Yom Kippur War

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pages: 722 words: 225,235

The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich

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Boycotts of Israel, friendly fire, Mahatma Gandhi, Yom Kippur War

Moshe Dayan v’Milkhemet Yom Kippur [Moshe Dayan and the Yom Kippur War]. Tel Aviv: Edanim, 1992. Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Cohen, Eliot, and John Gooch. Military Misfortunes. New York: Vintage Books, 1991. Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War, vol. 1, The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973‒1989. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990. Dan, Uri. Rosh Gesher [The Bridgehead]. Tel Aviv: E.L. Special Edition, 1975. Davis Institute for International Relations. Milkhemet Yom Hakippurim [The Yom Kippur War: A New View]. Symposium on the war’s twenty-fifth anniversary. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1998. Dayan, Moshe. Avnei Derekh [Milestones]. Jerusalem: Edanim, 1982. Dupuy, Trevor. Elusive Victory. New York: HarperCollins, 1978. Gal, Reuven. The Yom Kippur War: Lessons from the Psychologist’s Perspective.

Tel Aviv: Steimatzky, 1975. Hirst, David, and Irene Beeson. Sadat. London: Faber & Faber, 1981. Insight Team of the Sunday Times. Insight on the Middle East. London: Andre Deutsch, 1974. Iraqi Defense Ministry. Zva Iraq b’Milkhemet Yom Kippur [The Iraqi Army in the Yom Kippur War]. Translation from Arabic to Hebrew. Tel Aviv: Ma’archot, 1986. Israelyan, Victor. Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Kahalani, Avigdor (ed.). Ani Nishba lekha [The Yom Kippur War—Fighters’ Stories]. Tel Aviv: Keter Publishing, 2003. Kahalani, Avigdor. Oz 77 [Seventy-seventh Battalion]. Tel Aviv: Shocken, 1975. Karsh, Efraim, ed. Between War and Peace: Dilemmas of Israeli Security. London: Frank Cass, 1996. Kedar, B. Z. Sipuro Shel Gdud Makhatz [Story of a Strike Battalion].

Four years after his flight to Jerusalem, Islamic fundamentalists gunned him down in Cairo as he reviewed a military parade marking the anniversary of the war. The other major victor of the Yom Kippur War was a man who had been six thousand miles from the battlefield. Henry Kissinger had with dazzling statesmanship stage-managed a scenario in which both sides could claim victory while acknowledging, to themselves at least, victory’s awful price. It was this realization that made compromise possible. In the process, the secretary of state deftly managed to nudge aside the Soviet Union and tie the leading country in the Arab world to the United States. The Yom Kippur War had a major impact on the world’s armies. The success of the Sagger and RPG in the early days of the war evoked widespread eulogies for the tank. Closer study brought revision.

 

pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

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back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

Even Arik had bought into the clichés. Sadat had reached out before the Yom Kippur War, there were hints of a truce that could have been expanded into negotiations, but Israeli leaders ignored his overtures. Now Sadat comes to Jerusalem, and the truth is exposed for all to see. Arik’s conclusions were being debated by Israelis. Some said that if only Israel had withdrawn from the banks of the Suez Canal before the war—as Dayan had wanted to do but Golda did not—Sadat might have begun a peace process rather than a war process. Yet even some on the left acknowledged that Sadat had needed a military victory to bolster his credibility among Egyptians before his journey to Jerusalem. Meanwhile, the war continued to claim its victims. The IDF’s chief of staff during the Yom Kippur War, David “Dado” Elazar, died of a heart attack at age fifty-one, broken by the commission of inquiry that had turned him into the scapegoat for the war’s failures.

The reconnaissance battalion was supposed to lead the crossing of the canal, but lacked sufficient vehicles to reach it. 237 commander of the 71st Battalion: Abraham Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Schocken, 2004), 404; Yisrael Harel, ed., Abirei Lev (Brave-Hearted Men, Keren Hatzanhanim, n.p., n.d.), 42. 240 assault on the so-called Chinese Farm: In the first night of the operation in the Chinese Farm, the 14th Armored Brigade, under the command of Amnon Reshef, lost 120 soldiers. Another 62 were wounded. No IDF brigade had ever suffered such losses in so short a time. The following night, the 890th Brigade, the paratroopers’ brigade of draftees, lost 41 soldiers and over 100 wounded. 240 “My guys are fighting there”: Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, 362; unpublished account written by Hanan Erez. 241 The first six boats: Harel, Abirei Lev , 32. 242 Arik radioed Danny: Ibid., 32. 244 “God’s Little Corner”: Ibid, 36. 246 It was the eve of Simchat Torah: Harel, Abirei Lev, 45.

See also Gush Emunim security fence, 533 Sephardim, 219–20, 362, 393 71st Battalion members of, xviii, 78, 237–39, 545–56n52, 549n229 role in capturing Jerusalem, 72–76, 78, 86 Sereni, Enzo, xvi, 36–37, 116, 150, 195 Shamir, Moshe, 152, 186, 188, 417, 425, 548n152 Sharm el-Sheikh, 367, 535 Sharon, Ariel criticism of the left, 492 as defense minister, 365, 385 dismissal, 402–3 during Lebanon War, 387, 390–91 as Likud leader, 276 and Sabra and Shatilla massacres, 401 and Sadat, 323 and settlement movement, 281, 335–36, 354, 365, 392 during Sinai War, 48 during Six-Day War, 47 Sharon, Ariel (cont.) during Yom Kippur War, 233–35, 245 walk on Temple Mount, 530 Shavuot, 29, 109, 113, 170, 471 Shdemot (magazine), 124, 144–45 Sheikh Jarrah, 66, 535 Shemer, Naomi “Jerusalem of Gold,” 59–60, 85, 132–33, 298 and Meir Ariel, 98, 103, 132–33 and Yamit evacuation, 374 Shilo, 327, 405 Shin Bet, 163, 213–14, 285, 356, 417–18, 452, 485, 521, 555n418 shmitta, 30, 444 Shoah (film), 431–32 Shtiglitz, Yisrael (Ariel), xv, 95–96, 373 Silwan, 448 Simchat Torah, 246–48, 254, 550n246 Sinai, 2, 112. See also Yamit biblical references to, xx, 20, 109, 390 IDF operations during Six-Day War, 35, 53, 67–68, 80, 145 IDF operations during Yom Kippur War, 227, 231–34, 239, 244, 252 1956 campaign, 57, 59 withdrawal from, 142, 220–21, 324, 334–35, 255, 357, 364–67, 371–79, 446 66th Battalion, 72, 86–87, 118, 549n229 Soviet Union alignment with Arab nations during wars, 128, 130, 219, 227, 244, 296, 458 emigration from, 220, 457, 482 role played for kibbutzniks, 5–6, 17, 38–39, 127, 130, 136–38, 147, 545n38 Stalinism, 5–6, 38–39, 137–38, 527 Stempel-Peles, Moshe, xv, 58, 67, 91, 109, 129, 165, 176 Stern Group, the, 289, 339 Suez Canal, 112, 237 and Kanaf, 173–74, 197 simulation of crossing, 139, 165–66 after the Six-Day War, 158 during Yom Kippur War, 227, 230, 236, 241, 248, 253, 270, 325, 550n237 suicide bombings, xxii, 425, 491, 495, 515, 516, 531, 532 Sukkoth, 26, 194–95, 231–32, 246, 434–35, 519–20, 522–23 Sultan Yakub, 386 Sussman, Sandy, xv, 148–50, 228 Talmei Yosef, 375 Tamouz, 306–8, 433 Tehiya (political party), 373 Tekoa, 505 Tel Aviv University, 35, 52, 325, 430, 453 Tel Mond Prison, 447 Temple Mount, iv, 66 ban on Jewish prayer at, 337 capture of, during Six-Day War, 86–90, 92, 95–96, 108 following Six-Day War, 113, 118, 120 plot to bomb, 340, 356, 421 symbolism of, 204–5, 449, 504, 537 This Is the Land (newspaper), 189 tikkun olam, 31, 396 Tomb of the Patriarchs, 151–52, 486–87.

 

pages: 401 words: 119,488

Smarter Faster Better: The Secrets of Being Productive in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg

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Air France Flight 447, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, hiring and firing, index card, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Toyota Production System, Yom Kippur War

Levy, “Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure,” Political Science Quarterly 124, no. 3 (2009): 461–88; Uri Bar-Joseph and Rose McDermott, “Personal Functioning Under Stress Accountability and Social Support of Israeli Leaders in the Yom Kippur War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 52, no. 1 (2008): 144–70; Uri Bar-Joseph, “ ‘The Special Means of Collection’: The Missing Link in the Surprise of the Yom Kippur War,” The Middle East Journal 67, no. 4 (2013): 531–46; Yaakov Lapin, “Declassified Yom Kippur War Papers Reveal Failures,” The Jerusalem Post, September 20, 2012; Hamid Hussain, “Opinion: The Fourth Round—A Critical Review of 1973 Arab-Israeli War,” Defence Journal, November 2002, http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/nov/4th-round.htm; P. R. Kumaraswamy, Revisiting the Yom Kippur War (London: Frank Cass, 2000); Charles Liebman, “The Myth of Defeat: The Memory of the Yom Kippur War in Israeli Society,” Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 3 (1993): 411; Simon Dunstan, The Yom Kippur War: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007); Asaf Siniver, The Yom Kippur War: Politics, Legacy, Diplomacy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

And the response of Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham, “Has Goal Setting Gone Wild, or Have Its Attackers Abandoned Good Scholarship?” The Academy of Management Perspectives 23, no. 1 (2009): 17–23. investigators concluded The Commission of Inquiry, The Yom Kippur War, an Additional Partial Report: Reasoning and Complement to the Partial Report of April 1, 1974, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: 1974). all to blame Mitch Ginsberg, “40 Years On, Yom Kippur War Intel Chiefs Trade Barbs,” The Times of Israel, October 6, 2013; “Eli Zeira’s Mea Culpa,” Haaretz, September 22, 2004; Lilach Shoval, “Yom Kippur War Intelligence Chief Comes Under Attack 40 Years Later,” Israel Hayom, October 7, 2013. “You are lying!” Ibid. CHAPTER FIVE: MANAGING OTHERS shoo them away As mentioned in the chapter, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Frank, Christie, and Colleen Janssen were all provided with summaries of this chapter and asked to respond to the details of this reporting.

“We proved you can change how people act by asking them to think about goals differently,” said Kerr. “Once you know how to do that, you can get pretty much anything done.” V. Twenty-seven days after fighting concluded in the Yom Kippur War, the Israeli parliament established a national committee of inquiry to examine why the nation had been so dangerously unprepared. Officials met for 140 sessions and heard testimony from fifty-eight witnesses, including Prime Minister Golda Meir, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, and the head of the Directorate of Military Intelligence, Eli Zeira. “In the days that preceded the Yom Kippur war, the Research Division of Military Intelligence had plenty of warning indicators,” investigators concluded. There was no justification for Israel to have been caught off guard. Zeira and his colleagues had ignored obvious signs of danger.

 

The Case for Israel by Alan Dershowitz

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affirmative action, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, Yom Kippur War

The occupation certainly contributed to an increase in the number and lethality of terrorist attacks by Palestinians, though terrorism had been rampant since the 1920s, and the PLO, which was committed to terrorism as the primary means for liberating all of Palestine, had been established before the occupation began. c15.qxd 6/25/03 8:24 AM 15 Page 100 Was the Yom Kippur War Israel’s Fault? THE ACCUSATION The Yom Kippur War was Israel’s fault. THE ACCUSERS “The responsibility for the new military flare-up in the Middle-East lies wholly and completely with the Tel Aviv leaders. . . . Israel continues its aggression started in 1967 against the Arab countries.” (Soviet general secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev, October 9, 1973.1) “Our victory in the war shattered forever the illusion of our neighbours’ invincible military prowess.

The attacks also took place during Ramadan, a period when Muslim leaders often claim an attack on them would violate religious principles and show disrespect for Islam. No one disputes that the Egyptians and Syrians, who inflicted considerable casualties on the Israelis, started the Yom Kippur War. Their goal was to recover the land lost to Israel from the Six-Day War—the war the Egyptians started, despite the fact that the Israelis fired the first shot. In the end, the Egyptians accomplished that goal and recovered the entire Sinai after making a cold peace with Israel. The Syrians failed in their effort to regain the Golan Heights because they refused to make any kind of peace with Israel. Israel learned some important lessons from the Yom Kippur War. First and foremost, it learned how vulnerable it was to a surprise attack, even with expanded borders. In preparation for its attack, Egypt had obtained large quantities of Scud missiles that “could reach Israel’s population centers.”3 Again, the Arab goal was to kill as many civilians as possible, despite the fact that deliberately attacking civilian targets is a war crime and a violation of international law.

Perhaps it has been this reality that has motivated Israeli soldiers to fight so fiercely in defense of their country. What Morris had said about the motivations and incentives of Israeli fighters during the War of Independence was equally true during c15.qxd 6/25/03 102 8:24 AM Page 102 THE CASE FOR ISRAEL the Yom Kippur War: They were fighting “in defense of [their] loved ones” who “faced slaughter should they be defeated.” 7 Israel ultimately prevailed in the war but with enormous casualties. Remarkably, the Egyptians and the Syrians, despite their eventual defeat, regarded and still regard the Ramadan War (as they call what the Israelis call the Yom Kippur War) as a victory. In a speech on October 16, 1973, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat told his people, “The Egyptian armed forces have achieved a miracle by any military standard. . . . [T]hese forces took the initiative, surprised the enemy and threw him off balance.”

 

pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor; Saul Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

”17 CHAPTER 2 Battlefield Entrepreneurs The Israeli tank commander who has fought in one of the Syrian wars is the best engineering executive in the world. The tank commanders are operationally the best, and they are extremely detail oriented. This is based on twenty years of experience—working with them and observing them. —ERIC SCHMIDT ON OCTOBER 6, 1973, as the entire nation was shut down for the holiest day of the Jewish year, the armies of Egypt and Syria launched the Yom Kippur War with a massive surprise attack. Within hours, Egyptian forces breached Israel’s defensive line along the Suez Canal. Egyptian infantry had already overrun the tank emplacements to which Israeli armored forces were supposed to race in case of attack, and hundreds of enemy tanks were moving forward behind this initial thrust. It was just six years after Israel’s greatest military victory, the Six-Day War, an improbable campaign that captured the imagination of the entire world.

Wires were found on the ground leading to stricken Israeli tanks. The commanders had discovered Egypt’s secret weapon: the Sagger. Designed by Sergei Pavlovich Nepobedimyi, whose last name literally means “undefeatable” in Russian, the Sagger was created in 1960. The new weapon had initially been provided to Warsaw Pact countries, but it was first put to sustained use in combat by the Egyptian and Syrian armies during the Yom Kippur War. The IDF’s account of its own losses on both the southern and northern fronts was 400 tanks destroyed and 600 disabled but returned to battle after repairs. Of the Sinai division’s 290 tanks, 180 were knocked out the first day. The blow to the IDF’s aura of invincibility was substantial. About half of the losses came from RPGs, the other half from the Sagger. The Sagger was a wire-guided missile that could be fired by a single soldier lying on the ground.

Talpiot has the distinction of being both the most selective unit and the one that subjects its soldiers to the longest training course in the IDF—forty-one months, which is longer than the entire service of most soldiers. Those who enter the program sign on for an extra six years in the military, so their minimum service is a total of nine years. The program was the brainchild of Felix Dothan and Shaul Yatziv, both Hebrew University scientists. They came up with the idea following the debacle of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. At that time, the country was still reeling from being caught flat-footed by a surprise attack, and from the casualties it had suffered. The war was a costly reminder that Israel must compensate for its small size and population by maintaining a qualitative and technological edge. The professors approached then IDF chief of staff Rafael “Raful” Eitan with a simple idea: take a handful of Israel’s most talented young people and give them the most intensive technology training that the universities and the military had to offer.

 

pages: 826 words: 231,966

GCHQ by Richard Aldrich

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

memo, ‘United States/Europe Relations’, 17.08.73, CAB 164/1235. 48 Heath to Nixon, 04.09.73, ibid. 49 Nixon to Heath, 09.09.73, PREM 15/1981. 50 Tickell (Washington) to Wiggin (FCO), ‘Talks on MBFR–The Problem’, 12.10.73, FCO 41/1242. 51 Sykes (Washington) to Brimelow (FCO), 13.08.73, DEFE 13/981. 52 Bergman and Meltzer, Yom Kippur War, Real Time, pp.123–7. 53 Le Bailly to ‘?’, 01.01.83, Folder 3, Box 7, Le Bailly papers, CCC. 54 Le Bailly to ‘Charlie’, 01.07.82, Folder 3, Box 7, Le Bailly papers, CCC. 55 Andrew, President’s Eyes Only, pp.391–2. 56 Notes of an interview by Henry Brandon with Richard Helms, File 8 ‘Helms’, Box 57, Henry Brandon papers, LC. 57 NRO memo for Dr McLucas, ‘November Forecast of NRP Satellite and Aircraft Overflight Activities’, 19.10.73, National Security Archive. See also JCS Memo for the Members of Special Committee, ‘Proposed SR–71 Deployment’, 08.10.73, ibid. 58 Account by Colonel Jim Wilson, ‘OL-Griffiss AFB, Rome, New York, 1973 Yom Kippur War’, http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmater/griffiss.html. 59 See also Brugioni, ‘The Effects of Aerial and Satellite Imagery’. 60 Van der Art, Aerial Espionage, p.67 61 Siniver, Nixon, Kissinger and US Foreign Policy Making, pp.201–3. 62 William Colby/Kissinger, 9.40 a.m., 24.10.73, Kissinger Telecons, NPM, NARA 63 Heath (PM) to Bridges (T), 28.10.73, PREM 15/1382. 64 Note by the Assessments Staff, ‘The US Alert of 25 October’, 29.10.73, ibid. 65 Smith (CAB) to Bridges (T), ‘The American Alert of 25 October 1973’, ibid; Hunt (Cab Sec) to Heath (PM), ‘Crisis Management’, 19.12.73, ibid. 66 Overton (FCO), ‘US/UK Relations’, 12.11.73, FCO 82/306. 67 Simons (Washington Embassy) to Herman (JIC), JIC 2/3, ‘New Director of Central Intelligence (DCI)’, 12.01.73, DEFE 13/891. 68 Mumford (MoD) to Carrington (Def Sec), 07.11.73, ibid.

AB Cryptoteknik 213 ‘ABC’ trial (1977–78) 8, 359–61, 423, 459 Abernethy, Barbara 70 Abu Hamza al-Masri 542 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 19 Adams, Gerry 500 Aden (Yemen) 6, 156, 164, 345 Admiralty Signals Division 137 Admoni, Nahum 471 Adye, John 427, 431, 476, 483, 494, 495, 598, 608 aerial reconnaissance 31, 59 Afghanistan 387, 420, 421, 510, 511, 533–9 Africa 99, 148, 182, 268, 299, 336, 454–5, 479 Aid, Matthew 521 Aiken, John 326, 327, 328, 331 Airborne Rafter programme 267, 538 Aitken, Jonathan 493–5 al-Badr, Imam 163–4 al-Jazeera 513–14 al-Qaeda 9, 509–11, 513–14, 517, 532 Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Lord 45 Aldeburgh (Suffolk) 286 Aldridge, Peter 449 Alexander, A.V. 123–4 Alexander, Hugh 25, 27, 78, 96, 599 Allen, Lew 357 Allied Commission for Austria and London 170 Alp, Saffet 314 Alvear, Soledad 519 American Office of Naval Intelligence 143 American Type-777 satellite 348 Amery, Julian 162–3, 295 Ames, Aldrich 385, 444 Amory, Robert 158 Amsterdam 487 Anaya, Admiral Jorge 389, 393, 395 Anderson, Jack 344 Andrew, Christopher 2, 362 Anglo-American-Commonwealth sigint 64, 82, 152 Anglo-American relations 7–8; and Balkans 472–5; and Berlin tunnel operation 172–6; changing nature of 441–3, 449–50; and cost of cooperation 222–3; and Cuba 341–2; deterioration in 281–95, 333; and Far East 151–2; and global sigint 89–101; gradual improvement in 295–8; impact of politics on 278; and liberating of Axis sigint 47–56; and Nimrod programme 268–70, 273–4; and Project Sandra 322–3; and public disclosure of sigint material on 355–7, 358, 361–2; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; shared problems 333–4; and sigint 7–8, 38–46, 91–2; and sigint satellite and computer revolution 347–54, 437–8; successful Russian intercepts 279–81; and Suez crisis 157–9; and Third World bases 334–9; and trade unions at GCHQ 421–2, 429; in Turkey 302; and Venona Project 72–88; in wartime 38–46 Angola 357, 454–5 Ankara 58, 254, 302, 303, 305, 310–11, 313, 315, 318, 330 Annan, Kofi 523–4 Antalya (Turkey) 326 Anti-Christ Doom Squad 487 Anti-Smuggling Task Force (Hong Kong) 477 AQ Khan network 531 Aquarius (computer) 349 Arab-Israeli War (1973) see Yom Kippur War Arab states 109 Arafat, Yasser 277 Aral Sea 306 Arbuthnot, Mrs 70 Arctic Circle 133, 136–9, 144–6, 147, 265 Argentina 307–8, 388–415 Argentine Air Force 401, 408, 410, 415 Argentine Army 396 Argentine Navy 395, 405, 408 Argus satellite 377 Arlington Hall (US Army code-breaking centre, Washington) 45, 74, 77, 80, 83 arms control 203, 257, 287, 288, 290 Armstrong, Sir Robert 416, 425, 427, 428, 430–1 Army Intelligence Corps 230 Army Security Agency 80 as-Sallal, Abdullah 163–4 Ascension Island 162, 278, 321, 392, 414 Ash, Timothy Garton 465 Athens 324, 330 Atlantic, Battle of (WWII) 42, 60 Atlas (computer) 349–50 Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADMS) 249 Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) 261 Atomic Energy Intelligence 155 atomic and nuclear weapons 2, 5, 36, 45; and Anglo-US arms control 287–9; at Los Alamos 75, 76, 82; British 163, 249; Chinese 155; need for better intelligence on 253, 255, 321–3; Soviet 107–8, 112, 114, 116, 119, 131–2, 148, 157, 173, 301–2; spiralling of arms race 438–9; US 249; US put on alert (1973) 293–4 Atomic Weapons Establishment (Aldermaston, Berkshire) 418–19 Attlee, Clement 73, 86 ATV 432 Aubrey, Crispin 358–9, 360 Auckland (New Zealand) 487 Audiotel 480 Augsburg (Germany) 48 Austin, Harris M. 115 Australia 79, 80, 85–8, 89, 90, 92–4, 98, 154, 164, 165, 167, 168, 213, 467, 477, 487, 533; Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) 86–7, 88; Central Bureau 92; Defence Signals Branch (DSB) 151, 153, 213; Defence Signals Department (DSD) 348; Royal Australian Air Force 150; Royal Australian Navy 266; Royal Australian Signals 166 Austria 96, 371, 384 Automatic Data Processing 353 Ayios Nikolaos (Cyprus) 156, 162, 163, 230, 234, 327, 328, 358–9, 360, 383, 384 Azerbaijan 109 Bad Aibling (Germany) 423 Bad Godesberg (Germany) 215 Badger’s Lair (SAS training exercise) 249–50 BAE Systems Ltd 544 Baghdad (Iraq) 161, 468, 469, 471, 524 Baghdad Pact 161 Bahia Paraios (Argentinean ship) 394, 395 Bahrain 347 Baillie, George 122 Bain, Helen 445 Baldwin, Stanley 18, 72, 400 Balgat (Turkey) 303 Bali bombing (2002) 511, 513 Balkanabteilung (German code-breaking HQ) 50 Balkans 51 Baltic 112, 114, 116, 125, 285 Baltic Sea 273 Bamford, James 263, 361–2, 521 Bandaranaike, Solomon 160 Bank of England 241, 487 Banner, Gordon 312–16, 318 Barbieri, Major 52, 53–4 Barents Sea 114, 115 Barker, Nick 391–2 Barkley, Howard 77 Barsby, Mrs 374–5 Basra (Iraq) 466, 525 Battle of Britain 29 Bay of Pigs crisis (1961) 8, 226 BBC 330, 348, 429, 501, 517, 523–4; BBC Scotland 459 Beach, Sir Hugh 380, 381 Bearman, Sid 595 Beasley, Tony 133–9 Beaumanor Hall (Leicestershire) 63 Beijing 476 Belbasi (Turkey) 302 Belfast 261, 500, 501 Belgium 442, 492 Bell, Rod 409, 410 Benitez, Rafael 114, 115 Benjamin, Ralph 216 Benn, Tony 227 Bennett, Ralph 59 Bentinck, Victor Cavendish 67 Bergen (Norway) 450 Bergold, Harry 295 Beria, Lavrentii 107 Berlin 112, 127–8, 130, 196–7, 227, 228, 253, 270, 369, 370, 372, 478; Berlin Blockade (1948) 71, 113; Berlin Cryptographic Centre 50; Berlin tunnel 169, 170, 172–6, 373, 477 Berlusconi, Silvio 532 Berry, John 358–9, 360 Betts, Richard 600 Beulmann, Major 50 Bevin, Ernest 70 BfV (German domestic security service) 452–3 bin Laden, Osama 511, 513, 514, 549 Binalshibh, Ramzi 514 Bingham, Lord 481 Birch, Frank 43 Bitburg (Germany) 131 Black, Jeremy 407, 408 black chambers 4, 14 ‘Black Friday’ (29 October 1948) 81, 108, 119, 169, 280 Black Sea 112, 131–2, 301, 302, 311, 313, 317, 319 Blair, Tony 4, 436, 497–8, 500, 504, 506, 509, 515, 517, 519, 530, 532 Blake, George 173, 174–5, 176, 178, 179, 238, 385 Bleckede 127 Bletchley Park 103, 186, 188, 221, 354, 549; Americans at 39, 43; and breaking ‘Red’ 25–6; closure of 67–71; and cypher security 54–9; expansion and reorganisation 27–8, 62–3; GCHQ as successor to 1, 5; Huts Three and Six 23, 25, 36, 48, 64–5, 119, 121, 356, 362–3, 364, 387; and machine-based espionage 5; military emphasis at 22–3; post-war role 60–1, 63–7; release of records on 355; SIS GC&CS moves to 22–8; takeover of Axis sigint effort 47–54; tight security measures at 69; unmasking of 362–3; wartime value and achievements 59–60, 61–3; wartime work of 1–2, 5, 25–9, 30, 31–46, 109–10 Blix, Hans 520 Block, Lieutenant 145 Bloomer-Reeve, Carlos 394, 412 ‘Blue Book’ 2–3, 395–6 Bluff Cove (Falklands) 400 Blum, Eberhard 450, 452 Blunkett, David 510, 522 Blunt, Anthony 36, 37, 83, 188, 224, 225, 364, 367 Board of Trade 241 Bodsworth, William 69, 80 Boizenburg (Germany) 127 Bolivia 52, 300 Bonnet, Georges 52 Bonsall, Arthur ‘Bill’ 110 Bontoft, Gerry 352 Borehamwood (aka ‘Department B’, London) 181, 182, 190 Borisenko, Alexsandr Ivanovich 236, 237 Borneo 6, 148, 164–8, 250 Bosnia 8, 9, 471–4, 512 BOSS (South African secret service) 357 Bourbon (Soviet radio intercepts) 75 Boyce, Ed 377 Bracknell (Berkshire) 113 Bradley, General Omar 116 Bradshaw, Mike 423 Brauntoltz, George 432 Bremerhaven (Germany) 116 Brezhnev, Leonid 245, 247 Brezhnev Doctrine 244 Bride (UK code-name for Venona) 80 Bridges, Sir Edward 42, 141–2, 181 Brinks Mat bullion robbery (1983) 505 British Army 14–15, 63, 451, 469, 472; 9 Signals Regiment 162, 327, 383–4; 13 Signals Regiment 166, 228, 493; 14 Signals Regiment 524, 525, 534; 40 Commando 525; British Army on the Rhine 248, 412; First Armoured Division 467, 525; Queen’s Dragoon Guards 525; ‘Rhino Force’ 467; Royal Armoured Corps 248; satellites 198, 208–9, 223, 243, 258, 262–3, 340, 342, 344, 345–8, 347–8, 376, 377, 401, 415, 421, 437–8, 441, 442–3, 445–7, 460–1, 478; sigint units 162, 166–7, 218–19, 228, 327, 383–4, 493, 524, 525, 534; Special Air Service (SAS) 164, 165, 168, 248–51, 359, 409, 410, 411, 468, 472, 475, 536, 583; Special Boat Service (SBS) 333, 409, 410, 411, 443, 468; Special Operations Executive (SOE) 36, 51; Special Reconnaissance Squadron 248 British European Airways (BEA) 129 British Indian Ocean Territories (BIOT) 334 ‘British Intelligence and Weapons of Mass Destruction’ (Butler Report) 2 British Leyland 367–8 British Military Mission (Brixmis) 123, 245–6, 247, 252 British Nuclear Fuels Ltd 500 British Psychological Society 433–4 British Tabulating Machine Company 349 British Telecom 545; Medium Wave Tower (Holyhead) 500 Britten, Douglas 230–8, 369, 382 Broadcasting Standards Authority 481 Broadside operation (US Embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 Brockway, Ernst 383 Brook, Sir Norman 142, 219–20 Brooks, Richard 399 Brooks Field (Michigan) 120 Brown, Gordon 498 Brundrett, Sir Frederick 177, 178 Brunei, Sultan of 164, 586 BRUSA agreement (1943) 43, 44, 121, 151 Brussels 179, 253 Brzezinski, Zbigniew 448 Buffham, Benson 381, 424 Bufton, Air Vice Marshal 207 bugging operations 176–82, 193, 196–7, 473–4, 479, 482, 499 Bulganin, Nikolai 140 Bulgaria 518, 519 Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND, German foreign intelligence service) 214–15, 422–3, 438, 447–51, 452–4, 455, 456, 471, 472, 524 Bundy, William ‘Bill’ 50, 356, 363, 364 Bunyan, Tony 361 Burgess, Guy 8, 37, 73, 82, 83, 84–5, 224, 225, 238, 367 Burma 65 Burrough, John 598 Burton, Sir Edmund 527 Burton-Miller, T.R.W. 57, 191, 577 Bush, George H.W. 356–7 Bush, George W. 511, 517, 532 Butler, Lord 2, 428, 482, 529–31, 610 Byers, Stephen 506–7 Byrnes, Jimmy 53 ‘C’ (head of SIS) 16, 24, 67 Cabell, Charles 96 Cabinet Office Intelligence Coordinator 241, 245, 264, 353, 354, 360, 387, 399, 504 Cable, Danielle 505, 506 Cable, James 278 cable vetting 238–41 Cable & Wireless 240, 312, 392 Caccia, Harold 171 Cadogan, Sir Alexander 23–4, 26, 39, 45, 70 Cairncross, John 36–7, 73, 82, 364 Cairo (Egypt) 58, 159, 179, 185 Callaghan, James 324, 325, 330, 333, 361, 391 Calvi, Roberto 407 Calvocoressi, Peter 59, 61 Cameron, Stephen 505 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) 368 Campbell, Alastair 517, 523, 530 Campbell, Duncan 8, 358, 360, 361, 362, 423, 458–9 Canada 38, 89, 93, 95, 97–8, 178, 447, 533; Canadian CBNRC 348; Canadian Communications Security Establishment (CSE) 381, 447; Canadian Joint Intelligence Committee 92 Canine, Ralph 101, 174, 336 Canyon satellite 376 Cape Canaveral (Florida) 322, 437, 461 Cape Matapan, Battle of (1941) 60 Capenhurst Tower (Cheshire) 500–1 Caraman, Mihai 253–4 Carey-Foster, William 185, 188, 228 Carlile of Berriew, Lord 543–4 Carpenter, Harry 598 Carrington, Lord 282–3, 284, 294, 389, 394, 396, 423–4 Carsamba (Turkey) 311–12 Carter, Jimmy 390, 448 Carter, Marshall 264, 272, 273–4, 350 Carter, Pat 448 Cartwright, Ian 328 Carver, Michael 334 Casey, Bill 457 Caspian Sea 112, 132, 161, 301, 302 Castle, Barbara 240 Castro, Fidel 226, 341 Catroux, Georges 52 Caucasus 131, 157 Caviar (Soviet encyphered traffic) 49, 69 Cayan, Mahir 309, 310–15, 314 Caygill, David 445 Celebes 167 Cellnet 481 Cemgil, Sinan 306 Central Gunnery School (Leconfield) 126 Central Signals Establishment 113–14 Ceylon 58, 69, 160, 259, 352 Chagos Islands 278, 335 Chamberlain, Neville 3, 18 Charles, Prince 482 Cheadle (Cheshire) 34, 63, 231 Chechnya 494–5 chemical weapons 470–1, 516 Chevaline project (upgrading of Polaris) 438–40, 459 Cheyne, Bill 166 Chicago Islands 278 Chicksands (Bedfordshire) 63, 360, 535 Chifley, Ben 86, 88, 94 Chile 357, 394, 396, 517 China 98, 129, 150–5, 193–5, 256, 273, 277, 282, 285, 376, 475–8; Chinese Communist Party 150; People’s Liberation Army 151 Chinese language teaching 598 Ching Peng 149, 150 Chippewa Falls (Minnesota) 350 Chirac, Jacques 520–1 Chitty, Brigadier 55 Chiverton, Roy 476 Chum Hom Kok (Hong Kong) 475–6 Church, Frank 356, 357 Church Committee 356, 357 Churchill, Winston 84; addiction to ‘Ultra’ intelligence 1; and airborne incidents 128, 129; and bugging operations 177; comments on the Belgians and Dutch 52; and cypher security 56; and diplomatic intelligence 41; and elint airborne operations 124; and Kuznetsov-Marshall affair 187, 189; meets Stalin 47; as recipient of sigint 3, 5, 40; supports work at Bletchley 26–7, 59, 65, 362 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 85, 87, 91; and Bay of Pigs 8, 226; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and counter-espionage coup 253–4; and Cyprus 324, 326–7; Foreign Broadcast Information Service 155; and invasion of Czechoslovakia 246; and invasion of the Falklands 399; Jewish sympathisers in 97; and Korean War 100; and Libyan terrorism 457; and Middle East 157, 158; and Nixon administration 4, 278; Office of National Estimates 151; revelations concerning 356–8; Russian spies in 444; security measures 101, 381; and shooting of Che Guevara 300; and Soviet weapons 108, 439; Special Activities Division 514–15; and Turkey 472; and U-2 spy planes 142, 226, 292, 296; and use of communication satellites 348; and Venona Project 77, 82; and Zinnia 322 Cianchi, Commander 54 CIB3 (Metropolitan Police anti-corruption squad) 506 City of London 487, 510 Civil Service 381, 421, 427; Civil and Public Servants Association (CPSA) 419–20; Civil Service Medical Officers Group 382; Civil Service Order in Council (1982) 431; Civil Service Union (CSU) 418, 420, 422–3; First Division Association 435; Society of Civil and Public Servants 426 Claret operations (1964–66) 165–8 Clarke, Kenneth 481, 482 Clarke, Liam 608 Clarke, Peter 266–7 Clarke, William F. 66 Cleveland, Paul 444–5 Clifford, Clark 333 Clinton, Bill 492 Clipper Chip (encryption bypass system) 492 Cobra (Cabinet emergency planning committee) 509–10, 527, 532, 610 Cobra Mist (Over the Horizon Radar) 285–7 code-breakers 2, 6, 198; and Anglo-American relationship 38–46; Australian 92; and Berlin tunnel operation 174; collaboration with Baltic states 31; combined operations 15–16; and computers 340, 348–9, 350–1; and decypherment of ‘Fish’ messages 28; diplomatic 27–8, 37, 43–4, 52–3; during WWII 25–9, 30–46, 58–9; Egyptian 164; and ending of WWII 61; expansion of 63–4; Far Eastern 40; Finnish 32, 35, 91; and French intercepts 52, 53, 209; and global sigint 96; importance of Hong Kong to 151; international work 16–17; and internet 493; Italian 52–4; military operations 14–15, 19–20; move from Bletchley to Cheltenham 5; naval 15; and Pelton affair 444; and personal computing and the internet 488; as Post Office department 14; pre-WWII 22–5; and Prime case 380; quadripartite meeting on computer hackers and encryption 489; revival on eve of WWI 14–15; Russian focus 17–19, 33–8, 169; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; and supply of intelligence reports 2–4, 6–7; and telephone tapping 170–1; and use of cypher machines 21–2; value of 60; and Venona Project 72, 74–88; wartime secrecy 354 COINS (Community On-line Intelligence System) 353 Colby, William ‘Bill’ 293, 327, 329, 330 Cold War 47, 377, 420; airborne incidents 125–33; benefits of intelligence in 175–6; Berlin blockade 71; calming of nerves in 257–8; computing in 349; end of 461, 465, 477, 478–9, 493; flashpoints 203; high profile espionage activity in 8; and planning for future war 247–53; seaborne incidents 133–47; secret service operations 484; sigint in 1, 2, 5, 107–24, 125–47, 402; Soviet nuclear weaponry 108; telephone and bugging operations 169–82; thawing of 195–7; and Venona Project 72–88 Cole, David 379, 380 Coleman, Don 131 Coleridge (Soviet teletype system) 78 Colombia 486, 538 Colonial Office 150 Colorob (computer) 349 Colossus (computer) 28, 48, 68, 70, 349 Combined Cypher Machine 98 Comet aircraft 121–2, 268, 273, 295 Cominstum (digest of hot material) 96 comint (communications intelligence) 96, 101, 110, 111, 122, 123, 228, 252–3, 266, 385, 402, 413 Comintern (Communist International) 19, 30, 37–8, 79 Commonwealth 85–8, 89, 92, 95, 97, 148, 266, 352, 447 Communications Branch of the National Research Council (CBNRC) 94 Communications Data Bill (2009) 543 Communications-Electronics Security Department 241–2 Communications Trials Ship (purpose-built sigint ship) 260–2 Communist Party of Great Britain 19, 188, 367–8, 417 Communist Party of India 87 Communist Party of USA 87 Comprehensive Comparative Radar Library 266 computers 198, 219, 220, 222, 340–1, 342–3, 348–54, 458, 486–93, 507, 507–8, 513, 527–8, 546–8 comsec (communications security) 90, 191–3, 195–7, 211, 218, 241–2, 377 Confederation of British Industry (CBI) 241 Conflict (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Congo crisis (1960) 336 Control Orders 543 Cook, Robin 498 Cooney Hill psychiatric hospital (Gloucester) 382 Cooper, Arthur 598 Cooper, Frank 423 Cooper, Josh 20, 34, 213 Coote, John 136, 137, 138, 143 Copenhagen (Denmark) 179 Corona (satellite) 208 Corporal (battlefield missile system) 249 Cosby, Bill 327 Costello, John 364 Cot, Pierre 53 counter-terrorism 456, 516, 528 Cox, Arthur 301 Crabb, Lionel ‘Buster’ 140–3, 207 Cradock, Percy 193–4, 294 Crankshaw, Edward 34, 35–6, 64 Cray super computers 350–1 Crete 157, 265, 292 Croatia 471–4 Croft, John 37–8 Cromer, Rowley 287–8, 294, 297, 337 Croslieve Mountain (Northern Ireland) 501 Crossman, Richard 227 Cruise missiles 511, 513 Crypto AG 212–15, 457 CSE (Communications Security Establishment) Watton 131 Cuba 226, 341–2; Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 203, 253, 260 Cukr, Baclav 112 Cummings, Mansfield (aka ‘C’) 16 Cunningham, Andrew 91 Current Intelligence Groups 291, 396 Currie, Laughlin 87 Currier, Prescott 39 Curry, John 79 Curzon, George 15, 16, 18 cyber attacks 487–93 cypher machines; capture of 48–9, 264; Chinese capture of 194, 195; commercial origins of 20; development and use of 20–2, 57, 192; military 54; online 28, 210; and proposed Anglo-US collaboration 98–9; radiation or emanation from 215–18; supplying to NATO countries 209–15; see also Enigma Cypher Policy Board 42, 56–7 cypher security 54–9, 98–9, 191 Cyprus 7–8, 154, 155–6, 159, 161, 162–3, 219, 229, 234, 235, 259, 265, 277, 285, 292, 294, 295, 302, 319, 320–34, 337, 338, 345, 348, 356, 359, 369, 372, 382, 383–4, 419, 423, 466, 471, 504; Cyprus Eight 385 Czechoslovakia 203, 244–7, 253, 387; Czech Air Force Association 112 D-Notice affair (1967) 226, 238–41, 242, 362–3 Damascus (Syria) 159, 291, 300 Darwin (Falklands) 410 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 489 data-mining 486, 546–8 Daubney, Claude 103 Davies, Philip 27 de Gaulle, Charles 52, 195 de Grey, Nigel 35, 43 Deaf Aid (elint reception and analysis kit) 123 Dean, Patrick 142 Decabral, Alan 506 Defcon 3 (US nuclear alert) 293–4 Defence Intelligence and Security Centre (Chicksands) 63, 360, 535 Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) 245, 246, 353, 369, 397, 402, 414, 527–8 Defence Reviews 329 Defence Signals Branch 93, 151, 153, 213, 578 Demos-1 (Hong Kong sigint station) 475–6 Demos-4 (Hong Kong sigint station) 476 Denham, Flight Sergeant 126 Denmark 442, 533 Denmark Hill (Metropolitan Police intercept station, London) 37 Denniston, Alastair 15, 18, 21, 24–5, 27, 28, 31, 34, 38, 40, 43–4, 70, 79 Denton Green, Robert 400, 402, 403, 407 Department of Economic Affairs 241 Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) 487 détente 247 Detica (security company) 544 Dexter, Harry 87 Dhekelia 163, 233, 327 Diana, Princess of Wales 479–83 Dictionary (keywords/predesignated phrases system) 343 Diego Garcia 321, 332, 335–9, 597 Dieppe raid (1942) 55 Diffie, Whitfield 490 Dimbleby, Jonathan 524 Dingli (Malta) 32, 156, 162 diplomatic intelligence 27–8, 37, 43–6, 52–3, 62, 69, 148, 159, 164, 176–82, 349, 355, 377 Diplomatic Protection Squad 506 Diplomatic Wireless Service (DWS) 58–9, 123, 181, 185–90, 192, 262, 417, 418, 585 Director General of Intelligence (DGI) 246 Directorate of Scientific Intelligence 123 Discovery (space shuttle) 437 Diyarbakir (Turkey) 300, 301–2, 306 Dobrynin, Anatoly 454 Domazet, Davor 472 domestic surveillance and intercepts 540–50 Donoughue, Bernard 3, 325 Doran, Frank 126 Doublecross system 229, 255 Douglas-Home, Sir Alec 163, 282, 312–13 Dozier, James 407, 452 Drake, Edward 94 Drew, John 229 drugs 486, 503, 514, 538 Drumheller, Tyler 529–30 Drummond (Argentine frigate) 395 DS.19 (MoD unit) 368 Dubček, Alexander 244 Dublin 501 Dudley-Smith, Russell 49, 55, 261 Duff, Antony 360, 399 Duffton, Nancy 435 Dulles, Allen 157, 158, 174, 176, 203 Dulles, John Foster 157 Dunderdale, ‘Biffy’ 21 Dunlap, Jack 355 Dunnell, Peter 127 Dwyer, Peter 82 East Africa 335–6 East Asia 120 East Germany 123, 131, 195–7, 345, 370, 379, 385, 453, 605 East-West summit (Paris, 1960) 204 Eastcote (London Signals Intelligence Centre) 62, 68–9, 79, 80, 103, 191, 349 Eastern Bloc 123, 175, 244, 245, 247, 256, 267, 282, 447, 465 Eastern Europe 33, 53, 78, 99, 119, 256, 284 Easton, James 82 Eavesdropper revelations (1976) 358, 359 Echelon (Anglo-US communications network) 7 economic intelligence 240–1 Ecuador 52 Eden, Anthony 46, 85, 129, 140, 141, 142–3, 155–6, 160, 178, 189 Eemnes (Netherlands) 415 Eger (Norwegian ship) 117 Egypt 58, 109, 155–9, 259, 263–4, 271, 277, 290–2, 295, 320, 467 Eichmann, Adolf 307–8 Eisenhower, Dwight D. 140, 157, 158, 202, 205, 219 Electrical Trades Union 368 Electronic Warfare Conferences 122, 123, 307–10 elint (electronic intelligence); air-based 111–14, 118–19, 122, 124, 250–2, 267–73; and Anglo-American relations 111–12; and European cooperation 591; in Germany 247, 250–1; and invasion of the Falklands 401, 413; and jamming of Whetstone monitoring station 190; land-based 117–20, 123; naval 114–17; near the Soviet Union 169; postwar expansion 110; rejection of 247; in Turkey 306; wartime use of 110 Elizabeth II, Queen 480, 482 Elkins, Robert 143 Elliott Brothers Ltd 598 Ellis, James 490, 492 Elmers School (GC&CS Diplomatic Sections) 23 email 488, 507, 513–14, 521–3, 541 embassies 151; Anglo-US-Canadian intercepts in Moscow 280–1; attacks and raids on 193–5; as forward listening stations 31; KGB in 82–3, 283–4; and MI5 watcher operations 183–90; security headache 195–7; sifting of waste-baskets in 56; spies in 84; tapping and bugging operations 171, 176–82, 193, 197–8, 281, 477; ultra-secret short-range sigint stations in 244–5; worldwide collection of intercepts from 45, 53, 79, 112, 159, 242–3, 385 Employment Select Committee of the House of Commons 424 Engulf (Egyptian Embassy cypher machine operation) 216 Enigma (German cypher machine) 1, 20–2, 23, 25–6, 27, 35, 38, 39, 42–3, 43, 51, 68, 78, 80, 354, 387 EOKA (Cypriot guerrilla force) 163 Episkopi (Cyprus) 234 Erim, Nihat 306, 312, 315 Eritrean Liberation Front 336 Escobar, Pablo 538, 549 Ethiopia 299, 334, 335–6 European Convention on Human Rights 433, 483 European Economic Community (EEC) 284 European Principals Meeting 450–1 European Union (EU) 540 Evatt, Dr H.V. 85, 86 Evere (NATO-GCHQ cell) 254, 255–7 Exocets (sea-skimming missiles) 390, 406–7, 414, 415 Faisal, King 160–1 Falkland Islands 6, 424, 429, 441, 442, 452, 467; Argentinean ambitions towards 389–92; Argentinean invasion of 392–3, 394–401; British troops on 408–14; comint and elint on 401, 413; diplomatic exchanges with 403–4; effect of war on British sigint 415; French help on 415; improvised communications with GCHQ 402–3; inadequate intelligence on 392–401; leaseback idea 392; naval action 404–8; near-miss air disaster 408; Norwegian help on 401, 442; scrap-metal incident 393–4; surprise attack on 388–9; Task Force sent to 398, 401, 403, 404–8; US denies pre-knowledge 601 Famagusta (Cyprus) 163, 235, 327, 328 Far East 39, 69, 78, 93, 129, 148–51, 164–8 Farrell, Terry 496 Faslane naval base (Scotland) 145, 146 Fatah (Palestinian organisation) 304, 308 FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) 76–7, 81 Federation of Malaysia 164–8 Ferranti 349, 598 ‘ferrets’ (flying intelligence stations) 111–14, 203–7 Fetherstone-Haugh, Timothy 383 Fetterlein, Ernst 17–18 Fieldhouse, Admiral 392 Fiji 446 Finland 31, 32, 76, 83, 91, 371, 489 First World War 14, 15, 16–17 Firyubin, Nikolay 279–80 Fischer, David 407 Fish (encyphered teleprinter) 28, 48, 49, 51 Fitz, Harold 127 Fleet Headquarters (Northwood) 400, 401, 402 Fletcher, WPC Yvonne 455–6 Florida 341 Flowers, Tommy 28, 349 Foden, Arthur 242 Foot, Michael 433 Ford, Gerald 297 Foreign and Commonwealth Office 16, 22, 45, 46, 56, 58, 66, 70, 83, 103, 128, 171, 172, 190–1, 192, 220–1, 239, 245, 273, 281, 287, 333, 335, 339, 353, 355, 360, 392–3, 398, 417, 420, 428; South-East European Department 317; Technical Maintenance Service 182 Forest Moor (wireless station near Harrogate) 96 Fort Bridgelands (Kent) 63 Fort Knox (Kentucky) 101 Fort Meade (NSA HQ, Washington) 102, 157, 174, 223, 271, 513, 528 Förvarets Radionstalt (FRA) 91 Foss, Hugh 21, 64 Fox, Katherine 598 FRA (Swedish sigint service) 421, 438, 456, 483–4 France 21, 32, 44, 52, 52–3, 109, 130, 268, 442, 445, 450, 467, 492 Franks, George 382 Free French 28, 52 Freedom of Information Act 482–3 Freeman, John 279 Freeman, Peter 531 French Guyana 415 Friedman, William 39, 44, 95, 213, 214 Friedrich, Lt Colonel 50 Fuchs, Klaus 72, 82, 83, 87, 104, 238 Fyjis-Walker, Richard 316 Fylingdales (Yorkshire) 287 Gaddafi, Muammar 455, 457, 531 Gagarin, Yuri 301 Gaitskell, Hugh 141 Galvin, John 474 Gambier-Parry, Richard 57, 181, 186, 188 Gamma-Guppy (Soviet intelligence intercepts) 244–5 Gardner, Meredith 75, 79, 80 Garner, Joe 249 Gates, Robert 457 GC&CS (Government Code and Cypher School) 361; and Anglo-American collaboration 40–1; civil achievements 28–9; and cypher security 56–7; diplomatic centre at Berkeley Street 27–8, 37, 43–4, 52–3; divided into civil and military sections 27–8; and European collaboration 20–2; military interests 19–20; post-war role 61, 63–7; relocation to Bletchley 22–7; Russian interests 17–19, 30–2; setting up of 16 GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) 1, 31, 104; and al Qaeda 511–12; Benhall 350, 360, 497, 526; and Bosnian-Croatian conflict 472–5; Bude (formerly CSO Morwenstow) 342, 343–4; budget figures 587; building of ‘Doughnut’ 9, 497, 526, 527–8; ceases exchanging intelligence with NSA 289–90; and changing nature of global threats 504–5; and closer relationship with MI5 and SIS 503–4; and Cobra Mist/Orford Ness problems 285–7; code-breaking and intelligence-gathering 6–8; combined NATO-GCHQ cell at Evere 254, 255–7; computers in 527–8; cooperation with NSA 222–3, 278, 282–3, 346, 347–54, 438, 448–58, 461; declining position of 422–3, 438, 441; development of new systems 342–54; diplomatic initiatives 108–9; Directors of 551–2; domestic surveillance and interceptions 540–50; DWS operations 186; E Division (Personnel) 425, 427; and economic intelligence 493; Empress Building (Earl’s Court) 382; encryption problems in banking and commerce 487–93; and end of Empire 148–55; expansion of 79, 169; F Division 476; file storage 598; funding of 219–23, 334, 458, 493, 494, 495; Free Trade Union 430; future purpose of 485; and global sigint 92, 94, 95–100; and Gulf War (1991) 466, 469; H Division (mathematicians and cryptographers) 432; and hoax letters prank 469–70; increased intelligence operations 120, 121–4; influence on foreign policy 321; installation of dedicated computer unit 507–8; and internal surveillance 9–10; and internet 100; and invasion of the Falklands 392–403, 405–6, 411; and IRA 498–503; and Iraqi dossiers 516–17, 530; J Division (Special sigint—Russian) 346, 374, 376, 419, 429, 434–5, 438, 495; J-Ops 429, 434–5, 438; K Division (non-Russian sigint) 218, 222, 402, 420–1, 478, 495; and KGB espionage 108, 189, 424–5; and Korean War 101; language problem 512–13, 516; legal identity of 484–5; and Libyan Embassy affair 455, 456; London office (Palmer Street) 192, 497; loss of Hong Kong listening station 475–8; merger with com sec 241–2; and Middle East 155–64; moles in 368–85; move to Cheltenham (1952) 102–3, 120–1, 122, 191; need for 8–9; ‘need to share’ problem 503–4; Nimrod programme 267–70, 271–4; and Noye affair 505–7; Oakley 360, 380, 427, 496, 497, 526; ocean-going activities 6, 136; organisation overviews 563–5; overhaul of operations 493–7; positive vetting at 227–8; post-war organisation and location 67–71; and Princess Diana 482, 483; and problems with ‘special relationship’ 441–3; promotion and career structures 576; purpose-built sigint ship 260–4; R Division (security) 425; reads HVA traffic 605; reinstatement of unions at 497–8; relationship with private companies 240; removal of trade unions at 416–36; and Russian problem 46, 71, 75, 78, 169, 299; S Division 261; secret pact with armed services 5–6, 117–18, 132–3; size of 227; ‘Station X’ 69; as successor to Bletchley Park 1, 5; suicides connected to 382–3; and supply of cypher machines to NATO 209–15; T Division 123; Tempest 216–18; Trade Union Campaign 498; Turkish operations 300–1, 311–19; unmasking of 355–64; use of deaf and dumb civilian personnel 153; use of name ‘GCHQ’ 61, 67; and use of polygraph at 425–6; and Venona Project 77–81; visibility of 1, 2, 8, 341, 436, 484; W Division 261; and War on Terror 533, 539–40; and West German defections 455–6; whistleblower in 521–3; X Division 6, 350, 353; Z Division (use of sigint) 388, 503; Zionist interests 109 GEC-Marconi 433 General Belgrano (Argentine cruiser) 404–6 General Strike (1926) 18 Geneva (Switzerland) 178; Peace Conference (1954) 178 George VI, King 59, 191 Georkadijis, Polycarpos 323–4 Geraldton (DSD site, Australia) 477 Germany 15, 29, 30, 31, 32–3, 44, 47–50, 55, 62, 78, 96, 127–9, 130, 142, 170–1, 219, 229, 247, 256, 270, 492; Army 26, 29, 43, 47; High Command (OKW) 49, 349; Navy 42; see also East Germany; West Germany Gezmiş, Deniz 310, 311 Giant Reach (SR-71 flights from US to Middle East) 292–3 Gibraltar 162, 398, 415 Gibson, Sir Peter 502 Gilbey, James 479–81 Glazebrook, George 92 Glidwell, Mr Justice 430–1 Glover, Sir James 413 Godfrey, Admiral 32 Golan Heights 297 Golden Valley Hotel (Cheltenham) 432–3 Goldsmith, Lord 522–3 Golombek, Harry 25 Goodpaster, Andrew 256 Goonhilly Downs (Cornwall) 342–3, 597 Goose Green (Falklands) 404, 410, 411 Gorbachev, Mikhail 456 Gordievsky, Oleg 385, 478 Gore Booth, Sir Paul 339 Gosport (Hampshire) 134 Gouzenko, Igor 85 Government Communications Staff Federation 428, 429 Government and Overseas Cable and Wireless Operators Association 418 Government Technical Assistance Centre (GTAC) 507, 547 Government Telecommunications Advisory Centre 504 Gow, Ian 482 Gowrie, Lord 428 Grab (Galactic Radiation and Background) satellite 208 Grant (MI5 computer scheme) 528 Grantham, Sir Alexander 152 Granville (Argentine frigate) 395 Grechko, Andrei 245 Gredjeva, Nina Michailovna 189 Greece 163, 259, 319, 320, 324, 334, 450, 472 Green Light (US special atomic demolition munitions programme) 249 Greenhill, Denis 239, 284 Greenock naval base (Scotland) 144 Greenpeace 446 Grey (US diplomatic code) 40 Grindley, Mike 430 Gromyko, Andrei 205, 206 Groupe de Synthèse et Prévision (France) 284 GRU (Soviet Military Intelligence) 88, 173, 230 Guardrail (US airborne tactical sigint systems) 251–2, 272 Guernica bombing (1937) 22 Guevara, (Ernesto) Che 300 Gulf War (1990–91) 452, 465–71, 529 Gulf War (2003) 479, 516–26 Gun, Katharine 521–3 Gurdon, Adam 396 Gurkhas 164–5 Gurney, Sir Henry 149 Habbaniya (Iraq) 20 Hagelin, Boris Jnr 212–13 Hagelin, Boris Snr 212 Hagelin (cypher machine) 56, 78 Haig, Alexander 403–4 Halifax, Lord 24 Hall, Theodore 73 Hallock, Richard 74–5 Hamilton, Alexander 432 Hampshire, Sir Stuart 221–5, 260 Handel, Michael 362 Hankey, Lord 36 Hanley, Michael 361, 587 Hanley, William J. 305, 306 Hanslope Park (Buckinghamshire) 57, 58, 182, 185, 186, 187, 192, 196, 418 Hanssen, Robert 444 Hardy, Tim 166 Harland & Wolff 261 Harman, Harriet 368 Harrier jets 403, 404, 407, 408, 441 Harris, Robert 59 Hart, Herbert 225 Harty, Russell 359 Harvest (computer) 350 Hashmi, Jabron 535 Hastings, Edward 95 Hawaii 92 Hawkes, John 216 Hay, Malcolm 15 Hayden, Michael 508 Hayter, William 97 Healey, Denis 168, 245, 256, 399, 426, 429, 433 Heath, Edward 4, 239, 279, 315, 337, 338, 439 Heliopolis (Egypt) 92, 155, 162 Hellenbroich, Heribert 452–3 Hellman, Martin 490 Helmand province (Afghanistan) 534, 535 Helms, Richard 292, 356 Hemblys-Scales, Roger 86 Henderson, Nicholas 2–3 Hennessy, Peter 90, 577 Herman, Michael 261, 287, 419, 421, 435 Heseltine, Michael 426 Hibberson, Anthony 189 Hill, Jim 86–7 Hill, Major 120 Hillenkoeter, Roscoe 85 Hillgruber, Andreas 59 Hinsley, Harry 59, 64 Hiroshima 2 Hiss, Alger 88 Hitler, Adolf 3, 5, 29, 30, 31, 32–3, 48, 221, 290 Hoad, Norman 132 Hokkaido (Japan) 112 Holden Agreement (1942 & 1944) 43 Hollis, Sir Roger 79, 86, 182, 367 Holmberg, Elena 389–90 Home Office 507, 538, 544 Honest John (battlefield missile system) 249 Honeywell (computers) 458 Hong Kong 19, 30, 32, 96, 100, 151–5, 219, 256, 277, 419, 475–8 Hooper, Joe 191, 222, 223, 228, 273–4, 285–6, 343, 353, 419, 448, 466, 585 Hoover Commission 219 Hosenball, Mark 358 House of Commons Public Accounts Committee 440, 459 House of Commons Select Committee on Employment (1985) 433–4 Howard, Edward Lee 384, 444, 447 Howard, Michael 364 Howarth, Jack 189 Howe, Geoffrey 426, 427–8, 429, 431–2, 436, 460 Howse, Philip 79, 84 Hughes, Chief Inspector 187 Hughes, Robert D. 111 Hungary 46, 158 Hunt, Sir John 329–30, 337–8, 356–7, 361 Hunters Stones Post Office Tower 346 Hurd, Douglas 495 Hurley, Michael 144–6 Hurn, Roger 495, 526 Hussein, King 161, 164, 290 Hussein, Saddam 467, 516, 524, 525 Husum-Milstedt (intercept station, Germany) 50 Hutton, Lord 529 Huxley, Aldous 549 HVA 605 Iacobescu, Ion 253 IBM 350, 352, 489 Igloo White (ground sensors) 252 Imre, Nahit 254 Incirlik (Turkey) 326 India 4, 18, 19, 30, 32, 85, 95, 178, 334 Indonesia 153, 164–8 Information Research Department 156 Ingebrigsten, Jan 450 Ingham, Bernard 428 Inman, Bobby Ray 399, 422, 601 Intelligence Assault Units 47–8 Intelligence and Security Committee 484–5, 529, 539 Intelligence Services Act (1994) 484–5, 488 Intelligence Support Activity 168 Intelsat 342 Intercept Control Centre 250 Intercept Modernisation Programme (IMP) 543–5, 547–8 International Control Commission on Vietnam 178 International Regulations on Sigint (IRSIG) 90 International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 533 internet 8, 488, 507–8, 541, 544–5 IRA 345, 455, 479, 481–2, 494, 498–503, 593 Iran 109, 112, 155, 268, 295, 299, 302, 421, 467, 472, 605 Iran, Shah of 299 Iraq 155, 156, 160–2, 259, 295, 320, 465–71, 479, 516–17, 528–31; 124 Electronic Warfare Regiment 525 IRSIG (Instructions and Regulations concerning the Security of Signals Intelligence) 503–4 Iscot (wartime Comintern traffic) 37–8 ISI (Pakistani intelligence service) 514 Ismailia (Egypt) 32, 185 Ismay, General Hastings ‘Pug’ 27 Israel 97, 164, 263–4, 277, 290–1, 293, 307–8, 415, 471; Israeli Sea Corps 264–5 Istanbul 307, 309, 310, 316, 318 Italy 19, 44, 52, 96, 345, 452; Italian Cryptographic Bureau 54–5 ITT (telecoms company) 341, 342 Ivy Bells (undersea cable-tapping) 384 Jakarta (Indonesia) 167, 168 Japan 17, 29, 39, 40, 44, 65, 100, 110, 152, 445, 446 Jebb, Gladwyn 64 Jenkins, Roy 51 Johnson, Lyndon B. 50, 238, 353 Johnson, Robert 346 Johnstone, Sir Charles 164 Johnstone, Colonel Hugh 327–8, 359, 360 Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 67; and Arab states 109; Chevaline project 440; circulation of BJs 70; collection of elint on Soviet air-defence capabilities 132; considers Soviet threats a bluff 204; Crabb incident 141–2; D-Notice affair 239; deployment of equipment in Eastern Bloc 123; failures and inaccuracies of 108, 245–6, 387–8; focus on economic, technological and scientific subjects 241; French cooperation 284–5; intelligence failures 387–8; and invasion of the Falklands 391, 395–7; and Iraq 466; Joint Intelligence Committee Far East 167; and new technology 353; and Palestine 97; and possible Soviet move inside Eastern Europe 256; rethinking of European targets 345; review of aerial and submarine surveillance 207; review of GCHQ spending 221; and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 245–6; and Soviet Union 46; and surprise Soviet nuclear attacks 321; and Turkish invasion of Cyprus 319, 325; and Vienna tunnel 171; and Yemen Civil War 164 Joint Technical Services Language School (Tangmere, Surrey) 370 Jones, Eric 46, 121, 132, 142, 159, 188, 191, 197, 418, 585 Jones, Colonel H. 411 Jones, R.V. 102–3, 110, 111, 579 Jordan 157, 164, 308 Joseph, Keith 286 Jowell, Tessa 498 July Bomb Plot (1944) 221 Kabul (Afghanistan) 533 Kagnew (Ethiopia) 335–6 Kaiser, Michael 240–1 Kapustin Yar (Soviet Union) 112, 131, 301 Karadſić, Radovan 473 Karamursel (Turkey) 301 Karlshorst (Germany) 371 Katanga (Congo) 336 Kazakhstan 107 Keepnet (recording equipment) 458 Keith, Bruce 69, 93, 94 Kelly, Gerry 500 Kennan, George 177 Kennedy, Jacqueline 180 Kennedy, Paul 59 Kenya 125, 334, 370, 511 Ker, Leonard Douglas 189 Kern, Dick 449–50 Kerr, Sir Archibald Clark 84 Key Recovery (or Key Escrow) 492, 506–7 KGB (Russian secret service) 137, 230, 285, 419, 538; agents working for 36–7, 185–90, 224–5, 231–7, 354–5, 369–85; and Airborne Rafter programme 267; defections from 478–9; Eight Directorate 377; expulsion from London embassy 283–4; intercepts on 53, 96; microwave intercepts 281; and miners’ strike (1982) 368; and release of material on GCHQ 355; Sixteenth Directorate 377; surveillance operations 4, 183–5, 190–1; tapping and bugging operations 170, 173, 175–82, 193; and Tempest 216–17; and Venona Project 72–88, 98, 104 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 514, 515 Khrushchev, Nikita 4, 140, 142, 173, 179, 180, 202, 204 kidnapping and hostage-taking 452, 513–14; in Turkey 302–19; see also terrorists, terrorism Kiev (Soviet Union) 126 Killian, James R. 219 King, Tom 426, 427 Kingsdown (Kent) 34 Kinnock, Neil 433 Kipling, Rudyard 13–14 Kirknewton airbase (Scotland) 118 Kirkpatrick, Sir Ivone 130 Kissinger, Henry 277–81, 283–4, 287–90, 292, 293, 294–7, 319, 324, 326, 329, 330, 331, 337–8, 403, 441, 444 Kizildere (Turkey) 312–19 Klemme, General 50 Klugman, James 36, 188 Knockholt (Kent) 120 Knox, Dilly 21 Kohl, Helmut 453 Kola Peninsula (Soviet Union) 118, 136 Komer, Robert 303 Korea 6 Korean War (1950–53) 99–101, 116, 118–19, 120, 129, 152, 178 Kosovo 8, 512 Kosygin, Alexei 280 Koza, Frank 517–18, 521 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) 150–1 Kubat, Ferit 313, 314 Kuching (Malaysia) 166 Kurchatov, Igor 107 Kurku, Ertugrul 313–14, 315 Kursk (Soviet Union) 36–7 Kuwait 465–70, 524 Kuznetsov, Pavel 183–8 La Belle discothèque (West Berlin) 457 Labuan (Malaysia) 166 Lagos, Ricardo 519 Lamphere, Robert 76–7 Lander, Stephen 494 Lange, David 444–5 Langley (Virginia) 292, 441 Laos 446 Larnaca (Cyprus) 384 Latakia (Syria) 331 Law, John 312–16, 318 Lawson, Nigel 460 Le Bailly, Louis 246, 286–7, 291, 439 Leach, Henry 395 Lebanon 161, 308 Lee, Raymond 39, 40–1 Libya 109, 295, 334, 455–8, 531; Libyan People’s Bureau (London) 455–6 Liddell, Guy 367 Light Electronic Warfare Teams (LEWTs) 534–5 Limassol (Cyprus) 325 Lindsay, Michael 151 Little, Peter 420–1 Little, Rod 402 Little Sai Wan (Hong Kong) 153, 475 Livebait (comparison of different signals) 458 Llanos, Gonzales 408 Lobban, Ian 542 Lockerbie incident (1988) 457–8, 605 Lockhart, John Bruce 171 Lockheed 476 Loehnis, Clive 31, 197, 210–11, 223, 466 Lohan, Sammy 239 Lombardo, Juan 393, 395 London bombings (2005) 532–6 London Communications Security Agency (LCSA) 103, 191–3, 210, 211, 213, 217, 585 London Communications Security Board 585 London Processing Group (LPG) 372–3 London Signals Intelligence Board 51–2, 109, 142; London Signals Intelligence Centre 69; London Signals Intelligence Committee 267, 268 Longfellow (Soviet cypher system) 78 Lonsdale, Gordon 238 Lord (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Luanda (Angola) 59, 455 Lucas, George 144, 145 Luftwaffe 26, 33–4, 35, 36, 43, 50 Luga airport (Malta) 295 Luneburg Heath (Germany) 127 Lunn, Peter 171, 172, 174 Lyalin, Oleg 283 Lyttelton, Oliver 149 MacArthur, General Douglas 45 McCormack, Alfred 45 Macdonald, Ken 543, 548 McGuinness, Martin 500 Machon, Annie 456 Mackay of Clashfern, Lord 484–5 Mackenzie King, William Lyon 94 Maclean, Donald 8, 37, 72, 73, 76, 82, 84, 87, 104, 238, 367 McManners, Hugh 409, 410 Macmillan, Harold 3–4, 143, 179, 204–7, 226, 364 McNamara, Robert 168 McNeill, Hector 224 Magdeburg (Germany) 50 Magic (Japanese cypher) 29, 39, 41, 44, 69 Maguire, Harold 268, 269 Major, John 398, 484 Makarios, Archbishop Mihail 163, 296, 320, 323–5, 328, 330 Malatya (Turkey) 306 Malaya 6, 30, 38, 125; Malayan Communist Party (MCP) 149, 150; Malayan Emergency 149–51 Malaysia see Federation of Malaysia Malinovsky, Rodion 204 Malta 156, 162, 295 Maltby, Ted 58, 79, 187 Manchester University 349 Manchuria 19 Mandelson, Peter 498 Manhattan Project (Los Alamos atomic bomb project) 75, 76, 82, 219 Manningham-Buller, Dame Eliza 515 Mao Tse-tung 4, 151, 193, 195 Marchetti, Victor 356 Marconi (company) 311 Marconi, Guglielmo 13 Marenches, Alexandre de 442 Marr-Johnson, Patrick 77 Marshall, George 42 Marshall, William 184–90 Martin, William H. 176, 355, 423 Marychurch, Peter 428, 434, 445, 448, 449, 451, 458–60 Mask operation 19 Mason, Roy 332 Mathison, Alan 25 Mauborgne, Joseph 18 Mauritius 334, 335, 338 Mazzini, Giuseppe 14 Medical Research Council 434 Mediterranean 16, 44, 114, 273, 295, 319 Meir, Golda 290–1 Menendez, Mario 412–13 Mentyukov, Igor 201–2 Menwith Hill (Yorkshire) 345–6, 347, 421, 449 Menzies, Sir Stewart 23–4, 26, 27, 28, 38, 39, 42, 45, 51–2, 55, 67, 82, 142 Methods to Improve (MTI) 220 Mexico 15, 517, 519–20 Meyer, Cord 358, 595 Meyer, John C. 271, 272 MI5 see Security Service MI6 see Secret Intelligence Service Middle East 7, 15, 16, 19–20, 32, 34, 41, 51, 97, 148, 155–64, 181, 182, 271, 277, 282, 290–5, 299, 320, 333, 334, 336, 376, 385, 454, 467, 472, 479, 494; Middle East Technical University (Ankara) 303, 304; Middle East War (1973) see Yom Kippur War Middle Six countries 519 Millward, Bill 63, 121, 221–2, 253 Milne, Alasdair 459 Milner, Ian 86 Milner-Barry, Stuart 25, 27, 364, 387 Milošević, Slobodan 473 Ministry of Defence (MoD) 240, 272, 286–7, 291, 312, 368, 423, 456, 495, 510 missiles see rockets and missiles MIT (Turkish National Intelligence Agency) 304, 314 Mitchell, Bernon F. 176, 355, 423 Mitchell, Graham 367 Mitchell, J.R. 118 Mitterrand, François 414–15 Mladić, Ratko 473, 474 mobile phones 492–3, 505, 538, 541, 548 Modin, Yuri 82–3, 84 Moffit, Bill 296–7 Molotov, Vyacheslav 178–9 Monterey (California) 332 Montgomery, Field Marshal Bernard Law 58, 85 Moon-bounce project 262–3 Morgan, Gerry 78 Moriarty, D.M. 587 Morocco 334 Morris, Gareth 433 Morwenstow (Cornwall) 342 Moscow 4, 18, 19, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45, 47, 53, 59, 74, 82, 84, 86, 104, 126, 148, 151, 175, 176–8, 179, 185, 186, 189, 201, 203, 205, 284, 465; Moscow Peace Treaty (1942) 32 Mossad (Israeli secret service) 291, 299–300, 307–8, 444, 472 Mottram, Richard 577 Mount Tumbledown (Falklands) 413 Mountbatten, Lord Louis 110, 143, 192 Mowlam, Mo 500 Mubarak, Hosni 467 Mullah Dadullah 535 Muller, Wilma 127 Mullet Creek (Falklands) 397 Munich Crisis (1938) 3, 22 Murmansk (Soviet Union) 133, 143 Murray, Len 416–17, 426, 427, 428 Muslims 472, 473, 474, 537, 538, 542 Mustard (Enigma key) 35 Mutual Balanced Force Reduction programme 287–9, 319 Mutual Weapons Development Programme 211 Nagasaki (Japan) 2 Nan-Szu-Pu (Taiwan) 152 Narvik raid (1940) 55 Narwal (Argentine trawler) 407–8 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 155–6, 161, 164 National Central Electronic Reconnaissance Agency (NSEI, Croatia) 473 National Council for Civil Liberties 361 National Criminal Intelligence Service 504 National Infrastructure Security Coordination Centre 609 National Security Agency (NSA) 7; and al Qaeda 510–12; and Berlin tunnel operation 174; and BND 422–3, 438, 447–51, 452–4, 455; and Bosnian-Croatian conflict 472–5; ceases intelligence exchange with GCHQ 289–90; and commercial encryption 488, 489; cooperation with GCHQ 222–3, 278, 282–3, 346, 347–54, 438, 441–3, 448–58, 461; creation of 101–2; data silo in Utah 546; development of new systems 345–6; development of Technical Research Ships 260; and documents on Princess Diana 483; and downing of Powers’ U-2 202–3; elint and comint responsibilities 122–3; funding of 334, 346; influence on foreign policy 321; and internet 8, 508; and invasion of the Falklands 398, 399, 415; and North Korea 100; and polygraph 434; and Prime case 376; public mention of 242–3, 355, 358, 361–2; relationship with US armed services 271–2; and Russian nuclear forces 119; Russian spies in 384–5, 444; and sale of cypher machines 209–15; and strategic elint 267; and Suez crisis 157, 158; and Tempest 216–18; and trade unions at GCHQ 421–2, 424, 429; Turkish operations 300–19; use of security measures 381; visibility of 341; and Yom Kippur War 291–2 National Service 117, 153, 219, 229, 369 NATO 126, 130, 209–15, 217–18, 242, 247, 248, 253–7, 268–9, 270, 272, 283, 300, 319, 328, 345, 429, 448, 452, 456, 467, 533, 534; Military Committee 256; Nuclear Planning Group 332; Special Committee 257 Nauticus Corporation 265 Naval Intelligence 32, 116, 143 Naval Mechanics School (Buenos Aires) 389 Nave, Eric 19 Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) 31 Neff, Paul 50, 76 Netherlands 442, 443 ‘Never Again’ agreement (1982) 440–1 New People’s Army (Philippines) 452 New Zealand 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 164, 165, 438, 442, 444–7, 448, 487; Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) 445–6 Newman, Dr 145 Newman, Max 28, 70 Nicoll, Douglas 387–8, 396, 421, 529 Nicoll Report (1981) 388 Nicosia (Cyprus) 326 Nimrods 268–70, 271–4, 326, 414, 415, 442, 474, 515, 536, 537 9/11 9, 509–14, 531 Nixon, Richard M. 4, 277–8, 279, 281, 283–4, 288, 290, 293, 297–8, 304–5, 325–6, 337, 338, 434 Noakes, John 348 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 608 Noise Investigation Bureau 110 Nokia (telecoms company) 489 Norland, Selmer 48, 78 North Atlantic Council 254 North Cape, Battle of (1943) 60 North Korea 100, 120, 129, 175, 264 Northern Ireland 329, 498–503; Peace Process 501 Northwood Hills (communications security establishment) 192, 400, 401, 402, 469 Norway 55, 99, 116–17, 134, 139, 269 Nott, John 395, 396, 397–8, 414–15, 429, 601 Noye, Kenneth 505–6 Nuclear Planning Group 255 Oakleigh Park North (Soviet-radio monitoring station, Whetstone) 190–1 O’Connor, Morris J. 144, 145 Odette (Army intercept equipment) 474, 525, 534, 536–7 Odom, William ‘Bill’ 214, 385, 413, 434, 442–4, 446–52, 454–5, 457, 458, 471, 476 Oedipus (computer) 349 Oeljeschaeger, Major 50 Office of Strategic Services 87, 91 Official Secrets Act 8, 359, 360, 363, 383, 522 oil 298, 336, 356 Okinawa (Japan) 152 OKK-5 (Soviet codebook) 35 Oldfield, Maurice 82, 358 Omagh (Northern Ireland) 501–3 Oman 271, 345 Omand, Sir David 9, 272, 398, 495–7, 498 one-time pads (encryption system) 18–19, 20, 56, 74, 81, 83, 108 Operation Citadel (1943) 36 Operation Claret (1956) 140–2 Operation Damage (Comet sorties in the Mediterranean) 273 Operation Debenture (1954) 152–3 Operation Defiant (1955) 137 Operation Desert Storm (1991) 467–9 Operation Duster (sigint flight operations during Yom Kippur War) 295 Operation Gold (1948) 97 Operation Halfmoon (1948) 96 Operation Hem (sigint flight operations during Yom Kippur War) 295 Operation Musketeer (1956) 156–9 Operation Nigeria (against journalists and their sources) 506 Operation Overlord (1944) 59 Operation Pat (Comet sorties over the Baltic) 273 Operation Sanjak (1955) 137–9 Operation Storm (1995) 472–3 Operation Tartan (1955) 136–7 Operation Trail Hammer 536 Orford Ness (Suffolk) 285–7, 322 Organ, Helena see Prime, Helena Orion (sigint satellite) 437 Ormsby Gore, David 206 Orwell, George 549 Oshima, Baron 29 Ottawa (Canada) 57, 85, 92, 94, 97 Over the Horizon Radar 285–7, 322 Owen, Dr David 299–300, 332–3, 360, 391 Padeborn (Germany) 248 Pakistan 323, 334, 384, 513–14, 519, 537 Palestine 97, 109, 155, 156, 320 Paris 21, 25, 52, 53, 158, 194–5, 243, 284–5, 510 Parker-Bowles, Camilla 480, 482 Parliamentary Select Committee on Foreign Affairs 529 Patagonia 393 Patchett, Brian 228–30, 369 Paterson, Brian 507 Pearl, Daniel 514 Pearl Harbor attack (7 December 1941) 29, 290 Peking 150, 151, 194 Pelton, Ronald 384–5, 443–4, 447 Penkovsky, Oleg 322–3 Penney, William 192 Pepper, David 526, 527, 528, 532, 539 Perkar (Ceylon) 160 Perkins, Alice 495 Permanent Secretaries Committee on the Intelligence Services (PSIS) 219–20, 241, 260, 423 Perrin, Ken 267, 270, 363 Peshawar (Pakistan) 384 Petersfield (Hampshire) 133 PGP (Pretty Good Privacy, code-making programme) 490–1 Philby, Kim 37, 82–3, 84–5, 225, 226, 238, 242, 354–5, 367, 385 Philco (telecoms company) 350 Philippines 445 Phillips, Cecil 75, 79 Pilsey Island (Sussex) 140 Pincher, Chapman 17, 226, 238, 239, 240, 242, 386 Pine Gap (Australia) 345 Pinner (Middlesex) 68, 69 Pinochet, Augusto 519 Pirinclik Air Base (Turkey) 301–2, 306 Pither, Judith 383 Plessey (telecoms company) 212, 267–8, 311, 433 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation) 277 Poets Systems (Soviet cypher machines) 78, 81 Poland 21–2, 31, 46, 178, 387, 421, 515 Polaris missile system 266, 322, 335, 337, 438–40 Pollard, Jonathan 444 Polyarnoe (Soviet Union) 34, 36 polygraphs 381, 383, 424–6, 433–4, 444 Port Said (Egypt) 156 Port Stanley (Falklands) 390, 397, 413 Portsmouth (Hampshire) 134 Portugal 44 Poseidon (missile system) 439 positive vetting 88, 227–8, 229, 229–30 Posner, Gerald 483 Post Hostilities Planning (PHP) Committee 46, 85 Post Office 241, 286; develops fibre-optic cables 604; Research Department (Dollis Hill) 28, 68, 171, 172, 349; ‘Secret Department’ 14 Potts, Archie 154–5 Poulden, Teddy 93, 94, 352–3, 354 Powell, Jonathan 500 Powers, Gary 8, 201–7, 208, 226 Prague 244; Prague Spring (1968) 387 Prime, Geoffrey 8, 368–86, 423, 424, 425, 444, 447, 600 Prime, Helena 374–5 Prime, Rhona 375, 378–9 Princeton University 350 Prior, James 422 Profumo affair (1963) 8, 226, 228 Project Clipeus (British ADM programme) 249 Project Cobra Shoe (US intelligence station on Cyprus) 323, 348, 356 Project K (NSA HQ) 102 Project Minaret (US illegal monitoring of domestic radicals) 357 Project Sambo (tracking low-frequency submarine radio transmissions) 378 Project Sandra (intelligence facility on Cyprus) 321–3, 348, 356 Public Interest Immunity certificates 505 Public Key Cryptography 489–93, 508, 512 Public Record Office (Kew) 355 Puerto Belgrano (Argentina) 393 Punta Arenas (Chile) 414 Purple (Japanese cypher machine) 29, 38 Purves, Peter 348 Pym, Francis 423 Pyramider satellite 377 Quinlan, Sir Michael 493 Racal (telecoms company) 401, 433, 469, 524, 590 radar 110, 126, 132, 133, 136, 138, 145, 154, 202, 266, 285–7, 301–2, 306, 406, 408, 466 Radcliffe, Lord 239–40 Radcliffe Inquiry into Security in the Civil Service (1962) 381, 418 Radio Corporation of Cuba 341 Radio Operators (GCHQ) 15, 185, 186, 228, 261, 382, 418, 419, 420, 422, 432, 435, 458 Radio Reconnaissance Teams (Afghanistan) 535 Radio Security Service 37, 58, 79, 221 Radio Warfare Special Branch 133, 134 Rainbow Warrior (Greenpeace ship) 446 Rangoon (Burma) 110 Rattan (Soviet radio intercepts) 75 RC-135 ‘Looking Glass’ aircraft 273 Reagan, Ronald 398, 403, 457 ‘Real IRA’ 501, 502 Reenan, Cyril 479, 480 Rees-Mogg, Lord William 481 Reeve, James 196, 197 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) (2000) 547 Reid, John 516 Reijn, Joop van der 308 Reilly, Patrick 205, 206 rendition programmes 539–40 Rendle, John 578 Rennie, John 156 Res (reserved cypher material) 44–5 Review of Intelligence Requirements and Resources (1994) 493 Review of Intercept as Evidence (2004) 541 Rhodes, Miriam 378 Rhodesia 3, 209 Ribbentrop, Joachim von 31 Richards, Brooks 387 Richards, Francis 504, 511, 526 Riddington, Tony 598 Ridley, Nicholas 392 Rimington, Stella 372, 494, 521 Ring of Five 442–3 Ritter, Scott 470–1 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) 513 Roake, Alfie 147, 265 Robinson (computer) 349 Robinson, Robin 493 rockets and missiles 5, 108, 110, 131, 169, 201–2, 203, 207, 266, 271, 301, 306, 315, 322–3, 335, 337, 376, 390, 439–40, 510, 511, 515, 525 Rockex (UK cypher machines) 57–8, 194 Rolf, Vic 213 Romania 52, 256, 257, 284; foreign intelligence service (DGIE) 253–4 Rome 372 Rommel, Erwin 5 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 39, 41, 47, 73, 84, 87 Rose, Michael 472, 473, 474 Rosenberg, Ethel and Julius 83 Rosenheim (Germany) 48 Roussilhe, François 254–5 Rowe, Vivian 402 Rowlands, Ted 390, 399–400, 401 Rowlett, Frank 44, 174 Rowntree Foundation 361 Royal Air Force (RAF) 369, 537: 192 Squadron (monitoring aircraft unit) 113, 122, 125, 149, 159; 199 Squadron (radio wafare unit) 113, 125, 131; invited onto Blue Peter children’s programme 348; loss of Avro Lincoln (1953) 125–9, 580; and Malayan Emergency 149–50; near-miss incidents 131; negotiations on air corridors 129–30; 100 Countermeasure Group 112; as part of GC&CS 20; RAF Akrotiri 273, 295, 296, 323, 325; RAF Brampton 469; RAF Brawdy 377; RAF Brize Norton 204, 375; RAF Celle 128; RAF Crail 369; RAF Digby 230, 231, 237; RAF Gatow 112, 370, 383; RAF Habbaniya 155, 161–2, 230; RAF Hammersley Hayes 231; RAF Lakenheath 116, 142; RAF Leconfield 126; RAF Mildenhall 257, 273, 284, 297; RAF North Luffenham 153; RAF Northolt 537; RAF Oakhanger 262; RAF Pergamos 162, 323; RAF Scharfoldendorf 128; RAF Sharjah 271; RAF Strike Command 270; RAF Upper Heyford 457; RAF Watton 112–14, 122, 125, 131, 159; RAF Wythall 153; RAF Wyton 273, 295; ‘Rock Apes’ Regiment 154; sigint and elint operations 110–14, 116–18, 121–2, 124, 131–3, 153, 154, 206, 218–19, 269–70, 272–3, 285–7; Signals Units 153, 154, 161; surveillance operations 537–8; and U-2 overflight programme 202; Y stations in Kent and Cheshire 34, 63, 111 Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Procedure 425–6 Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 499 Royal Marines 390, 391, 394, 402, 411, 413, 524, 535; Y Troop 524, 525, 535 Royal Navy 159, 441, 474, 477; and Buster Crabb incident 140–2; HMS Affray 133; HMS Albion 259; HMS Anderson (sigint station in Ceylon) 69, 92, 93, 94, 160; HMS Antrim 409, 410; HMS Ardent 410; HMS Conqueror 404; HMS Coventry 406; HMS Dolphin 265; HMS Endurance 391–2, 394, 396; HMS Glamorgan 410; HMS Glasgow 406; HMS Hermes 402–3, 411; HMS Invincible 407; HMS Maidstone 139; HMS Mariner 134; HMS Mercury (RN Signals School) 133, 134, 139; HMS Pickle 134; HMS Pucklechurch 133, 134; HMS Sheffield 406; HMS Sir Galahad 400; HMS Superb 259; HMS Taciturn 144–6; HMS Totem (later Dakar) 137, 264, 265; HMS Truculent 133; HMS Truelove 134; HMS Truncheon 264, 265; HMS Turpin 135–9, 140, 143, 146–7, 264; influence on GC&CS 16; intercept sites at Scarborough and Winchester 63; Kipling story involving 13; Provost Branch 139; and radio station at Polyarnoe 34; ‘Room 40’ code-breakers 15; sigint and elint operations 6, 114, 133–9, 143–7, 218–19, 264–7 Royal Radar Establishment (Malvern) 501 Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) 501, 502–3; RUC Special Branch 499, 502, 503 Rumsfeld, Donald 511 Rushworth, Edward 48, 78 Russian Mafia 504 Ryolite satellites 345, 346, 376, 421 Sabah (Borneo) 165 Sabri, Naji 530 Sadat, Anwar 296 Sadi, Sener 314 Safford, Laurance 39 Samford, General 101 Samsun (Turkey) 301, 311 San Carlos Water (Falklands) 408–11 San Francisco 92 Sangin province (Afghanistan) 535 Santa Fe (Argentine submarine) 397 Sarafand (Palestine) 20, 32, 155, 162 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 473, 474 Sarawak 165 Sarell, Sir Roderick 308, 312, 313, 315, 319 Saudi Arabia 164, 467, 468 Saunders, Andrew 458 Savimbi, Joseph 454 Scan Odd (airborne radar) 121 Scarborough (Yorkshire) 63 Scargill, Arthur 416 Scarman, Lord 431 Scarus (portable interception kit) 534 Schlesinger, James 294–5, 326, 329, 330, 332 Schmidt, Hans 21 Schröder, Gerhard 520 Schulze, Reinhard and Sonja 455–6 Scott-Farnie, G.R. 34 SCUD missiles 251, 468, 469 SDECE (French secret intelligence service) 442 Second World War 135, 335; end of 47–50, 59–60; events leading up to 22; and improved communications 5; and release of sigint material 355–6; Russian interceptions in 30, 31–2; sigint and code-breaking in 2, 5, 28–9, 32–46, 250 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS; MI6) 1, 57, 82, 91, 97; agents sent into the Eastern Bloc 123; at Bletchley 23, 27; and Automatic Data Processing 353; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and bungled surveillance operations 140–2; buys missiles on the open market 407; closer relationship with MI5 and GCHQ 503–4; considered organisational basket-case 24; and Cyprus radio station 156; and end of influence over sigint 142; and Enigma decypherment 21; funding of 494; move to Broadway Buildings 17; move to Century House (1966) 195; move to Vauxhall Cross 496–7; no trade unions in 417; obsession with Russia 17, 31; origins of 14; and Penkovsky 322–3; and post-war re-absorption of GC&CS 67; recruitment to 61; Section V 37; Section VIII 57–9; Section Y (Carlton Gardens) 171, 178, 372; Technical Collection Service 132; and Yemen 164 Secret Service Committee 15 Security Commission 368–9, 381–2, 384 Security Service (MI5) 1, 57, 182, 361; and Automatic Data Processing 353; Britten affair 237; bugging operations 177; closer relationship with SIS and GCHQ 503–4; and CND 368; fears concerning Communists in trade unions 418–19; funding of 494; interception of telegrams and telexes 239; and John Cairncross 37; and Libyan Embassy affair 456; no trade unions in 417; origins of 14–17; and Peter Wright 223, 224; and polygraph 433–4; and possible sub-agents 382; problems with Orford Ness 287; and sigint security 70–1; ‘Squidgygate’ affair 482; and Venona 79, 84, 85, 86; ‘watchers’ operations 183–90; and West German defections 455–6; Whetstone radio monitoring station 190–1 Selby-Bennett, Harry 134, 139 Selwyn Lloyd, John 128, 158, 159 Semipalatinsk (Soviet Union) 107, 302 Services Liaison Department 70 Sexton, Jamie 305 Seychelles 334, 335 Shanghai 19 Sharq el-Adna (radio station) 156 Shayler, David 521 Shedden, Sir Frederick 86, 92 Sheldon, Robert 459 Shergold, Harry ‘Shergy’ 142 Short, Clare 523–4 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles 441 Sigaba (US cypher machine) 98–9 Sigdasys project (improved flow of sigint to front-line units) 451, 456 Sigint Conference (1946) 95 Sigint Electronic Warfare Operation Centre (Afghanistan) 535 sigint satellites 437–8 sigint ships 259–67 Sigint/EW Operations Centre in Regional Command (South) 534 SIGMod 539 signals intelligence (sigint); in Afghanistan 534–9; airborne 121–2, 125–33, 144, 202–7, 223, 251–2, 257, 267–74, 295, 377; and allied cut-offs 444–7; American 39–40, 143–4, 271–2, 273–4; benefits of 401–2; blue jackets (BJs) 17, 70–1; bugging 176–82; cost of 218–23; Croatian success 473–5; and Cuba 341–2; cypher security 57, 191–3; in Cyprus 320–39; D-Notice affair 238–41; defections from 228–9; dependence on SAS-type activities 250–1; and ‘Dodgies’ or Mystery Trips 6; and domestic/ international blurring 344; during Cold War 1, 5, 8, 108–24, 125–47, 257–8; during WWII 2, 5, 32–46, 57–8; expansion in India 30; failures of 253–5; and Far East 148–51, 164–8; GCHQ at heart of 5–10; German 35, 49–50, 62; global alliances 89–101; ground-based 117–20, 252–3; and Gulf War (1991) 468; in Hong Kong 151–5; importance of bases 151–5, 277–8; and Indonesia-Malaya confrontation 164–8; and invasion of Czechoslovakia 245–6; and invasion of Falklands 397–415; and Iraq War (2003) 525–6; and Kipling 13–14; legalities of 344; and making/influencing of foreign policy 321; in medieval times 4; and Middle East 155–64; modern formation of 58; and political leaders 2–4, 7; and private companies 17; problem of language 512–13; public disclosure of 356–64; rethinking of targets 345; relations between Western allies 444–7; release of wartime material on 355; and rescuing of enemy matériel 47–56; risks 203; and Russians 33–8, 280–1; seaborne 114–16, 133–47, 208, 259–67, 377–8; security disasters 228–38; size of 227–8; and speed of communication 4–5; support for front-line units 449; tactical units 250–2; and Third World 169; in Turkey 300–19, 330–1; value and importance of 60, 62–71 Signals Intelligence Centre 93 Signals Intelligence Service (USA) 74 Sillitoe, Sir Percy 86, 190 Silvey, Reg 412 Simakov, Alexander 478–9 Simkin, Anthony 187 Sinclair, Hugh ‘Quex’ 16, 22, 23 Sinclair, Sir John 142 Sinews (Sigint NEW Systems) 496 Singapore 19, 40, 96, 164, 166, 167 Singleton, Valerie 348 Sinkov Mission (1941) 39 Sinn Féin 500 Sinop (Turkey) 301 Six-Day War (1967) 253, 263–4, 271, 284 Skardon, William 87, 188 Skynet (communications satellite) 347–8, 403, 408, 438 Slessor, John 190–1 Slim, Field Marshal William 65 Sly, Ken 153–4, 375 Smallwood, Sir Denis 271 Smith, F.M. 302 Smith, Ian 3 Smith, Jack 151 Smith, Jacqui 543 Smith, Rupert 474–5 Smiths Industries 495 Snow, Leading Seaman ‘Snowy’ 135 social intelligence 178–9 Solidarity (Polish trade union) 432, 465 Somerville, John 121, 317–18, 419, 420, 428 Sony 480–1 Soothsayer (Army intercept equipment) 537 SOSUS (undersea microphones) 377 South Africa 209, 446, 454 South Georgia 390, 391, 393–6, 409 South-East Asia Command 110 Southern Thule 389, 390–1 Soviet Air Force 118, 119, 360; Air Defence Command 201; Strategic Air Command 256; Strategic Rocket Force 256 Soviet Army 175, 371; General Staff 255–6 Soviet Communist Party 19, 368 Soviet Navy 114–16, 133, 256, 301; Naval Intelligence 73; Northern Fleet 136 Soviet Union 33–8, 336, 349; apparent war preparations 255–7; and Berlin-Vienna tunnel operations 169–76; and biological weapons 611; capture of German cryptographic assets 50–1; Cold War espionage 8; elint on invasion of the Falklands 401; end of Cold War 493; enters WWII 28; ‘ferret’ programmes 112; Hitler’s invasion of 29, 32–3, 290; invasion of Czechoslovakia 244–7; Italian code-breaking concerning 52, 54; nuclear weapons 107–8, 112, 114, 116; and post-war confrontation 47; raid on Arcos building 18; Red Army 46, 78, 245–6, 249, 319; release of UK intelligence material 355; secret submarine missions against 6; and ‘strayed’ aircraft 126–33; successful sigint operations against 279–81, 344, 361; Turkish (Anglo-US) operations against 301–2; UK-US obsession with 17–19, 30–2, 45–6, 321–3; and Venona Project 72–88; and Yom Kippur War 291 Spain 44, 505, 533 Special Branch 141, 150, 151, 166, 187, 453, 456, 459, 509 Special Liaison Units 57–8 Special Radio Installation Flight (SRIF) 114 Spedding, David 494 spy planes 257, 267–74, 292–3, 296–7, 538 ‘Squidgygate’ affair (1990) 479–82 SR-71 Blackbird Mach 3 reconnaissance aircraft 284, 292–3, 296–7 Stalin, Joseph 31, 33, 46, 47, 173 Standard Cable & Wireless Ltd 17 Standard Telegraph & Cable Ltd 342 Stankovic, Milos 473 Stanmore (Middlesex) 62, 68 Stannard, Robert ‘Fred’ 210–11, 213, 218, 242 Starmer, Keir 543 State Research Association 361 stay-behind patrols 247–50 Stella Polaris (sale of Russian codebooks) 91 Stephanie operation (Canadian embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 Stephenson, Sir Hugh 207, 221 Stevens, Geoffrey 40, 45, 50, 94 Stewart, Brian 353 Stewart, Michael 228 Stockholm 192 Straw, Jack 505, 519 Stripp, Alan 109 submarines 6, 114–17, 125, 133–9, 142–7, 197, 259, 264–7, 337, 377–8, 384, 397, 404 Suez Crisis (1956) 156–9, 160, 181, 182, 213 Sugar (Vienna tunnel code) 171 Sugar Grove (West Virginia) 262 Suharto, President 168 Sukarno, President 164, 165, 167–8 Sunay, Cevdet 311 Super Antelope programme (modernising/upgrading Polaris submarines) 337 Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) 256 surveillance operations 4, 183–90, 197, 201–7, 208–9, 247–53, 292–3, 295, 296–7, 322, 368, 406, 421, 472, 480–1, 500, 506, 537–8, 540–50 SUSLO (Special United States Liaison Officer based in UK) 381 Sutton Common (Cheshire) 500 Sweden 31, 212, 214, 269 Switzerland 52, 212, 214, 215, 457, 492 Sykes, Richard 297, 298, 335, 593 Syria 156, 157, 271, 291, 300, 301–2, 304, 308, 336, 344 Tai Mo Shan (New Territories) 154 Taipei 195 Taiwan 152, 195, 323 Taliban 535, 537 Tanzania 511 Taper (Soviet cypher traffic) 54, 108 Tartus (Syria) 331 TASS News Agency 190 Taylor, Telford 43 Tebbit, Kevin 498, 504 Technical Committee of London Signals Intelligence Committee 267 Technical Radio Interception Committee 131 Tedder, Lord 5 Tel Aviv 157–8, 180 telephone tapping and intercepts 170–6, 180, 244–5, 299, 340, 341–6, 376, 377, 474–5, 479–83, 486, 499, 500–1, 523, 541–5 Tempest (radiation/emanation phenomenon) 209, 215–18 Templer, Sir Gerald 150, 219 terrorists, terrorism 9, 168, 277, 307, 320–1, 452, 531; and 9/11 509–15; domestic 539; and Heathrow plot (2003) 515–16; and IRA 498–503; Libyan 455–8; see also kidnapping and hostage-taking Teufelsberg (Germany) 478 Thatcher, Margaret 8; and Falklands conflict 298, 396, 400, 403–4; and mole-mania 363, 367; 1987 general election 433; obsession with secrecy 492; and polygraph 434; and removal of trade unions from GCHQ 415, 416–17, 423, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430–1, 435; and tightening of the Official Secrets Act 363; and Zircon project 442, 460 Third World 203, 259, 334 Thistlethwaite, Dick 255 Thomas, Richard 544 Thomas, Teddy 234 Thompson, Julian 402, 410–12 Thompson, Ralph 94 Thompson-CSF (arms company) 489 Thomson, Mike 131 Thorneycroft, Peter 163 Thorpe, Peter 535 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989) 476 Tickell, Crispin 290 TICOM (Target Intelligence Committee) teams 48–56, 76, 78 Tiltman, John 19, 31–2, 42, 44, 67, 78, 79, 96, 213 Tirpitz (German battleship) 35 Titchner, Lambert 186 Tito, Josip 4 Tomlinson, Richard 521 Tonkin, Derek 330, 333 Tornado Multi-Role Combat Aircraft 345 Toumlin, George 432 Tovey, Brian 167, 414, 415, 421–2, 423, 424, 428, 433, 442, 448, 461, 490 trade unions 317, 368, 389, 416–36, 497–8 Trades Union Congress (TUC) 416, 417, 419, 426, 427, 509 Travis, Edward 27, 28, 36, 43, 48, 49, 53, 56, 60, 67–9, 69, 92, 94, 101, 121 Trawlerman (DIS computer scheme) 527–8 Trend, Burke 221, 240, 241, 242, 269–70, 288, 322–3, 354, 364 Trevor-Roper, Hugh 221 Tromsø 134 Truman, Harry S. 73, 85, 91, 101, 108, 109, 116 TRW Inc (telecoms company) 377 Tryst operation (British Embassy intercepts in Moscow) 280–1 ‘Tunny’ (German cypher machine) 28, 349 Turing, Alan 2, 25, 27, 349, 492 Turkey 52, 109, 131–2, 157, 268, 269, 299–319, 325–8, 330–1, 334, 338, 357, 423, 472; Air Force 312–13, 313; Army 315; Foreign Ministry 312–13 Turkish People’s Liberation Army (TPLA) 300, 303–19 Turkish People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) 300, 308–10, 312 Turnbull, Andrew 524 Turner, Charles 312–16, 318 TUSLOG (US Logistics Organisation in Turkey) 302 Tuxedo (British nuclear weapons stockpile in Cyprus) 163 25 Mayo (Argentine aircraft carrier) 404 Typex (UK cypher machine) 56, 98 Tyuratam (Soviet Union) 306 U-2 spy planes 142, 226, 292, 296, 332, 471 UK-USA Technical Conference (1946) 95 Ukraine 472, 533 UKUSA (UK-USA signals intelligence agreements) 7, 213, 241, 273, 376, 577; combined comsec/sigint agencies 242; and deterioration of Anglo-US relationship 285; development of 89–95; and elint 111; existence of 1948 aagreement 577; and GCHQ 95–9, 222; and Hong Kong 152; and Israel 471; and Korea 99–101; and satellite collection 437–8; second-party members 444, 447; standardisation of equipment in 424; third-party members 209, 447, 452; and tightening of security 381; value of British Empire to 149 Ultra (WWII decrypts) 1, 24, 26, 32–8, 41, 42, 43, 57, 59, 60, 62, 72–3, 113, 354, 362, 363 Underwater Development Establishment 145 Unit 8200 (Israel sigint agency) 470 United Nations 66, 295, 336, 445–6, 472, 523–4; Monitoring, Inspection and Verification Commission 520; Protection Force 472; Security Council 517, 522; Security Council Resolution 1373 511–12; Special Commission (UNSCOM) 470–1 United States; and Cold War espionage 8; Communications Intelligence Board 97, 152; cyphers worked on by GC&CS 17, 29; Department of Defense 295; Division of Scientific Intelligence 322; Europe Command 180; Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board 263; Information Service 305; National Photographic Intelligence Center 296; National Reconnaissance Office 449, 458; National Security Council 334; and proposed German-Mexican alliance 15; and UKUSA intelligence treaty 89 University of Pennsylvania 426 Unye (Turkey) 313, 316 US Air Force 96, 101, 129, 152; 47th Radio Squadron 118; Griffiss Air Force Base (New York) 292; Johnson Air Force Base (North Carolina) 293; Security Service 118, 120, 301; Strategic Air Command 272 US Army 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 52, 74–5, 77, 91, 94, 99, 102, 336, 413, 474; Intelligence Support Activity 452; Marines 525; Security Agency 99, 152, 302, 345–6; Seventh Army Corps 467; Special Forces 249; US Army Air Force 110–11 US Navy 39, 40, 42, 43, 75, 91, 97, 99, 143, 207; US Naval Intelligence 157; Radio Research Station Program 262; Security Group 115, 301; Sixth Fleet 323–4; USS Belmont 260; USS Cochino 112–17, 135; USS Georgetown 260; USS Jamestown 260; USS Liberty 260, 263–4; USS Muller 260; USS Oxford 260; USS Pueblo 260, 264; USS Stickleback 143; USS Tusk 114–15; USS Valdez 260, 605; USS Vincennes 408 USM-49 (US sigint base in Turkey) 303 Vampire (UK intercept unit) 474, 534 ‘Vasiley’ (KGB officer) 232–4 Vass, Sir Douglas 423 Vassall, John 226, 238 Vatican 52 Venona project (intercepted Russian messages) 445–6; and Anglo-American collaboration 72, 78–80; and British Commonwealth 85–8; exploitation of reprinted pages 74–5; and exposure of agents 80–8; extreme secrecy of 73, 77–8; first code-breaks 75–6; and global sigint 90, 94, 98; and Manhattan Project 76; size and importance of 72–3; Soviets alerted to work on 73, 80–1 Vernon, Mike 422, 423 Viehoff (Germany) 50 Vienna 169, 170–1, 172, 372, 373, 375, 376 Vienna Summit (1961) 180 Vietnam 153, 167, 168, 178, 203, 376, 446 Vietnam War 123, 243, 252, 269, 271–2, 277, 279–80, 298, 356, 387 Virgin 545 Vladivostok 129 Voice of Egypt (radio station) 156 Wait, Dave 385–6 Wal Bin Chang 153 Waldegrave, William 429 Walker, John 264, 377, 384, 447 Walker, Walter 165, 166 War Office 22 War on Terror 533, 539–40 Warsaw Pact 114, 244, 245, 247, 248, 251, 253, 257–8, 319, 321, 369, 402, 465 Washington 7, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 57, 64, 74, 77, 82, 83, 90, 92, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 111, 119, 121, 143, 151, 157, 203, 205, 212, 243, 253, 292, 325, 329, 335, 355–6, 381, 413 Watchkeeper 450 drone 536 Watergate House (London) 15–16 Watergate scandal (1973) 4, 279, 288, 290, 293, 297, 298, 325–6, 356 Wavendon Manor (radio station, Buckinghamshire) 49 weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 516, 520, 523, 526, 528–31 Weatherill, Bernard 459 Weinberger, Casper 441 Weisband, William 80–1, 169 Welchman, Gordon 25, 26, 27, 43, 57, 61, 64, 65, 362–3, 364, 387 Wenger, Joseph 42, 53, 79, 95, 243 West Germany 345, 442, 447–9, 455–6 West Irian 167 West, Lord 544 West, Nigel 88 Western Union 240 Whaddon Hall (Buckinghamshire) 23, 57, 181 Wharfe, Ken 483 White, Ray 501 White, Sir Dick 142, 176, 181, 187, 225, 241–2, 243, 245, 246, 264, 285–6, 353, 354, 364, 453 Whitelaw, Willie 404, 426, 427 Wieck, George 214 Wiesbaden (Germany) 158 Wigg, George 227–8, 240 Wilkes, Detective Sergeant 378 Wilkinson, Peter 206 Williams, Sir Anthony 392–3 Wilson, Edmund 42, 54, 57, 68, 576 Wilson, Harold 225; and Anglo-US relations 356–7; antagonism towards the press 239, 242; and Chevaline project 440; and Cyprus problem 325, 329; and Diego Garcia 338; fascinated and terrified by intelligence and espionage 3, 168, 226–7, 357; and Radcliffe Committee 239–40; and Skynet 438; and U-2 flights from Cyprus 295–6; and Vietnam War 277 Wilson, Jim 292 Wilson, Richard 527 Winnifrith, John 418 Winterbotham, Frederick 35, 354 Wolfenden, Jack 383 Woodward, Admiral Sandy 402–3, 407, 408, 410–11 Wormwood Scrubs prison 238, 385–6 Wreford-Brown, Christopher 404–5 Wright, Georgina 317 Wright, Peter 216, 223, 224, 267, 363, 492, 538, 587–8 Wyllie, Sean 490 Y services (armed forces listening units) 26–7, 33–5, 63, 68, 103, 111, 117, 411 Yarallakos (Cyprus) 320, 328 Yardley, Herbert O. 38 Yemen 148, 163–4 Yom Kippur War (1973) 277, 290–5, 320, 337, 387 York, Duchess of 482 Young, Courtney 86 Yugoslavia 256, 257, 284, 471–5, 503, 512, 534 Yunnan (China) 151 ‘Yuri’ (KGB officer) 231–3 ‘Zhora’ (Weisband’s code name) 80–1 Zimmermann, Phil 490–1 Zimmermann Telegram (1917) 15 Zinnia (missile-detection system) 322–3 Zinser, Aguilar 519–20 Zionist movement 97, 109 Zircon project (GCHQ sigint satellite) 415, 438, 442–3, 449–50, 458–61 Acknowledgements On 9 December 1993 the Lord Chancellor, Lord Mackay of Clashfern, introduced the Intelligence Services Act in the House of Lords.

GCHQ made a significant contribution from its sigint sites in Asia, especially Hong Kong, even though North Vietnamese cyphers were notoriously secure. The gruelling war stretched American intelligence resources to breaking point, rendering assistance from GCHQ all the more valuable. Alongside Vietnam, there was the challenge of an improving relationship between the West and China. The early 1970s also witnessed a dramatic upsurge in Middle East terrorism, with Yasser Arafat and the PLO becoming a major sigint target. In October 1973 the Yom Kippur War suddenly erupted when Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel. This was followed in short order by the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. During these dramatic events sigint proved to be the main source of information for world leaders, often constituting two thirds of the intelligence which reached their desks. As a result the sigint bases came to be regarded as so valuable that in some cases their protection steered foreign policy.

 

pages: 600 words: 165,682

The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977 by Gershom Gorenberg

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anti-communist, bank run, colonial rule, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

The United Kibbutz Movement and the Merom Golan Settlement CARMEL BAR, army veteran, settler RAFAEL BEN-YEHUDAH, organizer YEHUDAH HAREL, organizer, settler KOBI RABINOVICH, army tank veteran, settler EYTAN SAT, organizer YITZHAK TABENKIN, socialist theoretician and ideological leader of the movement The Religious Settler Movement YOEL BIN-NUN, student at Merkaz Harav, Gush Emunim ideologue YEHUDAH ETZION, student at Har Etzion yeshivah, founder of Ofrah settlement MENACHEM FELIX, settler in Hebron and Kiryat Arba, organizer of Sebastia settlement bids BENNY KATZOVER, settler at Hebron and Kiryat Arba, organizer of Sebastia settlement bids TZVI YEHUDAH KOOK, rabbi, spiritual leader and head of the Merkaz Harav yeshivah MOSHE LEVINGER, rabbi, founder of the Hebron settlement and Kiryat Arba, a leader of Gush Emunim MOSHE MOSKOVIC, activist in reestablishment of Etzion Bloc settlements HANAN PORAT, student at Merkaz Harav, settler at Kfar Etzion, a leader of Gush Emunim ELIEZER WALDMAN, rabbi, settler in Hebron and Kiryat Arba, Gush Emunim activist Israel Defense Forces DAVID ELAZAR, head of Northern Command in 1967, chief of staff in Yom Kippur War SHLOMO GAZIT, Dayan’s coordinator of Israeli government activities in the occupied territories MORDECHAI GUR, head of paratroopers in 1967, chief of staff following Yom Kippur War MORDECHAI HOD, commander of Israel Air Force in 1967 UZI NARKISS, head of Central Command in 1967 ARIEL SHARON, head of Southern Command, later a Knesset member and adviser to Prime Minister Rabin Israeli Writers NATHAN ALTERMAN, poet, founder of the Movement for the Whole Land of Israel HAIM GOURI, poet and journalist, veteran of the Palmah pre-state militia YISRAEL HAREL, Orthodox journalist, activist in the Movement for the Whole Land of Israel CHAIM SABBATO, memoirist of the Yom Kippur War MOSHE SHAMIR, novelist, former leftist turned supporter of the Whole Land of Israel NAOMI SHEMER, popular songwriter, creator of “Jerusalem of Gold,” Whole Land advocate Settlement Opponents and Critics LATIF DORI, Mapam party activist ARIE ELIAV, Labor Party secretary-general ODED LIFSHITZ, member of Kibbutz Nir Oz, organizer of Mapam kibbutzim against expulsion of Sinai Bedouin AMOS OZ, novelist, kibbutz member YOSSI SARID, protégé of Pinchas Sapir, Knesset member Arab Political and Cultural Figures SULEIMAN HUSSEIN UDAH ABU HILU, sheikh of a Bedouin tribe in northeastern Sinai YASSER ARAFAT, leader of Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization HAFIZ AL-ASAD, president of Syria HUSSEIN IBN TALAL, king of Jordan MUHAMMAD ALI AL-JABARI, mayor of Hebron GAMAL ABDEL NASSER, president of Egypt ZAID AL-RIFAI, adviser to King Hussein, prime minister of Jordan ANWAR AL-SADAT, president of Egypt, succeeding Nasser AZIZ SHEHADEH, Ramallah lawyer, formerly from Jaffa, advocate for a Palestinian state alongside Israel RAJA SHEHADEH, son of Aziz Shehadeh; memoirist FADWA TUQAN, Palestinian poet United States Officials MCGEORGE BUNDY, former national security adviser, special coordinator for Mideast policy (Johnson administration) GERALD R.

Peres and Rafi party and resolution of June 19, 1967, and Sebastia and settlement plan and Sinai and Six-Day War and West Bank and Yom Kippur War and Dead Sea de Borchgrave, Arnaud Defense Ministry Deganiah Bet Deganiah Democratic Movement for Change Diaspora Jews Diklah Dinitz, Sincha Dir al-Balah Dir Yassin massacre of 1948 Di-Zahav Dome of the Rock conspiracy to blow up Dori, Latif Drori, Ya’akov Druckman, Haim Druse Dulles, John Foster East Bank East Jerusalem. See also Jerusalem Eban, Abba Meir and economic integration Education Ministry Efrat, Yonah Efratah Egypt Khartoum and negotiations and Resolution 242 and Six-Day War and War of Attrition and Yom Kippur War and Eichmann, Adolf Eilat Ein Gedi Ein Tzurim Ein Yabrud Eisenhower, Dwight Elazar, David Eldad, Yisrael elections of 1965 of 1969 of 1973–74 of 1977 of 1984–2000 Eliav, Arie Elkins, Michael Elon Moreh settlers.

See also Etzion Bloc; Hebron; Nablus; Sebastia; and other specific settlements and towns Allon and Arab employment and Arab leaders in Arab residents’ status and debate over holding Begin and Dayan and Egypt-Israel accord of 1974 and Egypt-Israeli negotiations of 1975 and deadlock with Jordan Eliav and Eshkol and ethnic struggle in, post-Sebastia evacuation of settlements in extraterritorial status of settlers in growth of settlements in, post-1984 Gush Emunim settlements Hussein negotiations and international law and intifada in Israeli population in Israelis visit, in 1967 joint rule concept Jordan seizes in 1949 “Judea and Samaria” as name of Khartoum and Labor vote on settlement, of 1977 map of, xx Meir and military rule of municipal electons of 1976 northern settlements in Oslo Accords and outposts in, post-1998 Palestinian demonstrations in Palestinian state proposals and Palestinian terrorists in Peres and PLO and post-Sebastia debates and “quality of life” settlements in Rabat summit and Rabin and rebellion in, foreseen resolution of June 19, 1967, and Sebastia compromise and self-rule plan for, proposed settlement of, post-1967 settlement policy changes of 1976 Sharon and Six-Day War and Six-Day War and future of Transjordan conquers Yom Kippur War and Western values, fundamentalist attack on Western Wall West Jerusalem When Prophecy Fails (Festinger) Whole Land of Israel elections of 1977 and Labor advocates of Likud and Oslo Accords and Six-Day War and Tabenkin’s vision of Wilson, Evan work brigades tactic World War I World War II World Zionist Organization Wretched of the Earth, The (Fanon) Wye summit of 1998 Yadin, Yigal Yadlin, Aharon Yadlin, Asher Yafeh, Adi Yamit. See also Avshalom Center Yariv, Aharon Yehudah Halevi Yemen Yeshivat Hakotel Yom Kippur War (1973) Young Guard of National Religious Party youth movements Zadok, Haim Zambia Ze’evi, Rehavam Zeira, Eli Zemer, Hannah Zionism.

 

The Battle for Jerusalem, June 5-7, 1967 by Abraham Rabinovich

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Boycotts of Israel, invention of gunpowder, Yom Kippur War

Doron Mor, deputy commander of the 66th Battalion, returned to his kibbutz, Merhavia. He obtained a degree in geology and became a leading authority on the geology of the Golan Heights. Nir Nitzan, the deputy company commander on Ammunition Hill, fought alongside Dodik Rutenberg again in the Yom Kippur War. He joined the regular army, rising to lieutenant colonel before retiring. Dodik Rutenberg, the company commander who fought on Ammunition Hill, in the Yom Kippur War was battalion commander of the 66th, a post he inherited from Yossi Yaffe. Rutenberg was badly wounded during the Yom Kippur War in the Suez ambush. Cut off deep inside the city and Israeli forces outside unable to reach his troops, Rutenberg retained command despite his wounds and led his men out through the Egyptian lines after darkness, supported by another officer as he hobbled.

Johnnie Hyman, who won a hand-to-hand battle with a Jordanian soldier at Abu Tor, returned to his law practice but was killed in battle on the Golan Heights in the Yom Kippur War. Eli Kadar, the company commander who fought at Abu Tor and led his men into Old City through Dung Gate, served as military governor of Hebron after the war. He is today proprietor of a large Jerusalem restaurant. Meir (Mike) Ronnen, gunnery sergeant in the trench opposite Ammunition Hill, is art editor of the Jerusalem Post. Yonkele Rotblit, the lieutenant who lost a leg on Abu Tor, became a popular songwriter and sometime performer. 10TH (HAREL) BRIGADE The brigade fought on the southern front in the Yom Kippur War, crossing the Suez Canal on a floating bridge to join the strike on the Egyptian rear. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index Tracing 411 Un Ben-Ari, brigade commander, a reserve general in the Yom Kippur War, was seconded to the southern front after the Egyptian breakthrough.

He rose to the rank of general. Returning to his civilian career as an engineer, he became director of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. Yossi Fratkin, commander of the 28th Battalion, tends his crops on the moshav of Tel Adashim in the Jezreel Valley. Mordecai Gur, brigade commander, was military attaché in Washington during the Yom Kippur War and returned home to become chief of staff. It was under him that the Israeli army was reorganized as a result of the hard lessons of the Yom Kippur War. He entered politics upon leaving the army, becoming a Labor Party Knesset member and a cabinet minister. He has made no secret of his intention to eventually seek the premiership. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index Tracing 407 Yaac Haimovitch, the private who won the nation’s highest award on Ammunition Hill, received his engineering degree from the Technion and works at a top military research and development firm.

 

pages: 217 words: 61,407

Twilight of Abundance: Why the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutish, and Short by David Archibald

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Bakken shale, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income per capita, means of production, mutually assured destruction, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, peak oil, price discovery process, rising living standards, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The fall of grain prices in the Depression resulted in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, the first farm act to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Prices rose into the Second World War and then started a sixty-year decline that was mainly caused by the green revolution of Norman Borlaug. A big spike in 1973 was caused by a severe drought in Russia and the higher fuel costs associated with the oil embargo of the Yom Kippur War. Grain prices are now on an uptrend that will take them to the levels of a century ago and beyond. The last U.S. grain stockpile scheme was the Farmer-Owned Grain Reserve program under the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977. This was designed to buffer price movements and to provide reserves against crop failures by subsidizing on-farm grain storage. It was repealed by the Clinton administration in 1996.

The weapons being built to fill the Saudi order may well take the Pakistanis the rest of the decade to produce. Interestingly, just as nuclear weapons have been coming to the fore across the Middle East, the ability of countries in the region to wage conventional wars has declined dramatically. The reason is that all the players now import a high proportion of their food requirements. For example, the last time Egypt and Syria attacked Israel was in the Yom Kippur War of 1973, when they had populations of 38 million and 8 million, respectively. Today their population levels have risen to 84 million and 20 million, and all of that increased population is being fed with imported grain. It is hard to project power conventionally when your own population is on the edge of serious food shortages, and thus likely starvation. FAILED STATE IS BAKED IN THE CAKE While Pakistan remains a highly dysfunctional society, it is still a significant exporter of grain, unlike Egypt and Syria.

The only target that could satisfy the amount of emotional investment in remembering the century of humiliation is Japan. MILITARY READINESS The Chinese do not yet have all the weapons they would like to have for future conflicts. They are having trouble making nuclear-powered submarines and engines for jet fighters. Still, they may not feel the need to wait for their technological abilities in those areas to catch up. In 1973, prior to the Yom Kippur War, Israel thought that Egypt and Syria would not attack it, because Russia had refused to supply Egypt with Mig-23 aircraft and had delayed delivery of SCUD missiles. Egypt attacked nevertheless, relying upon superiority in numbers of less advanced aircraft types. A 2008 RAND study concluded that the current U.S. qualitative advantage in the form of F-22 fighter aircraft could be offset by the larger number of air-to-air missiles that squadrons of Chinese Su-27–type aircraft could engage with.9 The qualitative difference between U.S. aircraft and Chinese aircraft and air defense systems is likely to be small enough that the Chinese do not need to wait for the J-20, J-31, and other stealthy types of aircraft to be brought into service if they have enough of current types.

 

pages: 221 words: 67,240

The Other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent by Tom Śegev, Roane Carey, Jonathan Shainin

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conceptual framework, facts on the ground, Internet Archive, open borders, Yom Kippur War

Both in New York and Tel Aviv, when journahsts cease collecting facts and asking questions, and instead turn to beating the war drums—yesterday, Maariv editor Amnon Dankner ran a front-page article devoted to smashing, killing, trampling, and destroying—it's time to say good-bye, at least in the meantime, to a free press. After the war, in a week or two, or a month, or maybe much longer, reporters will have to confiront the things they wrote and said. Or maybe they won't. The archives are full of dusty folders full of the articles that appeared before the Yom Kippur War, and those extolling the consensus around the invasion of Lebanon. Nobody has yet really paid for what was written then, and already a new bill is mounting. April 3,2002 BREAK THE MIRROR NOW Man Pappe THE RECENT EVENTS in Palestine take us back to distant and more recent destinations. The strongest sense is the recurrence of the 1948 catastrophe, the nakba. More than fifty years on, there is a sense that the future of Mandatory Palestine was not as yet decided, and that its future was to be determined by force and not by negotiations.

Someone who knows stuff that is beyond me, the little guy. And that even if sometimes politicians let us down, the "miUtary echelon" is always on guard, day and night, keeping us safe, each and every one of their decisions the result of sacred necessity. Yes, they cheated us, the soldiers of the intifadas, exacdy as they had cheated the generation that was beaten to a pulp in the War of Attrition and in the Yom Kippur War, exactly as they had cheated the generation that sank deep into the Lebanese mud during the Lebanon invasions. And our parents' generation continues to be silent. In a painfiil process that took several years, I finally understood that I was raised on two contradictory value systems. I think most people discover even at an earlier age they must choose between two value systems: an abstract, de- * Eitam now leads the National Religious Party and serves in Ariel Sharon's cabinet.

If the army is dominated by shamelessness, and if purely military actions by the Palestinians, such as successful attacks on army outposts and checkpoints, are included under the rubric of terrorism, the settlers' camp is doing all it can to label our inability to cope with the Palestinians' war of independence as the "Rosh Hashanah War." This half-baked attempt to create symmetry between a just war and a campaign of colonialist suppression is not merely a curiosity: It is the desecration of the memory of those who fell in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. It won't be long before we are told that the battle in which tank crews risked their lives on the banks of the Suez Canal and the efforLill which an IsraeliJiaiikdestroys-aj'al^.stiniaii carj;ontaii^^ andher three children is_thesarQ£, war. We should take note here of an interesting phenomenon. The number of Israeli civilian casualties in the past year is far greater than the number of soldiers who have been killed or wounded.

 

pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Stone, Oliver Stoph, Willi Strasbourg Strategic Defense Initiative (American; ‘Star Wars’) Strauss, Franz Josef Strong, Anna Louise student demonstrations student exchanges student loans Suez Canal Yom Kippur War (1973) Suez crisis (1956) Sukarno, President of Indonesia Sun Microsystems (corporation) Sunderland ‘supplyside’ economics Suslov, Mikhail Sussex University Suzdal Svoboda, Ludvík Swanson, Robert A. Sweden: automobile industry and Finland health care and Kurdish nationalism Lutheran Church price and wage control sterilization of Lapps ‘Swedish model’ taxation trade with Germany trade unions Swindon Switzerland Sydney Syria: Egyptian-Syrian union Kurdish population Öcalan in Soviet aid Yom Kippur War (1973) Szamuely, Tibor Szasz, Thomas, The Myth of Mental Illness Szklarska Poręba Tadzhikistan Tadzhiks Taiwan: Chiang Kai-shek’s mausoleum economic power Kuomintang (Nationalist) government land reforms US relations with Talbott, Strobe Talebani, Celal Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de Tamerlane Tanzania Taraki, Nur Mohammed Targowice, Convention of (1792) Tarnovsky, A.

Religion, the sacred position of Mecca, the ancient glories of the caliphate, in many quarters a vainglorious belief that Arab civilization, so long despised as useless, would triumphantly return, white horses included, to down the infidel and particularly the Jewish enemy (Mohammed’s first target 1,400 years before, as it happened) - all of it really about those paper dollars. In mid-September 1973 OPEC met in Vienna and advanced a new deal with the oil companies, which were to lose their property substantially: an ultimatum followed. Then on 6 October the oil companies nervously offered a price rise of 15 per cent at Vienna; and OPEC demanded 100 per cent. That very day, Egyptian and Syrian troops had launched their surprise attack on the Israeli lines. The Yom Kippur war had its origins in 1967, when Nasser had been humiliatingly defeated essentially in the first hours of that war. Before it Israel had seemed more or less indefensible, along the 1949 armistice line, but in 1967, with the West Bank and the Sinai, her territory had been rounded off and even Jerusalem was safe from Jordanian artillery. Meanwhile the Arabs had fought among themselves and King Hussein of Jordan only just survived attacks by the Syrians and Palestinians, who regarded him as a traitor: in 1967, thanks to having been let down by allies, he lost half his kingdom.

On the 24th a second UN resolution was put through because the Russians could foresee the collapse of their allies, and under American pressure the Israelis accepted it, their forces now even threatening Cairo. The Russians had mobilized airborne divisions for a move to the Middle East when the ceasefire came, but Sadat himself was not enthusiastic. Of course, it was yet another Arab defeat, in the end, but there was something to show for it. The upshot of the Yom Kippur war was not clear-cut. The French and the Germans made difficulties for Israel; Bonn refused the Americans an air bridge over Germany. At the end of the year all sides did meet for the first time and in mid-January 1974 there was a new arrangement - a neutral zone on the east bank. Egypt restored diplomatic relations with the USA in 1974 and broke with the USSR in 1976; two years later, on American territory (Camp David, the President’s official retreat), there was an Egyptian-Israeli peace.

 

pages: 336 words: 113,519

The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds by Michael Lewis

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Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, endowment effect, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, John von Neumann, loss aversion, medical residency, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, New Journalism, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, statistical model, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

” * * * In the history of Danny and Amos, there are periods when it is difficult to disentangle their enthusiasm for their ideas from their enthusiasm for each other. The moments before and after the Yom Kippur war appear, in hindsight, less like a natural progression from one idea to the next than two men in love scrambling to find an excuse to be together. They felt they were finished exploring the errors that arose from the rules of thumb people use to evaluate probabilities in any uncertain situation. They’d found decision analysis promising but ultimately futile. They went back and forth on writing a general interest book about the various ways the human mind deals with uncertainty; for some reason, they could never get beyond a sketchy outline and false starts of a few chapters. After the Yom Kippur war—and the ensuing collapse of the public’s faith in the judgment of Israeli government officials—they thought that what they really should do was reform the educational system so that future leaders were taught how to think.

Regret was sufficiently imaginable that people conjured it out of situations they had no control over. But it was of course at its most potent when people might have done something to avoid it. What people regretted, and the intensity with which they regretted it, was not obvious. War and politics were never far from Amos and Danny’s minds or their conversations. They watched their fellow Israelis closely in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur war. Most regretted that Israel had been caught by surprise. Some regretted that Israel had not attacked first. Few regretted what both Danny and Amos thought they should most regret: the Israeli government’s reluctance to give back the territorial gains from the 1967 war. Had Israel given back the Sinai to Egypt, Sadat would quite likely never have felt the need to attack in the first place. Why didn’t people regret Israel’s inaction?

“The background to what I was thinking was that I had just changed my life,” he said. “I’d changed my wife. The counterfactuals were with me all the time. I was constantly comparing my life to what it might have been.” In this curious state of mind, he found his thoughts settling on a nephew, Ilan. Ilan had been a twenty-one-year-old navigator in the back of an Israeli fighter during the Yom Kippur war. After the war, he had sought out Danny and asked him to listen to an audiotape he had kept from it. He’d been in the backseat of the fighter when an Egyptian MiG got behind them, locking in for a kill. On the tape, you could hear Ilan scream at his pilot, “Break! Break! Break! He’s on our tail!” As Ilan played the tape, Danny noticed that the young man was shaking; for some reason, he wanted his uncle to hear what had happened to him.

 

pages: 535 words: 147,528

1948. A Soldier's Tale – the Bloody Road to Jerusalem by Uri Avnery, Christopher Costello

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invisible hand, Yom Kippur War

I’ll head for home, he decides. The clicking of his crutches fills the street with echoes. Pity that Mishka isn’t around any more. He would have known how to put it. Plate 1. Samson’s Foxes. Avnery as temporary communication man, fourth from the left, with his friend and later deputy editor Shalom Cohen on the far right. Third from the left is the future General Albert Mandler, killed in the Yom Kippur war Plate 2. Avnery’s camp in Kibbutz Hulda, just before he left for the battle of Latrun, May 1948 Plate 3. Returning from the battle of Latrun. A moment of rest during the tiring retreat on foot. Avnery is first on the right Plate 4. Avnery’s squad during the retreat, exhausted. Everybody wears the famous “sock hats,” a symbol of the war. In the background is the Arab village of Hulda Plate 5.

Czera Czertenko – birth name of Tzvi Tzur, who was later to become the Israeli Defense Forces’ Chief of the General Staff, and then the Chief of the Mossad, the Israeli external intelligence service. Eleven Days of Decision 1. Swing boy – ‘Swing’ was the counter-culture of the ‘30s and ‘40s that centered around swing music. 2. Fellah – (Arabic) – peasant or farmer (Fellaheen in the plural). 3. Albert Mandler – a later general of the Israeli army, who fell in the Yom Kippur War of 1973. 4. Ekron – small village south of Tel Aviv. 5. Camp Sarafand – one of the largest military camps in the center of the country, built by the British after the First World War. 6. Farouk – the King of Egypt from 1936 to 1952. 7. Ramat Gan – small town north of Tel Aviv. 8. Gadna – Hebrew abbreviation for “youth battalions,” paramilitary training organization. 9. Spitfire – British single-engined fighter aircraft. 10.

Remains in parliament for two legislative periods until 1973 1967 June: Six Day War. Israeli Army conquers Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, Jordanian-controlled areas West of Jordan River (West Bank), and Golan Heights, after Egyptian government forces expel UN observers from Israeli-Egyptian border and block Israeli shipping through Red Sea 22 November: UN Security Resolution 242 calls for Israeli withdrawal and peace settlement 1973 6 October: Start of “Yom Kippur War” (October War). Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat launches surprise attack on Israeli Army along Suez Canal on Jewish Day of Atonement, and Syria attacks Golan Heights. Israeli Army initially under threat but finally gains upper hand. Though a military defeat for Sadat, the war is a political success, paving the way for the first negotiations with Israel 1974 First secret contacts between Uri Avnery and official representatives of the PLO in London 1975 Israeli Council for Israeli-Palestinian Peace founded 1977 19 November: Surprise visit to Israel by Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat, opens new stage in relations between Israel and its neighbor.

 

pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

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Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

The almanac might also have noted that in September 1970—soon after Nixon made it clear that he was withdrawing slowly, and bloodily, from Vietnam—threats by Nixon to Moscow helped to stop Syrian tanks from crossing far­ ther into Jordan and toppling King Hussein's pro-Western gov­ ernment. One could also note that in 1973 and 1974 Kissinger, serving Nixon and then Gerald Ford, manipulated the Yom Kippur War toward a stalemate that was convenient for American interests, and then brokered agreements between Israel and its Arab adversaries for a separation of forces. These deals allowed Washington to re-establish diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria for the first time since their rupture following the Six-Day War, in 1967. The agreements also set the context for the Egypt­ ian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979 and helped stabilize relations between Israel and Syria to this day.

State Department, 4-5,14, 96, 138,145,182 urban areas, 22, 87,106 in Turkey, 34-36, 38 / 197 and Vietnam War, 132-33,145-52 and violence-prone youths, 76-78 in West Africa, 4-7, 8,17, 49 see also specific cities utopianism, 170,171 V Vance, Cyrus, 127,143 Vancouver, 94,107 van Creveld, Martin, The Transformation of War, 44-48 Venezuela, 63 Vietnam War, 108,139,171 Nixon/Kissinger policy on, 132-33, 139,140,144-52,155 violence: as human trait, 45-46,175-76 male youth, 76-78 Vlahos, Michael, 47-48 voter turnout, 63, 87, 89-90 W Wall Street Journal, The, 99 war, 9,18,19, 41, 43-50 and crime, 48-49, 99-104 cultural and racial, 26-29 and dangers of peace, 169-85 environmentally driven, 21-24 future of, 43-50,184-85 as human trait, 45-46,175-76 and intelligence business, 105-10 and mass murder, 99-104 in Medieval Europe, 46-47 Nixon/Kissinger policies, 132-33, 145-52 and religion, 47-48 technology, 48,106-7,129,171,183 World War I delegitimization of, 170, 177 see also specific wars Washington, George, 95 water, 20, 35, 53 rising levels, 20, 24-25, 53 shortages, 20, 21, 24, 25 in Turkey, 36-37, 41 198 / I N D E X Weinberger, Caspar, 139 West Africa, 3-18, 32, 38, 43,48, 51, 55-57,166 borders, 12-16, 40,42, 57 colonialism, 10-15 crime in, 4-7,12-15, 26,49, 55 disease in, 3, 7, 9,16-18 economy in, 10-15 environmental problems, 7-9,18, 25 government in, 7-15,48, 63,81 polygamy in, 6-7,11 population growth, 6-18, 55 religion in, 6,15, 35 slums in, 9-12,16,17 urban areas, 4-8,17,49 literacy rates, 62,122,123 in military, 108 World Almanac, The, 147-48 World Economic Forum, 76, 77, 80 "world government," 80-83 World War 1,18,130,134,138,182, 184 and delegitimization of war, 170, 177 World War II, 45, 54,101,171,178 events leading to, 128,131-35, 170-71 war criminals, 102 West Africa, 12 Yom Kippur War, 148 Yugoslavia, 12, 52,182 Wiener, Neil I., 76 Wiesel, Elie, 134-35 Wilson, Woodrow, 138 women, 167 family planning, 122,123 Y Z Zinni, Gen. Anthony C , 172 Zionism, 134,178 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ROBERT D . KAPLAN is a correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly and the author of six previous books on travel and foreign af­ fairs that have been translated into a dozen languages. His best­ seller Balkan Ghosts was chosen by The New York Times Book Review as one of the best books of 1993 and by Amazon.com as one of the top ten travel books of all time.

 

pages: 225 words: 61,388

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Statistical records from the 1960s are scant, and estimates of the miles of tarred road and railway track, the numbers of bridges and airports, that aid helped build remain unclear. As such, the true value of the surfeit of aid that had gone to Africa remains open to debate, but by the beginning of the 1970s there was still not much infrastructure to speak of. The foreign aid agenda of the 1970s: the shift to a poverty focus On 17 October 1973, Arab states placed an embargo on oil as a retaliation for US support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War. In just a few months, the price of petrol quadrupled, sending the global economy into turmoil. As oil prices soared, oil-exporting countries deposited the additional cash with international banks, which in turn eagerly sought to lend this money to the developing world. Lax economic and financial policies (for example, the low amounts central banks required commercial banks to keep in reserve) meant that the volume of lending to even the poorest and most un-creditworthy countries around the world was enormous.

(Przeworski et al.) 43 White, Harry Dexter 11 World Bank aggressive aid programmes 21 and aid diversion risk 39 aid history 11–13, 16, 17 aid to Nigeria 107 and Argentinian bonds 95–6 concessional loans 85 and corruption 52 debt relief programme 53–4 developing local bond markets 91–2 election of Justin Lin Yifu 153 and the GEMLOC Program 90 and governance reform 23 and international capital markets 92 leading aid donor 25 Operations Evaluation Department 55 and remittances 134–5 views on aid 50 World Trade Organization (WTO) 117 World Vision (charity) 7 Xu Jianxue 104–5 Yom Kippur War 15 Yunus, Muhammad 126 Zaire see Congo, Democratic Republic of Zambeef 4 Zambia aggressive privatization programme 21 Benguela railway 106 and Chinese business 104–5 and the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission 111 economic ruin 47 first bond 89, 93 and foreign mining investment 102 and the HIPC programme 53 and microfinance 128–9 population 124 primary sources of export revenue 71–2 share of SMEs 125 and the Tanzam Railway 103–4 trade-oriented commodity-driven economy 146 Zimbabwe 108, 116, 147 Zoellick, Robert 112 Zulus 33

 

pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

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airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In March 1971, Texas reached maximum productive capacity, unable to increase supply to ease upward pressure on prices. At the time, the United States imported about 3.2 million barrels of oil per day. Over the next five years, that figure nearly doubled, and OPEC gained crucial market leverage. With each passing year, the cartel’s output decisions became more critical to the stability of oil and gasoline prices in Europe and the United States. The turning point came with the Yom Kippur War in October 1973, another Arab-Israeli conflict that provoked OPEC to again test its oil weapon. This time, the cartel members discovered they had the power to inflict real pain on the world’s most powerful economy. In retaliation for Washington’s support for Israel, OPEC members cut oil shipments to the United States and incrementally removed oil from the market at large. Weeks before the war and embargo began, oil sold for $2.90 per barrel.

., 86–87 Wen Jiabao, 8, 12, 21, 143 Western Europe, 46–47 oil imported by, 47 West Germany, 45, 46, 47, 53, 82, 165 Wi-Fi, 86 WikiLeaks, 75 World Bank, 4, 28, 29–30, 99, 104, 118, 134, 135 American and European influence in, 42, 43–44 creation of, 39, 43 in world currency and debt crises, 38 World Brain (Wells), 86–87 World Trade Organization, 60 Doha Round, 103 World War I, 3, 11, 40, 141, 167, 170 World War II, 11, 38–40, 56–57, 151, 170, 187 Xinhua, 8, 62, 70 Yanukovych, Viktor, 138 Yeltsin, Boris, 54 Yemen, 14, 67, 114 chaos in, 112, 175, 183 yen, 83 Yom Kippur War, 48–49 yuan: China accused of manipulation of, 79–80, 154, 161–62 as international currency, 83 Yugoslavia, 32 Zambia, 119, 120 Zimbabwe, 7–8, 130, 131–32 Zoellick, Robert, 157 ALSO BY IAN BREMMER The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? The Fat Tail: The Power of Political Knowledge for Strategic Investing (with Preston Keat) The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall Managing Strategic Surprise: Lessons from Risk Management and Risk Assessment (with Paul Bracken and David Gordon) New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (with Raymond Taras) Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States (with Raymond Taras) Soviet Nationalities Problems (with Norman Naimark) * The New York Post probably pushed the envelope as far as it would go with the headline “Booty Gaul

 

pages: 335 words: 82,528

A Theory of the Drone by Gregoire Chamayou

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failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, moral hazard, Necker cube, private military company, RAND corporation, telepresence, V2 rocket, Yom Kippur War

With RPVs, survival is not the driving factor.”5 Once the war was over, those machines were scrapped.6 By the late 1970s, the development of military drones had been practically abandoned in the United States. However, it continued elsewhere. Israel, which had inherited a few of these machines, recognized their potential tactical advantages. In 1973, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), facing off against Egypt, ran up against the tactical problem of surface-to-air missiles. After losing around thirty planes in the first hours of the Yom Kippur War, Israeli aviation changed its tactics. They decided to send out a wave of drones in order to mislead enemy defenses: “After the Egyptians fired their initial salvo at the drones, the manned strikes were able to attack while the Egyptians were reloading.”7 This ruse enabled Israel to assume mastery of the skies. In 1982, similar tactics were employed against the Syrians in the Bekaa Valley. Having first deployed their fleet of Mastiff and Scout drones, the Israelis then sent out decoy planes that were picked up by enemy radar.

See also courage verticality, politics of, 53–54, 66–67 victims, 118 killers and, 115–18 soldiers and, 103–5, 115–16 soldiers as, 103–5 video analysts, 2 video feeds, 138 interception of, 75–76 video games, comparison to drone operations, 107–8 video images, automatized analysis of, 235–36n24 video of strikes’ effects, 117 video retransmission, 272n23 video surveillance cameras, 44, 204 Vietnam War, 27, 32, 128, 186, 191–92, 200–202, 223, 232–33n5 Villa, Pancho, 33 violence, 17 armed, 52, 67, 166 colonial, 94–95 derealization of, 148 humilitarian, 139 long-distance, 254–55n12 mechanism of, 15 postcolonial violence, 94–95 reciprocity and, 196 state, 31–32 state of, 91 See also combat; killing; warfare Virilio, Paul, 247n2 virtue, 97, 98, 100–101, 140 killing as, 121 See also specific virtues Voltaire, 92, 158 vulnerability, 12–13, 73–79, 103, 154, 261n15 ontological, 183–84 psychic, 103–5, 106–13 removal of, 22 unequal distribution of, 127 vulnerabilization, political, 184 Wall, Tyler, 235n21 Walzer, Michael, 133, 138, 153–57, 165, 197–98, 199, 269–70n10 war law and, 158–66 right of, 181 See also warfare “warbots,” 212 war crimes, 170–71 committed by robots, 210–12 legalism of atrocities, 216–17 “war-ego,” 112, 120, 246n20 warfare, 33, 91, 163, 229–30n5, 254–55n12 aerial, 165–66 asymmetrical, 13, 24, 33, 61–62, 75, 91–95, 127, 162–63, 264–66n17 capitalization of, 191–92 class relations and, 187, 191–93 decriminalization of killing and, 160 delegation of, 187–88 at a distance, 115–18, 138–39, 153–56, 223–27 double standard of, 259n28 effect of drones on, 15–16 emotional involvement and, 254–55n12 exercised from a peaceful zone, 119–20 externalization of risk and, 188–89 industrialization of, 191 internalization of costs of, 186 “just warfare,” 129–30, 133, 137–38, 153–55, 160, 164, 165 legal theory of, 163 perpetual, 71 philosophy of, 158–66 political economy of, 188–89 post-heroic, 100 reciprocity and, 161–62 reduction of costs of, 188–89 remote, 17, 192, 230n6 risks of, 188–89 sovereigns and, 263n4 state–subject relations and, 177–84 unilateral, 13, 24, 162–65 verticality, 166 virtueless, 98, 101 without combat, 158–66 without risk, 17, 129–30, 153–55, 157, 163, 188–89 without sacrifice, 181 See also combat; law of armed conflict; military ethics; military ethos; war warfare state, 193–94 war machines, as instruments of representation, 247n2 war neuroses, 111–12 See also psychopathologies “war without risks,” 153–54, 157, 163, 188–89 Wazir, Sadaullah, 148–49 Waziristan, Pakistan, 44, 70–71 weaponry, 144 as agents of violence, 206 critical analysis of, 15–16 design of, 212 as essence of combatants, 195–204 as ethical, 189 form vs. function of, 140–41 fusion with combatants, 210 humanitarian, 135–39, 146, 148, 189–90 licit vs. illicit, 158 nonlethal, 203 as objects, 210 physical distance and, 254–55n12 psychic diagram of, 115–16 status of, 210 theory of repugnance generated by killing and, 115–16 See also specific kinds of weaponry Weil, Simone, 15, 124 Weizman, Eyal, 32, 53–54, 139, 190, 238n11, 273n26 welfare state, 193–94 Williams, Alison, 54 Wired for War (Singer), 214–15 Wired magazine, 76, 103 witchcraft, 114–15 Wolfowitz, Paul, 53 World War I, 27, 63, 111 World War II, 140–41, 205 “wound radius,” 142 X-47A combat drone, 217 Yaari, Menahem, 133–34 Yadlin, Amos, 133, 137, 138–39 “Military Ethics of Fighting Terror,” 131–32 Yemen, 13, 58–59, 144, 171, 239n27 Yenne, Bill, 29 Yom Kippur War, 27–28, 233n6 Younge, Samuel, 202 zero casualty warfare, 76, 155, 184, 192, 194 zero risk, 154–55 zonage, principle of, 232n5 zoopolitical conception of, 268–69n14 Zoroaster, 73 Zworykin, Vladimir, 85–86 Grégoire Chamayou is a research scholar in philosophy at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. The author of Manhunts: A Philosophical History, he lives in Paris. Janet Lloyd has translated more than seventy books from the French by authors such as Jean-Pierre Vernant, Marcel Detienne, and Philippe Descola.

 

pages: 251 words: 67,801

And Then All Hell Broke Loose: Two Decades in the Middle East by Richard Engel

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East Village, friendly fire, invisible hand, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype, Yom Kippur War

The Jews below can look up and see Muslims worshipping on land where their temples once stood. It is a religious conflict set in stone. It is also hard for Americans to appreciate the passions stirred by Sharon. Regarded by some as Israel’s greatest field commander, he’s a tough-guy hero to many Israelis for his assault of the Sinai during the 1967 war and his encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army in 1973, widely viewed as the decisive moment in the Yom Kippur War. To Palestinians, though, he is evil incarnate because of his role in the Lebanon War, in which he failed to stop the massacre in 1982 of thousands of Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps. Israeli troops encircled Sabra and Shatila and illuminated the sky while pro-Israeli Christian militiamen (the Phalanges) entered the camps and slaughtered hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Palestinians.

Bush and, 64, 75–76, 87, 128, 129, 156 Islam and, 129 statue of, 85 Sunnis and, 8, 86, 93, 94, 97, 101 Sadr, Mohammed Sadiq al-, 85–86 Sadr, Muqtada al-, 95, 102, 118 Sagami, Saddam, 141–42 Sahhaf, Mohammed Saeed al-, 77–78, 84, 95 Salafi Muslims, 35, 40–42, 200 ISIS and, 194–95 jihadis, 35–36, 38, 45, 46 Wahhabi, see Wahhabis Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 168 Sallum, 158, 160, 162 Salmaniya Medical Complex, 157 Sana’a, 213 Saracens, 3 Satanism, 45 Sattar, Abu, 75 Saud, Amir Abdullah bin, 40 Saud clan, 40–41 Saudi Arabia, 4, 9, 35, 36, 45, 46, 117, 136, 151, 201, 207, 208, 216, 217 Bahrain and, 157 Engel’s first trip to, 38–39 oil in, 41–42, 47, 207 rehabilitation program in, 140–43, 145 Wahhabism and, 40–42, 47 sayyids, 92, 118 Second Intifada, 50, 56, 60, 62–64, 115 September 11 attacks, see 9/11 attacks sex trade, 139–40 sexuality, 15, 18, 38 homosexuality, 20, 43, 44–45 shabiha, 177–78, 185, 188, 189 Shalit, Gilad, 111–12 sharia law, 44 Sharm el-Sheikh, 154 Sharon, Ariel, 56–57, 58, 60, 63 Shatila, 57 Shia Muslims (Shiites), 2, 4, 9, 29, 34, 85–86, 91–98, 102, 107, 131, 156, 184, 209, 216 Alawite, 172, 181 in Bahrain, 157 elections and, 105 Hezbollah and, see Hezbollah in Iran, 93, 108 ISIS attacks on mosques of, 200–201 and kidnapping of Engel and crew, 189 minority status of, 93 Saddam and, 8 shabiha, 177–78, 185, 188, 189 Sicily, 65 Sidon, 4 Siniora, Fouad, 115–16, 119, 123 Sirte, 160, 163, 164, 169 Sisi, Abdel Fattah el-, 209 Sistani, Ali al-, 94, 95, 97, 102 smartphones, 152, 174 Somalia, 167, 201 Sousse rampage, 200 Soviet Union, 5, 45 Spain, 3 Spanish Inquisition, 195 suicide bombings, 99, 135, 137, 193, 211 Palestinian, 60–62 Sulayman, Khalid, 143–46 Sunni Muslims, 4, 9, 22, 29, 34, 72, 86, 91–98, 101, 102, 106, 107, 111, 117, 131, 133, 136, 137, 140, 156, 157, 172, 174, 181, 184, 189, 207, 209, 216 elections and, 105 ISIS and, see ISIS and kidnapping of Engel and crew, 189 in Mosul, 191–94 Saddam and, 8, 86, 93, 94, 97, 101 Wahhabis, see Wahhabis Syria, 1, 4–6, 9, 11, 34, 134, 142, 152, 169, 171–90, 206, 208, 213, 214 Aleppo, 166, 178, 180, 182, 183, 189, 195, 197, 217 chemical weapons in, 182–83, 190, 198 Damascus, see Damascus Daraa, 166, 171–72 Engel in, 114, 138, 171, 174–90, 195–98, 218 Engel and crew kidnapped in, 171, 184–89, 195, 197, 217–19 Free Syrian Army, 177, 179, 185, 195–98, 202 Ghouta attack in, 190 Homs, 177 Houla massacre in, 177–78 Iraq and, 138 Iraqi refugees in, 139 ISIS and, see ISIS Lebanese in, 114, 120 map of, 170 Obama and, 182–83 officials killed by bomb in, 179 Palmyra, 199–200 Qamishli, 175 Raqqa, 199 Tal Abyad, 199 uprising and civil war in, 138, 156, 163, 166, 171–90 US intervention and, 181, 190 Tabligh wa Dawa, 36–38, 43, 45 Ta’e, Uday al-, 71, 78, 84 Taher, 184, 187 Tahrir Square: demonstrations in, 151–54, 157, 166–67 shooting in front of Egyptian Museum, 23–27, 51 Tal Abyad, 199 Taliban, 17–18, 46, 130, 137, 144 Tanzania, 27 technology, 152 Internet, 131, 135–36, 141, 142, 152, 155, 172, 180, 215 phones, 152, 174, 180 Tehran, 150 Tel Aviv, 61, 123 Temple Mount, 55–58, 63 terrorism, 27, 67, 87, 132–33, 138, 146–47 Iraq war and, 146, 147 real estate law of, 142 war on, 130, 139, 146–47 Tigris River, 76, 78, 84, 94, 103 Tobruk, 158, 159, 162, 163 Today, 188 Todd, Chuck, 182 Topkapi Palace Museum, 39 Tora Bora, 130, 144 Trabelsi, Leila, 151 Transjordan, 4 Tripoli, Lebanon, 135 Tripoli, Libya, 160–68 Tulkarm, 51, 62 Tunis, 150–51 Bardo National Museum in, 200 Tunisia, 6, 136, 150–52, 159, 166, 205–6, 208 Sousse rampage in, 200 Turkey, 173–75, 188, 194, 206, 209, 214 Istanbul, 29, 156–57 Tyre, 4, 120, 122 Umayyads, 92 Umm al-Fahm, 123 Umm Qasr, 79, 83 Unification Church, 16 United Arab Emirates, 4–5 United Nations (UN), 62, 64, 97, 119, 178 and war between Israel and Lebanon, 122, 124 Security Council, 123, 216, 217 UNESCO, 199 United States, 5, 6, 9, 11, 35, 36, 38, 91 in Afghanistan war, 129–30 CIA of, 46, 129, 130, 137, 146, 174, 194 Crusades and, 30, 34, 139 Fifth Fleet of, 157 in Gulf War (1991), 8, 60, 64, 82, 86, 93, 155 Middle East policy of, 5, 35, 155, 156, 157, 169, 181, 209, 216–17 Iran nuclear deal and, 216 Iraq invaded by, 50, 70, 72, 76–87, 93, 95, 102, 107, 108, 115, 128–30, 132, 146, 215 in Iraq war, see Iraq war Marines of, 135 State Department of, 174 Syrian uprising and, 181, 190 veterans in, 131 Uthman, 92 Uzo Hotel, 159–60 Vietnam War, 125 Vikings, 29 Wahhab, Mohammed Ibn, 40 Wahhabis, 4, 21, 36, 38–43, 195 jihadists, 45 Ottomans and, 39–40 Saudi Arabia and, 40–42, 47 spread of, 41–42 Wailing Wall (Western Wall), 56 Wajjeh, 112–13 Wall Street Journal, 172 weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), 64, 86, 129, 131, 132 Wedeman, Ben, 158, 159 West Bank, 11, 53–55, 58, 60, 61, 64, 124, 214 map of, 48 Operation Defensive Shield in, 62 WGBH, 63 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 3, 33 Williams, Brian, 192 Winograd Commission, 121 witchcraft, 45 women, 15, 18, 20 World, The, 63 World War I, 32–34 Middle East reorganized following, 1, 3, 4, 6, 33–35, 138 World War II, 5, 35, 105, 126, 159 Wye River Memorandum, 53 Yazid, 92–93 Yemen, 168, 213 Yom Kippur War, 57 Young Turks, 3, 32–33 YouTube, 172, 215 Zarfar, 71, 72–73, 75 Zarqa, 133 Zarqawi, Abu Musab al-, 96–98, 102, 105, 133, 143, 181, 205, 215 bin Laden and, 96, 98, 107, 131–32 death of, 106–7, 132 Internet and, 131 ISIS and, 96, 107, 132, 191, 192 videos of, 96, 132 Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 27–28 bin Laden and, 27–28, 143 Zawiya, 161 Zintan, 165–66 Zionism, 19–21, 51, 77 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2016 by Engel Productions, Inc.

 

pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The Europeans both relied on U.S. power and distrusted it. And, the EEC, in the process of expansion, was becoming more difficult to manage. In 1973 it gained four new nations: Great Britain, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway. The community’s internal differences made every problem with the United States seem greater than it was. Acrimony peaked when most European nations and Japan sided with the Arabs in the Yom Kippur war. They did so because of Middle East oil. President Pompidou of France told Kissinger, “You rely on the Arabs for about a tenth of your consumption. We are entirely dependent upon them.”67 Even though the Europeans were exempt from the boycott, they were victims of reduced production. The results first hit the European automobile industry. Europe was much more dependent than the United States on the auto.

Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Hearing on Multinational Corporations and United States Foreign Policy, Part 7, (1974), 504. 30. “Meeting with Oil Company Executives,” Memorandum of Conversation, secret, Oct. 26, 1973, 3, KT00872, Kissinger Transcripts, accessed via Digital National Security Archive, The George Washington University, http:// nsarchive.chadwyck.com/home.do (hereafter DNSA). 31. Victor Israelyan, Inside the Kremlin During the Yom Kippur War (College Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995). 32. “Meeting with Oil Company Executives,” Oct. 26, 1973, 3–4. 33. “The Oil War,” n.d., CIA-RDP 01194A000100450001–5, Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA Records Search Tool (CREST), National Archives (NA). 34. Steven A. Schneider, The Oil Price Revolution (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 103. 35. Kissinger to Brent Scowcroft, Jan. 30, 1972, Ball and Kissinger, Feb. 10, President and Kissinger, Feb. 14, box 24, Kissinger telecoms, NSC papers, Nixon Presidential Materials, NA. 36.

Willis, Mark Wills, Gary Wilson, Woodrow Wimpisinger, William Wolfowitz, Paul women, in party politics Woodcock, Leonard workers, U.S. See also productivity, U.S.: distribution in economic sectors income and perquisites World Bank World Energy Conference World Trade Organization Wright, Gavin Wright, Jim Wriston, Walter Yamani, Ahmed Zaki Yarborough, Ralph Yeo, Edwin H., III Yom Kippur War. See Arab-Israeli War of 1973 Young, Andrew Young, Kenneth Zeiler, Thomas

 

pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng

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Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Co-operation between a ‘major British oil company . . . and European companies’ would benefit Britain, as it was in Britain’s interests ‘to help to secure the EEC’s long term oil supplies’. The Iraqis, it was recognized by British diplomats, wanted to develop their oil reserves to promote their general economic development. Unfortunately, the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War in October 1973 delayed Shell’s plans. At the end of that month, Patrick Wright, the head of the Middle East Department at the Foreign Office, had the ‘impression that Shell were not proceeding actively with this scheme’.34 But it was simply political circumstance, not any qualms about the nature of the Iraqi regime, which put the brakes on an oil deal with Iraq. Even after the Yom Kippur War, the Foreign Office official Stephen Egerton, an Old Etonian and Cambridge-educated Classics scholar in his late thirties, frankly admitted in December of that year that the ‘Iraqi regime is repressive and on occasion hostile; but it is apparently well in control’.

More broadly it conferred on Saddam Hussein a prestige and authority in the Arab world which only Nasser, in recent times, had managed to enjoy. After all, the nationalization of the IPC echoed Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal, sixteen years before. ‘Oil for the Arabs’ had become the new rallying cry of Arab nationalists since Israel’s humiliating victory in the 1967 war. The same cry would become especially resonant in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War of 1973.23 Saddam constantly boasted of his achievement in snatching Iraq’s oil wealth from the greedy hands of the imperialists and giving it back to the Iraqi people. In a meeting of oil department bureaucrats on 1 June 1983, the eleventh anniversary of the nationalization of the IPC, he recalled that the real national independence of Iraq had not begun in 1921, nor even with the Ba’athist coup of July 1968; Iraq’s real independence, he claimed, dated from 1 June 1972.24 Always keen to burnish his credentials as an Arab nationalist, he would talk about how his relatives had been killed by the British, how his forefathers had fought bravely against the Turks.

A favourite pastime was to appear at the door of a house and ask any boy who happened to open the door, ‘Where is your father?’ ‘He is asleep.’ ‘Wake him and tell him that President Saddam would like to share your breakfast.’39 Saddam’s charismatic style was supported by huge oil revenues. The price of oil quadrupled in the latter half of the 1970s, while Iraq’s production of the fuel soared. The Iraqis now owned 100 per cent of the revenues. The Yom Kippur War had induced the Arab oil-producing states to test their economic strength by encouraging them to force up the price of oil, which had been a little over US$3 a barrel on 1 October 1973; oil cost over US$11 a barrel just three months later on New Year’s Day, 1974.40 There now flowed a torrent of wealth into the country: Iraq’s oil revenues increased from US$575 million in 1972 to over US$26 billion in 1980, an increase of nearly fifty times, in nominal terms, in just eight years.41 These were heady days in Baghdad and in Iraq generally.

 

pages: 394 words: 85,734

The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason

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banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

Oil producers suddenly found that their black gold, when denominated in yellow gold, was worth a fraction of what it used to be. Members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which regulated the price of oil through agreed cutbacks on aggregate oil output, were soon clamouring for coordinated action (i.e. reductions in production) to boost the black liquid’s gold value. At the time of Nixon’s announcement, the price of oil was less than $3 per barrel. In 1973, with the Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbours apace, the price jumped to between $8 and $9, thereafter hovering in the $12 to $15 range until 1979. In 1979 a new upward surge began that saw oil trade above $30 well into the 1980s. And it was not just the price of oil that scaled unprecedented heights. All primary commodities shot up in price simultaneously: bauxite (165 per cent), lead (170 per cent), tin (220 per cent) and silver (1065 per cent) are just a few examples.

., 165; attitude towards Britain, 69; and bank regulation, 10; New Deal, 45, 58–9 Roosevelt, Theodore (‘Teddy’), 180 Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), 6, 151, 156; takeover of ABN-Amro, 119–20 Rudd, Kevin, 212 Russia, financial crisis, 190 Saudi Arabia, oil prices, 98 Scandinavia, Gold Standard, 44 Scholes, Myron, 13 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 19 Schuman, Robert, 75 Schumpter, Joseph, 34 Second World War, 45, 55–6; aftermath, 87–8; effect on the US, 57–8 seeds, commodification of, 163 shares, in privatized companies, 137, 138 silver, prices, 96 simulated markets, 170 simulated prices, 170 Singapore, 91 single currencies, ICU, 60–1 slave trade, 28 SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises), 186 social welfare, 12 solidarity (asabiyyah), 33–4 South East Asia, 91; financial crisis, 190, 191–5, 213; industrialization, 86, 87 South Korea see Korea sovereign debt crisis, 205 Soviet Union: Africa, 79; disintegration, 201; Marshall Plan, 72–3; Marxism, 181, 182; relations with the US, 71 SPV (Special Purpose Vehicle), 174 see also EFSF stagflation, 97 stagnation, 37 Stalin, Joseph, 72–3 steel production, in Germany, 70 Strauss-Kahn, Dominique, 60, 254, 255 Summers, Larry, 230 strikes, 40 sub-prime mortgages, 2, 5, 6, 130–1, 147, 149, 151, 166 success, paradox of, 33–5, 53 Suez Canal trauma, 69 Suharto, President of Indonesia, 97 Summers, Larry, 3, 132, 170, 173, 180 see also Geithner–Summers Plan supply and demand, 11 surpluses: under capitalism, 31–2; currency unions, 61; under feudalism, 30; generation in the EU, 196; manufacturing, 30; origin of, 26–7; privatization of, 29; recycling mechanisms, 64–5, 109–10 Sweden, Crash of 2008, 155 Sweezy, Paul, 73 Switzerland: Crash of 2008, 155; UBS, 148–9, 151 systemic failure, Crash of 2008, 17–19 Taiwan, 191, 192 Tea Party (US), 162, 230, 231, 281 technology, and globalization, 28 Thailand, 91 Thatcher, Margaret, 117–18, 136–7 Third World: Crash of 2008, 162; debt crisis, 108, 219; interest rate rises, 108; mineral wealth, 106; production of goods for Walmart, 125 tiger economies, 87 see also South East Asia Tillman Act (1907), 180 time, and economic models, 139–40 Time Warner, 117 tin, prices, 96 toxic theory, 13–17, 115, 133–9, 139–42 trade: balance of, 61, 62, 64–5; deficits (US), 111, 243; global, 27, 90; surpluses, 158 trades unions, 124, 137, 202 transfer unions, New Deal, 65 Treasury Bills (US), 7 Treaty of Rome, 237 Treaty of Versailles, 237 Treaty of Westphalia, 237 trickle-down, 115, 135 trickle-up, 135 Truman Doctrine, 71, 71–2, 77 Truman, Harry, 73 tsunami, effects of, 194 UBS, 148–9, 151 Ukraine, and the Crash of 2008, 156 UN Security Council, 253 unemployment: Britain, 160; Global Plan, 96–7; rate of, 14; US, 152, 158, 164 United States see US Unocal, 106 US economy, twin deficits, 22–3, 25 US government, and South East Asia, 192 US Mortgage Bankers Association, 161 US Supreme Court, 180 US Treasury, 153–4, 156, 157, 159; aftermath of the Crash of 2008, 160; Geithner–Summers Plan, 171–2, 173; bonds, 227 US Treasury Bills, 109 US (United States): aftermath of the Crash of 2008, 161–2; assets owned by foreign state institutions, 216; attitude towards oil price rises, 97–8; China, 213–14; corporate bond purchases, 228; as a creditor nation, 57; domestic policies during the Global Plan, 82–5; economy at present, 184; economy praised, 113–14; effects of the Crash of 2008, 2, 183; foreign-owned assets, 225; Greek Civil War, 71; labour costs, 105; Plaza Accord, 188; profit rates, 106; proposed invasion of Afghanistan, 106–7; role in the ECSC, 75; South East Asia, 192 value, costing, 50–1 VAT, reduced, 156 Venezuela, oil prices, 97 Vietnamese War, 86, 91–2 vital spaces, 192, 195, 196 Volcker, Paul: 2009 address to Wall Street, 122; demand for dollars, 102; and gold convertibility, 94; interest rate rises, 99; replaced by Greenspan, 10; warning of the Crash of 2008, 144–5; on the world economy, 22, 100–1, 139 Volcker Rule, 180–1 Wachowski, Larry and Andy, 50 wage share, 34–5 wages: British workers, 137; Japanese workers, 185; productivity, 104; prophecy paradox, 48; US workers, 124, 161 Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price (documentary, Greenwald), 125–6 Wall Street: Anglo-Celtic model, 12; Crash of 2008, 11–12, 152; current importance, 251; Geithner–Summers Plan, 178; global profits, 23; misplaced confidence in, 41; private money, 136; profiting from sub-prime mortgages, 131; takeovers and mergers, 115–17, 115, 118–19; toxic theory, 15 Wallace, Harry, 72–3 Walmart, 115, 123–7, 126; current importance, 251 War of the Currents, 39 Washington Mutual, 153 weapons of mass destruction, 27 West Germany: labour costs, 105; Plaza Accord, 188 Westinghouse, George, 39 White, Harry Dexter, 59, 70, 109 Wikileaks, 212 wool, as a global commodity, 28 working class: in Britain, 136; development of, 28 working conditions, at Walmart, 124–5 World Bank, 253; origins, 59; recession prediction, 149; and South East Asia, 192 World Trade Organization, 78, 215 written word, 27 yen, value against dollar, 96, 188, 193–4 Yom Kippur War, 96 zombie banks, 190–1

 

pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

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Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The commodity price surge at the beginning of the 1970s came about partly because the US over-stimulated demand in a bid to fund the Vietnam War. The collapse of the Bretton Woods exchange-rate system, and the volatility that followed, reflected the willingness to tolerate inflation as the ‘acceptable’ cost of delivering a low rate of unemployment. The quadrupling of oil prices at the end of 1973, as a consequence of the Arab oil embargo (itself a reaction to the Yom Kippur War), was only possible because the inflation genie was already out of the bottle. As inflation – and expectations of inflation – picked up, so industrial relations deteriorated, creating a legacy of strikes, huge wage and price increases and the beginnings of so-called ‘stagflation’, whereby inflation went up but economic growth and employment came down. Meanwhile, those on fixed monetary incomes – most obviously, pensioners – were often robbed of their savings through ever-bigger price increases.

(i) Wills Moody, Helen (i) Wimbledon (i), (ii), (iii) Winder, Robert (i) wine (i), (ii), (iii) WIR see World Investment Report Wolf, Martin (i) women’s vote (i) wool industry (i), (ii) workers see also labour nationalism (i) running out of workers (i) command over limited resources (i) demographic dividends and deficits (i) demographic dynamics (i) infant mortality (i) Japan: an early lesson in ageing (i) not the time to close the borders (i) pensions and healthcare (i) a renewed look at migration (i) scarcity (i) working-age population (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) World Bank (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) WorldCom (i) World Development Indicators (i) World Economic Forum (i), (ii) World Economic Outlook (i) World Financial Center, Shanghai (i) World Investment Report (WIR) (i) World Trade Organization (WTO) (i), (ii), (iii) Wright Brothers (i) The Writing on the Wall (Hutton) (i), (ii) WTO see World Trade Organization Wu, Ximing (i), (ii) xenophobia (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Y2K threat (i) yen (i), (ii), (iii) Yom Kippur War (i) Yugoslavia (i) Yu Zhu (i) Zaidi, S. (i) Zheng He (i)

 

Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America by Matt Taibbi

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

So we’re in this bad spot anyway, in the middle of a long period of decline, when on October 6 Egypt and Syria launch an attack on the territories Israel had captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. The attack takes place on the Yom Kippur holiday and the war would become known as the Yom Kippur War. Six days later, on October 12, Nixon institutes Operation Nickel Grass, a series of airlifts of weapons and other supplies into Israel. This naturally pisses off the Arab nations, which retort with the start of the oil embargo on October 17. Oil prices skyrocketed, and without making a judgment about who was right or wrong in the Yom Kippur War, it’s important to point out that it only took about two months from the start of the embargo for Nixon and Kissinger to go from bluster and escalation to almost-total surrender. On January 18, 1974, Kissinger negotiated an Israeli withdrawal from parts of the Sinai.

 

pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

These were especially dramatic in the oil-crisis years from 1973 to 1986. The first oil crisis hit the economy from 1972 to 1974, when the oil-producing nations of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) restricted production. The price of crude oil more than doubled, from $3.56 per barrel in 1972 to $10.29 per barrel in 1974.27Ostensibly the OPEC ministers were retaliating for the Arab defeat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. But there is another less well-known explanation for when and why they acted as they did. Prior to 1973 the anachronistically titled Texas Railroad Commission regulated the fraction of time that oil producers in the state of Texas were allowed to pump. By restricting pumping it raised the price of oil and benefited Texas producers. Little notice was taken by the public in late 1972 when the commission raised the quota to 100%, effectively eliminating it altogether.28 But that action meant that from then on OPEC would have free rein.

(Dougherty), 177n1 Wilson, Beth Anne, 183n14 Wilson, William Julius, 162, 196n3, 196n14 Wilson, Woodrow, 64 Wise, David A., 188n3,4, 191n1 Wizard of Oz, The (Baum), 64 Wolk, Carel, 181n7 World War II, xxi, 4, 70, 72, 139, 145 Wurgler, Jeffrey, 191n3, 195n36 Yahata Steel Company, 194n23 Yale University, 109 Yamamoto, Isamu, 183n14 Yellen, Janet, 117, 188n1,2,10,11, 189n16 Yellow Pages, explaining to Muscovites, 26 Yom Kippur War, 141 Young, Roy A., 64, 185n17 Youngman, Anna P., 72, 186n38 Y2K scare, 169 Zandi, Mark, 196n14 Zeckhauser, Richard, 188n3,4 Zenji, 139 Zillman, Dolf, 179n3

 

pages: 687 words: 209,474

Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East by Michael B. Oren

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Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, European colonialism, friendly fire, open economy, Yom Kippur War

Personal names are also formally transliterated except in cases in which the individual was accustomed to a specific spelling of his or her name in English. Some examples are Gamal Abdel Nasser (instead of Jamal ‘Abd al-Nasir), Yasser Arafat (Yasir ‘Arafat), and Mohammad El Kony (Muhammad al-Kuni). Many place names—Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus—have been preserved in their English equivalents, rather than in the original Arabic or Hebrew. FOREWORD The War of Attrition, the Yom Kippur War, the Munich massacre and Black September, the Lebanon War, the controversy over Jewish settlements and the future of Jerusalem, the Camp David Accords, the Oslo Accords, the Intifada—all were the result of six intense days in the Middle East in June 1967. Rarely in modern times has so short and localized a conflict had such prolonged, global consequences. Seldom has the world’s attention been gripped, and remained seized, by a single event and its ramifications.

While political rivals would continue to criticize his performance before and during the war—his breakdown, his inability to stand up to Dayan—the public generally credited him with victory. Riding on that crest, he would soon leave the army and serve successfully as Israel’s ambassador in Washington and then, with less aplomb, as Israel’s prime minister (1974-77) in the dreary aftermath of the Yom Kippur War. His greatest achievement was to conclude a separation-of-forces agreement in Sinai and so lay the foundation for Israel’s subsequent peace treaty with Egypt. Rabin returned to the prime minister’s office in 1992, and embarked on a strategy no less risky than the Six-Day War, seeking a historic reconciliation with the Palestinian people under the leadership of Yasser Arafat—the same Arafat whose guerrilla attacks had helped precipitate the war.

Like-minded ministers such as Zalman Aran and Haim Moshe Shapira expressed their willingness to return virtually all the captured land, except Jerusalem, and received support from an unlikely quarter: David Ben-Gurion. Never again to play a significant role in Israeli politics, permanently consigned to his bungalow in Side Boker, the once-feared martinet cautioned against the demographic dangers of annexation until his death in December 1973, in the shadows of the Yom Kippur War. But while some decision makers favored far-reaching concessions, others—“security men,” Eban dubbed them—doubted the Arab’s readiness to negotiate and, for strategic and ideological reasons, insisted on keeping most of the territories. In the Cabinet, they were led, as previously, by Yigal Allon. The labor minister—later foreign minister—voted against the Cabinet’s June 19 resolution, and lobbied for the creation of Israeli settlements in the West Bank.

 

pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

The economy that had been so strong in the mid-1960s had turned sour: by 1970 unemployment was running at 6 percent, interest rates had reached new heights, and the economy as a whole found itself pinched between inflation and recession.34 The resulting “stagflation,” as it was called at the time, led the Nixon administration to institute wage and price controls. In early 1973 inflation picked up steam again, and in the fall of 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries established an oil embargo in response to America’s support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. By the time the embargo was lifted in the spring of 1974, oil prices had risen some 300 percent. [ 120 ] Chapter 4 In 1973 the Nixon administration removed the last of America’s combat troops from Vietnam. The war that had provoked a decade of demonstrations was ending, for Americans at least. But the end of the war did not provide an end to the sense of crisis among young Americans, or many of their elders.

51 Whyte, William, 42 Wiener, Norbert, 5; anti-aircraft predictor, 107, 178; Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, 22, 52, 83; fear of automation, 23; fear of the ways science could be used to undermine human goals, 265n41; “first generation” of cyberneticians, 122; The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, 22, 53, 191; I Am a Mathematician, 20 –21; influence on Whole Earth community, 4, 43, 49; interdisciplinary entrepreneurial work, 24 –25; on mass media, 179; systems theories, 243; view of information systems as sources of moral good, 23 –24, 228; vision of the world as an information system seeking homeostasis, 225, 234; war-related research, 20 –22 Wiese, Elizabeth Reba, 152 –53 Wiesner, Jerome, 177 Wilkinson, Lawrence, 184, 212 Wired, 3, 6, 7, 91; Barlow’s work in, 167; on Brockman, 129; and Dyson, 222; editorial process, 216; features on Electronic Frontier Foundation, 218; features on Global Business Network, 218, 221; features on Media Lab, 218, 221; financial status, 288n61; founding of, 209 –12; and Gilder, 222; and Gingrich, 222; interview between [ 327 ] Dyson and Gingrich, 231; March 1993 inaugural issue, 207; profiles of the Global Business Network, the Media Lab, and the WELL, 221; public offering, 235 –36; relationship with Dyson, 222; target audience, 218; vision of the digital future carried with it a version of the countercultural past, 208 –9; and Whole Earth network, the computer industry, and the Republican right, 223; and Whole Earth world, 212 –22 Wired Women, 152 Wolfe, Tom, 63, 65, 66; The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, 62, 220 Wolff, Michael, 211 Women on the WELL, 152 –53 Women’s Liberation Movement, 98 Woodhead, Robert, 136 World Economic Forum, 7, 13 WorldView Meetings, 188 World War II, triggered a transformation in American science, 17 World Wide Web, 213, 214, 247 “worm,” 167 Wozniak, Steve, 133, 136, 138, 172 Wurman, Richard Saul, 177, 211 Xerox, 106, 193 Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 106, 111; Brand and, 246 – 47; Catalog as a conceptual resource book, 111, 112 –13; ethos of information sharing, 116, 117; and Kelly, 176; minicomputers, 129; personal computing, 117; researchers saw themselves as explorers on the edge of a technological frontier, 113; and “Spacewar” article, 118 Yom Kippur War, 119 “young game hackers,” 134 youth movement of 1960s, 28, 33. See also antiwar protests; Free Speech Movement Zen Buddhism, 46 Zomeworks, 110 Zuboff, Shoshanna, 2, 278n23

 

pages: 465 words: 124,074

Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism From Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda by John Mueller

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, energy security, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, side project, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Eager to relax tensions, his successors “saw Korea as the obvious place to start” and decisively shifted policy within two weeks of the dictator’s demise.13 Much the same could be said about other instances in which there was a real or implied threat that nuclear weapons might be brought into play: the Taiwan Straits crises of 1954 and 1958, the Berlin Blockade of 1948–49, the Soviet-Chinese confrontation of 1969, the Six-Day War in 1967, the Yom Kippur War of 1973, and cold war disagreements over Lebanon in 1958 and over Berlin in 1958 and 1961. Morton Halperin finds that “the primary military factors in resolving the crisis” in the Taiwan Straits in 1954 were “American air and naval superiority in the area,” not nuclear threats. Alexander George and Richard Smoke note that crises in Berlin in 1948–49 and in the Taiwan Straits in 1958 were broken by the ability of the Americans to find a technological solution to them.

., 25, 55 Western Europe, Soviet assumption, 35–36 Wier, Anthony, 266n.41, 268n.6, 272n.25 atomic terrorists’ task, 184 world security, 20 Williams, Paul, likelihood of nuclear attack, 209 willingness for war, 41 Wirz, Christoph, 168, 173 Wizard of Oz, 76, 253n.7 Wohlstetter, Albert, 35, 66, 81–82 Wolfowitz, Paul, weapons of mass destruction, 131 Woolsey, James, threats of “snakes,” 91–92 World at Risk, task force report, 182 World Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, 58 world government, arms race, 74–75 world’s security, terrorism, 20 World Trade Center, 22, 268n.12 world war, probability of, 30 world war deterrence Churchill counterfactual, 30–31 crisis behavior, 38–40 fear of escalation, 35–38 lessons from Korean War, 38 memory of World War II, 31–33 postwar contentment, 33 potential Soviet invasion of Europe, 35–38 Soviet ideology, 33–35 stability overdetermined, 40–42 vision of future war, 31 World War I, 14, 23–24, 25, 245n.26 World War II atomic bombs, 237 atomic secrets, 49 ending, 43–46 exaggerations, 26 Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 43–46 memory of, 31–33 nuclear fears in aftermath, 56 The Nuclear Revolution, 246n.7 popular and expert opinion in aftermath, 161 prospect of atomic war, 247n.24 “war that will end war,” 55–56 World War III, nuclear wars as deterrent, 41–42 worry, officials, xi worst-case fantasies, Brodie, 68, 236, 238 worst-case scenarios, ix, xii, 142 Wright, Lawrence, 201, 208, 214, 270n.7, 271n.8 yield, atomic bombs, 3–4 Yom Kippur War, nuclear threat, 48 Younger, Stephen, 86, 166–167, 174–175, 266n.43 Yusuf, Moeed, pace of proliferation, 103 Zawahiri, Ayman al- al-Qaeda’s second in command promising attacks, 218 biological weapon awareness, 233 experience in Iraq, 226–227 propaganda video by Gadahn, 219 Zimmerman, Peter, 178, 191 About the Author John Mueller is Professor of Political Science at Ohio State University.

 

pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Soros knew how to make money from long positions too, it should be emphasized - that is, from buying assets in the expectation of future prices rises. In 1969 he was long real estate. Three years later he backed bank stocks to take off. He was long Japan in 1971. He was long oil in 1972. A year later, when these bets were already paying off, he deduced from Israeli complaints about the quality of US-supplied hardware in the Yom Kippur War that there would need to be some heavy investment in America’s defence industries. So he went long defence stocks too.72 Right, right, right, right and right again. But Soros’s biggest coups came from being right about losers, not winners: for example, the telegraph company Western Union in 1985, as fax technology threatened to destroy its business, as well as the US dollar, which duly plunged after the Group of Five’s Plaza accord of 22 September 1985.73 That year was an annus mirabilis for Soros, who saw his fund grow by 122 per cent.

and Argentina 112 founding of 306 loans and conditions 308-10 as US agents 308-10 World Trade Center attack 6 World War, First 202-4 aftermath 100-107 as backlash against globalization 287-8 decades preceding 296-304 and financial markets 158 World War, Second 232 post-war financial system 305-7 and social insurance 204 US aid after 306 write-downs 354 writing, first use of 27 Wu Yajun 333 yachts 2 Yanomamo people 18 Yap islands 30 Yatsuhiro, Nakagawa 208-9 yen 67 Yin Mingsha 333 Yom Kippur War 317 Yudkowsky, Eliezer 347 Yunus, Muhammad 279-80 Zimbabwe 108 Zoellick, Robert 306 a Revealingly, the increase for female graduates was from 2.3 to 3.4 per cent. The masters of the universe still outnumber the mistresses. b 401(k) plans were introduced in 1980 as a form of defined contribution retirement plan. Employees can elect to have a portion of their wages or salaries paid or ‘deferred’ into a 401(k) account.

 

pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The public reaction was understandable given that it was America’s abundant oil reserves and its wily ability to mass-produce affordable cars for a restless, nomadic people that catapulted the United States to commanding heights, making it the world’s leading superpower in the twentieth century. The jolt to our national pride came without warning. Just two months earlier, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) slapped an oil embargo against the United States in retaliation to Washington’s decision to resupply the Israeli government with military equipment during the Yom Kippur War. The “oil shock” reverberated quickly across the world. By December, the price of oil on the world market had shot up from $3 per barrel to $11.65.1 Panic ensued on Wall Street and on Main Street. The first and most obvious sign of the new reality was at neighborhood gas stations. Many Americans believed that the giant oil companies were taking advantage of the situation by arbitrarily spiking prices to secure windfall profits.

See also five pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution Third Industrial Revolution Global CEO Business Roundtable, 75–6, 78, 100, 148, 205 Three Mile Island nuclear plant, 30, 90 TOMS, 126–7 Total, 62 Toynbee, Arnold, 136 Toyota, 60, 220 Turmes, Claude, 44, 69–70 Union of Concerned Scientists, 92 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 163, 167, 176–81 United Kingdom, 145–9, 267 United Nations Climate Report, 25 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 14 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 24, 27, 95 urban life, 81, 255 Utrecht (the Netherlands), 78, 100–3 Vattenfall, 62 Venezuela, 177–9 Verheugen, Günter, 66, 75 Vietnam War, 11, 180 Wade, Abdoulaye, 163 Wald, Matthew, 156 Wallström, Margot, 66 Walqa Technology Park, 84 Warr, Benjamin, 204–5 Warren, Joseph, 10 Washington, George, 11 Weber, Max, 109 Weidmann, Jens, 61 Wharton School’s Advanced Management Program (AMP), 2 Whitman, Christine Todd, 92 Wikipedia, 36, 116, 124 Willis Tower, 102 Wilson, Charles Erwin, 114 Wilson, E. O., 237–8, 240, 250, 256 Wind, Jerry, 155–6 wind power, 34, 39–40, 43–5, 48, 90–1, 98–9, 156, 164, 173–4 Wijkman, Anders, 70 Wolf, Martin, 16 work, rethinking, 265–70 World Bioenergy Association, 41 World War I, 166 World War II, 16, 19, 21, 86, 166, 180 Yellen, Janet L., 261 Yom Kippur War, 10 Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez, 4, 140–3 Zetsche, Dieter, 61–2 Zipcar, 123

 

pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

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air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Shippers’ overwhelming choice—in economic terms, their “revealed preference”—is very strong evidence that containerization on a trade route lowered the cost of shipping. The willingness of ship lines to share revenues through arrangements such as the North Atlantic Pool in 1971 indicates their desperation as freight rates tumbled.8 Then came the oil crisis. The dramatic oil-price rises that began in 1972 and accelerated after the Yom Kippur War in October 1973 had a disproportionate impact on all transportation industries. The average price of crude oil on the world market rose from just over three dollars per barrel in 1972 to more than twelve dollars per barrel in 1974. Freight costs, whether by truck, train, or sea, rose relative to the cost of manufacturing. The new containerships were hit especially hard. Their high speeds meant that they consumed two or three times as much fuel for a given amount of freight as the breakbulk ships they replaced.

.: culture of; and flat rates; McLean purchase of; move of to New Jersey; ships of; shipyard of; and subsidies. See also McLean Industries; Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation; Sea-Land Service Weldon, Foster Wellington, New Zealand Westmoreland, William wharves; vertical piers Whirlpool Corporation whiskey shipments Whitehall Club White Star Line wholesaling Winston-Salem, NC Works Progress Administration World Bank Wriston, Walter Xerox Corp. Yokohamajapan Yom Kippur War York, PA Younger, Kenneth Zim Line

 

pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

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airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Moreover, the large sums flooding in could be useful in winning the allegiance of new Third World elites, who were under pressure to deliver prosperity to their political followers, allies, and extended families. The possibilities for corruption were seemingly endless and would provide further opportunities for enmeshing the leaders in relationships with the West while discouraging them from striking out on their own on what could only be a more austere, and much more dangerous, path. Debt Boom—and Bust: SAPing the Third World The Yom Kippur War in 1973 and the subsequent Arab oil embargo led to the stagflation crisis of 1974-76 and marked the end of the postwar boom. As one result, leading First World banks were awash in petrodollar deposits stockpiled by OPEC countries. If these billions continued to pile up in bank accounts—some $450 billion from 1973 to 1981—the effect would be to drain the world of liquidity, enhancing the recessionary effects of skyrocketing oil prices.

., and administration 66, 271, 278 and Iraq War 13, 28 Bush Agenda, The (Juhasz) 4, 275 Cabot Corporation 104, 112n32 Cameroon, foreign debt of 249 Canada 99, 101, 201, 268, 271 Canadian Export Development Corp. 201, 202, 203, 204, 206 capital flight 24, 43–44, 231–36, 253, 258n27 Carter, Jimmy 76, 140 Casey, William 70, 82, 90 Cavallo, Domingo Felipe 238 Cayman Islands, as offshore banking haven 65, 72, 73, 74, 75, 86 Center for Global Energy Studies 145 Center for Strategic and International Studies 119, 120 Central African Republic 231 Central Intelligence Agency 3, 5, 15 Afghan rebels and 70–71 BCCI and 69, 70, 71–72, 73, 76, 78, 79–82, 85 Saudi intelligence services and 75 Chad, foreign debt of 249 Chavez, Hugo 3, 25, 273 Cheney, Dick 28, 133 Chevron Oil 135, 138, 139, 144, 153 in Nigeria 123–24 Chile 236 1973 coup in 27 China 4, 229, 236 foreign debt 222–23 Third World resources and 5, 117–18, 120–21, 124, 126–27, 130 Chomsky, Noam Hegemony or Survival 4 Christian Peacemaker Team 96, 106–8 Citibank, Citigroup 75, 100, 130, 138, 226, 238, 268 Clifford, Clark 78–79, 85, 86, 88 Clinton, Bill, and administration 119, 120, 126, 212, 271 Coalition of Immokalee Workers 272, 280 COFACE 201, 205, 212 Cogecom 100 cold war 4 and decolonization 16–17 Colombia, human rights in 107 colonialism, decline of formal 13–14 coltan: efforts to control 5, 26, 95 shortages of 95 uses for 94 Commission for Africa 251 Communism: appeal of 14 fall of 4, 13, 27, 137–38, 238 Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (Perkins) 1–4, 6, 17 Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire): civil war in 26, 94–96, 108n3 corruption in 24, 254 foreign debt 220, 230, 247, 249 human rights in 107–8 rape as a weapon of war in 93, 96–98 Western role in 98–105, 109n4, 111n29 World Bank and 158 Congo Republic 230, 247, 249 cooperatives 276–77 corporations, as legal persons 277 CorpWatch 278 corruption: culture of 51–54 IMF/World Bank and 24–25, 157–74 offshore banking and 44–45, 52- power and 24 privatization and 24–25, 256n12 COSEC 209–10 Council on Foreign Relations 119–20 dam projects, 209–12 Dar al-Mal al-Islami 89 Daukoru, Edmund 125–27, 128 Davos see World Economic Forum DeBeers Group 101, 103 decolonization 13, 16–17 debt/flight cycle 231–36, 253, 258n27 debt relief, campaigns for 246, 252–55, 268 in U.S. 235 debt, Third World 32, 35 amount of relief 224–29 banks and 226–27, 229, 232–34 business loans 35–37, 227 cold war strategy and 17 corruption and 230, 231, 232, 253, 254, 257n23 1982 crisis 39, 55 disunity among debtor nations 237–39 dubious debts and 230, 235, 247, 253, 257n23, 261n68 growth of 18–19, 181, 229–36 as means of control 17, 23, 183–84 payments on 19, 190–91, 223, 228, 231, 247–48, 275 relief plans 220–22, 225–29, 239–52, 274 size of 221–24, 259n37, 260n46 social/economic impacts of 190–91, 231–36, 247–48 democracy: debt crisis and 236 economic reform and 276–79 global justice and 279–81 in Iraq 151–54 Deutsche Bank 226 drug trade 70, 80, 87 Dubai 73 Dulles, Alan 15 Eagle Wings Resources International 104 East Timor 205 economic development strategies: “big projects” and 16–17 debt-led 18–19 state-led 16–17, 19 economic forecasting 3 economic hit men 5 definition 1, 3, 18 John Perkins and 1–4, 17 types of 5, 18 Ecuador 236, 266 foreign debt 244 Egypt 14 Suez Crisis 15–16 Eisenhower, Dwight, and administration 15 elites, wealthy 4, 18, 57, 176, 183, 228, 232, 253 use of tax havens 43–44, 54–56, 65–66, 226, 232–34 El Salvador 26 empire see imperialism Eni SpA 144, 153 Enron 53, 54, 208–9 Ethiopia 230, 249 European Union 51 agricultural subsidies 22 environment degradation: development projects and 199, 200–211, 257n23 oil production and 115–16 export credit agencies: arms exports and 204–5 campaigns against 209–16 corruption and 200, 202–3, 205, 207–8 debt and 200 environmental effects 199, 200–211 nuclear power and 202, 205–6 operation of 197–201 secrecy of 205, 210–12 size of 201 World Bank and 199, 201, 202, 204 Export Credit Group 210, 215 Export Credits Guarantee Department 201, 205, 211 Export Finance and Investment Corp. 203, 204 export processing zones 178 Export Risk Guarantee 203, 211, 213 ExxonMobil 144 fair trade movement 280 Faisal, Mohammad al-89 Faux, Jeff Global Class War, The 4 Federal Bureau of Investigation 71 Federal Reserve Bank of New York 87 Federal Reserve System 78, 82, 88 Ferguson, Niall 13 First American Bankshares 78, 79, 82, 83, 85, 88 First Quantum Materials 101 First, Ruth 26 Focus on the Global South 187, 273 foreign aid 19 in Congo civil war 99–100 France 236, 244 empire 13 Suez Crisis and 15 free trade 4, 19, 21–23, 268, 271 British development and 21 U.S. development and 21 Free Trade Area of the Americas 271 Friends of the Earth 104, 269 G8 summits 212, 213, 219–20, 221, 246, 250, 271, 275 Gambia 243, 249 García, Alan 74 Gates, Robert 85 Gécamines 100, 104 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade agricultural trade 186–87 establishment of 267 TRIPS 23 Uruguay Round 23, 267 General Union of Oil Employees 135–36, 141–44 Georgia 207 Germany 212, 213, 216, 236 export credit agency 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209–11, 212, 215–16 Green Party 206, 215 Ghana 16 development projects in 16, 207 foreign debt 230, 247, 249 impact of IMF SAP 5, 22 Giuliani, Carlo 271 Global Awareness Collective 278 Global Class War, The (Faux) 4 Global Exchange 278 globalization 3 alternatives to corporate 275–79 economic 176–79, 230, 236 impacts of 185–90, 234, 236, 263–65 of the financial system 55, 63–66 Globalization and Its Discontents (Stiglitz) 3, 4 Global justice movement: achievements of 276–79 campaigns 269–72, 274–75 in Global North 268–69, 271–72, 274 in Global South 271–74 origins of 268–69 proposals of 275–79 protests by 265–66, 270–71 Global South see Third World Gonzalez, Henry 72, 90 Gorbachev, Mikhail 137 Goulart, João 27 Groupement pour le Traitment des Scories du Terril de Lubumbashi 104 Guatemala 14, 236 Arbenz government 26 Guinea, foreign debt of 249 Guinea-Bassau 26, 247, 249 Guyana: export credit agencies and 203 environmental problems 203 foreign debt 241, 243, 244, 246, 247, 249 Haiti 236, 249 World Bank and 158 Halliburton 3, 133, 278 Hankey, Sir Maurice 145 Harken Energy Corp. 77, 78 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative 221, 225, 226, 230, 242–48, 275 conditions of 243–45 results of 248–50 Hegemony or Survival (Chomsky) 4 Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin 70 Helms, Richard 82 Henwood, Doug 23, 177–79 Heritage Foundation 121 Heritage Oil and Gas 100 Hermes Guarantee 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 215–16 Honduras, foreign debt of 249 Hope in the Dark (Solnit) 281 Hungary, Soviet intervention in 16 Hussein, Saddam 28, 90, 141–42 and BCCI 72 Hutu people 94–96 Hypovereinsbank 209 Ijaw people 116, 121–23, 128 Illaje people 123 immigrant rights movement 281 imperialism 13–14 coups d’état and 27 divide-and-rule tactics 25, 26, 265 post-cold war changes 4–5 pressure on uncooperative countries 25, 142 resistance to 28, 115–17, 121–30, 143–44, 151–54, 176, 191–92, 265–66 resources and 98–106, 118–21, 133–34, 136, 139–40, 145 as system of control 17–28, 176 use of force 5, 25–28, 111n22, 113–14, 115–17, 123, 111n22 India 16, 119, 229, 236, 266 foreign debt 222, 223 export credit agencies and 206, 208 Maheshwar Dam 209–10 Indonesia 236 corruption in 202–3 export credit agencies and 200, 202–3, 205, 207, 216 foreign debt 228, 230, 244 inequality 44 Institute for Policy Studies 278 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 157 International Development Association 157, 242 International Forum on Globalization 266 International Monetary Fund 3, 4, 19, 135, 275 conflicts of interest 244 debt relief and 221–22, 224, 226, 237, 240, 243–46, 250–51, 252 Iraq and 151–53 Malaysia and 273 neoliberalism and 176–79, 222 offshore banking and 43, 234 protests against 266 structural adjustment programs 22, 23, 245, 265–66 Rwanda and 100 Uganda and 100 International Tax and Investment Center 134–35, 138–39, 144–54 International Trade Organization 267 Iran 14, 90, 145, 200 coup against Mossadegh 14–15 nationalization of oil industry 14 Iran-Contra affair 71–72 Iraq: BCCI and 72 foreign debt 152 Gulf War and 28, 72, 140, 141, 146 human rights in 105–6 oil production and reserves 135–36, 139–54 production sharing agreements in 147–54 sanctions against 72, 142 social conditions in 135, 142, 143 U.S. occupation of 28, 140, 141–42, 146, 250, 275, 278 Israel: and Suez Crisis 15 Yom Kippur War and 17 Ivory Coast 230 foreign debt 244, 249 “jackals” 25–26 James, Deborah 273 Japan 216, 236 Japan Bank for International Cooperation 201, 202, 203, 241 Jersey 88 banking boom in 46–47 impact on island 46, 51–52, 56–62 as offshore banking haven 43, 45, 56–61 Johnson, Chalmers Sorrows of Empire 4 Jordan 241, 266 Jordan, Vernon 100 JPMorganChase 226, 238 Jubilee South 190 Jubilee 2000 268 Juhasz, Antonia Bush Agenda, The 4, 275 Juma’a, Hassan 135–36, 140, 142–44, 154 Kabila, Joseph 96 Kabila, Laurent 94, 96, 99 Kagame, Paul 94, 98–99 ties to U.S. 99 Kazakhstan 138, 139, 144, 150 Keating, Charles 83 Kenya 236 foreign debt 243, 244 Kerry, John 76 investigation of BCCI 79–83, 87, 89 Kirchner, Nestor 273 Korea, Republic of 229, 272 Korten, David When Corporations Rule the World 4 KPMG 52 Krauthammer, Charles 13 Krushchev, Nikita 16 Kurdistan 211–12, 214 Kuwait 133, 141, 146, 152, 154 labor exports 235–36 Lake, Anthony 119–20 Lance, Bert 77 Lawson, Nigel 242 Lawson Plan 221, 242 Lee Kyung Hae 272 Liberia, World Bank lending to 159–67 Liberty Tree Foundation 276 Li Zhaoxing 117–18, 124 Lu Guozeng 117 Lumumba, Patrice 26 Luxembourg, as offshore banking haven 72, 73, 74 Madagascar, foreign debt of 249 Mahathir, Mohamad 273 Malawi 254 foreign debt 243, 249 Malaysia 41–43, 229 defiance of IMF 273 Mali, foreign debt of 246, 249 Marcos, Ferdinand 31, 48, 175, 176, 181–85 markets, corporate domination of 16 Martin, Paul 54 mass media, manipulation of 25 Mauritania, foreign debt of 247, 249 McKinney, Cynthia; hearing on Congo 98–99, 110n11 McLure, Charles 137–39 mercenaries: in Congo 111n22 in Nigeria 5, 25–26, 113–14, 115–17 Mexico 207, 256n14, 273 foreign debt 55, 227, 228, 230, 233, 240–41, 244 labor exports 236 Zapatista uprising 272 Middle East, and struggle for oil 27–28 military-industrial complex 99 military interventions 27–28 Mizban, Faraj Rabat 141 Mitterand Plan 221 Mobutu Sese Seko 24, overthrow of 94 Mondlane, Eduardo 26 Mongolia 207 Morales, Evo 277 Morganthau, Robert 69, 84–87 Moscow, John 58, 87 Mossadegh, Mohammad 3, 14–15, 27 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta 122–24, 129 Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (Landless Workers’ Movement) 272 Mozambique 26, 27, 230 foreign debt 241, 246, 249 Mueller, Robert 87 mujahadeen (Afghanistan): and BCCI 70 and drug trade 70 Mulroney, Brian 100 Multilateral Agreement on Investment 269–70, 281 Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative 222, 225, 230, 250–52 Multilateral Investment Agreement 269 multinational corporations: export credit agencies and 209–11 export processing zones and 178 globalization, pressure for 138, 268, 275 mercenaries, use of 25–26, 111n22, 113–14, 115–17, 123 resources and 101–6, 111n29, 112n31, 112n32 scandals 5 transfer mispricing by 49–51 offshore banks, use of 24, 49–51 patents, control of 23 Museveni, Yoweri 95 Myanmar, foreign debt of 230 Nada, Youssef Mustafa 71–72 Namibia 95 export credit agencies and 207 Nasser, Gamal Abdel 15–16 National Commercial Bank of Saudi Arabia 88–89 National Family Farm Coalition 272 nationalism: pan-Arab 15 Iranian 14 Nehru, Jawaharlal 16 neocolonialism see imperialism neoliberalism 4, 19 critique of 176–79, 190–92, 234, 236 defined 176–77 economic development and 176–79, 232 economic strategies 178–81, 222, 230, 231, 236 Netherlands, overseas empire of 13 Newmont Mining Corp. 244 New World Order 27–28 Nicaragua 207 foreign debt 225, 230, 247, 249 U.S. proxy war against 26, 27, 79 Nicpil, Liddy 190–91, 192 Nidal, Adu 73 Niger, foreign debt of 241, 249 Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force 121, 123 Niger Delta Volunteer Service 122 Niger Delta region: attack on oil platforms 116–17 as “Next Gulf” 118–21 pollution from oil production 115–16 struggle against Shell 115–16, 121–24 Nigeria 200, 266 China and 117–18 colonial rule 115 corruption in 44–45, 230 foreign debt 223, 230, 233, 243, 244 oil production 115–16, 125–27 World Bank lending in 158, 167–69 Nkrumah, Kwame 16 nongovernmental organizations 239, 250 Noriega, Manuel 80 and BCCI 72, 79 North American Free Trade Agreement 4, 268, 272 nuclear power 205–6, 210 Obasanjo, Olusegun 125, 127 Obiang, Teodoro 48 O’Connor, Brian 144–45 OECD Watch 105 offshore banking havens: arms trade and 71–73 campaign against 62–64 central role in world trade 44, 47–48, 64–65 corruption and 24, 44–45, 52–56, 64, 231–33, 253 drug trade and 70 extraction of wealth 43, 54–56, 64–65, 226, 231–33, 253, 258n58 financial centers and 234, ignored by academia 44, 234 secrecy and 47–48, 53, 66 tax evasion and 43, 48, 49–51, 54, 57–59, 64–65, 226, 232 terrorism and 71, 88 Ogoni people 122–23, 125 Okadigbo, Chuba 116 Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi 118 Okuntimo, Paul 123 Oil Change International 278 oil price spikes 236 oil production and reserves: future shortages of 28, 140 Indonesia 207 Iraqi 135–36, 144–54 Nigerian 113–14, 128–29 strategies to control 25–26, 27–28, 139–40 OM Group, Inc. 104, 112n31 OPEC 125–26, 128 1973 oil embargo by 17 dollar deposits in First World 17–18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 135, 269 “Action Statement on Bribery” 216 export credit agencies and 210, 215 Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 101, 102, 105–6, 112n31 “OECD Arrangement” 215 Overseas Private Investment Corp. 204, 206–9 Oxfam 43, 62–63, 250 Pakistan 90 Afghan mujahadeen and 70–71 BCCI and 70 export credit agencies and 207 foreign debt 244 Panama 3, 26, 72 as offshore banking haven 73, 74 Papua New Guinea: export credit agencies and 204 mining and environmental problems 204 Paris Club of creditors 220, 225–26, 227, 228, 242, 252 Peru 74 foreign debt 241 impact of IMF SAP 22 petrodollars, recycling of 17–18 Perkins, John 19 Confessions of an Economic Hit Man 1–2, 17 Pharaon, Ghaith 76, 77, 86, 87, 88 Philippines, the 31–34, 35–36 corruption in 181–82 democratic movements in 182–85, 236 economic decline in 187–89 emigration from 189, 236 foreign debt 181, 190–91, 230, 241, 244 Marcos regime 31, 34, 175, 176, 180–85, 261n61 martial law in 180–85 social conditions in 179–80, 185–86, 189–91 U.S. rule 175–76 World Bank and 158, 178–81 Pinochet, General Augusto 27, 45–46, 48 PLATFORM 140, 156n28 Portugal 209–10 Posada Carriles, Luis 26 poverty reduction strategy programs see structural adjustment programs Price Waterhouse 83–84 privatization 191 production sharing agreements 147–54 protectionism 21, 181, 186–87 proxy wars 27, 70–71 Public Citizen 269, 273 public utilities, privatization of 191, 261n61, 277 Rahman, Masihur 85 Reagan, Ronald, and administration 19, 79, 87, 136–37, 239 Iran-Contra affair 72 Rich, Marc 90 Rights and Accountability in Development 101, 104, 105 Rio Tinto Zinc 204 Ritch, Lee 79–80 Robson, John 138 Roldós, Jaime 3, 26 Roosevelt, Kermit 15 Rumsfeld, Donald 138 rural economic development 183, 186–87 Russia: debt relief and 225 oil industry 154 transition to capitalism 137–39, 258n28 Rutledge, Ian 149 Rwanda 94–96, 98, 249 massacre in 94, 99 SACE 201 Sachs Plan 221 Saleh, Salim 95 Saõ Tomé, foreign debt of 247, 249 Saud al-Fulaij, Faisal 86, 87 Saudi Arabia 3, 88 and BCCI 70, 75 Saro-Wiwa, Ken 125–26 Scholz, Wesley S. 104 Scowcroft, Brent 72 Senegal 16, 249 Senghor, Léopold 16 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks 71 Shell Oil 144 Nigeria and 113–15, 122, 123, 125–29 at World Economic Forum 127 Shinawatra, Thaksin 54 Sierra Club 269 Sierra Leone 247 SmartMeme 276 Solnit, Rebecca Hope in the Dark 281 Somalia 251 Sorrows of Empire (Johnson) 4 South Africa 236 military interventions 27 Truth and Reconciliation Commission 26 Soviet Union 13, 14 de-Stalinization 16 Hungary, intervention in 16 influence in Third World 14 U.S. and 137 Stephens, Jackson 76, 77 Stiglitz, Joseph 24 Globalization and Its Discontents 3, 4 structural adjustment programs (SAPs) 19, 229–30 in Ghana 5, 22 in Peru 22 in the Philippines 176–79, 183–85, 190–92 in Zambia 22 Sudan 230, 251 Suharto 200, 202–3 Syria 211 Switzerland, as offshore banking haven 45, 65, 72 Taco Bell, boycott of 280 Tanzania, foreign debt of 247, 249 tax evasion 43, 48, 49–51, 54, 57–59, 64–65 Tax Foundation 137–38 tax havens see offshore banking havens Tax Justice Network 63 Tax Reform Act of 1986 138 Tenke Mining 99 terrorism: as EHM strategy 26, 72 financing of 42, 88–89 inequality and 44 Islamist 71–72, 89 Palestinian 73 Thatcher, Margaret 19, 138 Third World: as commodity producers 17, 23 conditions in 5, 96–97, 106–8, 116, 179–80, 185–90, 234, 236 development strategies 176–79 divisions among countries 265–68 elites in 25, 28, 43–44, 176, 226, 232–34 emergence of 14 lack of development in 232, 237 terms of trade and 22, 178–79 Third World Network 269 Tidewater Inc. 113 Torrijos, Omar 3, 26 Total S.A. 144, 153 trade unions 135–36, 141–44, 180, 186, 269, 274 transfer mispricing 49–51 cost to Third World 50 Transparency International 45 Turkey: export credit agencies and 206 Ilisu Dam 211–14 Turkmenistan 200 Uganda 94–96 foreign debt 241, 246, 249 Union Bank of Switzerland 57, 58, 77, 226, 250 United Arab Emirates 69, 73 United Fruit Company 15 United Kingdom 213 NCP for Congo 102–3 empire 13–14, 115, 129, 145 Iran and 14–15 Iraq occupation and 146, 151, 152 offshore banking and; Suez Crisis and 15 United Nations: trade issues and 265, 276 Panel of Experts, Congo 100–106, 112n32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 220, 265, 267 United States: agricultural subsidies 22 aid 98 as empire 13, 28 cold war strategy of 16, 17, 24, 26 in Congo 99, 104, 105 debt-led development strategy of 176–79 Iran coup and 14–15 Iraqi oil and 133–34, 136, 139–40 Iraq wars 72, 133, 141–42 Islamists and 26 Nigerian oil and 118–21 Philippines and 175–76, 180 strategic doctrines 27–28, 118–19 support of Contras 72 trade deficit 23 trade policies 267 U.S.

 

pages: 488 words: 150,477

Lemon Tree: An Arab, a Jew, and the Heart of the Middle East by Sandy Tolan

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, The Spirit Level, Yom Kippur War

And if it is an answer, it is not an answer I can accept." At times, Dalia would consider entering into a new discussion with the family. But then she would remember the Supersol bombing. In the fifteen years Bashir spent inside Israeli jails, wars would be fought and lost and leaders would rise and be shot down. In 1973, Egypt launched a surprise attack in what came to be known in Israel as the Yom Kippur War. An American president, Richard Nixon, resigned in disgrace, to be replaced by Gerald Ford, and then Jimmy Carter, who spoke of human rights and peace in the Middle East. Civil war broke out in Lebanon, where the Israelis would launch two invasions. In 1974 Arafat addressed the United Nations in New York, to the fury of Israel and thousands of American demonstrators, but to a standing ovation in the General Assembly, where he offered his dream of the "Palestine of tomorrow," whereby Arab and Jew would live side by side in a secular, democratic state.

On November 19, 1977, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made an unprecedented trip to Jerusalem, signaling his willingness to make a separate peace with Israel despite the continuing opposition of the rest of the Arab world. Two years later, after intense negotiations with U.S. president Jimmy Carter, Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin signed the Camp David accords, which ended the state of war between Egypt and Israel. It had been twelve years since the Arab world suffered catastrophic losses in the Six Day War and six years since Egypt had regained a measure of military respect in the Yom Kippur War, or what the Palestinians knew as the October War, of 1973; now, following Camp David, Israel would begin its pullout from the Sinai Peninsula. For many in the West, in Israel, and in Egypt, Sadat was a hero, a statesman who risked his life to make peace across what Rabin would call the "wall of hate surrounding Israel"; it was, for supporters, a necessary first step toward a Middle East finally at peace.

 

pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

The Smithsonian Agreement had settled on a dollar standard, ‘Bretton Woods without the gold’.3 According to Paul Volcker, who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1979 to 1987, the two years during which the Agreement held were ‘the most economically turbulent of the postwar period up to that point’.4 Of course, events in the Middle East would soon alter the perception of what ‘economic turbulence’ really involved. The Yom Kippur War of October 1973 had been preceded by ‘near-panic buying [of oil] by US and European independents [oil companies] as well as the Japanese’. These purchases sent ‘oil prices sky-rocketing’.5 For years, the Arab world had spoken in hushed tones of the hazily defined ‘oil weapon’ that could be used to achieve their various objectives in the politics of their region. This threat had been disregarded so long as American oil production still had spare capacity.

., 153 Wilson, Edward, 28 Wilson, Woodrow, 107–8 ‘window guidance’, 197, 199 Withers, Hartley, 91, 99 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 98 Witton, Sir John, 230 Wodehouse, P. G., 105 Wood, Charles, 57–8 wool, 55, 70 Woolf, Virginia, 98 World Bank, 156, 289 establishment of, 140, 145–6, 351 World Economic Conference, 131 Wriston, Walter, 230 Xinhua News Agency, 298–9 Yamani, Sheikh Ahmed Zaki, 229–30 yen, dollar exchange rate, 194–5, 197, 200, 254, 299 yield, see ‘search for yield’ Yom Kippur War, 223–4, 229 Young Plan, 123 yuan (renminbi), value of, 285–8, 291–2, 296–9, 319, 358 zaibatsu, 191 Zakaria, Fareed, 355–6 Zandi, Mark, 314 Zhu Rongji, 288–9, 291–6 Zhuo Lin, 282 A NOTE ON THE AUTHOR Kwasi Kwarteng was born in London to Ghanaian parents. He has a PhD in History from Cambridge University and was elected as the Member of Parliament for Spelthorne in Surrey. His first book, Ghosts of Empire, was published to critical acclaim in 2011.

 

pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

By the early 1970s the fixed exchange rate system was disintegrating, American economic hegemony was receding, and as these factors came into question the conservatism of financial institutions was abandoned. In 1971 President Nixon announced the abandonment of the gold standard – the US Treasury had fixed the price of gold at $35 per ounce for four decades. This amounted to a devaluation of the dollar against other currencies. America’s economic power was further challenged when the political crisis that began with the Yom Kippur War of 1973 led Arab states to impose drastic increases in the price of oil. Fig. 1: The incidence of banking crises Source: Own calculations, based on the reported numbers of major bank failures in OECD economies, from Reinhart and Rogoff (2010) Since many oil-producing countries could not easily spend their new revenues, and many oil-consuming countries did not wish to reduce what they spent, banks established a seemingly profitable business lending the petrodollars earned by oil exporters back to the governments of oil importers.

.: Hyperion 220 Loomis, Carol 108 lotteries 65, 66, 68, 72 Lucas, Robert 40 Lynch, Dennios 108 Lynch, Peter 108, 109 M M-Pesa 186 Maastricht Treaty (1993) 243, 250 McCardie, Sir Henry 83, 84, 282, 284 McGowan, Harry 45 Machiavelli, Niccolò 224 McKinley, William 44 McKinsey 115, 126 Macy’s department store 46 Madoff, Bernard 29, 118, 131, 132, 177, 232, 293 Madoff Securities 177 Magnus, King of Sweden 196 Manhattan Island, New York: and Native American sellers 59, 63 Manne, Henry 46 manufacturing companies, rise of 45 Marconi 48 marine insurance 62, 63 mark-to-market accounting 126, 128–9, 320n22 mark-to-model approach 128–9, 320n21 Market Abuse Directive (MAD) 226 market economy 4, 281, 302, 308 ‘market for corporate control, the’ 46 market risk 97, 98, 177, 192 market-makers 25, 28, 30, 31 market-making 49, 109, 118, 136 Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MIFID) 226 Markkula, Mike 162, 166, 167 Markopolos, Harry 232 Markowitz, Harry 69 Markowitz model of portfolio allocation 68–9 Martin, Felix 323n5 martingale 130, 131, 136, 139, 190 Marx, Groucho 252 Marx, Karl 144, 145 Capital 143 Mary Poppins (film) 11, 12 MasterCard 186 Masters, Brooke 120 maturity transformation 88, 92 Maxwell, Robert 197, 201 Mayan civilisation 277 Meade, James 263 Means, Gardiner 51 Meeker, Mary 40, 167 Melamed, Leo 19 Mercedes 170 merchant banks 25, 30, 33 Meriwether, John 110, 134 Merkel, Angela 231 Merrill Lynch 135, 199, 293, 300 Merton, Robert 110 Metronet 159 Meyer, André 205 MGM 33 Microsoft 29, 167 middleman, role of the 80–87 agency and trading 82–3 analysts 86 bad intermediaries 81–2 from agency to trading 84–5 identifying goods and services required 80, 81 logistics 80, 81 services from financial intermediaries 80–81 supply chain 80, 81 transparency 84 ‘wisdom of crowds’ 86–7 Midland Bank 24 Milken, Michael 46, 292 ‘millennium bug’ 40 Miller, Bill 108, 109 Minuit, Peter 59, 63 Mises, Ludwig von 225 Mittelstand (medium-size business sector) 52, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172 mobile banking apps 181 mobile phone payment transfers 186–7 Modigliani-Miller theorem 318n9 monetarism 241 monetary economics 5 monetary policy 241, 243, 245, 246 money creation 88 money market fund 120–21 Moneyball phenomenon 165 monopolies 45 Monte Carlo casino 123 Monte dei Paschi Bank of Siena 24 Montgomery Securities 167 Moody’s rating agency 21, 248, 249, 313n6 moral hazard 74, 75, 76, 92, 95, 256, 258 Morgan, J.P. 44, 166, 291 Morgan Stanley 25, 40, 130, 135, 167, 268 Morgenthau, District Attorney Robert 232–3 mortality tables 256 mortgage banks 27 mortgage market fluctuation in mortgage costs 148 mechanised assessment 84–5 mortgage-backed securities 20, 21, 40, 85, 90, 100, 128, 130, 150, 151, 152, 168, 176–7, 284 synthetic 152 Mozilo, Angelo 150, 152, 154, 293 MSCI World Bank Index 135 muckraking 44, 54–5, 79 ‘mugus’ 118, 260 multinational companies, and diversification 96–7 Munger, Charlie 127 Munich, Germany 62 Munich Re 62 Musk, Elon 168 mutual funds 27, 108, 202, 206 mutual societies 30 mutualisation 79 mutuality 124, 213 ‘My Way’ (song) 72 N Napoleon Bonaparte 26 Napster 185 NASA 276 NASDAQ 29, 108, 161 National Economic Council (US) 5, 58 National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) 255 National Institutes of Health 167 National Insurance Fund (UK) 254 National Provincial Bank 24 National Science Foundation 167 National Westminster Bank 24, 34 Nationwide 151 Native Americans 59, 63 Nazis 219, 221 neo-liberal economic policies 39, 301 Netjets 107 Netscape 40 Neue Markt 170 New Deal 225 ‘new economy’ bubble (1999) 23, 34, 40, 42, 98, 132, 167, 199, 232, 280 new issue market 112–13 New Orleans, Louisiana: Hurricane Katrina disaster (2005) 79 New Testament 76 New York Stock Exchange 26–7, 28, 29, 31, 49, 292 New York Times 283 News of the World 292, 295 Newton, Isaac 35, 132, 313n18 Niederhoffer, Victor 109 NINJAs (no income, no job, no assets) 222 Nixon, Richard 36 ‘no arbitrage’ condition 69 non-price competition 112, 219 Norman, Montagu 253 Northern Rock 89, 90–91, 92, 150, 152 Norwegian sovereign wealth fund 161, 253 Nostradamus 274 O Obama, Barack 5, 58, 77, 194, 271, 301 ‘Obamacare’ 77 Occidental Petroleum 63 Occupy movement 52, 54, 312n2 ‘Occupy Wall Street’ slogan 305 off-balance-sheet financing 153, 158, 160, 210, 250 Office of Thrift Supervision 152–3 oil shock (1973–4) 14, 36–7, 89 Old Testament 75–6 oligarchy 269, 302–3, 305 oligopoly 118, 188 Olney, Richard 233, 237, 270 open market operations 244 options 19, 22 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 263 Osborne, George 328n19 ‘out of the money option’ 102, 103 Overend, Gurney & Co. 31 overseas assets and liabilities 179–80, 179 owner-managed businesses 30 ox parable xi-xii Oxford University 12 P Pacific Gas and Electric 246 Pan Am 238 Paris financial centre 26 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards 295 partnerships 30, 49, 50, 234 limited liability 313n14 Partnoy, Frank 268 passive funds 99, 212 passive management 207, 209, 212 Patek Philippe 195, 196 Paulson, Hank 300 Paulson, John 64, 109, 115, 152, 191, 284 ‘payment in kind’ securities 131 payment protection policies 198 payments system 6, 7, 25, 180, 181–8, 247, 259–60, 281, 297, 306 PayPal 167, 168, 187 Pecora, Ferdinand 25 Pecora hearings (1932–34) 218 peer-to-peer lending 81 pension funds 29, 98, 175, 177, 197, 199, 200, 201, 208, 213, 254, 282, 284 pension provision 78, 253–6 pension rights 53, 178 Perkins, Charles 233 perpetual inventory method 321n4 Perrow, Charles 278, 279 personal financial management 6, 7 personal liability 296 ‘petrodollars’ 14, 37 Pfizer 96 Pierpoint Morgan, J. 165 Piper Alpha oil rig disaster (1987) 63 Ponzi, Charles 131, 132 Ponzi schemes 131, 132, 136, 201 pooled investment funds 197 portfolio insurance 38 Potts, Robin, QC 61, 63, 72, 119, 193 PPI, mis-selling of 296 Prebble, Lucy: ENRON 126 price competition 112, 219 price discovery 226 price mechanism 92 Prince, Chuck 34 private equity 27, 98, 166, 210 managers 210, 289 private insurance 76, 77 private sector 78 privatisation 39, 78, 157, 158, 258, 307 probabilistic thinking 67, 71, 79 Procter & Gamble 69, 108 product innovation 13 property and infrastructure 154–60 protectionism 13 Prudential 200 public companies, conversion to 18, 31–2, 49 public debt 252 public sector 78 Q Quandt, Herbert 170 Quandt Foundation 170 quantitative easing 245, 251 quantitative style 110–11 quants 22, 107, 110 Quattrone, Frank 167, 292–3 queuing 92 Quinn, Sean 156 R railroad regulation 237 railway mania (1840s) 35 Raines, Franklin 152 Rajan, Raghuram 56, 58, 79, 102 Rakoff, Judge Jed 233, 294, 295 Ramsey, Frank 67, 68 Rand, Ayn 79, 240 ‘random walk’ 69 Ranieri, Lew 20, 22, 106–7, 134, 152 rating agencies 21, 41, 84–5, 97, 151, 152, 153, 159, 249–50 rationality 66–7, 68 RBS see Royal Bank of Scotland re-insurance 62–3 Reagan, Ronald 18, 23, 54, 59, 240 real economy 7, 18, 57, 143, 172, 190, 213, 226, 239, 271, 280, 288, 292, 298 redundancy 73, 279 Reed, John 33–4, 48, 49, 50, 51, 242, 293, 314n40 reform 270–96 other people’s money 282–5 personal responsibility 292–6 principles of 270–75 the reform of structure 285–92 robust systems and complex structures 276–81 regulation 215, 217–39 the Basel agreements 220–25 and competition 113 the origins of financial regulation 217–19 ‘principle-based’ 224 the regulation industry 229–33 ‘rule-based’ 224 securities regulation 225–9 what went wrong 233–9 ‘Regulation Q’ (US) 13, 14, 20, 28, 120, 121 regulatory agencies 229, 230, 231, 235, 238, 274, 295, 305 regulatory arbitrage 119–24, 164, 223, 250 regulatory capture 237, 248, 262 Reich, Robert 265, 266 Reinhart, C.M. 251 relationship breakdown 74, 79 Rembrandts, genuine/fake 103, 127 Renaissance Technologies 110, 111, 191 ‘repo 105’ arbitrage 122 repo agreement 121–2 repo market 121 Reserve Bank of India 58 Reserve Primary Fund 121 Resolution Trust Corporation 150 retirement pension 78 return on equity (RoE) 136–7, 191 Revelstoke, first Lord 31 risk 6, 7, 55, 56–79 adverse selection and moral hazard 72–9 analysis by ‘ketchup economists’ 64 chasing the dream 65–72 Geithner on 57–8 investment 256 Jackson Hole symposium 56–7 Kohn on 56 laying bets on the interpretation of incomplete information 61 and Lloyd’s 62–3 the LMX spiral 62–3, 64 longevity 256 market 97, 98 mitigation 297 randomness 76 socialisation of individual risks 61 specific 97–8 risk management 67–8, 72, 79, 137, 191, 229, 233, 234, 256 risk premium 208 risk thermostat 74–5 risk weighting 222, 224 risk-pooling 258 RJR Nabisco 46, 204 ‘robber barons’ 44, 45, 51–2 Robertson, Julian 98, 109, 132 Robertson Stephens 167 Rockefeller, John D. 44, 52, 196 Rocket Internet 170 Rogers, Richard 62 Rogoff, K.S. 251 rogue traders 130, 300 Rohatyn, Felix 205 Rolls-Royce 90 Roman empire 277, 278 Rome, Treaty of (1964) 170 Rooney, Wayne 268 Roosevelt, Franklin D. v, 25, 235 Roosevelt, Theodore 43–4, 235, 323n1 Rothschild family 217 Royal Bank of Scotland 11, 12, 14, 24, 26, 34, 78, 91, 103, 124, 129, 135, 138, 139, 211, 231, 293 Rubin, Robert 57 In an Uncertain World 67 Ruskin, John 60, 63 Unto this Last 56 Russia defaults on debts 39 oligarchies 303 Russian Revolution (1917) 3 S Saes 168 St Paul’s Churchyard, City of London 305 Salomon Bros. 20, 22, 27, 34, 110, 133–4 ‘Salomon North’ 110 Salz Review: An Independent Review of Barclays’ Business Practices 217 Samuelson, Paul 208 Samwer, Oliver 170 Sarkozy, Nicolas 248, 249 Savage, L.J. 67 Scholes, Myron 19, 69, 110 Schrödinger’s cat 129 Scottish Parliament 158 Scottish Widows 26, 27, 30 Scottish Widows Fund 26, 197, 201, 212, 256 search 195, 209, 213 defined 144 and the investment bank 197 Second World War 36, 221 secondary markets 85, 170, 210 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 20, 64, 126, 152, 197, 225, 226, 228, 230, 232, 247, 292, 293, 294, 313n6 securities regulation 225–9 securitisation 20–21, 54, 100, 151, 153, 164, 169, 171, 222–3 securitisation boom (1980s) 200 securitised loans 98 See’s Candies 107 Segarra, Carmen 232 self-financing companies 45, 179, 195–6 sell-side analysts 199 Sequoia Capital 166 Shad, John S.R. 225, 228–9 shareholder value 4, 45, 46, 50, 211 Sharpe, William 69, 70 Shell 96 Sherman Act (1891) 44 Shiller, Robert 85 Siemens 196 Siemens, Werner von 196 Silicon Valley, California 166, 167, 168, 171, 172 Simon, Hermann 168 Simons, Jim 23, 27, 110, 111–12, 124 Sinatra, Frank 72 Sinclair, Upton 54, 79, 104, 132–3 The Jungle 44 Sing Sing maximum-security gaol, New York 292 Skilling, Jeff 126, 127, 128, 149, 197, 259 Slim, Carlos 52 Sloan, Alfred 45, 49 Sloan Foundation 49 small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), financing 165–72, 291 Smith, Adam 31, 51, 60 The Wealth of Nations v, 56, 106 Smith, Greg 283 Smith Barney 34 social security 52, 79, 255 Social Security Trust Fund (US) 254, 255 socialism 4, 225, 301 Société Générale 130 ‘soft commission’ 29 ‘soft’ commodities 17 Soros, George 23, 27, 98, 109, 111–12, 124, 132 South Sea Bubble (18th century) 35, 132, 292 sovereign wealth funds 161, 253 Soviet empire 36 Soviet Union 225 collapse of 23 lack of confidence in supplies 89–90 Spain: property bubble 42 Sparks, D.L. 114, 283, 284 specific risk 97–8 speculation 93 Spitzer, Eliot 232, 292 spread 28, 94 Spread Networks 2 Square 187 Stamp Duty 274 Standard & Poor’s rating agency 21, 99, 248, 249, 313n6 Standard Life 26, 27, 30 standard of living 77 Standard Oil 44, 196, 323n1 Standard Oil of New Jersey (later Exxon) 323n1 Stanford University 167 Stanhope 158 State Street 200, 207 sterling devaluation (1967) 18 stewardship 144, 163, 195–203, 203, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213 Stewart, Jimmy 12 Stigler, George 237 stock exchanges 17 see also individual stock exchanges stock markets change in organisation of 28 as a means of taking money out of companies 162 rise of 38 stock-picking 108 stockbrokers 16, 25, 30, 197, 198 Stoll, Clifford 227–8 stone fei (in Micronesia) 323n5 Stone, Richard 263 Stora Enso 196 strict liability 295–6 Strine, Chancellor Leo 117 structured investment vehicles (SIVs) 158, 223 sub-prime lending 34–5, 75 sub-prime mortgages 63, 75, 109, 149, 150, 169, 244 Summers, Larry 22, 55, 73, 119, 154, 299 criticism of Rajan’s views 57 ‘ketchup economics’ 5, 57, 69 support for financialisation 57 on transformation of investment banking 15 Sunday Times 143 ‘Rich List’ 156 supermarkets: financial services 27 supply chain 80, 81, 83, 89, 92 Surowiecki, James: The Wisdom of Crowds xi swap markets 21 SWIFT clearing system 184 Swiss Re 62 syndication 62 Syriza 306 T Taibbi, Matt 55 tailgating 102, 103, 104, 128, 129, 130, 136, 138, 140, 152, 155, 190–91, 200 Tainter, Joseph 277 Taleb, Nassim Nicholas 125, 183 Fooled by Randomness 133 Tarbell, Ida 44, 54 TARGET2 system 184, 244 TARP programme 138 tax havens 123 Taylor, Martin 185 Taylor Bean and Whitaker 293 Tea Party 306 technological innovation 13, 185, 187 Tel Aviv, Israel 171 telecommunications network 181, 182 Tesla Motors 168 Tetra 168 TfL 159 Thai exchange rate, collapse of (1997) 39 Thain, John 300 Thatcher, Margaret 18, 23, 54, 59, 148, 151, 157 Thiel, Peter 167 Third World debt problem 37, 131 thrifts 25, 149, 150, 151, 154, 174, 290, 292 ticket touts 94–5 Tobin, James 273 Tobin tax 273–4 Tolstoy, Count Leo 97 Tonnies, Ferdinand 17 ‘too big to fail’ 75, 140, 276, 277 Tourre, Fabrice ‘Fabulous Fab’ 63–4, 115, 118, 232, 293, 294 trader model 82, 83 trader, rise of the 16–24 elements of the new trading culture 21–2 factors contributing to the change 17–18 foreign exchange 18–19 from personal relationships to anonymous markets 17 hedge fund managers 23 independent traders 22–3 information technology 19–20 regulation 20 securitisation 20–21 shift from agency to trading 16 trading as a principal source of revenue and remuneration 17 trader model 82, 83 ‘trading book’ 320n20 transparency 29, 84, 205, 210, 212, 226, 260 Travelers Group 33, 34, 48 ‘treasure islands’ 122–3 Treasuries 75 Treasury (UK) 135, 158 troubled assets relief program 135 Truman, Harry S. 230, 325n13 trust 83–4, 85, 182, 213, 218, 260–61 Tuckett, David 43, 71, 79 tulip mania (1630s) 35 Turner, Adair 303 TWA 238 Twain, Mark: Pudd’nhead Wilson’s Calendar 95–6 Twitter 185 U UBS 33, 134 UK Independence Party 306 unemployment 73, 74, 79 unit trusts 202 United States global dominance of the finance industry 218 house prices 41, 43, 149, 174 stock bubble (1929) 201 universal banks 26–7, 33 University of Chicago 19, 69 ‘unknown unknowns’ 67 UPS delivery system 279–80 US Defense Department 167 US Steel 44 US Supreme Court 228, 229, 304 US Treasury 36, 38, 135 utility networks 181–2 V value discovery 226–7 value horizon 109 Van Agtmael, Antoine 39 Vanderbilt, Cornelius 44 Vanguard 200, 207, 213 venture capital 166 firms 27, 168 venture capitalists 171, 172 Vickers Commission 194 Viniar, David 204–5, 233, 282, 283, 284 VISA 186 volatility 85, 93, 98, 103, 131, 255 Volcker, Paul 150, 181 Volcker Rule 194 voluntary agencies 258 W wagers and credit default swaps 119 defined 61 at Lloyd’s coffee house 71–2 lottery tickets 65 Wall Street, New York 1, 16, 312n2 careers in 15 rivalry with London 13 staffing of 217 Wall Street Crash (1929) 20, 25, 27, 36, 127, 201 Wall Street Journal 294 Wallenberg family 108 Walmart 81, 83 Warburg 134 Warren, Elizabeth 237 Washington consensus 39 Washington Mutual 135, 149 Wasserstein, Bruce 204, 205 Watergate affair 240 ‘We are the 99 per cent’ slogan 52, 305 ‘We are Wall Street’ 16, 55, 267–8, 271, 300, 301 Weber, Max 17 Weill, Sandy 33–4, 35, 48–51, 55, 91, 149, 293, 314n40 Weinstock, Arnold 48 Welch, Jack 45–6, 48, 50, 52, 126, 314n40 WestLB 169 Westminster Bank 24 Whitney, Richard 292 Wilson, Harold 18 windfall payments 14, 32, 127, 153, 290 winner’s curse 103, 104, 156, 318n11 Winslow Jones, Alfred 23 Winton Capital 111 Wolfe, Humbert 7 The Uncelestial City 1 Wolfe, Tom 268 The Bonfire of the Vanities 16, 22 women traders 22 Woodford, Neil 108 Woodward, Bob: Maestro 240 World Bank 14, 220 World.Com bonds 197 Wozniak, Steve 162 Wriston, Walter 37 Y Yellen, Janet 230–31 Yom Kippur War (1973) 36 YouTube 185 Z Zurich, Switzerland 62

 

pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

In 1973, the Pentagon created the influential US Army Training and Doctrine Command, known simply as TRADOC. TRADOC’s first commander was General William DePuy, veteran of the Battle of the Bulge in World War II and a famously tough leader. Standing on a windswept hill in Israel’s Golan Heights in 1974, DePuy had seen the future of war. The barren landscape was littered with wrecked Syrian tanks and armored personnel carriers. In the blazingly quick Yom Kippur War, the Israelis had destroyed a much larger force, thanks to superior weapons and superior tactics—and in the process they showed the world what future war would look like. DePuy focused his reforms on firepower and active defense. The lesson from Israel was that wars could be won nearly immediately. What really mattered was winning the first battle. DePuy enshrined some of these ideas in a famous doctrinal document, Field Manual 100-5.

., 83 Bertrand Russell and, 85 Science magazine article on automation, 95–96 and second Industrial Revolution, 82–83 and self-replicating machines, 89 “Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation,” 120–21 spiritual aspects of cybernetics, 348 spiritual consequences of automation, 82–85 and von Neumann’s virus studies, 115 and the WELL, 194 and Whole Earth Catalog, 169 “Wiener circle,” 47 Wiesner, Jerome, 47, 58 Wild West, cyberspace as, 240, 260 Williams, Robin, 242 Williams Air Force Base, 202 Winstar Communications, 289 Wired magazine, 264, 280, 289 work income and, 106 and metaphorical cyborgs, 153–54 World Trade Center bombing (1993), 308 World War I, 37, 38 World War II, 8–42, 73–75 air defense batteries during, 38 and aviation medicine, 122–23 evolution of airpower during, 4 origins of cybernetics, xi–xii shifts in control and communication, 3 World War III, 71 Wozniak, Steve, 184 Wren, Sir Christopher, 9 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 198–206, 317 Wright State University, 319 X-39 nuclear-powered turbine, 128 X-211 nuclear-powered turbine, 128 XOR, 189 XT-1 antiaircraft truck/gun, 20, 21 Yahoo!, 244 Year 2000, The (Kahn), 111 Yeltsin, Boris, 329 Yom Kippur War, 299 Young, John, 284 Zimmerman, Thomas, 213–14 Zimmermann, Phil, 261, 277 Copyright © 2016 by Thomas Rid All rights reserved First Edition Brautigan, Richard: From All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace by Richard Brautigan. Copyright © 1976 by Richard Brautigan, renewed 1995 by Ianthe Brautigan Swenson. Reprinted with the permission of the Estate of Richard Brautigan; all rights reserved.

 

pages: 494 words: 132,975

Keynes Hayek: The Clash That Defined Modern Economics by Nicholas Wapshott

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airport security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, complexity theory, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, if you build it, they will come, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, New Journalism, Northern Rock, price mechanism, pushing on a string, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

When an angry Republican congressman complained, “I’m going to have to burn up a lot of old speeches denouncing deficit spending,” the president replied, “I’m in the same boat.”83 “There was always this notion that somehow if you just had [price and income controls] for a little while it would get things under control and then you could go back [to allowing prices and incomes to find their market price],” recalled Shultz. “But it turns out it’s always much easier to get into something like that than to get out of it.”84 Any chance that Nixon would be the master of his economic destiny was delivered a mortal blow by a fourfold increase in oil prices imposed by the Arab oil cartel, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), in 1973–74 to punish America for rearming Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The result was higher prices and the brakes being slammed on economic growth. Traditional tools such as the Phillips curve seemed no longer to apply. Low or no economic growth was accompanied by inflation in a combination hitherto thought impossible, dubbed “stagflation.”85 The Age of Keynes was in its death throes. The Age of Stagflation had arrived. Up against a weak opponent, George McGovern, Nixon walked to a landslide in the 1972 election.

., 128, 157, 170, 178–79, 199, 228–30, 232, 236–46, 251, 253, 261, 277, 282, 283 —wage levels and, 148 United Nations, 228, 229 United States: —banking system of, 28, 41, 84–85 —capitalism in, 46, 144–46 —domestic programs of, 157–70, 202, 205, 228, 231–32, 240, 248, 253, 256, 320n —economy of, 46, 52–53, 62, 106, 111, 141–42, 188–90, 228–46, 253–55, 261–65, 269–72 —foreign aid of, 136, 228 —Hayek’s influence in, xiii–xiv, 201–11, 234, 246, 247–65, 267–74 —inflation rate of, 230, 232, 236, 238–39, 242–46, 248, 251, 255, 261–62, 263, 267, 271 —infrastructure of, 159, 163, 189, 281 —interest rates in, 232, 235, 236, 246, 277, 280, 282, 284 —Keynesianism in, 146–47, 154–70, 188–90, 228–46, 276–84 —military spending of, 190, 231–34, 237, 241, 261, 264, 274, 276–78 —national security of, 233–34, 237, 276–77 —space program of, 234, 237 taxation in, 231, 262–63 —unemployment rate in, 128, 157, 170, 178–79, 199, 228–30, 232, 236–46, 251, 253, 261, 277, 282, 283 —Versailles Treaty and, 4–5, 155–57 —welfare programs in, 240, 264 —in World War II, 189–90, 229, 234 University of Chicago Press, 194, 201–2, 212, 216, 247 utilities, 291 utopias, 290–91, 292 value: —of currency, 22–23 —determination of, 5, 22–23 —of equipment (depreciation), 105–6, 118–19 —of goods, 74–75, 101, 117 —monetary, 22–23, 74–75, 120–21, 161 Vanity Fair, 157 “velocity of circulation,” 26, 33, 104, 136 Versailles Treaty, xii, xiii, 3, 4–5, 8–14, 17, 28, 56, 68, 84, 136, 137, 155–57, 158, 189 Vienna, xi–xiii, 1–3, 15–16, 17, 18–21, 27, 29–30, 40, 44, 111, 145, 214–15 Vienna, University of, 3, 15, 19, 20–22, 140 Vietnam War, 241 Viner, Jacob, 216, 221–22, 329n Volcker, Paul, 246, 261, 263, 286 voluntary savings, 104, 107 von Szeliski, Victor, 164 voting rights, 140 wages, 32, 38–39, 60, 63, 118, 119–20, 134, 135, 148, 188, 241 —controls on, 243–44 —increases in, 118, 119–20, 134 —production costs and, 119–20 Walras, Léon, 74 war debt, 4–5, 8–14, 21–22, 31–32, 84, 155–57, 206 warfare, 4, 137, 138, 190–92, 194, 229, 231–34 war on poverty, 240 war on terror, 276–78 “War Potential and War Finance” (Keynes), 191–92 Watergate scandal, 244 wealth accumulation, 56–57, 117–20, 127, 143–44, 149–50, 222, 241, 279, 287 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 218 Webb, Beatrice, 24, 64 Webb, Sidney, 24 Weber, Max, 21, 304n Wedgwood, Veronica, 212, 329n weights and measures, 201 Weimar Republic, 9 welfare state, 199–200, 201, 222, 227, 233, 234–35, 240, 249–50, 253, 258–61, 264, 267, 288–89, 295 Westminster Abbey, 226 wholesale prices, 62 “Why I Am Not a Conservative” (Hayek), 220 Wicksell, Knut, 42, 43, 48, 55, 74, 91, 100, 103, 120 “widow’s cruse,” 127 Wieser, Friedrich von, 20, 21–22 Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, 9 William Volcker Charities Fund, 211, 216, 218 Wilson, Woodrow, 4–5, 11, 28, 155–57, 161 Winant, John, 226 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 3, 114, 300n Wolfson, Adam, 288–89, 292 Woolf, Leonard, 53, 226 Woolf, Virginia, 5, 53, 301n Wootton, Barbara, 202–3, 320n, 326n “Working of the Price Mechanism in the Course of the Credit Cycle, The” (Hayek), 76–78 World Bank, 136, 193 WorldCom, 278 World War I, 3–5, 16, 19–20, 22, 55–56, 68, 69, 72, 84, 155–57, 189 World War II, 136, 189–92, 229, 234 Wright, Quincy, 85 Yale University, 271 Yom Kippur War, 244 Yugoslavia, 16, 17 Zionism, 158 More praise for KEYNES HAYEK “An essential primer on the two men who shaped modern finance.” —Newsweek “This lively book explores one of the most pressing economic questions of our time: To what extent should governments intervene in markets? . . . Underlying Mr. Wapshott’s analysis are vital questions for this moment in American history: What kind of society do we want?

 

pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

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air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It was 15 shekels, about $4, and she ushered me through with a flick of her wrist. I walked past a turnstile, past a short line of grey, industrial concrete walls and out into a courtyard of focused, broiling air. It was over 95 degrees Fahrenheit, and you sympathised with the guards in their thick uniforms under the unwavering disc of a midday sun. A map pointed me to the huts I wanted – numbers 10 and 14. The first was for ‘The Six-day War’ exhibit, the other ‘The Yom Kippur War’. But I was not drawn there by the histories of Israel’s wars, I wanted to go there because these huts were filled with guns. Perhaps it was no surprise that the IDF museum would dedicate its gun rooms to such influential conflicts in its brief history. After all, the Israeli army is awash with firearms – about 1.75 million of them.22 This works out at roughly 22 guns held by Israeli soldiers for 100 of its citizens.

Devoid of context, such as I found with the police armoury in São Paulo, or a guide, as given me in Leeds, it was as boring as the sun outside was hot. So it is with many military museums. As if guns themselves deserved veneration: a room where you have to speak in a hushed voice and look solemn. I took a selfie with my phone and wondered just how long it would take someone to run in and shoot me if I broke one of the glass panes to get a pistol. Then I did myself a favour and left. The next hut, dedicated to the Yom Kippur War, had two green-clad mannequins facing you as you opened the door. For a second I was spooked. But this room was filled with rifles, not people. There were forty cabinets of them, white-framed, glass-fronted as before. Inside were long guns; muzzle-loaders; assault and sub-machine-guns; light, medium and heavy machine-guns; training and target rifles. Guns from all over the world – Chinese, Polish, Egyptian, Lebanese, Greek, Bulgarian.

 

pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

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3D printing, call centre, clean water, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

The auto industry, if anything, has been spared the worst of it since there is somehow symbolic importance to “buying American” (whatever that means) to many U.S. citizens, especially veterans and politicians. The point is: Don’t blame the Asians; our midcentury system of wage growth and relative equality was going to collapse one way or another. The oil shock of 1973—when the members of OPEC took the position that they would no longer ship oil to nations that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War, curtailing production and thereby raising prices—makes as good a marker as any for the beginning of the end. Urban manufacturing declined just as our borders were opening up. Thanks to the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965, which abolished national quotas in favor of a more flexible family reunification approach to admission, new immigrants began pouring into U.S. cities and suburbs. Low- and semi-skilled American workers were facing increased competition not only abroad but at home as well.

 

pages: 222 words: 70,559

The Oil Factor: Protect Yourself-and Profit-from the Coming Energy Crisis by Stephen Leeb, Donna Leeb

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Buckminster Fuller, diversified portfolio, fixed income, hydrogen economy, income per capita, index fund, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit motive, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Vanguard fund, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond

This event transformed our economic landscape and forever changed how we think about oil. During that conference OPEC imposed restrictions on oil exports. In so doing, it engineered a 70 percent increase in oil prices, which rose to the then unheard-of level of more than $5 a barrel. In December the cartel met again, this time in Tehran, and took even more drastic action. Protesting U.S. support for Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, it temporarily embargoed oil exports altogether. By early 1974 oil prices had jumped to more than $7 a barrel, more than 130 percent above levels that had prevailed just a few months earlier, in mid-1973, and, indeed, for the entire preceding decade. OPEC had done what the Soviet Union, throughout the Cold War, had failed to do—demonstrated not by threats but by action our vulnerability to forces over which we had no control.

 

pages: 233 words: 73,772

The Secret World of Oil by Ken Silverstein

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business intelligence, clean water, corporate governance, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Google Earth, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

It was considered the natural order of the business, the way the oil industry was to be managed. The system broke up because producer companies got tired of bring ripped off by the multinationals and their home governments. One way they fought back was through the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which was founded in 1965 but only closely coordinated members’ output to determine production after the Yom Kippur War. The conflict prompted OPEC to launch its embargo against the West, leading to an explosion in the price of oil. While the West viewed this as unfair collusion and political manipulation of oil prices, OPEC producers understandably saw it as a means of gaining a fairer share of the profits from the global energy business. The emergence of independent trading also allowed producer countries to alter the balance of power.

 

Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

By studying in depth these trends and the interactions between them, it is possible to identify the forces that are likely to produce a big discontinuity in the future and its relevance to the organization. In thinking about strategic surprise from this perspective, it is important not to focus simply on events themselves, but rather on the contexts within which they are developing. For instance, the game-changing potential of the 2990-7 ch09 schwarz 102 7/23/07 12:12 PM Page 102 peter schwartz and doug randall Yom Kippur War in 1973 would have been radically different without the larger context of the cold war. Understanding these contexts then becomes part of the analytical process of anticipating surprise. The next step is to take an inside-out approach. Here, the question is less about what is going on outside in the world, but rather: What are the risks to the organization? What are the key elements of vulnerability?

 

pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

., 431 Bombay, 444n Book of the Glory of Kings, 157n Book of Zerubabbel, 163 Book of Zohar, 298 Bordeaux pilgrim, 147-9, 152n Bosnia, 315n, 318 Bosphorus, 144 Bosra, 169 Boston, 337 Boston Herald, 441 Bradford, William, 301 Brandeis, Louis, 428 Breslavers, 486n Brest-Litovsk, 461 Bridges, Robert, 321n Brindisi, 266, 269 Britain British Jews, 257, 277n, 301-2, 350 and conversion of Jews, 330-5 Roman, 124, 136, 150 and state of Israel, 467 and Suez crisis, 490 and Zionism, xxv, 380-1, 409-15, 423-4, 431, 443, 466 Britannicus, Tiberius Claudius, 116n British Military Cemetery, 434 Bronner, Ethan, 510 Bronze Age, 13 Brooke, Rupert, 419 Brothers, Richard, 322-3 Brutus, Marcus Junius, 75 Bubastis, 31 Buchan, John, 404 Bulgaria, 361 bullae, 32, 41n, 43 Burma, 453n 'Burma Road', 480 Byron, George Gordon, 6th Baron, 37 Byzantium, 144 Caecina, 131 Caesar, Gaius Julius, 72-5, 131, 134n Caesarea, 82, 93, 99n, 100, 115, 119, 121, 140, 164, 209, 216 Caesarea Maritima, 9 Caesarea Philippi, 9, 116 Caesarion, 74, 81, 82n Cafe Jawhariyyeh, 444 Caiaphas (high priest), 99n, 100, 103-4, 108, 110 Cairo, 207n, 271, 272n, 302-3, 305, 316n, 436, 438, 469, 480, 491n, 493 Albanian conquest, 326 and British rule, 402-4, 408 and caliphs, 192, 194-6, 198-200, 215 and Fatimid Egypt, 239-40 and Mamluk sultanate, 278, 283-5, 287 Oriental Stores, 423 and Saladin, 243, 251 and Sultan Baibars, 275, 277 Cairo Geniza, 199n Cairo University, 449 Calcutta, 450 Calhoun, John, 336 Caligula, Emperor, 60, 82n, 111-14, 116 caliphs, 172n, 184, 433 Callirhoe, 90 Calvary, 106n, 285 Cambrai, 239n Cambyses II, King, 49 camels, 16n, 344, 407 Camp David, 506 du Camp, Maxime, 345, 347 Canaanites, 14, 16, 18, 39n Canada, 466n Cappadocia, 88n Capri, 98, 111-12 Caracalla, Emperor, 138 Carchemish, 41 Cardo, 135n, 147, 160, 226, 501 Carnegie, Mrs Andrew, 423 Caroline of Brunswick, Princess, 321-3 Carrhae, Battle of, 76n Carter, Jimmy, President, 503 Carthage, 60, 130n, 159 Carthaginians, 39n, 106n Cartwright, Ebenezer, 301 Cassius Longinus, Gaius, 74 Cassius Dio, 135n, 136-7 Castile, 298 de Castro, Abraham, 294 Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, 310, 311n, 315n, 317, 340 Cathisma Church, 176, 201 Catholic Church, 157, 189, 208 and religious conflict, 201, 296, 299-300, 331, 339, 341, 343, 424, 485, 517 Cave of Hira, 169 Cecil, Lord Robert, 414 Celebi, Evliya, see Evliya Cervantes, Miguel de, 446 Chabon, Michael, 382n Chamberlain, Joseph, 380 Chamberlain, Neville, 452-3 Chancellor, Sir John, 437-8, 443 Chapel of the Apparition, 520-3 Chapel of the Hill of Calvary, 236 Chapman, Thomas, 404 chariots, 26, 28 Charlemagne, Emperor, 65n, 189, 229n, 267, 343, 355, 379n Charles V, Emperor, 294n, 295 Charles I, King, 300-1 Charles of Anjou, King of Jerusalem, 278n Charles, Prince of Wales, 505 chastity, 144-5 Chateaubriand, Francois-Rene, Vicomte de, xxiv, 319-21 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 285 child sacrifice, 39 China, 185, 284, 365 Chindits, 453n Christ Church, 334 Christian Quarter, 189, 201, 364, 507 Christianity, 10, 34, 48n, 55, 63n, 109, 117, 139 Great Schism, 201 hierarchy and divisions in, 144 and Judaism, 110, 118, 140 Roman adoption of, 143-5, 150-1 and suppression of Jews, 148-50 Christians, early, 114-19, 121, 132-4, 136, 138-40 Christology, 144, 156-7 Chronicon Paschale, 135n church bells, 196, 214, 255, 330 Church of Holy Archangels, 103n Church of Mary Magdalene, 368, 386, 444n, 455n, 489 Church of Our Lady of Jehoshaphat, 228 Church of the Dormition, 379n, 492 Church of the Holy Sepulchre, xxi, 106n, 108, 149, 197, 303, 400, 420, 456, 485, 510 and Arab conquests, 173, 175-6, 178, 182-3, 189-92, 194 construction by Empress Helena, 147 and Crusaders, 208, 212-15, 217, 221, 225, 227-8, 233, 235, 243, 250, 260, 269 daily rituals, 518-20 and Descent of the Holy Fire, 198, 228, 230, 300, 305, 328, 348, 361, 367, 388, 518 destruction by fire, 320 Fatimid destruction, 199-200 the Holy Sepulchre, 134, 152, 165, 175, 177n, 178, 185, 189-92, 194 and international visitors, 320, 328, 341, 345-6, 348, 353, 367-8, 378 and Islamic sultanate, 254-5, 260, 263 last Crusader grave, 422n latrines, 310 and Mamluk sultanate, 281, 285-7 model of, 160 and Mongol raids, 277 and Napoleonic invasion, 316, 318 and Ottoman sultanate, 299-300 Persian destruction, 162-3 and pilgrims' accommodation, 201 and religious conflict, 320, 339, 343, 348, 424, 520-1 and Tartar conquest, 271 and Turkish conquests, 203 Church of the Pinnacle, 160n Church of the Redeemer, 378 Church of the Resurrection, 153 Churchill, Clementine, 433 Churchill, Lord Randolph, 433n Churchill, Sir Winston, xxv, 382n, 423n, 429n, 431-4, 441, 453n, 466, 477, 484n, 485 and Zionism, 410-14, 432, 461 CIA, 489 Cilicia, 26, 88n, 117, 131n circumcision, 45, 61-3, 118, 130, 360 ban on, 134, 137 and Islam, 171 Citadel, xxi, 8-9, 84, 88, 123, 132, 136, 185, 202, 348 and Crusaders, 207, 215, 217 Clarence, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of, 362 Claudius, Emperor, 5, 114-16, 146n Clausewitz, Carl von, 446 Clemenceau, Georges, 427-8 Cleopatra II, Queen of Egypt, 67n Cleopatra III, Queen of Egypt, 70n Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, 73-5, 77-82, 131 Cleopatra Selene, 82n Cleopatra Thea, 67n Clermont, 208-9 Clifford, Clark, 464 Clinton, Bill, President, 506, 508-9, 514 Cobb, Miss, 399 Cohen, Amnon, 509n Cohen, 'Red Rosa', 430 Cold War, 489 Columbus, Christopher, 294n Conder, Lieutenant Charles, 355n, 363n Congress of Berlin, 362, 409 Congreve, General Sir Walter 'Squib', 445 Conrad III, King of Germany, 234-5 Conrad of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem, 249, 256n Conrad II, King of Jerusalem, 270n Conradin, King of Jerusalem, 270n Constantine the Great, Emperor, 140, 143-5, 148-9, 163, 182, 184, 217, 369, 409 Constantine IX Monamachus, Emperor, 200 Constantine X Doukas, Emperor, 201 Constantinople, 130n, 144, 147, 153-6, 158-9, 165, 189, 192, 207n, 209, 217, 416, 442 and Arab conquest, 180, 183, 185-6, 190 Hagia Sofia, 159, 181-2, 201 Nika riots, 158 Ottoman conquest, 288 and Persian threat, 161, 163-4 Russian conquest, 311n see also Istanbul Constantius Chlorus, Emperor, 140 Constantius II, Emperor, 148n, 149-50 Cook, John Mason, 379 Cook, Thomas, 363 Cook, Miss, 335 Coptic Church, 157n, 310, 519 Cordoba, 200n, 499 Council of Chalcedon, 157 Council of Nicaea, 145, 148 Court of Women, 8, 86 Crassus, Marcus Licinius, 72-3, 76n, 106n Creasy, Mathilda, 345 Cremieux, Adolphe, 333 Cresson, Warder, 336-8 Crete, 14, 79, 101, 327 Crewe, Margaret, Marchioness of, 414 Crimea, 191n, 304, 382n, 440n Crimean War, 343-4, 345n, 347-8, 352 Crispus Caesar, 145 Croesus, King of Lydia, 47 Cromwell, Oliver, 301-2, 303, 331 Crossman, Richard, 461 crucifixion, 1-2, 62, 105-7 Crusader architecture, 254 Crusades, 189, 355, 420, 428 Count Thibault's, 270 Eighth, 277n Fifth, 265-6 First, 208-10 and holy war theory, 208 and reconquest of Spain, 285, 293-4 Second, 234, 333 Seventh, 271 Third, 255-62 Ctesiphon, 161-2 Cunningham, General Sir Alan, 467, 474-5 Curzon, George Nathaniel, Marquess, 414, 415n, 426, 432-3 Curzon, Robert, 328-9 Cyprus, 35, 55, 84n, 133, 179, 257, 260n, 325, 362, 380-1, 436 Cyrenaica, 55 Cyrene, 81 Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, 47-50, 53 Czechoslovakia, 452-4 Dacia, 134 Daimbert, Patriarch, 215-16 Dajani family, 296, 308n, 360-1, 439, 469, 488 Damas, General, 312, 316 Damascus, 22, 29, 32n, 71, 194, 316n, 318, 323, 350, 380, 383, 417n, 469, 492 and Albanian conquest, 327 and Arab conquests, 172, 176, 178, 181, 185-6, 310 and Crusaders, 217, 223-4, 235, 243, 246, 249 and division of Middle East, 403, 405, 421, 426, 428, 469 and Islamic sultanate, 251-3, 262-4, 268 Jewish population and blood libel, 333, 336, 374 and Mongol conquest, 272, 279 and St Paul's conversion, 117, 143 and Tamurlane's conquest, 282-4 and Three Pashas, 397-8, 416 Umayyad Mosque, 96n, 185 Damascus Gate, 110, 134, 135n, 138, 152n, 157, 208, 211, 226, 270, 304, 364-5, 379, 395, 397, 467, 479, 518 Damasus, Bishop, 151 Damietta, 265 Dan, 30 Daniel, prophet, 45-6, 97, 100n, 150 Daniel the stylite, 154 Danube, river, 343 Danzig, 513 Darius I 'the Great', King of Persia, 49-50, 52, 106n Darius III, King of Persia, 53 d'Aubeny, Philip, 422n House of David, 22, 32n David, King, xix, xxiv, 7, 10, 13, 19-25, 32n, 40, 46, 67n, 86, 133, 140, 304-5, 374, 491 and Bathsheba, 23, 25, 363 and Charlemagne, 189 and Islam, 170, 175, 182, 185 his palace, 23n, 501n relics of, 152 David el-Rey, 240n David's Tomb, see Mount Zion, Cenacle Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), 171, 302, 436-7, 459, 502 see also Yom Kippur War Dayan, Moshe, 400n, 456, 481, 487, 504 and Orde Wingate, 451-2 and Six Day War, 493-8 Dayan, Ruth, 452, 494 D-Day, 459 Dead Sea, 90, 96, 123 Dead Sea Scrolls, 100n, 495 Debussy, Claude, 423 Deir Yassin massacre, 471-2, 473 Delhi, 283 Demetrius II, King of Syria, 67n Deraa, 419 Dervishes, 303-4, 360-1 Descent of the Holy Fire, 198, 228, 230, 300, 305, 328, 348, 361, 367, 388, 519 desert monasteries, 154 Deuteronomists, 45n Dickie, Archibald, 390 Digness, Mendel, 335 Diocletian, Emperor, 140, 145 Disraeli, Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, 240n, 324-5, 352, 362, 409, 411, 424 Dome of Solomon, 265n Dome of the Ascension, 165n Dome of the Chain, 179, 212, 219 Dome of the Rock, 27n, 148, 181-5, 188, 190, 197, 250, 304-5, 400, 408, 424, 480 and Crusaders (Temple of the Lord), 212-13, 217, 219, 227-9, 241, 270 daily rituals, 519-21 and Islamic sultanate, 254, 261, 263, 268-9 Israeli shootings, 503 and Mamluk sultanate, 276, 280-1, 284 negotiations and access, 510, 519 and Ottoman sultanate, 291-2, 305 and Parker fiasco, 391 regilding of, 491 and Six Day War, 495, 497 Domitian, Emperor, 121n, 130n, 131, 133 Donmeh sect, 303n Donner, Fred M., 174n Doris, 85, 88-9 Dorr, David, 347 Double Gates, 138n, 184 Dreyfus Affair, 373 Drusilla, Queen, 116, 119 Drusus, 111 Druze, 199, 356, 519 Duff, Captain Robin, 389n, 390-1 Dung Gate, 329, 497 East Prussia, 382n, 461 Easter, 148n, 159, 276, 298, 305, 339, 360, 388 Eban, Abba, 493-4 Ebenezer, Battle of, 18 Ebionites, 140n Ecclesiasticus, 58, 199n Edessa, 210, 213n, 215, 217-18, 224, 264 fall of, 233-4 Edict of Milan, 144 Edom, 65, 77 Edomites, 19, 29, 43, 69 Edward I, King, 65n, 277n, 354 Edward VII, King, 353-4, 363n Edwiga, Abbess, 201 Egeria, 152 Egypt, 13, 19n, 22, 26, 44n, 109n, 133, 135, 138, 422, 468-70 and Albanian conquest, 326-7, 334 and Arab conquests, 191, 193-4 and British rule, 362, 380, 396-7, 403, 405, 407, 423, 449 and Crusaders, 216, 218 and desert monks, 154 and Greek conquest, 53-6, 57n, 61-2 and Islamic sultanate, 243-4, 251, 253, 260-1, 264-6 and Israeli war, 477-8, 480 Israelites in, 16-17 Jewish community, 194-5 killing of dogs and cats, 198 Napoleonic invasion, 311-12, 317-18 and Nur al-Din's conquest, 238-41, 251 and Ottoman conquest, 291, 294 and peace deal, 502-3 and Persian conquests, 49-50, 162-4 and Roman occupation, 73-7, 81-2 and Six Day War, 489, 494-5, 517 and Suez Canal, 355, 490 and Turkoman conquest, 202 and UAR, 490-1 and Yom Kippur War, 505 Egyptians, ancient, 14-15, 18, 28-30, 35-6, 38, 41-2, 85n Eichmann, Adolf, 487 Eilat, 493 Ein Kerem, 95, 365, 449 Ekron, 20 El Alamein, Battle of, 460 El-Arish, 218, 380-2 Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen, 234-5, 257 Eleazar the Galilean, 130 elephants, 57, 63, 67 Elgar, Sir Edward, 321n Eliahu, Jacob, 37n, 365 Elijah, prophet, 197n Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, 378 Elizabeth I, Queen, 299 Elizabeth II, Queen, 454n Ella, Grand Duchess, 368-9, 386n, 444n, 454n Elyashar, Menache, 418 Emesa, 88n Emmaus, 163 English Hotel, 344 Enlightenment, 331, 374 Enver Pasha, Ismail, 394-5, 400-2, 408, 416 Ephraim, 24 Epic of Gilgamesh, 36, 45n Eshkol, Levi, 489-90, 493 Essenes, 100n Ethiopia, 157n, 517 Ethiopian Church, 157n, 310, 517 Euclid, 190n Eudocia, Empress, 153-7 Eudocia's Wall, 69n Eugenie, Empress, 355 Eugenius II, Pope, 234 Euphemius, 156n Euphrates, river, 35, 42, 81, 210 Eusebius of Caesarea, 136, 145-8 Eustace of Grenier, 221 Eustochium, 151 Eutropia, 146n Evliya Celebi, xxv, 290, 303-5, 309 Execration texts, 14n executions, 356, 397, 403 see also crucifixion; stoning Exodus, 460 Ezekiah, 74 Ezion-Geber, 26 Fabri, Felix, 286 Faisal, King of Iraq, 406-7, 420-1, 424-9, 431-3 Faisal II, King of Iraq, 490 Falashas, 157n Falkenhayn, Field Marshal Erich von, 408-9, 416-17 Faraj, Sultan, 283-4 Farhi, Haim, 315, 322, 323n Farouk, King of Egypt, 334n, 466, 482 Farran, Major Roy, 465-7 Farrukh, 297 Fast Hotel, 390, 401, 408, 417, 424, 451 Fatah, 488, 501-2, 505n, 507 al-Fatat, 403 Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), 172, 178, 187n, 194, 403n Fatimid dynasty, 193-5, 197, 201-2, 203n Fausta, Empress, 145, 146n Felix, Antonius, 116, 119 Fellowes, Cornelius, 347n Ferdinand, King of Aragon, 293-4 Field of Blood, 108, 160 Filastin, 394 Final Solution, 294, 436, 454-5, 457 Finn, James, 335, 341, 343-6, 348-9, 352-3, 444 First Wall, 69, 106n Firyal, Princess, 488, 491 Fiscus Judaicus, 130, 133 Fisk, Pliny, 337 flagellation, 106-7 Flaubert, Gustave, xix, 344-5, 346 Fleming, James, 228n Florence, 207n Flourishing Edifice, 293 Foley, Major, 389n, 391 Ford, Henry, 423n Forster, E.

., 174n Doris, 85, 88-9 Dorr, David, 347 Double Gates, 138n, 184 Dreyfus Affair, 373 Drusilla, Queen, 116, 119 Drusus, 111 Druze, 199, 356, 519 Duff, Captain Robin, 389n, 390-1 Dung Gate, 329, 497 East Prussia, 382n, 461 Easter, 148n, 159, 276, 298, 305, 339, 360, 388 Eban, Abba, 493-4 Ebenezer, Battle of, 18 Ebionites, 140n Ecclesiasticus, 58, 199n Edessa, 210, 213n, 215, 217-18, 224, 264 fall of, 233-4 Edict of Milan, 144 Edom, 65, 77 Edomites, 19, 29, 43, 69 Edward I, King, 65n, 277n, 354 Edward VII, King, 353-4, 363n Edwiga, Abbess, 201 Egeria, 152 Egypt, 13, 19n, 22, 26, 44n, 109n, 133, 135, 138, 422, 468-70 and Albanian conquest, 326-7, 334 and Arab conquests, 191, 193-4 and British rule, 362, 380, 396-7, 403, 405, 407, 423, 449 and Crusaders, 216, 218 and desert monks, 154 and Greek conquest, 53-6, 57n, 61-2 and Islamic sultanate, 243-4, 251, 253, 260-1, 264-6 and Israeli war, 477-8, 480 Israelites in, 16-17 Jewish community, 194-5 killing of dogs and cats, 198 Napoleonic invasion, 311-12, 317-18 and Nur al-Din's conquest, 238-41, 251 and Ottoman conquest, 291, 294 and peace deal, 502-3 and Persian conquests, 49-50, 162-4 and Roman occupation, 73-7, 81-2 and Six Day War, 489, 494-5, 517 and Suez Canal, 355, 490 and Turkoman conquest, 202 and UAR, 490-1 and Yom Kippur War, 505 Egyptians, ancient, 14-15, 18, 28-30, 35-6, 38, 41-2, 85n Eichmann, Adolf, 487 Eilat, 493 Ein Kerem, 95, 365, 449 Ekron, 20 El Alamein, Battle of, 460 El-Arish, 218, 380-2 Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen, 234-5, 257 Eleazar the Galilean, 130 elephants, 57, 63, 67 Elgar, Sir Edward, 321n Eliahu, Jacob, 37n, 365 Elijah, prophet, 197n Elisabeth, Empress of Austria, 378 Elizabeth I, Queen, 299 Elizabeth II, Queen, 454n Ella, Grand Duchess, 368-9, 386n, 444n, 454n Elyashar, Menache, 418 Emesa, 88n Emmaus, 163 English Hotel, 344 Enlightenment, 331, 374 Enver Pasha, Ismail, 394-5, 400-2, 408, 416 Ephraim, 24 Epic of Gilgamesh, 36, 45n Eshkol, Levi, 489-90, 493 Essenes, 100n Ethiopia, 157n, 517 Ethiopian Church, 157n, 310, 517 Euclid, 190n Eudocia, Empress, 153-7 Eudocia's Wall, 69n Eugenie, Empress, 355 Eugenius II, Pope, 234 Euphemius, 156n Euphrates, river, 35, 42, 81, 210 Eusebius of Caesarea, 136, 145-8 Eustace of Grenier, 221 Eustochium, 151 Eutropia, 146n Evliya Celebi, xxv, 290, 303-5, 309 Execration texts, 14n executions, 356, 397, 403 see also crucifixion; stoning Exodus, 460 Ezekiah, 74 Ezion-Geber, 26 Fabri, Felix, 286 Faisal, King of Iraq, 406-7, 420-1, 424-9, 431-3 Faisal II, King of Iraq, 490 Falashas, 157n Falkenhayn, Field Marshal Erich von, 408-9, 416-17 Faraj, Sultan, 283-4 Farhi, Haim, 315, 322, 323n Farouk, King of Egypt, 334n, 466, 482 Farran, Major Roy, 465-7 Farrukh, 297 Fast Hotel, 390, 401, 408, 417, 424, 451 Fatah, 488, 501-2, 505n, 507 al-Fatat, 403 Fatima (daughter of the Prophet), 172, 178, 187n, 194, 403n Fatimid dynasty, 193-5, 197, 201-2, 203n Fausta, Empress, 145, 146n Felix, Antonius, 116, 119 Fellowes, Cornelius, 347n Ferdinand, King of Aragon, 293-4 Field of Blood, 108, 160 Filastin, 394 Final Solution, 294, 436, 454-5, 457 Finn, James, 335, 341, 343-6, 348-9, 352-3, 444 First Wall, 69, 106n Firyal, Princess, 488, 491 Fiscus Judaicus, 130, 133 Fisk, Pliny, 337 flagellation, 106-7 Flaubert, Gustave, xix, 344-5, 346 Fleming, James, 228n Florence, 207n Flourishing Edifice, 293 Foley, Major, 389n, 391 Ford, Henry, 423n Forster, E.

., 418 Wauchope, Sir Arthur, 439-40, 450 Wavell, Sir Archibald, 1st Earl, 451 Wazzah, 421 Weidenfeld, George, Baron, 482, 487 Weizmann, Chaim, President, xxv, 351n, 374, 409-12, 414-15, 421, 423-31, 435, 444-6, 450, 453, 458, 478 and Buraq Uprising, 438-9 and El Alamein, 457 and Israeli presidency, 476, 480 and Nabi Musa riots, 429-30 and Orde Wingate, 450-1 Weizmann Institute of Science, 481 Well of Souls, 27n West Bank, 478, 481-2, 488, 491, 502 and Intifada, 505-6, 509 Western Wall, 9, 24n, 71, 120n, 135n, 151n, 175, 264, 286, 300, 355, 357, 379, 408, 452, 504 and Buraq Uprising, 436-8 daily rituals, 518-19, 523 as ha-Kotel, 295, 437, 497, 516 and Jewish access, 480, 482, 502, 513, 516 purchase attempts, 357, 374, 398n, 421, 437 and shofar ban, 437, 459 and Six Day War, 497-8 tunnel constructions, 509 Westminster, Jerusalem Chamber, 285 White Russians, 444 Wiesel, Elie, 512 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 355-6, 375-80, 389, 395, 408, 417 William III, King, 331 William, Patriarch, 223 William of Tyre, xxv, 208, 222, 233-4, 237-9, 242, 244, 245n William the Conqueror, King, 201, 208 William the Troubadour, 234-5 Wilson, Captain Charles, 354, 363n, 390 Wilson, Captain Clarence, 389n, 390-1 Wilson, Woodrow, President, 427-8 Wilson's Arch, 354 Wingate, Lorna, 452 Wingate, General Orde, 450-2, 453n, 456, 494 Winthrop, John, 301 Wittenberg, 296 Wolff, Heinrich, 439 Woodhead Commission, 442n Workers of Zion, 383 World Islamic Conference, 439 Worms Cathedral, 379n Wrangel, Count Herman, 389n Xenophon, 49 Xerxes, King of Persia, 50n, 52 Yaacovy, Yitzhak, 487 Yachin and Boaz pillars, 26 Yad Vashem memorial, 455n, 487n, 504 Yalta conference, 462n, 463 al-Yaqubi, 172n Yarmuk, Battle of, 172-3, 177n Yathrib, 170 Yaush, 42n Yavneh (Jamnia), 132 Yazid, ibn Abi Sufyan, 180 Yemen, 158n, 174, 194, 243, 251, 255 Yishuv, 445, 459, 467, 470 Yohanan ben Zakkai, 10 Yolande, Queen of Jerusalem, 265n, 266-7, 270n Yom Kippur War, 502 York, 257 Young, William Turner, 330, 332, 334-5 Young Turk movement, 384, 394, 402 Yvette, Princess, 228 Zachariah, prophet, 101 Zacharias, 95 Zacharias, Patriarch, 161 Zadok the priest, 25, 52, 54-5, 67 Zaharoff, Sir Basil, 423 Zahir, Caliph, 199-200 Zahir, Sultan, 251, 262-4 Zahir al-Umar al-Zaydani, Sheikh, 310-11 Zalatimo, Muhammad, 135n Zangi, Atabeg, 223-4, 231, 233-4, 251 Zangwill, Israel, 332n, 382 Zealots, 123, 125 Zedekiah, King, 42-3 Zeinab, Madame, 457 Zenobia, 140 Zenon, 56n Zerubbabel, Prince, 49-50, 85 Zikhron Zion, 444 Ziklag, 20 zinnor, 22 Zion Gate, 207, 307, 417, 479-80, 497 Zionism, xx, 191n, 279, 373-82, 394, 409-15, 421-5, 430-1, 433, 435-7, 445-6, 478, 513 America and, 412-14, 428, 460-1 Britain and, xxv, 380-1, 409-15, 423-4, 431, 443, 467 Christian, 301, 374 Churchill and, 410-14, 432, 459 Germany and, 413-14 Herzland, 373-82 military, 458, 501 Zionist Commission, 421 Zionist Congresses, 375, 380n, 382, 438 Zoroaster, 48n, 50n The Temple Mount - Har haBayit in Hebrew, Haram al-Sharif in Arabic, known in the Bible as Mount Moriah - is the centrepiece of Jerusalem.

 

Frommer's Israel by Robert Ullian

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airport security, British Empire, car-free, East Village, haute cuisine, Khartoum Gordon, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Silicon Valley, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

In the absence of a peace settlement that would trade most land captured in 1967 for peace, the occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip began to seem less temporary. The small political movement for Jewish settlement of the Occupied Territories began to grow, although initially opposed by the Israeli government. Resentment among the Palestinians under occupation quietly rose. The country experienced a sharp change in fortune in October 1973. The Yom Kippur War, a completely unexpected 1914 Jews from Russia and Allied countries expelled by Ottoman Turks. ■ 1917 Balfour Declaration supporting Jewish national home in Palestine. British free Jerusalem from Turks. ■ 1920 Official start of British Mandate. ■ 1922 British create TransJordan (now Jordan) from Palestinian lands east of the Jordan River. ■ 1925 Hebrew University founded in Jerusalem. ■ 1929 Arab-Jewish riots.

The Intifada, a grass-roots program of daily commercial strikes and demonstrations (both violent and nonviolent) against the military authorities, began. The Intifada continued through the early 1990s. 1967 Egypt expels peacekeeping force. Israel wins SixDay War, occupies Sinai, Golan, West Bank, and Gaza. ■ 1972 Palestinian terrorists massacre Israeli athletes at Munich Olympics. ■ 1973 Egypt and Syria attack during Yom Kippur War. ■ 1976 Israelis rescue Jewish hostages at Entebbe Airport. ■ 1977 Likud wins elections. Sadat of Egypt comes to Jerusalem. ■ 33 1979 Israel and Egypt sign peace treaty negotiated at Camp David. ■ 1982 Israel invades Lebanon. ■ 1984 Labor-Likud Coalition. Withdrawal from most of Lebanon. Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews. ■ 1987 First Palestinian Intifada begins. ■ 1989 Great Soviet aliyah begins. ■ continues 06_289693-ch02.qxp 34 10/28/08 9:32 AM CHAPTER 2 .

Deeply committed to the land, a visionary who believed Israel’s future lay in the development of the desert, he retired to the Negev kibbutz of Sde Boker after his final term in office. In the euphoria after the 1967 war, Ben-Gurion urged magnanimous terms for a peace settlement, including the return of most conquered lands. He lived just long enough to see his country survive the onslaught of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Abba Eban (1915–2002) South African– born, Cambridge-educated author, diplomat, and former foreign minister, Eban was noted for an eloquence and wit unrivaled among Western leaders since Winston Churchill. When asked by reporters about divisions between hawks and doves in the Israel cabinet during the tense days before the Six-Day War, he quipped, “The government of Israel is hardly an aviary.”

 

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

The canvas is enormous—from the drilling of the first well in Pennsylvania through two great world wars to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The Prize reveals how and why oil has become the largest industry in the world, a game of huge risks and monumental rewards. Oil has played a critical role in world events, from Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler's invasion of Russia to the Suez crisis and the Yom Kippur War. It has propelled the once poor nations of the Middle East into positions of unprecedented world power. And even now it is fueling the heated debate over energy needs versus environmental protection. With compelling narrative sweep, The Prize chronicles the dramatic and decisive events in the history of oil. It is peopled by a vividly portrayed gallery of characters that make it a fascinating story—not only the wildcatters, rogues, and oil tycoons, but also the politicians and heads of state.

A dramatic account of the crucial October 12 meeting is in chaps. 1 and 12 of Anthony Sampson's classic history of the international oil industry, The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped, rev. ed. (London: Coronet, 1988), esp. pp. 262-64 and 32-33. [8] Interviews with William Quandt and Harold Saunders ("fall maneuvers"); Sadat, In Search of Identity, pp. 241-42; Kissinger, Years of Upheaval, pp. 482, 459-67; Safran, Israel, pp. 285-86, 484; Avi Shlaim, "Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War," World Politics 28 (1975), pp. 352-59 ("conception"); Moshe Ma'oz, Asad: The Sphinx of Damascus (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1988), pp. 91-92. [9] Safran, Israel, pp. 482-90 ("Third Temple" and Meir's letters); Kissinger, Years of Upheaval, pp. 493-96 ("conscious"), 536 ("stakes"); Multinational Hearings, part 7, pp. 546-47 (Aramco letter), 217; Interviews with William Quandt, James Schlesinger, and Fadhil al-Chalabi; Schneider, Oil Price Revolution, pp. 225-26 (Kuwaiti oil minister); MEES, October 19,1973, p. 6.

New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. Sherrill, Robert. The Oil Follies of 1970-1980: How the Petroleum Industry Stole the Show (and Much More Besides). Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983. Sherwood, Elizabeth D. Allies in Crises: Meeting Global Challenges to Western Security. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. Shlaim, Avi. "Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War." World Politics 28 (April 1976): 348-80. Shuckburgh, Evelyn. Descent to Suez: Diaries, 1951-1956. Ed. John Charmley. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986. Shwadran, Benjamin. The Middle East, Oil and the Great Powers. 3d rev. ed. New York: John Wiley, 1973. Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986. Silliman, Jr., B. Report on the Rock Oil, or Petroleum, from Venango Co., Pennsylvania.

 

pages: 654 words: 191,864

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, cognitive bias, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demand response, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, index card, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nudge unit, pattern recognition, pre–internet, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, union organizing, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

Some suspected that German spies were located in the unharmed areas. A careful statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of hits was typical of a random process—and typical as well in evoking a strong impression that it was not random. “To the untrained eye,” Feller remarks, “randomness appears as regularity or tendency to cluster.” I soon had an occasion to apply what I had learned frpeaрrainom Feller. The Yom Kippur War broke out in 1973, and my only significant contribution to the war effort was to advise high officers in the Israeli Air Force to stop an investigation. The air war initially went quite badly for Israel, because of the unexpectedly good performance of Egyptian ground-to-air missiles. Losses were high, and they appeared to be unevenly distributed. I was told of two squadrons flying from the same base, one of which had lost four planes while the other had lost none.

Petersburg paradox Strack, Fritz strangers, assessment of Strangers to Ourselves (Wilson) Streep, Meryl strength, assessments of structured settlements Stumbling to Happiness (Gilbert) substitution; and mood heuristic for happiness; and 3-D heuristic success, uot sum-like variables sunk-cost fallacy Sunstein, Cass Super Bowl supply and demand surgeons Surowiecki, James surprise survey and gift experiments survival-mortality experiment symbols System 1; characteristics of; conflict between System 2 and System 2; conflict between System 1 and; laziness of Taleb, Nassim talent task sets task switching Tate, Geoffrey taxes; child exemptions and temperament temptation Tenet, George terrorism Tetlock, Philip Thaler, Richard theory-induced blindness therapists thinking like a trader Thomas, Lewis threats; possibility effect and 3-D heuristic tickets; buying and selling of; sunk cost in time; use of time pressure Todorov, Alex token experiment Tom W problem “Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth” (Barber and Odean) transactions and trades Traviata, La (Verdi) Truman, Harry trustworthiness, assessments of truth, illusions of Tversky, Amos understanding, illusion of unique cases University College London University of California at Berkeley University of Chicago University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Oregon unlikely events, see rare events unknown unknowns utility; decision; experienced; indifference map and; injection puzzle and; meanings of utility theory; certainty effect and; decision weights and probabilities in vacations vaccines validity: of clinical vs. statistical predictions; evaluating; illusion of Vallone, Robert value; see also utility Vancouver Island Venn diagrams venture capitalists victim compensation vividness; of outcomes; of probabilities vocabulary: of girls vs. boys; simple vs. pretentious Vohs, Kathleen vomit, effect of word Von Neumann, John voting Wainer, Howard walking wars Washington Post, The wealth, see money and wealth weather Weber, Ernste> weight and piano playing, measuring Weiner, Howard well-being; climate and; defining; disposition for; duration weighting and; see also happiness West, Richard what you see is all there is (WYSIATI); confidence and; curriculum team and; Julie problem and; optimistic bias and; premortem and; professorial candidate problem and; soldiers’ performance and; Tom W problem and wheel of fortune “wicked” environments Wilson, Timothy Wimbledon tournament wine Winter Olympics Wisdom of Crowds, The (Surowiecki) witnesses’ evidence Woods, Tiger words: complex vs. simple; emotionally-loaded World Cup World War II worry WYSIATI, see what you see is all there is X-rays Xu, Jing Yale exam problem Yom Kippur War Zajonc, Robert Zamir, Eyal Zeller, Kathryn Zweig, Jason Zwerling, Harris Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Copyright © 2011 by Daniel Kahneman All rights reserved Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to reprint the following previously published material: “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” from Science, New Series, Vol. 185, No. 4157, copyright © 1974 by Amos Tversky and Dan"0%" te>X-rays Science.

 

pages: 840 words: 202,245

Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present by Jeff Madrick

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, inventory management, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, technology bubble, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, union organizing, V2 rocket, value at risk, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

., p. 85. 17 “WE HAD A GENTLEMAN’S AGREEMENT”: Anonymous author interview, May 2009. 18 IN ONE OF THE PREDICTIONS: These successful predictions also included timely investments in Japanese and European energy companies and food stocks, and selling short the overly popular growth stocks, known as the Nifty Fifty, such as Xerox. They also invested in defense company stocks when few were interested after the Vietnam War, anticipating there would again be an arms race with Russia, and that Israel would step up its armaments purchases after the Yom Kippur War. Slater, Soros, pp. 76–77. 19 SOROS SOLD BRITISH GILTS: Ibid., p. 84. 20 THE SOROS FUND ROSE: George Soros, The Alchemy of Finance, p. 146; Slater, Soros, pp. 80–84. 21 BONDS COLLAPSED IN VALUE: Slater, Soros, pp. 90–92. 22 HE POSITIONED THE QUANTUM FUND: He documented the ensuing trades between 1985 and 1986 in The Alchemy of Finance, in which he published a real-time diary of his strategy. 23 AND HE DID ALL THIS AGGRESSIVELY: Ibid., Chapters 12–14, pp. 196–296. 24 HE EARNED HIMSELF NEARLY $95 MILLION: Slater, Soros, p. 143. 25 “MARKETS ARE ALWAYS BIASED”: Soros, The Alchemy of Finance, p. 49. 26 SOROS, FOR EXAMPLE, WAS ACCUSED: Slater, Soros, p. 83. 27 BUT HE WAS FOUND GUILTY: John Tagliabue, “Soros Is Found Guilty in France on Charges of Insider Trading,” New York Times, December 21, 2002, http://search.aol.com/aol/search?

(Reagan), 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Whyte, William Wigmore, Barrie Williams, Harrison Williams Act (1968), 4.1, 13.1 William Volker Charitable Fund, 2.1, 2.2 Wills, Garry, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Winnick, Gary, 17.1, 17.2 Witness (Chambers), 7.1 Wojnilower, Albert, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 9.1, 11.1 working class, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 9.1, 10.1, 16.1 working conditions, itr.1, prl.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4 World Bank, 6.1, 6.2 WorldCom, 16.1, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 19.1, 19.2 World War I, 2.1, 11.1 World War II, itr.1, prl.1, prl.2, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 15.1 Wright, Robert, 12.1, 12.2 Wriston, Henry, 1.1, 1.2 Wriston, Walter, 1.1, 1.2, 6.1, 6.2; background of, 1.3, 1.4; as banker, 1.5, 4.1, 5.1, 6.3, 6.4, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3; as Citibank and Citicorp CEO, itr.1, 1.6, 6.5, 11.2, 16.4, 19.1; economic views of, itr.1, 1.7, 1.8, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8; as First National City CEO, 1.9, 1.10, 15.1, 16.5; Friedman’s influence on, 1.11, 1.12, 6.9; government regulation opposed by, itr.1, 1.13, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 9.1; LCD debts approved by, 6.14; New Deal as viewed by, itr.1, 1.14; Regulation Q opposed by, 6.15, 6.16, 9.2; reputation of, 1.15, 6.17, 6.18; Weill compared with, 16.6 Wyman, Jane, 7.1, 7.2 Wynn, Steve, 13.1, 13.2 Xerox Corp., 1.1, 14.1, 19.1, 19.2 Yellen, Janet, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3 Yom Kippur War, 3.1, 19.1 Young Americans for Freedom, prl.1 Zandi, Mark, 14.1, 19.1, 19.2 Zarb, Frank, 16.1, 16.2 Zweig, Phillip ILLUSTRATION CREDITS prl.1 LEWIS UHLER: Terry Ashe / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 1.1 WALTER WRISTON: Ralph Morse / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 2.1 MILTON FRIEDMAN: AP Photo 3.1 RICHARD NIXON: Bettmann / CORBIS 4.1 JOE FLOM: Rob Rich / Getty Images 5.1 IVAN BOESKY: Misha Erwitt / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 6.1 WALTER WRISTON: Bettmann / CORBIS 7.1 RONALD REAGAN: Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library 8.1 TED TURNER: Cynthia Johnson / Liaison / Getty Images 8.2 SAM WALTON: Eli Reichman / TIME LIFE Pictures / Getty Images 8.3 STEVE ROSS: Richard Corkery / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 9.1 JIMMY CARTER: AP Photo / Harvey Georges 10.1 HOWARD JARVIS: AP Photo / Lennox McLendon 11.1 PAUL VOLCKER: AP Photo / Stf 12.1 TOM PETERS: Roger Ressmeyer / CORBIS 12.2 JACK WELCH: Reuters / Landov 13.1 MICHAEL MILKEN: Ed Molinari / NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images 14.1 ALAN GREENSPAN: Paul J.

 

pages: 812 words: 180,057

The Generals: American Military Command From World War II to Today by Thomas E. Ricks

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affirmative action, airport security, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, hiring and firing, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Yom Kippur War

It was a newly created headquarters, designed by him to bring together, for the first time, the Army’s efforts on training, research, and doctrine—the last of these being essentially how the service thinks about how to fight. The Army was out of Vietnam, and DePuy was focused on its future, which he saw as conventional, tank-heavy battles in Europe. When the fourth Arab-Israeli conflict (also known as the Yom Kippur War, the Ramadan War, or the October War) broke out that fall, he made the lessons and implications of the Israeli counterattack the centerpiece of his efforts to modernize and refocus the Army. The Arab forces, Soviet-trained and equipped, were a reasonable facsimile of what the U.S. Army would face on the plains of Central Europe if the superpowers ever went to war. DePuy also radically improved the Army’s training efforts, beginning by doing away with mind-numbing time-based training, in which a certain number of hours were to be spent on each basic task in a soldier’s field, and replaced it with a competence-based system.

., 356, 495n Winton, Walter, 182, 495n, 496n Woerner, Frederick, 362, 462 Wolfowitz, Paul, 375–76 Wong, Leonard, 468n Woodring, Harry, 30 Woods, Kevin, 524n, 525n, 526n Woodward, Bob, 531n Woolley, John, 516n Worden, William, 486n World War I, 32, 58, 73, 96, 107, 114, 151, 410, 444, 454 commanders in, 26–27 Gallipoli battle in, 69 Marshall in, 19–20, 23 Meuse-Argonne offensive in, 23 relief policy in, 21–23, 185 Saint-Mihiel offensive in, 23 World War II, 7, 11, 12, 107, 114, 119, 126, 151, 153, 171, 178, 197, 217, 237, 309, 420, 444 Bradley in, 116–17 DePuy’s experience in, 2, 5–6, 244 draft in, 113 Eisenhower’s proposed strategy for, 45–47 Eisenhower’s war aims in, 48–49 end of, 111–12 Falaise pocket in, 362–63 firepower in, 245 growth of U.S. armed forces in, 15, 35–36 high-command mistakes in, 50–51 Japanese surrender in, 384 military drawdown after, 389–90 Phony War in, 29 promotion from the ranks in, 113 relief policy in, 11–12, 17–19, 38–39, 69–71, 110, 112, 185, 187, 188, 251, 381 World War I commanders and, 26–27 see also Sicily campaign Wunderlin, Clarence E., Jr., 469 X Corps, U.S., 132, 154–56, 170 XVIII Airborne Corps, U.S., 357 Yeosock, John, 381 Yingling, Paul, 8, 349, 441–44, 460, 468n, 531n, 532n Yom Kippur War, 337–38 Young, Brigham, 19 Young, Stephen, 509n Zelikow, Philip, 410, 418, 437, 448 PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS 1 (left): Courtesy National Archives, Army Signal Corps photo #16150-41-4788 2 (right): Frank Scherschel / Time & Life Pictures / Getty Images 3 (left): Courtesy of the George C. Marshall Foundation 4 (right): Courtesy National Archives, Official Military Personnel Files, ARC 2595210 5: © Bettmann / Corbis 6: Courtesy National Archives, Army Signal Corps 7: © Bettmann / Corbis 8 (top): Courtesy National Archives, Still Pictures Records Section, ARC 5891326 9 (bottom): Courtesy National Archives, photo 127-GR-213 B-A 5415 10 (top): Courtesy National Archives, Harry S.

 

pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

It was in the seventies that this “Age of Compression”—so named for the steady increase in income equality that was one of its features—finally ground to a halt.2 There was one particular event that contributed to this revision of economic expectations. In 1973 the Arab-dominated Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) responded to Washington’s decision to supply the Israeli forces in the Yom Kippur war by cutting off oil exports to the United States and other Western countries viewed as supporters of the Jewish state; the resulting surge in prices affected even the countries that were not directly targeted by the embargo. The result was the deepest economic slump since the Great Depression. Long lines formed at gasoline stations throughout the developed world. Officials in the United States beseeched consumers to go without Christmas lights over the holiday season; gas rationing was introduced.

See also John Paul II Wolf, Markus, 199 Women, 39, 46, 54, 64, 159, 193, 246, 287, 359 in Afghanistan, 12, 36, 99, 101, 102, 100, 212, 356–357, 360 in Egypt, 220, 222 in Iran, 8, 41, 43, 48, 92, 153, 229, 230, 294, 348 women’s right to vote, 43, 48, 88, 153, 294 See also Prostitution Workers, 2, 7, 8, 15, 16, 18, 26, 51, 63, 69, 70, 76, 124, 141, 150, 156, 158, 172, 174, 181, 182, 192, 197, 200, 204, 259, 275–276, 278–279, 283, 319, 331, 340 See also Employment; Strikes; Unions World Bank, 44 World War II, 59, 69, 70, 350 Wyszyński, Stefan Cardinal, 16, 77, 281 Yazdi, Ebrahim, 107, 108, 142, 152, 232, 233, 300 Ye Jianying (Army Marshal), 118, 120, 127, 131 Yemen, 10, 46 Yom Kippur war, 2 Young, Hugo, 191 Young people, 16, 35, 40, 41, 45, 46, 64, 92, 113, 221, 222, 274, 287, 295, 348, 355. See also Students Yugoslavia, 72, 249, 287 Yu Guangyuan, 129, 131–132, 256 Zahir Shah (King of Iran), 11, 37–38, 96, 97 Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 308, 347 Zhao Ziyang, 128, 251–252, 252–253, 332, 333, 334 Zhou Enlai, 22–23, 26, 119, 126, 127, 130, 332 Zhu De (Marshal), 24 Zhuo Lin, 29–30 Zia ul-Haq, Muhammad, 215, 220, 271 Zierer, Edith, 71

 

pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

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back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

But Nixon’s dollar devaluation and import tax cut into those revenues. The Arab rulers suddenly felt that the United States was reneging on its deal. “What is the point of producing more oil and selling it for an unguaranteed paper currency?” asked the Kuwaiti oil minister, urging his Middle Eastern counterparts to cut back production in order to raise prices.11 After the United States sold weapons to Israel during the October 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and the Arab states, the Arabs placed an oil embargo on the United States. The U.S. government brokered a cease-fire in the same month, but the embargo continued for six months. When it finally ended, the oil producers had demonstrated their ability to control the flow of the essential ingredient of modern commerce and military might, and they would not go back to the old subservient relationship.

 

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Seemingly modest actions can reverberate throughout society by altering, if only slightly, people’s evaluations of costs and benefits. Such is the case of the 55 mph speed limit imposed across the United States in 1974 as a way to conserve gasoline in the wake of the first oil crisis, when Arab countries proclaimed an oil embargo in response to the United States’ decision to resupply the Israeli military after the Yom Kippur War. Conserving gas was a reasonable objective at the time. The strategy, however, was fatally flawed because it ignored the value of drivers’ time. At the new legal limit, a seventy-mile trip would take about one hour and sixteen minutes—sixteen minutes more than at 70 mph. Considering that the wages of production workers in 1974 averaged around $4.30 an hour, those sixteen minutes to commute to and from work would cost a typical worker about $1.15.

 

pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

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Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Long History on the Nuclear Road Japan had been travelling the nuclear road for 40 years, having opened the Fukushima plant in March 1971 in response to environmental concerns and the 1967 oil export embargo imposed by some Arab producers following the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbours. That brief embargo was followed by the much more severe “oil shock” of 1973–1974, when Arab producers within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) declared sharp price rises, production cuts, and an oil embargo targeting the United States and some other Western nations over their support for Israel in its October 1973 Yom Kippur War with Syria and Egypt. This second oil shock encouraged Japan and other advanced economies to further embrace the nuclear option. A third oil shock came in 1979, when the Iranian Revolution disrupted production there, sending global oil prices higher. That spurred increased oil production from a variety of new, non-OPEC sources in the 1980s, which, combined with energy conservation and slower economic growth, meant oil prices declined sharply from the mid-1980s.

 

pages: 356 words: 95,647

Sun in a Bottle: The Strange History of Fusion and the Science of Wishful Thinking by Charles Seife

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Brownian motion, correlation does not imply causation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Mikhail Gorbachev, Project Plowshare, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, Yom Kippur War

Siegel, the entrepreneur, exuded confidence in public. He was sure, he said, that he could turn lasers into “efficient fusion power” within “the next few years.” After false starts and two decades of struggle with magnetic bottles, the era of fusion finally seemed at hand. The timing could scarcely have been better. The United States was just getting through its first oil crisis. Because of American support for Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Arab members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cut off oil supplies to the U.S. Gas prices skyrocketed. It was becoming painfully clear that the country had to find another source of energy—anything other than petroleum—if it was to avoid being held hostage to OPEC’s interests. It was scarcely two months after the embargo was lifted that a jittery nation learned about Siegel and KMS.

 

pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

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autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Never mind that at 7.2 percent, unemployment in November 1984 was only slightly lower than in November 1980, when it was 7.5 percent. The economy was in recovery. But the Golden Age was over. The first sign of trouble had been stagnation of the median income. In October 1973 the Arab members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries retaliated against U.S. support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War by imposing an embargo that quadrupled the price of oil. The immediate result was a sixteen-month recession and a simultaneous upsurge in inflation, an unusually hideous combination dubbed “stagflation.” After the recession ended, in March 1975, the median income was expected to resume a brisk upward climb. But it didn’t. Median income, which more than doubled between 1947 and 1973, would rise by less than one quarter between 1973 and 2004.

 

pages: 304 words: 88,495

The Powerhouse: Inside the Invention of a Battery to Save the World by Steve Levine

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colonial rule, Elon Musk, energy security, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Yom Kippur War

Few knew it, he would say, but for a short time almost four decades before, South Africa was one of the great centers of battery thinking. In Pretoria in the late 1970s, Thackeray, in shaggy, blondish hair and long sideburns, did his Ph.D. under a crystallographer named Johan Coetzer. One day, Coetzer walked into the lab and announced a new project. They were going to “do some stuff in the energy field.” The Yom Kippur War between Israel and its Arab neighbors had triggered an energy crisis and the Western world was seeking a way around Middle East oil. Coetzer thought one answer was the advancement of batteries and he told Thackeray that that was where they would focus their work. The effort was challenged from the beginning because of South Africa’s system of apartheid, to which the world had responded with economic sanctions.

 

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Over the last four decades, each time oil prices have spiked, the global economy has rolled over into a recession. The problems may take different guises, such as stagflation in the 1970s or the financial market meltdown in 2008. Regardless of what story made the most headlines at the time, oil prices were lurking at the root of the problem. Consider the first oil shock, created by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) following the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Set off by this Arab-Israeli conflict, OPEC’s Arab members turned off the taps on roughly 8 percent of the world’s oil supply by cutting shipments to the United States and other Israeli allies. Crude prices spiked, and by 1974 real GDP in the United States had shrunk by 2.5 percent. The second OPEC oil shock happened during Iran’s revolution and the subsequent war with Iraq. Disruptions to Iranian production during the revolution sent crude prices higher, pushing the North American economy into a recession for the first half of 1980.

 

pages: 355 words: 63

The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly

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Andrei Shleifer, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Urbanism, open economy, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

After 1985, it had one of the most successful 218 Chapter 11 treatments of high inflation in the world.To macroeconomists, Israel is a great laboratory for studyingwhathappens to a country’s growth rate whenit gets the high inflation disease. The story begins in late 1973, when OPEC’s oil price increase hit Israel as well as many other countries. Unlike most other countries, Israel was in a war atthe same time: the Yom Kippur war of October 1973. Throughout much of history, inflation has been an expedient that governments use in wartime. When governments have to spend a lot of money in a hurry and with no extra tax revenue lying around, they resort to printing money.Both sides of both world wars printed money. The U.S.government printed moneylike never before during the Civil War, but not as fast as the even more revenue-starved Confederate States government.

 

pages: 371 words: 101,792

Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am by Robert Gandt

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airline deregulation, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Maui Hawaii, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster, yield management, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

It sounded like a fairy tale when the story broke in the May 13 Wall Street Journal: NEW YORK—Pan American World Airways is saved. Its existence now seems assured for many years, and it may even turn a profit this year—thanks to some special circumstances. And the circumstances were pretty special. In Pan Am’s darkest hour, a fairy godfather had come to the rescue. It happened like this. In 1974, following the Yom Kippur War and the resultant oil price hikes by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the cost of jet fuel went through the ceiling. Only about 6 percent of Pan American’s total jet fuel was purchased from domestic sources. The rest was bought overseas, at OPEC-controlled prices. Pan Am’s fuel bill abruptly doubled. Because of the hugeness of the airline’s losses that year, Seawell applied to the Civil Aeronautics Board for temporary subsidy.

 

pages: 1,208 words: 364,966

Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War by Robert Fisk

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, friendly fire, haute couture, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

Aliza brought tea and cakes and put them on the table beneath the tree. Tea and cakes with the fighter pilot. Bach had finished on the tape deck. ‘Sometimes in war, you kill people,’ Specter said. ‘This is what war is all about. Yes, human awareness is there. We relied on intelligence very, very much. This was not an article of faith. But our country relies on intelligence even in peacetime. In the one case where it failed, we paid for it – in the Yom Kippur war.’ But surely the intelligence was wrong? Thousands of civilians died in Lebanon. Whole apartment blocks were destroyed by the Israeli planes. Israeli intelligence had to have been wrong, surely? Specter was still reluctant to talk about the intelligence briefings at his Galilee airbase. But he also recognised that the issues were not being addressed. ‘I will tell you this. There would be a briefing.

When did the pilots realise this was all wrong? ‘The Sabra and Chatila massacre was the cornerstone of everything, that what we were doing was not just a mistake but was wrong. The strain, the tension of some of our people was real. Pilots came again and again and asked: “Can we be sure about the targets? Are they alright?”’ Specter could not stop talking now. The reticence was gone. ‘Look, there is a problem. The Yom Kippur war was a war of life and death for our state. But some of our pilots turned out to be pacifists at the wrong time … In the middle of the war, they found they were pacifists. Now to be a pacifist is probably a nice thing to be most of the year – but not when you are at war. In other words, we told our pilots: “If you want to refuse orders, deal with your ideology before you begin your flying course.”

., 60n Walker, Julian, 147 Wall Street Journal, The, 393n, 402, 403 Wallace, Charles, 587 Walters, Barbara, 409 Waring, Robert, 83, 84 Warsaw, 6, 8, 48, 169, 394, 438 Warsaw Pact, 192 Washington Journalism Review, 422n Washington Post, The, x, 137, 200, 244, 357, 421, 581 Washington Times, 568n Wavell barracks, 68 Wazzan, Chafiq, 260, 264, 270, 279, 320n, 322, 348, 532 Wazzir, Khalil see Abu Jihad Weinberger, Caspar, 350, 351, 445, 451, 475, 477 Weinraub, Major Yehuda, 412 Weir, Benjamin, 595, 612 Weizmann, Chaim, 142 Weizman, Ezer, 123, 124 West Bank, 83, 196, 231, 254, 260, 331, 347, 351, 399n, 403, 411, 422, 423, 438, 444, 477, 479, 551, 630, 631, 646 Palestinian uprising in, xi Palestinians exiled in, 18 and Arab–Israeli war, 19 Arab settlement on, 43 Arab inhabitants of, 61 Israel’s conquest of (1967), 73, 541 Palestinian attacks on Israelis, 194 West Berlin bombing (1986), 615–16 West German Embassy, Beirut, 170, 171 Wiesel, Elie, 394–5 William II, Kaiser, 666 Wilson, Charles, xiii, 567, 618 Wilson, Edmund, 406 Wojciech, Stetkiewicz, 1, 6, 9, 10, 11 Wooten, James, 429n Worldwide Television, 616 Wright, Jonathan, 582 Ya’ari, Ehud, xi, 189n, 340n, 350n, 569n Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial, 7, 16, 392, 404–5 Yaghobzadeh, Alfred, 608 Yanbu, 646 Yarze military headquarters, 473, 491 Yassin, Amal, 656 Yater, 551–2 Yazour, 27 Yediot Ahronot, 395n Yehoshua, A.B., 395 Yemen, x, 44, 45, 200, 269 Yermiya, Lieutenant-Colonel Dov, 251n Yohmor, 256n Yom Kippur war (1973), 310, 311, 396 ‘Younis’ (Shin Bet code name), 572 Yugoslavia, 307, 389 Zaaboub, Adel, 180–1, 355 Zabedani, 487 Zahle, 82–3, 107, 122, 187–90, 499, 501, 590, 601, 635 Zahran, General Mohamed, 346–7 Zahrani, near Sidon, 104, 458, 575 Zahrani River, 211 zaim (zuama), 75, 76, 118, 120, 122, 339, 432, 524 Zamzam, Fatima, 36–47, 61, 68 Zamzam, Hassan, 37, 47 Zamzam, Mohamed, 38 Zamzam, Mustafa, 36, 37 Zarab, Lieutenant-Colonel Basagh, 341, 342, 343, 347, 357 Zeidan, Habib, 248 Zghorta, 76, 639, 641 Ziegler, Lieutenant Conway, 135 Zionism/Zionists, 14, 15, 20, 85, 93, 151, 170, 541 Zionist Federation, 46, 47n Zippori, Mordechai, 381 Zrariyeh, 417, 581 ZSU anti-aircraft guns, 646 * The Tragedy of Lebanon: Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers by Jonathan Randal (London, Chatto and Windus, 1983); Israel’s Lebanon War by Ze’ev Schiff and Ehud Ya’ari (London, George Allen and Unwin, 1985)

 

pages: 415 words: 103,231

Gusher of Lies: The Dangerous Delusions of Energy Independence by Robert Bryce

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Berlin Wall, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, financial independence, flex fuel, hydrogen economy, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

America’s increasing oil consumption and declining oil production ensured that.9 In April 1973, the import quota on foreign oil ended. And just six months after that, America was hit by the biggest energy crisis in its history, the Arab oil embargo. 6 1973 The Embargo, Militarism, and Rhetoric It’s common wisdom in the United States that the Arab oil embargo of 1973 was responsible for the long gas lines and tremendous upheaval that hit American society in the months after the Yom Kippur War. That wisdom is wrong. The embargo—which began on October 17, 1973, just 19 months after the Railroad Commission went to 100 percent allowable, and lasted until March 1974—changed the global balance of power and put America on the defensive.1 But the embargo did not cause a shortage of motor fuel or the gas lines that hit the U.S. during that time period. Let me repeat that: The embargo did not cause motor fuel shortages in the U.S.

 

pages: 561 words: 120,899

The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes' Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant From Two Centuries of Controversy by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne

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bioinformatics, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double helix, Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, full text search, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, linear programming, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, p-value, placebo effect, prediction markets, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Cheaper and more powerful computers were transforming Bayesian searches from mathematical and analytical problems to algorithms for software programs. Stone’s book became a classic, important for the military, the Coast Guard, fishermen, police, oil explorers, and others. While Stone was writing his book, the United States agreed to help Egypt clear the Suez Canal of unexploded ammunition from the Yom Kippur war with Israel in 1973. The explosives made dredging dangerous. Using the SEPs developed in Palomares, it was possible to measure the search effectiveness to get the probability that, if a bomb had been there, it would have been spotted. But how could anyone estimate the number of bombs remaining in the canal when no one knew how many were there to begin with? Wagner, Associates chose three priors with different probability distributions to express high, middle, and low numbers.

 

pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

robert Silverman, “preface of Deux Roues, Un Avenir, by Claire Morissette (Montreal: Écosociété, 1994), available at http://www.cam.org/~rsilver/preface.htm. ibid. in an interview with Ms. magazine in 1974, rivvy Berkman (now rivvy neshama) said of bike advocacy, “it’s a fight for space.” See “Ecology, a Family affair,” Ms. (november 1974). in 1973, OpEC initiated an oil embargo against the United States in retaliation for its financial, military, and political support of israel in the arab-israeli War (also known as the yom Kippur War). OpEC previously initiated an oil embargo against the United States and its allies during the Six-Day War in 1967, though its effects were negligible. For more on the embargo, see M. S. Daoudi and M. S. Dajani, Economic Diplomacy: Embargo Leverage and World Politics, Westview Special Studies in international relations (Boulder, CO: Westview press, 1985). “Back to the Bike,” New York Times, July 13, 1974.

 

pages: 435 words: 127,403

Panderer to Power by Frederick Sheehan

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Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, reserve currency, rising living standards, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, VA Linux, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

This relationship will be discussed again in Chapter 24. The Federal Reserve’s Inflation Calculations Arthur Burns followed the most expeditious route to tame inflation: changing how the measure was calculated. Stephen Roach was a young economist at the Federal Reserve.7 After oil prices quadrupled, Arthur Burns instructed his staff to calculate a CPI stripped of energy costs. Burns’s rationale was the blazing Yom Kippur War, over which the Fed had no control.8 Why the Federal Reserve’s influence should matter in how the rate of consumer price inflation is calculated could be better understood by reading memoirs of the Nixon administration than by studying Arthur Burns’s seminal textbook, Measuring Business Cycles. Roach recalls: “Alas, it didn’t turn out to be quite that simple.” Burns thought the disappearance of anchovies off the Peruvian coast caused food costs to rise.

 

pages: 504 words: 143,303

Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War

It strengthened the whip hand of the financial sector and weakened the power of governments to control interest rates and credit creation, including their power to encourage real investment and full employment. As hosts to the dominant centres of financialisation, the US and British governments backed this shift to a rentier capitalism.20 In 1973 the oil-producing countries restricted oil supply in retaliation for US support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War. This resulted in a rise in energy costs that led to a major crisis, with soaring inflation and declining profits. Inflation reduced the real rate of interest, favouring debtors; debt payments become less onerous if the currency you have to pay them in is losing value fast. For a while, with a still-strong labour movement, many workers could continue to win wage rises to keep up with inflation but, as unemployment rose in the old industrialised countries, the post-war balance of power between capital and organised labour crumbled as deindustrialisation hit union membership.

 

Little Failure: A Memoir by Gary Shteyngart

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, East Village, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Activities include making caramel candies in the mold of E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial and discussing the TV special Something About Amelia, in which Ted Danson has sex with his own daughter. Mrs. A is a born conversationalist, and Pilot Program gives her a chance to free-associate while making baked goods. When someone mentions the Steven Spielberg movie Jaws, Mrs. A tells a fascinating story about an Israeli soldier caught in an explosion during the Yom Kippur War, who was left with nothing but three holes where his face should have been. We cautiously eat our E.T. caramels. There are five boys who are marginalized at SSSQ. There is Jerry Himmelstein, whose victimization deserves its own after-school special and who will transfer out of our moronic inferno by grade 6. There’s Sammy (not his real name), a slim, sad, hyperactive boy who likes to jump on us while screaming “URSH!

 

pages: 410 words: 114,005

Black Box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes--But Some Do by Matthew Syed

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Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, British Empire, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, deliberate practice, double helix, epigenetics, fear of failure, fundamental attribution error, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, Isaac Newton, iterative process, James Dyson, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Lean Startup, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, Wall-E, Yom Kippur War

What excites me most is that we are still only at the beginning. Part V THE BLAME GAME Chapter 11 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 I It is February 1973. The atmosphere in the Middle East is like a tinderbox. More than five years earlier in the Six-Day War between Israel and forces from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria there were more than 20,000 fatalities, mostly on the Arab side. In just eight months’ time, the Yom Kippur War will take place, leading to another 15,000 deaths. Tensions are on a hair-trigger. Just weeks earlier, Israel has received intelligence that Arab terrorists are planning to hijack a commercial airliner in order to crash it into a densely populated area, probably Tel Aviv, or into the nuclear installation at Dimona. The Israeli Air Force is on high alert. At 13:54 on February 21, a commercial airliner is picked up by Israeli radar crossing the Gulf of Suez into the Israeli war zone.

 

Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson

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Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Martin Wolf, mobile money, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War

“I told the companies that it was not our philosophy to make them have a loss, and I would quite understand it if they wanted stop operating in Nigeria,” he said with a chuckle. “That was not what they wanted to hear.” Nigeria’s oil production was soaring, too, having risen from 150,000 barrels per day in 1968 to one and a half million by 1971, then exceeding two million in 1973: more than twice as much as the United States was then importing from the Persian Gulf. 14 The stream of petrodollars became a river. Then, with the Yom Kippur war and the OPEC oil embargo of 1973, it became a tide as world oil prices quadrupled from $3 to $12 per barrel in just three months. (Later, with the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979 and the Iran-Iraq war, prices rose to nearly $40,15 worth nearly $100 in today’s prices.16) The effect on Nigeria was staggering: by 1975 oil made up 95 percent of exports, and between 1970 and 1980 its annual export earnings rose from 1 billion dollars to 26 billion.17 It changed everything.

 

pages: 387 words: 120,092

The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, New Journalism, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Their beliefs began to be shaken when their professional research exposed the false assumptions and historical fabrications on which the idea of Israel was based. The Pioneering Academics In the wake of the groundbreaking work by these pioneering activists, there appeared the first voices from within the Israeli academy expressing profound doubts about the nature of the state, its ideology and policies. Until the war of October 1973 – sometimes called the Yom Kippur War – academia was obedient, highly patriotic and overwhelmingly Zionist. Dissenting teachers paid less of a price than did activists in terms of imprisonment or public condemnation, but being a lonely voice in the wilderness made such academics feel quite marginalised and out of place in the Israeli universities. One such voice was Uriel Tal. A professor of modern Jewish history at Tel Aviv University, Tal wrote extensively on Jewish secularisation in modern times but also voiced consternation about the way Israeli academia was being pressed into the service of the nation and of Zionism.34 In a series of lectures delivered to colleagues in the Department of Jewish History at Tel Aviv University in the 1980s, Tal posed some poignant questions about the newly formed discipline in Israeli academia known as Jewish studies.

 

pages: 1,335 words: 336,772

The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance by Ron Chernow

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bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bolshevik threat, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, capital controls, collective bargaining, Etonian, financial deregulation, German hyperinflation, index arbitrage, interest rate swap, margin call, Monroe Doctrine, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, paper trading, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, strikebreaker, the market place, the payments system, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Through all the vagaries of merger work, the firm’s rock-solid export credits and impressive portfolio management would lend strength to its balance sheet. In the last analysis, the dull, solid stuff would be its salvation. Aside from Saudi Arabia, most Arab states before 1973 were too impoverished to be considered good credit risks. The sudden, almost overnight, revolution in their financial status was revealed in a controversial loan that Sir John Stevens secretly negotiated during the Yom Kippur War, in the fall of 1973. On October 6, Egypt, Syria, and Iraq attacked Israel. On October 20, during a fierce, bloody phase of fighting, news leaked out of a Morgan-led loan to Abu Dhabi. Israeli tanks had just advanced fifteen miles beyond the Suez Canal, knocking out Egypt’s surface-to-air missile batteries. Disclosure of the loan sent up an uproar, especially among Jewish firms in the City.

., 371, 372, 373 Wood Mackenzie, 675 Woodside Petroleum, 673 Woolf, Virginia, 271 World Bank, 452, 489, 517–18, 519, 557, 570, 585, 587, 644, 646 creation of, 485 Japan and, 552–53 loan policy of, 486–87, 638 World War I, 80, 183–204 aftermath of, 205–10 attempt to forestall, 183 credits to Allies, 186 debts resulting from, 226–29, 282, 310–12, 327–29, 349–50, 392–99 Export Department and, 187–92, 197, 202, 203 $500-million Anglo-French loan, 197–201 Jewish bankers and, 195–200 Liberty Loans and, 201–203 opposition to involvement in, 185–86, 192, 202 panic of 1914 and, 183–84 profiteering from, 186–87, 188, 191–92, 399–401 U.S. entry into, 201–204, 399–401 World War II, 440–68, 470, 475 Battle of Britain, 459–61 cash and carry exports and, 442 events leading to, 437–40 government resources and, 442 Lend-Lease and, 461–64 Lindbergh and, 444–47 Morgan et Compagnie and, 450–54 Wright, J. Hood, 70, 87 Wriston, Walter, 538, 619, 620–21, 638, 646, 655, 660 Wynn, Bob, 552, 557–58 X Xerox, 561, 617 Y Yale University, 290, 319, 580, 597, 607, 690 Yellow Cab Company, 307 Yerkes, Charles Tyson, 100 Yokohama Specie Bank, 233, 234, 342, 466 Yom Kippur War, 613, 614 York, Edward H., 387 Young, John, 554, 557 Young, Owen, 249, 251, 310–12, 371, 420 Jack and, 411–12 Young, Robert, 415–17, 502, 506–11, 625 Alleghany rehabilitation and, 415–16 revolt against Morgan hegemony, 416–17, 428 Young, Roy A., 319 Young Plan, 311–12, 392–99, 478 Yugoslavia, 490 Yule and Company, Andrew, 461 Y Zeckendorf, William, 531, 532, 534 Zodiac Club, 254

 

pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

While the economic climate was losing some of its sunshine, far away a perfect storm was brewing. The hostility of the Arab countries to the presence of Israel in their neck of the globe led to the shock that made 1973 a year for capitalist countries to remember. It started on an October afternoon, when 250 Egyptian jets took off for the eastern bank of the Suez Canal to bomb Israeli positions in the Sinai Peninsula. The day was the holiest of the Jewish calendar. The Yom Kippur War might have remained a regional conflict had not other Muslim countries decided to use the “oil weapon.” They raised the price of oil 70 percent and cut production 5 percent for several months running. The price of gas at pumps in Europe and the United States rose twelvefold. In the next two decades the gross national product of the advanced capitalist countries fell from an average of 4.6 to 2.6 percent.

 

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

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airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

EGYPT IN DEPTH reversed a number of Nasser’s positions, reopening Egypt to the West and ultimately even making peace with Israel. The high point of his presidency, in the eyes of many Egyptians, came in October 1973, when Egyptian forces launched an imaginative and boldly executed attack on the well-fortified Israeli defensives on the east bank of the Suez Canal. The attack, which coincided with a massed Syrian attack on the Golan Heights, opened what came to be known as the Yom Kippur War, or the October War. It is said that the plan for the war was the brainchild of then-president of Syria, Hafez al Assad (an extraordinarily competent politician who had been given refuge early in his career in Egypt by Nasser) and Sadat. The idea apparently was to press home a surprise attack from two sides, with Syria entering Israel from the Golan and Egyptian Forces crossing the Sinai Peninsula to retake the Negev Desert, from which they had been so ignominiously driven in 1949.

 

pages: 604 words: 177,329

The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright

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airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, rolodex, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al-Qaeda’s Leader. New York: Free Press, 2006. Berman, Paul. Terror and Liberalism. New York: Norton, 2003. Bernstein, Richard. Out of the Blue: The Story of September 11, 2001, from Jihad to Ground Zero. New York: Times Books, 2002. Bin Ladin, Carmen. Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia. New York: Warner Books, 2004. Blum, Howard. The Eve of Destruction: The Untold Story of the Yom Kippur War. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Borovik, Artyom. The Hidden War: A Russian Journalist’s Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan. New York: Grove Press, 1990. Brogan, Daniel. “Al-Qaeda’s Greeley Roots.” 5280 (June/July 2003): 158-65. Burke, Jason. Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror. London: I. B. Taurus, 2003. Burr, J. Millard, and Robert O. Collins. Revolutionary Sudan: Hasan al-Turabi and the Islamist State, 1989-2000.

 

pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

A burly, handsome young man who looked like a rabbi in training, Ne’eman had come a long way from the days when he was forced to ride in a van for an hour and a half in both directions every day to attend classes at a segregated school for special-needs children rather than being able to walk to the school located five minutes from his family’s house in New Jersey. The first word Ne’eman said as a baby was Abba, the Hebrew word for “Father.” His mother moved to Israel when she was a teenager to become a paratrooper in the army. There, she met her husband-to-be, a designer of smart-card technology who fought in the Yom Kippur War. When Ne’eman was two and a half years old, he fell in love with dinosaurs, like many children; but, unlike most kids at that age, he could correctly identify an enormous winged skeleton to a guard at the American Museum of Natural History as a pterodactyl. When he and his friend Aryeh (the similarity of their names was pleasing to both of them) were still in grade school, they decided they would become the world’s youngest defense contractors.

 

The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin

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Apple II, collective bargaining, computer age, George Gilder, informal economy, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, open economy, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

By the end of 1973, Intel was worth more than $160 million, and Moore was saying that the only thing that might limit its growth in the future was its ability to hire enough engineers and scientists.9 Noyce, always the “receiver of messages from the outside,” had another concern—not a nagging, panic-inducing worry, but a bit of unpleasant noise that registered on the periphery of his radar screen. In October, OPEC had embargoed exports of oil in the wake of the Yom Kippur War in Israel. Within weeks, the state of California had declared the need to ration electricity and announced plans to ask industrial customers to cut their power consumption to levels 10 percent below those of the corresponding month a year earlier. If the voluntary 10-percent plan did not work, then the utilities companies might resort to rolling blackouts to conserve power. The prospect of rolling blackouts alarmed Noyce, who readily admitted that the semiconductor industry had designed its processes and equipment “assum[ing] that petrochemicals were free and available and that power was free and available.”

 

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

Second, and to make things more complicated, even journalists dedicated to the mission of truth-telling in the public interest often pride themselves on being, well, not entirely respectable: chancers, ornery stirrers-up, no vicars we. A useful corrective to the high-flown rhetoric comes in a well-known piece by a British journalist called Nicholas Tomalin, who was subsequently killed by a Syrian missile while reporting from the Golan Heights during the Yom Kippur war. ‘The only qualities essential for real success in journalism’, Tomalin writes, ‘are ratlike cunning, a plausible manner, and a little literary ability’. He goes on to say that the ‘ratlike cunning’—a phrase that became proverbial among British journalists—is needed ‘to ferret out and publish things that people don’t want to be known (which is—and always will be—the best definition of News)’.

 

pages: 1,145 words: 310,655

1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, distributed generation, friendly fire, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, invisible hand, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

An elderly hajji with a distant look seems to come from ancient pictures of the Palestine that died long ago.”53 The initial intent was to allow twenty thousand people to return, but by the time the operation was over only fourteen thousand had managed to do so.54 And so Israel missed the great opportunity offered by the victory in the Six-Day War to heal the malignant wound, as Ezer Weizman called it, left by the War of Independence. This was the “refugee blunder,” Weizman argued many years later, “a painful and damaging blunder, perhaps no less so than the intelligence and military blunders committed prior to the Yom Kippur War.”55 It is hard to explain. In the course of less than two decades, the 600,000 Jews living in Israel at its inception took in more than a million new immigrants. They built hundreds of new communities, including cities, all within the confines of the Green Line. The refugees could have been rehabilitated as well. There were several alternatives, and there were adequate plans to settle the refugees in Gaza and in the West Bank.

 

pages: 1,590 words: 353,834

God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, Index librorum prohibitorum, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Mariano Rumor became Premier for the fourth time.9 A right-wing faction called the Mussolini Action Squad greeted the new regime with two bombs at Milan’s Mondadori publishing headquarters.10 International tensions did not help. That September, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi’s air force attacked an Italian warship that veered too close to the Libyan coast.11 Only a few weeks later, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel, the start of the Yom Kippur War. When Nixon refused the Saudi King’s request not to resupply Israel with American fighter jets in the middle of the conflict, Arab states announced their first-ever oil boycott of the United States, Japan, and most of Western Europe including Italy.12 Oil prices doubled within a week, on their way to what would become a tenfold increase over several years.13 The oil shortage caused serious problems for all the countries on the boycott list.

 

pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Chronology 570 Birth of Prophet Mohammed 790 Islam will become the dominant religion in the Middle East 1095 First Crusade to “liberate” the Holy Land; there will be seven more over the next 186 years 1187 Salahedin’s victory over the Crusaders at the Battle of Hittin; fall of Jerusalem to Muslim forces; henceforth the Middle East will be ruled by caliphates, including the Fatimids, Mamelukes and Ottomans 1798–1801 Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition 1914 4 August, outbreak of the First World War 1915 British and Commonwealth troops land at Gallipoli Start of the Armenian Holocaust; murder of 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turks British forces besieged at Kut al-Amara, Mesopotamia by the Ottoman Turkish army Turks begin hanging Arabs in Beirut for demanding independence 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement between France and Britain to share Syria, Jordan, Iraq and most of the Arabian peninsula 1917 Balfour Declaration giving British support for “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” General Sir Stanley Maude enters Baghdad after British invasion of Mesopotamia (Iraq); a subsequent Iraqi insurgency against British rule costs thousands of lives General Sir Edmund Allenby enters Jerusalem, routing Ottoman Turkish forces 1918 President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Damascus falls to the Allies; King Faisal in Damascus 11 November armistice ends the First World War 1919 Treaty of Versailles Britain awarded Mandates for Palestine and Iraq; France awarded Syria 1920 French General Henri Gouraud creates Lebanon from Syrian territory Treaty of Sèvres negotiated between the Ottoman empire and the Allies (with the exception of Russia and the United States) agreed to the autonomy of Kurdistan, but was neither ratified nor implemented Ottoman empire collapses French eject Faisal from Damascus 1921 Hashemites become kings in Transjordan and Iraq 1936 Arab revolt in Palestine 1939 3 September, outbreak of the Second World War 1941 Overthrow of Rashid Ali’s pro-German regime in Baghdad Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini travels to Berlin 1942 Arab and Jews fight together in Palestine Brigade at el-Alamein 1945 8 May, end of the Second World War in Europe and Nazi Holocaust of six million Jews 1948 Creation of State of Israel; 750,000 Palestinian Arabs ejected from their land 1954 Start of Algerian war of independence against France 1956 Suez crisis; Britain, France and Israel invade Egypt after Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal 1962 Monarchy overthrown in Iraq Algeria wins independence from France 1967 Six Day War; Israel occupies Gaza, West Bank, Golan and Sinai 1968 UN Security Council Resolution 242 demands withdrawal of Israeli forces from occupied territory in return for security of all states in the region 1973 Yom Kippur War; Israel defeats Egyptian–Syrian forces 1975 Start of Lebanese civil war 1977 President Sadat of Egypt makes peace with Israel 1978 First Israeli invasion of Lebanon Saddam Hussein takes over Baath Party in Iraq 1979 Shah of Iran overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution Soviet Union invades Afghanistan; the start of a ten-year occupation by Russian troops Assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat 1980 Osama bin Laden raises an Arab legion to fight the Soviet Army With America’s tacit support, Iraq invades Iran at the start of an eight-year war in which gas will be used in mass attacks for the first time since the First World War 1982 Second Israeli invasion of Lebanon 16 to 18 September, massacre of up to 1,700 Palestinian civilians after Israeli defence minister Ariel Sharon sends Israel’s Lebanese militia allies into the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila to destroy “terrorists” 1983 23 October, suicide bombing of U.S.