, and globalization, 28 Thailand, 91 Thatcher, Margaret, 117–18, 136–7 Third World: Crash of 2008, 162; debt crisis, 108, 219; interest rate rises, 108; mineral wealth, 106; production of goods for Walmart, 125 tiger economies, 87 see also South East Asia Tillman Act (1907), 180 time, and economic models, 139–40 Time Warner, 117 tin, prices, 96 toxic theory, 13–17, 115, 133–9, 139–42 trade: balance of, 61, 62, 64–5; deficits (US), 111, 243; global, 27, 90; surpluses, 158 trades unions, 124, 137, 202 transfer unions, New Deal, 65 Treasury Bills (US), 7 Treaty of Rome, 237 Treaty of Versailles, 237 Treaty of Westphalia, 237 trickle-down, 115, 135 trickle-up, 135 Truman Doctrine, 71, 71–2, 77 Truman, Harry, 73 tsunami, effects of, 194 UBS, 148–9, 151 Ukraine, and the Crash of 2008, 156 UN Security Council, 253 unemployment: Britain, 160; Global Plan, 96–7; rate of, 14; US, 152, 158, 164 United States see US Unocal, 106 US economy, twin deficits, 22–3, 25 US government, and South East Asia, 192 US Mortgage Bankers Association, 161 US Supreme Court, 180 US Treasury, 153–4, 156, 157, 159; aftermath of the Crash of 2008, 160; Geithner–Summers Plan, 171–2, 173; bonds, 227 US Treasury Bills, 109 US (United States): aftermath of the Crash of 2008, 161–2; assets owned by foreign state institutions, 216; attitude towards oil price rises, 97–8; China, 213–14; corporate bond purchases, 228; as a creditor nation, 57; domestic policies during the Global Plan, 82–5; economy at present, 184; economy praised, 113–14; effects of the Crash of 2008, 2, 183; foreign-owned assets, 225; Greek Civil War, 71; labour costs, 105; Plaza Accord, 188; profit rates, 106; proposed invasion of Afghanistan, 106–7; role in the ECSC, 75; South East Asia, 192 value, costing, 50–1 VAT, reduced, 156 Venezuela, oil prices, 97 Vietnamese War, 86, 91–2 vital spaces, 192, 195, 196 Volcker, Paul: 2009 address to Wall Street, 122; demand for dollars, 102; and gold convertibility, 94; interest rate rises, 99; replaced by Greenspan, 10; warning of the Crash of 2008, 144–5; on the world economy, 22, 100–1, 139 Volcker Rule, 180–1 Wachowski, Larry and Andy, 50 wage share, 34–5 wages: British workers, 137; Japanese workers, 185; productivity, 104; prophecy paradox, 48; US workers, 124, 161 Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price (documentary, Greenwald), 125–6 Wall Street: Anglo-Celtic model, 12; Crash of 2008, 11–12, 152; current importance, 251; Geithner–Summers Plan, 178; global profits, 23; misplaced confidence in, 41; private money, 136; profiting from sub-prime mortgages, 131; takeovers and mergers, 115–17, 115, 118–19; toxic theory, 15 Wallace, Harry, 72–3 Walmart, 115, 123–7, 126; current importance, 251 War of the Currents, 39 Washington Mutual, 153 weapons of mass destruction, 27 West Germany: labour costs, 105; Plaza Accord, 188 Westinghouse, George, 39 White, Harry Dexter, 59, 70, 109 Wikileaks, 212 wool, as a global commodity, 28 working class: in Britain, 136; development of, 28 working conditions, at Walmart, 124–5 World Bank, 253; origins, 59; recession prediction, 149; and South East Asia, 192 World Trade Organization, 78, 215 written word, 27 yen, value against dollar, 96, 188, 193–4 Yom Kippur War, 96 zombie banks, 190–1


pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The commodity price surge at the beginning of the 1970s came about partly because the US over-stimulated demand in a bid to fund the Vietnam War. The collapse of the Bretton Woods exchange-rate system, and the volatility that followed, reflected the willingness to tolerate inflation as the ‘acceptable’ cost of delivering a low rate of unemployment. The quadrupling of oil prices at the end of 1973, as a consequence of the Arab oil embargo (itself a reaction to the Yom Kippur War), was only possible because the inflation genie was already out of the bottle. As inflation – and expectations of inflation – picked up, so industrial relations deteriorated, creating a legacy of strikes, huge wage and price increases and the beginnings of so-called ‘stagflation’, whereby inflation went up but economic growth and employment came down. Meanwhile, those on fixed monetary incomes – most obviously, pensioners – were often robbed of their savings through ever-bigger price increases.

(i) Wills Moody, Helen (i) Wimbledon (i), (ii), (iii) Winder, Robert (i) wine (i), (ii), (iii) WIR see World Investment Report Wolf, Martin (i) women’s vote (i) wool industry (i), (ii) workers see also labour nationalism (i) running out of workers (i) command over limited resources (i) demographic dividends and deficits (i) demographic dynamics (i) infant mortality (i) Japan: an early lesson in ageing (i) not the time to close the borders (i) pensions and healthcare (i) a renewed look at migration (i) scarcity (i) working-age population (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) World Bank (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) WorldCom (i) World Development Indicators (i) World Economic Forum (i), (ii) World Economic Outlook (i) World Financial Center, Shanghai (i) World Investment Report (WIR) (i) World Trade Organization (WTO) (i), (ii), (iii) Wright Brothers (i) The Writing on the Wall (Hutton) (i), (ii) WTO see World Trade Organization Wu, Ximing (i), (ii) xenophobia (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Y2K threat (i) yen (i), (ii), (iii) Yom Kippur War (i) Yugoslavia (i) Yu Zhu (i) Zaidi, S. (i) Zheng He (i)


pages: 335 words: 82,528

A Theory of the Drone by Gregoire Chamayou

drone strike, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, moral hazard, Necker cube, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, private military company, RAND corporation, telepresence, Yom Kippur War

With RPVs, survival is not the driving factor.”5 Once the war was over, those machines were scrapped.6 By the late 1970s, the development of military drones had been practically abandoned in the United States. However, it continued elsewhere. Israel, which had inherited a few of these machines, recognized their potential tactical advantages. In 1973, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), facing off against Egypt, ran up against the tactical problem of surface-to-air missiles. After losing around thirty planes in the first hours of the Yom Kippur War, Israeli aviation changed its tactics. They decided to send out a wave of drones in order to mislead enemy defenses: “After the Egyptians fired their initial salvo at the drones, the manned strikes were able to attack while the Egyptians were reloading.”7 This ruse enabled Israel to assume mastery of the skies. In 1982, similar tactics were employed against the Syrians in the Bekaa Valley. Having first deployed their fleet of Mastiff and Scout drones, the Israelis then sent out decoy planes that were picked up by enemy radar.

See also courage verticality, politics of, 53–54, 66–67 victims, 118 killers and, 115–18 soldiers and, 103–5, 115–16 soldiers as, 103–5 video analysts, 2 video feeds, 138 interception of, 75–76 video games, comparison to drone operations, 107–8 video images, automatized analysis of, 235–36n24 video of strikes’ effects, 117 video retransmission, 272n23 video surveillance cameras, 44, 204 Vietnam War, 27, 32, 128, 186, 191–92, 200–202, 223, 232–33n5 Villa, Pancho, 33 violence, 17 armed, 52, 67, 166 colonial, 94–95 derealization of, 148 humilitarian, 139 long-distance, 254–55n12 mechanism of, 15 postcolonial violence, 94–95 reciprocity and, 196 state, 31–32 state of, 91 See also combat; killing; warfare Virilio, Paul, 247n2 virtue, 97, 98, 100–101, 140 killing as, 121 See also specific virtues Voltaire, 92, 158 vulnerability, 12–13, 73–79, 103, 154, 261n15 ontological, 183–84 psychic, 103–5, 106–13 removal of, 22 unequal distribution of, 127 vulnerabilization, political, 184 Wall, Tyler, 235n21 Walzer, Michael, 133, 138, 153–57, 165, 197–98, 199, 269–70n10 war law and, 158–66 right of, 181 See also warfare “warbots,” 212 war crimes, 170–71 committed by robots, 210–12 legalism of atrocities, 216–17 “war-ego,” 112, 120, 246n20 warfare, 33, 91, 163, 229–30n5, 254–55n12 aerial, 165–66 asymmetrical, 13, 24, 33, 61–62, 75, 91–95, 127, 162–63, 264–66n17 capitalization of, 191–92 class relations and, 187, 191–93 decriminalization of killing and, 160 delegation of, 187–88 at a distance, 115–18, 138–39, 153–56, 223–27 double standard of, 259n28 effect of drones on, 15–16 emotional involvement and, 254–55n12 exercised from a peaceful zone, 119–20 externalization of risk and, 188–89 industrialization of, 191 internalization of costs of, 186 “just warfare,” 129–30, 133, 137–38, 153–55, 160, 164, 165 legal theory of, 163 perpetual, 71 philosophy of, 158–66 political economy of, 188–89 post-heroic, 100 reciprocity and, 161–62 reduction of costs of, 188–89 remote, 17, 192, 230n6 risks of, 188–89 sovereigns and, 263n4 state–subject relations and, 177–84 unilateral, 13, 24, 162–65 verticality, 166 virtueless, 98, 101 without combat, 158–66 without risk, 17, 129–30, 153–55, 157, 163, 188–89 without sacrifice, 181 See also combat; law of armed conflict; military ethics; military ethos; war warfare state, 193–94 war machines, as instruments of representation, 247n2 war neuroses, 111–12 See also psychopathologies “war without risks,” 153–54, 157, 163, 188–89 Wazir, Sadaullah, 148–49 Waziristan, Pakistan, 44, 70–71 weaponry, 144 as agents of violence, 206 critical analysis of, 15–16 design of, 212 as essence of combatants, 195–204 as ethical, 189 form vs. function of, 140–41 fusion with combatants, 210 humanitarian, 135–39, 146, 148, 189–90 licit vs. illicit, 158 nonlethal, 203 as objects, 210 physical distance and, 254–55n12 psychic diagram of, 115–16 status of, 210 theory of repugnance generated by killing and, 115–16 See also specific kinds of weaponry Weil, Simone, 15, 124 Weizman, Eyal, 32, 53–54, 139, 190, 238n11, 273n26 welfare state, 193–94 Williams, Alison, 54 Wired for War (Singer), 214–15 Wired magazine, 76, 103 witchcraft, 114–15 Wolfowitz, Paul, 53 World War I, 27, 63, 111 World War II, 140–41, 205 “wound radius,” 142 X-47A combat drone, 217 Yaari, Menahem, 133–34 Yadlin, Amos, 133, 137, 138–39 “Military Ethics of Fighting Terror,” 131–32 Yemen, 13, 58–59, 144, 171, 239n27 Yenne, Bill, 29 Yom Kippur War, 27–28, 233n6 Younge, Samuel, 202 zero casualty warfare, 76, 155, 184, 192, 194 zero risk, 154–55 zonage, principle of, 232n5 zoopolitical conception of, 268–69n14 Zoroaster, 73 Zworykin, Vladimir, 85–86 Grégoire Chamayou is a research scholar in philosophy at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. The author of Manhunts: A Philosophical History, he lives in Paris. Janet Lloyd has translated more than seventy books from the French by authors such as Jean-Pierre Vernant, Marcel Detienne, and Philippe Descola.


Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America by Matt Taibbi

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

So we’re in this bad spot anyway, in the middle of a long period of decline, when on October 6 Egypt and Syria launch an attack on the territories Israel had captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. The attack takes place on the Yom Kippur holiday and the war would become known as the Yom Kippur War. Six days later, on October 12, Nixon institutes Operation Nickel Grass, a series of airlifts of weapons and other supplies into Israel. This naturally pisses off the Arab nations, which retort with the start of the oil embargo on October 17. Oil prices skyrocketed, and without making a judgment about who was right or wrong in the Yom Kippur War, it’s important to point out that it only took about two months from the start of the embargo for Nixon and Kissinger to go from bluster and escalation to almost-total surrender. On January 18, 1974, Kissinger negotiated an Israeli withdrawal from parts of the Sinai.


pages: 309 words: 92,846

Memoirs of a Jewish Extremist: The Story of a Transformation by Yossi Klein Halevi

1960s counterculture, East Village, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Yom Kippur War

TEL Aviv burning, its beaches crowded with refugees fleeing into the sea, while Israeli planes bomb Arab oil fields and plunge the West into a literal dark age. Justice: If the world couldn’t find room for a sliver of a Jewish state, then the world didn’t deserve to exist. All my fine resolutions about turning inward and discovering my true being struck me now as absurd, self-indulgent. History had overwhelmed individual needs: The Yom Kippur War, I was convinced, had returned us to an era of Jewish destruction. Just as the Holocaust was preceded by years of Nazi propaganda delegitimizing the Jews as human beings, so too was the world now preparing for Israel’s destruction by first rescinding its right to exist. And only the most radical political responses seemed appropriate. I’d made a decision, which I hadn’t yet revealed to Krup: I was ready to join his terrorist group.

We wore the T-shirts to the parade, strolling along Fifth Avenue among the celebratory crowds. As people read our message, their faces turned horrified; some cursed and shouted at us. We were delighted: Nothing cheered us more than upsetting American Jews. KRUP ANNOUNCED HE WAS MOVING TO Israel and joining the army. “There’s nothing left for us to do here, Klein. Finished. It’s time to go.” His decision came as no surprise: We’d been discussing that option ever since the Yom Kippur War. He assumed I would join him. But I told him I wasn’t ready, that I didn’t want to go until I had some notion of what I would do when I got out of the army. In fact, I was thinking of becoming a journalist. My plan was to develop contacts in New York and then try my luck as a freelancer in Jerusalem for American magazines. Being a journalist approximated a new idea I had of myself as a post-Holocaust Jew: one who knew the world’s darkest corners, whom nothing human could shock.


Israel & the Palestinian Territories Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, coronavirus, G4S, game design, illegal immigration, Khartoum Gordon, Louis Pasteur, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Unprepared because of intelligence failures born of post-1967 hubris, Israel was initially forced to withdraw but soon rallied and, with enormous casualties on both sides, pushed the Arab armies back. However, initial Egyptian battlefield successes made it possible for Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to portray the Yom Kippur War as a victory; and although in tactical and strategic terms it was Israel that had won on the battlefield, Israelis never saw the war as a victory. Thoroughly discredited by both the failures of the Yom Kippur War and the Labor Party’s perceived corruption and lassitude, Prime Minister Golda Meir ended her political career in 1974. Three years later, the Labor Party, which had been at the head of every government since 1948, was voted out of office, in part by Mizrahi (Asian and North African) Jews angry at their economic and political marginalisation.

Its fields of basalt boulders – and, on its western edge, deep canyons – are mixed with cattle ranches, orchards, vineyards and small, middle-class communities. The area is a favourite destination for holidaying Israelis. Accommodation – mostly B&Bs – tends to cost more than in the Galilee; prices are highest from June to August and on Jewish holidays. Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria during the 1967 Six Day War, when 90% of the inhabitants fled. In the bitterly fought 1973 Yom Kippur War, Syrian forces briefly took over much of the Golan before being pushed back; a 1974 armistice set the current ceasefire lines. All around the Golan – unilaterally annexed by Israel in 1981 – you’ll see evidence of these conflicts: abandoned Syrian bunkers along the pre-1967 front lines; old tanks, left as memorials, near the battlefields of 1973; and ready-for-action Israeli bunkers facing the disengagement zone, staffed by the blue-helmeted soldiers of the UN Disengagement Observer Force troops (Undof).

The site – at which an 'audio explanation station' describes the battles fought here in 1973 – overlooks the ruined town of Quneitra, one-time Syrian 'capital of the Golan', just 2km away. At the end of the Six Day War, Quneitra, at the time a garrison town defending Damascus (60km to the northeast), was abandoned in chaos by the Syrian army after Syrian government radio mistakenly reported that the town had fallen. It changed hands twice during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, which Israel began with just 177 tanks against the attacking Syrians’ 1500. Inside the UN buffer zone since 1974, Quneitra was captured by Syrian rebel forces in mid-2014. Just beyond the apple orchards and vineyards of Kibbutz Ein Zivan, you can see the only crossing between the Golan and Syria, run by the UN and – until the civil war – used by Golan Druze students and brides heading to Syria to study and/or get married (the subject of the 2004 Israeli film The Syrian Bride) and by Druze-grown Golan apples being trucked to Syria.


pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

These were especially dramatic in the oil-crisis years from 1973 to 1986. The first oil crisis hit the economy from 1972 to 1974, when the oil-producing nations of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) restricted production. The price of crude oil more than doubled, from $3.56 per barrel in 1972 to $10.29 per barrel in 1974.27Ostensibly the OPEC ministers were retaliating for the Arab defeat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. But there is another less well-known explanation for when and why they acted as they did. Prior to 1973 the anachronistically titled Texas Railroad Commission regulated the fraction of time that oil producers in the state of Texas were allowed to pump. By restricting pumping it raised the price of oil and benefited Texas producers. Little notice was taken by the public in late 1972 when the commission raised the quota to 100%, effectively eliminating it altogether.28 But that action meant that from then on OPEC would have free rein.

(Dougherty), 177n1 Wilson, Beth Anne, 183n14 Wilson, William Julius, 162, 196n3, 196n14 Wilson, Woodrow, 64 Wise, David A., 188n3,4, 191n1 Wizard of Oz, The (Baum), 64 Wolk, Carel, 181n7 World War II, xxi, 4, 70, 72, 139, 145 Wurgler, Jeffrey, 191n3, 195n36 Yahata Steel Company, 194n23 Yale University, 109 Yamamoto, Isamu, 183n14 Yellen, Janet, 117, 188n1,2,10,11, 189n16 Yellow Pages, explaining to Muscovites, 26 Yom Kippur War, 141 Young, Roy A., 64, 185n17 Youngman, Anna P., 72, 186n38 Y2K scare, 169 Zandi, Mark, 196n14 Zeckhauser, Richard, 188n3,4 Zenji, 139 Zillman, Dolf, 179n3


pages: 356 words: 97,794

The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

William 43, 61, 75 Galili, Israel 32–3, 64, 96 Gaza Strip xiii, xv, xvi–xvii, xix, xxviii–xxix, 2–3, 6 and Alon 91–2, 93 and Cast Lead 213–14 and citizenship xxvi and colonization 79–80, 98–100 and curfews 182–4 and division 204 and economics 105–6 and Egypt 12 and genocide 219–21, 223–4, 228–9 and Israeli rule xx, xxi, xxv, 46–7, 48–50, 77–8 and Jabaliyya camp 175, 176 and legal system 139–45 and living standards 170, 218–19 and militarization 214–15 and missile strikes 215–16, 225–8 and peace negotiations 1 and refugees 53–4, 115 and resistance 135–6 and Sharon 108–9 and Six-Day War 39, 42 and violence 188 and West Bank 127 Gazit, Shlomo xvi, 128, 138, 187 Geneva Convention xv, xvii, 87, 99, 126, 133, 140 genocide 3, 10, 219–21, 223–4 Givat Ram (Hill of Ram) xi–xiii, xx Givati, Haim 37, 98 Glahn, Gerhard von xvii Gluska, Ami 38 Golan Heights 29, 77 Goldberg, Arthur 41, 61 government 49–52, 54, 68–70 and 1967 policies xx–xxii, xxiii–xxv, xxvii–xxviii, 1–2, 4, 116–28 see also Labour party; Likud Granit Plan xvii Great Britain xiii, xxiii, 10, 12, 17, 70 and Egypt 14 and Jerusalem 83 and Palestinians 107, 109 and refugees 113 and Suez campaign 16 see also British Mandate; 1945 Mandatory regulations Green Line 140–1 guerrilla operations 25–6, 27 Gulf War (1991) 22, 195 Gush Emunim 130, 131–4, 155 Gush Etzion 56, 131 Haaretz (newspaper) 64, 77, 225 Haetzni, Eliakim 73 Hague Convention xvii, 178–9 Halutz, Dan 213 Hamas 177–8, 189, 191–2, 213, 217 and Gaza Strip 222, 224, 226 and retaliation 214, 215–16 Hammarskjöld, Dag 21, 25, 31 Hashemite Kingdom, see Iraq; Jordan Hashud (‘suspect’) 109–10 Hebrew University xi, xii–xiii, xiv, xvi–xvii, 84–5 Hebron 24, 56, 92, 102, 116 and Khalil 130–1, 161 Helms, Richard 34–5, 36 Herzl, Theodor 55 Herzog, Chaim xv–xvi, 77, 113, 121 Hezbollah 207, 213, 217 hijackings 134, 158 Histadrut (trade union) 106, 148 Holocaust, the xxiii, 10, 33, 220 Huberman, Hagai 136 human rights 116, 139, 170, 185–6, 209; see also B’Tselem Hussein of Jordan, King 17, 25, 39–40, 42, 50 al-Husseini, Faisal 86, 195, 245 n. 10 al-Husseini, Haj Amin 10 Inbar, Zvi xv, xix, 139 informers 110 international law xv, 87–8, 100–1, 139, 141, 171 and Alon 92–3 and punishment 178–9 see also Geneva Convention International Red Cross xxiii, 126 Intifadas xxi first (1987) 5, 77, 168, 169–70, 173–9, 192–3 second (2000) 113, 206–8 Iraq 13, 17, 20, 23 Islam xiii, 177, 178 Islamic Jihad 191, 216 Israel xx–xxii, xxiii, xxiv, 2–3, 5–7, 10–11 and Arab states 13–15 and Egypt 134 and expansionism xxv, 11–12, 21–3 and image 70–1, 72–3 and independence day 182–4 and Jordan 20–1 and law xv and Lebanon 158, 159 and occupied territories 46–50 and provocations 24–5, 28–9 and self-defence 30–2 and Syria 18–19, 27–8 and USA 33–6 see also government Israel Defense Forces (IDF) xiii, xiv, xxi, 32–3, 35 and colonization 97 and elite units 185–6 and Eshkol 38 and expulsions 118, 121, 124 and Gaza Strip 223, 224 and Haruv (‘Carob’) 110 and iron fist policy 167 and second Intifada 207 and Six-Day War 43 and terrorism 192 and 2006 attacks 217–18, 220 and weaponry 18 Israeli air force 26, 27–8, 29 Israeli army, see Israel Defence Forces; military rule Israeli Communist party 73 Israeli-Palestinian Federation 73 Italy 71 Jenin 56 Jericho 116, 120–2 Jerusalem 24, 45, 162, 179–80 and Alon 92 and annexation 56–9, 60–1, 62–6 and checkpoints 185 and expropriation 80–8 and Hebraization 74 and land 143, 164 and Six-Day War 40, 41 and wedges 97–8 see also Givat Ram; Old City Jewish Agency 94 Jewish National Fund (JNF) 85, 98, 136 Jewish settlers 1, 7, 80 and Gaza Strip 98–100, 135–6, 215 and Golan Heights 29 and Gush Emunim 130–3 and Jerusalem 56, 81, 83, 84–5 and Jordan Valley 95–6 and violence 161, 187–8, 197 and West Bank 155–7 Jibril, Ahmed 169 Johnson, Lyndon B. 26, 33, 34–5, 60, 74 and Jerusalem 61, 63 Jordan xii, xiii–xiv, xv, xxvi, 197 and Alon 23–4, 90–1, 92 and Hussein 17 and land 95 and Palestinians 51 and PLO 134–5, 167 and refugees 114–15, 118 and River Jordan 48 and Six-Day War 39–41, 42 and West Bank 11, 12–13, 20–1, 50 Jordan Valley 48, 91, 92, 95–6, 153 Judaization 56, 58, 80, 82, 84, 93–4 Judea and Samaria, see West Bank judiciary xix, 4, 189, 190–1 Kadima party 221–2 Kanafani, Ghassan 207–8 Kenan, Amos 119–20 Kenen, Isaiah ‘Si’ 43 Kennedy, John F. 60 Khalaf, Karim 161 al-Khatib, Yusuf 160 kibbutzim movement 95, 119–20, 123, 136 Knesset (parliament) xi, xii, xx, 39, 58, 65 Kol, Moshe 48, 64, 68, 123, 124 Kook, Rabbi Abraham Yitzhak 131 Kook, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda 131–2 labour market 52, 105–6, 146, 147–9, 168–9, 186–7 Labour party 50, 129–31, 132–4, 150–1, 194 Lajnat al-Tawjih 159 land 142–4, 152–3, 162–4 and expropriation 11, 80–8, 94–5 Landau, Eli 109 Latrun 116, 117, 119–20 Lebanon 20, 23, 135, 166, 167 and civil war 158, 159 and 2006 war 217, 220, 225 legal system 139–45, 189–93 Lenczowski, George 59 Liberty, USS 59–60, 65–6 Lieberman, Avigdor 103, 221 Likud 96, 130, 142, 154–6 Ma’arach (‘Alliance’) 130 MacBride, Seán 166 Madrid Conference (1991) 195 al-Majali, Habis 40 Malley, Robert 205 Mapai party, see Labour party Mapam party xx, 53, 122–3 marketing 47, 65, 66–7, 68–71 maximum security prison xxviii, xxix, 5, 6, 92–3, 138 media, the xxiii, xxix, 22, 64, 70, 186 and Dayan 71–2 and dual language 113 mega-prison xix, xx, xxvii–xxviii, xxx, 4–6, 7, 79–80 Meir, Golda 96, 129–30, 133–4 Merkaz Harav institute 131–2 military rule xiii, xiv, xvi, xvii–xix, xxvi, 18 and the law 100–1, 140–2 and Sharon 160 Milson, Menachem 160, 161 missile strikes 214, 215–16, 222, 225–8 Mitchell, George J. 208 Mizrahi Jews 154, 155 Moledet party 42 Mollet, Guy 16 Mordechai, Yitzhak 157 Mossad 34, 35, 190–1 Mount Scopus (Jerusalem) xii, 22 Munich massacre 110, 135 Muslim Brotherhood 177 Nablus 24, 56, 92, 132 Narkiss, Uzi xvi, 41, 77, 149 Nasser, Gamal Abdel xiii, 13, 14, 15, 23, 28, 44 and Sinai Peninsula 25, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 Nathan, Abie 73 NATO 19 Nazi Germany xviii, 10 Negev 14–15, 213–14 Netanyahu, Benjamin 146, 196, 199–200, 211 9/11 attacks 178 1945 Mandatory regulations xiv, xv, xviii–xix 1967 war, see Six-Day War 1973 war, see Yom Kippur War Nitzan, Yehuda 138 Nixon, Richard 74 nuclear weapons 19 Nusseibeh, Sari 76 Obama, Barack 210 occupation xvii–xviii, 2–3, 104–6 Occupation of Enemy Territory: a Commentary on the Law and Practice of Belligerent Occupation, The (von Glahn) xvii Occupied Territories, see Gaza Strip; Golan Heights; Sinai Peninsula; West Bank Old City 112–14 Olmert, Ehud 165, 197, 218 open-air prison xxviii, xxix, 5, 6, 7 and Alon 92, 101–2 and CDG 138 and economics 146–50 and marketing 47 and working rights 167–9 operations: Cast Lead (2008–9) 71, 213–14 First Rain (2005) 214–16 Moked (1965) 26, 41 Pillar of Defense (2012) 227 Protective Edge (2014) 228 Returning Echo (2012) 227 Rotem (1960) 24, 25 Yevusi (1948) xiii Oslo Accord xxi, 83, 192–3, 194, 195–197 and failure 198–201 and land 164 and refugees 202–4 Ottoman law 95 Palestine xi–xii, xiii, xxii, xxiii–xxv and imprisonment xxvii–xxviii and military rule xvii–xviii and 1966 raids 26–7 and occupation 45–6 and partition 197–9 and Syria 25–6 and UN 10 and withdrawal 73–5 see also Gaza Strip; West Bank Palestine Authority (PA) 7, 209, 210 Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) 145 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) xxvi, 5, 76, 134–5, 157–8 and assassinations 110 and assistance 145 and de-terrorization 192 and Intifada 174–5 and Lebanon 166, 167 and Oslo Accord 194–5 and Sharon 159, 161 see also Arafat, Yasser Palestinians 1, 7 and annexation 50–3 and citzenship 102 and containment 121–2 and deportations 170–1 and detention 189–90 and downsizing 118–19 and freedom of movement 179–82, 209 and Jerusalem 56–7, 82–8, 98 and labour 105–6 and 1948 expulsion 9–11 and 1967 expulsion 71 and punishment 109–10 and resettlement 54–5, 221–2 and resistance 76–7, 92–3, 103, 106–7, 134–6 and rewards 145–6 and right to return 200–3 and sects 107–8 see also Intifadas; refugees pan-Arabism 13, 14, 17 Panopticon xxvii, xxviii Patenkin, Don 79 Paul VI, Pope 66 peace process xxviii–xxix, 5–6, 53, 195 and dual language 49 and Egypt 14–15 and marketing 68, 69 and 1970s 110–11, 151–2 and Obama 210–1 and partition 197–8 and refugees 201–3 and USA 62–3 see also Camp David Summit; Oslo Accord Peres, Shimon 129, 133, 144, 194 Plan Dalet (1948) 9–10 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 80–1, 169 Porath, Elisha 152–3 prisons xxvi, xxvii–xxix, 4 propaganda 33, 53 protests xviii–xix, 190 punishment 26–7, 106–7, 108–10, 182–4, 186–7 Al-Qaeda 217 Qalqilya 116–17, 118–19 Rabin, Yitzhak 29–30, 32, 37, 96, 98, 117 and assassination 155, 200 and Intifadas 169–70, 175 and legal system 188, 190 and Oslo Accord 194 and Six-Day War 41, 42 refugees 6, 15, 66–8, 76, 92, 113 and Gaza Strip 45, 53–5, 99 and Jordan 114–15, 118 and peace process 201–3 repatriation 118, 121, 123–4, 125 Riad, Gen Abd al-Munim 40 Right to Return 200–3 River Jordan 25, 28, 48, 90 and bridges 126, 146, 209 Rogers, William 110 Rokach, Livia 16 Rostow, Walt 72 Rusk, Dean 65 Sabra and Shatila massacre 164, 166 Sadat, Anwar 69, 154 Sadiq, Abdel-Rahman 14 Said, Hussein Ghassan 166 Samu 27 Sapir, Pinchas 37, 52, 55, 105–6, 119, 146–7 Sasson, Eliyahu 35, 48, 51, 67, 68 Schiff, Ze’ev 109, 169 secret service, see Mossad secularism xxi Seven Stars programme 103 Shabak (General Security Services) xviii, 75, 110 Shacham, Mishael xiv, xv, xvi, xviii Shacham Plan xiv–xvii, 139 Shalit, Gilad 222 Shamgar, Col Meir 139–40 Shapira, Haim Moshe 58, 123, 124 Shapira, Yaacov Shimshon 36, 71, 100–1, 115, 123 Shaq’a, Bassam 161 Sharett, Moshe 12, 13–15 Sharon, Ariel xiv, 49, 91, 142, 158–60, 221–2 and colonization 161, 162–5 and Gaza Strip 98, 99, 135, 136, 215 and PLO 166–7 and punishment 108–9 and Temple Mount tour 206, 208 and Wadi Ara 103 Shefi, Maj Dov 139 Shehadeh, Aziz 76 Shehadeh, Raja 76–7 Sheikh al-Badr xi–xii Shelah, Ofer 206–7 Shoham, David xvi Siboni, Col Gabi 225 Silwan 114 Simon, Ernest 19 Sinai Peninsula xiii, 16 and Egypt 24, 25, 29–30, 31, 32, 33, 36 Six-Day War xii, xvi–xvii, 39–44, 77 Southern Lebanese Army (SLA) 158 Soviet Union (USSR) 14, 23, 33, 34, 43 and borders 65, 68 and peace process 151–2 and Syria 26, 28 Straits of Tiran 23, 29, 30, 36 Suez campaign (1956) 16–17 Sufian, Fatmah Hassan Tabashe 183–4 suicide bombs xxx, 83, 189, 192, 206 Supreme Court of Israel xx, 141–2, 163 Susser, Leslie 81 Syria 17, 18–19, 20, 23, 44 and Israel 24, 25–6, 27–8, 29 and peace process 53, 62 Tafakji, Khalil 81, 82 Tal, Israel 42 taxation 82, 140, 156, 190 Tekoah, Yosef 126 terrorism 83, 109, 134, 135, 192, 224; see also suicide bombs U Thant 25, 31, 43 torture 142, 186 trade 105, 106, 146, 150 trade unions, see Histadrut Tripartite Declaration (1950) 17 Tul Karem 116, 117, 118–19 ultra-Orthodox Jews 155–6 UN Special Commission on Palestine (UNSCOP) 197 Unified National Leadership 174–5 United Nations (UN) xxiii, xxv, 2, 10, 210 and first Intifada 174, 176 and Gaza Strip 228 and human rights 116 and May Protocol (1949) 201 and peace process 68, 70 and refugees 76 and 2012 resolution 126 and UNIFIL 158 and withdrawal 75 see also Hammarskjöld, Dag; U Thant United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 51, 53–4, 67–8, 114 United States of America (USA) xxviii, 21, 23 and aid 26, 105 and arms 72, 130 and Egypt 14, 15 and expulsions 71 and Hamas 191 and Intifadas 176 and Israel 17, 18, 19–20, 33–6 and Jerusalem 59, 60–3, 88 and Jewish community 37 and Liberty, USS 65–6 and peace process 5, 68, 151–2, 195 and Six-Day War 41, 42–3 and withdrawal 74–5 USSR, see Soviet Union Vardi, Col Rehavia 138 Vatican, the 66 Village Leagues 160–1 voluntary transfer 54, 56–7, 121 Wadi Ara 102–3 war crimes 87, 92 War on Terror 62, 178 water 54–5, 187 weaponry 18, 19, 26, 72, 130 wedges 95–100, 185 Weitz, Raanan 94 Weitz, Yosef 94, 127 Weizman, Eyal 83 Weizman, Ezer 158–9 West Bank xiii, xiv–xvii, xix, 2–3, 208–12, 221 and Alon 90–2, 93, 96–7, 102 and Ben-Gurion 21–2 and citizenship xxvi and colonization 79–80 and division 55–6, 204 and economics 146–50 and Gaza Strip 127 and imprisonment xxviii–xxix and Israeli rule xx, xxi, xxv, 46–7, 48–50, 77–8 and Jewish settlers 130–4, 155–7 and Jordan 11, 12–13, 20–1, 24 and legal system 139–45 and living standards 170 and Olmert 218 and open-air prison 6 and peace negotiations 1 and Six-Day War 39–40, 41, 42 and Suez campaign 16–17 and violence 188 see also Jerusalem Wilson, Harold 70 Wolfe, Patrick 3 women 193 Yaacobi, Gad 167 Yaalon, Moshe ‘Bogie’ 227 Ya’ari, Ehud 169 Yariv, Aharon 37 Yassin, Sheikh Ahmed 177, 189, 191 Yemenite Jews 113–14 Yeshayahu, Israel 113–14, 123 Yom Kippur War (1973) 144, 151 Ze’evi, Rehavam 42, 80–1 Zionists xviii, xxiii, 9–10, 55, 89, 197 and anti-occupation 171–2 and ideologies xx–xxii, 4 and withdrawal 74 Zohar, Uri 73 Zur, Zvi 137 A Oneworld book First published in North America, Great Britain and Australia by Oneworld Publications, 2017 This ebook edition published 2017 Copyright © Ilan Pappe, 2017 The moral right of Ilan Pappe to be identified as the Author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved Copyright under Berne Convention A CIP record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-85168-587-5 eISBN 978-1-78074-433-9 Typeset by Hewer Text UK Ltd, Edinburgh Oneworld Publications 10 Bloomsbury Street London WC1B 3SR England

William 43, 61, 75 Galili, Israel 32–3, 64, 96 Gaza Strip xiii, xv, xvi–xvii, xix, xxviii–xxix, 2–3, 6 and Alon 91–2, 93 and Cast Lead 213–14 and citizenship xxvi and colonization 79–80, 98–100 and curfews 182–4 and division 204 and economics 105–6 and Egypt 12 and genocide 219–21, 223–4, 228–9 and Israeli rule xx, xxi, xxv, 46–7, 48–50, 77–8 and Jabaliyya camp 175, 176 and legal system 139–45 and living standards 170, 218–19 and militarization 214–15 and missile strikes 215–16, 225–8 and peace negotiations 1 and refugees 53–4, 115 and resistance 135–6 and Sharon 108–9 and Six-Day War 39, 42 and violence 188 and West Bank 127 Gazit, Shlomo xvi, 128, 138, 187 Geneva Convention xv, xvii, 87, 99, 126, 133, 140 genocide 3, 10, 219–21, 223–4 Givat Ram (Hill of Ram) xi–xiii, xx Givati, Haim 37, 98 Glahn, Gerhard von xvii Gluska, Ami 38 Golan Heights 29, 77 Goldberg, Arthur 41, 61 government 49–52, 54, 68–70 and 1967 policies xx–xxii, xxiii–xxv, xxvii–xxviii, 1–2, 4, 116–28 see also Labour party; Likud Granit Plan xvii Great Britain xiii, xxiii, 10, 12, 17, 70 and Egypt 14 and Jerusalem 83 and Palestinians 107, 109 and refugees 113 and Suez campaign 16 see also British Mandate; 1945 Mandatory regulations Green Line 140–1 guerrilla operations 25–6, 27 Gulf War (1991) 22, 195 Gush Emunim 130, 131–4, 155 Gush Etzion 56, 131 Haaretz (newspaper) 64, 77, 225 Haetzni, Eliakim 73 Hague Convention xvii, 178–9 Halutz, Dan 213 Hamas 177–8, 189, 191–2, 213, 217 and Gaza Strip 222, 224, 226 and retaliation 214, 215–16 Hammarskjöld, Dag 21, 25, 31 Hashemite Kingdom, see Iraq; Jordan Hashud (‘suspect’) 109–10 Hebrew University xi, xii–xiii, xiv, xvi–xvii, 84–5 Hebron 24, 56, 92, 102, 116 and Khalil 130–1, 161 Helms, Richard 34–5, 36 Herzl, Theodor 55 Herzog, Chaim xv–xvi, 77, 113, 121 Hezbollah 207, 213, 217 hijackings 134, 158 Histadrut (trade union) 106, 148 Holocaust, the xxiii, 10, 33, 220 Huberman, Hagai 136 human rights 116, 139, 170, 185–6, 209; see also B’Tselem Hussein of Jordan, King 17, 25, 39–40, 42, 50 al-Husseini, Faisal 86, 195, 245 n. 10 al-Husseini, Haj Amin 10 Inbar, Zvi xv, xix, 139 informers 110 international law xv, 87–8, 100–1, 139, 141, 171 and Alon 92–3 and punishment 178–9 see also Geneva Convention International Red Cross xxiii, 126 Intifadas xxi first (1987) 5, 77, 168, 169–70, 173–9, 192–3 second (2000) 113, 206–8 Iraq 13, 17, 20, 23 Islam xiii, 177, 178 Islamic Jihad 191, 216 Israel xx–xxii, xxiii, xxiv, 2–3, 5–7, 10–11 and Arab states 13–15 and Egypt 134 and expansionism xxv, 11–12, 21–3 and image 70–1, 72–3 and independence day 182–4 and Jordan 20–1 and law xv and Lebanon 158, 159 and occupied territories 46–50 and provocations 24–5, 28–9 and self-defence 30–2 and Syria 18–19, 27–8 and USA 33–6 see also government Israel Defense Forces (IDF) xiii, xiv, xxi, 32–3, 35 and colonization 97 and elite units 185–6 and Eshkol 38 and expulsions 118, 121, 124 and Gaza Strip 223, 224 and Haruv (‘Carob’) 110 and iron fist policy 167 and second Intifada 207 and Six-Day War 43 and terrorism 192 and 2006 attacks 217–18, 220 and weaponry 18 Israeli air force 26, 27–8, 29 Israeli army, see Israel Defence Forces; military rule Israeli Communist party 73 Israeli-Palestinian Federation 73 Italy 71 Jenin 56 Jericho 116, 120–2 Jerusalem 24, 45, 162, 179–80 and Alon 92 and annexation 56–9, 60–1, 62–6 and checkpoints 185 and expropriation 80–8 and Hebraization 74 and land 143, 164 and Six-Day War 40, 41 and wedges 97–8 see also Givat Ram; Old City Jewish Agency 94 Jewish National Fund (JNF) 85, 98, 136 Jewish settlers 1, 7, 80 and Gaza Strip 98–100, 135–6, 215 and Golan Heights 29 and Gush Emunim 130–3 and Jerusalem 56, 81, 83, 84–5 and Jordan Valley 95–6 and violence 161, 187–8, 197 and West Bank 155–7 Jibril, Ahmed 169 Johnson, Lyndon B. 26, 33, 34–5, 60, 74 and Jerusalem 61, 63 Jordan xii, xiii–xiv, xv, xxvi, 197 and Alon 23–4, 90–1, 92 and Hussein 17 and land 95 and Palestinians 51 and PLO 134–5, 167 and refugees 114–15, 118 and River Jordan 48 and Six-Day War 39–41, 42 and West Bank 11, 12–13, 20–1, 50 Jordan Valley 48, 91, 92, 95–6, 153 Judaization 56, 58, 80, 82, 84, 93–4 Judea and Samaria, see West Bank judiciary xix, 4, 189, 190–1 Kadima party 221–2 Kanafani, Ghassan 207–8 Kenan, Amos 119–20 Kenen, Isaiah ‘Si’ 43 Kennedy, John F. 60 Khalaf, Karim 161 al-Khatib, Yusuf 160 kibbutzim movement 95, 119–20, 123, 136 Knesset (parliament) xi, xii, xx, 39, 58, 65 Kol, Moshe 48, 64, 68, 123, 124 Kook, Rabbi Abraham Yitzhak 131 Kook, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda 131–2 labour market 52, 105–6, 146, 147–9, 168–9, 186–7 Labour party 50, 129–31, 132–4, 150–1, 194 Lajnat al-Tawjih 159 land 142–4, 152–3, 162–4 and expropriation 11, 80–8, 94–5 Landau, Eli 109 Latrun 116, 117, 119–20 Lebanon 20, 23, 135, 166, 167 and civil war 158, 159 and 2006 war 217, 220, 225 legal system 139–45, 189–93 Lenczowski, George 59 Liberty, USS 59–60, 65–6 Lieberman, Avigdor 103, 221 Likud 96, 130, 142, 154–6 Ma’arach (‘Alliance’) 130 MacBride, Seán 166 Madrid Conference (1991) 195 al-Majali, Habis 40 Malley, Robert 205 Mapai party, see Labour party Mapam party xx, 53, 122–3 marketing 47, 65, 66–7, 68–71 maximum security prison xxviii, xxix, 5, 6, 92–3, 138 media, the xxiii, xxix, 22, 64, 70, 186 and Dayan 71–2 and dual language 113 mega-prison xix, xx, xxvii–xxviii, xxx, 4–6, 7, 79–80 Meir, Golda 96, 129–30, 133–4 Merkaz Harav institute 131–2 military rule xiii, xiv, xvi, xvii–xix, xxvi, 18 and the law 100–1, 140–2 and Sharon 160 Milson, Menachem 160, 161 missile strikes 214, 215–16, 222, 225–8 Mitchell, George J. 208 Mizrahi Jews 154, 155 Moledet party 42 Mollet, Guy 16 Mordechai, Yitzhak 157 Mossad 34, 35, 190–1 Mount Scopus (Jerusalem) xii, 22 Munich massacre 110, 135 Muslim Brotherhood 177 Nablus 24, 56, 92, 132 Narkiss, Uzi xvi, 41, 77, 149 Nasser, Gamal Abdel xiii, 13, 14, 15, 23, 28, 44 and Sinai Peninsula 25, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 Nathan, Abie 73 NATO 19 Nazi Germany xviii, 10 Negev 14–15, 213–14 Netanyahu, Benjamin 146, 196, 199–200, 211 9/11 attacks 178 1945 Mandatory regulations xiv, xv, xviii–xix 1967 war, see Six-Day War 1973 war, see Yom Kippur War Nitzan, Yehuda 138 Nixon, Richard 74 nuclear weapons 19 Nusseibeh, Sari 76 Obama, Barack 210 occupation xvii–xviii, 2–3, 104–6 Occupation of Enemy Territory: a Commentary on the Law and Practice of Belligerent Occupation, The (von Glahn) xvii Occupied Territories, see Gaza Strip; Golan Heights; Sinai Peninsula; West Bank Old City 112–14 Olmert, Ehud 165, 197, 218 open-air prison xxviii, xxix, 5, 6, 7 and Alon 92, 101–2 and CDG 138 and economics 146–50 and marketing 47 and working rights 167–9 operations: Cast Lead (2008–9) 71, 213–14 First Rain (2005) 214–16 Moked (1965) 26, 41 Pillar of Defense (2012) 227 Protective Edge (2014) 228 Returning Echo (2012) 227 Rotem (1960) 24, 25 Yevusi (1948) xiii Oslo Accord xxi, 83, 192–3, 194, 195–197 and failure 198–201 and land 164 and refugees 202–4 Ottoman law 95 Palestine xi–xii, xiii, xxii, xxiii–xxv and imprisonment xxvii–xxviii and military rule xvii–xviii and 1966 raids 26–7 and occupation 45–6 and partition 197–9 and Syria 25–6 and UN 10 and withdrawal 73–5 see also Gaza Strip; West Bank Palestine Authority (PA) 7, 209, 210 Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) 145 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) xxvi, 5, 76, 134–5, 157–8 and assassinations 110 and assistance 145 and de-terrorization 192 and Intifada 174–5 and Lebanon 166, 167 and Oslo Accord 194–5 and Sharon 159, 161 see also Arafat, Yasser Palestinians 1, 7 and annexation 50–3 and citzenship 102 and containment 121–2 and deportations 170–1 and detention 189–90 and downsizing 118–19 and freedom of movement 179–82, 209 and Jerusalem 56–7, 82–8, 98 and labour 105–6 and 1948 expulsion 9–11 and 1967 expulsion 71 and punishment 109–10 and resettlement 54–5, 221–2 and resistance 76–7, 92–3, 103, 106–7, 134–6 and rewards 145–6 and right to return 200–3 and sects 107–8 see also Intifadas; refugees pan-Arabism 13, 14, 17 Panopticon xxvii, xxviii Patenkin, Don 79 Paul VI, Pope 66 peace process xxviii–xxix, 5–6, 53, 195 and dual language 49 and Egypt 14–15 and marketing 68, 69 and 1970s 110–11, 151–2 and Obama 210–1 and partition 197–8 and refugees 201–3 and USA 62–3 see also Camp David Summit; Oslo Accord Peres, Shimon 129, 133, 144, 194 Plan Dalet (1948) 9–10 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 80–1, 169 Porath, Elisha 152–3 prisons xxvi, xxvii–xxix, 4 propaganda 33, 53 protests xviii–xix, 190 punishment 26–7, 106–7, 108–10, 182–4, 186–7 Al-Qaeda 217 Qalqilya 116–17, 118–19 Rabin, Yitzhak 29–30, 32, 37, 96, 98, 117 and assassination 155, 200 and Intifadas 169–70, 175 and legal system 188, 190 and Oslo Accord 194 and Six-Day War 41, 42 refugees 6, 15, 66–8, 76, 92, 113 and Gaza Strip 45, 53–5, 99 and Jordan 114–15, 118 and peace process 201–3 repatriation 118, 121, 123–4, 125 Riad, Gen Abd al-Munim 40 Right to Return 200–3 River Jordan 25, 28, 48, 90 and bridges 126, 146, 209 Rogers, William 110 Rokach, Livia 16 Rostow, Walt 72 Rusk, Dean 65 Sabra and Shatila massacre 164, 166 Sadat, Anwar 69, 154 Sadiq, Abdel-Rahman 14 Said, Hussein Ghassan 166 Samu 27 Sapir, Pinchas 37, 52, 55, 105–6, 119, 146–7 Sasson, Eliyahu 35, 48, 51, 67, 68 Schiff, Ze’ev 109, 169 secret service, see Mossad secularism xxi Seven Stars programme 103 Shabak (General Security Services) xviii, 75, 110 Shacham, Mishael xiv, xv, xvi, xviii Shacham Plan xiv–xvii, 139 Shalit, Gilad 222 Shamgar, Col Meir 139–40 Shapira, Haim Moshe 58, 123, 124 Shapira, Yaacov Shimshon 36, 71, 100–1, 115, 123 Shaq’a, Bassam 161 Sharett, Moshe 12, 13–15 Sharon, Ariel xiv, 49, 91, 142, 158–60, 221–2 and colonization 161, 162–5 and Gaza Strip 98, 99, 135, 136, 215 and PLO 166–7 and punishment 108–9 and Temple Mount tour 206, 208 and Wadi Ara 103 Shefi, Maj Dov 139 Shehadeh, Aziz 76 Shehadeh, Raja 76–7 Sheikh al-Badr xi–xii Shelah, Ofer 206–7 Shoham, David xvi Siboni, Col Gabi 225 Silwan 114 Simon, Ernest 19 Sinai Peninsula xiii, 16 and Egypt 24, 25, 29–30, 31, 32, 33, 36 Six-Day War xii, xvi–xvii, 39–44, 77 Southern Lebanese Army (SLA) 158 Soviet Union (USSR) 14, 23, 33, 34, 43 and borders 65, 68 and peace process 151–2 and Syria 26, 28 Straits of Tiran 23, 29, 30, 36 Suez campaign (1956) 16–17 Sufian, Fatmah Hassan Tabashe 183–4 suicide bombs xxx, 83, 189, 192, 206 Supreme Court of Israel xx, 141–2, 163 Susser, Leslie 81 Syria 17, 18–19, 20, 23, 44 and Israel 24, 25–6, 27–8, 29 and peace process 53, 62 Tafakji, Khalil 81, 82 Tal, Israel 42 taxation 82, 140, 156, 190 Tekoah, Yosef 126 terrorism 83, 109, 134, 135, 192, 224; see also suicide bombs U Thant 25, 31, 43 torture 142, 186 trade 105, 106, 146, 150 trade unions, see Histadrut Tripartite Declaration (1950) 17 Tul Karem 116, 117, 118–19 ultra-Orthodox Jews 155–6 UN Special Commission on Palestine (UNSCOP) 197 Unified National Leadership 174–5 United Nations (UN) xxiii, xxv, 2, 10, 210 and first Intifada 174, 176 and Gaza Strip 228 and human rights 116 and May Protocol (1949) 201 and peace process 68, 70 and refugees 76 and 2012 resolution 126 and UNIFIL 158 and withdrawal 75 see also Hammarskjöld, Dag; U Thant United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 51, 53–4, 67–8, 114 United States of America (USA) xxviii, 21, 23 and aid 26, 105 and arms 72, 130 and Egypt 14, 15 and expulsions 71 and Hamas 191 and Intifadas 176 and Israel 17, 18, 19–20, 33–6 and Jerusalem 59, 60–3, 88 and Jewish community 37 and Liberty, USS 65–6 and peace process 5, 68, 151–2, 195 and Six-Day War 41, 42–3 and withdrawal 74–5 USSR, see Soviet Union Vardi, Col Rehavia 138 Vatican, the 66 Village Leagues 160–1 voluntary transfer 54, 56–7, 121 Wadi Ara 102–3 war crimes 87, 92 War on Terror 62, 178 water 54–5, 187 weaponry 18, 19, 26, 72, 130 wedges 95–100, 185 Weitz, Raanan 94 Weitz, Yosef 94, 127 Weizman, Eyal 83 Weizman, Ezer 158–9 West Bank xiii, xiv–xvii, xix, 2–3, 208–12, 221 and Alon 90–2, 93, 96–7, 102 and Ben-Gurion 21–2 and citizenship xxvi and colonization 79–80 and division 55–6, 204 and economics 146–50 and Gaza Strip 127 and imprisonment xxviii–xxix and Israeli rule xx, xxi, xxv, 46–7, 48–50, 77–8 and Jewish settlers 130–4, 155–7 and Jordan 11, 12–13, 20–1, 24 and legal system 139–45 and living standards 170 and Olmert 218 and open-air prison 6 and peace negotiations 1 and Six-Day War 39–40, 41, 42 and Suez campaign 16–17 and violence 188 see also Jerusalem Wilson, Harold 70 Wolfe, Patrick 3 women 193 Yaacobi, Gad 167 Yaalon, Moshe ‘Bogie’ 227 Ya’ari, Ehud 169 Yariv, Aharon 37 Yassin, Sheikh Ahmed 177, 189, 191 Yemenite Jews 113–14 Yeshayahu, Israel 113–14, 123 Yom Kippur War (1973) 144, 151 Ze’evi, Rehavam 42, 80–1 Zionists xviii, xxiii, 9–10, 55, 89, 197 and anti-occupation 171–2 and ideologies xx–xxii, 4 and withdrawal 74 Zohar, Uri 73 Zur, Zvi 137 A Oneworld book First published in North America, Great Britain and Australia by Oneworld Publications, 2017 This ebook edition published 2017 Copyright © Ilan Pappe, 2017 The moral right of Ilan Pappe to be identified as the Author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved Copyright under Berne Convention A CIP record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-85168-587-5 eISBN 978-1-78074-433-9 Typeset by Hewer Text UK Ltd, Edinburgh Oneworld Publications 10 Bloomsbury Street London WC1B 3SR England


Saudi America: The Truth About Fracking and How It's Changing the World by Bethany McLean

addicted to oil, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, buy and hold, corporate governance, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, family office, hydraulic fracturing, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Upton Sinclair, Yom Kippur War

The Texas Railroad Commission controlled the international price of oil by allowing a certain amount of production, and maintaining spare capacity. But in 1972, as U.S. production slowed, Texas had to start producing flat out. “This is a damn historic occasion and a sad occasion,” the Texas Railroad Commission’s chairman declared. The following year OPEC, which had been created by Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela in 1960, began to flex its new muscles. OPEC declared an oil embargo during the Yom Kippur war against all of Israel’s allies, including the United States. Oil prices quadrupled. The disruption of oil sent Americans in search of other energy sources. Yet oil, which is primarily used for transportation (passenger cars today account for about half our daily consumption), has the benefit of being relatively easy to ship around the world. Natural gas, on the other hand, is used primarily for heating and in power plants and manufacturing.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The public reaction was understandable given that it was America’s abundant oil reserves and its wily ability to mass-produce affordable cars for a restless, nomadic people that catapulted the United States to commanding heights, making it the world’s leading superpower in the twentieth century. The jolt to our national pride came without warning. Just two months earlier, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) slapped an oil embargo against the United States in retaliation to Washington’s decision to resupply the Israeli government with military equipment during the Yom Kippur War. The “oil shock” reverberated quickly across the world. By December, the price of oil on the world market had shot up from $3 per barrel to $11.65.1 Panic ensued on Wall Street and on Main Street. The first and most obvious sign of the new reality was at neighborhood gas stations. Many Americans believed that the giant oil companies were taking advantage of the situation by arbitrarily spiking prices to secure windfall profits.

See also five pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution Third Industrial Revolution Global CEO Business Roundtable, 75–6, 78, 100, 148, 205 Three Mile Island nuclear plant, 30, 90 TOMS, 126–7 Total, 62 Toynbee, Arnold, 136 Toyota, 60, 220 Turmes, Claude, 44, 69–70 Union of Concerned Scientists, 92 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 163, 167, 176–81 United Kingdom, 145–9, 267 United Nations Climate Report, 25 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 14 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 24, 27, 95 urban life, 81, 255 Utrecht (the Netherlands), 78, 100–3 Vattenfall, 62 Venezuela, 177–9 Verheugen, Günter, 66, 75 Vietnam War, 11, 180 Wade, Abdoulaye, 163 Wald, Matthew, 156 Wallström, Margot, 66 Walqa Technology Park, 84 Warr, Benjamin, 204–5 Warren, Joseph, 10 Washington, George, 11 Weber, Max, 109 Weidmann, Jens, 61 Wharton School’s Advanced Management Program (AMP), 2 Whitman, Christine Todd, 92 Wikipedia, 36, 116, 124 Willis Tower, 102 Wilson, Charles Erwin, 114 Wilson, E. O., 237–8, 240, 250, 256 Wind, Jerry, 155–6 wind power, 34, 39–40, 43–5, 48, 90–1, 98–9, 156, 164, 173–4 Wijkman, Anders, 70 Wolf, Martin, 16 work, rethinking, 265–70 World Bioenergy Association, 41 World War I, 166 World War II, 16, 19, 21, 86, 166, 180 Yellen, Janet L., 261 Yom Kippur War, 10 Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez, 4, 140–3 Zetsche, Dieter, 61–2 Zipcar, 123


One Day in September by Simon Reeve

fear of failure, friendly fire, New Journalism, white flight, Yom Kippur War

King Hussein, the diminutive Jordanian monarch still clinging to power despite the best efforts of Palestinians to dethrone or assassinate him, flew to Cairo for meetings with President Sadat of Egypt and President Assad of Syria. Until the meeting Hussein had been isolated within the Arab world because of his actions against the Palestinians three years previously (which had given birth to Black September). But Assad and Sadat welcomed him back into the fold, and the three began plotting a new military attack on Israel — an attack that the world would come to know as the Yom Kippur War. When Hussein returned to Jordan, rehabilitated in the eyes of other Arab leaders, he threw open his jails and released more than one thousand political prisoners, including dozens of senior Palestinians. In an astonishing display of camaraderie, Hussein even went to the prison holding Abu Daoud, took tea with the man, and then personally arranged his release.9 The war Hussein, Sadat, and Assad planned in Cairo erupted on October 6, 1973.

Iyad was born in Jaffa, Palestine, in 1933, but when the state of Israel was declared in 1948 his family became refugees, eking out their existence in Gaza. He jointly founded Fatah with Yasser Arafat, Mohammed Yousef Najjir (assassinated by the Israeli hit squad led by Ehud Barak in Beirut in 1973), and Khalid Wazir (who was better known by his nom de guerre, Abu Jihad, and was assassinated in 1988). After the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Abu Iyad moderated his political position and accepted it would be impossible to wipe the Zionist state off the map through armed struggle alone. As he moved into middle age, a corpulent, chain-smoking senior official in the PLO, he became something of a pragmatist, even arguing that dialogue with Israel was the price that would have to be paid for a Palestinian state in Gaza and the West Bank.41 The Israelis had little to gain by killing him, so he was safe from the Wrath of God hit team.


pages: 382 words: 116,351

Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years of Lockheed by Ben R. Rich, Leo Janos

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business climate, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

Our Air Force crews undertaking reconnaissance intelligence-gathering missions over territory protected by SAM-5 sites all wore special glasses that would keep them from going blind from atomic flash. So these weapons system advances posed a damned serious threat. Most troublesome, the Russians were exporting their advanced nonnuclear defensive systems to clients and customers around the world, making our airplanes and crews increasingly vulnerable. The Syrians now had nonnuclear SAM-5s. And during our Pentagon briefing we were subjected to a chilling analysis of the 1973 Yom Kippur War involving Israel, Syria, and Egypt. What we heard was extremely upsetting. Although the Israelis flew our latest and most advanced jet attack aircraft and their combat pilots were equal to our own, they suffered tremendous losses against an estimated arsenal of 30,000 Soviet-supplied missiles to the Arab forces. The Israelis lost 109 airplanes in 18 days, mostly to radar-guided ground-to-air missiles and antiaircraft batteries, manned by undertrained and often undisciplined Egyptian and Syrian personnel.

I sometimes wonder what would have happened had I chosen not to respond to their identification demand and maintained my radio silence. Some of the riskiest missions had to be personally cleared by the president and were undertaken at moments of high drama and international tensions when the chief executive’s need to know what was happening inside denied or hostile territory was so explicit that issues of war and peace hung in the balance. For example, during the early hours of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, when the Arab armies caught the Israelis by surprise and scored quick victories on three separate fronts, President Nixon was informed that the Russians had repositioned their Cosmos satellite to provide their Arab clients with real-time overflight intelligence showing troop positions and deployments—a huge tactical advantage. Nixon ordered Blackbird overflights to provide these same kinds of real-time war zone overviews to the Israelis and level the battlefield.


pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, iterative process, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Parag Khanna, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stocks for the long run, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, undersea cable, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Soros knew how to make money from long positions too, it should be emphasized - that is, from buying assets in the expectation of future prices rises. In 1969 he was long real estate. Three years later he backed bank stocks to take off. He was long Japan in 1971. He was long oil in 1972. A year later, when these bets were already paying off, he deduced from Israeli complaints about the quality of US-supplied hardware in the Yom Kippur War that there would need to be some heavy investment in America’s defence industries. So he went long defence stocks too.72 Right, right, right, right and right again. But Soros’s biggest coups came from being right about losers, not winners: for example, the telegraph company Western Union in 1985, as fax technology threatened to destroy its business, as well as the US dollar, which duly plunged after the Group of Five’s Plaza accord of 22 September 1985.73 That year was an annus mirabilis for Soros, who saw his fund grow by 122 per cent.

and Argentina 112 founding of 306 loans and conditions 308-10 as US agents 308-10 World Trade Center attack 6 World War, First 202-4 aftermath 100-107 as backlash against globalization 287-8 decades preceding 296-304 and financial markets 158 World War, Second 232 post-war financial system 305-7 and social insurance 204 US aid after 306 write-downs 354 writing, first use of 27 Wu Yajun 333 yachts 2 Yanomamo people 18 Yap islands 30 Yatsuhiro, Nakagawa 208-9 yen 67 Yin Mingsha 333 Yom Kippur War 317 Yudkowsky, Eliezer 347 Yunus, Muhammad 279-80 Zimbabwe 108 Zoellick, Robert 306 a Revealingly, the increase for female graduates was from 2.3 to 3.4 per cent. The masters of the universe still outnumber the mistresses. b 401(k) plans were introduced in 1980 as a form of defined contribution retirement plan. Employees can elect to have a portion of their wages or salaries paid or ‘deferred’ into a 401(k) account.


pages: 465 words: 124,074

Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism From Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda by John Mueller

airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, energy security, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, side project, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

Eager to relax tensions, his successors “saw Korea as the obvious place to start” and decisively shifted policy within two weeks of the dictator’s demise.13 Much the same could be said about other instances in which there was a real or implied threat that nuclear weapons might be brought into play: the Taiwan Straits crises of 1954 and 1958, the Berlin Blockade of 1948–49, the Soviet-Chinese confrontation of 1969, the Six-Day War in 1967, the Yom Kippur War of 1973, and cold war disagreements over Lebanon in 1958 and over Berlin in 1958 and 1961. Morton Halperin finds that “the primary military factors in resolving the crisis” in the Taiwan Straits in 1954 were “American air and naval superiority in the area,” not nuclear threats. Alexander George and Richard Smoke note that crises in Berlin in 1948–49 and in the Taiwan Straits in 1958 were broken by the ability of the Americans to find a technological solution to them.

., 25, 55 Western Europe, Soviet assumption, 35–36 Wier, Anthony, 266n.41, 268n.6, 272n.25 atomic terrorists’ task, 184 world security, 20 Williams, Paul, likelihood of nuclear attack, 209 willingness for war, 41 Wirz, Christoph, 168, 173 Wizard of Oz, 76, 253n.7 Wohlstetter, Albert, 35, 66, 81–82 Wolfowitz, Paul, weapons of mass destruction, 131 Woolsey, James, threats of “snakes,” 91–92 World at Risk, task force report, 182 World Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, 58 world government, arms race, 74–75 world’s security, terrorism, 20 World Trade Center, 22, 268n.12 world war, probability of, 30 world war deterrence Churchill counterfactual, 30–31 crisis behavior, 38–40 fear of escalation, 35–38 lessons from Korean War, 38 memory of World War II, 31–33 postwar contentment, 33 potential Soviet invasion of Europe, 35–38 Soviet ideology, 33–35 stability overdetermined, 40–42 vision of future war, 31 World War I, 14, 23–24, 25, 245n.26 World War II atomic bombs, 237 atomic secrets, 49 ending, 43–46 exaggerations, 26 Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 43–46 memory of, 31–33 nuclear fears in aftermath, 56 The Nuclear Revolution, 246n.7 popular and expert opinion in aftermath, 161 prospect of atomic war, 247n.24 “war that will end war,” 55–56 World War III, nuclear wars as deterrent, 41–42 worry, officials, xi worst-case fantasies, Brodie, 68, 236, 238 worst-case scenarios, ix, xii, 142 Wright, Lawrence, 201, 208, 214, 270n.7, 271n.8 yield, atomic bombs, 3–4 Yom Kippur War, nuclear threat, 48 Younger, Stephen, 86, 166–167, 174–175, 266n.43 Yusuf, Moeed, pace of proliferation, 103 Zawahiri, Ayman al- al-Qaeda’s second in command promising attacks, 218 biological weapon awareness, 233 experience in Iraq, 226–227 propaganda video by Gadahn, 219 Zimmerman, Peter, 178, 191 About the Author John Mueller is Professor of Political Science at Ohio State University.


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Moreover, the large sums flooding in could be useful in winning the allegiance of new Third World elites, who were under pressure to deliver prosperity to their political followers, allies, and extended families. The possibilities for corruption were seemingly endless and would provide further opportunities for enmeshing the leaders in relationships with the West while discouraging them from striking out on their own on what could only be a more austere, and much more dangerous, path. Debt Boom—and Bust: SAPing the Third World The Yom Kippur War in 1973 and the subsequent Arab oil embargo led to the stagflation crisis of 1974-76 and marked the end of the postwar boom. As one result, leading First World banks were awash in petrodollar deposits stockpiled by OPEC countries. If these billions continued to pile up in bank accounts—some $450 billion from 1973 to 1981—the effect would be to drain the world of liquidity, enhancing the recessionary effects of skyrocketing oil prices.

., and administration 66, 271, 278 and Iraq War 13, 28 Bush Agenda, The (Juhasz) 4, 275 Cabot Corporation 104, 112n32 Cameroon, foreign debt of 249 Canada 99, 101, 201, 268, 271 Canadian Export Development Corp. 201, 202, 203, 204, 206 capital flight 24, 43–44, 231–36, 253, 258n27 Carter, Jimmy 76, 140 Casey, William 70, 82, 90 Cavallo, Domingo Felipe 238 Cayman Islands, as offshore banking haven 65, 72, 73, 74, 75, 86 Center for Global Energy Studies 145 Center for Strategic and International Studies 119, 120 Central African Republic 231 Central Intelligence Agency 3, 5, 15 Afghan rebels and 70–71 BCCI and 69, 70, 71–72, 73, 76, 78, 79–82, 85 Saudi intelligence services and 75 Chad, foreign debt of 249 Chavez, Hugo 3, 25, 273 Cheney, Dick 28, 133 Chevron Oil 135, 138, 139, 144, 153 in Nigeria 123–24 Chile 236 1973 coup in 27 China 4, 229, 236 foreign debt 222–23 Third World resources and 5, 117–18, 120–21, 124, 126–27, 130 Chomsky, Noam Hegemony or Survival 4 Christian Peacemaker Team 96, 106–8 Citibank, Citigroup 75, 100, 130, 138, 226, 238, 268 Clifford, Clark 78–79, 85, 86, 88 Clinton, Bill, and administration 119, 120, 126, 212, 271 Coalition of Immokalee Workers 272, 280 COFACE 201, 205, 212 Cogecom 100 cold war 4 and decolonization 16–17 Colombia, human rights in 107 colonialism, decline of formal 13–14 coltan: efforts to control 5, 26, 95 shortages of 95 uses for 94 Commission for Africa 251 Communism: appeal of 14 fall of 4, 13, 27, 137–38, 238 Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (Perkins) 1–4, 6, 17 Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire): civil war in 26, 94–96, 108n3 corruption in 24, 254 foreign debt 220, 230, 247, 249 human rights in 107–8 rape as a weapon of war in 93, 96–98 Western role in 98–105, 109n4, 111n29 World Bank and 158 Congo Republic 230, 247, 249 cooperatives 276–77 corporations, as legal persons 277 CorpWatch 278 corruption: culture of 51–54 IMF/World Bank and 24–25, 157–74 offshore banking and 44–45, 52- power and 24 privatization and 24–25, 256n12 COSEC 209–10 Council on Foreign Relations 119–20 dam projects, 209–12 Dar al-Mal al-Islami 89 Daukoru, Edmund 125–27, 128 Davos see World Economic Forum DeBeers Group 101, 103 decolonization 13, 16–17 debt/flight cycle 231–36, 253, 258n27 debt relief, campaigns for 246, 252–55, 268 in U.S. 235 debt, Third World 32, 35 amount of relief 224–29 banks and 226–27, 229, 232–34 business loans 35–37, 227 cold war strategy and 17 corruption and 230, 231, 232, 253, 254, 257n23 1982 crisis 39, 55 disunity among debtor nations 237–39 dubious debts and 230, 235, 247, 253, 257n23, 261n68 growth of 18–19, 181, 229–36 as means of control 17, 23, 183–84 payments on 19, 190–91, 223, 228, 231, 247–48, 275 relief plans 220–22, 225–29, 239–52, 274 size of 221–24, 259n37, 260n46 social/economic impacts of 190–91, 231–36, 247–48 democracy: debt crisis and 236 economic reform and 276–79 global justice and 279–81 in Iraq 151–54 Deutsche Bank 226 drug trade 70, 80, 87 Dubai 73 Dulles, Alan 15 Eagle Wings Resources International 104 East Timor 205 economic development strategies: “big projects” and 16–17 debt-led 18–19 state-led 16–17, 19 economic forecasting 3 economic hit men 5 definition 1, 3, 18 John Perkins and 1–4, 17 types of 5, 18 Ecuador 236, 266 foreign debt 244 Egypt 14 Suez Crisis 15–16 Eisenhower, Dwight, and administration 15 elites, wealthy 4, 18, 57, 176, 183, 228, 232, 253 use of tax havens 43–44, 54–56, 65–66, 226, 232–34 El Salvador 26 empire see imperialism Eni SpA 144, 153 Enron 53, 54, 208–9 Ethiopia 230, 249 European Union 51 agricultural subsidies 22 environment degradation: development projects and 199, 200–211, 257n23 oil production and 115–16 export credit agencies: arms exports and 204–5 campaigns against 209–16 corruption and 200, 202–3, 205, 207–8 debt and 200 environmental effects 199, 200–211 nuclear power and 202, 205–6 operation of 197–201 secrecy of 205, 210–12 size of 201 World Bank and 199, 201, 202, 204 Export Credit Group 210, 215 Export Credits Guarantee Department 201, 205, 211 Export Finance and Investment Corp. 203, 204 export processing zones 178 Export Risk Guarantee 203, 211, 213 ExxonMobil 144 fair trade movement 280 Faisal, Mohammad al-89 Faux, Jeff Global Class War, The 4 Federal Bureau of Investigation 71 Federal Reserve Bank of New York 87 Federal Reserve System 78, 82, 88 Ferguson, Niall 13 First American Bankshares 78, 79, 82, 83, 85, 88 First Quantum Materials 101 First, Ruth 26 Focus on the Global South 187, 273 foreign aid 19 in Congo civil war 99–100 France 236, 244 empire 13 Suez Crisis and 15 free trade 4, 19, 21–23, 268, 271 British development and 21 U.S. development and 21 Free Trade Area of the Americas 271 Friends of the Earth 104, 269 G8 summits 212, 213, 219–20, 221, 246, 250, 271, 275 Gambia 243, 249 García, Alan 74 Gates, Robert 85 Gécamines 100, 104 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade agricultural trade 186–87 establishment of 267 TRIPS 23 Uruguay Round 23, 267 General Union of Oil Employees 135–36, 141–44 Georgia 207 Germany 212, 213, 216, 236 export credit agency 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209–11, 212, 215–16 Green Party 206, 215 Ghana 16 development projects in 16, 207 foreign debt 230, 247, 249 impact of IMF SAP 5, 22 Giuliani, Carlo 271 Global Awareness Collective 278 Global Class War, The (Faux) 4 Global Exchange 278 globalization 3 alternatives to corporate 275–79 economic 176–79, 230, 236 impacts of 185–90, 234, 236, 263–65 of the financial system 55, 63–66 Globalization and Its Discontents (Stiglitz) 3, 4 Global justice movement: achievements of 276–79 campaigns 269–72, 274–75 in Global North 268–69, 271–72, 274 in Global South 271–74 origins of 268–69 proposals of 275–79 protests by 265–66, 270–71 Global South see Third World Gonzalez, Henry 72, 90 Gorbachev, Mikhail 137 Goulart, João 27 Groupement pour le Traitment des Scories du Terril de Lubumbashi 104 Guatemala 14, 236 Arbenz government 26 Guinea, foreign debt of 249 Guinea-Bassau 26, 247, 249 Guyana: export credit agencies and 203 environmental problems 203 foreign debt 241, 243, 244, 246, 247, 249 Haiti 236, 249 World Bank and 158 Halliburton 3, 133, 278 Hankey, Sir Maurice 145 Harken Energy Corp. 77, 78 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative 221, 225, 226, 230, 242–48, 275 conditions of 243–45 results of 248–50 Hegemony or Survival (Chomsky) 4 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 70 Helms, Richard 82 Henwood, Doug 23, 177–79 Heritage Foundation 121 Heritage Oil and Gas 100 Hermes Guarantee 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 215–16 Honduras, foreign debt of 249 Hope in the Dark (Solnit) 281 Hungary, Soviet intervention in 16 Hussein, Saddam 28, 90, 141–42 and BCCI 72 Hutu people 94–96 Hypovereinsbank 209 Ijaw people 116, 121–23, 128 Illaje people 123 immigrant rights movement 281 imperialism 13–14 coups d’état and 27 divide-and-rule tactics 25, 26, 265 post-cold war changes 4–5 pressure on uncooperative countries 25, 142 resistance to 28, 115–17, 121–30, 143–44, 151–54, 176, 191–92, 265–66 resources and 98–106, 118–21, 133–34, 136, 139–40, 145 as system of control 17–28, 176 use of force 5, 25–28, 111n22, 113–14, 115–17, 123, 111n22 India 16, 119, 229, 236, 266 foreign debt 222, 223 export credit agencies and 206, 208 Maheshwar Dam 209–10 Indonesia 236 corruption in 202–3 export credit agencies and 200, 202–3, 205, 207, 216 foreign debt 228, 230, 244 inequality 44 Institute for Policy Studies 278 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 157 International Development Association 157, 242 International Forum on Globalization 266 International Monetary Fund 3, 4, 19, 135, 275 conflicts of interest 244 debt relief and 221–22, 224, 226, 237, 240, 243–46, 250–51, 252 Iraq and 151–53 Malaysia and 273 neoliberalism and 176–79, 222 offshore banking and 43, 234 protests against 266 structural adjustment programs 22, 23, 245, 265–66 Rwanda and 100 Uganda and 100 International Tax and Investment Center 134–35, 138–39, 144–54 International Trade Organization 267 Iran 14, 90, 145, 200 coup against Mossadegh 14–15 nationalization of oil industry 14 Iran-Contra affair 71–72 Iraq: BCCI and 72 foreign debt 152 Gulf War and 28, 72, 140, 141, 146 human rights in 105–6 oil production and reserves 135–36, 139–54 production sharing agreements in 147–54 sanctions against 72, 142 social conditions in 135, 142, 143 U.S. occupation of 28, 140, 141–42, 146, 250, 275, 278 Israel: and Suez Crisis 15 Yom Kippur War and 17 Ivory Coast 230 foreign debt 244, 249 “jackals” 25–26 James, Deborah 273 Japan 216, 236 Japan Bank for International Cooperation 201, 202, 203, 241 Jersey 88 banking boom in 46–47 impact on island 46, 51–52, 56–62 as offshore banking haven 43, 45, 56–61 Johnson, Chalmers Sorrows of Empire 4 Jordan 241, 266 Jordan, Vernon 100 JPMorganChase 226, 238 Jubilee South 190 Jubilee 2000 268 Juhasz, Antonia Bush Agenda, The 4, 275 Juma’a, Hassan 135–36, 140, 142–44, 154 Kabila, Joseph 96 Kabila, Laurent 94, 96, 99 Kagame, Paul 94, 98–99 ties to U.S. 99 Kazakhstan 138, 139, 144, 150 Keating, Charles 83 Kenya 236 foreign debt 243, 244 Kerry, John 76 investigation of BCCI 79–83, 87, 89 Kirchner, Nestor 273 Korea, Republic of 229, 272 Korten, David When Corporations Rule the World 4 KPMG 52 Krauthammer, Charles 13 Krushchev, Nikita 16 Kurdistan 211–12, 214 Kuwait 133, 141, 146, 152, 154 labor exports 235–36 Lake, Anthony 119–20 Lance, Bert 77 Lawson, Nigel 242 Lawson Plan 221, 242 Lee Kyung Hae 272 Liberia, World Bank lending to 159–67 Liberty Tree Foundation 276 Li Zhaoxing 117–18, 124 Lu Guozeng 117 Lumumba, Patrice 26 Luxembourg, as offshore banking haven 72, 73, 74 Madagascar, foreign debt of 249 Mahathir, Mohamad 273 Malawi 254 foreign debt 243, 249 Malaysia 41–43, 229 defiance of IMF 273 Mali, foreign debt of 246, 249 Marcos, Ferdinand 31, 48, 175, 176, 181–85 markets, corporate domination of 16 Martin, Paul 54 mass media, manipulation of 25 Mauritania, foreign debt of 247, 249 McKinney, Cynthia; hearing on Congo 98–99, 110n11 McLure, Charles 137–39 mercenaries: in Congo 111n22 in Nigeria 5, 25–26, 113–14, 115–17 Mexico 207, 256n14, 273 foreign debt 55, 227, 228, 230, 233, 240–41, 244 labor exports 236 Zapatista uprising 272 Middle East, and struggle for oil 27–28 military-industrial complex 99 military interventions 27–28 Mizban, Faraj Rabat 141 Mitterand Plan 221 Mobutu Sese Seko 24, overthrow of 94 Mondlane, Eduardo 26 Mongolia 207 Morales, Evo 277 Morganthau, Robert 69, 84–87 Moscow, John 58, 87 Mossadegh, Mohammad 3, 14–15, 27 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta 122–24, 129 Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (Landless Workers’ Movement) 272 Mozambique 26, 27, 230 foreign debt 241, 246, 249 Mueller, Robert 87 mujahadeen (Afghanistan): and BCCI 70 and drug trade 70 Mulroney, Brian 100 Multilateral Agreement on Investment 269–70, 281 Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative 222, 225, 230, 250–52 Multilateral Investment Agreement 269 multinational corporations: export credit agencies and 209–11 export processing zones and 178 globalization, pressure for 138, 268, 275 mercenaries, use of 25–26, 111n22, 113–14, 115–17, 123 resources and 101–6, 111n29, 112n31, 112n32 scandals 5 transfer mispricing by 49–51 offshore banks, use of 24, 49–51 patents, control of 23 Museveni, Yoweri 95 Myanmar, foreign debt of 230 Nada, Youssef Mustafa 71–72 Namibia 95 export credit agencies and 207 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 15–16 National Commercial Bank of Saudi Arabia 88–89 National Family Farm Coalition 272 nationalism: pan-Arab 15 Iranian 14 Nehru, Jawaharlal 16 neocolonialism see imperialism neoliberalism 4, 19 critique of 176–79, 190–92, 234, 236 defined 176–77 economic development and 176–79, 232 economic strategies 178–81, 222, 230, 231, 236 Netherlands, overseas empire of 13 Newmont Mining Corp. 244 New World Order 27–28 Nicaragua 207 foreign debt 225, 230, 247, 249 U.S. proxy war against 26, 27, 79 Nicpil, Liddy 190–91, 192 Nidal, Adu 73 Niger, foreign debt of 241, 249 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 121, 123 Niger Delta Volunteer Service 122 Niger Delta region: attack on oil platforms 116–17 as “Next Gulf” 118–21 pollution from oil production 115–16 struggle against Shell 115–16, 121–24 Nigeria 200, 266 China and 117–18 colonial rule 115 corruption in 44–45, 230 foreign debt 223, 230, 233, 243, 244 oil production 115–16, 125–27 World Bank lending in 158, 167–69 Nkrumah, Kwame 16 nongovernmental organizations 239, 250 Noriega, Manuel 80 and BCCI 72, 79 North American Free Trade Agreement 4, 268, 272 nuclear power 205–6, 210 Obasanjo, Olusegun 125, 127 Obiang, Teodoro 48 O’Connor, Brian 144–45 OECD Watch 105 offshore banking havens: arms trade and 71–73 campaign against 62–64 central role in world trade 44, 47–48, 64–65 corruption and 24, 44–45, 52–56, 64, 231–33, 253 drug trade and 70 extraction of wealth 43, 54–56, 64–65, 226, 231–33, 253, 258n58 financial centers and 234, ignored by academia 44, 234 secrecy and 47–48, 53, 66 tax evasion and 43, 48, 49–51, 54, 57–59, 64–65, 226, 232 terrorism and 71, 88 Ogoni people 122–23, 125 Okadigbo, Chuba 116 Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi 118 Okuntimo, Paul 123 Oil Change International 278 oil price spikes 236 oil production and reserves: future shortages of 28, 140 Indonesia 207 Iraqi 135–36, 144–54 Nigerian 113–14, 128–29 strategies to control 25–26, 27–28, 139–40 OM Group, Inc. 104, 112n31 OPEC 125–26, 128 1973 oil embargo by 17 dollar deposits in First World 17–18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 135, 269 “Action Statement on Bribery” 216 export credit agencies and 210, 215 Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 101, 102, 105–6, 112n31 “OECD Arrangement” 215 Overseas Private Investment Corp. 204, 206–9 Oxfam 43, 62–63, 250 Pakistan 90 Afghan mujahadeen and 70–71 BCCI and 70 export credit agencies and 207 foreign debt 244 Panama 3, 26, 72 as offshore banking haven 73, 74 Papua New Guinea: export credit agencies and 204 mining and environmental problems 204 Paris Club of creditors 220, 225–26, 227, 228, 242, 252 Peru 74 foreign debt 241 impact of IMF SAP 22 petrodollars, recycling of 17–18 Perkins, John 19 Confessions of an Economic Hit Man 1–2, 17 Pharaon, Ghaith 76, 77, 86, 87, 88 Philippines, the 31–34, 35–36 corruption in 181–82 democratic movements in 182–85, 236 economic decline in 187–89 emigration from 189, 236 foreign debt 181, 190–91, 230, 241, 244 Marcos regime 31, 34, 175, 176, 180–85, 261n61 martial law in 180–85 social conditions in 179–80, 185–86, 189–91 U.S. rule 175–76 World Bank and 158, 178–81 Pinochet, General Augusto 27, 45–46, 48 PLATFORM 140, 156n28 Portugal 209–10 Posada Carriles, Luis 26 poverty reduction strategy programs see structural adjustment programs Price Waterhouse 83–84 privatization 191 production sharing agreements 147–54 protectionism 21, 181, 186–87 proxy wars 27, 70–71 Public Citizen 269, 273 public utilities, privatization of 191, 261n61, 277 Rahman, Masihur 85 Reagan, Ronald, and administration 19, 79, 87, 136–37, 239 Iran-Contra affair 72 Rich, Marc 90 Rights and Accountability in Development 101, 104, 105 Rio Tinto Zinc 204 Ritch, Lee 79–80 Robson, John 138 Roldós, Jaime 3, 26 Roosevelt, Kermit 15 Rumsfeld, Donald 138 rural economic development 183, 186–87 Russia: debt relief and 225 oil industry 154 transition to capitalism 137–39, 258n28 Rutledge, Ian 149 Rwanda 94–96, 98, 249 massacre in 94, 99 SACE 201 Sachs Plan 221 Saleh, Salim 95 Saõ Tomé, foreign debt of 247, 249 Saud al-Fulaij, Faisal 86, 87 Saudi Arabia 3, 88 and BCCI 70, 75 Saro-Wiwa, Ken 125–26 Scholz, Wesley S. 104 Scowcroft, Brent 72 Senegal 16, 249 Senghor, Léopold 16 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks 71 Shell Oil 144 Nigeria and 113–15, 122, 123, 125–29 at World Economic Forum 127 Shinawatra, Thaksin 54 Sierra Club 269 Sierra Leone 247 SmartMeme 276 Solnit, Rebecca Hope in the Dark 281 Somalia 251 Sorrows of Empire (Johnson) 4 South Africa 236 military interventions 27 Truth and Reconciliation Commission 26 Soviet Union 13, 14 de-Stalinization 16 Hungary, intervention in 16 influence in Third World 14 U.S. and 137 Stephens, Jackson 76, 77 Stiglitz, Joseph 24 Globalization and Its Discontents 3, 4 structural adjustment programs (SAPs) 19, 229–30 in Ghana 5, 22 in Peru 22 in the Philippines 176–79, 183–85, 190–92 in Zambia 22 Sudan 230, 251 Suharto 200, 202–3 Syria 211 Switzerland, as offshore banking haven 45, 65, 72 Taco Bell, boycott of 280 Tanzania, foreign debt of 247, 249 tax evasion 43, 48, 49–51, 54, 57–59, 64–65 Tax Foundation 137–38 tax havens see offshore banking havens Tax Justice Network 63 Tax Reform Act of 1986 138 Tenke Mining 99 terrorism: as EHM strategy 26, 72 financing of 42, 88–89 inequality and 44 Islamist 71–72, 89 Palestinian 73 Thatcher, Margaret 19, 138 Third World: as commodity producers 17, 23 conditions in 5, 96–97, 106–8, 116, 179–80, 185–90, 234, 236 development strategies 176–79 divisions among countries 265–68 elites in 25, 28, 43–44, 176, 226, 232–34 emergence of 14 lack of development in 232, 237 terms of trade and 22, 178–79 Third World Network 269 Tidewater Inc. 113 Torrijos, Omar 3, 26 Total S.A. 144, 153 trade unions 135–36, 141–44, 180, 186, 269, 274 transfer mispricing 49–51 cost to Third World 50 Transparency International 45 Turkey: export credit agencies and 206 Ilisu Dam 211–14 Turkmenistan 200 Uganda 94–96 foreign debt 241, 246, 249 Union Bank of Switzerland 57, 58, 77, 226, 250 United Arab Emirates 69, 73 United Fruit Company 15 United Kingdom 213 NCP for Congo 102–3 empire 13–14, 115, 129, 145 Iran and 14–15 Iraq occupation and 146, 151, 152 offshore banking and; Suez Crisis and 15 United Nations: trade issues and 265, 276 Panel of Experts, Congo 100–106, 112n32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 220, 265, 267 United States: agricultural subsidies 22 aid 98 as empire 13, 28 cold war strategy of 16, 17, 24, 26 in Congo 99, 104, 105 debt-led development strategy of 176–79 Iran coup and 14–15 Iraqi oil and 133–34, 136, 139–40 Iraq wars 72, 133, 141–42 Islamists and 26 Nigerian oil and 118–21 Philippines and 175–76, 180 strategic doctrines 27–28, 118–19 support of Contras 72 trade deficit 23 trade policies 267 U.S.


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What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

Initially, serious people on the Left gave credence to Healy’s claims that a British Bolshevik revolution was possible. The post-war social democratic consensus fell apart in the early Seventies, and Britain for a moment did feel like a country on the edge of pre-revolutionary chaos. In 1973, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries said they would not trade with the North American and European countries that had supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The price of oil shot up and unemployment and inflation went up with it. Central bankers decided not to worry about inflation and to cut interest rates to prevent unemployment rising. In defiance of every law of economics they thought they knew, they got the worst of both worlds: stagflation with unemployment and inflation increasing together. For the first time since the Thirties – and the last time until the present day – the extremes prospered.

.; Iraq War universities 204 University of California Press 45 van Gogh, Theo 335 Versailles, Treaty of 228, 250 victimhood 78–9 Vidal-Naquet, Pierre 165–6 Vietnam War 21, 22, 93 Voltaire 164 Vulliamy, Ed 129, 130, 173, 176 Wall Street Crash (1929) 194–5, 218, 219 Walzer, Michael 355 Watson, Fiona 326 Waugh, Evelyn 113, 159 weapons of mass destruction 47 welfare state 195, 197, 199, 200–1, 355 Wells, H.G. 190 West Germany weapons sales to Iraq 47 Weston, Jon 134 Wheatcroft, Geoffrey 184–5, 278–9 Wheen, Francis How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World 278 Williams, Ian 129 Williams, Ralph Vaughan 244 Williams, Raymond 241–2 Willmott, Peter 199 Wilson, Harold 56 Windsor, Duke of 234 Withey, Lynne 45–6 Wittgenstein 105 Wolf, Naomi 183 Wolfowitz, Paul 80–2, 83, 84 Wolin, Richard 264 women priests 236 Woolf, Leonard 232 Woolf, Virginia 190–2, 228, 232, 236, 299 Woolworths 221 Workers’ Revolutionary Party see WRP working class 189–94, 196, 202–8, 210–11, 221–2, 379–80 World Social Forum 115 World Trade Organization 115, 117 WRP (Workers’ Revolutionary Party) 53–5, 57, 58–60, 63–4 downfall of 66–7, 68 and fascist conspiracy theory 65 and Iraq 65–6, 67, 68 and Irene Gorst 59–60 soliciting funds from Arab tyrants 64–5 see also Healy, Gerry Yeats, W.B. 219 Yom Kippur War 55 Younes, Nadia 326 Young, David 65 Young, Michael Family and Kinship in East London 199 Young, Stuart 65 Yugoslavia, former 85, 127 see also Bosnian war; Kosovo war Zarqawi, Abu Musab 286–7 Zimbabwe 117, 118, 351 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I could not have written this book without the help of many people who gave me their time without complaint. I owe large debts of gratitude to: Kanan Makiya for allowing me to enter his life; Paul Anderson and Ken Weller, for advising me on the history of the Workers’ Revolutionary Party; Marko Attila Hoare, Nerma Jelacic, Oliver Kamm, Brendan Simms and Ed Vulliamy for their advice on the Bosnian and Kosovo conflicts; Jean Seaton for her help on the histories of the Fabians and the Bloomsbury Group; Thomas Frank and Richard D.


pages: 400 words: 121,708

1983: Reagan, Andropov, and a World on the Brink by Taylor Downing

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear paranoia, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Stanislav Petrov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Yom Kippur War

The Soviets equipped the Syrian Air Force with MiG fighter jets and the army with their latest T-72 tanks. Also, PLO fighters were schooled at the Balashika training camp to the east of Moscow and were equipped with Soviet weapons to attack Israel.4 A war in the Middle East risked flaring up into a confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union, as had happened during the October War (also known as the Yom Kippur War) of 1973 when the US put its nuclear arsenal on to DEFCON (Defense Readiness Condition) 3–the only time since the Cuban missile crisis that American forces had been on this state of alert, just two levels away from actually seeking authorisation for the use of nuclear weapons. Within days of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the Kremlin sent a message to Reagan on the hotline accusing the US of complicity in the Israeli assault, claiming ‘the Israeli invasion is a previously planned operation, whose preparations the US must have known about’.

Edgar 24 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 24 Howe, Sir Geoffrey 211, 218, 259, 270, 271, 272, 288 Hubbard, Carroll 149 human intelligence (HUMINT) operations 82 human rights issues 14, 48–9, 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 Hungary 42, 264 Hungarian Revolution 43–4 political reforms 328 HVA 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 251–2, 253, 336 and Operation RYaN 85–6 hybrid warfare 342 Ikle, Fred 142 India, nuclear arsenal 343 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 9, 12–13, 34, 53, 60, 194, 198, 239, 313 Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty 320, 321–2, 333 verification processes 322 intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) 13 Iran 209 Iranian Revolution 29, 202 Tehran embassy hostage crisis 20, 29 Iran-Contra scandal 319–20 Iraq, US military incursions 342, 343 Irgun 203 Iron Curtain 23, 24, 332 Islamic fundamentalism 76, 202, 209, 323 Israel Israel Defence Forces (IDF) 203–4, 205, 206–7 Israeli Air Force 205 nuclear arsenal 343 Israeli-Palestinian conflict 202–9 Ivy League 82 exercise 59, 61–3, 97 Japan Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1–4, 93 listening stations 161–2, 183 Joan (MI6 case officer) 121–2, 291 John Birch Society 149 Johnson, Lyndon B. 26 Jones, General David 56 Jones, Nate 348–9 Kádár, János 43 Kalinin 159 Kalugin, Oleg 85, 240 Kamchatka peninsula 136, 138, 139–40, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 168, 180, 183 Kardunov, Marshal Alexandr 163 Karelian Republic 40–2 Kazakhstan 5, 333, 334 KC-135 tanker aircraft 191 Kennedy, John F. 10, 11, 320 Kennedy, Robert 114 KGB 43, 45–7, 49, 338 and the Able Archer 83 exercise 250–1 Andropov as head of 35, 45, 46–7, 48, 69, 74, 80, 83, 106, 341 directorates 73 First Chief Directorate (FCD) (Foreign Intelligence) 73–4 foreign residencies 46, 81, 118–20, 122–5, 218, 227, 228, 277, 278, 279 intelligence successes 125–8, 134–5 moles within see Gordievsky, Oleg; Martynov, Valery; Vetrov, Captain Vladimir role 45–6, 70 see also Operation RYaN Kharbarovsk 161, 163, 164 Khomeini, Ayatollah 29, 202 Khrushchev, Nikita 9, 10, 42, 43, 45 Cuban missile crisis 11, 114 denounces Stalin 42 Kim Eui-dong 150, 152 Kirghizia 333 Kirkpatrick, Jeane 183 Kissinger, Henry 99, 114 Kline, Major John 56 Kohl, Helmut 319 Korean Air Lines (KAL) Flight 007 149–56, 157–88, 165 downing of 157–69 intelligence community’s verdict on 187 Soviet defence of action 181–2, 183–5, 186–7, 216 Soviet propaganda disaster 176–7, 180 US response 169–79, 187–8 Kosygin, Aleksei 68–9 Kremlinologists 37, 214 Kryuchkov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich 74, 75, 80, 127, 229, 255, 279, 281, 282, 333 Kuklinski, Colonel 110–11 Kulikov, Marshal Viktor 248 Kuntsevo Clinic 234–5, 236, 242, 250, 255, 275 Kurchatov, Igor 5 Kurile islands 136, 139, 155, 171, 187 labour camps 46 Lang, Admiral 137 Laos 29 Latvia 329 Launch Under Attack option 15, 60, 238–9 Leahy, Patrick 176 Lebanon 202–9, 220 Israeli bombardment of Beirut 205–7, 228 Israeli invasion of 203–4 Multinational Force 206, 207, 208, 209 UN peacekeepers 203 Lee Kuan Yew 259 LeMay, General Curtis 8 Libya 110, 310 limited nuclear war concept 10, 15, 55, 88, 343 Line X operation 123, 143, 144, 285 listening stations 163–4, 168, 170, 176, 183, 217, 227, 231, 267–8 lithium H-bomb 7–8 Lithuania 329 Lockheed 54 Lokot, Sergei 246–7 Los Angeles Olympic Games (1984) 268 Lubyanka 46, 284 M-1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 53 McDonald, Larry 149–50, 171 McFarlane, Robert ‘Bud’ 208–9, 262, 297, 320 and Able Archer exercise 231, 260, 261, 265–6 and SDI 99, 100 McNamara, Robert 12 malware 144–5 Manchuria 4, 330 Mao Zedong 44–5 Martynov, Valery 285–6 Marxism-Leninism 36, 45, 50, 65, 69, 71, 134 maskirovka 160, 227, 253 Massive Retaliation doctrine 8, 9, 10 Matlock, Jack 312 Mauroy, Pierre 37 Meese, Edwin 32, 169 MI6 (British Secret Intelligence Service) 110, 121, 122, 126, 281, 336 exfiltration of Oleg Gordievsky 286–92 MiG 204, 205 MiG-23 248 military-industrial complex 74, 303, 310 Minsk 138 Minuteman missiles 195 Misawa 162, 170, 171, 172 missile silos 13, 194, 195, 200, 239, 242–3 Mitterrand, François 143 Moldavia 333 Mondale, Walter 269 Mons 223–4, 225, 229, 250, 256 Moorestown 193 Morrow, Douglas 91 Moscow Olympics (1980) 30, 49, 268 Moscow summit (1988) 323–5 Mozambique 29 Mujahideen 76, 77, 110, 310, 323 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) 12, 242, 244 Munich Olympic Games (1972) 203 Murmansk 126 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 12, 13, 15, 17, 63, 93, 97, 103, 114, 344 MX missiles 53, 98, 99 Nagasaki, bombing of (1945) 4, 93 Nagy, Imre 43 Nakasone, Yasuhiro 183 National Association of Evangelicals 66 National Command Authority 241 National Emergency Airborne Command Post (Boeing 747) 59, 61 National Intelligence Council 269 National Military Command Center 61, 91, 193 National Security Advisors 189, 309, 320 National Security Agency (NSA) 141, 156, 161, 187, 258, 299 expansion of 54–5 National Security Archive (NSA) 17, 348–9, 350 National Security Council 144, 145, 208, 209, 231 NATO 55, 82, 86, 88, 100, 124, 126, 127, 130, 131, 140, 318, 320 Abel Archer 83 exercise 222–56, 344 Allied Command Europe (ACE) 222 Autumn Forge 83 exercises 223 Current Intelligence Group 131 East German agent in 130–5 MC 161 document 132–3 Political Affairs Directorate 131 response to SDI 134 neo-Nazis 129 Nicaragua 29, 70, 319, 323 Contras 110, 319–20 Nicholson, Major Arthur 295–6 Nine Lives exercise 61, 63 9/11 241 1983–The Brink of Apocalypse (documentary) 346 Nitze, Paul 313 Nixon, Richard 32, 114, 298, 320 anti-ballistic missiles (ABM) Treaty 92 signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) 13 Watergate 14, 28, 74 NKVD 5 nomenklatura 70, 220 North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) 90–1, 145, 189, 190, 193 North Korea 4, 44 nuclear capability 343 North, Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver 320 Norway 126, 127 intelligence service 157 Norwegian Labour Party 127 nuclear accidents 190–2 Chernobyl nuclear disaster 310–11 nuclear arms race 6–9, 12–13 nuclear arsenal 200 Soviet 223 US 8 nuclear ‘football’ system 55–6, 240–1 Nuclear Freeze peace movement 96, 103 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 13 nuclear war Counterforce strategy 10 Defense Readiness Condition (DEFCON) 204, 230 false alerts 189–201, 239 Launch Under Attack option 15, 60, 238–9 limited nuclear war 10, 15, 55, 88, 343 Massive Retaliation doctrine 8, 9, 10 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 12, 13, 15, 17, 63, 93, 97, 103, 114, 344 probable consequences 8, 60, 63, 68, 248–9 protocols for launching nuclear weapons 10, 15–16, 55–6, 62–3, 240–1 simulated nuclear attack 61–2 Withhold Options 60 nuclear war scare (1983) 344 Able Archer 83 exercise and 222–56, 344 CIA report on 339–40 Soviet arsenal on maximum alert 16, 240, 242, 243–9, 255, 257, 307 Soviet paranoia and miscalculation 16, 224, 227–9, 232–3, 239, 240, 242, 250–1, 254, 256, 258–61, 344 nuclear winter 16, 249 Nyerere, Julius 259 Obama, Barack 256, 343 observation satellites 90, 111, 194–5, 196, 248, 256 October War (1973) 204, 230 Odom, William 189 Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 107 Ogarkov, Marshal Nikolai 73, 183–4, 184, 198, 236, 241, 245, 250, 255 oil and gas pipelines 65, 143, 145, 285 Okinawa 138 Oko satellite network 194–5 O’Malley, General 173 ‘open labs’ proposal 304, 314 Operation Barbarossa 80–1, 247 Operation Chrome Dome 190–2 Operation RYaN 80, 81–7, 88, 105, 118, 124–5, 216, 217–18, 227, 228–9, 237, 251, 255, 257, 340 categories of intelligence 81–2 confirmation bias 81, 86 information processing 83–4 spurious reports 81, 84, 86, 124–5, 227–8, 250–1 Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States 210 Ossipovich, Major Gennady 162–3, 164–7, 168, 178, 184–5 Pakistan, nuclear arsenal 343 Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) 203–4, 205, 206 Palestinian-Israeli conflict 202–9 Palmerston, Lord 273 Palomares incident (1966) 191–2 Parr, Jerry 56–7 Partial Test Ban Treaty 13 peace movement 66, 95–7, 96, 103, 123–4, 237 Pelše, Arvids 214 Pentecostal Christians 59, 116 perestroika 311, 325, 329 Perroots, Lieutenant-General Leonard 253–5 Pershing II missiles 14, 53, 78, 79, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 239, 258, 270, 299, 309, 319, 321 Petropavlosk 138, 158 Petrov, Lieutenant-Colonel Stanislav 195–200, 239 Pfautz, Major General James 172–3 Phalangist militiamen 207 Philby, Kim 278, 292 PL-5 missiles 157 plutonium implosion bomb 4, 6 Podgorny, Nikolai 69 Poindexter, Admiral John 320 Poland 65, 94 political reforms 328 popular protests 42–3 Solidarity 65, 110, 111, 328 Polaris 13 Politburo 34, 47–8, 64, 70, 76, 78, 181, 214, 215, 236, 255, 264, 275, 312, 317, 319 Prague Spring 47 President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) 339, 349–50 protective missile system see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) psychological operations (PSYOPS) 139–43, 147, 162, 182, 187, 310, 340 Putin, Vladimir 341 Pym, Francis 37 radiation sickness 3–4, 249 radioactive contamination 192 RAF Lakenheath 190 Ramstein Air Force Base 253 RAND Corporation 12 RC-135 spy planes 140–1, 156–7, 170, 178, 182 Reagan, Nancy 19, 25, 32, 66, 114, 302, 306 Reagan, Ronald 108 and Able Archer 83 exercise 231–2, 261, 262, 263, 265–6 anti-communism and anti-Soviet rhetoric 23, 24, 25, 26, 30–1, 51–2, 64–7, 77–8, 93, 94–5, 110, 114–15, 116, 177, 182, 216, 266 appearance and personality 21, 22, 33 approval ratings 28, 97, 265, 323 approves technological sabotage 144 attempted assassination of 56–8 background of 20–2 belief in personal diplomacy 51, 93–4, 268 ‘bombing Russia’ poor-taste joke 267–8 and Brezhnev 59 Cold War warrior 31, 267, 321 on the decision to launch nuclear weapons 15–16 demands Berlin Wall be pulled down 321 diary entries 64–5, 98, 99–100, 102, 116, 206, 262, 268, 294, 308 and the downing of KAL 007 169, 174, 177, 178, 179, 182, 188 economic policies 27–8, 31 elected President 15, 31–2 ‘evil empire’ rhetoric 66–7, 89, 117, 176, 182, 216, 324 film career 22, 25–6, 301 Geneva summit 297–9, 300–9, 305 Governor of California 27–8 ‘Great Communicator’ 268 and human rights issues 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 and invasion of Grenada 210, 211, 212 and Israeli-Palestinian conflict 202–9 leadership style 27 and Margaret Thatcher 211–12 meets Gordievsky 337, 337 Moscow summit 323–5 and nuclear policy 51, 58–9, 63–4, 91–3, 97–101, 103–4, 114, 261 political philosophy 22–3, 26 populism 19, 27, 33 president of Screen Actors Guild 24, 25 presidential inauguration 19–20, 21, 32–3 protocol for launching nuclear weapons 55–6, 62–3 re-election 265, 266–7, 269 Reykjavik summit 311, 312–18, 317 and SDI 98, 99–105, 117, 134, 298, 306, 313–14, 324 secret meeting with Soviet ambassador 115–17 signs INF Treaty 321 spouses see Reagan, Nancy; Wyman, Jane suggests rapprochement with Soviet Union 266–7, 268, 294 and total abolition of nuclear weapons 51, 93, 315, 318 visits Berlin 320–1 visits London 65 visits NORAD base 90, 91 war games, participation in 61–3, 62, 97, 262 Washington summit 321–3 Reagan Doctrine 110 Red Integrated Strategic Offensive Plan (RISOP) 55, 60 Red Scares 23, 24–5 Reed, Thomas 61, 62, 143–4 Reforger 83 exercise 223 Regan, Don 208 reunification of Germany 332 Rex 82 Alpha exercise 61, 63 Reykjavik summit 311, 312–18, 317 Rivet Joint operations 141, 162 Rogers, William 61 Romania 332 Romanov, Grigory 238, 270 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 27, 146 Rubin, Professor 213 Rupp, Rainer 128–34, 135, 251–3, 336 Russia 334 hybrid warfare capabilities 342 military exercises 342 Sabra and Shatila massacres (1982) 207 Sadat, Anwar 202 Sakhalin island 136, 160, 168, 171, 172, 173, 180, 183, 184 Sakharov, Andrei 48 Sandinistas 29 Saudi Arabia 208, 343 Scarlett, John 121, 125, 218, 259 Schmidt, Helmut 94 Schneider, Dr William 142 Scowcroft, Brent 327 Screen Actors Guild 24, 25 Sea of Okhotsk 136, 138, 156, 159, 162, 168, 180, 187, 299 Second World War 40–1, 107, 146, 255 end of 4 German invasion of Soviet Union 40, 80–1, 247 Serpukhov-15 194, 195–200 Severomorsk 245 Sharansky, Anatoly 49 Sharon, Ariel 203, 207 Shchelokov, Nikolai 88 Shemya 156, 157 Shevardnadze, Eduard 297, 309, 313, 320, 330 Shultz, George 37, 113–16, 117, 146–7, 208, 219, 262 and the downing of KAL 007 169, 174, 175, 176, 179, 185 and the Geneva summit 297, 303 on Gorbachev 295 and the Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty 320 meets with Gromyko 185, 240, 296–7 meets with Shevardnadze 320 and the Reykjavik summit 313, 314, 315, 318 and SDI 100, 298 and the Soviet ‘peace offensive’ 309 signals intelligence (SIGINT) 82, 141, 170, 176, 183 Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 10, 11, 55, 56, 60, 62, 262 Six Day War (1967) 203 ‘snap-ons’ 161, 163, 164, 170 Snow, Jon 324 Sokol 164 Solidarity 65, 110, 111, 328 Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 48 Son Dong-hui 150, 155, 161, 166, 167 South Korea 138 South Korean Navy 137 US-South Korean Mutual Defense Treaty 149 Soviet Air Force 247–8 expansion of 138 Far East Air Defence Command 139, 158, 162, 163, 180–1 Soviet embassy, London 81, 118–20, 122, 218, 228, 279 Soviet embassy, Washington 81, 277, 278 Soviet Far East 136–40, 137, 149–88 Soviet missile systems intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 9, 34, 194, 239 PL-5 missiles 157 SS-18 missiles 90 SS-19 missiles 242 SS-20 missiles 29, 53, 75, 75, 78, 94, 238, 244, 254, 299, 309, 314, 321 SS-N-8 missiles 246 SS-N-20 missiles 246 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 161 Soviet Navy Northern Fleet 126, 140, 245, 246 Pacific Fleet 138 submarine fleet 245–7 Soviet Union anti-Jewish purges 46 centralised planning 6, 69 civil defence programme 30 communist orthodoxy 36–7 Congress of People’s Deputies 329 corruption and organised crime 87–8, 333 defence budget 30 dismantling of 329, 333 economic stagnation 37, 48, 50, 64–5, 69, 71, 111 Five Year Plans 39–40 German invasion of 40, 80–1, 247 Great Terror 36, 39–40 human rights issues 14, 48–9, 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 intelligence community see GRU; KGB; SVR invasion and occupation of Afghanistan 30, 76–7 and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict 204–5 Kremlin nuclear paranoia 85, 86, 112, 125, 233, 238, 240 see also Able Archer 83 exercise; Operation RYaN Middle East policies 220 military strength and personnel 222–3 nuclear arsenal 223 nuclear programme 4–6, 8, 9, 12 office of head of state 35, 36 oil and gas pipelines 65, 143, 285 outrage over Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) launch 104–5, 106 political reforms 311–12, 329 post-Soviet problems 333 post-war reconstruction 41 reduced nuclear stockpile 333–4 reduction of Soviet forces in Europe 328, 333–4 Second World War 4, 40–1, 80–1, 247, 255 Sino-Soviet relations 44, 45, 220, 330 social conditions 69–70 support for global liberation struggles 29, 30, 52, 70, 94, 109, 301 suspected of influencing American presidential elections 269, 342 suspicion and fear of the West 14, 71–2, 73, 78, 80, 85, 240 technology gap 72, 73, 104, 120, 143, 144 The Soviet War Scare, 1983 (documentary) 346 Soyuz spacecraft 14 space weapons see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Speakes, Larry 169, 176 Sputnik 9, 194 SS-18 missiles 90 SS-19 missiles 242 SS-20 missiles 29, 53, 75, 75, 78, 94, 238, 244, 254, 299, 309, 314, 321 SS-N-8 missiles 246 SS-N-20 missiles 246 stagflation 28–9 Stalin, Joseph 5, 23, 24, 35, 146, 237, 329 anti-Jewish purges 47 death of 42 and the Great Terror 36, 39–40 ‘Star Wars’ see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Stasi 85, 128, 130, 133, 335 Stewart, Nina 349 Stinger anti-aircraft missiles 310 Stombaugh, Paul, Jr 284 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) 13, 14, 94, 156 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) 30, 77 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) 94, 105, 270, 334 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 103 costs 102 Geneva summit and 298, 299, 304 Gorbachev’s hostility to 273, 298, 299, 304, 305, 306, 309, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319 ‘open labs’ proposal 304, 314 origins of 97–100 proposed limits on 313 public attitudes towards 102 Reagan’s enthusiasm for 98, 99–105, 117, 134, 298, 306, 313–14, 324 Soviet fears of 104–5, 106, 117, 216 ‘strip alert’ 248, 254 Su-24 248 submarines Delta class 138, 246 nuclear weapon-carrying submarines 13, 136, 140, 200, 246 Ohio class 54 Typhoon class 246 suicide bombers 208–9 Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) 223, 229 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 140–1, 161 Suslov, Mikhail 45 SVR 285, 334 Symms, Steve 149 Syria 204, 205, 209, 220 Syrian Air Force 205 systems failures 192, 193, 200, 201, 239 T-72 tank 204 Tadzhikistan 333 Taliban 77, 323 Tass news agency 182 Tehran embassy hostage crisis (1979–81) 20, 29 telemetry intelligence (TELINT) 156 Teller, Edward 6–7, 97–8, 101 ter Woerds, Margreet 347 terrorism 108–9 Thatcher, Denis 272 Thatcher, Margaret 124, 134, 210, 211–12, 217, 218, 231, 259, 264, 293 and British–Soviet relations 270 and Gordievsky 337, 338 meets Gorbachev 272–4, 274 on nuclear deterrence 318–19 thermonuclear weapons 7–8, 45, 190–1 Thor missiles 13 Thule 192 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989) 330 Titan missiles 13 Titov, Gennadi 127 Tkachenko, Captain Viktor 243–4 Tolkachev, Adolf 283–4 Tomahawk Cruise missiles 53 Topaz see Rupp, Rainer Treholt, Arne 127–8 Trident missiles 54, 319 ‘Trinity’ atomic test 5 Tripoli 310 ‘Trojan horses’ 144–5 Trudeau, Pierre 271 Truman, Harry 6, 7, 107 Trump, Donald 31, 269, 342, 343 Tsygichko, Vitalii 239 Tupolev TU-22M ‘Backfire’ bomber 138, 247 United States budget deficit 55, 102 Ukraine 333, 334, 341 United Nations 185 Lebanese operations 203 peacekeeping force (UNIFIL) 203 Security Council 183 United States declining superpower role 342–3 defence budget 52, 66, 79, 342 intelligence community see Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); National Security Agency (NSA); Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict 203–4 military rearmament 52–4, 116 military-industrial complex 74, 303, 310 nuclear arsenal 8 nuclear programme 6–8, 9, 12 peace movement 66, 96, 96, 103 Red Scares 23, 24–5 Second World War 107 Washington KGB residency 81, 277, 278 US Air Force Air Force Intelligence 172–3, 178 PSYOPS 140–1, 142 Strategic Air Command 8, 10, 58, 90–1, 156, 190–1, 193 US Marines 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 217 US missile systems anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) 12, 13 Cruise missiles 53, 78, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 258, 270, 299, 309, 321 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 12–13, 53, 198 Minuteman missiles 195 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) 12 MX missiles 53, 98, 99 Pershing II missiles 14, 53, 78, 79, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 239, 258, 270, 299, 309, 319, 321 Stinger anti-aircraft missiles 310 submarine-launched ballistic missiles 13 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 140–1 Trident missiles 54 Vanguard missiles 9 US Navy 142 expansion 54, 138 Pacific Fleet 138 PSYOPS 142 US presidential elections 1964 26 1976 28 1980 30–1 1984 265–9 2016 269, 342 suspected Soviet influence 269, 342 USS Coral Sea 137 USS Eisenhower 140 USS Enterprise 136–7 USS Midway 137, 139 USS New Jersey 208 Ustinov, Marshal Dmitri 34–5, 87, 180, 181, 198, 215, 236, 241, 242, 255 US-South Korean Mutual Defense Treaty 149 Uzbekistan 333 Vanguard missiles 9 Velikhov, Yevgeny 104 Velvet Revolution 332 Vessey, Admiral 262 Vetrov, Captain Vladimir 143 Vietnam war 27, 29 Vladivostok 138 Volk Field Air Base 192–3 Wakkanai 162, 168, 170, 172, 174 Warsaw Pact 43, 47, 55, 86, 88, 132, 222, 318 Washington summit (1987) 321–3 Watergate 14, 28, 74 Watkins, Admiral James D. 98–9, 139–40 Weinberger, Caspar 32, 52, 58, 100, 131, 179, 262, 296, 320 Weiss, Dr Gus 144, 145 West Germany 14, 128, 319 peace movement 95 Winter War (1939–40) 40 Withhold Options 60 Wolf, Markus 85, 86, 135, 335 Wright, Oliver 260 Wyman, Jane 22, 25 Yeltsin, Boris 329, 333, 338 Yesin, General-Colonel Ivan 245 Yom Kippur War (1973) 204, 230 Yugoslavia 44 Yurchenko, Vitaly 299–300 Zapad 17 exercise 342 Zeleny 139 zero-zero option 94–5, 315, 316, 318, 321, 321–2 Zil limousines 74, 111, 112, 236 Zionists 74, 202, 203 US lobby 204 Zubok, Vlad 348


pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, NetJets, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

By the early 1970s the fixed exchange rate system was disintegrating, American economic hegemony was receding, and as these factors came into question the conservatism of financial institutions was abandoned. In 1971 President Nixon announced the abandonment of the gold standard – the US Treasury had fixed the price of gold at $35 per ounce for four decades. This amounted to a devaluation of the dollar against other currencies. America’s economic power was further challenged when the political crisis that began with the Yom Kippur War of 1973 led Arab states to impose drastic increases in the price of oil. Fig. 1: The incidence of banking crises Source: Own calculations, based on the reported numbers of major bank failures in OECD economies, from Reinhart and Rogoff (2010) Since many oil-producing countries could not easily spend their new revenues, and many oil-consuming countries did not wish to reduce what they spent, banks established a seemingly profitable business lending the petrodollars earned by oil exporters back to the governments of oil importers.

.: Hyperion 220 Loomis, Carol 108 lotteries 65, 66, 68, 72 Lucas, Robert 40 Lynch, Dennios 108 Lynch, Peter 108, 109 M M-Pesa 186 Maastricht Treaty (1993) 243, 250 McCardie, Sir Henry 83, 84, 282, 284 McGowan, Harry 45 Machiavelli, Niccolò 224 McKinley, William 44 McKinsey 115, 126 Macy’s department store 46 Madoff, Bernard 29, 118, 131, 132, 177, 232, 293 Madoff Securities 177 Magnus, King of Sweden 196 Manhattan Island, New York: and Native American sellers 59, 63 Manne, Henry 46 manufacturing companies, rise of 45 Marconi 48 marine insurance 62, 63 mark-to-market accounting 126, 128–9, 320n22 mark-to-model approach 128–9, 320n21 Market Abuse Directive (MAD) 226 market economy 4, 281, 302, 308 ‘market for corporate control, the’ 46 market risk 97, 98, 177, 192 market-makers 25, 28, 30, 31 market-making 49, 109, 118, 136 Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MIFID) 226 Markkula, Mike 162, 166, 167 Markopolos, Harry 232 Markowitz, Harry 69 Markowitz model of portfolio allocation 68–9 Martin, Felix 323n5 martingale 130, 131, 136, 139, 190 Marx, Groucho 252 Marx, Karl 144, 145 Capital 143 Mary Poppins (film) 11, 12 MasterCard 186 Masters, Brooke 120 maturity transformation 88, 92 Maxwell, Robert 197, 201 Mayan civilisation 277 Meade, James 263 Means, Gardiner 51 Meeker, Mary 40, 167 Melamed, Leo 19 Mercedes 170 merchant banks 25, 30, 33 Meriwether, John 110, 134 Merkel, Angela 231 Merrill Lynch 135, 199, 293, 300 Merton, Robert 110 Metronet 159 Meyer, André 205 MGM 33 Microsoft 29, 167 middleman, role of the 80–87 agency and trading 82–3 analysts 86 bad intermediaries 81–2 from agency to trading 84–5 identifying goods and services required 80, 81 logistics 80, 81 services from financial intermediaries 80–81 supply chain 80, 81 transparency 84 ‘wisdom of crowds’ 86–7 Midland Bank 24 Milken, Michael 46, 292 ‘millennium bug’ 40 Miller, Bill 108, 109 Minuit, Peter 59, 63 Mises, Ludwig von 225 Mittelstand (medium-size business sector) 52, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172 mobile banking apps 181 mobile phone payment transfers 186–7 Modigliani-Miller theorem 318n9 monetarism 241 monetary economics 5 monetary policy 241, 243, 245, 246 money creation 88 money market fund 120–21 Moneyball phenomenon 165 monopolies 45 Monte Carlo casino 123 Monte dei Paschi Bank of Siena 24 Montgomery Securities 167 Moody’s rating agency 21, 248, 249, 313n6 moral hazard 74, 75, 76, 92, 95, 256, 258 Morgan, J.P. 44, 166, 291 Morgan Stanley 25, 40, 130, 135, 167, 268 Morgenthau, District Attorney Robert 232–3 mortality tables 256 mortgage banks 27 mortgage market fluctuation in mortgage costs 148 mechanised assessment 84–5 mortgage-backed securities 20, 21, 40, 85, 90, 100, 128, 130, 150, 151, 152, 168, 176–7, 284 synthetic 152 Mozilo, Angelo 150, 152, 154, 293 MSCI World Bank Index 135 muckraking 44, 54–5, 79 ‘mugus’ 118, 260 multinational companies, and diversification 96–7 Munger, Charlie 127 Munich, Germany 62 Munich Re 62 Musk, Elon 168 mutual funds 27, 108, 202, 206 mutual societies 30 mutualisation 79 mutuality 124, 213 ‘My Way’ (song) 72 N Napoleon Bonaparte 26 Napster 185 NASA 276 NASDAQ 29, 108, 161 National Economic Council (US) 5, 58 National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) 255 National Institutes of Health 167 National Insurance Fund (UK) 254 National Provincial Bank 24 National Science Foundation 167 National Westminster Bank 24, 34 Nationwide 151 Native Americans 59, 63 Nazis 219, 221 neo-liberal economic policies 39, 301 Netjets 107 Netscape 40 Neue Markt 170 New Deal 225 ‘new economy’ bubble (1999) 23, 34, 40, 42, 98, 132, 167, 199, 232, 280 new issue market 112–13 New Orleans, Louisiana: Hurricane Katrina disaster (2005) 79 New Testament 76 New York Stock Exchange 26–7, 28, 29, 31, 49, 292 New York Times 283 News of the World 292, 295 Newton, Isaac 35, 132, 313n18 Niederhoffer, Victor 109 NINJAs (no income, no job, no assets) 222 Nixon, Richard 36 ‘no arbitrage’ condition 69 non-price competition 112, 219 Norman, Montagu 253 Northern Rock 89, 90–91, 92, 150, 152 Norwegian sovereign wealth fund 161, 253 Nostradamus 274 O Obama, Barack 5, 58, 77, 194, 271, 301 ‘Obamacare’ 77 Occidental Petroleum 63 Occupy movement 52, 54, 312n2 ‘Occupy Wall Street’ slogan 305 off-balance-sheet financing 153, 158, 160, 210, 250 Office of Thrift Supervision 152–3 oil shock (1973–4) 14, 36–7, 89 Old Testament 75–6 oligarchy 269, 302–3, 305 oligopoly 118, 188 Olney, Richard 233, 237, 270 open market operations 244 options 19, 22 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 263 Osborne, George 328n19 ‘out of the money option’ 102, 103 Overend, Gurney & Co. 31 overseas assets and liabilities 179–80, 179 owner-managed businesses 30 ox parable xi-xii Oxford University 12 P Pacific Gas and Electric 246 Pan Am 238 Paris financial centre 26 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards 295 partnerships 30, 49, 50, 234 limited liability 313n14 Partnoy, Frank 268 passive funds 99, 212 passive management 207, 209, 212 Patek Philippe 195, 196 Paulson, Hank 300 Paulson, John 64, 109, 115, 152, 191, 284 ‘payment in kind’ securities 131 payment protection policies 198 payments system 6, 7, 25, 180, 181–8, 247, 259–60, 281, 297, 306 PayPal 167, 168, 187 Pecora, Ferdinand 25 Pecora hearings (1932–34) 218 peer-to-peer lending 81 pension funds 29, 98, 175, 177, 197, 199, 200, 201, 208, 213, 254, 282, 284 pension provision 78, 253–6 pension rights 53, 178 Perkins, Charles 233 perpetual inventory method 321n4 Perrow, Charles 278, 279 personal financial management 6, 7 personal liability 296 ‘petrodollars’ 14, 37 Pfizer 96 Pierpoint Morgan, J. 165 Piper Alpha oil rig disaster (1987) 63 Ponzi, Charles 131, 132 Ponzi schemes 131, 132, 136, 201 pooled investment funds 197 portfolio insurance 38 Potts, Robin, QC 61, 63, 72, 119, 193 PPI, mis-selling of 296 Prebble, Lucy: ENRON 126 price competition 112, 219 price discovery 226 price mechanism 92 Prince, Chuck 34 private equity 27, 98, 166, 210 managers 210, 289 private insurance 76, 77 private sector 78 privatisation 39, 78, 157, 158, 258, 307 probabilistic thinking 67, 71, 79 Procter & Gamble 69, 108 product innovation 13 property and infrastructure 154–60 protectionism 13 Prudential 200 public companies, conversion to 18, 31–2, 49 public debt 252 public sector 78 Q Quandt, Herbert 170 Quandt Foundation 170 quantitative easing 245, 251 quantitative style 110–11 quants 22, 107, 110 Quattrone, Frank 167, 292–3 queuing 92 Quinn, Sean 156 R railroad regulation 237 railway mania (1840s) 35 Raines, Franklin 152 Rajan, Raghuram 56, 58, 79, 102 Rakoff, Judge Jed 233, 294, 295 Ramsey, Frank 67, 68 Rand, Ayn 79, 240 ‘random walk’ 69 Ranieri, Lew 20, 22, 106–7, 134, 152 rating agencies 21, 41, 84–5, 97, 151, 152, 153, 159, 249–50 rationality 66–7, 68 RBS see Royal Bank of Scotland re-insurance 62–3 Reagan, Ronald 18, 23, 54, 59, 240 real economy 7, 18, 57, 143, 172, 190, 213, 226, 239, 271, 280, 288, 292, 298 redundancy 73, 279 Reed, John 33–4, 48, 49, 50, 51, 242, 293, 314n40 reform 270–96 other people’s money 282–5 personal responsibility 292–6 principles of 270–75 the reform of structure 285–92 robust systems and complex structures 276–81 regulation 215, 217–39 the Basel agreements 220–25 and competition 113 the origins of financial regulation 217–19 ‘principle-based’ 224 the regulation industry 229–33 ‘rule-based’ 224 securities regulation 225–9 what went wrong 233–9 ‘Regulation Q’ (US) 13, 14, 20, 28, 120, 121 regulatory agencies 229, 230, 231, 235, 238, 274, 295, 305 regulatory arbitrage 119–24, 164, 223, 250 regulatory capture 237, 248, 262 Reich, Robert 265, 266 Reinhart, C.M. 251 relationship breakdown 74, 79 Rembrandts, genuine/fake 103, 127 Renaissance Technologies 110, 111, 191 ‘repo 105’ arbitrage 122 repo agreement 121–2 repo market 121 Reserve Bank of India 58 Reserve Primary Fund 121 Resolution Trust Corporation 150 retirement pension 78 return on equity (RoE) 136–7, 191 Revelstoke, first Lord 31 risk 6, 7, 55, 56–79 adverse selection and moral hazard 72–9 analysis by ‘ketchup economists’ 64 chasing the dream 65–72 Geithner on 57–8 investment 256 Jackson Hole symposium 56–7 Kohn on 56 laying bets on the interpretation of incomplete information 61 and Lloyd’s 62–3 the LMX spiral 62–3, 64 longevity 256 market 97, 98 mitigation 297 randomness 76 socialisation of individual risks 61 specific 97–8 risk management 67–8, 72, 79, 137, 191, 229, 233, 234, 256 risk premium 208 risk thermostat 74–5 risk weighting 222, 224 risk-pooling 258 RJR Nabisco 46, 204 ‘robber barons’ 44, 45, 51–2 Robertson, Julian 98, 109, 132 Robertson Stephens 167 Rockefeller, John D. 44, 52, 196 Rocket Internet 170 Rogers, Richard 62 Rogoff, K.S. 251 rogue traders 130, 300 Rohatyn, Felix 205 Rolls-Royce 90 Roman empire 277, 278 Rome, Treaty of (1964) 170 Rooney, Wayne 268 Roosevelt, Franklin D. v, 25, 235 Roosevelt, Theodore 43–4, 235, 323n1 Rothschild family 217 Royal Bank of Scotland 11, 12, 14, 24, 26, 34, 78, 91, 103, 124, 129, 135, 138, 139, 211, 231, 293 Rubin, Robert 57 In an Uncertain World 67 Ruskin, John 60, 63 Unto this Last 56 Russia defaults on debts 39 oligarchies 303 Russian Revolution (1917) 3 S Saes 168 St Paul’s Churchyard, City of London 305 Salomon Bros. 20, 22, 27, 34, 110, 133–4 ‘Salomon North’ 110 Salz Review: An Independent Review of Barclays’ Business Practices 217 Samuelson, Paul 208 Samwer, Oliver 170 Sarkozy, Nicolas 248, 249 Savage, L.J. 67 Scholes, Myron 19, 69, 110 Schrödinger’s cat 129 Scottish Parliament 158 Scottish Widows 26, 27, 30 Scottish Widows Fund 26, 197, 201, 212, 256 search 195, 209, 213 defined 144 and the investment bank 197 Second World War 36, 221 secondary markets 85, 170, 210 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 20, 64, 126, 152, 197, 225, 226, 228, 230, 232, 247, 292, 293, 294, 313n6 securities regulation 225–9 securitisation 20–21, 54, 100, 151, 153, 164, 169, 171, 222–3 securitisation boom (1980s) 200 securitised loans 98 See’s Candies 107 Segarra, Carmen 232 self-financing companies 45, 179, 195–6 sell-side analysts 199 Sequoia Capital 166 Shad, John S.R. 225, 228–9 shareholder value 4, 45, 46, 50, 211 Sharpe, William 69, 70 Shell 96 Sherman Act (1891) 44 Shiller, Robert 85 Siemens 196 Siemens, Werner von 196 Silicon Valley, California 166, 167, 168, 171, 172 Simon, Hermann 168 Simons, Jim 23, 27, 110, 111–12, 124 Sinatra, Frank 72 Sinclair, Upton 54, 79, 104, 132–3 The Jungle 44 Sing Sing maximum-security gaol, New York 292 Skilling, Jeff 126, 127, 128, 149, 197, 259 Slim, Carlos 52 Sloan, Alfred 45, 49 Sloan Foundation 49 small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), financing 165–72, 291 Smith, Adam 31, 51, 60 The Wealth of Nations v, 56, 106 Smith, Greg 283 Smith Barney 34 social security 52, 79, 255 Social Security Trust Fund (US) 254, 255 socialism 4, 225, 301 Société Générale 130 ‘soft commission’ 29 ‘soft’ commodities 17 Soros, George 23, 27, 98, 109, 111–12, 124, 132 South Sea Bubble (18th century) 35, 132, 292 sovereign wealth funds 161, 253 Soviet empire 36 Soviet Union 225 collapse of 23 lack of confidence in supplies 89–90 Spain: property bubble 42 Sparks, D.L. 114, 283, 284 specific risk 97–8 speculation 93 Spitzer, Eliot 232, 292 spread 28, 94 Spread Networks 2 Square 187 Stamp Duty 274 Standard & Poor’s rating agency 21, 99, 248, 249, 313n6 Standard Life 26, 27, 30 standard of living 77 Standard Oil 44, 196, 323n1 Standard Oil of New Jersey (later Exxon) 323n1 Stanford University 167 Stanhope 158 State Street 200, 207 sterling devaluation (1967) 18 stewardship 144, 163, 195–203, 203, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213 Stewart, Jimmy 12 Stigler, George 237 stock exchanges 17 see also individual stock exchanges stock markets change in organisation of 28 as a means of taking money out of companies 162 rise of 38 stock-picking 108 stockbrokers 16, 25, 30, 197, 198 Stoll, Clifford 227–8 stone fei (in Micronesia) 323n5 Stone, Richard 263 Stora Enso 196 strict liability 295–6 Strine, Chancellor Leo 117 structured investment vehicles (SIVs) 158, 223 sub-prime lending 34–5, 75 sub-prime mortgages 63, 75, 109, 149, 150, 169, 244 Summers, Larry 22, 55, 73, 119, 154, 299 criticism of Rajan’s views 57 ‘ketchup economics’ 5, 57, 69 support for financialisation 57 on transformation of investment banking 15 Sunday Times 143 ‘Rich List’ 156 supermarkets: financial services 27 supply chain 80, 81, 83, 89, 92 Surowiecki, James: The Wisdom of Crowds xi swap markets 21 SWIFT clearing system 184 Swiss Re 62 syndication 62 Syriza 306 T Taibbi, Matt 55 tailgating 102, 103, 104, 128, 129, 130, 136, 138, 140, 152, 155, 190–91, 200 Tainter, Joseph 277 Taleb, Nassim Nicholas 125, 183 Fooled by Randomness 133 Tarbell, Ida 44, 54 TARGET2 system 184, 244 TARP programme 138 tax havens 123 Taylor, Martin 185 Taylor Bean and Whitaker 293 Tea Party 306 technological innovation 13, 185, 187 Tel Aviv, Israel 171 telecommunications network 181, 182 Tesla Motors 168 Tetra 168 TfL 159 Thai exchange rate, collapse of (1997) 39 Thain, John 300 Thatcher, Margaret 18, 23, 54, 59, 148, 151, 157 Thiel, Peter 167 Third World debt problem 37, 131 thrifts 25, 149, 150, 151, 154, 174, 290, 292 ticket touts 94–5 Tobin, James 273 Tobin tax 273–4 Tolstoy, Count Leo 97 Tonnies, Ferdinand 17 ‘too big to fail’ 75, 140, 276, 277 Tourre, Fabrice ‘Fabulous Fab’ 63–4, 115, 118, 232, 293, 294 trader model 82, 83 trader, rise of the 16–24 elements of the new trading culture 21–2 factors contributing to the change 17–18 foreign exchange 18–19 from personal relationships to anonymous markets 17 hedge fund managers 23 independent traders 22–3 information technology 19–20 regulation 20 securitisation 20–21 shift from agency to trading 16 trading as a principal source of revenue and remuneration 17 trader model 82, 83 ‘trading book’ 320n20 transparency 29, 84, 205, 210, 212, 226, 260 Travelers Group 33, 34, 48 ‘treasure islands’ 122–3 Treasuries 75 Treasury (UK) 135, 158 troubled assets relief program 135 Truman, Harry S. 230, 325n13 trust 83–4, 85, 182, 213, 218, 260–61 Tuckett, David 43, 71, 79 tulip mania (1630s) 35 Turner, Adair 303 TWA 238 Twain, Mark: Pudd’nhead Wilson’s Calendar 95–6 Twitter 185 U UBS 33, 134 UK Independence Party 306 unemployment 73, 74, 79 unit trusts 202 United States global dominance of the finance industry 218 house prices 41, 43, 149, 174 stock bubble (1929) 201 universal banks 26–7, 33 University of Chicago 19, 69 ‘unknown unknowns’ 67 UPS delivery system 279–80 US Defense Department 167 US Steel 44 US Supreme Court 228, 229, 304 US Treasury 36, 38, 135 utility networks 181–2 V value discovery 226–7 value horizon 109 Van Agtmael, Antoine 39 Vanderbilt, Cornelius 44 Vanguard 200, 207, 213 venture capital 166 firms 27, 168 venture capitalists 171, 172 Vickers Commission 194 Viniar, David 204–5, 233, 282, 283, 284 VISA 186 volatility 85, 93, 98, 103, 131, 255 Volcker, Paul 150, 181 Volcker Rule 194 voluntary agencies 258 W wagers and credit default swaps 119 defined 61 at Lloyd’s coffee house 71–2 lottery tickets 65 Wall Street, New York 1, 16, 312n2 careers in 15 rivalry with London 13 staffing of 217 Wall Street Crash (1929) 20, 25, 27, 36, 127, 201 Wall Street Journal 294 Wallenberg family 108 Walmart 81, 83 Warburg 134 Warren, Elizabeth 237 Washington consensus 39 Washington Mutual 135, 149 Wasserstein, Bruce 204, 205 Watergate affair 240 ‘We are the 99 per cent’ slogan 52, 305 ‘We are Wall Street’ 16, 55, 267–8, 271, 300, 301 Weber, Max 17 Weill, Sandy 33–4, 35, 48–51, 55, 91, 149, 293, 314n40 Weinstock, Arnold 48 Welch, Jack 45–6, 48, 50, 52, 126, 314n40 WestLB 169 Westminster Bank 24 Whitney, Richard 292 Wilson, Harold 18 windfall payments 14, 32, 127, 153, 290 winner’s curse 103, 104, 156, 318n11 Winslow Jones, Alfred 23 Winton Capital 111 Wolfe, Humbert 7 The Uncelestial City 1 Wolfe, Tom 268 The Bonfire of the Vanities 16, 22 women traders 22 Woodford, Neil 108 Woodward, Bob: Maestro 240 World Bank 14, 220 World.Com bonds 197 Wozniak, Steve 162 Wriston, Walter 37 Y Yellen, Janet 230–31 Yom Kippur War (1973) 36 YouTube 185 Z Zurich, Switzerland 62


pages: 627 words: 127,613

Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990 by Kristina Spohr, David Reynolds

anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, oil shock, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shared worldview, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

During his speech before the Central Committee, Brezhnev had argued that the Moscow summit could advance the USSR’s Middle East policy and help stave off American pressure on Salvador Allende of Chile.93 Only a summit, he implied, could consolidate the Soviet position in the Third World. Yet in July 1972, President Anwar Sadat threw 20,000 Soviet advisers out of Egypt, part of a growing Egyptian-Soviet estrangement that was deepened by the Yom Kippur War of October 1973. And in September 1973 Allende was overthrown by a right-wing military coup, supported by the United States and its regional ally, Brazil.94 In contrast to Brezhnev, Nixon had to sell the summit afterwards, not before. In his address to Congress on 1 June, Nixon also overstated some of his gains. While cautioning that what Moscow did would not lead to ‘instant peace’, Nixon nevertheless proclaimed the ‘beginning of the end of that era that began in 1945’.95 As the November election approached, Nixon leant more towards the latter sentiment than the former.

., Jr. 158, 165 Mediterranean Declaration (1975) 110 Medvedev, Dmitry 68 Middle East 73, 77–8, 82, 85, 107, 128, 132 Mielke, Erich 20–1, 23, 38 Miki, Takeo 124 Milliardenkredite 240 Mintoff, Dom 110, 114 missiles 4, 107, 128, 130, 137, 154, 164, 166–9, 250 anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) 71, 74, 79, 161, 163–4 Euromissile 137, 140 ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCM) 129–30, 137, 141, 155, 157, 164, 172 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 70–1, 84, 137, 234 launchers 68, 71, 130, 133 medium-range 136, 162 multiple independently-targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) 84, 130, 133, 137 Pershing 1A 169 Pershing IB 169 Pershing II 129, 141, 155, 169 sea-launched cruise missiles 172 SS-18 154 SS-20 128–9, 132, 136–7, 141, 155, 158 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) 79, 107see also weapons Mitterrand, François 197, 204, 207 Mongolia 54, 186 Moscow Olympics (1980) 143, 240 Most Favored Nation (MFN) trade status 81, 103–4, 110 Munich 138, 216 mutual and balanced force reduction (MBFR) talks 100, 105, 128 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 154, 242 Najibullah, Mohammed 170 NATOsee North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO-Russia Council 246 NATO-Russia Founding Act 246 Nazis 7, 18, 23, 32, 41, 69, 219, 233–4, 246 Netherlands 105, 141 ‘New Atlanticism’ 210, 223 ‘New Cold War’ 8, 123, 138, 151, 170, 240–1 ‘New Europe’ 210, 216 New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), see treaties ‘New World Order’ 245, 247, 249 newspapers/journals 35, 104 Bild 34 Die Welt 34 Die Zeit 124 Foreign Affairs 46, 56 Neues Deutschland 34, 40 New York Times 96, 219 Pravda 96, 142 Renmin Ribao 47, 59, 190 Spectator 124 Time 48, 132 Wall Street Journal 96 Washington Post 166 Nicaragua 167 Nitze, Paul 160, 163–4 Nixon, Patricia 57 Nixon, Richard 4, 6–8, 27, 57, 98–101, 114, 143–4, 171, 181–3, 236–9, 247–50 China and 6–7, 43–61, 132, 181–3,196, 237 détente and 16, 35, 98–9, 106, 114, 153, 157 fall 106, 238, 239 Soviet Union and 67–86, 104, 106, 171, 237see also summits: Beijing 1972, Moscow 1972; Vietnam North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) 154 North Atlantic Cooperation Council 246 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 4, 8–10, 25, 30, 56, 70, 98–102, 104–5, 108–10, 124, 127–30, 137, 140–2, 155, 160, 166, 169–71, 204–5, 207–24, 234–5, 240, 244–6, 248–9 North Korea 44–5 North Vietnam 46, 50, 52, 59, 73, 76–8, 82 Nuclear weapons 8–9, 70, 127–8, 132, 160–1, 166, 211, 234see also arms, Strategic Arms Limitation Obama, Barack 68 October Revolution 173 Oder–Neisse border 17 Oliphant, Patrick 184 OPEC 132 ‘Open Skies’ proposal (Eisenhower) 105 Ostpolitik 6, 17–20, 23–4, 26, 29, 35, 99, 101, 114, 207, 211, 248 ‘Other’ 7, 237–8, 243, 246–7, 250 ‘de-Othering’ 9, 243 Pacific War (1941–5) 186, 233 Pakistan 46–9, 51–3, 71 Paris Peace Accords (1972) 82 Partnership for Peace(NATO initiative) 246 Pentagon 84, 155, 157, 166, 169, 171 People’s Republic of China, see China (PRC) perestroika 168–9, 172–3, 186, 199, 242–3 Perle, Richard 140, 164 Permanent Joint Council (NATO) 246 Ping-Pong diplomacy 49 Podgorny, Nikolai 78–80, 82, 239 Poindexter, John 164, 166–7 Pol Pot 133 Poland 17–18, 47, 69, 83, 180, 188, 190, 192, 197, 240, 243–4 Solidarity 188, 197, 240 Pompidou, Georges 99 Portuguese Empire 107 Potsdam conference (1945) 236 Powell, Colin 172 Prague 68, 209 Prague Spring, see Czechoslovakia propaganda 83, 105, 129, 131, 160, 167, 169, 180, 219 Putin, Vladimir 246–7 Qiao Guanhua 59 Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin (1971) 73, 100 Rambouillet 125, 128, see also summits Rapallo 222 rapprochement 21, 26, 34, 123, 207 change through 6, 207 German-German 16, 32, 35–6, 207, 211 Sino-American 44, 52, 54, 56, 60–1, 71, 74, 79, 114, 239 Sino-Soviet 186 Soviet-American 173 Reagan, Ronald 8, 84, 86, 109, 133, 143, 151–73, 180, 182–4, 240, 242–4, 248–50, see also summits: Moscow Red Square 151–2, 170, 173, 249 Regan, Donald 160 Reykjavik 8, 166–8, 171–3, 242, see also summits Rhineland 6 Rogers, William 49–50, 54, 57–8 Romania 47, 49, 198, 243 Rostow, Eugene 106 Russian Republic 223–4, 246–7, see also Soviet Union Rust, Mathias 170 Sadat, Anwar 85 Saddam Hussein 249 Safire, William 96, 109 Sahm, Ulrich 22, 25, 28, 31–2 Saigon 76, 107 Sakharov, Andrei 106, 131, 168, 196 San Clemente 73, 237 Schabowski, Günter 206 Schmidt, Helmut 112, 114, 122–9, 137, 140–1, 239–40, 249see also summits: Guadeloupe 1979 Schoenborn, Benedikt 237 Schüßler, Gerhard 22, 25, 31–2 Scowcroft, Brent 75, 180 Shah of Iran 83, 134 Shanghai 43, 56 Shanghai Communiqué 59–60 Shelest, Petro 78 shestidesyatniki 193 Shevardnadze, Eduard 156–7, 164, 166, 168, 170, 172–3, 212, 215–16, 221, 248–9 shorter-range INFs (SRINFs) 168–70, 172 Shultz, George 153, 157–9, 161–2, 164–6, 168–70, 173, 175, 248–9 Sino-American accommodation 46 alliance 7 axis 133 communication 182 rapprochement 44, 52, 54, 56, 60–1, 71, 74, 79, 114, 239 relations 46–50, 54, 60, 181, 183–5, 187–8 summit 191 talks 45, 52 thaw 46 Sino-British relations 56 Sino-Soviet alliance 61, 97, 187, 235 antagonism 58, 61 border 46, 61, 98, 186 conflict 46, 134 normalization 186, 191, 193 rapprochement 186 relations 186–7, 193–4, 196 split 61, 73, 186, 235see also summits: Beijing 1989 Smith, Gerard 82 socialism 6, 20–1, 25–6, 30, 35–6, 46, 61, 79, 97, 98, 102, 132, 190, 199–200 Solomon, Richard H. 183 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr 96, 106 Sonnenfeldt, Helmut 77 South Korea 44–5, 58, 155, 182 South Vietnam 46, 48, 52, 76–7 sovereignty 10, 29–30, 52, 56, 96, 102–3, 105, 113, 184, 189, 204, 215, 217–18, 220–1, 245 Soviet bloc 3, 8–9, 23, 97–101, 105–6, 114, 132, 151, 190, 211, 236, 241 Soviet Union 4–6, 45–6, 54, 58, 60–1, 67–86, 96, 98–9, 106–7, 109–12, 131–4, 136, 139, 142, 144, 151–73, 180–1, 186–90, 192, 196, 199–200, 235, 238, 240–1, 243–9 Central Committee 78, 82, 84–5, 156 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) 1, 67, 78, 111, 151, 168, 173, 216, 245 Germany and 4, 19–21, 30, 34–6, 40, 42, 98, 205–24 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 76–8, 168, 217 Politburo 72, 78, 97, 133, 156, 165–7, 196 Red Army 205, 214, 219 see also arms, Sino-Soviet, Soviet-American, summits, Vietnam Soviet–American arms control 135 competition 199 cooperation 249 détente 98–9, 106, 114 discord 122 negotiations 143 nuclear war 154 one-upmanship 187 rapprochement 173 relations 1, 6–8, 60–1, 70, 74, 76–7, 81, 85, 107, 112, 130–7, 154, 157, 173, 180–1, 197–8, 208–10, 233–51 see also summits Spangenberg, Dietrich 19, 22 Spielberg, Steven 171 Stalinism 69, 70, 156, 193 Stalin, Joseph 70, 170, 208, 233, 236 Star Wars, see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Stasi 20, 23, 25, 27 statecraft 3, 103, 233, 250 Stavropol 215, 217, 219–20 Stoessel, Walter 47 Stoph, Willi 6, 15–16, 19–20, 22–36, 40, 236, 247see also summits: Erfurt, Kassel Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) 70–4, 79, 82–4, 90, 107, 134, 242 SALT I 9, 97, 106, 130, 132, 136–7, 171, 237, 239 SALT I (Interim Agreement) 84, 106, 130, 239 SALT II (Treaty) 8, 67–8, 107, 122, 127–31, 133–43, 155, 159, 166, 172, 239 SALT III 135–6, 140, 141, 143 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II 1979), see treaties Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), see treaties Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) (Star Wars) 154, 157–67, 171, 177, 242, 248 Sukhodrev, Viktor 80 summitry 3–5, 8–9, 35, 60, 69, 84, 114, 123, 137, 144, 153, 157–8, 166, 172–3, 180, 206, 223, 233, 235–7, 242–50 advisers, role of 3–4, 6, 8–9, 248 agency and 2, 3, 248 creative 2, 247, 249–50 formal agreements and 7–9, 59, 67–8, 86, 157, 162, 197, 237, 242, 247–8, 249 institutionalized 124–5, 126 personal 1, 8, 33 plenary 33 progressive 33 reconnaissance 157, 236 significance of 247–50 summits 2–5, 114, 158, 172, 236–7, 243, 248–9 Beijing 1972 6–7, 43, 57–61, 113, 236–7 Beijing 1989 (Bush) 181, 187–9, 194 Beijing 1989 (Gorbachev) 190–4 Bonn 1978 36, 122, 125–6 Caucasus 1990 204, 206, 215, 217–24, 245 Crimea 1971 36 Erfurt 1970 5, 15–17, 22–4, 32, 34, 113, 236–7 Geneva 1955 4, 236 Geneva 1985 8, 151, 153, 156–8, 242, 244 Guadeloupe 1979 8, 122, 126–30, 140–1, 240 Helsinki 1975 8–9, 96, 110–11, 114–15, 123, 127, 144 Helsinki 1992 212 Kassel 1970 5, 15–17, 27–32, 34, 35, 113, 236 Malta 1989 1–3, 180, 198, 207–10, 216, 244, 249 Moscow 1972 4, 7, 68, 71, 79–86, 113, 237 Moscow 1988 8, 151, 153, 171–2 Paris 1960 4, 236 Paris 1990 212 Prague 2010 68 Rambouillet 1975 113–14, 124, 239 Reykjavik 1986 151, 153, 160, 162–5 Vienna 1961 2, 4, 236, 249 Vienna 1979 122, 135–7 Vladivostok 1974 107, 130–1, 133,143, 238 Warsaw Pact 1969 21 Washington 1987 8, 151, 153, 165, 171–2, 242 Sweden 110, 161 Syria 107 Taipei 52, 184 Taiwan 7, 44–5, 47–8, 52–6, 58, 132, 184, 237 expulsion from United Nations 54, 56 withdrawal of American forces 47, 51, 59 Talbott, Strobe 240 technology 3, 7, 71, 81, 84, 96, 98, 100–1, 103, 130, 142, 163, 171, 233, 237, 241, 243 Teheran 139 telemetry encryption 134–6 Teltschik, Horst 207, 215–7 Thatcher, Margaret 86, 160, 166, 169, 207 theatre nuclear forces (TNF) 142, 168 Third Reich 4, 205, 234, 245 Third World 5, 71, 85, 107, 143 Tiananmen Square 9, 181, 190–1, 194–8, 200 Togliatti, Palmiro 103 Tokyo 189 totalitarianism 106, 180 trade 7, 20, 24, 26, 30–1, 33, 58, 81, 96, 103–4, 186–7, 195, 235, 239 Transpacific Partnership 182 treaties 1, 20, 30, 35, 68 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 68, 84, 162–4, 166 Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) 1972 17, 20, 33, 36, 237 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) 160 Deutschlandvertrag 1955 29–30, 40 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty 9, 153, 170–3, 242–3 New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) 68 nuclear non-proliferation treaty 17 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty(SALT II) 68, 122 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) 68, 153, 161–2, 171–2 Treaty of Moscow 35, 71, 78–9, 101 see also agreements Treaty of Moscow (1970), see treaties triangularity 5, 8–9, 35, 60–1, 73–4, 114, 182, 194, 196, 206, 235–6 Trudeau, Pierre 75 Truman, Harry S. 44–5 Tutzing 211–12 Ulbricht, Walter 19–22 United Kingdom, see Great Britain United Nations (UN) 44–5, 54, 56, 111, 131, 157, 197, 249 Dual Representation Resolution 56 General Assembly 54, 56 Security Council 7, 52, 56, 195 United States 4–8, 16, 34–5, 43–61, 67, 69–79, 83–6, 96–7, 99–100, 102, 104, 106–8, 111–15, 122, 130–43, 151–73, 180–9, 205–6, 209–10, 213, 217, 222–4, 233–47 Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 158 Congress 70, 81, 83–5, 104, 106, 135, 162, 167 Foreign Relations Committee (FRC) 138–9 House of Representatives 167 Joint Chiefs of Staff 167 National Security Council (NSC) 39, 64–5, 75, 77, 86, 88–91, 116–17, 119–20, 157–8, 160–2, 167, 171–2, 174–8, 203, 212–13, 227 National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 153, 167, 172, 174–6, 178–9 Navy 81, 172 Senate 134, 138–40, 142, 167 Senate Armed Services Committee 140 State Department 48, 77, 113, 157, 208, 212see also Soviet-American, summits, Vietnam Universal Declaration of Human Rights 114, see also human rights uskorenie 242 US-Soviet, see Soviet-American USSR, see Soviet Union Vance, Cyrus 131–6, 139 Vanik, Charles 104 Vienna 96, 109, 122, 135–40, 143, see also summits Vietnam 5, 50, 52–3, 55–6, 72, 76–80, 82, 85, 99, 107, 131, 133–4, 170, 186, see also North Vietnam, South Vietnam Vietnam War 58, 60, 69, 70, 76–7, 79, 235–6 Vladivostok 133, 143, 238, see also summits Vogel, Ezra 190 Voß, Hans 22, 25 Walters, Vernon 53–4 Wang Bingnan 62 Warsaw 32, 45–8, 83, 100 Warsaw Pact 4, 20–1, 35, 97–8, 100, 102, 114, 128, 132, 205, 211–12, 214–15, 219, 221, 243, 245, see also summits Watergate 85, 106, 167, 237, 239 weapons aircraft 71, 84, 107, 130, 136, 164 atomic 218 atomic bomb 46, 233 enhanced radiation warheads 128 medium-range weapons 142 neutron bomb 128–9 submarines 79, 83, 107, 141 see also arms, missiles Weichert, Jürgen 25 Wei Jingsheng 185 Weinberger, Caspar 158, 161, 166–70 West Berlin, see Berlin Westbindung 246 West Germany, see Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Westpolitik 20, 23 Wilson, Harold 75, 108, 113–14, 124 Wilson, James G. 162 Winzer, Otto 20, 23, 25, 28 Wolf, Markus 20 World Bank 125 World War One 83, 233, 241 World War Two 4, 30, 41, 51, 69, 71, 78, 98, 108–9, 124, 163, 213, 218, 222, 233–5, 238 Wörner, Manfred 215 Xu Jingli 62 Yakovlev, Aleksander 156,158, 167 Yalta 96, 237 Yang Shangkun 187, 191 Yao Yilin 190 Ye Jianying 51 Yeltsin, Boris 173 Yom Kippur War 85 Zhang Ying 51 Zhao Ziyang 185, 187–8, 190–1 Zhejiang 56 Zhenbao Island 46, 72 Zhou Enlai 6–7, 44–8, 50, 55, 57,237, 249 Zubok, Vladislav 70 Zwahr, Hartmut 25


pages: 687 words: 209,474

Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East by Michael B. Oren

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, European colonialism, friendly fire, open economy, Yom Kippur War

Personal names are also formally transliterated except in cases in which the individual was accustomed to a specific spelling of his or her name in English. Some examples are Gamal Abdel Nasser (instead of Jamal ‘Abd al-Nasir), Yasser Arafat (Yasir ‘Arafat), and Mohammad El Kony (Muhammad al-Kuni). Many place names—Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus—have been preserved in their English equivalents, rather than in the original Arabic or Hebrew. FOREWORD The War of Attrition, the Yom Kippur War, the Munich massacre and Black September, the Lebanon War, the controversy over Jewish settlements and the future of Jerusalem, the Camp David Accords, the Oslo Accords, the Intifada—all were the result of six intense days in the Middle East in June 1967. Rarely in modern times has so short and localized a conflict had such prolonged, global consequences. Seldom has the world’s attention been gripped, and remained seized, by a single event and its ramifications.

While political rivals would continue to criticize his performance before and during the war—his breakdown, his inability to stand up to Dayan—the public generally credited him with victory. Riding on that crest, he would soon leave the army and serve successfully as Israel’s ambassador in Washington and then, with less aplomb, as Israel’s prime minister (1974-77) in the dreary aftermath of the Yom Kippur War. His greatest achievement was to conclude a separation-of-forces agreement in Sinai and so lay the foundation for Israel’s subsequent peace treaty with Egypt. Rabin returned to the prime minister’s office in 1992, and embarked on a strategy no less risky than the Six-Day War, seeking a historic reconciliation with the Palestinian people under the leadership of Yasser Arafat—the same Arafat whose guerrilla attacks had helped precipitate the war.

Like-minded ministers such as Zalman Aran and Haim Moshe Shapira expressed their willingness to return virtually all the captured land, except Jerusalem, and received support from an unlikely quarter: David Ben-Gurion. Never again to play a significant role in Israeli politics, permanently consigned to his bungalow in Side Boker, the once-feared martinet cautioned against the demographic dangers of annexation until his death in December 1973, in the shadows of the Yom Kippur War. But while some decision makers favored far-reaching concessions, others—“security men,” Eban dubbed them—doubted the Arab’s readiness to negotiate and, for strategic and ideological reasons, insisted on keeping most of the territories. In the Cabinet, they were led, as previously, by Yigal Allon. The labor minister—later foreign minister—voted against the Cabinet’s June 19 resolution, and lobbied for the creation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank.


pages: 141 words: 48,554

Man's Search for Meaning by Viktor E. Frankl

Yom Kippur War

The choices humans make should be active rather than passive. In making personal choices we affrm our autonomy. “A human being is not one thing among others; things determine each other,” Frankl writes, “but man is ultimately self determining. What he becomes—within the limits of endowment and environment—he has made out of himself.” For example, the darkness of despair threatened to overwhelm a young Israeli soldier who had lost both his legs in the Yom Kippur War. He was drowning in depression and contemplating suicide. One day a friend noticed that his outlook had changed to hopeful serenity. The soldier attributed his transformation to reading Man’s Search for Meaning. When he was told about the soldier, Frankl wondered whether “there may be such a thing as autobibliotherapy—healing through reading.” Frankl’s comment hints at the reasons why Man’s Search for Meaning has such a powerful impact on many readers.


pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

"Robert Solow", air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, Jones Act, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Shippers’ overwhelming choice—in economic terms, their “revealed preference”—is very strong evidence that containerization on a trade route lowered the cost of shipping. The willingness of ship lines to share revenues through arrangements such as the North Atlantic Pool in 1971 indicates their desperation as freight rates tumbled.8 Then came the oil crisis. The dramatic oil-price rises that began in 1972 and accelerated after the Yom Kippur War in October 1973 had a disproportionate impact on all transportation industries. The average price of crude oil on the world market rose from just over three dollars per barrel in 1972 to more than twelve dollars per barrel in 1974. Freight costs, whether by truck, train, or sea, rose relative to the cost of manufacturing. The new containerships were hit especially hard. Their high speeds meant that they consumed two or three times as much fuel for a given amount of freight as the breakbulk ships they replaced.

.: culture of; and flat rates; McLean purchase of; move of to New Jersey; ships of; shipyard of; and subsidies. See also McLean Industries; Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation; Sea-Land Service Weldon, Foster Wellington, New Zealand Westmoreland, William wharves; vertical piers Whirlpool Corporation whiskey shipments Whitehall Club White Star Line wholesaling Winston-Salem, NC Works Progress Administration World Bank Wriston, Walter Xerox Corp. Yokohamajapan Yom Kippur War York, PA Younger, Kenneth Zim Line


pages: 494 words: 132,975

Keynes Hayek: The Clash That Defined Modern Economics by Nicholas Wapshott

"Robert Solow", airport security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, complexity theory, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, if you build it, they will come, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, New Journalism, Northern Rock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, pushing on a string, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

When an angry Republican congressman complained, “I’m going to have to burn up a lot of old speeches denouncing deficit spending,” the president replied, “I’m in the same boat.”83 “There was always this notion that somehow if you just had [price and income controls] for a little while it would get things under control and then you could go back [to allowing prices and incomes to find their market price],” recalled Shultz. “But it turns out it’s always much easier to get into something like that than to get out of it.”84 Any chance that Nixon would be the master of his economic destiny was delivered a mortal blow by a fourfold increase in oil prices imposed by the Arab oil cartel, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), in 1973–74 to punish America for rearming Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The result was higher prices and the brakes being slammed on economic growth. Traditional tools such as the Phillips curve seemed no longer to apply. Low or no economic growth was accompanied by inflation in a combination hitherto thought impossible, dubbed “stagflation.”85 The Age of Keynes was in its death throes. The Age of Stagflation had arrived. Up against a weak opponent, George McGovern, Nixon walked to a landslide in the 1972 election.

., 128, 157, 170, 178–79, 199, 228–30, 232, 236–46, 251, 253, 261, 277, 282, 283 —wage levels and, 148 United Nations, 228, 229 United States: —banking system of, 28, 41, 84–85 —capitalism in, 46, 144–46 —domestic programs of, 157–70, 202, 205, 228, 231–32, 240, 248, 253, 256, 320n —economy of, 46, 52–53, 62, 106, 111, 141–42, 188–90, 228–46, 253–55, 261–65, 269–72 —foreign aid of, 136, 228 —Hayek’s influence in, xiii–xiv, 201–11, 234, 246, 247–65, 267–74 —inflation rate of, 230, 232, 236, 238–39, 242–46, 248, 251, 255, 261–62, 263, 267, 271 —infrastructure of, 159, 163, 189, 281 —interest rates in, 232, 235, 236, 246, 277, 280, 282, 284 —Keynesianism in, 146–47, 154–70, 188–90, 228–46, 276–84 —military spending of, 190, 231–34, 237, 241, 261, 264, 274, 276–78 —national security of, 233–34, 237, 276–77 —space program of, 234, 237 taxation in, 231, 262–63 —unemployment rate in, 128, 157, 170, 178–79, 199, 228–30, 232, 236–46, 251, 253, 261, 277, 282, 283 —Versailles Treaty and, 4–5, 155–57 —welfare programs in, 240, 264 —in World War II, 189–90, 229, 234 University of Chicago Press, 194, 201–2, 212, 216, 247 utilities, 291 utopias, 290–91, 292 value: —of currency, 22–23 —determination of, 5, 22–23 —of equipment (depreciation), 105–6, 118–19 —of goods, 74–75, 101, 117 —monetary, 22–23, 74–75, 120–21, 161 Vanity Fair, 157 “velocity of circulation,” 26, 33, 104, 136 Versailles Treaty, xii, xiii, 3, 4–5, 8–14, 17, 28, 56, 68, 84, 136, 137, 155–57, 158, 189 Vienna, xi–xiii, 1–3, 15–16, 17, 18–21, 27, 29–30, 40, 44, 111, 145, 214–15 Vienna, University of, 3, 15, 19, 20–22, 140 Vietnam War, 241 Viner, Jacob, 216, 221–22, 329n Volcker, Paul, 246, 261, 263, 286 voluntary savings, 104, 107 von Szeliski, Victor, 164 voting rights, 140 wages, 32, 38–39, 60, 63, 118, 119–20, 134, 135, 148, 188, 241 —controls on, 243–44 —increases in, 118, 119–20, 134 —production costs and, 119–20 Walras, Léon, 74 war debt, 4–5, 8–14, 21–22, 31–32, 84, 155–57, 206 warfare, 4, 137, 138, 190–92, 194, 229, 231–34 war on poverty, 240 war on terror, 276–78 “War Potential and War Finance” (Keynes), 191–92 Watergate scandal, 244 wealth accumulation, 56–57, 117–20, 127, 143–44, 149–50, 222, 241, 279, 287 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 218 Webb, Beatrice, 24, 64 Webb, Sidney, 24 Weber, Max, 21, 304n Wedgwood, Veronica, 212, 329n weights and measures, 201 Weimar Republic, 9 welfare state, 199–200, 201, 222, 227, 233, 234–35, 240, 249–50, 253, 258–61, 264, 267, 288–89, 295 Westminster Abbey, 226 wholesale prices, 62 “Why I Am Not a Conservative” (Hayek), 220 Wicksell, Knut, 42, 43, 48, 55, 74, 91, 100, 103, 120 “widow’s cruse,” 127 Wieser, Friedrich von, 20, 21–22 Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, 9 William Volcker Charities Fund, 211, 216, 218 Wilson, Woodrow, 4–5, 11, 28, 155–57, 161 Winant, John, 226 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 3, 114, 300n Wolfson, Adam, 288–89, 292 Woolf, Leonard, 53, 226 Woolf, Virginia, 5, 53, 301n Wootton, Barbara, 202–3, 320n, 326n “Working of the Price Mechanism in the Course of the Credit Cycle, The” (Hayek), 76–78 World Bank, 136, 193 WorldCom, 278 World War I, 3–5, 16, 19–20, 22, 55–56, 68, 69, 72, 84, 155–57, 189 World War II, 136, 189–92, 229, 234 Wright, Quincy, 85 Yale University, 271 Yom Kippur War, 244 Yugoslavia, 16, 17 Zionism, 158 More praise for KEYNES HAYEK “An essential primer on the two men who shaped modern finance.” —Newsweek “This lively book explores one of the most pressing economic questions of our time: To what extent should governments intervene in markets? . . . Underlying Mr. Wapshott’s analysis are vital questions for this moment in American history: What kind of society do we want?


pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It was 15 shekels, about $4, and she ushered me through with a flick of her wrist. I walked past a turnstile, past a short line of grey, industrial concrete walls and out into a courtyard of focused, broiling air. It was over 95 degrees Fahrenheit, and you sympathised with the guards in their thick uniforms under the unwavering disc of a midday sun. A map pointed me to the huts I wanted – numbers 10 and 14. The first was for ‘The Six-day War’ exhibit, the other ‘The Yom Kippur War’. But I was not drawn there by the histories of Israel’s wars, I wanted to go there because these huts were filled with guns. Perhaps it was no surprise that the IDF museum would dedicate its gun rooms to such influential conflicts in its brief history. After all, the Israeli army is awash with firearms – about 1.75 million of them.22 This works out at roughly 22 guns held by Israeli soldiers for 100 of its citizens.

Devoid of context, such as I found with the police armoury in São Paulo, or a guide, as given me in Leeds, it was as boring as the sun outside was hot. So it is with many military museums. As if guns themselves deserved veneration: a room where you have to speak in a hushed voice and look solemn. I took a selfie with my phone and wondered just how long it would take someone to run in and shoot me if I broke one of the glass panes to get a pistol. Then I did myself a favour and left. The next hut, dedicated to the Yom Kippur War, had two green-clad mannequins facing you as you opened the door. For a second I was spooked. But this room was filled with rifles, not people. There were forty cabinets of them, white-framed, glass-fronted as before. Inside were long guns; muzzle-loaders; assault and sub-machine-guns; light, medium and heavy machine-guns; training and target rifles. Guns from all over the world – Chinese, Polish, Egyptian, Lebanese, Greek, Bulgarian.


pages: 505 words: 133,661

Who Owns England?: How We Lost Our Green and Pleasant Land, and How to Take It Back by Guy Shrubsole

back-to-the-land, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, congestion charging, deindustrialization, digital map, do-ocracy, Downton Abbey, financial deregulation, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, housing crisis, James Dyson, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, linked data, loadsamoney, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, openstreetmap, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, web of trust, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The old aristocracy fared the worst out of this, but the newly moneyed had their wings clipped, too. For the next half-century, their share of national income and wealth declined as those of the middle and working classes rose. Then, in December 1973, oil prices suddenly doubled overnight, and the world was turned upside down. Oil-exporting Middle Eastern states, operating through the OPEC cartel, had cut production and hiked prices in retaliation for US support for Israel in the Yom Kippur war. The repercussions for oil-dependent Western economies were immediate and catastrophic. It was a wake-up call for post-imperial Britain: still bewitched by nostalgic dreams about its former grandeur, its standing in the world was fast changing. A BBC interview with Sheikh Ahmed Yamani, Saudi oil minister at the time, distilled the situation: BBC INTERVIEWER: Doesn’t this new, massive increase in the price of oil mean a change in the world balance of power, between the developing nations – you, the producers – and us, the developed, industrialised nations?

(BBC documentary, 2006) 87, 90, 114 Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire 253–4 Wightman, Andy 4, 32, 49 Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) 257 Wildlife Trust 20, 255 William the Conqueror 25–6, 48, 49, 73, 75, 77, 232, 270 William, Prince 65 Williams, Frank 18 Williams, Gwyn 285 Wilson, Harold 63, 102, 230 Windsor 121 Windsor Castle 47, 61 Windsor Great Park 53, 134 Winn-Darley, George 248n Winstanley, Gerrard 78–9, 210–13, 214, 217, 232, 291 Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire 65, 101, 300 Women for Life on Earth 14 Woodcraft Folk 251 Woodland Trust 265, 298 Woolf, Virginia 80 Wordsworth, William 245, 246–7; Guide to the Lakes 244 Worms Heath Gravel Company 215 Wright, Patrick, The Village that Died for England 157 Wyndham Land Act (1903) 209 Yamani, Sheikh Ahmed 119–20 Yattendon Estate 16, 17, 304 Yattendon village 16–17 Yellowstone 248 Yemen 133 Yom Kippur war (1973) 119 Yorkshire Dales 248 Yosemite 248 Youth Hostels Association (YHA) 251 Zetland, Lawrence Dundas, 2nd Marquess 241 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS If it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a movement to write a book. This book couldn’t have been written without the help, support, inspiration and love given to me by many friends, colleagues and activists within England’s growing movement for land reform.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

One of the primary purposes of the United States’ military encroachment into the Arab world over the past half century has been to protect the flows of oil to Europe and the United States. Four decades ago, Gulf countries used oil as a weapon against the West, embargoing their exports to the United States after President Nixon pulled the United States off the gold standard. When the United States backed Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the Gulf exporters pushed oil prices up five-fold. But the increasingly self-sufficient United States and the renewables-focused Europe require less and less Gulf energy. Once the energy-focused “Carter Doctrine” to unilaterally protect Saudi oil flows expired, US priorities shifted toward boosting arms sales to Gulf nations, stabilizing Iraq, and containing Iran. Yet nearly thirty years after rallying the Gulf countries to expel Saddam Hussein’s armies from Kuwait and establishing a massive network of bases to promote Arab military cooperation, the United States found that its efforts to turn the Gulf Cooperation Council into a “NATO of the Middle East” had failed.

(Conrad), 28 WhatsApp, 320 Wilson, Woodrow, 287 Wolf Warrior 2 (film), 263 women’s rights, 314–15 Wong Kar-wai, 347 World Bank, 109, 110, 323, 324 Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) of, 309 World Cup (2016), 244–45 World Giving Index, 316 world order: Asia and, 9, 12–16, 357–59 as multipolar, 15–16, 357 regional systems in, 13–14 World Order (Kissinger), 357 World Trade Organization (WTO), 2, 159, 195, 323 worldview, Asian vs. Western, 10–11 World War I, 2, 49 World War II, 2, 11, 50–51 xenophobia, of Asians, 329 Xi Jinping, 10, 110, 111, 119, 137, 150, 161, 182, 194, 242, 249, 268, 300, 301–2, 310 Xinjiang, 59, 117, 182, 319 Yang Shihua, 182 Yangtze River, 30, 31, 42 Yellow River, 42 Yemen, 96, 106, 107, 251 yoga, 332 Yom Kippur War, 101 Yongle (Zhu Di), Ming emperor, 42–43 Yuan Dynasty, 40 Yuezhi people, 32 Zambia, 263 Zhang Weiwei, 137 Zhao Tingyang, 137 Zheng He, Chinese admiral, 42, 69 Zhongguo (Middle Kingdom), 30 Zhou Dynasty, 30, 31 Zhou Enlai, 56 Zoroastrianism, 30, 32, 36, 69, 70 ZTE, 194 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2019 by Parag Khanna All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever.


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

In 1973, the Pentagon created the influential US Army Training and Doctrine Command, known simply as TRADOC. TRADOC’s first commander was General William DePuy, veteran of the Battle of the Bulge in World War II and a famously tough leader. Standing on a windswept hill in Israel’s Golan Heights in 1974, DePuy had seen the future of war. The barren landscape was littered with wrecked Syrian tanks and armored personnel carriers. In the blazingly quick Yom Kippur War, the Israelis had destroyed a much larger force, thanks to superior weapons and superior tactics—and in the process they showed the world what future war would look like. DePuy focused his reforms on firepower and active defense. The lesson from Israel was that wars could be won nearly immediately. What really mattered was winning the first battle. DePuy enshrined some of these ideas in a famous doctrinal document, Field Manual 100-5.

., 83 Bertrand Russell and, 85 Science magazine article on automation, 95–96 and second Industrial Revolution, 82–83 and self-replicating machines, 89 “Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation,” 120–21 spiritual aspects of cybernetics, 348 spiritual consequences of automation, 82–85 and von Neumann’s virus studies, 115 and the WELL, 194 and Whole Earth Catalog, 169 “Wiener circle,” 47 Wiesner, Jerome, 47, 58 Wild West, cyberspace as, 240, 260 Williams, Robin, 242 Williams Air Force Base, 202 Winstar Communications, 289 Wired magazine, 264, 280, 289 work income and, 106 and metaphorical cyborgs, 153–54 World Trade Center bombing (1993), 308 World War I, 37, 38 World War II, 8–42, 73–75 air defense batteries during, 38 and aviation medicine, 122–23 evolution of airpower during, 4 origins of cybernetics, xi–xii shifts in control and communication, 3 World War III, 71 Wozniak, Steve, 184 Wren, Sir Christopher, 9 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 198–206, 317 Wright State University, 319 X-39 nuclear-powered turbine, 128 X-211 nuclear-powered turbine, 128 XOR, 189 XT-1 antiaircraft truck/gun, 20, 21 Yahoo!, 244 Year 2000, The (Kahn), 111 Yeltsin, Boris, 329 Yom Kippur War, 299 Young, John, 284 Zimmerman, Thomas, 213–14 Zimmermann, Phil, 261, 277 Copyright © 2016 by Thomas Rid All rights reserved First Edition Brautigan, Richard: From All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace by Richard Brautigan. Copyright © 1976 by Richard Brautigan, renewed 1995 by Ianthe Brautigan Swenson. Reprinted with the permission of the Estate of Richard Brautigan; all rights reserved.


pages: 611 words: 130,419

Narrative Economics: How Stories Go Viral and Drive Major Economic Events by Robert J. Shiller

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, implied volatility, income inequality, inflation targeting, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, Jean Tirole, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, litecoin, market bubble, money market fund, moral hazard, Northern Rock, nudge unit, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, publish or perish, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, stocks for the long run, superstar cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, yellow journalism, yield curve, Yom Kippur War

The Arab oil embargo began in October 1973 during the Arab-Israeli (Yom Kippur) War. The embargo took the form of limiting the supply of oil from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which sympathized with the Arab nations that had attacked Israel and were about to be defeated, with US support of Israel. The embargo was a principle- or emotion-driven event, continuing long after the war ended in the same month it started. It was a statement of moral support for the Arab countries, even though only one of the eleven OPEC countries (Iraq) was among the five Arab countries that participated in the war. Many of the narratives surrounding the recession of 1973–75 had a source in human anger. The most cited cause of this recession—the oil crisis generated by OPEC angrily protesting US support of Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War—was only part of the story.


pages: 840 words: 224,391

Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel by Max Blumenthal

airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, housing crisis, knowledge economy, megacity, moral panic, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

On the massacre at Deir Yassin, where more than one hundred Palestinian villagers were massacred in 1948, he remarked, “Deir Yassin was a fight. They were asked to surrender. They didn’t want to surrender. . . . It’s not a massacre. It’s not coming into Tel Aviv and planting a bomb in a bus.” On the Palestinian refugees: “They were leaving because they were promised that they would leave now, that they would come back in three months, and then they would be able to rape our daughters and our wives.” And on the 1973 Yom Kippur War, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel to recover land Israel had occupied: “We didn’t have anything to do with Egypt or Syria, and were attacked again.” To Rotem, Israel was a perpetual victim with no responsibility for the cycles of violence and tragedy. Rotem met Lieberman while serving as a legal adviser to the Gush Emunim during their first foray into the West Bank in the late 1970s. After helping Lieberman establish the settlement of Nokdim just over the hills from Efrat, Rotem set up a law office to assist the waves of religious nationalist settlers seeking a foothold in Greater Israel.

We’ve already passed the limit. The next cycle of violence will be more, and there will be less Israelis saying anything against it, not because they don’t want to, but because they fear the laws and breaking with the Knesset.” 37 Bleeding Over the Party Soon after meeting Itamar Shapira, I became friendly with his older brother, Yonatan. Born to an Air Force squadron commander who fought in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Yonatan Shapira was reared to continue his family’s distinguished military legacy. During his adolescence and early adulthood, he was shaped to be the virile but sensitive scholar who wrote poetry and played guitar after landing his helicopter on a verdant hillside—the quintessential enlightened Israeli alpha male. So while he was weaned on humanistic, liberal values, Yonatan prepared to enter an elite unit of the Israeli Air Force.

See Separation wall(s) A Wall in Palestine (Backmann), 355 Warsaw Ghetto, 201 Weiss, Shuki, 211 Weissglass, Dov, 20 Weitz, Yosef, 185 Weizman, Ezer, 292 Weizmann, Chaim, 56 West Bank, 366 Area C, 32, 368, 374, 375, 394 electrified fencing for, 355 protests in, 370, 372 protests outlawed by Order 101, 360 refugee camps, 387 separation wall, 338, 347, 355 settlements, Netanyahu’s support for, 7, 32–33 teachers’ trip to checkpoints proposed, 297 Western Wall, 29, 244, 265, 310 Wilf, Einat, 222 Will, George, 29 Wind, Maya, 409–410 Wolf, Arnold Jacob, 274 Wolf, Bekah, 362 Women, 292–294, 313–320 anti-miscegenation campaign, 298–299, 316–320, 342–343 babies, production valued by state, 42, 313–314 babies, recommended number of, 313 “heroine mothers” designation, 314 in the military, 292–294 warnings about Africans, 342 Woody (pseudonym), 105–107 Workplace, restrictions and boycotts of Arabs in, 44, 314, 317 Ya’alon, Moshe, 358 Yad La-Shiryon, 282 Yad L’Achim, 319–320 Yad Vashem museum, 193 Deir Yassin overlook from, 199–200 Yahav, Yonah, 146 Yakobov, Avi, 253 Yarkon, Shuli Linda, 187 Yarom, Tamar, 251 Yedioth Ahronoth, 11, 39, 324, 340, 343, 347, 373–374 Yehoshua, A. B., 6, 274 The Yellow Wind (Grossman), 272–273 Yesh Din, 218, 308, 321 Yishai, Eli, 18, 138, 166 calls for resignation, 183, 184 on deportation of Africans, 339, 346 Yisrael Ba’Aliyah Party, 19 Yisrael Beiteinu Party, 10, 16, 27, 328 Lieberman as founder of, 10, 22 Nakba Law, 58 popularity of, 59–60 positions on rights of Arabs, 224 Rotem, David, and, 69 Yitzar, 308, 309, 310 Yom Kippur War, 71 Yosef, Rabbi Ovadiah, 18–19, 184, 304 wife of, 315 Yosef, Yaakov, 302, 305 Young, Jewish, and Proud, 209, 210 Youth, 321–324 change from within, 269–271 Israeli, raised on racism, 176–178 Israeli, violence among, 15–16, 49–50, 51, 135, 323–324, 342 Palestinian, post-Oslo generation, 154–157 refusal of military service, 269, 278–280 YouTube, 253 Zahalon, Jacob, 43 Zayyad, Tawfiq, 78–79 Zayyad, Toufiq, 134 Ze’ei, Rehavam, 389 Zehalka, Jamal, 63, 129, 131 Zeiser, Shlomo, 175 Zion Square, beating in, 323–324 Zionists/Zionism, 351–352 Acceptance to Communities Law, 72, 77, 84, 85, 87, 88, 173, 226 art displayed in Knesset, 57 attack of Jaffa, 44–45 Christian Zionists, 177, 179–182 disillusionment with, 56–57, 64–68, 106, 170, 205, 237–238 Im Tirtzu and, 116–117, 224–226, 229–233 Institute for Zionist Strategies, 130, 229–230, 232 Jewish demographic majority, maintaining, 73–74, 87, 138–139, 173, 354, 355–356 neo-Zionism, 229–237 opposition to, 265–268 Second Zionist Revolution, 232, 234, 236 values of, 140–142 Zoabi, Hanin, 122–127, 223, 232 Anti-Incitement Act and, 131 cousins of, 132–133 death threats to, 131 end of democracy envisioned by, 139 on Gaza Freedom Flotilla, 103 heckling and reaction to Knesset flotilla speech, 123–127 Knesset sanctions and punishment, 130–131, 138 post-flotilla actions and attitude of, 131, 137–139 speech in Knesset on Gaza Freedom Flotilla, 122–124 Zochrot, 53 Zuabi, Abd El-Rahman, 132, 138


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

The economy that had been so strong in the mid-1960s had turned sour: by 1970 unemployment was running at 6 percent, interest rates had reached new heights, and the economy as a whole found itself pinched between inflation and recession.34 The resulting “stagflation,” as it was called at the time, led the Nixon administration to institute wage and price controls. In early 1973 inflation picked up steam again, and in the fall of 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries established an oil embargo in response to America’s support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. By the time the embargo was lifted in the spring of 1974, oil prices had risen some 300 percent. [ 120 ] Chapter 4 In 1973 the Nixon administration removed the last of America’s combat troops from Vietnam. The war that had provoked a decade of demonstrations was ending, for Americans at least. But the end of the war did not provide an end to the sense of crisis among young Americans, or many of their elders.

51 Whyte, William, 42 Wiener, Norbert, 5; anti-aircraft predictor, 107, 178; Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, 22, 52, 83; fear of automation, 23; fear of the ways science could be used to undermine human goals, 265n41; “first generation” of cyberneticians, 122; The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, 22, 53, 191; I Am a Mathematician, 20 –21; influence on Whole Earth community, 4, 43, 49; interdisciplinary entrepreneurial work, 24 –25; on mass media, 179; systems theories, 243; view of information systems as sources of moral good, 23 –24, 228; vision of the world as an information system seeking homeostasis, 225, 234; war-related research, 20 –22 Wiese, Elizabeth Reba, 152 –53 Wiesner, Jerome, 177 Wilkinson, Lawrence, 184, 212 Wired, 3, 6, 7, 91; Barlow’s work in, 167; on Brockman, 129; and Dyson, 222; editorial process, 216; features on Electronic Frontier Foundation, 218; features on Global Business Network, 218, 221; features on Media Lab, 218, 221; financial status, 288n61; founding of, 209 –12; and Gilder, 222; and Gingrich, 222; interview between [ 327 ] Dyson and Gingrich, 231; March 1993 inaugural issue, 207; profiles of the Global Business Network, the Media Lab, and the WELL, 221; public offering, 235 –36; relationship with Dyson, 222; target audience, 218; vision of the digital future carried with it a version of the countercultural past, 208 –9; and Whole Earth network, the computer industry, and the Republican right, 223; and Whole Earth world, 212 –22 Wired Women, 152 Wolfe, Tom, 63, 65, 66; The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, 62, 220 Wolff, Michael, 211 Women on the WELL, 152 –53 Women’s Liberation Movement, 98 Woodhead, Robert, 136 World Economic Forum, 7, 13 WorldView Meetings, 188 World War II, triggered a transformation in American science, 17 World Wide Web, 213, 214, 247 “worm,” 167 Wozniak, Steve, 133, 136, 138, 172 Wurman, Richard Saul, 177, 211 Xerox, 106, 193 Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 106, 111; Brand and, 246 – 47; Catalog as a conceptual resource book, 111, 112 –13; ethos of information sharing, 116, 117; and Kelly, 176; minicomputers, 129; personal computing, 117; researchers saw themselves as explorers on the edge of a technological frontier, 113; and “Spacewar” article, 118 Yom Kippur War, 119 “young game hackers,” 134 youth movement of 1960s, 28, 33. See also antiwar protests; Free Speech Movement Zen Buddhism, 46 Zomeworks, 110 Zuboff, Shoshanna, 2, 278n23


pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

The Smithsonian Agreement had settled on a dollar standard, ‘Bretton Woods without the gold’.3 According to Paul Volcker, who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1979 to 1987, the two years during which the Agreement held were ‘the most economically turbulent of the postwar period up to that point’.4 Of course, events in the Middle East would soon alter the perception of what ‘economic turbulence’ really involved. The Yom Kippur War of October 1973 had been preceded by ‘near-panic buying [of oil] by US and European independents [oil companies] as well as the Japanese’. These purchases sent ‘oil prices sky-rocketing’.5 For years, the Arab world had spoken in hushed tones of the hazily defined ‘oil weapon’ that could be used to achieve their various objectives in the politics of their region. This threat had been disregarded so long as American oil production still had spare capacity.

., 153 Wilson, Edward, 28 Wilson, Woodrow, 107–8 ‘window guidance’, 197, 199 Withers, Hartley, 91, 99 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 98 Witton, Sir John, 230 Wodehouse, P. G., 105 Wood, Charles, 57–8 wool, 55, 70 Woolf, Virginia, 98 World Bank, 156, 289 establishment of, 140, 145–6, 351 World Economic Conference, 131 Wriston, Walter, 230 Xinhua News Agency, 298–9 Yamani, Sheikh Ahmed Zaki, 229–30 yen, dollar exchange rate, 194–5, 197, 200, 254, 299 yield, see ‘search for yield’ Yom Kippur War, 223–4, 229 Young Plan, 123 yuan (renminbi), value of, 285–8, 291–2, 296–9, 319, 358 zaibatsu, 191 Zakaria, Fareed, 355–6 Zandi, Mark, 314 Zhu Rongji, 288–9, 291–6 Zhuo Lin, 282 A NOTE ON THE AUTHOR Kwasi Kwarteng was born in London to Ghanaian parents. He has a PhD in History from Cambridge University and was elected as the Member of Parliament for Spelthorne in Surrey. His first book, Ghosts of Empire, was published to critical acclaim in 2011.


pages: 488 words: 150,477

Lemon Tree: An Arab, a Jew, and the Heart of the Middle East by Sandy Tolan

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, colonial rule, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, one-state solution, The Spirit Level, Yom Kippur War

And if it is an answer, it is not an answer I can accept." At times, Dalia would consider entering into a new discussion with the family. But then she would remember the Supersol bombing. In the fifteen years Bashir spent inside Israeli jails, wars would be fought and lost and leaders would rise and be shot down. In 1973, Egypt launched a surprise attack in what came to be known in Israel as the Yom Kippur War. An American president, Richard Nixon, resigned in disgrace, to be replaced by Gerald Ford, and then Jimmy Carter, who spoke of human rights and peace in the Middle East. Civil war broke out in Lebanon, where the Israelis would launch two invasions. In 1974 Arafat addressed the United Nations in New York, to the fury of Israel and thousands of American demonstrators, but to a standing ovation in the General Assembly, where he offered his dream of the "Palestine of tomorrow," whereby Arab and Jew would live side by side in a secular, democratic state.

On November 19, 1977, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made an unprecedented trip to Jerusalem, signaling his willingness to make a separate peace with Israel despite the continuing opposition of the rest of the Arab world. Two years later, after intense negotiations with U.S. president Jimmy Carter, Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin signed the Camp David accords, which ended the state of war between Egypt and Israel. It had been twelve years since the Arab world suffered catastrophic losses in the Six Day War and six years since Egypt had regained a measure of military respect in the Yom Kippur War, or what the Palestinians knew as the October War, of 1973; now, following Camp David, Israel would begin its pullout from the Sinai Peninsula. For many in the West, in Israel, and in Egypt, Sadat was a hero, a statesman who risked his life to make peace across what Rabin would call the "wall of hate surrounding Israel"; it was, for supporters, a necessary first step toward a Middle East finally at peace.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The oil-exporting countries had banded together into OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) in 1960 to combat the downward pressure on prices. Domestic oil fields had started to run out, forcing America to turn to new fields that were much more difficult to exploit. In 1973, 36 percent of the oil that Americans consumed was imported from abroad, compared with 22 percent in 1970. OAPEC’s decision in October 1973 to impose an oil embargo on America as punishment for its support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War thus squeezed the U.S. economy. Motorists waited in line for hours for a chance to fill their tanks and supplies frequently ran out. Tempers flared. Fists flew. In one extreme case, a station attendant was shot dead. The government tried everything it could to deal with its energy problem. Washington urged Americans to turn down their thermostats, reduced the speed limit to fifty-five miles per hour, invested in new forms of energy, and established a Department of Energy.

., 295 Wikipedia, 354 Wilder, Laura Ingalls, 111 Williamson, Oliver, 210 Wilson, Charles, 289 Wilson, Edmund, 224 Wilson, Henry, 167 Wilson, Kemmons, 293 Wilson, Woodrow, 25, 152–53, 156–57, 178, 179, 184–86, 199, 230, 232, 427 Wolfe, Tom, 338 women workers, 362–65, 434, 435, 437 Woodruff, Ernest, 215 Woodruff, Robert, 215 Woolf, Virginia, 428 Woolworth, Frank, 95, 140–41 Woolworth Building, 92 Wordsworth, William, 38 Work, Hubert, 217 worker displacement, 21–22 workforce, 359–65, 398 workforce growth rate, 403–4 work hours, 208–9 workweek, 430–31, 454 World Bank, 278 WorldCom, 337 World Trade Organization (WTO), 278, 346 World War I, 184, 185–86, 187–88, 227, 267 World War II, 4, 267, 268–70 casualties, 275–76 post-war economic expansion, 270–72, 273–98 World Wide Web (WWW), 348–49 Wozniak, Steve, 323–24 Wright, Orville and Wilbur, 107–9 Wrigley, Philip, 209 Wyeth, Nathaniel, 70 Xerox Corporation, 350 Xerox PARC, 283, 319 Xi Jinping, 371 Yablochkov, Pavel, 105 Yale University, 364 Yerkes, Charles Tyson, 94 Yom Kippur War, 309 Young, Brigham, 45, 111–12 Zero to One (Thiel), 423 Zhu Rongji, 371 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ About the Authors Alan Greenspan was born in 1926 and reared in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. After studying the clarinet at Juilliard and working as a professional musician, he earned his B.S., M.A., and Ph.D. in economics from New York University.


pages: 519 words: 148,131

An Empire of Wealth: Rise of American Economy Power 1607-2000 by John Steele Gordon

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buttonwood tree, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, global village, imperial preference, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, margin call, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Yom Kippur War

But by the 1970s, as rich American fields were increasingly depleted and new ones became ever more expensive to exploit, cheaper foreign oil began to flow into the country in larger and larger amounts. Naturally, it wasn’t long before the oil-exporting countries sought to take advantage of this situation, forming a cartel called OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) to raise prices. As a result of the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbors, many oil-exporting countries refused to export to the United States. Long lines formed at gas stations in what had always been the quintessential “land of plenty,” while prices for oil products rose steeply. It came as a profound shock to most Americans and to the American economy, as the cost of petroleum affects the price of nearly every other product.

ICBMs, capable of utterly destroying whole cities in an instant, made wars between Great Powers irrational because they were now unwinnable in any real sense. So the United States and the Soviet Union, locked in a profound geopolitical struggle, had to find other ways in which to compete. But ICBMs also engendered a deep fear that events might spin out of control, as they had on the eve of the First World War, and lay the world waste in a nuclear holocaust. Twice, in the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and the Yom Kippur War of 1973, that came perilously close to happening. One means for the United States and the Soviet Union to battle for supremacy was via proxy wars, such as those in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan. Another was by using the technology of the rocket to explore outer space. The Soviet Union stunned the world on October 4, 1957, when it launched the world’s first earth-orbiting satellite, Sputnik.


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The Middle East’s importance as an oil-producing centre steadily increased through the twentieth century. Serious production of oil in Iraq began in 1934; and the first successful well in Saudi Arabia started pumping in 1938 and eventually produced 32m barrels.32 Before the Second World War, the Middle East produced 5% of the world’s oil; by 1959, it was 25%;33 and by 1970 it was 30%.34 The Arab countries demonstrated their power in the wake of the Yom Kippur war of 1973 when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) cartel embargoed supplies to countries that supported Israel and pushed through a quadrupling in the price of crude (see also Chapter 12). But higher oil prices spurred a greater focus both on energy saving in the Western world and on the search for oil in more remote places. In the 1970s, Britain and Norway were able to develop drilling rigs in the deep and stormy North Sea, and a large oil field was found in Prudhoe Bay, off the Arctic coast of Alaska in 1967.

In 1967, the British introduced a legal limit for drivers’ alcohol consumption; US states followed suit in the late 1970s. These safety measures did reduce road fatalities, which peaked in absolute terms in the US at 55,000 per year in the late 1960s; in terms of fatalities per mile travelled, the rate has halved since that period.43 Big changes also came in the 1970s when the surge in oil prices that followed the Yom Kippur War (between Arab nations and Israel) encouraged fuel-efficient cars. The giant “gas guzzlers” produced by Ford and General Motors lost market share to smaller Japanese imports. Governments also encouraged manufacturers to improve fuel consumption. The small-car phase did not last that long. When oil prices were low again in the 1990s, consumers bought larger cars in the form of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and minivans.


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Come Fly With Us: NASA's Payload Specialist Program by Melvin Croft, John Youskauskas, Don Thomas

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, Elon Musk, gravity well, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Ronald Reagan, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

He was accepted into the Israeli air force in September of 1972. As was customary for Israelis, Ilan would change his name to Hebrew as he began his military service, in honor of his home country. Taking a combination of the letters from his father’s name, he came up with Ramon, as he would be known for the rest of his life. Ilan Ramon was a naturally gifted pilot and was even sent into combat while still a trainee, during the Yom Kippur War of 1973. He would go on to fly the American-built A-4 attack jet, the French Mirage IIIC, and eventually the General Dynamics F-16. It was his expertise in the F-16 that would lead to his selection to participate in a daring top secret raid to destroy an Iraqi nuclear facility in Tuwaitha on 7 June 1981. A year later, Ramon would again distinguish himself in combat during the Lebanon War, in which the Israeli air force downed eighty-two Syrian MiG fighters in less than two days.

See Ramon, Ilan women in spaceflight program, 19, 195, 278, 350 Wood, Munro, 281, 283, 302 Wood, Nigel, 370 Wood, Robert, 281–83, 282, 300, 302–3 World War II, 137 Wright, Keith C., 165, 175 Wright, Rebecca, 85, 91, 168, 201, 245, 340 X-20 Dyna-Soar, 166, 223 X-33 technology demonstration, 219 X-34 technology demonstration, 219 X-37 projects, 219–20 X-Prize flights, 387 x-ray astronomy research, 259, 370 XRT (x-ray telescope), 130–31 Yardley, John, 20–21, 35–36 Yeakel, Glenn Scott, 195, 202 Yom Kippur War (1973), 378 Young, Dick, 186 Young, John, 25, 29, 42, 56, 64, 66, 92, 129 Yurchikhin, Fyodor, 218 Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, 260 zero gravity: adjusting to, 185, 231, 236, 285, 289, 291, 327; as fun, 121, 149, 211, 298; research and, 188, 301, 330, 345–46; risks caused by, 294 Zoo Crew, 226 About Melvin Croft Melvin Croft has over thirty years of experience as a geologist and is a member of the organization collectSpace, which is dedicated to educating the public about historical and current space exploration.


pages: 807 words: 154,435

Radical Uncertainty: Decision-Making for an Unknowable Future by Mervyn King, John Kay

"Robert Solow", Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, algorithmic trading, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Arthur Eddington, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, battle of ideas, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, business cycle, business process, capital asset pricing model, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, experimental subject, fear of failure, feminist movement, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, popular electronics, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, sealed-bid auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, South Sea Bubble, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, the map is not the territory, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Malthus, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, value at risk, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Narratives of the future The Frenchman Pierre Wack, a former journalist and student of eastern mystics, was an unconventional oil company executive. In the 1960s, he built a team at Shell which constructed alternative scenarios of the company’s future operating environment. Famously, in early 1973 he presented senior management with a scenario in which Middle East oil producers formed a cartel to exert monopoly power. In October of that year the Yom Kippur war broke out between Israel and its neighbours. Arab states imposed an oil embargo on the United States and other western countries which were perceived as supporters of Israel. Oil prices rose sharply and continued to rise even after the embargo was relaxed the following year. Wack and his team were credited with having helped Shell anticipate the ‘oil shock’. Since then, scenario planning has been central to Shell’s strategic thinking, and other companies have undertaken similar exercises.

question: and aeronautics, 354 , 355 ; central bank decision-making, 286 ; centrality of, 10 ; Churchill during Second World War, 26 ; as diagnostic process, 184–5 , 186 , 194–5 ; effective use of narrative, 218 , 225 ; experts claiming knowledge they don’t have, 46 ; failure to ask, 10 , 180 , 296 , 300 , 314 , 359 , 405 , 407 , 411 ; and financial theory, 320 , 334 , 335 , 336 , 348 , 367 , 393 ; and good decisions, 119 ; ‘hedgehog’ and the ‘fox’, 222 ; and HIV infections, 375–6 ; incremental changes to narratives, 285 ; and legal reasoning, 204 ; and NASA, 374 ; need for narrative, 315 ; no standardised spreadsheet answer to, 405 ; oil block auctions in USA, 256 ; and pragmatic approach, 209–10 ; predilection for apocalyptic narratives, 361–2 ; public role of the social scientist, 397 ; pursuit of practical knowledge, 383–4 , 385–6 , 388 ; puzzle–mystery distinction, 21 ; Ranke’s view of history, 188 ; in Rumelt’s classes, 10 , 178–9 , 180 , 184 ; Sloan at General Motors, 287 ; and ‘thick description’, 192–5 Whately, Archbishop, 165 wheel, invention of, 39 Whitelaw, William, 412 Wiessner, Polly, 216 Wilde, Oscar, 127 , 167 Wilson, E. O., 158 Wolfe, Tom, The Bonfire of the Vanities , 192 , 229 Woodford, Michael, 117 , 118 , 120 word frequencies, 236–7 World Bank, 99 , 390 World Health Organization (WHO), 375–6 Wozniak, Steve, 29 Wrangham, Richard, 161–2 Wright brothers, 275 Xerox Parc, 28 , 29 , 31 Yap (in Caroline Islands), 96 Yom Kippur war, 223 YouGov, 242 Yucatán asteroid, 32 , 42 , 70 , 72 , 86 , 238 , 402 Zimbabwe, 426 , 428 Zipf, George, 236–7


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The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, do-ocracy, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

The canvas is enormous—from the drilling of the first well in Pennsylvania through two great world wars to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The Prize reveals how and why oil has become the largest industry in the world, a game of huge risks and monumental rewards. Oil has played a critical role in world events, from Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler's invasion of Russia to the Suez crisis and the Yom Kippur War. It has propelled the once poor nations of the Middle East into positions of unprecedented world power. And even now it is fueling the heated debate over energy needs versus environmental protection. With compelling narrative sweep, The Prize chronicles the dramatic and decisive events in the history of oil. It is peopled by a vividly portrayed gallery of characters that make it a fascinating story—not only the wildcatters, rogues, and oil tycoons, but also the politicians and heads of state.

A dramatic account of the crucial October 12 meeting is in chaps. 1 and 12 of Anthony Sampson's classic history of the international oil industry, The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped, rev. ed. (London: Coronet, 1988), esp. pp. 262-64 and 32-33. [8] Interviews with William Quandt and Harold Saunders ("fall maneuvers"); Sadat, In Search of Identity, pp. 241-42; Kissinger, Years of Upheaval, pp. 482, 459-67; Safran, Israel, pp. 285-86, 484; Avi Shlaim, "Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War," World Politics 28 (1975), pp. 352-59 ("conception"); Moshe Ma'oz, Asad: The Sphinx of Damascus (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1988), pp. 91-92. [9] Safran, Israel, pp. 482-90 ("Third Temple" and Meir's letters); Kissinger, Years of Upheaval, pp. 493-96 ("conscious"), 536 ("stakes"); Multinational Hearings, part 7, pp. 546-47 (Aramco letter), 217; Interviews with William Quandt, James Schlesinger, and Fadhil al-Chalabi; Schneider, Oil Price Revolution, pp. 225-26 (Kuwaiti oil minister); MEES, October 19,1973, p. 6.

New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. Sherrill, Robert. The Oil Follies of 1970-1980: How the Petroleum Industry Stole the Show (and Much More Besides). Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983. Sherwood, Elizabeth D. Allies in Crises: Meeting Global Challenges to Western Security. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. Shlaim, Avi. "Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War." World Politics 28 (April 1976): 348-80. Shuckburgh, Evelyn. Descent to Suez: Diaries, 1951-1956. Ed. John Charmley. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986. Shwadran, Benjamin. The Middle East, Oil and the Great Powers. 3d rev. ed. New York: John Wiley, 1973. Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986. Silliman, Jr., B. Report on the Rock Oil, or Petroleum, from Venango Co., Pennsylvania.


pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

., 431 Bombay, 444n Book of the Glory of Kings, 157n Book of Zerubabbel, 163 Book of Zohar, 298 Bordeaux pilgrim, 147-9, 152n Bosnia, 315n, 318 Bosphorus, 144 Bosra, 169 Boston, 337 Boston Herald, 441 Bradford, William, 301 Brandeis, Louis, 428 Breslavers, 486n Brest-Litovsk, 461 Bridges, Robert, 321n Brindisi, 266, 269 Britain British Jews, 257, 277n, 301-2, 350 and conversion of Jews, 330-5 Roman, 124, 136, 150 and state of Israel, 467 and Suez crisis, 490 and Zionism, xxv, 380-1, 409-15, 423-4, 431, 443, 466 Britannicus, Tiberius Claudius, 116n British Military Cemetery, 434 Bronner, Ethan, 510 Bronze Age, 13 Brooke, Rupert, 419 Brothers, Richard, 322-3 Brutus, Marcus Junius, 75 Bubastis, 31 Buchan, John, 404 Bulgaria, 361 bullae, 32, 41n, 43 Burma, 453n 'Burma Road', 480 Byron, George Gordon, 6th Baron, 37 Byzantium, 144 Caecina, 131 Caesar, Gaius Julius, 72-5, 131, 134n Caesarea, 82, 93, 99n, 100, 115, 119, 121, 140, 164, 209, 216 Caesarea Maritima, 9 Caesarea Philippi, 9, 116 Caesarion, 74, 81, 82n Cafe Jawhariyyeh, 444 Caiaphas (high priest), 99n, 100, 103-4, 108, 110 Cairo, 207n, 271, 272n, 302-3, 305, 316n, 436, 438, 469, 480, 491n, 493 Albanian conquest, 326 and British rule, 402-4, 408 and caliphs, 192, 194-6, 198-200, 215 and Fatimid Egypt, 239-40 and Mamluk sultanate, 278, 283-5, 287 Oriental Stores, 423 and Saladin, 243, 251 and Sultan Baibars, 275, 277 Cairo Geniza, 199n Cairo University, 449 Calcutta, 450 Calhoun, John, 336 Caligula, Emperor, 60, 82n, 111-14, 116 caliphs, 172n, 184, 433 Callirhoe, 90 Calvary, 106n, 285 Cambrai, 239n Cambyses II, King, 49 camels, 16n, 344, 407 Camp David, 506 du Camp, Maxime, 345, 347 Canaanites, 14, 16, 18, 39n Canada, 466n Cappadocia, 88n Capri, 98, 111-12 Caracalla, Emperor, 138 Carchemish, 41 Cardo, 135n, 147, 160, 226, 501 Carnegie, Mrs Andrew, 423 Caroline of Brunswick, Princess, 321-3 Carrhae, Battle of, 76n Carter, Jimmy, President, 503 Carthage, 60, 130n, 159 Carthaginians, 39n, 106n Cartwright, Ebenezer, 301 Cassius Longinus, Gaius, 74 Cassius Dio, 135n, 136-7 Castile, 298 de Castro, Abraham, 294 Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, 310, 311n, 315n, 317, 340 Cathisma Church, 176, 201 Catholic Church, 157, 189, 208 and religious conflict, 201, 296, 299-300, 331, 339, 341, 343, 424, 485, 517 Cave of Hira, 169 Cecil, Lord Robert, 414 Celebi, Evliya, see Evliya Cervantes, Miguel de, 446 Chabon, Michael, 382n Chamberlain, Joseph, 380 Chamberlain, Neville, 452-3 Chancellor, Sir John, 437-8, 443 Chapel of the Apparition, 520-3 Chapel of the Hill of Calvary, 236 Chapman, Thomas, 404 chariots, 26, 28 Charlemagne, Emperor, 65n, 189, 229n, 267, 343, 355, 379n Charles V, Emperor, 294n, 295 Charles I, King, 300-1 Charles of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, 278n Charles, Prince of Wales, 505 chastity, 144-5 Chateaubriand, Francois-Rene, Vicomte de, xxiv, 319-21 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 285 child sacrifice, 39 China, 185, 284, 365 Chindits, 453n Christ Church, 334 Christian Quarter, 189, 201, 364, 507 Christianity, 10, 34, 48n, 55, 63n, 109, 117, 139 Great Schism, 201 hierarchy and divisions in, 144 and Judaism, 110, 118, 140 Roman adoption of, 143-5, 150-1 and suppression of Jews, 148-50 Christians, early, 114-19, 121, 132-4, 136, 138-40 Christology, 144, 156-7 Chronicon Paschale, 135n church bells, 196, 214, 255, 330 Church of Holy Archangels, 103n Church of Mary Magdalene, 368, 386, 444n, 455n, 489 Church of Our Lady of Jehoshaphat, 228 Church of the Dormition, 379n, 492 Church of the Holy Sepulchre, xxi, 106n, 108, 149, 197, 303, 400, 420, 456, 485, 510 and Arab conquests, 173, 175-6, 178, 182-3, 189-92, 194 construction by Empress Helena, 147 and Crusaders, 208, 212-15, 217, 221, 225, 227-8, 233, 235, 243, 250, 260, 269 daily rituals, 518-20 and Descent of the Holy Fire, 198, 228, 230, 300, 305, 328, 348, 361, 367, 388, 518 destruction by fire, 320 Fatimid destruction, 199-200 the Holy Sepulchre, 134, 152, 165, 175, 177n, 178, 185, 189-92, 194 and international visitors, 320, 328, 341, 345-6, 348, 353, 367-8, 378 and Islamic sultanate, 254-5, 260, 263 last Crusader grave, 422n latrines, 310 and Mamluk sultanate, 281, 285-7 model of, 160 and Mongol raids, 277 and Napoleonic invasion, 316, 318 and Ottoman sultanate, 299-300 Persian destruction, 162-3 and pilgrims' accommodation, 201 and religious conflict, 320, 339, 343, 348, 424, 520-1 and Tartar conquest, 271 and Turkish conquests, 203 Church of the Pinnacle, 160n Church of the Redeemer, 378 Church of the Resurrection, 153 Churchill, Clementine, 433 Churchill, Lord Randolph, 433n Churchill, Sir Winston, xxv, 382n, 423n, 429n, 431-4, 441, 453n, 466, 477, 484n, 485 and Zionism, 410-14, 432, 461 CIA, 489 Cilicia, 26, 88n, 117, 131n circumcision, 45, 61-3, 118, 130, 360 ban on, 134, 137 and Islam, 171 Citadel, xxi, 8-9, 84, 88, 123, 132, 136, 185, 202, 348 and Crusaders, 207, 215, 217 Clarence, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of, 362 Claudius, Emperor, 5, 114-16, 146n Clausewitz, Carl von, 446 Clemenceau, Georges, 427-8 Cleopatra II, Queen of Egypt, 67n Cleopatra III, Queen of Egypt, 70n Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, 73-5, 77-82, 131 Cleopatra Selene, 82n Cleopatra Thea, 67n Clermont, 208-9 Clifford, Clark, 464 Clinton, Bill, President, 506, 508-9, 514 Cobb, Miss, 399 Cohen, Amnon, 509n Cohen, 'Red Rosa', 430 Cold War, 489 Columbus, Christopher, 294n Conder, Lieutenant Charles, 355n, 363n Congress of Berlin, 362, 409 Congreve, General Sir Walter 'Squib', 445 Conrad III, King of Germany, 234-5 Conrad of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem, 249, 256n Conrad II, King of Jerusalem, 270n Conradin, King of Jerusalem, 270n Constantine the Great, Emperor, 140, 143-5, 148-9, 163, 182, 184, 217, 369, 409 Constantine IX Monamachus, Emperor, 200 Constantine X Doukas, Emperor, 201 Constantinople, 130n, 144, 147, 153-6, 158-9, 165, 189, 192, 207n, 209, 217, 416, 442 and Arab conquest, 180, 183, 185-6, 190 Hagia Sofia, 159, 181-2, 201 Nika riots, 158 Ottoman conquest, 288 and Persian threat, 161, 163-4 Russian conquest, 311n see also Istanbul Constantius Chlorus, Emperor, 140 Constantius II, Emperor, 148n, 149-50 Cook, John Mason, 379 Cook, Thomas, 363 Cook, Miss, 335 Coptic Church, 157n, 310, 519 Cordoba, 200n, 499 Council of Chalcedon, 157 Council of Nicaea, 145, 148 Court of Women, 8, 86 Crassus, Marcus Licinius, 72-3, 76n, 106n Creasy, Mathilda, 345 Cremieux, Adolphe, 333 Cresson, Warder, 336-8 Crete, 14, 79, 101, 327 Crewe, Margaret, Marchioness of, 414 Crimea, 191n, 304, 382n, 440n Crimean War, 343-4, 345n, 347-8, 352 Crispus Caesar, 145 Croesus, King of Lydia, 47 Cromwell, Oliver, 301-2, 303, 331 Crossman, Richard, 461 crucifixion, 1-2, 62, 105-7 Crusader architecture, 254 Crusades, 189, 355, 420, 428 Count Thibault's, 270 Eighth, 277n Fifth, 265-6 First, 208-10 and holy war theory, 208 and reconquest of Spain, 285, 293-4 Second, 234, 333 Seventh, 271 Third, 255-62 Ctesiphon, 161-2 Cunningham, General Sir Alan, 467, 474-5 Curzon, George Nathaniel, Marquess, 414, 415n, 426, 432-3 Curzon, Robert, 328-9 Cyprus, 35, 55, 84n, 133, 179, 257, 260n, 325, 362, 380-1, 436 Cyrenaica, 55 Cyrene, 81 Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, 47-50, 53 Czechoslovakia, 452-4 Dacia, 134 Daimbert, Patriarch, 215-16 Dajani family, 296, 308n, 360-1, 439, 469, 488 Damas, General, 312, 316 Damascus, 22, 29, 32n, 71, 194, 316n, 318, 323, 350, 380, 383, 417n, 469, 492 and Albanian conquest, 327 and Arab conquests, 172, 176, 178, 181, 185-6, 310 and Crusaders, 217, 223-4, 235, 243, 246, 249 and division of Middle East, 403, 405, 421, 426, 428, 469 and Islamic sultanate, 251-3, 262-4, 268 Jewish population and blood libel, 333, 336, 374 and Mongol conquest, 272, 279 and St Paul's conversion, 117, 143 and Tamurlane's conquest, 282-4 and Three Pashas, 397-8, 416 Umayyad Mosque, 96n, 185 Damascus Gate, 110, 134, 135n, 138, 152n, 157, 208, 211, 226, 270, 304, 364-5, 379, 395, 397, 467, 479, 518 Damasus, Bishop, 151 Damietta, 265 Dan, 30 Daniel, prophet, 45-6, 97, 100n, 150 Daniel the stylite, 154 Danube, river, 343 Danzig, 513 Darius I 'the Great', King of Persia, 49-50, 52, 106n Darius III, King of Persia, 53 d'Aubeny, Philip, 422n House of David, 22, 32n David, King, xix, xxiv, 7, 10, 13, 19-25, 32n, 40, 46, 67n, 86, 133, 140, 304-5, 374, 491 and Bathsheba, 23, 25, 363 and Charlemagne, 189 and Islam, 170, 175, 182, 185 his palace, 23n, 501n relics of, 152 David el-Rey, 240n David's Tomb, see Mount Zion, Cenacle Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), 171, 302, 436-7, 459, 502 see also Yom Kippur War Dayan, Moshe, 400n, 456, 481, 487, 504 and Orde Wingate, 451-2 and Six Day War, 493-8 Dayan, Ruth, 452, 494 D-Day, 459 Dead Sea, 90, 96, 123 Dead Sea Scrolls, 100n, 495 Debussy, Claude, 423 Deir Yassin massacre, 471-2, 473 Delhi, 283 Demetrius II, King of Syria, 67n Deraa, 419 Dervishes, 303-4, 360-1 Descent of the Holy Fire, 198, 228, 230, 300, 305, 328, 348, 361, 367, 388, 519 desert monasteries, 154 Deuteronomists, 45n Dickie, Archibald, 390 Digness, Mendel, 335 Diocletian, Emperor, 140, 145 Disraeli, Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, 240n, 324-5, 352, 362, 409, 411, 424 Dome of Solomon, 265n Dome of the Ascension, 165n Dome of the Chain, 179, 212, 219 Dome of the Rock, 27n, 148, 181-5, 188, 190, 197, 250, 304-5, 400, 408, 424, 480 and Crusaders (Temple of the Lord), 212-13, 217, 219, 227-9, 241, 270 daily rituals, 519-21 and Islamic sultanate, 254, 261, 263, 268-9 Israeli shootings, 503 and Mamluk sultanate, 276, 280-1, 284 negotiations and access, 510, 519 and Ottoman sultanate, 291-2, 305 and Parker fiasco, 391 regilding of, 491 and Six Day War, 495, 497 Domitian, Emperor, 121n, 130n, 131, 133 Donmeh sect, 303n Donner, Fred M., 174n Doris, 85, 88-9 Dorr, David, 347 Double Gates, 138n, 184 Dreyfus Affair, 373 Drusilla, Queen, 116, 119 Drusus, 111 Druze, 199, 356, 519 Duff, Captain Robin, 389n, 390-1 Dung Gate, 329, 497 East Prussia, 382n, 461 Easter, 148n, 159, 276, 298, 305, 339, 360, 388 Eban, Abba, 493-4 Ebenezer, Battle of, 18 Ebionites, 140n Ecclesiasticus, 58, 199n Edessa, 210, 213n, 215, 217-18, 224, 264 fall of, 233-4 Edict of Milan, 144 Edom, 65, 77 Edomites, 19, 29, 43, 69 Edward I, King, 65n, 277n, 354 Edward VII, King, 353-4, 363n Edwiga, Abbess, 201 Egeria, 152 Egypt, 13, 19n, 22, 26, 44n, 109n, 133, 135, 138, 422, 468-70 and Albanian conquest, 326-7, 334 and Arab conquests, 191, 193-4 and British rule, 362, 380, 396-7, 403, 405, 407, 423, 449 and Crusaders, 216, 218 and desert monks, 154 and Greek conquest, 53-6, 57n, 61-2 and Islamic sultanate, 243-4, 251, 253, 260-1, 264-6 and Israeli war, 477-8, 480 Israelites in, 16-17 Jewish community, 194-5 killing of dogs and cats, 198 Napoleonic invasion, 311-12, 317-18 and Nur al-Din's conquest, 238-41, 251 and Ottoman conquest, 291, 294 and peace deal, 502-3 and Persian conquests, 49-50, 162-4 and Roman occupation, 73-7, 81-2 and Six Day War, 489, 494-5, 517 and Suez Canal, 355, 490 and Turkoman conquest, 202 and UAR, 490-1 and Yom Kippur War, 505 Egyptians, ancient, 14-15, 18, 28-30, 35-6, 38, 41-2, 85n Eichmann, Adolf, 487 Eilat, 493 Ein Kerem, 95, 365, 449 Ekron, 20 El Alamein, Battle of, 460 El-Arish, 218, 380-2 Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen, 234-5, 257 Eleazar the Galilean, 130 elephants, 57, 63, 67 Elgar, Sir Edward, 321n Eliahu, Jacob, 37n, 365 Elijah, prophet, 197n Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, 378 Elizabeth I, Queen, 299 Elizabeth II, Queen, 454n Ella, Grand Duchess, 368-9, 386n, 444n, 454n Elyashar, Menache, 418 Emesa, 88n Emmaus, 163 English Hotel, 344 Enlightenment, 331, 374 Enver Pasha, Ismail, 394-5, 400-2, 408, 416 Ephraim, 24 Epic of Gilgamesh, 36, 45n Eshkol, Levi, 489-90, 493 Essenes, 100n Ethiopia, 157n, 517 Ethiopian Church, 157n, 310, 517 Euclid, 190n Eudocia, Empress, 153-7 Eudocia's Wall, 69n Eugenie, Empress, 355 Eugenius II, Pope, 234 Euphemius, 156n Euphrates, river, 35, 42, 81, 210 Eusebius of Caesarea, 136, 145-8 Eustace of Grenier, 221 Eustochium, 151 Eutropia, 146n Evliya Celebi, xxv, 290, 303-5, 309 Execration texts, 14n executions, 356, 397, 403 see also crucifixion; stoning Exodus, 460 Ezekiah, 74 Ezion-Geber, 26 Fabri, Felix, 286 Faisal, King of Iraq, 406-7, 420-1, 424-9, 431-3 Faisal II, King of Iraq, 490 Falashas, 157n Falkenhayn, Field Marshal Erich von, 408-9, 416-17 Faraj, Sultan, 283-4 Farhi, Haim, 315, 322, 323n Farouk, King of Egypt, 334n, 466, 482 Farran, Major Roy, 465-7 Farrukh, 297 Fast Hotel, 390, 401, 408, 417, 424, 451 Fatah, 488, 501-2, 505n, 507 al-Fatat, 403 Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), 172, 178, 187n, 194, 403n Fatimid dynasty, 193-5, 197, 201-2, 203n Fausta, Empress, 145, 146n Felix, Antonius, 116, 119 Fellowes, Cornelius, 347n Ferdinand, King of Aragon, 293-4 Field of Blood, 108, 160 Filastin, 394 Final Solution, 294, 436, 454-5, 457 Finn, James, 335, 341, 343-6, 348-9, 352-3, 444 First Wall, 69, 106n Firyal, Princess, 488, 491 Fiscus Judaicus, 130, 133 Fisk, Pliny, 337 flagellation, 106-7 Flaubert, Gustave, xix, 344-5, 346 Fleming, James, 228n Florence, 207n Flourishing Edifice, 293 Foley, Major, 389n, 391 Ford, Henry, 423n Forster, E.

., 174n Doris, 85, 88-9 Dorr, David, 347 Double Gates, 138n, 184 Dreyfus Affair, 373 Drusilla, Queen, 116, 119 Drusus, 111 Druze, 199, 356, 519 Duff, Captain Robin, 389n, 390-1 Dung Gate, 329, 497 East Prussia, 382n, 461 Easter, 148n, 159, 276, 298, 305, 339, 360, 388 Eban, Abba, 493-4 Ebenezer, Battle of, 18 Ebionites, 140n Ecclesiasticus, 58, 199n Edessa, 210, 213n, 215, 217-18, 224, 264 fall of, 233-4 Edict of Milan, 144 Edom, 65, 77 Edomites, 19, 29, 43, 69 Edward I, King, 65n, 277n, 354 Edward VII, King, 353-4, 363n Edwiga, Abbess, 201 Egeria, 152 Egypt, 13, 19n, 22, 26, 44n, 109n, 133, 135, 138, 422, 468-70 and Albanian conquest, 326-7, 334 and Arab conquests, 191, 193-4 and British rule, 362, 380, 396-7, 403, 405, 407, 423, 449 and Crusaders, 216, 218 and desert monks, 154 and Greek conquest, 53-6, 57n, 61-2 and Islamic sultanate, 243-4, 251, 253, 260-1, 264-6 and Israeli war, 477-8, 480 Israelites in, 16-17 Jewish community, 194-5 killing of dogs and cats, 198 Napoleonic invasion, 311-12, 317-18 and Nur al-Din's conquest, 238-41, 251 and Ottoman conquest, 291, 294 and peace deal, 502-3 and Persian conquests, 49-50, 162-4 and Roman occupation, 73-7, 81-2 and Six Day War, 489, 494-5, 517 and Suez Canal, 355, 490 and Turkoman conquest, 202 and UAR, 490-1 and Yom Kippur War, 505 Egyptians, ancient, 14-15, 18, 28-30, 35-6, 38, 41-2, 85n Eichmann, Adolf, 487 Eilat, 493 Ein Kerem, 95, 365, 449 Ekron, 20 El Alamein, Battle of, 460 El-Arish, 218, 380-2 Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen, 234-5, 257 Eleazar the Galilean, 130 elephants, 57, 63, 67 Elgar, Sir Edward, 321n Eliahu, Jacob, 37n, 365 Elijah, prophet, 197n Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, 378 Elizabeth I, Queen, 299 Elizabeth II, Queen, 454n Ella, Grand Duchess, 368-9, 386n, 444n, 454n Elyashar, Menache, 418 Emesa, 88n Emmaus, 163 English Hotel, 344 Enlightenment, 331, 374 Enver Pasha, Ismail, 394-5, 400-2, 408, 416 Ephraim, 24 Epic of Gilgamesh, 36, 45n Eshkol, Levi, 489-90, 493 Essenes, 100n Ethiopia, 157n, 517 Ethiopian Church, 157n, 310, 517 Euclid, 190n Eudocia, Empress, 153-7 Eudocia's Wall, 69n Eugenie, Empress, 355 Eugenius II, Pope, 234 Euphemius, 156n Euphrates, river, 35, 42, 81, 210 Eusebius of Caesarea, 136, 145-8 Eustace of Grenier, 221 Eustochium, 151 Eutropia, 146n Evliya Celebi, xxv, 290, 303-5, 309 Execration texts, 14n executions, 356, 397, 403 see also crucifixion; stoning Exodus, 460 Ezekiah, 74 Ezion-Geber, 26 Fabri, Felix, 286 Faisal, King of Iraq, 406-7, 420-1, 424-9, 431-3 Faisal II, King of Iraq, 490 Falashas, 157n Falkenhayn, Field Marshal Erich von, 408-9, 416-17 Faraj, Sultan, 283-4 Farhi, Haim, 315, 322, 323n Farouk, King of Egypt, 334n, 466, 482 Farran, Major Roy, 465-7 Farrukh, 297 Fast Hotel, 390, 401, 408, 417, 424, 451 Fatah, 488, 501-2, 505n, 507 al-Fatat, 403 Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), 172, 178, 187n, 194, 403n Fatimid dynasty, 193-5, 197, 201-2, 203n Fausta, Empress, 145, 146n Felix, Antonius, 116, 119 Fellowes, Cornelius, 347n Ferdinand, King of Aragon, 293-4 Field of Blood, 108, 160 Filastin, 394 Final Solution, 294, 436, 454-5, 457 Finn, James, 335, 341, 343-6, 348-9, 352-3, 444 First Wall, 69, 106n Firyal, Princess, 488, 491 Fiscus Judaicus, 130, 133 Fisk, Pliny, 337 flagellation, 106-7 Flaubert, Gustave, xix, 344-5, 346 Fleming, James, 228n Florence, 207n Flourishing Edifice, 293 Foley, Major, 389n, 391 Ford, Henry, 423n Forster, E.

., 418 Wauchope, Sir Arthur, 439-40, 450 Wavell, Sir Archibald, 1st Earl, 451 Wazzah, 421 Weidenfeld, George, Baron, 482, 487 Weizmann, Chaim, President, xxv, 351n, 374, 409-12, 414-15, 421, 423-31, 435, 444-6, 450, 453, 458, 478 and Buraq Uprising, 438-9 and El Alamein, 457 and Israeli presidency, 476, 480 and Nabi Musa riots, 429-30 and Orde Wingate, 450-1 Weizmann Institute of Science, 481 Well of Souls, 27n West Bank, 478, 481-2, 488, 491, 502 and Intifada, 505-6, 509 Western Wall, 9, 24n, 71, 120n, 135n, 151n, 175, 264, 286, 300, 355, 357, 379, 408, 452, 504 and Buraq Uprising, 436-8 daily rituals, 518-19, 523 as ha-Kotel, 295, 437, 497, 516 and Jewish access, 480, 482, 502, 513, 516 purchase attempts, 357, 374, 398n, 421, 437 and shofar ban, 437, 459 and Six Day War, 497-8 tunnel constructions, 509 Westminster, Jerusalem Chamber, 285 White Russians, 444 Wiesel, Elie, 512 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 355-6, 375-80, 389, 395, 408, 417 William III, King, 331 William, Patriarch, 223 William of Tyre, xxv, 208, 222, 233-4, 237-9, 242, 244, 245n William the Conqueror, King, 201, 208 William the Troubadour, 234-5 Wilson, Captain Charles, 354, 363n, 390 Wilson, Captain Clarence, 389n, 390-1 Wilson, Woodrow, President, 427-8 Wilson's Arch, 354 Wingate, Lorna, 452 Wingate, General Orde, 450-2, 453n, 456, 494 Winthrop, John, 301 Wittenberg, 296 Wolff, Heinrich, 439 Woodhead Commission, 442n Workers of Zion, 383 World Islamic Conference, 439 Worms Cathedral, 379n Wrangel, Count Herman, 389n Xenophon, 49 Xerxes, King of Persia, 50n, 52 Yaacovy, Yitzhak, 487 Yachin and Boaz pillars, 26 Yad Vashem memorial, 455n, 487n, 504 Yalta conference, 462n, 463 al-Yaqubi, 172n Yarmuk, Battle of, 172-3, 177n Yathrib, 170 Yaush, 42n Yavneh (Jamnia), 132 Yazid, ibn Abi Sufyan, 180 Yemen, 158n, 174, 194, 243, 251, 255 Yishuv, 445, 459, 467, 470 Yohanan ben Zakkai, 10 Yolande, Queen of Jerusalem, 265n, 266-7, 270n Yom Kippur War, 502 York, 257 Young, William Turner, 330, 332, 334-5 Young Turk movement, 384, 394, 402 Yvette, Princess, 228 Zachariah, prophet, 101 Zacharias, 95 Zacharias, Patriarch, 161 Zadok the priest, 25, 52, 54-5, 67 Zaharoff, Sir Basil, 423 Zahir, Caliph, 199-200 Zahir, Sultan, 251, 262-4 Zahir al-Umar al-Zaydani, Sheikh, 310-11 Zalatimo, Muhammad, 135n Zangi, Atabeg, 223-4, 231, 233-4, 251 Zangwill, Israel, 332n, 382 Zealots, 123, 125 Zedekiah, King, 42-3 Zeinab, Madame, 457 Zenobia, 140 Zenon, 56n Zerubbabel, Prince, 49-50, 85 Zikhron Zion, 444 Ziklag, 20 zinnor, 22 Zion Gate, 207, 307, 417, 479-80, 497 Zionism, xx, 191n, 279, 373-82, 394, 409-15, 421-5, 430-1, 433, 435-7, 445-6, 478, 513 America and, 412-14, 428, 460-1 Britain and, xxv, 380-1, 409-15, 423-4, 431, 443, 467 Christian, 301, 374 Churchill and, 410-14, 432, 459 Germany and, 413-14 Herzland, 373-82 military, 458, 501 Zionist Commission, 421 Zionist Congresses, 375, 380n, 382, 438 Zoroaster, 48n, 50n The Temple Mount - Har haBayit in Hebrew, Haram al-Sharif in Arabic, known in the Bible as Mount Moriah - is the centrepiece of Jerusalem.


pages: 872 words: 259,208

A History of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr

air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Beeching cuts, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brixton riot, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, congestion charging, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, loadsamoney, market design, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open borders, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Piper Alpha, Red Clydeside, reserve currency, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Heath always argued that he was forced to try consensus politics because in the seventies the alternative policy, the squeeze of mass unemployment which arrived in the Thatcher years, would simply not have been accepted by the country. And given the very rocky ride Mrs Thatcher had a full ten years later, after industrial and some social breakdown had softened the way for her radicalism, he was surely right. What finally finished off the Heath government was the short war between Israel and Egypt in October 1973, the Yom Kippur War. Israel’s swift and decisive victory was a humiliation for the Arab world and it struck back, using oil. OPEC, the organization of the oil-producing countries dominated by the Saudis, had seen the price of oil rising on world markets for some time. They decided to cut supplies to the West each month until Israel handed back its territorial gains and allowed the Palestinians their own state.

P. ref1, ref2 technology ref1 military ref1 Teddy boys ref1 television ref1, ref2 Templer, Gerald ref1 Temple, William ref1, ref2 Temporary Housing Programme ref1 Terrence Higgins Trust ref1, ref2 Tesco ref1 Thalidomide ref1 Thames Today ref1 Thames Water ref1 Thatcher, Denis ref1, ref2 Thatcher, Margaret ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Blair ref1 downfall ref1 and the economy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and education ref1, ref2 on the Eurodollar ref1 and Europe ref1, ref2, ref3 and the Falklands War ref1 health ref1 and Major ref1 on majority verdicts ref1 and the miners ref1 and North Sea oil ref1, ref2 policy ref1 and the press ref1 and privatization ref1, ref2 and the Westland Helicopter crisis ref1 Thatcherism ref1, ref2 That Was the Week That Was ref1 theatre ref1 Theatre of Action see Theatre Workshop Theatres Act ref1 Theatre Workshop ref1 This Morning ref1, ref2 Thomas, Richard ref1 Thompson, Harry ref1 Thompson Scottish Petroleum ref1 Thornycroft, Peter ref1 Thorpe, Jeremy ref1, ref2 three-day working week ref1 Tickell, Crispin ref1 Times, The ref1, ref2, ref3 Todd, Garfield ref1, ref2 tower blocks ref1 Toxteth ref1 trade unions ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 transport ref1 travel ref1 Treasury, the ref1 Treaty of Rome ref1 Trimble, David ref1 Tryweryn reservoir ref1 ‘tripartism’ ref1 Truman, Harry S. ref1, ref2 Tull, Jethro ref1 TURNSTILE ref1 TVam ref1 Twiggy ref1 Tynan, Kenneth ref1, ref2 Tyndall, John ref1 UB40 ref1 UBS ref1 UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence) see Rhodesia Uganda, immigrants from ref1, ref2 unemployment ref1 Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) see Rhodesia unilateral nuclear disarmament ref1 see also CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament United Nations ref1 United States of America economy ref1 and the Falklands War ref1, ref2, ref3 and Great Britain ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Iraq ref1, ref2 music ref1, ref2 and North Sea oil ref1, ref2 nuclear weapons ref1 and Serbia ref1 and Suez ref1 terrorist attacks on ref1, ref2 and the Westland Helicopter crisis ref1 university system ref1 Uranium 235 ref1 Ure, Midge ref1 utilities ref1, ref2 Vaneigem, Raoul ref1 Varela, Marquesa de ref1 Varley assurances ref1 Vassall, John ref1 V-bombers ref1 Verwoerd, Hendrik ref1 Vicious, Sid ref1 Vietnam ref1 Vietnam Solidarity Committee ref1 Vinson, Fred ref1 Waiting for Godot (Beckett) ref1 Walden, Brian ref1 Wales devolution ref1, ref2, ref3 miners in ref1 Walters, Alan ref1, ref2 Wanless, Derek ref1 war ref1 and Churchill ref1 and Major ref1 on terror ref1, ref2, ref3 see also Falklands War; Gulf War; Korean War; World War II; Yom Kippur War Ward, Stephen ref1 Watton, Harry ref1 Waugh, Evelyn ref1 Wavell, Archibald Percival ref1 wealth, redistribution of ref1 weapons of mass destruction ref1, ref2, ref3 Webster, Martin ref1 Welensky, Roy ref1, ref2 Welfare State ref1, ref2 West Indies, immigrants from ref1 Westland Helicopter crisis ref1 Westwood, Vivienne ref1, ref2 Whelan, Charlie ref1, ref2 Whisky Galore!

E. ref1 Wilson, Harold ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and Cecil King ref1 domestic policy ref1 and Europe ref1, ref2 foreign policy ref1 and Northern Ireland ref1 nuclear weapons ref1 and Rhodesia ref1 style of government ref1 and Vietnam ref1 Winchester Castle ref1 Windscale ref1 Winston, Robert ref1 winter, 1947 ref1 winter of discontent ref1 Wolfe, Billy ref1 Wolfenden, John Frederick ref1, ref2 Wolmer, Christian ref1 women ref1 Wood, Kingsley ref1 World Health Organization ref1 World War II ref1 Yarwood, Mike ref1 Yom Kippur War ref1 Young, Hugo ref1 Young, Michael ref1, ref2 Ziegler, Philip ref1 Zimbabwe see Rhodesia Zuckerman, Solly ref1 Acknowledgements I would particularly like to thank three people who gave me an early and lasting love of history, and of good writing: my mother, Valerie Marr, and two of my teachers at Loretto School, David Stock and Peter Lapping. This book would not have happened had I not been badgered three years ago by Peter Horrocks, now the BBC’s head of television news, to write and present a television history of post-war Britain.


pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

It was in the seventies that this “Age of Compression”—so named for the steady increase in income equality that was one of its features—finally ground to a halt.2 There was one particular event that contributed to this revision of economic expectations. In 1973 the Arab-dominated Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) responded to Washington’s decision to supply the Israeli forces in the Yom Kippur war by cutting off oil exports to the United States and other Western countries viewed as supporters of the Jewish state; the resulting surge in prices affected even the countries that were not directly targeted by the embargo. The result was the deepest economic slump since the Great Depression. Long lines formed at gasoline stations throughout the developed world. Officials in the United States beseeched consumers to go without Christmas lights over the holiday season; gas rationing was introduced.

See also John Paul II Wolf, Markus, 199 Women, 39, 46, 54, 64, 159, 193, 246, 287, 359 in Afghanistan, 12, 36, 99, 101, 102, 100, 212, 356–357, 360 in Egypt, 220, 222 in Iran, 8, 41, 43, 48, 92, 153, 229, 230, 294, 348 women’s right to vote, 43, 48, 88, 153, 294 See also Prostitution Workers, 2, 7, 8, 15, 16, 18, 26, 51, 63, 69, 70, 76, 124, 141, 150, 156, 158, 172, 174, 181, 182, 192, 197, 200, 204, 259, 275–276, 278–279, 283, 319, 331, 340 See also Employment; Strikes; Unions World Bank, 44 World War II, 59, 69, 70, 350 Wyszyński, Stefan Cardinal, 16, 77, 281 Yazdi, Ebrahim, 107, 108, 142, 152, 232, 233, 300 Ye Jianying (Army Marshal), 118, 120, 127, 131 Yemen, 10, 46 Yom Kippur war, 2 Young, Hugo, 191 Young people, 16, 35, 40, 41, 45, 46, 64, 92, 113, 221, 222, 274, 287, 295, 348, 355. See also Students Yugoslavia, 72, 249, 287 Yu Guangyuan, 129, 131–132, 256 Zahir Shah (King of Iran), 11, 37–38, 96, 97 Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 308, 347 Zhao Ziyang, 128, 251–252, 252–253, 332, 333, 334 Zhou Enlai, 22–23, 26, 119, 126, 127, 130, 332 Zhu De (Marshal), 24 Zhuo Lin, 29–30 Zia ul-Haq, Muhammad, 215, 220, 271 Zierer, Edith, 71


pages: 407

Disrupt and Deny: Spies, Special Forces, and the Secret Pursuit of British Foreign Policy by Rory Cormac

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, illegal immigration, land reform, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, private military company, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

He had experience of the secret world as secretary of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) in the early 1960s and maintained the role as accounting officer for the Secret Vote, but he was rather dovish on international relations.10 Meanwhile, and indicative of the age, Julian Amery, although promoted from the wilderness of minster for public works to a junior minister in the Foreign Office and operating as the main ministerial liaison with SIS, was banned from receiving information from Patrick Wright, the head of its Middle East Department. Alec Douglas-Home, foreign secretary under Edward Heath, personally insisted that Amery was not allowed to go ‘off-piste’ on Arabia. Consequently, he did not resurrect his covert role from Suez when the Yom Kippur War broke out between Israel and the Arab states in October 1973.11 Much intelligence focus at this time was on domestic affairs. As the economy faltered, subversion and industrial militancy at home dominated the agenda and policymakers established new groups, such as Subversion in Public Life, to develop methods to counter subversive activity, including through covert operations.12 Despite this changing climate, Britain still turned to covert action overseas in the late 1960s and into the 1970s, albeit not to as great an extent as the heyday a decade earlier.

UK/US working groups 135–8 undermining Soviet Union 63–70, 80–8 use of special forces 4, see also special forces Whitehall infighting 68 and Yugoslavia 34 see also Foreign Office; GCHQ; ISC; JIC; propaganda; PWE; SIS; SOE; special forces; Suez Ukraine SIS airdrop into 76, 79 SIS and resistance 34, 35 UN post-war membership 3 Security Council, UK membership 1 Soviets in 24 United Arab Republic 129, 137 Urban, George 219, 222 Urban, Mark 213 Uruguay, disinformation campaign in 186 US Anglo-American relationship 29 anti-communist propaganda 27 CIA see CIA covert action in Cold War 2, 27 criticism of UK 78 and Cuba 149–50 Iranian oil deals 103 resource-for-expertise deal 35 State Department see State Department UK concerns over 27 UK/US cooperation 42–6, 51–6, 74, 77–80, 83, 92, 96–108, 149–54 UK/US working groups 135–8 USS Cole 264 UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force) 211 Vance, Cyrus 224 Vatican 228, 229 Vietnam, SIS and 162–3 Vietnam News Agency 71 Vietnam War 162–3 Voice of Britain radio 116 Waldegrave, William 243 Walker, David 235, 237, 238 Walker, Patrick Gordon 189, 213 Walker, Walter 159 Wallace, Colin 200 war criminals, SAS snatches of 246–7 Warner, Christopher 20–1, 28, 29, 62 Warner, Gerry 232, 242 Watson, Adam 121, 122 West, Nigel 248 White, Dick 84, 123, 124, 126, 127–8, 130, 140, 144, 164–5, 169, 170–1, 173, 181, 203, 278 Whitelaw, William 206 Whitney, Ray 195 Wilber, Donald 100, 101, 107 Williams, Clive 206 Williams, Richard 255 Wilson, Harold 149, 167, 169, 171, 173, 181, 182, 183–4, 185, 207, 208, 268 Wilson, Richard 250 Wisner, Frank 43, 51, 79, 84, 130–1 Woodfield, Philip 203 Woodhouse, John 172 Woodhouse, Monty 93, 94, 98–9, 100, 101, 103, 106 Wright, Patrick 157, 183, 232 Yemen and Aden 114, 137, 155–6, 269 covert action in 113, 114, 128, 137, 157, 258, 263, 264, 269 paramilitary training 265 secret war in 161–77, 176–7 and SIS 137 Yom Kippur War (1973) 183 Young, George Kennedy 70, 84, 111, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118–19, 121, 122, 123, 128, 145, 271, 285 Younger, Alex 265, 266, 272, 285 Yugoslavia 34, 41, 51, 53–4 Zaehner, Robin 31, 93–5, 98–9 Zahedi, Fazlullah 101–2, 103, 104, 105, 106 Zaid, Sheikh 188–9 Zambia, covert action in 147 Zanzibar, covert action/revolution in 157–8 Zia, Muhammed 226, 234–5 Zia, Sayyid 93, 94, 95 Zog, King 45–6, 121, 274


pages: 604 words: 165,488

Mr Five Per Cent: The Many Lives of Calouste Gulbenkian, the World's Richest Man by Jonathan Conlin

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, banking crisis, British Empire, carried interest, Ernest Rutherford, estate planning, Fellow of the Royal Society, light touch regulation, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Pierre-Simon Laplace, rent-seeking, stakhanovite, Yom Kippur War

The first prime minister of the Republic of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim, put pressure on IPC to relinquish some of its territory (which covered the whole of Iraq). In 1960 he invited leaders of other oil-producing nations to a conference in Baghdad, where they formed OPEC. Although the Iraqis stripped it of all its undeveloped lands, IPC continued operations until 1972, when it was nationalised. Its subsidiary, Basrah Petroleum, was nationalised a year later. While the Yom Kippur War and other external events played their part, IPC was as much a victim of its own internal dissensions as anything else.59 Pandi’s Portuguese identity afforded little protection. In stripping it of its 5 per cent in Basrah Petroleum, Iraq Law 101 of 20 December 1973 characterised Portugal as ‘a racist state which perpetrates violent acts of terrorism and annihilation against the peoples of Africa fighting for their liberty and independence’.60 There were other IPC subsidiaries, however, operating in other parts of the red-line area.

(art dealers) 230 Wilhelm II, German Kaiser 72, 83, 233 Wilson, Sir Arnold 118, 119 Wilson, Woodrow 108, 109, 133–4 Wittrock, Otto 235–6 Wood, James 239–40, 251, 255 wool trade 9, 41, 48, 63 Wooster (chauffeur) 219 Wrangel, Pyotr 113 Wright, Whitaker 53, 55, 56–8, 59, 61, 82 X Xanthaky, Theodore 274 Xenophon 30 Y Yavûz Sultân Selîm (battleship) 104 Yemen 271 Yerevan 133, 197 Nubarashen 197, 199 Yergin, Daniel, The Prize 2 Yom Kippur War (1973) 318 York, Susannah 316 Young, David 145, 150, 212, 304–5 Young Turk movement 81–90, 97 Youssoupoff, Prince Andrei 249 Z Zaharoff, Sir Basil 89, 133, 205 Zatouroff (oil company) 32 Zeytoun 20 Zoroaster (oil tanker) 33 Zovianoff, Hovhannes 32


pages: 222 words: 70,559

The Oil Factor: Protect Yourself-and Profit-from the Coming Energy Crisis by Stephen Leeb, Donna Leeb

Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, diversified portfolio, fixed income, hydrogen economy, income per capita, index fund, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit motive, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Vanguard fund, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond

This event transformed our economic landscape and forever changed how we think about oil. During that conference OPEC imposed restrictions on oil exports. In so doing, it engineered a 70 percent increase in oil prices, which rose to the then unheard-of level of more than $5 a barrel. In December the cartel met again, this time in Tehran, and took even more drastic action. Protesting U.S. support for Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, it temporarily embargoed oil exports altogether. By early 1974 oil prices had jumped to more than $7 a barrel, more than 130 percent above levels that had prevailed just a few months earlier, in mid-1973, and, indeed, for the entire preceding decade. OPEC had done what the Soviet Union, throughout the Cold War, had failed to do—demonstrated not by threats but by action our vulnerability to forces over which we had no control.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

The auto industry, if anything, has been spared the worst of it since there is somehow symbolic importance to “buying American” (whatever that means) to many U.S. citizens, especially veterans and politicians. The point is: Don’t blame the Asians; our midcentury system of wage growth and relative equality was going to collapse one way or another. The oil shock of 1973—when the members of OPEC took the position that they would no longer ship oil to nations that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War, curtailing production and thereby raising prices—makes as good a marker as any for the beginning of the end. Urban manufacturing declined just as our borders were opening up. Thanks to the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965, which abolished national quotas in favor of a more flexible family reunification approach to admission, new immigrants began pouring into U.S. cities and suburbs. Low- and semi-skilled American workers were facing increased competition not only abroad but at home as well.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Artech House. 12 David Levinson blogs at The Transportationist: http://transportationist.org 13 Kevin Krizek blogs at Vehicle for a Small Planet: http://vehicleforasmallplanet.com 14 Furthermore, we explicitly do not consider the intercity transportation system of highways, pipelines, railroads, airports, ships or even even high-speed rail. 15 Reihan Salam. November 7, 2013 http://www.nationalreview.com/agenda/363381/david-levinsons-vision-future-reihan-salamhttp://www.nationalreview.com/agenda/363381/david-levinsons-vision-future-reihan-salam 16 These brief slow downs in the inexorable rise in vehicle travel are usually attributed to the oil supply and price shocks in 1973-4 (Yom Kippur War), 1979-1981 (Iranian Revolution), early 1990s (Gulf War), and early 2000s (9/11). 17 The population of prime working age peaked around 2000. 18 In 1924, a Chevrolet cost $525⁠1. Today a Malibu is about $20,000. Similarly the wage in 1924 was $0.56/hour⁠2 for a manufacturing worker, and today is $19.70⁠3/hour. So the number of hours to buy a car has gone from 937 to 1015 (or essentially remained flat).


pages: 654 words: 191,864

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, cognitive bias, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demand response, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, framing effect, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, index card, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nudge unit, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Shai Danziger, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, union organizing, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

Some suspected that German spies were located in the unharmed areas. A careful statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of hits was typical of a random process—and typical as well in evoking a strong impression that it was not random. “To the untrained eye,” Feller remarks, “randomness appears as regularity or tendency to cluster.” I soon had an occasion to apply what I had learned frpeaрrainom Feller. The Yom Kippur War broke out in 1973, and my only significant contribution to the war effort was to advise high officers in the Israeli Air Force to stop an investigation. The air war initially went quite badly for Israel, because of the unexpectedly good performance of Egyptian ground-to-air missiles. Losses were high, and they appeared to be unevenly distributed. I was told of two squadrons flying from the same base, one of which had lost four planes while the other had lost none.

Petersburg paradox Strack, Fritz strangers, assessment of Strangers to Ourselves (Wilson) Streep, Meryl strength, assessments of structured settlements Stumbling to Happiness (Gilbert) substitution; and mood heuristic for happiness; and 3-D heuristic success, uot sum-like variables sunk-cost fallacy Sunstein, Cass Super Bowl supply and demand surgeons Surowiecki, James surprise survey and gift experiments survival-mortality experiment symbols System 1; characteristics of; conflict between System 2 and System 2; conflict between System 1 and; laziness of Taleb, Nassim talent task sets task switching Tate, Geoffrey taxes; child exemptions and temperament temptation Tenet, George terrorism Tetlock, Philip Thaler, Richard theory-induced blindness therapists thinking like a trader Thomas, Lewis threats; possibility effect and 3-D heuristic tickets; buying and selling of; sunk cost in time; use of time pressure Todorov, Alex token experiment Tom W problem “Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth” (Barber and Odean) transactions and trades Traviata, La (Verdi) Truman, Harry trustworthiness, assessments of truth, illusions of Tversky, Amos understanding, illusion of unique cases University College London University of California at Berkeley University of Chicago University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Oregon unlikely events, see rare events unknown unknowns utility; decision; experienced; indifference map and; injection puzzle and; meanings of utility theory; certainty effect and; decision weights and probabilities in vacations vaccines validity: of clinical vs. statistical predictions; evaluating; illusion of Vallone, Robert value; see also utility Vancouver Island Venn diagrams venture capitalists victim compensation vividness; of outcomes; of probabilities vocabulary: of girls vs. boys; simple vs. pretentious Vohs, Kathleen vomit, effect of word Von Neumann, John voting Wainer, Howard walking wars Washington Post, The wealth, see money and wealth weather Weber, Ernste> weight and piano playing, measuring Weiner, Howard well-being; climate and; defining; disposition for; duration weighting and; see also happiness West, Richard what you see is all there is (WYSIATI); confidence and; curriculum team and; Julie problem and; optimistic bias and; premortem and; professorial candidate problem and; soldiers’ performance and; Tom W problem and wheel of fortune “wicked” environments Wilson, Timothy Wimbledon tournament wine Winter Olympics Wisdom of Crowds, The (Surowiecki) witnesses’ evidence Woods, Tiger words: complex vs. simple; emotionally-loaded World Cup World War II worry WYSIATI, see what you see is all there is X-rays Xu, Jing Yale exam problem Yom Kippur War Zajonc, Robert Zamir, Eyal Zeller, Kathryn Zweig, Jason Zwerling, Harris Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Copyright © 2011 by Daniel Kahneman All rights reserved Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to reprint the following previously published material: “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” from Science, New Series, Vol. 185, No. 4157, copyright © 1974 by Amos Tversky and Dan"0%" te>X-rays Science.


pages: 812 words: 180,057

The Generals: American Military Command From World War II to Today by Thomas E. Ricks

affirmative action, airport security, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, hiring and firing, MITM: man-in-the-middle, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Yom Kippur War

It was a newly created headquarters, designed by him to bring together, for the first time, the Army’s efforts on training, research, and doctrine—the last of these being essentially how the service thinks about how to fight. The Army was out of Vietnam, and DePuy was focused on its future, which he saw as conventional, tank-heavy battles in Europe. When the fourth Arab-Israeli conflict (also known as the Yom Kippur War, the Ramadan War, or the October War) broke out that fall, he made the lessons and implications of the Israeli counterattack the centerpiece of his efforts to modernize and refocus the Army. The Arab forces, Soviet-trained and equipped, were a reasonable facsimile of what the U.S. Army would face on the plains of Central Europe if the superpowers ever went to war. DePuy also radically improved the Army’s training efforts, beginning by doing away with mind-numbing time-based training, in which a certain number of hours were to be spent on each basic task in a soldier’s field, and replaced it with a competence-based system.

., 356, 495n Winton, Walter, 182, 495n, 496n Woerner, Frederick, 362, 462 Wolfowitz, Paul, 375–76 Wong, Leonard, 468n Woodring, Harry, 30 Woods, Kevin, 524n, 525n, 526n Woodward, Bob, 531n Woolley, John, 516n Worden, William, 486n World War I, 32, 58, 73, 96, 107, 114, 151, 410, 444, 454 commanders in, 26–27 Gallipoli battle in, 69 Marshall in, 19–20, 23 Meuse-Argonne offensive in, 23 relief policy in, 21–23, 185 Saint-Mihiel offensive in, 23 World War II, 7, 11, 12, 107, 114, 119, 126, 151, 153, 171, 178, 197, 217, 237, 309, 420, 444 Bradley in, 116–17 DePuy’s experience in, 2, 5–6, 244 draft in, 113 Eisenhower’s proposed strategy for, 45–47 Eisenhower’s war aims in, 48–49 end of, 111–12 Falaise pocket in, 362–63 firepower in, 245 growth of U.S. armed forces in, 15, 35–36 high-command mistakes in, 50–51 Japanese surrender in, 384 military drawdown after, 389–90 Phony War in, 29 promotion from the ranks in, 113 relief policy in, 11–12, 17–19, 38–39, 69–71, 110, 112, 185, 187, 188, 251, 381 World War I commanders and, 26–27 see also Sicily campaign Wunderlin, Clarence E., Jr., 469 X Corps, U.S., 132, 154–56, 170 XVIII Airborne Corps, U.S., 357 Yeosock, John, 381 Yingling, Paul, 8, 349, 441–44, 460, 468n, 531n, 532n Yom Kippur War, 337–38 Young, Brigham, 19 Young, Stephen, 509n Zelikow, Philip, 410, 418, 437, 448 PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS 1 (left): Courtesy National Archives, Army Signal Corps photo #16150-41-4788 2 (right): Frank Scherschel / Time & Life Pictures / Getty Images 3 (left): Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation 4 (right): Courtesy National Archives, Official Military Personnel Files, ARC 2595210 5: © Bettmann / Corbis 6: Courtesy National Archives, Army Signal Corps 7: © Bettmann / Corbis 8 (top): Courtesy National Archives, Still Pictures Records Section, ARC 5891326 9 (bottom): Courtesy National Archives, photo 127-GR-213 B-A 5415 10 (top): Courtesy National Archives, Harry S.


pages: 7,371 words: 186,208

The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times by Giovanni Arrighi

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial rule, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, double entry bookkeeping, European colonialism, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, profit maximization, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, reserve currency, spice trade, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

But the reversal was all the more depressing because of its association with an equally sudden escalation of inter-capitalist competition that reduced real returns to capital to “unreasonable” levels. The association was not accidental. The price of crude oil had already begun to rise prior to the “shock” of 1973. But it was the virtual acknowledgement of defeat by the US government in Vietnam, followed immediately by the shattering of the myth of Israeli invincibility during the Yom Kippur War, that energized OPEC into effectively protecting its members from the depreciation of the dollar and in imposing on the First World a substantial oil rent. Combined with the preceding pay explosion, the explosion of oil prices forced First World enterprises to compete even more intensely than they already were for the Third World’s supplies of labor and energy, as well as for the purchasing power that was trickling down to some Third World countries in the form of higher real prices for crude oil and other raw materials.

See cloth industry World Bank, 69 world capitalism, 306-7, 375f, 379 world economy: Britain and, 289; capital accumulation and, 239; capitalist, 219, 225, 230-31, 340-41, 350, 367; division of, 238; financial expansions and, 238-40; first form, 231; material expansions of, 226, 227, 230-31, 324, 350; US and, 289, 351 world government, 76-77 world liquidity, 73, 280-81, 284, 288, 318, 367 world market economy, 1 1, 68 world markets, 260, 262, 265, 296-99, 304, 339, 377 world monetary system, 280-81, 283, 287 world money, 59, 72, 279, 287-88, 309, 318, 328-29 World War I, 65, 179, 276, 277-79 World War II, 66, 164, 283-84, 337-38 yen, 354, 358, 365 Yom Kippur War, 333 Yoshio, Suzuki, 364, 366 Ypres, 100, 102


Frommer's Israel by Robert Ullian

airport security, British Empire, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, East Village, haute cuisine, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Silicon Valley, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

In the absence of a peace settlement that would trade most land captured in 1967 for peace, the occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip began to seem less temporary. The small political movement for Jewish settlement of the Occupied Territories began to grow, although initially opposed by the Israeli government. Resentment among the Palestinians under occupation quietly rose. The country experienced a sharp change in fortune in October 1973. The Yom Kippur War, a completely unexpected 1914 Jews from Russia and Allied countries expelled by Ottoman Turks. ■ 1917 Balfour Declaration supporting Jewish national home in Palestine. British free Jerusalem from Turks. ■ 1920 Official start of British Mandate. ■ 1922 British create TransJordan (now Jordan) from Palestinian lands east of the Jordan River. ■ 1925 Hebrew University founded in Jerusalem. ■ 1929 Arab-Jewish riots.

The Intifada, a grass-roots program of daily commercial strikes and demonstrations (both violent and nonviolent) against the military authorities, began. The Intifada continued through the early 1990s. 1967 Egypt expels peacekeeping force. Israel wins SixDay War, occupies Sinai, Golan, West Bank, and Gaza. ■ 1972 Palestinian terrorists massacre Israeli athletes at Munich Olympics. ■ 1973 Egypt and Syria attack during Yom Kippur War. ■ 1976 Israelis rescue Jewish hostages at Entebbe Airport. ■ 1977 Likud wins elections. Sadat of Egypt comes to Jerusalem. ■ 33 1979 Israel and Egypt sign peace treaty negotiated at Camp David. ■ 1982 Israel invades Lebanon. ■ 1984 Labor-Likud Coalition. Withdrawal from most of Lebanon. Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews. ■ 1987 First Palestinian Intifada begins. ■ 1989 Great Soviet aliyah begins. ■ continues 06_289693-ch02.qxp 34 10/28/08 9:32 AM CHAPTER 2 .

Deeply committed to the land, a visionary who believed Israel’s future lay in the development of the desert, he retired to the Negev kibbutz of Sde Boker after his final term in office. In the euphoria after the 1967 war, Ben-Gurion urged magnanimous terms for a peace settlement, including the return of most conquered lands. He lived just long enough to see his country survive the onslaught of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Abba Eban (1915–2002) South African– born, Cambridge-educated author, diplomat, and former foreign minister, Eban was noted for an eloquence and wit unrivaled among Western leaders since Winston Churchill. When asked by reporters about divisions between hawks and doves in the Israel cabinet during the tense days before the Six-Day War, he quipped, “The government of Israel is hardly an aviary.”


pages: 247 words: 78,961

The Return of Marco Polo's World: War, Strategy, and American Interests in the Twenty-First Century by Robert D. Kaplan

Admiral Zheng, always be closing, California gold rush, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Haight Ashbury, kremlinology, load shedding, mass immigration, megacity, one-China policy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, Westphalian system, Yom Kippur War

Vilified by the media, assailed in Congress, and ridiculed by the protest movement, they had sustained America’s idealistic tradition, risking their lives and expending their youth on a struggle that American leadership groups had initiated, then abandoned, and finally disdained. Kissinger’s diplomatic achievements reached far beyond Southeast Asia. Between 1973 and 1975, Kissinger, serving Nixon and then Gerald Ford, steered the Yom Kippur War toward a stalemate that was convenient for American interests, and then brokered agreements between Israel and its Arab adversaries for a separation of forces. Those deals allowed Washington to reestablish diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria for the first time since their rupture following the Six-Day War in 1967. The agreements also established the context for the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979 and helped stabilize a modus vivendi between Israel and Syria that has lasted well past the turn of the twenty-first century.


Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, global pandemic, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John von Neumann, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

By studying in depth these trends and the interactions between them, it is possible to identify the forces that are likely to produce a big discontinuity in the future and its relevance to the organization. In thinking about strategic surprise from this perspective, it is important not to focus simply on events themselves, but rather on the contexts within which they are developing. For instance, the game-changing potential of the 2990-7 ch09 schwarz 102 7/23/07 12:12 PM Page 102 peter schwartz and doug randall Yom Kippur War in 1973 would have been radically different without the larger context of the cold war. Understanding these contexts then becomes part of the analytical process of anticipating surprise. The next step is to take an inside-out approach. Here, the question is less about what is going on outside in the world, but rather: What are the risks to the organization? What are the key elements of vulnerability?


pages: 233 words: 73,772

The Secret World of Oil by Ken Silverstein

business intelligence, clean water, corporate governance, corporate raider, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Google Earth, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

It was considered the natural order of the business, the way the oil industry was to be managed. The system broke up because producer companies got tired of bring ripped off by the multinationals and their home governments. One way they fought back was through the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which was founded in 1965 but only closely coordinated members’ output to determine production after the Yom Kippur War. The conflict prompted OPEC to launch its embargo against the West, leading to an explosion in the price of oil. While the West viewed this as unfair collusion and political manipulation of oil prices, OPEC producers understandably saw it as a means of gaining a fairer share of the profits from the global energy business. The emergence of independent trading also allowed producer countries to alter the balance of power.


pages: 840 words: 202,245

Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present by Jeff Madrick

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, inventory management, invisible hand, John Meriwether, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, technology bubble, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, union organizing, V2 rocket, value at risk, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

., p. 85. 17 “WE HAD A GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT”: Anonymous author interview, May 2009. 18 IN ONE OF THE PREDICTIONS: These successful predictions also included timely investments in Japanese and European energy companies and food stocks, and selling short the overly popular growth stocks, known as the Nifty Fifty, such as Xerox. They also invested in defense company stocks when few were interested after the Vietnam War, anticipating there would again be an arms race with Russia, and that Israel would step up its armaments purchases after the Yom Kippur War. Slater, Soros, pp. 76–77. 19 SOROS SOLD BRITISH GILTS: Ibid., p. 84. 20 THE SOROS FUND ROSE: George Soros, The Alchemy of Finance, p. 146; Slater, Soros, pp. 80–84. 21 BONDS COLLAPSED IN VALUE: Slater, Soros, pp. 90–92. 22 HE POSITIONED THE QUANTUM FUND: He documented the ensuing trades between 1985 and 1986 in The Alchemy of Finance, in which he published a real-time diary of his strategy. 23 AND HE DID ALL THIS AGGRESSIVELY: Ibid., Chapters 12–14, pp. 196–296. 24 HE EARNED HIMSELF NEARLY $95 MILLION: Slater, Soros, p. 143. 25 “MARKETS ARE ALWAYS BIASED”: Soros, The Alchemy of Finance, p. 49. 26 SOROS, FOR EXAMPLE, WAS ACCUSED: Slater, Soros, p. 83. 27 BUT HE WAS FOUND GUILTY: John Tagliabue, “Soros Is Found Guilty in France on Charges of Insider Trading,” New York Times, December 21, 2002, http://search.aol.com/aol/search?

(Reagan), 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Whyte, William Wigmore, Barrie Williams, Harrison Williams Act (1968), 4.1, 13.1 William Volker Charitable Fund, 2.1, 2.2 Wills, Garry, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Winnick, Gary, 17.1, 17.2 Witness (Chambers), 7.1 Wojnilower, Albert, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 9.1, 11.1 working class, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 9.1, 10.1, 16.1 working conditions, itr.1, prl.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4 World Bank, 6.1, 6.2 WorldCom, 16.1, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 19.1, 19.2 World War I, 2.1, 11.1 World War II, itr.1, prl.1, prl.2, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 15.1 Wright, Robert, 12.1, 12.2 Wriston, Henry, 1.1, 1.2 Wriston, Walter, 1.1, 1.2, 6.1, 6.2; background of, 1.3, 1.4; as banker, 1.5, 4.1, 5.1, 6.3, 6.4, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3; as Citibank and Citicorp CEO, itr.1, 1.6, 6.5, 11.2, 16.4, 19.1; economic views of, itr.1, 1.7, 1.8, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8; as First National City CEO, 1.9, 1.10, 15.1, 16.5; Friedman’s influence on, 1.11, 1.12, 6.9; government regulation opposed by, itr.1, 1.13, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 9.1; LCD debts approved by, 6.14; New Deal as viewed by, itr.1, 1.14; Regulation Q opposed by, 6.15, 6.16, 9.2; reputation of, 1.15, 6.17, 6.18; Weill compared with, 16.6 Wyman, Jane, 7.1, 7.2 Wynn, Steve, 13.1, 13.2 Xerox Corp., 1.1, 14.1, 19.1, 19.2 Yellen, Janet, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3 Yom Kippur War, 3.1, 19.1 Young Americans for Freedom, prl.1 Zandi, Mark, 14.1, 19.1, 19.2 Zarb, Frank, 16.1, 16.2 Zweig, Phillip ILLUSTRATION CREDITS prl.1 LEWIS UHLER: Terry Ashe / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 1.1 WALTER WRISTON: Ralph Morse / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 2.1 MILTON FRIEDMAN: AP Photo 3.1 RICHARD NIXON: Bettmann / CORBIS 4.1 JOE FLOM: Rob Rich / Getty Images 5.1 IVAN BOESKY: Misha Erwitt / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 6.1 WALTER WRISTON: Bettmann / CORBIS 7.1 RONALD REAGAN: Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library 8.1 TED TURNER: Cynthia Johnson / Liaison / Getty Images 8.2 SAM WALTON: Eli Reichman / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 8.3 STEVE ROSS: Richard Corkery / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 9.1 JIMMY CARTER: AP Photo / Harvey Georges 10.1 HOWARD JARVIS: AP Photo / Lennox McLendon 11.1 PAUL VOLCKER: AP Photo / Stf 12.1 TOM PETERS: Roger Ressmeyer / CORBIS 12.2 JACK WELCH: Reuters / Landov 13.1 MICHAEL MILKEN: Ed Molinari / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 14.1 ALAN GREENSPAN: Paul J.


pages: 516 words: 1,220

Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq by Thomas E. Ricks

business process, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Shinseki or Colin Powell, they could be stubborn, even dogged and single-minded, in defending the institution they had spent their lives rebuilding. But the most significant post-Vietnam fix may have been doctrinal—that is, in how the Army thinks about how itfights.Arguably, the rebuilding began on the Golan Heights in 1973, as the Army's leaders, trying tofigureout the path beyond Vietnam, watched the Arab-Israeli Ramadan War, or Yom Kippur War, with astonishment. Shocked by surprise attacks from Syria and Egypt, the Israelis quickly rallied and launched a counteroffensive, losing only 250 tanks and 772 troops as they destroyed 1,150 tanks and killed 3,500 of the enemy. Among those tracking this was Gen. William DePuy, the first chief of the U.S. Army's new Training and Doctrine Command, which was created in July 1973. DePuy, who in Vietnam had held the key position of operations officer for Gen.

Three years later the Army revised for the first time since 1968 its core statement on how to fight, titled "Operations," but in those days more commonly referred to as Field Manual 100-5 (FM 100-5). The 1976 version of this capstone doctrinal statement warned that the Army must aim to "win the first battle of the next war." That ultimately led the Army's thinkers to focus too much only on that first fight. During World War II, tanks had opened fire at an average range of 750 yards, but in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israeli tanks engaged at two thousand yards and more. This changed the shape of the battlefield and meant fighting in-depth, rather than just on a front, observed retired Army Maj. Gen. Robert Scales, a former commandant of the Army War College and later coauthor of an account of the spring 2003 invasion. "It doesn't matter how much you put on the front line, because the lethality of weaponry is such that you can't just fight on the front line, you have to fight all echelons at once, in depth," Scales said.


pages: 637 words: 199,158

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J. Mearsheimer

active measures, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, deindustrialization, discrete time, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War

American bombers, for example, conducted large-scale raids against the German cities of Regensburg and Schweinfurt in August and October 1943 without commanding the skies over that part of Germany. The attacking bombers suffered prohibitive losses as a result, forcing the United States to halt the attacks until long-range fighter escorts became available in early 1944.34 During the first days of the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, the Israeli Air Force (IAF) attempted to provide much-needed support to the beleaguered Israeli ground forces along the Suez Canal and on the Golan Heights. But withering fire from Egyptian and Syrian surface-to-air missiles and air-defense guns forced the IAF to curtail that mission.35 Once an air force controls the skies, it can pursue three power-projection missions in support of army units fighting on the ground.

(Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983), Vol. 2, pp. 681–87, 695–714; Thomas M. Coffey, Decision over Schweinfurt: The U.S. 8th Air Force Battle for Daylight Bombing (New York: David McKay, 1977); and John Sweetman, Schweinfurt: Disaster in the Skies (New York: Ballantine, 1971). 35. See Trevor N. Dupuy, Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974 (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), pp. 550–53, 555–56; Insight Team of the London Sunday Times, The Yom Kippur War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974), pp. 184–89; Chaim Herzog, The War of Atonement, October 1973 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), pp. 256–61; Edward Luttwak and Dan Horowitz, The Israeli Army (London: Allen Lane, 1975), pp. 347–52, 374; and Eliezer Cohen, Israel’s Best Defense: The First Full Story of the Israeli Air Force, trans. Jonathan Cordis (New York: Orion, 1993), pp. 321–68, 386, 391. 36.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Over the last four decades, each time oil prices have spiked, the global economy has rolled over into a recession. The problems may take different guises, such as stagflation in the 1970s or the financial market meltdown in 2008. Regardless of what story made the most headlines at the time, oil prices were lurking at the root of the problem. Consider the first oil shock, created by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) following the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Set off by this Arab-Israeli conflict, OPEC’s Arab members turned off the taps on roughly 8 percent of the world’s oil supply by cutting shipments to the United States and other Israeli allies. Crude prices spiked, and by 1974 real GDP in the United States had shrunk by 2.5 percent. The second OPEC oil shock happened during Iran’s revolution and the subsequent war with Iraq. Disruptions to Iranian production during the revolution sent crude prices higher, pushing the North American economy into a recession for the first half of 1980.


pages: 330 words: 83,319

The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder by Sean McFate

active measures, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, hive mind, index fund, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero day, zero-sum game

For more on this period, see William Caferro, John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy (Baltimore: JHU Press, 2006). 21. Frederick William on mercenaries during the Thirty Years’ War: Sidney B. Fay, “The Beginnings of the Standing Army in Prussia,” American Historical Review 22, no. 4 (1917): 767. 22. WWIII close calls: Superpower tensions during the Cold War that could have escalated into nuclear war include the Korean War (1950–1953); the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962); the Yom Kippur War (October 1973); NORAD’s computer error (1979); the “Petrov save” incident (1983); and the Able Archer NATO exercise (1983). Rule 9: Shadow Wars Will Dominate 1. Putin admits Russian troops in Ukraine: Shaun Walker, “Putin Admits Russian Military Presence in Ukraine for First Time,” The Guardian, 17 December 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/17/vladimir-putin-admits-russian-military-presence-ukraine. 2.


pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

South Asia witnessed several limited conflicts between India and Pakistan, the crisis within East Pakistan that (with India acting as midwife) led to the creation of an independent Bangladesh, and the conflict in Afghanistan that by the time it ended in 1989 had contributed to the demise of the Soviet Union. The Middle East was in many ways the most violent of regions in terms of number of conflicts. One fault line associated with recurring conflicts was that between Israel and its Arab neighbors. There was the 1948 war at the time of Israel’s independence, the 1956 Suez Crisis, the 1967 Six-Day War, the 1973 October or Yom Kippur War, and the intifadas that brought Palestinians and Israelis into direct conflict. Elsewhere in the region numerous other conflicts took place, from the civil war that began in Lebanon in the mid-1970s to the eight-year war between Iran and Iraq that ended only in 1988. Latin America and Africa also experienced conflict, almost all of it within states (civil wars of one sort or another) or fought by armed groups that were based in one country and intervened in another.


The Oil Kings: How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East by Andrew Scott Cooper

addicted to oil, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, energy security, falling living standards, friendly fire, full employment, interchangeable parts, Kickstarter, land reform, MITM: man-in-the-middle, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

“Our Middle East policy has been smashed,” he bitterly lamented to Max Fisher, a prominent leader in the American Jewish community and back channel to Israeli leaders. Kissinger blamed Israel and American Jewish groups for sabotaging his shuttle mission, conveniently forgetting that the Shah’s abandonment of the Kurds had destroyed Israeli faith in promises of oil and security. “I have to tell you as a friend—the failure of this negotiation is the worst disaster since the Yom Kippur War [October War], not because of what we will do but because of what will develop,” he told Fisher. “We have lost control.” “American foreign policy has not since the early days of the cold war had at the edges so many actual or threatened losses, so many intractable and unresolved problems, and so much reason for anxiety about some of these problems as today,” wrote Joseph Harsch in a lucid analysis published by The Christian Science Monitor.

Johannes, 315, 332 Wolfowitz, Paul, 248 Woodward, Bob, 365, 454n–55n World Bank, 189, 263 Manila meeting of, 331–34 World War II, 45, 471n Xerox, 392 Yamani, Ahmed Zaki al-, 7, 122, 123, 128, 132, 145, 148, 158, 208, 224, 246, 268, 275, 276–77, 348, 366, 367, 382 Kissinger’s dislike of, 171 later career of, 391 oil auction initiative of, 177–78, 181, 204 on oil policy, 80 at OPEC’s Bali meeting, 311 at OPEC’s Doha meeting, 358–63 Simon and, 172–73, 175 Yamani (Robinson), 435n Years of Upheaval (Kissinger), 81, 393 Yeganeh, Mohammad, 254 Yeo, Ed, 348–49 Yergin, Daniel, 80, 90, 159 Yom Kippur War see Arab-Israeli War of 1973 Yugoslavia, 180 Zahedi, Ardeshir, 10, 27, 30, 42, 53, 74, 116, 136, 157, 167, 209, 216, 228, 241, 300, 302, 306, 340, 347, 350, 352, 374, 388, 410n, 495n diplomatic style of, 28–29 Ford’s meetings with, 202–3, 354–56 later career of, 391 in 1973 Washington visit, 101–4 1976 U.S. election and, 323–24 SAVAK scandal and, 342–43 Shah’s cancer secret and, 381–82 Simon’s “nuts” remark and, 176–77 Zahedi, Fazlollah, 27 Zaire, 316 Zarb, Frank, 10, 152, 171, 172, 233, 270, 272, 273, 290, 296, 322–23, 330–31 bilateral oil deal and, 238–39, 240, 267–69, 274, 295, 298–99, 302, 349 Ziegler, Ron, 64 Zonis, Marvin, 25, 402n Zumwalt, Elmo, 71


pages: 767 words: 208,933

Liberalism at Large: The World According to the Economist by Alex Zevin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, Columbine, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, desegregation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, hiring and firing, imperial preference, income inequality, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norman Macrae, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War, young professional

In the context of low interest rates, dollars spent on ‘butter and guns’ sloshed through the global economy, joining huge pools already ‘offshored’ in the City of London, where investors used them (among other things) to bet against the US currency. Nixon’s devaluation in 1973 was a defensive strike, meant to wind up a long, losing battle to maintain confidence in the gold convertibility of the dollar, and restore competitive capacity against German and Japanese exporters. As a means of reviving the world economy, it came to grief immediately. The oil price quadrupled after the Yom Kippur War, and a new word was coined to describe the effects this had down the decade: stagflation. Perhaps most alarming of all, these very developments seemed to strengthen the Soviet Union, which gained hard currency from surging oil prices and a freer hand abroad after America’s geopolitical setback in Southeast Asia.63 At this moment of apparent crisis for the American-led liberal world order, Andrew Knight became editor of the Economist.

‘Will Israel’s success go too much to its head? One doubts it: this is a very levelheaded people.’ ‘Teach Them a Lesson’, 10 June 1967, and passim. 26.‘Israel Fearless’, 13 October 1973; ‘No Good Result’, 13 October 1973; ‘No More Doves’, 27 October 1973. After the Six-Day War, US aid increased from $63 million to $102 million annually, reaching $634.5 million in 1971, quintupling after the Yom Kippur War in 1973 to make Israel the largest recipient of US foreign aid since 1976. John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy, New York 2007, pp. 2–3. 27.‘Worth spending /not concerned risks involved /no involvement of embassy /$10,000,000 available, more if necessary/ best men we have/ game plan/ make the economy scream/ 48 hours for plan of action’: CIA director Richard Helms took these notes during a meeting with Nixon, Kissinger and others on 15 September 1970.


pages: 356 words: 95,647

Sun in a Bottle: The Strange History of Fusion and the Science of Wishful Thinking by Charles Seife

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Brownian motion, correlation does not imply causation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Macrae, Project Plowshare, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, Yom Kippur War

Siegel, the entrepreneur, exuded confidence in public. He was sure, he said, that he could turn lasers into “efficient fusion power” within “the next few years.” After false starts and two decades of struggle with magnetic bottles, the era of fusion finally seemed at hand. The timing could scarcely have been better. The United States was just getting through its first oil crisis. Because of American support for Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Arab members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cut off oil supplies to the U.S. Gas prices skyrocketed. It was becoming painfully clear that the country had to find another source of energy—anything other than petroleum—if it was to avoid being held hostage to OPEC’s interests. It was scarcely two months after the embargo was lifted that a jittery nation learned about Siegel and KMS.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Never mind that at 7.2 percent, unemployment in November 1984 was only slightly lower than in November 1980, when it was 7.5 percent. The economy was in recovery. But the Golden Age was over. The first sign of trouble had been stagnation of the median income. In October 1973 the Arab members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries retaliated against U.S. support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War by imposing an embargo that quadrupled the price of oil. The immediate result was a sixteen-month recession and a simultaneous upsurge in inflation, an unusually hideous combination dubbed “stagflation.” After the recession ended, in March 1975, the median income was expected to resume a brisk upward climb. But it didn’t. Median income, which more than doubled between 1947 and 1973, would rise by less than one quarter between 1973 and 2004.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Wyatt (played by Peter Fonda, Jane's brother) admits in the film's climax that they had failed, blown it. The seventies was the decade of oil shocks, which occurred in 1973 and 1979 and ended a period of low prices. In the US this was compounded by oil production peaking. In October 1973, Arab members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) proclaimed an oil embargo, in response to US backing for Israel during the Yom Kippur War and in support of the Palestinians. The price of oil rose from US$3 per barrel to nearly US$12. In 1979, in the wake of the Iranian revolution, oil output fell and the price rose to nearly US$40 per barrel. This resulted in higher inflation and a sharp global economic slowdown. This decade saw the collapse of the Bretton Woods international monetary system. The cost to the US of the Vietnam War and the Great Society programs had spurred sharp increases in prices, along with large budget deficits and increased dollar outflows to pay for the expenditures.


pages: 304 words: 88,495

The Powerhouse: Inside the Invention of a Battery to Save the World by Steve Levine

colonial rule, Elon Musk, energy security, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Yom Kippur War

Few knew it, he would say, but for a short time almost four decades before, South Africa was one of the great centers of battery thinking. In Pretoria in the late 1970s, Thackeray, in shaggy, blondish hair and long sideburns, did his Ph.D. under a crystallographer named Johan Coetzer. One day, Coetzer walked into the lab and announced a new project. They were going to “do some stuff in the energy field.” The Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbors had triggered an energy crisis and the Western world was seeking a way around Middle East oil. Coetzer thought one answer was the advancement of batteries and he told Thackeray that that was where they would focus their work. The effort was challenged from the beginning because of South Africa’s system of apartheid, to which the world had responded with economic sanctions.


Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent by Robert F. Barsky

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, centre right, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, information retrieval, means of production, Norman Mailer, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strong AI, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, theory of mind, Yom Kippur War

file:///D|/export3/www.netlibrary.com/nlreader/nlreader.dll@bookid=9296&filename=page_169.html [4/16/2007 3:21:13 PM] Document Page 170 Provoking Ire Chomsky's political talks during this time stirred up considerable controversy in different sectors. In some instances, this was exacerbated by "experts" who seemed to be suffering from amnesia. Alan Dershowitz, for example, claims in his best-selling book Chutzpah (1991) that he had had a public discussion with Chomsky immediately following the Yom Kippur War in 1973, during which Chomsky had proposed a "hare-brained scheme" that involved abolishing the state of Israel and replacing it with "a secular, binational state." Calling Chomsky a "false prophet of the left," ''who would willingly sacrifice Jewish values and the Jewish state to some Marxist view of the world," Dershowitz declared that neither his "children, friends, [n]or students" could accept such a vision (199).


pages: 1,208 words: 364,966

Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War by Robert Fisk

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, friendly fire, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

Aliza brought tea and cakes and put them on the table beneath the tree. Tea and cakes with the fighter pilot. Bach had finished on the tape deck. ‘Sometimes in war, you kill people,’ Specter said. ‘This is what war is all about. Yes, human awareness is there. We relied on intelligence very, very much. This was not an article of faith. But our country relies on intelligence even in peacetime. In the one case where it failed, we paid for it – in the Yom Kippur war.’ But surely the intelligence was wrong? Thousands of civilians died in Lebanon. Whole apartment blocks were destroyed by the Israeli planes. Israeli intelligence had to have been wrong, surely? Specter was still reluctant to talk about the intelligence briefings at his Galilee airbase. But he also recognised that the issues were not being addressed. ‘I will tell you this. There would be a briefing.

When did the pilots realise this was all wrong? ‘The Sabra and Chatila massacre was the cornerstone of everything, that what we were doing was not just a mistake but was wrong. The strain, the tension of some of our people was real. Pilots came again and again and asked: “Can we be sure about the targets? Are they alright?”’ Specter could not stop talking now. The reticence was gone. ‘Look, there is a problem. The Yom Kippur war was a war of life and death for our state. But some of our pilots turned out to be pacifists at the wrong time … In the middle of the war, they found they were pacifists. Now to be a pacifist is probably a nice thing to be most of the year – but not when you are at war. In other words, we told our pilots: “If you want to refuse orders, deal with your ideology before you begin your flying course.”

., 60n Walker, Julian, 147 Wall Street Journal, The, 393n, 402, 403 Wallace, Charles, 587 Walters, Barbara, 409 Waring, Robert, 83, 84 Warsaw, 6, 8, 48, 169, 394, 438 Warsaw Pact, 192 Washington Journalism Review, 422n Washington Post, The, x, 137, 200, 244, 357, 421, 581 Washington Times, 568n Wavell barracks, 68 Wazzan, Chafiq, 260, 264, 270, 279, 320n, 322, 348, 532 Wazzir, Khalil see Abu Jihad Weinberger, Caspar, 350, 351, 445, 451, 475, 477 Weinraub, Major Yehuda, 412 Weir, Benjamin, 595, 612 Weizmann, Chaim, 142 Weizman, Ezer, 123, 124 West Bank, 83, 196, 231, 254, 260, 331, 347, 351, 399n, 403, 411, 422, 423, 438, 444, 477, 479, 551, 630, 631, 646 Palestinian uprising in, xi Palestinians exiled in, 18 and Arab–Israeli war, 19 Arab settlement on, 43 Arab inhabitants of, 61 Israel’s conquest of (1967), 73, 541 Palestinian attacks on Israelis, 194 West Berlin bombing (1986), 615–16 West German Embassy, Beirut, 170, 171 Wiesel, Elie, 394–5 William II, Kaiser, 666 Wilson, Charles, xiii, 567, 618 Wilson, Edmund, 406 Wojciech, Stetkiewicz, 1, 6, 9, 10, 11 Wooten, James, 429n Worldwide Television, 616 Wright, Jonathan, 582 Ya’ari, Ehud, xi, 189n, 340n, 350n, 569n Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial, 7, 16, 392, 404–5 Yaghobzadeh, Alfred, 608 Yanbu, 646 Yarze military headquarters, 473, 491 Yassin, Amal, 656 Yater, 551–2 Yazour, 27 Yediot Ahronot, 395n Yehoshua, A.B., 395 Yemen, x, 44, 45, 200, 269 Yermiya, Lieutenant-Colonel Dov, 251n Yohmor, 256n Yom Kippur war (1973), 310, 311, 396 ‘Younis’ (Shin Bet code name), 572 Yugoslavia, 307, 389 Zaaboub, Adel, 180–1, 355 Zabedani, 487 Zahle, 82–3, 107, 122, 187–90, 499, 501, 590, 601, 635 Zahran, General Mohamed, 346–7 Zahrani, near Sidon, 104, 458, 575 Zahrani River, 211 zaim (zuama), 75, 76, 118, 120, 122, 339, 432, 524 Zamzam, Fatima, 36–47, 61, 68 Zamzam, Hassan, 37, 47 Zamzam, Mohamed, 38 Zamzam, Mustafa, 36, 37 Zarab, Lieutenant-Colonel Basagh, 341, 342, 343, 347, 357 Zeidan, Habib, 248 Zghorta, 76, 639, 641 Ziegler, Lieutenant Conway, 135 Zionism/Zionists, 14, 15, 20, 85, 93, 151, 170, 541 Zionist Federation, 46, 47n Zippori, Mordechai, 381 Zrariyeh, 417, 581 ZSU anti-aircraft guns, 646 * The Tragedy of Lebanon: Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers by Jonathan Randal (London, Chatto and Windus, 1983); Israel’s Lebanon War by Ze’ev Schiff and Ehud Ya’ari (London, George Allen and Unwin, 1985)


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Seemingly modest actions can reverberate throughout society by altering, if only slightly, people’s evaluations of costs and benefits. Such is the case of the 55 mph speed limit imposed across the United States in 1974 as a way to conserve gasoline in the wake of the first oil crisis, when Arab countries proclaimed an oil embargo in response to the United States’ decision to resupply the Israeli military after the Yom Kippur War. Conserving gas was a reasonable objective at the time. The strategy, however, was fatally flawed because it ignored the value of drivers’ time. At the new legal limit, a seventy-mile trip would take about one hour and sixteen minutes—sixteen minutes more than at 70 mph. Considering that the wages of production workers in 1974 averaged around $4.30 an hour, those sixteen minutes to commute to and from work would cost a typical worker about $1.15.


pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

But Nixon’s dollar devaluation and import tax cut into those revenues. The Arab rulers suddenly felt that the United States was reneging on its deal. “What is the point of producing more oil and selling it for an unguaranteed paper currency?” asked the Kuwaiti oil minister, urging his Middle Eastern counterparts to cut back production in order to raise prices.11 After the United States sold weapons to Israel during the October 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and the Arab states, the Arabs placed an oil embargo on the United States. The U.S. government brokered a cease-fire in the same month, but the embargo continued for six months. When it finally ended, the oil producers had demonstrated their ability to control the flow of the essential ingredient of modern commerce and military might, and they would not go back to the old subservient relationship.


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Long History on the Nuclear Road Japan had been travelling the nuclear road for 40 years, having opened the Fukushima plant in March 1971 in response to environmental concerns and the 1967 oil export embargo imposed by some Arab producers following the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbours. That brief embargo was followed by the much more severe “oil shock” of 1973–1974, when Arab producers within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) declared sharp price rises, production cuts, and an oil embargo targeting the United States and some other Western nations over their support for Israel in its October 1973 Yom Kippur War with Syria and Egypt. This second oil shock encouraged Japan and other advanced economies to further embrace the nuclear option. A third oil shock came in 1979, when the Iranian Revolution disrupted production there, sending global oil prices higher. That spurred increased oil production from a variety of new, non-OPEC sources in the 1980s, which, combined with energy conservation and slower economic growth, meant oil prices declined sharply from the mid-1980s.


pages: 417 words: 103,458

The Intelligence Trap: Revolutionise Your Thinking and Make Wiser Decisions by David Robson

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, cognitive bias, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, deliberate practice, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fundamental attribution error, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, lone genius, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, pattern recognition, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It would be foolish to read too much into post-hoc analyses – after all, people would naturally become more closed-minded during times of heightened tension.35 But lab experiments have found that people scoring lower on these measures are more likely to resort to aggressive tactics. And the idea does find further support in an examination of the US’s most important political crises in the last 100 years, including John F. Kennedy’s handling of the Cuban missile crisis, and Robert Nixon’s dealings with the Cambodian invasion of 1970 and the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Textual analyses of the speeches, letters and official statements made by presidents and their Secretaries of State show that the level of open-minded thinking consistently predicted the later outcome of the negotiations, with JFK scoring highly for his successful handling of the Cuban missile crisis, and Dwight Eisenhower for the way he dealt with the two Taiwan Strait conflicts between Mainland China and Taiwan in the 1950s.36 In more recent politics, the German Chancellor Angela Merkel is famous for her ‘analytical detachment’, as she famously listens to all perspectives before making a decision; one senior government official describes her as ‘the best analyst of any given situation that I could imagine’.


pages: 367 words: 102,188

Sleepyhead: Narcolepsy, Neuroscience and the Search for a Good Night by Henry Nicholls

A. Roger Ekirch, Donald Trump, double helix, Drosophila, global pandemic, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, placebo effect, Saturday Night Live, stem cell, web application, Yom Kippur War

Dement approached Western Airlines, the main carrier at the time, and instantly ran into a problem. They had a strict ‘no sick dogs’ policy. As the weeks turned to months, he began to entertain the idea of driving all the way from Stanford to Saskatchewan and back, a round-trip of over 3,000 miles. ‘Under normal circumstances it would probably have been worth it,’ Dement reflects, rocking back and forth in his squeaky chair. But president Richard Nixon had just weighed in on the Yom Kippur War on the side of Israel, causing the Arab members of OPEC to impose an oil embargo on the United States. ‘There was a huge gasoline crisis’ and ‘a good chance of getting stranded,’ he says. On my flight from London to Stanford, I had passed directly over Saskatchewan and I shivered at the thought of running out of petrol in this empty, icy wilderness. ‘It’s not a sick dog. It’s a dog with a brain abnormality.


pages: 371 words: 101,792

Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am by Robert Gandt

airline deregulation, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Maui Hawaii, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster, yield management, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

It sounded like a fairy tale when the story broke in the May 13 Wall Street Journal: NEW YORK—Pan American World Airways is saved. Its existence now seems assured for many years, and it may even turn a profit this year—thanks to some special circumstances. And the circumstances were pretty special. In Pan Am’s darkest hour, a fairy godfather had come to the rescue. It happened like this. In 1974, following the Yom Kippur War and the resultant oil price hikes by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the cost of jet fuel went through the ceiling. Only about 6 percent of Pan American’s total jet fuel was purchased from domestic sources. The rest was bought overseas, at OPEC-controlled prices. Pan Am’s fuel bill abruptly doubled. Because of the hugeness of the airline’s losses that year, Seawell applied to the Civil Aeronautics Board for temporary subsidy.


pages: 355 words: 63

The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, business climate, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, endogenous growth, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Urbanism, open economy, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

After 1985, it had one of the most successful 218 Chapter 11 treatments of high inflation in the world.To macroeconomists, Israel is a great laboratory for studyingwhathappens to a country’s growth rate whenit gets the high inflation disease. The story begins in late 1973, when OPEC’s oil price increase hit Israel as well as many other countries. Unlike most other countries, Israel was in a war atthe same time: the Yom Kippur war of October 1973. Throughout much of history, inflation has been an expedient that governments use in wartime. When governments have to spend a lot of money in a hurry and with no extra tax revenue lying around, they resort to printing money.Both sides of both world wars printed money. The U.S.government printed moneylike never before during the Civil War, but not as fast as the even more revenue-starved Confederate States government.


pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Tax rates were high, but few people complained. Collective action enabled the country to build the best public education system in the world, as well as the interstate highway system, and to send men to the moon. The average American enjoyed an exceptionally high standard of living. Then came the 1973 oil crisis, when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries initiated a boycott of countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The oil embargo exposed a flaw in the US economy: it was built on cheap oil. The country had lived beyond its means for most of the sixties, borrowing aggressively to pay for the war in Vietnam and the Great Society social programs, which made it vulnerable. When rising oil prices triggered inflation and economic stagnation, the country transitioned into a new philosophical regime. The winner was libertarianism, which prioritized the individual over the collective good.


pages: 1,002 words: 276,865

The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean by David Abulafia

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, colonial rule, David Attenborough, Eratosthenes, ghettoisation, joint-stock company, long peace, mass immigration, out of africa, spice trade, trade route, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War

By early summer 1967 he was promising a maritime blockade of Israel, though in the Red Sea, not in the Mediterranean.13 A pre-emptive strike by Israel on 5 June culminated after only six days in the occupation of Gaza, Sinai, the Golan Heights and (after King Hussein of Jordan made the mistake of taking part) the Jordanian parts of Palestine. As a result the Suez Canal was blocked for ten years, becoming the front line of the opposing Israeli and Egyptian armies, which then fought a war of attrition across its banks until the Egyptians launched a surprise attack in October 1973 – the Yom Kippur War – whose aim was not, this time, to ‘throw Israel into the sea’ but, more realistically, to recover Sinai. Despite early successes, the Egyptians were finally pushed back across the canal, and it took four years for serious peace negotiations to begin, following President Sadat’s brave decision to enter the lion’s den and address the Israeli parliament, for which, before long, he paid with his life.

But a second result of the Six-Day War was the hardening of Soviet attitudes towards Israel; during the war the Soviet bloc, apart from unpredictable Romania, finally broke off diplomatic relations with Israel, a move designed to win approval within the Arab world and to emphasize that Israel’s friends were the bourgeois capitalist powers of Great Britain, France and, above all, the United States. The Yom Kippur War had, indeed, something of the character of a proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States: the Soviets supplied large quantities of arms to the Egyptians and Syrians, while the Americans ferried in armaments by way of US bases in the Azores. Further Soviet mischief was created by support for violent Palestinian radicals, some of whom, like the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, were comfortably ensconced in Damascus, where they proclaimed a version of Marxist doctrines.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Later, I return to Google Earth and move from Giza and the historic site of the Pyramids, to go in search of Tahrir Square; and because it does not appear in the search facility, I try to work out from the city plan where it might be. Cairo is so vast and chaotic, even from the air, that it is difficult to tell where the city centre might be. The map is studded with miniature tags that link to Wikipedia, and so I can find information on Boulaq, the Coptic Museum, the 6th October Bridge built in memory of the Yom Kippur War of 1993; I can also find where the metro stations are. From the east side of the bridge I find the Egyptian Museum and then the square. There is little evidence of the crowds from February 2011. I also look at other cities that have been in the news recently: the Fukushima nuclear plant that was damaged by the earthquake in March 2011; or I peer over Kabira, the slums outside Nairobi, where the shacks are so closely packed together that it is impossible to see where the streets and alleys wind through the neighbourhoods; finally, I click to the High Line in New York, and watch in wonder at how a channel of verdant green snakes through the city.


pages: 379 words: 118,576

On Her Majesty's Nuclear Service by Eric Thompson

amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Parkinson's law, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War, young professional

It was one of the world’s most populous Muslim countries and was politically unstable. The prospect of an Islamic Bomb was a nightmare scenario, considering that Islamic extremists show no respect for human life and are vehemently in favour of destroying Israel. Small wonder then that Israel ensured that it too had nuclear weapons. Israel had just been attacked by an alliance of Egypt and Syria in the fourth Arab-Israeli war, the Yom Kippur war. It had won that war emphatically and probably always would when defending its own turf, but an Islamic nuclear bomb dropping out of the sky on Tel Aviv was a different argument. Israel is surrounded by Islamic nations so inter-continental ballistic missiles would not be required, nor even intermediate-range ones. A short-range missile would suffice. It was little wonder then that Israel was about to become the seventh member of the Nuclear Club.


pages: 410 words: 114,005

Black Box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes--But Some Do by Matthew Syed

Airbus A320, Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, British Empire, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, crew resource management, deliberate practice, double helix, epigenetics, fear of failure, fundamental attribution error, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, Isaac Newton, iterative process, James Dyson, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, publication bias, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, Shai Danziger, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, US Airways Flight 1549, Wall-E, Yom Kippur War

What excites me most is that we are still only at the beginning. Part V THE BLAME GAME Chapter 11 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 I It is February 1973. The atmosphere in the Middle East is like a tinderbox. More than five years earlier in the Six-Day War between Israel and forces from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria there were more than 20,000 fatalities, mostly on the Arab side. In just eight months’ time, the Yom Kippur War will take place, leading to another 15,000 deaths. Tensions are on a hair-trigger. Just weeks earlier, Israel has received intelligence that Arab terrorists are planning to hijack a commercial airliner in order to crash it into a densely populated area, probably Tel Aviv, or into the nuclear installation at Dimona. The Israeli Air Force is on high alert. At 13:54 on February 21, a commercial airliner is picked up by Israeli radar crossing the Gulf of Suez into the Israeli war zone.


pages: 387 words: 120,092

The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Their beliefs began to be shaken when their professional research exposed the false assumptions and historical fabrications on which the idea of Israel was based. The Pioneering Academics In the wake of the groundbreaking work by these pioneering activists, there appeared the first voices from within the Israeli academy expressing profound doubts about the nature of the state, its ideology and policies. Until the war of October 1973 – sometimes called the Yom Kippur War – academia was obedient, highly patriotic and overwhelmingly Zionist. Dissenting teachers paid less of a price than did activists in terms of imprisonment or public condemnation, but being a lonely voice in the wilderness made such academics feel quite marginalised and out of place in the Israeli universities. One such voice was Uriel Tal. A professor of modern Jewish history at Tel Aviv University, Tal wrote extensively on Jewish secularisation in modern times but also voiced consternation about the way Israeli academia was being pressed into the service of the nation and of Zionism.34 In a series of lectures delivered to colleagues in the Department of Jewish History at Tel Aviv University in the 1980s, Tal posed some poignant questions about the newly formed discipline in Israeli academia known as Jewish studies.


Little Failure: A Memoir by Gary Shteyngart

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, East Village, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Activities include making caramel candies in the mold of E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial and discussing the TV special Something About Amelia, in which Ted Danson has sex with his own daughter. Mrs. A is a born conversationalist, and Pilot Program gives her a chance to free-associate while making baked goods. When someone mentions the Steven Spielberg movie Jaws, Mrs. A tells a fascinating story about an Israeli soldier caught in an explosion during the Yom Kippur War, who was left with nothing but three holes where his face should have been. We cautiously eat our E.T. caramels. There are five boys who are marginalized at SSSQ. There is Jerry Himmelstein, whose victimization deserves its own after-school special and who will transfer out of our moronic inferno by grade 6. There’s Sammy (not his real name), a slim, sad, hyperactive boy who likes to jump on us while screaming “URSH!


Mbs: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman by Ben Hubbard

Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Donald Trump, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

“Make the enemy and the oppressor pay; that is how we Arabs wage war,” the king told FDR. “What injury have Arabs done to the Jews of Europe? It is the ‘Christian’ Germans who stole their homes and lives. Let the Germans pay.” After the founding of Israel in 1948, the Saudis consistently stood with the Palestinians and against Israel, doling out aid to Palestinian groups and joining the OPEC oil embargo in 1973 to pressure Israel’s allies during the Yom Kippur War. That sent fuel prices in the United States soaring and caused a crisis in the relationship with Saudi Arabia. In 1967, King Faisal created a committee to raise money for Palestinians fighting against Israel. Its budget grew over the years, from $5 million dollars in 1968 to $45 million in 1982. To head it, he named his half brother, Salman, MBS’s father and the future king. Despite his father’s long involvement in the Palestinian cause, it became clear that MBS viewed Israel and its conflict with the Palestinians differently, for a number of reasons.


Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

“I told the companies that it was not our philosophy to make them have a loss, and I would quite understand it if they wanted stop operating in Nigeria,” he said with a chuckle. “That was not what they wanted to hear.” Nigeria’s oil production was soaring, too, having risen from 150,000 barrels per day in 1968 to one and a half million by 1971, then exceeding two million in 1973: more than twice as much as the United States was then importing from the Persian Gulf. 14 The stream of petrodollars became a river. Then, with the Yom Kippur war and the OPEC oil embargo of 1973, it became a tide as world oil prices quadrupled from $3 to $12 per barrel in just three months. (Later, with the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979 and the Iran-Iraq war, prices rose to nearly $40,15 worth nearly $100 in today’s prices.16) The effect on Nigeria was staggering: by 1975 oil made up 95 percent of exports, and between 1970 and 1980 its annual export earnings rose from 1 bill