Malacca Straits

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pages: 399 words: 120,226

Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett

British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

And in December 2002, North Korea charged the U.S. with “unpardonable piracy” after it arranged for the Spanish Navy to stop the M/V So San that was transporting fifteen Scud missiles to Yemen.58 Yet the threat that concerns many is of a terrorist attack on a ship in one of the world’s strategic waterways—the Panama and Suez Canals,59 the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Malacca Straits. While the War on Terrorism focuses on protecting American harbors and ports, the Malacca Straits are the sea lanes most vulnerable to terrorist attack. This, the world’s most congested channel, cuts through the heart of political and religious unrest. Growing religious polarization in the secular but predominantly Islamic nations of Indonesia and Malaysia, through which the Malacca Straits funnel, is a serious concern. A mujahideen network, trained in Afghanistan and well established in Southeast Asia, feeds upon the discontent of the huge, impoverished Muslim populations of not only Indonesia and Malaysia, but the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, and even Burma.

Human smuggling operations Ijaws Illegal immigrants, transportation of Immigration and Naturalization Service Inabukwa India Indian Ocean Indonesia Indonesian Naval Command Informants International Chamber of Shipping International Collision Regulations International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Piracy Reporting Center International Maritime Chamber of Commerce International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Safety Management Code International Ship and Port Security Code International Shipping Federation Iran Iran-Iraq war Irian Jaya Iryani, Abdul Karim Ishak, Tengku Islam Isomeria Israeli ships Jabal Aswad range Jackson, Robin Japanese Self-Defense Force Java Sea Jeeris, Captain James Jemaah Islamiah Johnson, Samuel Johore Baru Kandla Karine-A Kassim, Jamaludin Kenya Kharg Island Khat Kidd, Captain Kismayo, Somalia Klinghoffer, Leon Known Club Korea, North Krokos, Jonas Kursk Laccadive Islands Large, John Lieberman, Joseph Limburg Linington, Andrew Lin Kuo Litopia Lloyd’s Information Services Lloyd’s of London LoJack Lombok-Makassar Straits Lost commands Loy, James M5 submachine gun M16 rifle MacKereth, Captain Alan Maersk Navigator Majorca Malabar Coast Malacca Straits hostage-taking in Japanese presence in marine police antipiracy operations in Montrose in Malacca Straits, (continued) navigation aids in Malaysia Maldive Islands Mammoet Manchester Ship Channel Mangalore, India Mangouras, Apostolos Mannas, Samsher Manning policies Marine Accident Investigation Board Marine Corps Hymn Marine Medical Center, Singapore Mariner’s Routing Guide of the Malacca Straits Maritime & Underwater Security Consultants Maritime Transportation AntiTerrorism Act of 2002 Masefield, John Mathur, Karun Matthew Maynard, Robert McKnight, Bill Mediterranean Sea Megaports Mekong Delta Melville, Herman Mexico Moitissier, Bernard Mombassa Mongla Anchorage, India Monsoons Monteiro, Captain Donny Monteiro, Deepak Monteiro, Vanisha Monteiro, Vimala Montrose anchor antipiracy precautions bridge cash on board cost design draft end of journey engine room helicopter landing pads inspection below in Malacca Straits officers and crew at Pulau Karimun registry role of captain rolls security audit ship’s particulars size of speed vibration weight fully loaded Moro Liberation Front Moslem raiders Mosquito Coast MOX fuel Muda, Muhamad Bin Muhammad Mukundan, Captain P.

These include such vital links as the Panama and Suez Canals, the Straits of Hormuz at the exit of the Persian Gulf, the Bab el Mandab, the bottleneck at the southern end of the Red Sea leading to the Suez and Europe, the Straits of Gibraltar, and the Malacca Straits that connect Asia to much of the rest of the world. It is in many of these tightly confined stretches that modern-day pirates lie in wait and attack ships at will. Indeed, there is not a shipping lane, a navigable strait, an important canal, that is safe from those determined to take over a ship. Pirates have attacked vessels on all these waterways—not something that is well known outside the maritime community. The Malacca Straits, on the east side of the Indian Ocean, is one of those corridors. This five-hundred-mile passage is the commercial umbilical connecting Europe, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent to Asia and the Pacific.


pages: 281 words: 69,107

Belt and Road: A Chinese World Order by Bruno Maçães

active measures, Admiral Zheng, autonomous vehicles, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, cloud computing, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, global value chain, industrial cluster, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, one-China policy, Pearl River Delta, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade liberalization, trade route, zero-sum game

To make the transition to a low-carbon energy system economically viable, China needs to find new markets for its renewables technology and expand markets for civil nuclear technology. Finally, the Belt and Road can be used to develop new trade and energy routes along historically disadvantaged regions, thereby reducing China’s vulnerability to an American naval blockade of the Malacca strait in case of conflict. In 2016 80 per cent of China’s imported oil passed through the Indian Ocean and Malacca Strait into the South China Sea. If a maritime crisis or a war were to happen, these routes could be cut off. In 2003 President Hu Jintao noted that “some large countries are continually interfering in and attempting to control shipping through the Malacca Strait.” This critical vulnerability has since become known as China’s “Malacca Dilemma.”10 It is revealing that those Chinese who criticize the dilemma end up preserving it or even expanding its scope. Mei Xinyu, a researcher at an internal Ministry of Commerce think tank, dismisses the notion of a “Malacca Dilemma” only to replace it with an “Indian Dilemma.”

Mei Xinyu, a researcher at an internal Ministry of Commerce think tank, dismisses the notion of a “Malacca Dilemma” only to replace it with an “Indian Dilemma.” He notes that China’s vulnerability extends much beyond the Malacca Strait. In that respect its position is much worse than that of Japan in relation to its quasi-enemy during the Cold War, the Soviet Union, which indeed had its eyes on the Strait. Now China’s quasi-enemies are the navies of America and its allies. “In order to cut off oil and gas supplies from the gulf to China, they just need to advise Gulf countries to close oil wells, they don’t need the Malacca Strait.”11 In just a few years China will need to import 600 million tons of crude oil and 300 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually. According to some estimates, the different continental corridors envisaged by the Belt and Road—extending to Central Asia, Russia, Iran and the Bay of Bengal—will provide up to 143 million tons of crude oil and 206 billion cubic meters of natural gas—a significant portion of China’s projected energy needs.

The oil pipeline—running in parallel and with a capacity of 22 million barrels of oil per year, about 6 per cent of China’s 2016 oil imports—was built to transport oil from the Middle East and Africa directly to China, avoiding the Malacca Strait and cutting shipping distances by 1200 km. Even more dramatically, using overland pipelines connected to Gwadar will reduce the distance from the Persian Gulf to just 2,500 km—but the pipeline will depend on ultra high-power pumping stations as it has to pass through the Karakoram Pass, at an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 meters above Gwadar or Kashgar. On existing routes via the Malacca Strait, oil tankers need to travel more than 10,000 km for two to three months to reach China. While ports such as Hambantota are close to existing shipping lines, others such as Gwadar presuppose a significant redrawing of those lines in the future.


pages: 438 words: 124,269

Love Over Scotland by Alexander McCall Smith

A Pattern Language, Malacca Straits

Edinburgh (Scotland)—Fiction. 2. Apartment houses— Fiction. I. Title. PR6063.C326L68 2007 823’.914—dc22 2007022072 Author illustration © Iain McIntosh w w w . a n c h o r b o o k s . c o m v1.0 This book is for David and Joyce Robinson 44 Scotland Street: The Story So Far At the end of the second series of 44 Scotland Street we saw Domenica leaving for the Malacca Straits for the purposes of anthropological research. We saw Bruce safely departed for London. Now Pat is about to start her course in history of art at the University of Edinburgh. She moves out of Scotland Street to the South Side, but this does not mean that she breaks off all connections with the New Town. Poor Matthew. Even with the recent substantial gift which his father has given him, he is still restless and unfulfilled.

In one corner, their skateboards at their feet, a group of teenage boys huddled against the world, caps worn backwards, baggy, low-crotched trousers half-way down their flanks. Pat had wondered what these youths talked about and had concluded that they talked about nothing, because to talk was uncool. Perhaps Domenica could do field work outside the McEwan Hall – once she had finished with her Malacca Straits pirates – living with the skateboarders, in a little tent in the rhododendrons at the edge of the square, observing the socio-dynamics of the group, the leadership struggles, the badges of status. Would they accept her, she wondered? Or would she be viewed with suspicion, as an unwanted visitor from the adult world, the world of speech? She found out a little bit more about Wolf as they made their way to the Elephant House.

But there was a particularly fine grand piano in a window in Ainslie Place and a Ferguson picture of a woman in a hat in Great Stuart Street. As he walked down Scotland Street, Angus Lordie reflected on the melancholy nature of his errand. So many times I have walked this way, he thought, to call on my old friend, Domenica Macdonald, and now I make my way to her empty flat. But then he reminded himself: Domenica is not dead, and I must not think of her in that way. She has simply gone to the Malacca Straits, and that is not the same thing as being dead. And yet he wondered how long it would be before he saw her again. She had not said anything about when she would return, but had hinted that it could be as much as a year, perhaps even longer. A year! He had wanted to say to her: “And what about me, Domenica? What am I to do in that year?” Angus looked down at his dog, Cyril, and Cyril looked back up at him mournfully.


pages: 415 words: 113,875

The World According to Bertie by Alexander McCall Smith; Robert Ian MacKenzie

carbon footprint, Malacca Straits

They had last met shortly after Domenica’s return from the Malacca Straits, and Domenica had given Dilly an account of her anthropological research project among contemporary pirates – a project that had ultimately led to the discovery that the pirates stole intellectual property rather than anything else. Dilly had greeted this news with some relief; it was she who had encouraged Domenica to take on a new piece of research in the first place, although she had not envisaged that she would choose to work among pirates. Had Domenica come to an unfortunate end, she would have felt a certain responsibility, and so now, if Domenica again showed signs of itchy feet, she would certainly not give her any encouragement. The two old friends had much to discuss. “I take it that everybody behaved themselves while I was off in the Malacca Straits,” said Domenica, as she contemplated a small Italian biscuit that had been placed on the side of her plate.

An Unexpected Conflict and News of Cyril Domenica Macdonald, freelance anthropologist, native of Scotland Street, friend of Angus Lordie and Antonia Collie, owner of a custard-coloured Mercedes-Benz, citizen of Edinburgh; all of these were facets of the identity of the woman now striding up Scotland Street, a battered canvas shopping bag hanging loosely from her left arm. But there was more: in addition to all of that, Domenica was now the author of a learned paper that had recently been accepted for publication in the prestigious journal Mankind Quarterly. This paper, “Past Definite; Future Uncertain: Time and Social Dynamics of a Mangrove Community in Southern Malaysia,” was the fruit of her recent field trip to the Malacca Straits. There, she had joined what she imagined was a community of contemporary pirates, with a view to conducting anthropological research into their domestic economy. The pirates, it was later revealed, were not real pirates after all – or not pirates in the sense in which the term is understood by the International Maritime Safety authorities in Kuala Lumpur. Although they disappeared each morning in high-powered boats, Domenica had discovered that their destination was not the high seas at all, but a town down the coast, where they worked in a pirate CD factory, infringing the intellectual property rights of various crooners and inexplicably popular rock bands.

Look. There.” Angus opened the cover and saw, on the inside, the sentence which Domenica had inscribed in black ink. To Angus Lordie, the inscription read, who stayed behind. From your friend, Domenica Macdonald. He reread the sentence and then looked up. “Why have you written who stayed behind?” he asked. His tone was peevish. Domenica shrugged. “Well, you did, didn’t you? I went to the Malacca Straits, and you stayed behind in Edinburgh. I’m simply stating what happened.” Angus frowned. “But anybody reading this would think that I was some … some sort of coward. It’s almost as if you’re giving me a white feather.” Domenica drew in her breath. She had not intended that, and it was quite ridiculous of Angus to suggest it. “I meant no such thing,” she said. “There are absolutely no aspersions being cast on …” “Yes, there are,” said Angus petulantly.


pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George

Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, Jones Act, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

‘Then they signalled by light and all the palm trees lit up with signals back. All along the shore.’ From 2004 the littoral governments of the straits – Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand – began mounting serious piracy patrols, using air, sea and intelligence. Attacks dropped from 75 in 2000 to 10 in 2005. By 2006, the Joint War Committee of Lloyd’s had removed the Malacca Straits from its Hull, War, Strikes, Terrorism and Related Perils Listed Areas. Pirate experts desperate to solve the Somalia situation look at the Malacca Straits for answers, but there is no like to compare with like. There is nowhere as disintegrated as Somalia, spitting out its youngsters to the sea. Anyway, here in the straits there have been reports of attacks again, and a shift in pirate behaviour. Less robbery, more kidnapping and ransom along the Somali model. The latest judgement of war risks by Lloyd’s finds some of Sumatra to be dangerous, but ‘only the north eastern coast between 5º 40' N and 0º 48' N, excluding transit’.

But you didn’t do the job properly. Because out of that ship’s company ten men are alive, and those ten men know what you did. Three of us were wounded. Seven of us were not. Those seven are back at sea.’ Ashore 11. DISEMBARK It’s raining. Warm rain. Water on deck, oily and shiny. Flat grey sea. My mood is low and not shifted by running. I must be in pre-departure mourning. We are in the Malacca Straits now, which Chief Engineer Derek calls the M4 of shipping. I call them my final stretch, to be reluctantly travelled. The straits are 500 miles long, join the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and are surrounded by places of spice and treasure. They are also a captain’s nightmare, because they are busy and narrow and overcrowded. They are less crowded than before, because there are fewer pirates now.

I have seen pilots climb up the rope ladders, up several sheer storeys of freeboard, and I know they sometimes get smashed against the side or miss their footing. To the captain, I translate all this anxiety as, ‘But I’ll have a laptop.’ He actually says, ‘Pish!’ They do it all the time. There’s nothing to it. The drama lasts an hour or two and then the schedule changes again. Singapore it is. At their narrowest point, the Malacca Straits are 1.7 miles wide. This is the oil highway from the Gulf to the East, and each year 60,000 ships must pass through that 1.7-mile chokepoint. The wheelhouse radars show a mass of dots, and each one is a ship. Alarms are already going off in the wheelhouse because the system overloads if there are more than 200 ships in a two-mile radius. There are more people than usual on the bridge, an air of concentration, and no time for tea or SkyFlakes.


pages: 412 words: 128,042

Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future – Lessons From the World’s Limits by Richard Davies

agricultural Revolution, air freight, Anton Chekhov, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, clean water, complexity theory, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, large denomination, Livingstone, I presume, Malacca Straits, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, school choice, school vouchers, Scramble for Africa, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, the payments system, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uranium enrichment, urban planning, wealth creators, white picket fence, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

THE PEPPER CAPITAL AND VERANDA TO MECCA Aceh’s location, so devastating in 2004, has through most of its history been an economic asset. As maritime trade began to flourish in the fifteenth century, Banda Aceh became the gateway to the Malacca Strait, the channel that links the Pacific and Indian Oceans and is the primary shipping lane joining India and the west with China, Japan and the east. Cargoes from the Spice Islands – pepper, nutmeg, mace, cloves, ginger and cinnamon – were shipped up the strait and then on to ports in Sri Lanka and India as they headed west to Europe. They were light and their uses in curing meat and making medicines made them hugely valuable: nutmeg was worth more than its weight in gold in Britain, and London dockers would happily be paid in cloves. The spice ships navigating the Malacca Strait were like floating buckets of cash, and offering them safe harbour, as Banda Aceh did, was a lucrative business.

Local farmers stopped cultivating rice and instead sent pepper south, trading it for lower value rice plus gold to settle the difference in value of the crops. Trade meant Aceh became richer than other parts of Sumatra, allowing it to maintain supreme maritime strength. For its control of shipping and the products of its land, the Acehnese came to understand that their end of the island was superior. Others recognized the value of Aceh too, leading to centuries of battles and warfare between the Acehnese and rivals who sought control of the Malacca Strait. The early enemy was the Malacca Sultanate based across the water on the Malay Peninsula (modern-day Malaysia). Later, as European powers explored the east, Britain became an important protector, guaranteeing Acehnese independence in order to prevent the strategic region falling into enemy hands. But in 1871 the UK stepped back, allowing the Dutch to invade and claim the whole of Sumatra. The Acehnese resisted, and hostilities continued until after the Second World War.

Petty was a polymath: a surgeon and professor of anatomy at Oxford, a gentleman-farmer, an agricultural and maritime inventor (he designed an automatic grain planter and an early catamaran, and came up with a proposal for attaching engines to boats), and a leading civil servant. (He would have known about Aceh, since during his lifetime the English and Dutch were pitched in major battles for control of the seas, including the Malacca Strait.) The three Anglo-Dutch wars between 1652 and 1674 were costly, with the taxes to fund the conflict falling on landowners, including Petty. He thought this unfair, and so set out to measure Britain’s economy more accurately and work out who should bear the burden of taxation. His central argument was that while assets such as land and buildings were one part of a nation’s wealth, the annual flows of money associated with the world of work – wages, together with firms’ income and profits – were the original source of a country’s economic might.


Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomsky, Laray Polk

American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

On the export of carbon dependency, see Bharti Chaturvedi, “Debate over FDI in Retail, Durban Talks Are Linked,” Hindustan Times, December 4, 2011. 63 Jeju Island, located in the Korean Strait, is being prepared as “an expansive base which would be home to 20 warships and submarines and would serve as a strategic component in the U.S. military’s sea-based ballistic missile defense system.” In July 2012, the Indian Navy announced a new base on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a means to patrol the Malacca Straits, one of the busiest sea-lanes in the world. In 2006, the Hindustan Times reported plans for the base came from the US, “given its growing comfort level with India and their growing strategic relationship, [the US] is delegating to New Delhi a role that would have been unthinkable even a few years ago.” Democracy Now!, “South Korea Cracks Down on Resistance to Jeju Island Naval Base Project,” July 19, 2011; “Indian Navy Awaits Regional Nod for Patrolling Malacca Straits,” Hindustan Times, June 7, 2006. On US-India civilian nuclear deal, see note 5, this chapter. 5. China and the Green Revolution Laray Polk: In researching the cutting-edge innovations in energy in the US, it’s pretty much the same players: GE; IBM; Raytheon; the DOE, they’re funding fusion research; and a whole new department called ARPA-E based on DARPA, but with a focus on energy.

To what degree are current maritime sovereignty disputes related to oil and gas reserves? In part. There are underseas fossil-fuel resources, and a good deal of contention among regional states about rights to them. But it’s more than that. The new US base on Jeju Island in South Korea, bitterly protested by islanders, is not primarily concerned with energy resources. Other issues have to do with the Malacca Straits, China’s main trade route, which does involve oil and gas but also much else.63 In the background is the more general concern over parts of the world escaping from US control and influence, the contemporary variant of Grand Area policies. Much of this extends the practice of earlier hegemonic powers, though the scale of US post–World War II planning and implementation has been in a class by itself because of its unique wealth and power.


The Year 1000: When Explorers Connected the World―and Globalization Began by Valerie Hansen

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, financial innovation, Google Earth, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, polynesian navigation, seigniorage, South China Sea, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Monks traveled all over, sometimes so that they could study with eminent teachers, and sometimes in response to invitations from rulers. These Buddhists offered a powerful combination of spells, rituals, and initiations, all practices that mark Esoteric Buddhism. Rulers hosted these Buddhists because they hoped that the holy men could strengthen their kingdoms. The rulers of Srivijaya prospered by encouraging and taxing the maritime trade in the Malacca Strait. Because the empire didn’t keep any records that have survived, most of what we know comes from official Chinese sources. The description of Srivijaya from the dynastic history of the Song is a good example. Like Wikipedia entries today, the Chinese descriptions of foreign lands followed a set formula, which included the country’s most important products, the local currency system (the residents of Srivijaya exchanged gold and silver for the goods they wanted; they didn’t use coins), and a chronological account of the most important events in the history of that place, almost always providing a list of tribute-bearing delegations.

Since the design of the ceramics suggests that the boat was on its way to a port in the Islamic world, it was most likely headed for Basra or Oman. Leaving Guangzhou between December 826 and late March 827 (or perhaps a year or two later), the ship caught the monsoon winds as they blew in a southern direction. Under smooth conditions, this ill-fated boat might have completed the journey from Guangzhou to Belitung in less than a month. The ship sank at Belitung before it could go on to the Malacca Strait. The Belitung vessel wasn’t the only type of ship engaged in long-distance trade. Other contemporary ship designs—eleven different types, in fact—appear on stone panels at the world-famous Borobudur temple in central Java. Stone reliefs of merchant ships with outriggers provide more detail about the construction of these Southeast Asian vessels than any other contemporary depictions. A short walk from the monument brings you to the Samudra Raksa Museum.

The local kings probably saw no conflict between the two religions and made contributions to both Buddhism and Hinduism, quite possibly at the same time. The Shailendra rulers on Java financed these monuments by taxing both wet-rice agriculture and commerce, and they may have received some contributions from their in-laws, the Srivijayan rulers, too. Pilgrims to Borobudur stopped on the islands around the Malacca Strait. There they would have encountered sailors from ships traveling from the Islamic world that had to lay anchor and wait for the monsoon winds to shift before they could continue on to China. Because no wrecks going in that direction have yet been found, we must consult other sources to learn what the Chinese imported. Islamic merchants sold frankincense and myrrh, both aromatics harvested by making cuts in tree bark and then allowing the sap to harden before removal.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

This fulfills a major Russian objective, the opening up of a transit route between Europe and Asia through the Arctic Ocean. It has been facilitated by the retreat of the Arctic ice, although with more variability than sometimes recognized. For instance, in September 2014, the ice extent was 50 percent greater than it had been in September 2012. The route cuts the distance between Shanghai and Rotterdam by about 30 percent, and in the process avoids both the narrow Malacca Strait and the Suez Canal. This opening has been welcomed by Japan, South Korea, and especially by China, which, describing itself as a “Near Arctic State,” applies its own distinctive name to the route—the Polar Silk Road.15 Overall, however, the Northern Sea Route is still supplementary, owing to the challenges of ice and weather. There’s a fee, for instance, for icebreaking. But it is crucial for Yamal LNG, which targets Asia and can deliver LNG to China in just twenty days.

It has become the world’s largest importer of oil: by the beginning of 2020, 75 percent of total demand. The concern was not only the volumes of oil, but also whence they came. China is the biggest customer for oil flowing out of the Persian Gulf and through the Strait of Hormuz. The South China Sea is the superhighway for petroleum imports. Most of them, whether from the Middle East or Africa, pass through the narrow Malacca Strait that loops up into the South China Sea. That is what led then-president Hu Jintao to warn in late 2003 about what he called the “Malacca Dilemma”—the risks that come from dependence on that strait. “Certain powers,” he warned, could disrupt China’s oil supply line. His warning came several months after the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Beijing had trouble believing that the invasion could be about something so abstract as “democracy.”

At this point, based upon what is known, new discoveries would be meaningful for the countries around the South China Sea and for the companies involved, but would not be significant in the global oil balance. Natural gas discoveries could be larger, but would be higher-cost and would have to compete with growing flows of LNG and pipeline gas. For Beijing, as Singapore prime minister Lee Hsien Loong put it, the South China Sea, as well as the Malacca Strait, “must be kept open to protect China’s energy security.” What really counts for China’s energy security is not the unproven resources that may lie deep under the seabed, far beneath the sea lanes, but rather the sea lanes themselves and what traverses them.5 Chapter 23 CHINA’S NEW TREASURE SHIPS The South China Sea dispute is also about trade itself. How China’s extraordinary economic surge came about is the result of many things.


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

China is expanding development projects westward, including initiatives to reconstitute the old Silk Road from China to Europe. A high-speed rail line connects China to Kazakhstan and beyond. The line will presumably reach Turkmenistan, with its rich energy resources, and will probably link with Iran and extend to Turkey and Europe. China has also taken over the major Gwadar port in Pakistan, enabling it to obtain oil from the Middle East while avoiding the Hormuz and Malacca straits, which are clogged with traffic and U.S.-controlled. The Pakistani press reports that “crude oil imports from Iran, the Arab Gulf states and Africa could be transported overland to northwest China through the port.” At its Tehran summit in August, the Non-Aligned Movement reiterated the long-standing proposal to mitigate or end the threat of nuclear weapons in the Middle East by establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction.

., 94 Krugman, Paul, 62 Kuperwasser, Yosef, 26 Kuwait, 131 Kyoto Protocol of 1997, 21 Laos, 30–31, 107–108 Latin America, 44, 48, 90, 111–112, 122, 124 Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy, 42 Leahy, Sen. Patrick, 187 Lebanon, 35, 60, 115, 118 Libya, 25–26, 180 Lindsey, Graham, 122 Lipner, Shalom, 26 Lozada, Gonzalo Sánchez de, 123 Lumumba, Patrice, 180 MacInnis, Bo, 94 Madison, James, 149–150 Madrid, 125–127 Magna Carta, 31, 32, 51, 160, 174 Malacca strait, 85 Malkin, Elisabeth, 112 Mandela, Nelson, 32 Mankell, Henning, 99 Manning, Bradley, 122 Manning, Chelsea, 157–158 Maoz, Zeev, 34, 35 Marines, 46 Marshall Islands, 86 Martí, José, 153 Marx, Karl, 149, 151 McChesney, Robert W., 93 McChrystal, Stanley A., 160 McCoy, Alfred, 108 McGuiness, Margaret E., 31 Mearsheimer, John, 158 Meir, Golda, 77 Menachem Begin, 69 Mexico, 39, 42–43, 116, 147, 154 Miami, 124, 137 Micronesia, 86, 141 Middle East, 35–36, 58, 60, 65, 74, 83–87, 117, 153–154, 176, 183, 190 Mill, John Stuart, 145, 149 Mladic, Ratko, 46 Molina, Perez, 42 Monroe Doctrine, 41 Montt, Rios, 110, 111 Morales, Evo, 121–122 Morgenthau, 129–130 Morsi, Mohammed, 74, 75 Moscow, 55, 61 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 132 Moyn, Samuel, 47–48 Mozambique, 99 Mubarak, Hosni, 74 Mukhabarat, 99 Murray, William, 138 Namibia, 156 Nasr, Hassan Mustafa Osama, 124 National Defense Authorization Act, 32 Negev, 27–28 Nelson Mandela, 155 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 185 Nevada, 86 New Spirit of the Age, 53 Nicaragua, 111, 113, 180–181 Nicolaides, Kypros, 47 Nile Valley, 189 Nixon, Richard, 24, 64 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), 60, 84 Norman Ornstein, 135 North American Free Trade Agreement, 116 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 25, 160, 163–164, 171 Northern Laos, 31, 108 NPT, 35, 65, 84, 86, 139–141 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 35, 65, 84, 139 Nuremberg Trials, 31, 131, 155 Nystrom, Paul, 54 Obama, Barack, 32, 52, 63, 65, 85–86, 105, 107, 128, 129, 131, 139, 140, 154, 158, 159, 166, 169, 171, 174, 175, 179, 181, 185, 186 Okinawa, 55 Oklahoma, 166 Olmert, Ehud, 71, 73 Olstrom, Elinor, 53 Open Society Institute, 124 Operation Cast Lead, 70, 71, 186 Operation Gatekeeper, 116 Operation Mongoose, 56 Operation Pillar of Defense, 79, 184 Operation Protective Edge, 185 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 62 Organization of American States (OAS), 41, 121 Orwell, George, 26, 29 Oslo, 125 Oslo Accords, 70, 73, 75, 82, 125, 127 Oslo process, 127 Owl of Minerva, 189 Pacific Rim, 53 Pakistan, 35, 57, 106–107, 116, 153, 160, 192 Palau, 86, 128, 141 Palestine, 71, 79, 99, 101, 103, 117, 127–128, 161, 184–185 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 125 Panetta, Leon, 59 Pantucci, Raffaello, 81 Parry, Robert, 110 Pashtuns, 116 Peace Union of Finland, 85 Pearl Harbor, 29 Peck, James, 45, 48 People’s Summit, 54 Peres, Shimon, 127 Peri, Yoram, 69 Petersen, Alexandros, 81 Petrov, Stanislav, 164 Philippines, 108 Phoenicia, 189 Portugal, 42, 121 Powell, Lewis, 39 Power, Samantha, 132 Pretoria, 156 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, 158 Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), 21, 22 Putin, Vladimir V., 129, 169, 171 Rabbani, Mouin, 183 Rabin, Yitzhak, 125, 127 Rafah Crossing, 74, 75 Raz, Avi, 77 Reagan, Ronald, 32, 109–111, 163, 175 Red Crescent, 46 Reilly, John, 23 Republicans, 28, 135–136 Riedel, Bruce, 35 Rio+20 Conference, 54 Roberts, Leslie, 106 Rocker, Rudolf, 146, 149 Romney, Mitt, 64, 83 Rose, Frank, 141 Ross, Dennis, 87, 126, 128 Rousseff, Dilma, 121 Roy, Sara, 72, 101 Rubinstein, Danny, 127 Rudoren, Jodi, 141 Rumsfeld, Donald, 178 Russia, 23, 25, 33, 56, 61, 140, 163–164, 171–172 Ryan, Paul, 62 Sakharov, Andrei D., 47 Samidin, 76 San Diego, 158 Sanger, David E., 141 Santos, Juan Manuel, 42 Saudi Arabia, 23, 60, 166, 190 Scahill, Jeremy, 107 Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., 55, 138 Schlosser, Eric, 164 Schneider, Nathan, 147 Seko, Mobutu Sese, 180 Shafi, Haidar Abdul, 125 Shalit, Gilad, 27, 79 Shane, Scott, 52 Shehadeh, Raja, 70, 99 Sick, Gary, 57 Silk Road, 85 Sinai Peninsula, 77 Singapore, 91 Smith, Adam, 38, 91, 146 Snowden, Edward J., 121–123, 157, 173–176 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I., 47 Sourani, Raji, 71, 74, 82, 183 South Africa, 21, 25, 110, 155–156 South Vietnam, 29–30, 45 Soviet Union, 48, 164, 175 Spain, 121, 147 Sponeck, Hans von, 189 Stearns, Monteagle, 107 Stevenson, Adlai III, 161 Stiglitz, Joseph E., 38 Stratcom, 164–165 Stratfor, 46 Summer Olympics, 45 Sweden, 61 Swift, Jonathan, 62 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 115 Syria, 117, 131, 154, 177, 180, 189–190 Taiwan, 37, 91 Taksim Square, 118–119 Taliban, 178–179 Tehran, 65, 84, 141 Telhami, Shibley 141, 159 Tigris, 189 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 159 Trilateral Commission, 39 Tripoli, 137 Truman Doctrine, 175 Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar, 105 Turkey, 25, 33, 49, 56, 85, 118, 140, 170 U.K., 35 Ukraine, 169, 171 Union Carbide, 46 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 121 United Nations (U.N.), 30, 128, 132, 137 U.N.


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Puducherry (or Pondicherry, as it was known until 2006) was a French colony until 1954, the result of the inroads made 200 years earlier by Joseph-Francois Dupleix, governor general of the French establishments in India and great rival of the British trading clerk-turned-military man, Lord Robert Clive. A thousand years ago, trading vessels would make their way from India east across that part of the Indian Ocean known as the Andaman Sea, into the Malacca Strait and on to Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, often stopping at the capital of the Srivijaya empire (Palembang) before turning north to Tonkin and the Chinese ports of Beihai, Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Xiamen (Amoy) and Ningbo. Guangzhou, the biggest port of them all, lies at the head of the Pearl River Delta and has a history dating back 3,000 years. As early as the Tang dynasty (618–907 ce) it was home to thriving communities of Indian and Arab traders.

Black Sea Blavatnik, Leonard Bogdanov, Vladimir Bohai Sea Bolivia Bontang, Indonesia Borneo Botswana Bouazizi, Mohammed BP Gulf of Mexico in Russia Brahmaputra River Brazil ethanol iron ore nuclear power, uranium oil and gas presalt Bridas Corp BrightSource Energy Brookings Institution Brunei Bryant, Robert BSG Group, BSG Resources Buenos Aires Buffett, Warren Bulgheroni, Carlos Bumi Resources Bunge Burma (Myanmar) Burundi BYD Co Cairo Caithness Energy Calderon, Felipe Calicut, India Cambodia Cameco Canada tar sands LNG shale nuclear power, uranium Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Canadian Natural Resources Canadian Solar Inc Cantarell oil field, Mexico Carabobo, Venezuela Cargill Caribbean Sea Carrizo Oil & Gas Carroll, Cynthia Caspian Sea Cecil, Ronnie Central Asia Centre for Global Energy Studies Century Aluminium Cerrejon Ceyhan, Turkey Chad Chalco Changlang district, India Chatterji, Zohra Chavez, Hugo Chenab River Cheniere Energy Chesapeake Energy Chevron Chile copper lithium China 12th Five-Year Plan coal Communist Party copper iron ore investment abroad nuclear power oil and gas rare metals solar power water wind power China Coal Energy China Development Bank China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) China Investment Corp (CIC) China Iron and Steel Association (CISA) China Metallurgical Group Corp China Metallurgical Mines Association China Minmetals China Mobile China National Coal Group China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) China Nonferrous Metal Mining Group Co (CNMC) China Petroleum & Chemical Corp (Sinopec) China Railway Construction Corp China Railway Engineering Corp China Shenhua Coal China State Shipbuilding Corp Chinalco Chodiev, Patokh Chromium Chubu Electric Power Co Chung Joon-yang Chunxiao gas field CITIC Clinton, Bill Clinton, Hillary CNOOC Coal production clean technology metallurgical thermal Coal India Ltd Codelco Codexis COFCO Colombia Common Economic Space Comtec Solar Conde, Alpha Conga, Peru Congo, Democratic Republic (DRC) ConocoPhillips Cosmo Oil Consolidated Thompson Iron Ore Mines Conte, Lansana Copper Cosan Critical Materials Strategy report Cuba Cubapetroleo Currie, Jeffrey Curtis, Nicholas Cyprus Dadis Camara, Moussa Dalian (Port Arthur) D’Amato, Richard Danube River Daqing, China Datong Coal Dauphin, Claude Davis, Mick Daye Non-ferrous Metals Co (DNMC) De Beers DeKastri oil terminal De Margerie, Christophe De Turckheim, Eric Deng Xiaoping Denmark Deripaska, Oleg Diaoyutai (Senkaku islands) Disi-Saq aquifer Domen Kazunari DONG Energy Dongfang Turbine DP Clean Tech Drummond Co Du Plessis, Jan Dubai Dudley, Robert (Bob) Dunand, Marco Dutch East India Company (VOC) Eagle Ford shale field East China Sea East Prinovozemelsky field East Timor (Timor-Leste) EBX Ecuador EDF Elenin, Platon (Boris Berezovsky) Empresas Frisco Enbridge Encana Enercon Enex EngelInvest Group England Eni E.ON Equinox Minerals Erdenes-Tavan Tolgoi Eritrea Escondida mine, Chile Essar Oil Essar Steel Estonia Ethanol Ethiopia Eurasian Energy Corp Eurasian National Resources Corp Europe nuclear power solar power shale wind power European Union (EU) European Wind Energy Association Eurozone Evraz Group Exxon Neftegas ExxonMobil Falklands (Malvinas) Fan Shenggen Fayetteville shale Fedun, Leonid Ferghana Valley, Central Asia Ferreira, Murilo First Quantum First Solar Ford Motor Forrest, Andrew Fortescue Metals Group Foster, Maria das Gracas Silva Fosun International Fox, Josh Fracturing, “fracking” France nuclear power Freeport McMoRan Fresnillo Friedland, Robert Fridman, Mikhail Frolov, Alexander Fu Chengyu Fukushima Gabon Gaddafi, Muammar Galp Energia Gamesa Gandhi, Rahul Gandur, Jean Claude Ganges River Gangotri Glacier Gao Jifan Garnaut, Ross Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) Gazprom Gazprom Neft GCL Poly Energy Gecamines General Electric (GE) GE Wind Energy General Motors (GM) Germany nuclear power solar power wind power Gevo Ghawar oil field, Saudi Arabia Gidropress Gindalbie Metals Gladstone LNG Glasenberg, Ivan Glencore International Glencore Xstrata International Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Gold Goldman, Arnold Goldman Sachs Google Gorgon LNG project Grasberg mine, Indonesia Great Artesian Basin Great Lakes Great Man-made River (GMR), Libya Greece Green Energy Technology Greenland Greenland Minerals and Energy Grupo Carso Grupo Mexico Guangzhou Guarani aquifer Guinea Gunvor Group Guodian United Power Technology Gutseriev, Mikhai Hainan island Hancock Coal, Hancock Prospecting Hansen Transmissions Hanwha Solarone Hasankeyf Haynesville shale field Hayward, Tony Hebei Iron & Steel Heilongjiang-Amur aquifer Himalayas Hindalco Hindustan Copper Hitachi Hokkaido Holland Hong Kong Hormuz, Strait of Houser, Trevor HRT Participacoes em Petroleo HSBC Hu, Stern Hunan Valin Hunt, Simon Hydro power Ibragimov, Alijan Idemitsu Kosan Ilisu Dam, Turkey Impeccable, USNS Imperial Oil India coal copper hydropower iron ore nuclear power oil and gas solar power wind power Indian Ocean Indian Oil Corp Ltd (IOCL) Indonesia coal oil and gas Indus River Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB) Industrias Penoles Inmet Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Inpex International Atomic Energy Agency International Copper Study Group International Energy Agency International Finance Corp International Food Policy Research Institute International Monetary Fund Interros Inuit Iran South Pars Iraq Iraq National Oil Co (INOC) Ireland Iron ore Israel Istanbul Itaipu Dam Italy ITOCHU Ivanhoe Mines Ivory Coast JA Solar Jaeggi, Daniel Jakarta Jamnagar Japan earthquake and tsunami nuclear power and Fukushima disaster solar power steel industry trading houses Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp (JOGMEC) Japan Petroleum Exploration Co (Japex) Japan Renewable Energy Foundation Jazan JFE Jhelum River Jiang Jiemin Jiang Zemin Jiangsu Shagang Jiangxi Copper Corp Jin Baofang Jinchuan Group Jindal Steel Jordan, Jordan River JSW Steel Jubail JX Holdings Kaltim Prima Coal, Indonesia Kamchatka peninsula Kan Naoto Kansai Electric Power Co Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan Karachi, Pakistan Karakoram Pass Kashagan field, Kazakhstan Kashgar, China Kashmir Katanga Mining Kazmunaigas Khan, German Khartoum, Sudan Kazakhmys Kazakhstan coal copper nuclear test site, uranium oil and gas Kazzinc Kazatomprom Kenya Keystone pipeline Khabarovsk, Russia Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khudainatov, Eduard Khunjerab Pass Khuzestan province, Iran Kim, Vladimir Kloppers, Marius Koc Holding Koizumi Junichiro Kolkata (Calcutta) Kolomoisky, Igor Korea Electric Power Corp (Kepco) Korea Gas (KoGas) Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India Kuantan, Malaysia Kudankulam, India Kulibayev, Timur Kuwait Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration (Kufpec) Kuwait Petroleum Corp (KPC) Kuzbassrazrezugol Kyrgyzstan Kyushu Electric Power Co Kvanefjeld, Greenland Lagos Lanco Infratech Laos Las Bambas, Peru Lavrov, Sergey LDK Solar Lead Lebanon Legacy Iron Ore Li Keqiang Li Xianshou Li Yihuang Liang Guanglie Liberia Libya Lifton, Jack Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Lisin, Vladimir Lithium Lithuania Lombok Strait Lomonosov ridge Lorenz, Edward Los Bronces, Chile Louis Dreyfus Lu Tingxiu Lu Xiangyang LUKOIL Lumwana, Zambia Lundin Mining Lynas Corp Ma Zhaoxu Maanshan Iron & Steel Macarthur Coal McArthur River McClendon, Aubrey McMahon Line MacMines AustAsia Madagascar Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (MMK) Makhmudov, Iskander Malacca, Strait of Malaysia Malawi Malvinas (Falklands) Manila Mao Zedong Marcellus shale field Marubeni Corp Mary River Masdar Mashkevich, Alexander Mechel Medcalf, Rory Mediterranean Sea Medvedev, Dmitry MEG Energy Mehta, Sureesh Mekong River Mekong River Commission Melnichenko, Andrey MEMC Mercuria Group Merkel, Angela Metalloinvest Metorex Mexico Mexico City Mexico, Gulf of Miao Liansheng MidAmerican Energy Middle East Mikhelson, Leonid Miller, Alexei Mineralogy/Resourcehouse Mittal, Lakshmi Minmetals Resources Mitsubishi Chemical Mitsubishi Corp Mitsubishi Electric Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsui & Co Modi, Narendra Molycorp Mongolia coal copper uranium Mongolia, Inner Montana Resources Morocco Mordashov, Alexei Mount Weld, Australia Mountain Pass, California Mozambique Mulva, Jim Mumbai (Bombay) Muziris, India Myanmar (Burma) Nabucco project Namcha Barwa, Tibet Namibia Nansha (Spratlys) National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC) National Oil Co of Libya National Mineral Development Corp (NMDC), India National Thermal Power Corp (NTPC), India Natuna field Natural gas Nazarbayev, Nursultan Neelum river Neira, Dr Maria Netherlands New Delhi New Hope Coal Newcastle, Australia Newmont Mining NewZim Steel Niger Nigeria Nigerian National Petroleum Corp Nile River Ningbo Niobrara shale field Niobium Nippon Mining Nippon Oil Nippon Steel Noble Group Noda Yoshihiko Nomura China Non-Proliferation Treaty Norilsk Nickel North Atlantic Gyre North Caspian Operating Co North Korea North Pacific Gyre North Pars field, Iran North Pole North Slope, Alaska North West Shelf, Australia Northern Sea Route, Russia Northwest Passage, Canada Norway Novatek Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK) NRG Energy Nubian Sandstone aquifer Nuclear power Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCIL) NUKEM Nunavut Obama, Barack Occidental Petroleum Corp Ogallala aquifer OGX Petroleo & Gas Ohmae Kenichi Oil & Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) Oil India Ltd (OIL) Olam International Olympic Dam Oman Ombai Strait ONEXIM Group ONGC Videsh Opium Wars Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Origin Energy Oryx Petroleum Osaka Gas Osborne, Milton Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia Palmer, Clive Pan American Energy Papua New Guinea Paracels Pakistan Paraguay Paraná River Pars Oil & Gas Co Pasha Bulker Patna Peabody Energy Pearl River Pemakochung monastery, Tibet Pemex Peng Xiaofeng Penn West Energy Persian Gulf Pertamina Peru Petrobras PetroChina PetroHawk Energy Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) Petronas Petronet LNG PetroVietnam Philippines Pioneer Natural Resources Pilbara iron ore region, Australia Poland Polo, Marco Popov, Sergey Port Arthur (Dalian) Portugal POSCO Potanin, Vladimir Potash supplies Poussenkova, Dr Nina Praj Industries Pratas islands (Dongsha) Prelude LNG project, Australia Premier Oil Prigorodnoye, Russia PrivatGroup Probo Koala Prodeco Prokhorov, Mikhail Prokopyevskugol PTT Exploration & Production Puducherry (Pondicherry), India Punjab province, Pakistan Putin, Vladimir Qatar QatarGas Qatar General Petroleum Corp (QGPC) Qatar Investment Authority Qatar Petroleum Qteros Quadra FNX Mining Queensland coal basins (Bowen, Galilee, Surat) Rabigh, Saudi Arabia RAIPON Raizen Rare earths Rare metals and materials (indium, gallium, tellurium) Ras Tanura RasGas Rashtriya Ispat Nagam (Vizag Steel) Raspadskaya Rashnikov, Viktor Rave, Dr Klaus Ravi River Red Sea Refineries Reliance Industries ReneSola Renewable Energy Policy Network (REN21) REpower Repsol Repsol Brazil Repsol-YPF Rich, Marc Rio de Janeiro Rio Tinto Plc/Ltd coal copper iron ore uranium Rinehart, Gina Riversdale Mining Roeslani, Rosan Rosatom Rosneft Ross Sea Rothschild, Nathaniel Rousseff, Dilma Royal Dutch Shell Royal Society of Canada Ruia, Shashi and Ravi Rusal RusHydro Russia coal iron ore oil and gas nuclear/uranium Russian Far East Russky Ugol (Russian Coal) Russneft Rwanda RWE Power Saami Sabic Salar de Atacama Salar de Cauchari Salar de Olaroz Salar de Uyuni Sakhalin Sakhalin Oil & Gas Development Saleh, Ali Abdullah Salween River Samruk Energo Samruk Kazyna Samsung Electronics Samsung Heavy Industries Sanaa basin, Yemen Santos basin Santos Ltd Sao Paulo Sargasso Sea Saudi Arabia Saudi Aramco Sawyer, Steve Sechin, Igor Senkaku islands Serageldin, Ismail Sesa Goa Severstal Shanghai Shandong Iron & Steel Group Shanxi Meijin Energy Sharp Corp Shatt al-Arab waterway Shell Australia LNG Shen Wenrong Shenzhen Shi Zhengrong Shougang Beijing Group Shvidler, Eugene Siachen Glacier Siberia Siberian Coal Energy Co (SUEK) Sibneft Siemens Sierra Gorda, Chile Sierra Leone Silver Simandou, Guinea Sindh province, Pakistan Singapore Singh, Manmohan Sino American Silicon SinoHydro Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corp) Sinosteel Midwest Corp Sinovel Wind Sistema Slavneft Slovakia Soeryadjaya, Edwin SoftBank Sogo Shosha Sojitz Solar power Solar Reserve Son Masayoshi Sonangol Sonatrach South Africa South America South China Sea South Kara Sea South Korea South Kuzbass Coal South Pars field, Iran South Sudan South Yolotan, Turkmenistan Southeast Anatolia Development (GAP) Southeast Asia Southern California Edison Soya Strait Spain Spratlys State Grid, China State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) Statoil Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) Steinmetz, Beny Sterlite Industries Strait of Malacca Strait of Hormuz Strothotte, Willy SUAL Sudan Sumatra Sumitomo Chemicals Sumitomo Corp Sumitomo Metal Suncor Energy Sunda Strait Sundance Resources SunPower Suntech Surgutneftegas Sutlej River Suzlon Energy Swaminathan, M.S.

Black Sea Blavatnik, Leonard Bogdanov, Vladimir Bohai Sea Bolivia Bontang, Indonesia Borneo Botswana Bouazizi, Mohammed BP Gulf of Mexico in Russia Brahmaputra River Brazil ethanol iron ore nuclear power, uranium oil and gas presalt Bridas Corp BrightSource Energy Brookings Institution Brunei Bryant, Robert BSG Group, BSG Resources Buenos Aires Buffett, Warren Bulgheroni, Carlos Bumi Resources Bunge Burma (Myanmar) Burundi BYD Co Cairo Caithness Energy Calderon, Felipe Calicut, India Cambodia Cameco Canada tar sands LNG shale nuclear power, uranium Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Canadian Natural Resources Canadian Solar Inc Cantarell oil field, Mexico Carabobo, Venezuela Cargill Caribbean Sea Carrizo Oil & Gas Carroll, Cynthia Caspian Sea Cecil, Ronnie Central Asia Centre for Global Energy Studies Century Aluminium Cerrejon Ceyhan, Turkey Chad Chalco Changlang district, India Chatterji, Zohra Chavez, Hugo Chenab River Cheniere Energy Chesapeake Energy Chevron Chile copper lithium China 12th Five-Year Plan coal Communist Party copper iron ore investment abroad nuclear power oil and gas rare metals solar power water wind power China Coal Energy China Development Bank China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) China Investment Corp (CIC) China Iron and Steel Association (CISA) China Metallurgical Group Corp China Metallurgical Mines Association China Minmetals China Mobile China National Coal Group China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) China Nonferrous Metal Mining Group Co (CNMC) China Petroleum & Chemical Corp (Sinopec) China Railway Construction Corp China Railway Engineering Corp China Shenhua Coal China State Shipbuilding Corp Chinalco Chodiev, Patokh Chromium Chubu Electric Power Co Chung Joon-yang Chunxiao gas field CITIC Clinton, Bill Clinton, Hillary CNOOC Coal production clean technology metallurgical thermal Coal India Ltd Codelco Codexis COFCO Colombia Common Economic Space Comtec Solar Conde, Alpha Conga, Peru Congo, Democratic Republic (DRC) ConocoPhillips Cosmo Oil Consolidated Thompson Iron Ore Mines Conte, Lansana Copper Cosan Critical Materials Strategy report Cuba Cubapetroleo Currie, Jeffrey Curtis, Nicholas Cyprus Dadis Camara, Moussa Dalian (Port Arthur) D’Amato, Richard Danube River Daqing, China Datong Coal Dauphin, Claude Davis, Mick Daye Non-ferrous Metals Co (DNMC) De Beers DeKastri oil terminal De Margerie, Christophe De Turckheim, Eric Deng Xiaoping Denmark Deripaska, Oleg Diaoyutai (Senkaku islands) Disi-Saq aquifer Domen Kazunari DONG Energy Dongfang Turbine DP Clean Tech Drummond Co Du Plessis, Jan Dubai Dudley, Robert (Bob) Dunand, Marco Dutch East India Company (VOC) Eagle Ford shale field East China Sea East Prinovozemelsky field East Timor (Timor-Leste) EBX Ecuador EDF Elenin, Platon (Boris Berezovsky) Empresas Frisco Enbridge Encana Enercon Enex EngelInvest Group England Eni E.ON Equinox Minerals Erdenes-Tavan Tolgoi Eritrea Escondida mine, Chile Essar Oil Essar Steel Estonia Ethanol Ethiopia Eurasian Energy Corp Eurasian National Resources Corp Europe nuclear power solar power shale wind power European Union (EU) European Wind Energy Association Eurozone Evraz Group Exxon Neftegas ExxonMobil Falklands (Malvinas) Fan Shenggen Fayetteville shale Fedun, Leonid Ferghana Valley, Central Asia Ferreira, Murilo First Quantum First Solar Ford Motor Forrest, Andrew Fortescue Metals Group Foster, Maria das Gracas Silva Fosun International Fox, Josh Fracturing, “fracking” France nuclear power Freeport McMoRan Fresnillo Friedland, Robert Fridman, Mikhail Frolov, Alexander Fu Chengyu Fukushima Gabon Gaddafi, Muammar Galp Energia Gamesa Gandhi, Rahul Gandur, Jean Claude Ganges River Gangotri Glacier Gao Jifan Garnaut, Ross Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) Gazprom Gazprom Neft GCL Poly Energy Gecamines General Electric (GE) GE Wind Energy General Motors (GM) Germany nuclear power solar power wind power Gevo Ghawar oil field, Saudi Arabia Gidropress Gindalbie Metals Gladstone LNG Glasenberg, Ivan Glencore International Glencore Xstrata International Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Gold Goldman, Arnold Goldman Sachs Google Gorgon LNG project Grasberg mine, Indonesia Great Artesian Basin Great Lakes Great Man-made River (GMR), Libya Greece Green Energy Technology Greenland Greenland Minerals and Energy Grupo Carso Grupo Mexico Guangzhou Guarani aquifer Guinea Gunvor Group Guodian United Power Technology Gutseriev, Mikhai Hainan island Hancock Coal, Hancock Prospecting Hansen Transmissions Hanwha Solarone Hasankeyf Haynesville shale field Hayward, Tony Hebei Iron & Steel Heilongjiang-Amur aquifer Himalayas Hindalco Hindustan Copper Hitachi Hokkaido Holland Hong Kong Hormuz, Strait of Houser, Trevor HRT Participacoes em Petroleo HSBC Hu, Stern Hunan Valin Hunt, Simon Hydro power Ibragimov, Alijan Idemitsu Kosan Ilisu Dam, Turkey Impeccable, USNS Imperial Oil India coal copper hydropower iron ore nuclear power oil and gas solar power wind power Indian Ocean Indian Oil Corp Ltd (IOCL) Indonesia coal oil and gas Indus River Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB) Industrias Penoles Inmet Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Inpex International Atomic Energy Agency International Copper Study Group International Energy Agency International Finance Corp International Food Policy Research Institute International Monetary Fund Interros Inuit Iran South Pars Iraq Iraq National Oil Co (INOC) Ireland Iron ore Israel Istanbul Itaipu Dam Italy ITOCHU Ivanhoe Mines Ivory Coast JA Solar Jaeggi, Daniel Jakarta Jamnagar Japan earthquake and tsunami nuclear power and Fukushima disaster solar power steel industry trading houses Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp (JOGMEC) Japan Petroleum Exploration Co (Japex) Japan Renewable Energy Foundation Jazan JFE Jhelum River Jiang Jiemin Jiang Zemin Jiangsu Shagang Jiangxi Copper Corp Jin Baofang Jinchuan Group Jindal Steel Jordan, Jordan River JSW Steel Jubail JX Holdings Kaltim Prima Coal, Indonesia Kamchatka peninsula Kan Naoto Kansai Electric Power Co Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan Karachi, Pakistan Karakoram Pass Kashagan field, Kazakhstan Kashgar, China Kashmir Katanga Mining Kazmunaigas Khan, German Khartoum, Sudan Kazakhmys Kazakhstan coal copper nuclear test site, uranium oil and gas Kazzinc Kazatomprom Kenya Keystone pipeline Khabarovsk, Russia Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khudainatov, Eduard Khunjerab Pass Khuzestan province, Iran Kim, Vladimir Kloppers, Marius Koc Holding Koizumi Junichiro Kolkata (Calcutta) Kolomoisky, Igor Korea Electric Power Corp (Kepco) Korea Gas (KoGas) Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India Kuantan, Malaysia Kudankulam, India Kulibayev, Timur Kuwait Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration (Kufpec) Kuwait Petroleum Corp (KPC) Kuzbassrazrezugol Kyrgyzstan Kyushu Electric Power Co Kvanefjeld, Greenland Lagos Lanco Infratech Laos Las Bambas, Peru Lavrov, Sergey LDK Solar Lead Lebanon Legacy Iron Ore Li Keqiang Li Xianshou Li Yihuang Liang Guanglie Liberia Libya Lifton, Jack Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Lisin, Vladimir Lithium Lithuania Lombok Strait Lomonosov ridge Lorenz, Edward Los Bronces, Chile Louis Dreyfus Lu Tingxiu Lu Xiangyang LUKOIL Lumwana, Zambia Lundin Mining Lynas Corp Ma Zhaoxu Maanshan Iron & Steel Macarthur Coal McArthur River McClendon, Aubrey McMahon Line MacMines AustAsia Madagascar Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (MMK) Makhmudov, Iskander Malacca, Strait of Malaysia Malawi Malvinas (Falklands) Manila Mao Zedong Marcellus shale field Marubeni Corp Mary River Masdar Mashkevich, Alexander Mechel Medcalf, Rory Mediterranean Sea Medvedev, Dmitry MEG Energy Mehta, Sureesh Mekong River Mekong River Commission Melnichenko, Andrey MEMC Mercuria Group Merkel, Angela Metalloinvest Metorex Mexico Mexico City Mexico, Gulf of Miao Liansheng MidAmerican Energy Middle East Mikhelson, Leonid Miller, Alexei Mineralogy/Resourcehouse Mittal, Lakshmi Minmetals Resources Mitsubishi Chemical Mitsubishi Corp Mitsubishi Electric Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsui & Co Modi, Narendra Molycorp Mongolia coal copper uranium Mongolia, Inner Montana Resources Morocco Mordashov, Alexei Mount Weld, Australia Mountain Pass, California Mozambique Mulva, Jim Mumbai (Bombay) Muziris, India Myanmar (Burma) Nabucco project Namcha Barwa, Tibet Namibia Nansha (Spratlys) National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC) National Oil Co of Libya National Mineral Development Corp (NMDC), India National Thermal Power Corp (NTPC), India Natuna field Natural gas Nazarbayev, Nursultan Neelum river Neira, Dr Maria Netherlands New Delhi New Hope Coal Newcastle, Australia Newmont Mining NewZim Steel Niger Nigeria Nigerian National Petroleum Corp Nile River Ningbo Niobrara shale field Niobium Nippon Mining Nippon Oil Nippon Steel Noble Group Noda Yoshihiko Nomura China Non-Proliferation Treaty Norilsk Nickel North Atlantic Gyre North Caspian Operating Co North Korea North Pacific Gyre North Pars field, Iran North Pole North Slope, Alaska North West Shelf, Australia Northern Sea Route, Russia Northwest Passage, Canada Norway Novatek Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK) NRG Energy Nubian Sandstone aquifer Nuclear power Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCIL) NUKEM Nunavut Obama, Barack Occidental Petroleum Corp Ogallala aquifer OGX Petroleo & Gas Ohmae Kenichi Oil & Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) Oil India Ltd (OIL) Olam International Olympic Dam Oman Ombai Strait ONEXIM Group ONGC Videsh Opium Wars Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Origin Energy Oryx Petroleum Osaka Gas Osborne, Milton Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia Palmer, Clive Pan American Energy Papua New Guinea Paracels Pakistan Paraguay Paraná River Pars Oil & Gas Co Pasha Bulker Patna Peabody Energy Pearl River Pemakochung monastery, Tibet Pemex Peng Xiaofeng Penn West Energy Persian Gulf Pertamina Peru Petrobras PetroChina PetroHawk Energy Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) Petronas Petronet LNG PetroVietnam Philippines Pioneer Natural Resources Pilbara iron ore region, Australia Poland Polo, Marco Popov, Sergey Port Arthur (Dalian) Portugal POSCO Potanin, Vladimir Potash supplies Poussenkova, Dr Nina Praj Industries Pratas islands (Dongsha) Prelude LNG project, Australia Premier Oil Prigorodnoye, Russia PrivatGroup Probo Koala Prodeco Prokhorov, Mikhail Prokopyevskugol PTT Exploration & Production Puducherry (Pondicherry), India Punjab province, Pakistan Putin, Vladimir Qatar QatarGas Qatar General Petroleum Corp (QGPC) Qatar Investment Authority Qatar Petroleum Qteros Quadra FNX Mining Queensland coal basins (Bowen, Galilee, Surat) Rabigh, Saudi Arabia RAIPON Raizen Rare earths Rare metals and materials (indium, gallium, tellurium) Ras Tanura RasGas Rashtriya Ispat Nagam (Vizag Steel) Raspadskaya Rashnikov, Viktor Rave, Dr Klaus Ravi River Red Sea Refineries Reliance Industries ReneSola Renewable Energy Policy Network (REN21) REpower Repsol Repsol Brazil Repsol-YPF Rich, Marc Rio de Janeiro Rio Tinto Plc/Ltd coal copper iron ore uranium Rinehart, Gina Riversdale Mining Roeslani, Rosan Rosatom Rosneft Ross Sea Rothschild, Nathaniel Rousseff, Dilma Royal Dutch Shell Royal Society of Canada Ruia, Shashi and Ravi Rusal RusHydro Russia coal iron ore oil and gas nuclear/uranium Russian Far East Russky Ugol (Russian Coal) Russneft Rwanda RWE Power Saami Sabic Salar de Atacama Salar de Cauchari Salar de Olaroz Salar de Uyuni Sakhalin Sakhalin Oil & Gas Development Saleh, Ali Abdullah Salween River Samruk Energo Samruk Kazyna Samsung Electronics Samsung Heavy Industries Sanaa basin, Yemen Santos basin Santos Ltd Sao Paulo Sargasso Sea Saudi Arabia Saudi Aramco Sawyer, Steve Sechin, Igor Senkaku islands Serageldin, Ismail Sesa Goa Severstal Shanghai Shandong Iron & Steel Group Shanxi Meijin Energy Sharp Corp Shatt al-Arab waterway Shell Australia LNG Shen Wenrong Shenzhen Shi Zhengrong Shougang Beijing Group Shvidler, Eugene Siachen Glacier Siberia Siberian Coal Energy Co (SUEK) Sibneft Siemens Sierra Gorda, Chile Sierra Leone Silver Simandou, Guinea Sindh province, Pakistan Singapore Singh, Manmohan Sino American Silicon SinoHydro Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corp) Sinosteel Midwest Corp Sinovel Wind Sistema Slavneft Slovakia Soeryadjaya, Edwin SoftBank Sogo Shosha Sojitz Solar power Solar Reserve Son Masayoshi Sonangol Sonatrach South Africa South America South China Sea South Kara Sea South Korea South Kuzbass Coal South Pars field, Iran South Sudan South Yolotan, Turkmenistan Southeast Anatolia Development (GAP) Southeast Asia Southern California Edison Soya Strait Spain Spratlys State Grid, China State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) Statoil Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) Steinmetz, Beny Sterlite Industries Strait of Malacca Strait of Hormuz Strothotte, Willy SUAL Sudan Sumatra Sumitomo Chemicals Sumitomo Corp Sumitomo Metal Suncor Energy Sunda Strait Sundance Resources SunPower Suntech Surgutneftegas Sutlej River Suzlon Energy Swaminathan, M.S. Sweden Switzerland Syncrude Canada Syr Darya, Tajikistan Syria Tajikistan Takahagi, Mitsunori Taiwan Tangshan Iron & Steel Tanti, Tulsi Tanzania TAPI (Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India) pipeline project Tata Group Tata, Ratan Tata Steel Tatarstan Tatneft Tavan Tolgoi, Mongolia Tawang Taylor, Ian Technology Metals Research Tenke Fungurume, DR Congo TerraGen Tete province, Mozambique Thailand Thanet wind farm, UK Three Gorges Project, China Tibet, Tibetan Plateau Tigris-Euphrates river basin Tillerson, Rex Timah Timchenko, Gennady Timor Sea Tinkler, Nathan Titanium TNK-BP Trafigura Group Tokarev, Nikolai Tokyo Electric Power Co (Tepco) Tokyo Gas Tongling Non-Ferrous Metals Group Tonkolili, Sierra Leone Tornqvist, Torbjoörn Toshiba Corp Total Toyota Motor Toyota Tsusho TransCanada Corp Transneft Transparency International Trina Solar TRUenergy Tungsten Tunguska, Russia Tunisia Turkey Turkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakligi (TPAO) Turkmenistan Uganda Uighur Ukraine Ukrnafta Umicore United Arab Emirates United Kingdom nuclear power wind power UN Human Development Index UN World Water Development Report United States coal copper oil and gas nuclear power pipelines shale Unocal Ural Mining & Metallurgical Co (UGMK) Uranium Uranium One, Canada Uruguay Usmanov, Alisher Utemuratov, Bulat Utica shale field Uzbekistan Vale Vasudeva, Sudhir Vattenfall Vedanta Resources Vekselberg.


pages: 380 words: 111,795

The Unbearable Lightness of Scones by Alexander McCall Smith

British Empire, Donald Trump, Malacca Straits

The two women had known one another for a long time, even before Antonia had moved to Edinburgh from Fife on the break-up of her marriage, but their relationship had not developed into the friendship which both had initially wished for. Now they had settled into a reasonably amicable, if slightly strained, modus vivendi in which each kept largely to herself but responded readily and in good grace to the duties of neighbourhood. Social invitations were extended and reciprocated, but they were carefully judged so as not to be too frequent as to lead to any form of imposition. When Domenica had been on field work in the Malacca Straits, her flat had been looked after by Antonia. This had been a convenient arrangement for both of them, but on Domenica’s return she had made the shocking discovery that Antonia had removed a blue Spode teacup from her flat and was using it, quite openly, in her own. It was this teacup that now crossed her mind as she pressed Antonia’s bell. When Antonia appeared at the door she did not seem to be at all surprised that it was Domenica who stood on her doorstep.

They want to see conflict and competition, which was what sport was all about. No, James could keep his motorbikes as far as Domenica was concerned. And what would Dilly Emslie advise her? Dilly, of course, had no truck with motorbikes, but would probably advise her to take on another piece of research. That was good advice, but Domenica did not relish the thought of going off into the field again. The Malacca Straits had been enjoyable, in their way, but somehow she did not see herself summoning up the energy to set up a long trip of that sort. What would be required, then, would be something much more local – anthropology did not have to be performed among distant others; it could be pursued in the anthropologist’s back yard. Her friend, Tony Cohen, had gone to Shetland, which was not all that far away, and had written Whalsay: Symbol, Segment and Boundary in a Shetland Island Community.

The café was busy, but she did not recognise anybody in it. That could change, and probably would; Edinburgh was still sufficiently intimate for there to be no real anonymity. Dilly looked at her friend. “Yes, you need a project, Domenica. A person like you can’t sit around. But …” She was being very careful. The last time they had had this conversation, Domenica had embarked on a highly dangerous field trip to the pirate communities of the Malacca Straits. Providence had already been tempted once, and might not allow for a satisfactory ending if tried again. Domenica, who had been looking out of the window as if expecting inspiration from that quarter, suddenly turned round. “Do you ever get the feeling that there’s something going on in Edinburgh? Something that you can’t quite put your finger on?” Dilly thought about this and was about to answer when Domenica continued: “Remember that book by Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities?


pages: 586 words: 184,480

Slow Boats to China by Gavin Young

Ayatollah Khomeini, illegal immigration, Malacca Straits, Pearl River Delta, South China Sea

A parade of Malay Muslims chanted ‘Allahu Akbar’ on the Padang, and I ate a plateful of flower crabs at the Anchor Bar of the handsome old Eastern and Oriental Hotel, a small version of Raffles in Singapore, and one of the great hotels of the East. A young European tourist came in from the garden wearing a dressing gown and a white plastic beak to save his nose from the sun, and I wondered what Khalat or Hentry or Dennis Beale would say about that. * The next day we reached the Strait of Malacca. The Malacca Strait and East Coast of Sumatra Pilot said: The Malacca Strait is the main seaway used by vessels from Europe and India bound to Malaysian ports and the China Sea. It provides the shortest routes for tankers trading between the Persian Gulf and Japan. The strait not only is narrow and busy, but contains critical areas like one called One-Fathom Bank, a menace of shoals and sand waves. Furthermore, the Pilot warns, ‘Navigational aids … in Indonesian waters are reported to be unreliable.’

’ ‘Shit damn bum what?’ the great Orientalist shouted across the Bay of Bengal. ‘Kindly spell that.’ Twenty four The voyage of the Chidambaram to Penang and Singapore was an uneventful glide over submissive blue waters. She had formerly belonged to Messageries Maritimes, and had plied between Dunkerque, Le Havre and the Canaries. Since her maiden crossing of the Bay of Bengal and the Malacca Strait in 1973, she had carried hundreds of holidaying Malay and Indian students, workers and businessmen back and forth with stabilized aplomb. There had been a rampage when Madrasi students ran wild, assaulting passengers, throwing chairs overboard, even stripping a girl or two – so terrifying them, the purser told me, that they wanted to jump overboard. But the leaders of the rampage had been handcuffed in their cabins and later fired from their university, and on subsequent voyages peace had become the rule.

Thus, ‘since passage through the strait entails a run of more than 250 miles, long periods of considerable vigilance are necessary in order to maintain safe standards of navigation’. Nothing could be more blunt than this warning. Captain Choudhuri talked about collisions in the strait. ‘There are quite a few unreported – if it’s just two ships grazing or bumping and no one hurt. In the latest the smaller ship went down. Luckily, no one was lost.’ Like the Strait of Hormuz or the Suez Canal, the Malacca Strait is a funnel of the sea world where the appalling vision of colliding supertankers is a distinct possibility. There are smaller hazards, too. The water was dotted with tiny Sumatran or Malaysian motor trawlers, seemingly contemptuous of our approach, which chugged across our bows and sometimes made us change course. ‘The trouble with them,’ said Captain Choudhuri, fixing his glasses on them severely, ‘is that the crew are often asleep, tired from their hours at sea, so they don’t look.’


pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

It is increasingly seen at sea as China builds a blue-water navy with the intention of becoming a global naval power. It is visible around the world in far-flung places such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, from which China (and others) extracts precious metals, in Angola, where it built a highway to get the metals to port, and in Gwadar, Pakistan, where a port and highway are being built to ship goods up into China, thus avoiding the narrow and de facto American-controlled Malacca Straits between Malaysia and Indonesia. The symbol of the Middle Kingdom has now been seen in nearly every kingdom, republic and territory in the world, reinforcing its rapid expansion and growing influence over the past half-century. It also flies above the artificial islands China has built in the South China Sea, which Beijing says now constitute sovereign Chinese territory. The neighbours – including Vietnam, Taiwan and the Philippines – are not convinced.

E. 102–103 League of Nations 178–179 see also UN Lebanon 113, 116, 132, 133 Lebedev, General 165 Leeds 55 Lenin, Vladimir 82, 88, 89 Leopold V, Duke 84 Leptis Magna 118 Levant 130 Levy, Paul 62 Liberia 186 Libya 113, 117–119 Lisbon 218 Lombardy 76 London 34–35, 47, 55, 102–103, 188 Long John Silver 230–231 Lorraine 69 Luxembourg 235 M MacArthur, General Douglas 170, 241 Macaulay, Neill 219 Macedonia 3, 90–92 Madison, President James 19 Madrid 58–59 Mahdi 128 Malacca Straits 163 Malawi 184 Malaysia 44, 117, 148, 163 Mali 183 Malta 83 Mandela, Nelson 191–194 Manitoba 46 Mao Zedong 160 Map, Walter 228 Mar, Earl of 41 Martin, St 67–68 Marx, Karl 65, 88 Massachusetts 17 Mazzini, Giuseppe 77 McLaughlin, Donal 249 Meagher, Thomas Francis 54 Mecca 101, 103, 105, 130, 137 Medina 101, 105 Mediterranean Sea 99, 119–120, 136 Mencken, H. L. 180 Mendes, Raimundo Teixeira 220–221 Mendoza, Dr Juan de Palafox y 206 Menelik II, Emperor 177–178 Mexico 29, 200, 203, 205–208, 249 City 206 First Mexican Empire 209 Gulf of 31 Valley of 206 War of Independence 207 see also tricolour, Mexican Milan 76 Milk, Harvey 246–247 Minnesota 29 Mirabeau, Comte de 69 Miranda, Francisco de 5, 202 Mitrović, Stefan 3 Modena 77 Mohammed, the Prophet 66, 79, 100, 101, 103, 111, 113, 126–127, 131, 137, 138, 244 Monmouth, Geoffrey of 39 Montenegro 3, 90 Montserrat 46 Morales, Evo 198, 205 Morinaj, Ismail 3 Morocco 99 Moscone, George 247 Moscow 89, 148, 166, 240 Mosul 126 Mozambique 182, 184–185 Mubarak, Hosni 98, 114 Muslim Brotherhood 109, 136 Mussolini, Benito 77, 178–179 N Nadimi, Hamid 110–111 Nagasaki 170 Najd 102–103 Napoleon 19, 57, 69, 70, 76–77, 200, 218 Napoleonic Wars 19 Nashville 20–21 Nasrallah, Hassan 133–134 National Front Party 54 NATO 2, 89, 91–92, 108, 117, 234–236 Nazism 71–75, 80, 87, 170, 241, 242, 247 Nepal 157, 257 Netherlands 78, 86, 235 see also tricolour, Dutch New Granada 201 New Mexico 30 New Orleans 31 New York 1, 4, 71–72, 179, 180, 243, 245, 249, 250 see also 9/11 disaster New Zealand 29, 46, 244 Newfoundland 47 Nicaragua 209, 210 Nigeria 48, 131, 188–191, 229 9/11 disaster 1, 4, 23, 30 Niue, island of 46 Nkrumah, Kwame 173, 182–183 Normandy, beaches of 44 North Africa 99, 101, 109, 117 North Korea 105, 165–168, 170, 245 North Pole 249 Norway 78, 81–82, 83, 235 Norwegian Sea 83 O Obama, Barack 14, 22 Oea 118 Okoh, Theodosia Salome 183 Olaniran, Sunday Olawale 189–190 Oliveira, Father Belchior Pinheiro de 219 Olympic Games 74–75, 164, 167, 236–241 Rings 236–238, 240 Oman 99, 100 Ontario 46 Open Registry 212 Øresund Bridge 80 Orlando 247 Orléans, Siege of 68 Orwell, George 4 Oslo accords (1993) 139 Osman I 107 Ottoman Empire 85, 89, 92, 100, 106–109, 118, 131, 141, 233 Ourique, Battle of 84 Owens, Jesse 241 Oxford 55 P Pacific Ocean 47, 168, 209, 211 War of the 204 Pakistan 10–11, 27, 48, 117, 153–154, 157, 163 Palestine 40, 45, 98, 100, 106, 114, 116, 134, 135, 136, 137–140, 147 Liberation Movement (PLO) 137, 139 pan-African flag 179–180 Panama 201, 211–215 Canal 213–215 Paraguay 217 Paris 68, 70, 77, 235 Commune 88 Eiffel Tower 247 Patrick, St, red saltire of 41–42 Paulet, Lord George 47–48 Pedro, Dom 218–220 Pernefeldt, Oskar 248 Peru 125, 201, 202, 204, 215, 216 Pétain, Marshal 69 Peter the Great 86 Philadelphia 18, 31, 32 Philip II of Macedon 90 Philippines 163, 170 piracy 227–231 Plate, River 216–217 Poitiers, Battle of 68 Poland 13 Poole, Lynn and Gray 240–241 Portugal 83–84, 100, 185, 218–219 Pride flag see rainbow flag Prieste, Harry 238 Prussia 70, 237 Puig, Manuel 195 Punic War, Second 231 Putin, Vladimir 89 Pyongyang 167 Q Quetta 10–11 R rainbow flag (LGBT) 223, 245–248 Ramaphosa, Cyril 193 Raqqa 130 Rascal, Dizzee 56 Rastafarian movement 181 flag 178, 182 Reagan, Ronald 15, 28 Red Crescent 233 Red Cross 233 Red Crystal 233–234 Red Flag 86–88, 129, 163 see also Soviet Union; hammer and sickle Rhine, River 70 Rhodesia 49 Rio de Janeiro 218, 220 Romania, uprising 75 Rome 127 Roof, Dylann 22 Rorke’s Drift, Battle of 44 Ross, Betsy 18 Rowling, J.


pages: 353 words: 97,352

The Importance of Being Seven by Alexander McCall Smith

double entry bookkeeping, Malacca Straits, moral panic, working poor

They were both silent, as there was nothing more to be said. Did anybody actually apologise, Angus asked himself. For her part, although she recognised the merits of work in one’s own back yard, Domenica continued to be attracted by radically different societies and by not-too-prosaic projects. Her last piece of research, which she had then written up in several well-received scholarly articles, had taken place in the Malacca Straits. She had gone there to investigate the domestic life of contemporary pirates, and she still remembered with affection the welcome that the pirate households gave her. Some of the pirate women still wrote to her occasionally, giving her news of their families; and she always responded, sending books to the children and the annual Scotsman calendar to the pirates themselves. But after that there had been nothing, and she wondered whether it would be more truthful to describe herself as a sometime private scholar.

In her position there were no considerations of promotion and the financial advantage it brought; there were no chairs to be won, no colleagues from whom to receive plaudits – her only gain was the satisfaction of finding something out, of shining a light upon some obscure passage in the human tapestry. That was reward enough, of course, and Domenica needed none other – but it did mean that if she wanted to do field work, she had to do it entirely off her own bat. And that was not always easy. She spoke to her friend, Dilly Emslie, about this, meeting her for coffee in the Patisserie Florentin in North West Circus Place. It was Dilly who had encouraged her to go to the Malacca Straits and had enthusiastically supported her project there. Now she looked again to her friend for guidance: should she start another piece of research, or should she hang up her … whatever it was that anthropologists hung up – their mosquito nets, perhaps? – and lead the life of a sometime private scholar? ‘You have to do something,’ said Dilly. ‘Sitting about is not an option for somebody like you, Domenica.’


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

One need not be a supporter of China’s provocative and aggressive actions in the South China Sea to notice that the incident did not involve a Chinese nuclear-capable bomber in the Caribbean, or off the coast of California, where China has no pretensions of establishing a “Chinese lake.” Luckily for the world. Chinese leaders understand very well that their country’s maritime trade routes are ringed with hostile powers from Japan through the Malacca Straits and beyond, backed by overwhelming U.S. military force. Accordingly, China is proceeding to expand westward with extensive investments and careful moves toward integration. In part, these developments are within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), which includes the Central Asian states and Russia, and soon India and Pakistan with Iran as one of the observers—a status that was denied to the United States, which was also called on to close all military bases in the region.

Kinsley, Michael Kissinger, Henry Kivimäki, Timo Klinghoffer, Leon Knox, Henry Korean War Kornbluh, Peter Krähenbühl, Pierre Krugman, Paul Kull, Steven Küng, Hans Kuperman, Alan Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) Kurds Kuwait labor movement Labor Party (Israel) Laden, Osama bin assassination of Lansdale, Edward Laos Latin America Lawson, Dominic Leahy, Patrick Lebanon Leffler, Melvyn LeoGrande, William Le Pen, Marine Levy, Gideon Lewis, Anthony liberal internationalists liberation theology Liberty, USS, attack Libya Liebknecht, Karl Likud party (Israel) Lincoln, Abraham Linebaugh, Peter Lippmann, Walter Locke, John Lodge, Henry Cabot London Review of Books Luftwaffe Lukes, Steven Luxemburg, Rosa Madison, James Madison, Wisconsin, uprising Madrid negotiations Maechling, Charles, Jr. Magna Carta Malacca Straits Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Mandela, Nelson Manifest Destiny “Manifesto of the Intellectuals” “Manifesto of the Ninety-Three” Mann, Thomas Mansfield, Lord. See Murray, William Mansour, Riyad manufacturing offshoring of Margolis, Eric Marshall, George Marx, Karl Massachusetts Bay Colony mass surveillance “masters of mankind” Mathews, Jessica May, Ernest Mayans Mazower, Mark McConnell, Mitch McCormack, Sean McCoy, Alfred McNamara, Robert Mearsheimer, John Medicare and Medicaid Medvedev, Dmitry Meehan, Bernadette Meir, Golda Mendel, Yonatan Merkel, Angela Mexican immigrants Mexican war Mexico Mian, Zia Middle East Milanović, Dragoljub Military Commissions Act (2006) Mill, John Stuart Milosevic, Slobodan Milton-Edwards, Beverly Mongoose, Operation Monroe Doctrine Montgomery, David Morgan, Edmund Morgenthau, Hans Muasher doctrine Mughniyeh, Imad Murray, William (Lord Mansfield) Musawi, Abbas al- My Lai massacre Myth of American Exceptionalism, The (Hodgson) Nagasaki Nairn, Allan Namibia Nanking, Rape of Napoleon National Command Authority nationalism National Security Action Memos (NSAM) National Security Administration (NSA) National Security Archive National Security Council (NSC) NSC-68 National Security Doctrine Nazis Negroponte, John neocolonialism neofascism neoliberalism Netanyahu, Benjamin Neutrality Act New Republic New Spirit of the Age New Yorker New York Review of Books New York Times Nicaragua Nicholson, Mark “first” (Chilean coup of 1973) terrorist attacks of 2001 Nixon, Richard M.


pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

And if the United States was worried enough about oil to launch a full-scale invasion, then, in the view of many Chinese, energy security was clearly much more important—and urgent.1 Part of the new insecurity arose from apprehension about the sea-lanes, the economic highways for the world commerce that were increasingly important as the lifelines for Chinese oil imports—and indeed for Chinese trade in general. Half of the country’s GDP depends on sea-lanes. In November 2003, seven months after the invasion of Iraq, President Hu Jintao reportedly told a Communist Party conference that the country had to solve what became known as the Malacca Dilemma. This referred to China’s reliance on the Malacca Strait, the narrow waterway connecting the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and through which passes more than 75 percent of China’s oil imports. “Certain powers have all along encroached on and tried to control navigation through the strait,” Hu is said to have declared. “Certain powers” was an obvious euphemism for the United States.2 The growing attention to risk was reinforced by what happened in 2004: the unanticipated jump in both Chinese and global demand for oil and the consequent rapidly rising prices.

Ensuring their safety requires increased collaboration among both producers and consumers. Critical choke points along the sea routes create particular vulnerabilities for the transport of oil and LNG, whether from accidents, terrorist attacks, or military conflict. The best known of these choke points is the Strait of Hormuz, which separates the Persian Gulf (with more than a quarter of world oil production) from the Indian Ocean. Another key point is the Malacca Strait—the five-hundred-mile-long, narrow, and constricted passage between Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra that funnels in from the Indian Ocean, curves up around Singapore, and then widens out again into the open waters of the South China Sea. At its most narrow, it is only 40 miles in width. About 14 million barrels per day pass through this waterway, as does two thirds of internationally traded LNG—and half of all of world trade.

smog in Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles International Airport Lott, Trent Louisiana natural gas of offshore oil in Louis XV, King of France Lovins, Amory LSF (light sand fraccing) Lugar, Richard Lukoil Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio Lutz, Robert MacArthur, Douglas McCain, John MacDonald, Gordon McKee, Rob Macondo (Mississippi Canyon Block 252) Maguire, Robert Mahoney, James Major, John Major Economies (formerly Major Emitters) Makovich, Lawrence Malacca Dilemma Malacca Strait Malaysia as LNG supplier Manabe, Syukuro Manchuria MANIAC (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator and Computer) manufacturing American system of Chinese Indian solar see also factories Mao Tse-tung Maracaibo basin marijuana Marines, U.S. Marine Well Containment Corporation market-based solutions acid rain and Coase and developed vs. developing countries and as “Grand Policy Experiment,” Kyoto conference and lead in gasoline and “least-cost,” Project 88 and war on pollution and markets for carbon climate change and, see market-based solutions electricity and emerging energy security and gas global energy LNG and over-the-counter regulation vs.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

The Tang then continued to welcome Malay, Arab, and Persian merchants, even inviting them to live in permanent communities in Chinese cities. Such immigrants made up two-thirds of the 200,000 inhabitants of Guangzhou (Canton), where the Huaisheng Mosque became the first of its kind in China. Tang Dynasty merchant ships reflected this diversity, with crews made up of Christians, Parsis, Muslims, and Jews. Tang vessels crossed the Java Sea and Malacca Strait carrying tens of thousands of fine porcelain bowls and other items to be exchanged for Indian fabrics and Abbasid glassware. At the time, the Tang Empire’s estimated 60 million people accounted for a quarter of the world’s population, and its cities were larger than any in Europe or India. The Tang leveraged this strength to expand aggressively into Manchuria in the north, Tibet in the west, and Annam (Vietnam) in the south.

., 49, 265, 316 Ganges region, 29, 32 Ganges River, 33, 35, 46 “Gangnam Style” (music video), 343 Gates, Bill, 317 Geely, 194 General Electric, 110, 168, 211 Genghis Khan, 39–40 Georgia, Republic of, 59 technocracy in, 307 Germany, Nazi, 50 Germany, unified: Arab refugees in, 255 Asian immigrants in, 253, 254, 256 Asia’s relations with, 242 multiparty consensus in, 284 Ginsberg, Allen, 331 Giving Pledge, 317 Global-is-Asian, 22 globalization: Asia and, 8–9, 162, 357–59; see also Asianization growth of, 14 global order, see world order Goa, 44, 89, 186 Göbekli Tepe, 28 Goguryeo Kingdom, 34 Go-Jek, 187 Golden Triangle, 123 Google, 199, 200, 208–9, 219 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 58 governance: digital technology in, 318–19 inclusive policies in, 303 governance, global: Asia and, 321–25 infrastructure and, 322 US and, 321 government: effectiveness of, 303 trust in, 291, 310 violence against minorities by, 308–9 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 293 GrabShare, 174–75 grain imports, Asian, 90 Grand Canal, China, 37, 42 Grand Trunk Road, 33 Great Britain: Asian investments in, 247 Brexit vote in, 283–84, 286, 293–94 civil service in, 293–94 colonial empire of, 46–47 industrialization in, 46 Iran and, 252 populism in, 283–84 South Asian immigrants in, 253, 254 West Asian mandates of, 49–50 Great Game, 47 Great Leap Forward, 55 Great Wall of China, 31 Greece, 60, 91, 248 Greeks, ancient, 29, 34 greenhouse gas emissions, 176–77, 182 gross domestic product (GDP), 2, 4, 150 Grupo Bimbo, 272 Guam, 50, 136 Guangdong, 42, 98 Guangzhou (Canton), 37, 48, 68 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 58, 101, 102 Gulf states (Khaleej), 6, 9, 57, 62, 81 alternative energy projects in, 251 Asianization of, 100–106 China and, 101, 102 European investment in, 251 India and, 102 Israel and, 99–100, 105 Japan and, 102 oil and gas exports of, 62, 74, 100–101, 176 South Asian migrants in, 334 Southeast Asia’s trade with, 102 South Korea and, 102 technocracy in, 311–12 US arms sales to, 101 women in, 315 see also specific countries Gulliver, Stuart, 148, 150 Gupta Empire, 35 H-1B visas, 219 Hamas, 59, 100, 139 Hamid, Mohsin, 184 Han Dynasty, 32, 33, 34, 300 Hanoi, 180 Han people, 31–32, 37, 69 Harappa, 29 Hardy, Alfredo Toro, 275 Hariri, Saad, 95 Harun al-Rashid, Caliph, 37 Harvard University, 230 Haushofer, Karl, 1 health care, 201–2 Helmand River, 107 Herberg-Rothe, Andreas, 75 Herodotus, 30 heroin, 106–7 Hezbollah, 58, 95, 96, 106 Hindus, Hinduism, 29, 31, 32, 34, 38, 70–71 in Southeast Asia, 121 in US, 220, 221 Hiroshima, atomic bombing of, 51 Hispanic Americans, 217 history, Asian view of, 75 history textbooks: Asia nationalism in, 27–28 global processes downplayed in, 28 Western focus of, 27–28, 67–68 Hitler, Adolf, 50 Ho, Peter, 289 Ho Chi Minh, 52 Ho Chi Minh City, 56 Honda, 275 Hong Kong, 56, 74 American expats in, 234 art scene in, 342 British handover of, 60, 141 civil society in, 313 Hongwu, Ming emperor, 42 honor killings, 315 Hormuz, Strait of, 103, 106 hospitality industry, 190, 214 Houthis, 106, 107 Huan, Han emperor, 33–34 Hulagu Khan, 40 Human Rights Watch, 313 human trafficking, 318 Hunayn ibn Ishaq, 37 Hungary, 40, 248, 256 Huns, 35, 76 hunter-gatherers, 28 Huntington, Samuel, 15 Hu Shih, 332 Hussein, Saddam, 58, 62, 101 Hyundai, 104 IBM, 212 I Ching, 30 Inclusive Development Index (IDI), 150 income inequality: in Asia, 183–84 in US, 228, 285 India, 101, 104 Afghanistan and, 118 Africa and, 264–66 AI research in, 200 alternative energy programs in, 178–79, 322 Asian investments of, 118 Australia and, 128 British Raj in, 46, 49 charitable giving in, 316–17 China and, 19–20, 113, 117–18, 155, 156, 332 civil society in, 313 in Cold War era, 52, 55, 56 corporate debt in, 170 corruption in, 161, 305 demonetization in, 184, 186–87 diaspora of, 333–34 early history of, 29, 30–31 economic growth of, 9, 17, 148, 185–86 elections in, 63 European trade partnerships with, 250–51 expansionist period in, 38, 41–42 failure of democracy in, 302 family-owned businesses in, 160 film industry in, 349–51 financial markets in, 186 foreign investment in, 192 gender imbalance in, 315 global governance in, 322–23 global image of, 331–32 Gulf states and, 102 inclusive policies in, 304 infrastructure investment in, 63, 110, 185 Iran and, 116, 118 Israel and, 98–99 IT industry in, 204, 275 Japan and, 134, 156 Latin America and, 275 manufacturing in, 192 as market for Western products and services, 207 naval forces of, 105 Northeast Asia and, 154–55 oil and gas imports of, 96, 107–8, 176 Pakistan and, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18 partitioning of, 52–53 pharmaceutical industry in, 228, 275 population of, 15, 186 in post–Cold War era, 61, 62 privatization in, 170 returnees in, 226 Russia and, 86–87 service industry in, 192 Southeast Asia and, 154–55 special economic zones in, 185 spiritual heritage of, 332 technocracy in, 304–6 technological innovation in, 186–87 territorial claims of, 11 top-down economic reform in, 305 traditional medicine of, 355 West Asia and, 155 Indian Americans, 217, 218, 219–20, 222 Indian Institutes of Technology (ITT), 205 Indian Ocean, 38, 47, 74, 105, 261, 262, 266 European voyages to, 44 Indians, in Latin America, 276 IndiaStack, 187 Indochina, 45, 50, 52 see also Southeast Asia Indo-Islamic culture, 38 Indonesia, 53, 61, 121, 125, 182 art scene in, 342 in Cold War era, 54 economic growth of, 17, 148 eco-tourism in, 340 failure of democracy in, 302 foreign investment in, 187 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies of, 304 Muslims in, 71 technocracy in, 304–5 Indus River, 32, 113 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), 92, 159 industrialization, spread of, 22 Industrial Revolution, 2, 46, 68 Indus Valley, 29 infrastructure investment, in Asia, 6, 62, 63, 85, 88, 93, 96, 104, 108, 109, 110–11, 185, 190, 191, 243–44 see also; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank; Belt and Road Initiative Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), 257, 286–87 insurance industry, 210 intermarriage, 336, 337–38 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 162, 163, 166, 323 International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC), 116 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 100 International Systems in World History (Buzan), 7 Internet of Things (IoT), 134, 136, 197 Interpol, 324 Iran, 11, 15, 62, 92, 95, 98, 101, 140 China and, 101, 106–7, 116 in Cold War era, 54 European trade with, 251–52 growing opposition to theocracy in, 312 India and, 116, 118 Islamic revolution in, 57 Israel and, 99, 100 nuclear program of, 62 oil and gas exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 in post–Cold War era, 58–59 privatization in, 170 re-Asianization of, 81, 106 Russia and, 87 Saudi Arabia and, 95–96, 100, 105–6 Syria and, 106 tourism in, 252 Turkey and, 94 US sanctions on, 87, 107, 241, 251, 252 women in, 315 Yemen and, 107 Iran-Iraq War, 58, 106 Iraq, 9, 11, 16, 49 Kuwait invaded by, 59 oil exports of, 55, 96 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 312 Iraq Reconstruction Conference (2018), 96 Iraq War, 3, 62, 91, 217, 240 Isfahan, 41 Islam, 40, 316 politics and, 71–72 spread of, 36, 38–39, 43, 69–72, 74 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 95, 312 Sunni-Shi’a division in, 36 see also Muslims; specific countries Islamic radicalism, 58, 59, 62, 65, 68, 71, 72, 115, 117, 139 see also terrorism Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), 63, 71, 94, 96, 117 Israel, 11, 54, 96 arms sales of, 98 China and, 98–99 desalinzation technology of, 181 EU and, 97 Gulf states and, 99–100, 105 India and, 98–99 Iran and, 99, 100 Russia and, 88 see also Arab-Israeli conflict; Palestinian-Israeli conflict Japan, 14, 16, 63, 68, 69, 73 Africa and, 265 Allied occupation in, 51 alternative energy technologies in, 322 Asian investments of, 118, 156 Asianization of, 81 Asian migrants in, 336–37 Asian trade with, 273 capitalism in, 159 cashless economy in, 189 China and, 19–20, 77, 134, 136–37, 140–42 in Cold War era, 5, 55 corporate culture of, 132 early history of, 29, 31, 34–35 economic growth of, 55, 132, 148, 158, 163 economic problems of, 132, 134–35 in era of European imperialism, 47–48 EU trade agreement with, 133 expansionist period in, 38, 42, 44 foreign investment in, 135 in global economy, 133–37 global governance and, 322–23 global image of, 331 Gulf states and, 102 immigration in, 135–36 India and, 134, 156 infrastructure investment in, 110 Latin America and, 275 precision industries in, 134, 135–36 robotic technology in, 134 Russia and, 82, 86–87 Southeast Asia and, 133, 153–54, 156 South Korea and, 141–42 technological innovation in, 134, 196, 197 territorial claims of, 11 tourism in, 135 US and, 136 in World War I, 49 in World War II, 50–51 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 265 Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement, 273 Java, 35, 38, 39, 45 Javid, Sajid, 254 Jericho, 28 Jerusalem, 54, 98 Jesus Christ, 35 jihad, 38 Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, 52 Jobs, Steve, 331 Joko Widodo (Jokowi), 305, 306, 320 Jollibee, 172 Jordan, 54, 62, 97, 99 Syrian refugees in, 63 Journal of Asian Studies, 352 Journey to the West, 353 Judaism, 36 Kagame, Paul, 268 Kanishka, Kush emperor, 35 Kapur, Devesh, 218 Karachi, 113 Karakoram Highway, 113 Kashmir, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18, 119 Kazakhstan, 59, 140, 207 China and, 20, 108 economic diversification in, 190 energy investment in, 112 as hub of new Silk Road, 111–12 Kenya, 262, 263 Kerouac, Jack, 331 Khaleej, see Gulf states Khmer Empire, 70 Khmer people, 34, 38, 239 Khmer Rouge, 56 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 57, 59 Khorgas, 108 Khrushchev, Nikita, 56 Khwarizmi, Muhammad al-, 37 Kiev, 40 Kim Il Sung, 55 Kim Jong-un, 142 Kish, 28 Kissinger, Henry, 357 Koran, 316 Korea, 11, 31, 51, 68, 69 early history of, 34 expansionist period in, 38 Japanese annexation of, 48 reunification of, 142–43 see also North Korea; South Korea Korea Investment Corporation, 164 Korean Americans, 217 Korean War, 51 Kosygin, Alexei, 56 K-pop, 343 Kuala Lampur, 121, 246 Kublai Khan, 40 Kurds, Kurdistan, 87, 94, 99, 256 Kushan Empire, 32, 35 Kuwait, 101 Iraqi invasion of, 59 Kyrgyzstan, 59, 108, 182 language, Asian links in, 68–69 Laos, 45, 52, 60, 122, 154 Latin America: Asian immigrants in, 275–76 Asian investment in, 273–75, 276–77 Indian cultural exports to, 350 trade partnerships in, 272–73, 274, 275 US and, 271–72 Lebanon, 49, 54, 58, 95, 106 Syrian refugees in, 63 Lee, Ang, 347 Lee, Calvin Cheng Ern, 131 Lee Hsien Loong, 296–97 Lee Kuan Yew, 56, 127, 268, 288, 289, 292–93, 299, 305 voluntary retirement of, 296 Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 22, 299 Lenin, Vladimir, 49, 89 Levant (Mashriq), 81, 95, 97 LG, 275 Li & Fung, 184–85 Liang Qichao, 48–49 Liberalism Discovered (Chua), 297 Lien, Laurence, 317 life expectancies, 201 literature, Asian, global acclaim for, 353–54 Liu, Jean, 175 Liu Xiaobo, 249 logistics industry, 243 Ma, Jack, 85–86, 160, 189 Macao (Macau), 44 MacArthur, Douglas, 51 McCain, John, 285 McKinsey & Company, 160, 213 Macquarie Group, 131 Maddison, Angus, 2 Made in Africa Initiative, 262 Magadha Kingdom, 31 Magellan, Ferdinand, 43 Mahabharata, 35 Mahbubani, Kishore, 3 Mahmud of Ghazni, Abbasid sultan, 38 Malacca, 38, 43, 44, 124 Malacca, Strait of, 37, 39, 102, 103, 118, 125 Malaya, 46, 50 Malay Peninsula, 39, 53 Malaysia, 53, 61, 188 Asian foreign labor in, 335 China and, 123, 124 in Cold War era, 54 economic diversification in, 190 economic growth of, 17 technocracy in, 308 Maldives, 105 Malesky, Edmund, 308 Manchuria, 38, 48, 50, 51 Mandarin language, 229–30, 257 Manila, 121, 245 Spanish colonization of, 44 Mansur, al-, Caliph, 37 manufacturing, in Asia, 192 Mao Zedong, 51–52, 55, 56, 261, 300, 301 Marawi, 71 Marcos, Ferdinand, 53–54, 61 martial arts, mixed (MMA), 340–41 Mashriq (Levant), 81, 95, 97 Mauritius, 268 Mauryan Empire, 32–33, 68 May, Theresa, 293 Mecca, 57 media, in Asia, 314 median ages, in Asia, 148, 149, 155 Median people, 29 Mediterranean region, 1, 6, 29, 30, 33, 68, 84, 92, 95, 99, 106 see also Mashriq Mehta, Zubin, 332 Mekong River, 122 Menander, Indo-Greek king, 33 mergers and acquisitions, 212–13 meritocracy, 294, 301 Merkel, Angela, 242, 254 Mesopotamia, 28 Mexico, 7 Asian economic ties to, 272, 273, 274, 277 Microsoft, 208 middle class, Asian, growth of, 3, 4 Mihov, Ilian, 309 mindfulness, 332 Ming Dynasty, 42–43, 44, 69, 73, 75, 76, 105, 137, 262 mobile phones, 157, 183–84, 187, 188, 189, 193, 199, 208–9, 211 Modi, Narendra, 63, 98, 117, 119, 154–55, 161, 180, 185, 222, 265, 305, 306, 307, 320 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 54 Mohammed bin Salman, crown prince of Saudi Arabia, 72, 247, 310, 312, 315 Mohenjo-Daro, 29 Moluku, 45 MoneyGram, 196 Mongolia, 92, 111–12 alternative energy programs in, 112, 182 technocracy in, 307 Mongols, Mongol Empire, 39–40, 42, 44, 68, 69, 73, 76, 77, 239 religious and cultural inclusiveness of, 40, 70–71 Monroe Doctrine, 271 Moon Jae-in, 142 Moscow, 81, 82 Mossadegh, Mohammad, 54 MSCI World Index, 166, 168 Mubadala Investment Company, 88, 103, 104 Mughal Empire, 41–42, 46 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Muhammad, Prophet, 36 Mumbai, 185–86 Munich Security Conference, 241 Murakami, Haruki, 354 Murasaki Shikibu, 353 music scene, in Asia, 343 Muslim Brotherhood, 59 Muslims, 70–72 in Southeast Asia, 38–39, 43, 70–71, 121 in US, 220 see also Islam; specific countries Myanmar, 60, 63, 161 Asian investment in, 118–19 charitable giving in, 316 failure of democracy in, 302 financial reform in, 184 Rohingya genocide in, 122–23 see also Burma Nagasaki, atomic bombing of, 51 Nanjing, 42, 49 Napoleon I, emperor of the French, 1 nationalism, 11, 20, 22, 49–50, 52–55, 77, 118, 137, 138–39, 222, 312, 329, 337, 352 Natufian people, 28 natural gas, see oil and gas natural gas production, 175–76 Nazism, 200 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 52, 55 Neolithic Revolution, 28 neomercantilism, 20, 22, 158 Nepal, 46, 119–20, 333 Nestorian Christianity, 36, 70 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 97, 98, 100 Netflix, 348 New Deal, 287 New Delhi, 245 Ng, Andrew, 199 NGOs, 313 Nigeria, 265 Nisbett, Richard, 357 Nixon, Richard, 56, 101 Nobel Prize, 48, 221, 249, 323, 353–54 nomadic cultures, 76 Non-Aligned Movement, 55 Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty, 61 North America: Asian trade with, 13, 14, 207 as coherent regional system, 7 energy self-sufficiency of, 175, 272 internal trade in, 152 see also Canada; Mexico; United States North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2, 57, 92, 116 Northeast Asia, 141 India and, 154–55 internal trade in, 152 manufacturing in, 153 North Korea, 55, 61 aggressiveness of, 63 China and, 143 cyber surveillance by, 142 nuclear and chemical weapons program of, 142 Russia and, 143 South Korea and, 142 US and, 142–43 Obama, Barack, 18, 82, 229, 240 oil and gas: Asian imports of, 9, 62, 82–83, 84–85, 96, 102, 106, 107–8, 152, 175, 176, 207 Gulf states’ exports of, 62, 74, 100–103, 176 Iranian exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 Iraqi exports of, 55, 96 OPEC embargo on, 57 price of, 61 Russian exports of, 82–83, 84, 87–88, 175, 176 Saudi exports of, 58, 87–88, 102, 103 US exports of, 16, 207 West Asian exports of, 9, 23, 57, 62, 152 Okakura Tenshin, 48 oligarchies, 294–95 Olympic Games, 245 Oman, East Asia and, 104 ONE Championship (MMA series), 341 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 57 Operation Mekong (film), 123 opium, 47, 123 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 241 Oslo Accords, 59 Osman I, Ottoman Sultan, 41 Ottoman Empire, 40–41, 43, 45, 46–47, 48, 73, 91 partitioning of, 49–50 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Out of Eden Walk, 4 Overseas Private Investment Company (OPEC), 111 Pacific Alliance, 272 Pacific Islands, 181–82 US territories in, 48 Pacific Rim, see East Asia Pakistan, 52–53, 58, 62, 72, 95, 102, 105 AI research in, 200 Asianization of, 81, 113–18 as Central Asia’s conduit to Arabian Sea, 113–14 China and, 20, 114–16, 117–18 corruption in, 161 failure of democracy in, 302 finance industry in, 168–69 foreign investment in, 115 GDP per capita in, 184 India and, 55, 61–62, 117–18 intra-Asian migration from, 334 logistics industry in, 185 as market for Western products and services, 207 US and, 114–15 Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), 307 Palestine, Palestinians, 49, 54, 99 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 59 Palestinian-Israeli conflict, 59, 62, 97, 100 Pan-Asianism, 48, 351–52 paper, invention of, 72 Paris climate agreement, 178, 240 Paris Peace Conference (1918), 49 Park Chung-hee, 56 Park Geun-hye, 313 parliamentary democracy, 295 Parthians, 33, 76 Pawar, Rajendra, 205 Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack on, 50 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 169 People’s Action Party (PAP), Singapore, 294 People’s Bank of China (PBOC), 110, 188 Pepper (robot), 134 per capita income, 5, 150, 183, 186 Persia, Persian Empire, 29, 30, 42, 45, 47, 50, 68, 75 see also Iran Persian Gulf War, 61, 101, 217 Peru: Asian immigrants in, 275, 276 Asian trade with, 272 Peshawar, 32 Peter I, Tsar of Russia, 45, 90 pharmaceutical companies, 209–10 Philippines, 61, 157, 165 alternative energy programs in, 180 Asian migrants in, 333 China and, 123–24 Christianity in, 74 in Cold War era, 53–54 eco-tourism in, 340 foreign investment in, 124 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies in, 304 as market for Western products and services, 207 Muslims in, 71 privatization in, 170 technocracy in, 304–5 urban development in, 190 US acquisition of, 48 US and, 123–24 philosophy, Asian vs.


pages: 509 words: 137,315

Islands in the Net by Bruce Sterling

back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, industrial robot, Malacca Straits, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, South China Sea, wage slave

They flew southwest, through the brutal, thrusting skyscrapers of Queenstown. Then over a cluster of offshore islands with names like the bonging of gamelans: Samulun, Merlimau, Seraya. Clumps of clotted tropical green cut with towering beachfront hotels. White, sandy shorelines cinched in by elaborate dams and jetties. Good-bye, Singapore. They changed course over the monsoon-ruffled waters of the Malacca Straits. It was loud inside the cabin. The passengers made a little hoarse, guarded conversation, but no one approached her. Laura leaned her head against the bare plastic by the little fist-sized porthole and fell into a stunned half-doze. She came to as the chopper pulled up, yawing dizzily. They were hovering over a cargo ship. Ships had become familiar to her at the loading docks: this was a tramp clipper, with the strange rotating wind columns that had been a big hit back in the ’teens.

She stared at him. He leaned back, shrugging. She coughed on seawater, then gathered her legs in, trembling, wretched. A long time passed. Then her brain began to work again. The ship had never had a chance. Not even to scream out an SOS. The first missile had wiped out the bridge—radio, radar, and all. The killers had cut their throat first thing. But to kill a hundred people in the middle of the Malacca Straits! To commit an atrocity like that—surely other ships must have seen the explosion, the smoke. To have done such a thing, so viciously, so blatantly … Her voice, when she finally got it out, was cracked and weak. “Hennessey …?” “Henderson,” he told her. He tugged his drenched red rain slicker over his head. Beneath it was a bright orange life jacket. Under that a sleeveless utility vest, bulges and little metal zips and Velcro flaps.


pages: 168 words: 56,211

The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work by Alain de Botton

Donald Trump, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spice trade, supply-chain management, Vilfredo Pareto

On either side of the ship, the river swirls with plastic bottles, feathers, cork, sea-smoothed planks, felt-tip pens and faded toys. The Goddess docks at Tilbury container terminal at just after eleven. Given the trials she has undergone, she might have expected to be met by a minor dignitary or a choir singing ‘Exultate, jubilate’. But there is a welcome only from a foreman, who hands a Filipino crew member a sheaf of customs forms and disappears without asking what dawn looked like over the Malacca Straits or whether there were porpoises off Sri Lanka. The ship’s course alone is impressive. Three weeks earlier she set off from Yokohama and since then she has called in at Yokkaichi, Shenzhen, Mumbai, Istanbul, Casablanca and Rotterdam. Only days before, as a dull rain fell on the sheds of Tilbury, she began her ascent up the Red Sea under a relentless sun, circled by a family of storks from Djibouti.


pages: 618 words: 160,006

Seapower States: Maritime Culture, Continental Empires and the Conflict That Made the Modern World by Andrew Lambert

British Empire, different worldview, Donald Trump, joint-stock company, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, rising living standards, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS

After 1713 the British pushed into Dutch Asian markets, planning the peaceful destruction of their once-mighty precursors.116 The Dutch Empire on the Indian mainland ended in 1783, the year the VoC granted the British East India Company free access to Asian waters, ending the spice monopoly. A decade later the British seized the strategic naval base at Trincomalee, to pre-empt the French. The base secured control of the Bay of Bengal, the Malayan coast and the Malacca Straits. The VoC was nationalised in 1796, and wound up in 1800.117 Few would have predicted that outcome at the high point of the Dutch seapower state, in the autumn of 1667. Just as everyone else accepted the Second Anglo-Dutch War would peter out in a patched-up peace, with both sides distracted by domestic issues, with peace talks already scheduled, Johan de Witt delivered a seapower masterstroke, one he had been planning for more than a decade.

(i) Hoorn (i) hoplites (i), (ii), (iii) Horden, Peregrine (i) House of Commons (i) House of Lords (i) Howard of Effingham, Lord (i), (ii) Huelva (i) Hughes, Lindsey (i), (ii) Hundred Years War (i), (ii) Hungary (i) Huygens, Constantijn (i) Hyksos (i) Iberia see also Portugal; Spain abandonment of sea (i), (ii) Barcids conquer (i) control of sea routes to (i), (ii), (iii) Genoese and Dutch contractors (i) Hamilcar’s empire in (i), (ii) Phoenician influence (i) royal autocrats in charge (i) tin from (i) Ibiza (i) Idea of the Patriotic King, The (Lord Bolingbroke) (i) Il Redentore, Venice (i) Iliad (Homer) (i) Illyria (i) India Dutch in (i) English and French in (i) English in (i) land taken by a seapower (i) Portugal in (i) Thames and (i) Indian Ocean (i), (ii) Indonesia (i), (ii) Influence of Sea Power upon History, The (Alfred Thayer Mahan) (i), (ii) Interest of Holland, The (Pieter de la Court) (i) Ionia Athenian protection (i) Athens defeats (i) currants (i) Greeks liberate (i) Persian control (i), (ii) Polycrates of Samos and (i) Venice and the islands (i) Ionian Greeks (i), (ii) Ireland (i), (ii), (iii) iron (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Iron Age (i) ISIS (Islamist militia) (i) Isla San Giorgio (i) Islam (i) see also Muslims islands (i), (ii), (iii) Isocrates (i) Israel (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Italy Burckhardt on (i) Charles V’s domination (i) Greek cities in (i) Habsburg power in (i) Hannibal’s aims (i) Italians in St Petersburg (i) Rome, Carthage and (i) Venice unique (i), (ii), (iii) Ithone (i) Ivan IV (Russia) (i), (ii) Jackson, Andrew (i) Jacobites (i) James I (England) (i), (ii), (iii) James, Duke of York (later James II) (i) Janissaries (i) Japan Commodore Perry (i) European base to navy (i) military conquest by (i) responding to China (i) seapower identity and (i) Second World War (i) Jardine, Lisa (i) Jason and the Argonauts (i), (ii) Jeddah (i) Jefferson, Thomas (i) Jerusalem (i), (ii) Jesuits (i), (ii) Jews (i), (ii) John II (Portugal) (i) joint-stock companies (i) Jomini, Antoine-Henri (i) n16 Jones, Inigo (i) Jucar, River (i) Julius Caesar (i) Justinian (i) Jutland, battle of (i) Kahan, Arcadius (i) Karelia (i) Kazan (i) Kerch, Straits of (i) Kneller, Sir Godfrey (i), (ii) Knossos (i), (ii) Kommos (i) Korea (i) Korean War (i) Kotlin Island (i), (ii) Krammick, Isaac (i) Kronstadt (i), Plate 10 Algarotti impressed by (i) Deane at (i) engravings (i) Frigate Pallada (i) later reconstructions (i), (ii) plan of (i) reliance on (i) work begins on (i) La Hougue (i) Laconia (i), (ii), (iii) Lade, battle of (i), (ii), (iii) Lagoon, Venice (i) Lagoon of Tunis (i) land empires (i) Lane, Frederic authority on Venice (i) n10 consolidation by seapowers (i) kings and merchants (i) seeds of Venetian dissolution (i), (ii) Venice and US (i) lantern galleys (i) Laocoön sculpture (i) lapis lazuli (i) Latimer, William (i) Latin America (i) Latin Empire (i) Lauderdale, Duke of (i) Laurium (i) Law of the Sea, UN Convention on the (i), (ii) League of Cambrai (i), (ii) Lebanon (i) Leiden (i) Lenin (i) Leningrad Naval Museum (i), (ii) Lepanto, battle of (i), Plate 5 effect on Venice (i), (ii) fleets converge (i) galleasses (i) location (i) map (i) Ottoman capacity weakened (i) Lesbos (i) Levant, the annihilation of (i) Assyria conquers (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) control of sea routes (i) demand for produce of (i) Dutch involvement (i) England (i) expansion of (i) far-flung trading routes (i) Mesopotamia and (i), (ii) new types of state (i) purpose-built docks (i) Tyrrhenian Sea and (i) Venice controls (i) Venice silver (i) Lewis and Clark (i) Lexington (ship) (i) Library, Venice (i) Libya (i), (ii) Libyssia (i) Lido, Venice (i) Liguria (i), (ii), (iii) Lincoln, Abraham (i) Lion of St Mark, The (Vittorio Carpaccio) (i) Lisbon (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Liverpool (i) Livorno (i) Livy anti-Carthage propaganda (i), (ii) Napoleon and (i) read in Venice (i) Sabellico takes as model (i) Lloyd George, David (i) Loggetta, Venice (i) London see also City of London Dutch capital flows to (i) Peter the Great (i), (ii), (iii) power passes from Amsterdam (i) Ruskin on (i) Venice’s links with (i), (ii) ‘Long Walls’ demolition (i), (ii) effects of on Athens (i), (ii) Holland and (i) link with Piraeus (i), (ii), (iii) security for Athens (i) Lopez, Robert (i) Loredan, Antonio (i), (ii), (iii) Lorrain, Claude (i) Louis XIV Beachy Head (i) Colbert builds battle fleet (i) Dutch Republic and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) first modern state (i) n29 First Rate battleship (i) Genoa (i) hatred of sea states (i) naval ambitions thwarted (i) Peter the Great admires (i), (ii), (iii) William III and (i) Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (i) Louisiana Purchase (i) Low Countries (i), (ii), (iii) Lowestoft (i) Lupher, David (i) Luther, Martin (i) Lycia (i) Lydia (i), (ii) Lynate, Thomas (i) Lysippus (i) Maastricht (i) Macartney, Lord (i) Macedon Athenian trade with (i) Carthage and (i), (ii) Philip seizes Athenian bases (i) Phoenician cities and (i) revolt against Rome (i) Rhodes and (i) Romans fighting in (i), (ii) Royal Library (i) Third Roman War (i) Mackinder, Halford (i), (ii) Madison, James (i) Madrid (i), (ii) Mago (i), (ii) Mahan, Captain Alfred Thayer (i) America and Britain (i) American seapower (i), (ii) Braudel and (i) Corbett and (i) ‘great common’ oceans (i) Hannibal’s seapower (i) meaning of ‘sea power’ (i), (ii) modern democracy and seapower (i) Mommsen and (i) railroads and rivers (i) strategic legacy of (i), (ii) theoretical model (i) Main Admiralty (St Petersburg) (i), (ii), (iii) Malacca (i) Malacca Straits (i) Malaya (i) Malta (i), (ii), (iii) Mamertines (i), (ii) Mamluks (i), (ii), (iii) Manchuria (i) Mandate of Heaven (i) Manifest Destiny (i), (ii) Mantinea, battle of (i), (ii) Manuel I (Portugal) (i), (ii), (iii) Manutius, Aldus (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) n17 Marathon, battle of (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Marcello, Alvise (i) Marciana Library, Venice (i) Mardonius (i), (ii) Mare Clausum (John Selden) (i), (ii) Mariner’s Mirror, The (Lucas Jansz Waghenaar) (i) Maritime Belligerent Rights (i) Mark, St (i), (ii) Mary II (England) (i) Masinissa, King (Numidia) (i), (ii) Massilia (Marseille) (i) Mauritius (i), (ii) Maurits, Prince (i), (ii), (iii) Maximilian (Holy Roman Empire) (i) Mediterranean Bronze Age trade (i) Carthage (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) convoys protect Dutch (i) Cromwell’s Commonwealth (i) Dandolo, Venice and (i) docks (i) galleys in see galleys Genoese in (i) Heemskerck’s achievements for Dutch (i) land/sea balance (i) map (i) merchants transform (i) Mesopotamia and (i), (ii) metal imports (i) navigation by night and in winter (i) pivot point, a (i) population (i) refugees and migrants (i) Rome the superpower (i), (ii) single economic system (i), (ii) spice trade (i) trade networks (i), (ii) triremes in (i) Venice’s pre-eminence (i) Medway, River (i), (ii) Megara Alcibiades’ designs on (i) Athenian warships at (i) loss of Athenian control over (i) Megarian Decree (i) re-joins Sparta (i) Mehmet II (Ottomans) (i), (ii) Melian dialogue (i), (ii) Melos (i) Melquart (i), (ii), (iii) Menshikov, Prince (i) mercenaries (i), (ii) Mesopotamia cuneiform (i) demand for Levantine produce (i) growing control of Levant (i) importance of sea cities to (i) imports (i) lack of vital resources (i) Mediterranean and (i), (ii), (iii) synergy between land and sea (i) Messenia (i) Messina (i) Mestre (i) metals (i), (ii) Mexico (i), (ii), (iii) Meyer, Eduard (i), (ii), (iii) n73 Middle East (i), (ii) Middleburg (i) Milan (i), (ii) Miletus (i) Miliukov, Pavel (i) Milner, Alfred (i) Miltiades (i), (ii) Minoans connectivity of (i) effective unopposed control (i) folk memories (i) seapower and trade (i), Plate 1 thalassokratia (i), (ii) Thucydides on (i) Minorca (i), (ii) Minos, King (i), (ii), (iii) Minotaur, the (i), (ii) Mint, Venice (i), (ii) Mithridates of Pontus (i), (ii) Modon (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Mommsen, Theodor (i), (ii) Mongols (i), (ii), (iii) Montesquieu (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Moon, Sir Penderel (i) Mordvinov, Semen (i) More, Thomas (i) Morocco (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Moscow earlier era of (i) English travel to (i) old families of (i) Peter’s boat paraded through (i) St Petersburg and (i), (ii) Moskva River (i) Motya (i) Mount Athos (i) movable-type printing (i) Munster (i) Munster, Peace of (i), (ii) Murray, General Sir George (i) Muslims Genoa, Spain and (i) libraries (i) Malacca (i) Seville and (i) spice trade (i) Tower of Belem and (i), Plate 9 Tunis and the corsairs (i) Venice trades with (i) Mycenae (i), (ii) Mylae, battle of (i) Myonessus (i) ‘Myth of Venice’ (i), (ii), (iii) Naples (i) Napoleon I (Bonaparte) continental armies (i) crushing seapower from land (i) Dutch Republic and (i), (ii) Genoa and Venice (i) Louisiana Purchase (i) new versions of Rome and (i), (ii), (iii) Russia and (i) Turner’s paintings (i), (ii) Venice occupied by (i), (ii) Napoleon III (i) Naseby (ship) (i) National Debt (i), (ii), (iii) Native Americans (i) NATO (i) Nauplia (i) Naval Hospital, Greenwich (i) Naval Museum, Venice (i) n22 Naval Statute (Peter the Great) (i), (ii), (iii) naval warfare (i) Navarino (i) navies (i), (ii) Navies and Nations (Jan Glete) (i) n3 Navigation Acts (Russia) (i) Navigation Laws, 1651 (England) (i) Navy Royal (i) see also Royal Navy Naxos (i) Negroponte (i), (ii) Nelson, Horatio (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), Plate 15 Nelson’s Column (i), (ii) Netherlands see Dutch Republic Neva, River (i), (ii), (iii) New Art of War at Sea (Fernando Oliviera) (i) New Deal (US) (i) New Holland (i) New York (i) New Zealand (i), (ii) Nicholas I (Russia) (i), (ii) Nicias, Peace of (i), (ii) Nieuwe Kirk (i), (ii) Nile, River (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Nine Years War (i) Nineveh (i) north Africa Carthage (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Charles V (i) Genoa and (i) Phoenicians (i) Portugal and (i), (ii) Venice and (i) North Korea (i) North Quarter (Dutch Republic) (i) North Sea (i), (ii) Norway (i) Numidia (i), (ii) ‘Old Oligarch’ (i) Oliveira, Fernando (i) open-ocean navigation (i) Orange-Nassau, House of see also Willem III de Witt and (i), (ii), (iii) Oldenbarnevelt executed (i) populace and (i), (ii), (iii) risks of vaunting ambition (i) seamen support (i) Stadholders (i), (ii) standard of (i) Treaty of Breda (i) Order of Christ (i), (ii) Ormrod, David (i) Ostia (i), (ii) Ottoman Empire (i) Azov (i) Catherine II and (i) competes with Mamluks (i) Constantinople conquered (i) eastern Mediterranean controlled by (i) expansive energy ebbs (i) Great Northern War and (i) hegemonic threat, a (i), (ii), (iii) land before trade (i) leaders executed (i) Lepanto (i) Malta attacked (i) Peter the Great and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Philip II and (i) relentless advance of (i) ships of (i) Venetian economy, effect on (i) Venetians at Negroponte (i) Venice’s cautious approach to (i) Oude Kirk, Amsterdam (i), (ii) Oxford English Dictionary (i), (ii) n1 (Conclusion) Oxford University Press (i) Pacific (i), (ii), (iii) Padua, University of (i) Painted Hall, Naval Hospital, Greenwich (i) Palazzo San Giorgio (i) Palladio, Andrea Baroque and (i), (ii) Il Redentore (i) Russian version of (i) villas (i) Vitruvius published (i) Pallas Athena (i) Palmerston, Lord (i) Panama (i) Panathenaica (i) Papacy England and (i) Pope and Emperor (i) Spain and (i), (ii) Venice and (i) Paris (i) Paris Peace Conference (i) Parkinson, John (i) Parthenon (i), (ii), (iii) Partition Treaties (i) Passchendaele, battle of (i) Paton, Richard (i) Paul I (Russia) (i) Paulus, Aemillius (i) Pausanias (i) Pearl Harbor (i) Peloponnesian League (i) Peloponnesian Wars see also First Peloponnesian War; Second Peloponnesian War anti-piracy patrols (i) Athens policing the sea (i) Rhodes and (i) Sparta not a seapower (i) Spartan anxiety a factor (i) Thucydides’ text (i) Peloponnesus (i) penteconters (i), (ii), (iii) People’s Liberation Army’s Navy (PLAN) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Pergamum (i), (ii), (iii) Pericles, Plate (i) Acropolis rebuilt (i) command of Athenian forces (i) effective head of state (i) faith in seapower (i) seapower and limited war (i) Second Peloponnesian War (i) Thucydides on (i), (ii), (iii) Venice and (i) Perry, Commodore (i) Perseus, King (Macedon) (i) Persia (i) Athenian democracy and (i), (ii) conquers Babylon (i) conquers Egypt (i) defeat at Salamis (i), (ii) fall of Miletus (i) Greek naval power and (i) influence of (i) more conquests (i) not a sea power (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) oppresses Phoenician cities (i) Peter the Great attacks (i) Phocean Greeks flee (i) Rhodes returns to (i) size of (i) Thucydides on (i) triremes (i) Pesaro, Benedetto (i) Peter I, the Great (Russia) (i) achievement of (i) artworks (i), (ii) Baltic aims (i), (ii) changing the culture (i), (ii) crippling effect of state control (i) Deptford and its influence (i) differences from seapowers (i), (ii) English and (i), (ii) First Rates (i) Kronstadt, importance of (i), Plate 10 legacy (i) limited interests (i) Naval Statute, its significance (i), (ii), (iii) three navies of (i) Peter II (Russia) (i), (ii) Peter and Paul Fortress (i) Peterhof, the (i), (ii), (iii) Petr Velikiy (ship) (i) Petrarch (i) Petropavlosk (i) Philip II (Macedon) (i), (ii) Philip II (Spain) (i), (ii), (iii) Philip III (Spain) (i) Philip V (Macedon) (i), (ii) Philippines (i) Phocean Greeks (i), (ii), (iii) Phoenicians alphabetic language of (i) annihilation (i) Babylon crushes (i), (ii), (iii) becoming rich (i) Braudel on (i) Carthage and (i), (ii) cities of (i) coinage (i) development of (i) Egypt and (i) Egyptian ship design (i) enlarged sphere of influence (i) fatal flaw of (i) Gadir relied upon by (i) governance (i) Greek borrowing from (i), (ii) influences later states (i), (ii) religion of (i) Sidon galleys (i) superior commercial fleet to Greece (i) triremes (i) western colonisation (i) Phormio (i) Piazza San Marco, Venice ceremonial spaces (i), (ii) Napoleon occupies (i) refashioned (i) Sansovino appointed (i) sightlines expanded (i) Piazetta, Venice (i), (ii) Picard, Gilbert (i) Picart, Pieter (i) Pillars of Hercules Heemskerck breaks Spanish grip (i) origin of name (i) Phoenicians and Greeks (i), (ii), (iii) Piraeus defeats coup (i) fortification of (i) heart of system (i) Long Walls built (i), (ii), (iii) radical democrats in (i) rebuilt (i) pirates America and (i) Barbary corsairs (i) constabulary against (i) Genoa and (i) Minoans and (i), (ii) Pompey (i) privateering (i), (ii) Rhodes and (i) Somali (i) Pisa (i) Pisistratidae (i) Pius II (Papacy) (i) Pius V (Papacy) (i) plague (i), (ii) Platea, battle of (i), (ii), (iii) Plato aversion to seapower (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) on the spread of ideas (i) Romans read (i) Sicily and Athens (i) Poland (i) Polaris (i), (ii) Poltava, battle of (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Polybius destruction of Carthage (i) land power and seapower (i) on Rhodes (i) Second Punic War (i) Third Punic War (i), (ii) Polycrates of Samos (i), (ii), (iii) Polynesia (i) Pombal, Marquis (i) Pompey (i) Pontus (i), (ii) populist movements (i) Port Arthur (i) Portas (i) ports (i) Portsmouth (i) Portsmouth (ship) (i) Portugal (i) Cortes (i) driven out of Asia (i) Dutch privateers and (i) English navy browbeats (i) Genoese invest in (i), (ii) maritime empire, a (i) no interest in being a sea state (i) Phoenician outposts (i) Portuguese Empire (i) sailing round Cape of Good Hope (i) Poseidon (i) Potemkin, Prince (i) Potemkin (ship) (i) Predestination (ship) (i) Priam, King (i) Prince of Wales, HMS (i) Prince Royal (ship) (i) Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, The (Richard Hakluyt) (i) printing (i) Privy Council (i) n41 Prokopovich, Archbishop Feofan (i), (ii), (iii) Promachos (i) Propylea (i), (ii) Protestants (i) Prussia (i) see also Germany Pruth, River (i) Ptolemies (i) Ptolemy II (Egypt) (i) Pufendorf, Samuel (i) Punic language (i) Punic Wars (i), (ii), (iii) see also First Punic War; Second Punic War; Third Punic War Punic Wars (Appian) (i) Purcell, Nicholas (i) Putin, Vladimir (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Pydna, battle of (i) Pynx (i) Pyrrhus (i) Al-Qaeda (i) Qing Empire (i) Quangdo (i) Quarenghi, Giacomo (i) quays (i) Quebec (i) Queen’s House, Greenwich (i), (ii) Ragusa (i) Raleigh, Sir Walter (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Ramusio, Giovanni Batista (i), (ii), (iii) Ranger (ship) (i) Ranke, Leopold von (i) Rankov, Boris (i), (ii) Ras Sharma (Ugarit) (i), (ii) Rastrelli, C.


pages: 287 words: 95,152

The Dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order by Bruno Macaes

active measures, Berlin Wall, British Empire, computer vision, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, digital map, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global value chain, illegal immigration, intermodal, iterative process, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, open borders, Parag Khanna, savings glut, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, speech recognition, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, young professional, zero-sum game, éminence grise

To the west the busiest sea lane passes through the Strait of Hormuz, granting access to the Persian Gulf and its littoral, the source of a majority of Indian oil and gas supplies and home to an estimated 7 million expatriate Indians. One Chinese analyst describes the 244 islands that constitute the Andaman and Nicobar archipelagos as a ‘metal chain’ (铁链) that could lock the western exit of the Malacca Strait. More generally, Chinese observers foresee the emergence of a powerful rival aiming to control the Indian Ocean, the mirror image of the Eurasian landmass to the north. For them, India is developing its overall capacity to ‘enter east’ (东进) into the South China Sea and the Pacific, ‘exit west’ (西出) through the Red Sea and Suez Canal into the Mediterranean, and ‘go south’ (南下) toward the Cape of Good Hope and the Atlantic.10 In 2016 news emerged that India and Japan were secretly planning to install a sea wall of hydrophones between Indira Point in the Nicobar Islands and Banda Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia, aimed at tracking undersea movement and effectively plugging the entry to the Indian Ocean for Chinese submarines.


pages: 332 words: 101,772

Memoirs of an Addicted Brain: A Neuroscientist Examines His Former Life on Drugs by Marc Lewis Phd

dark matter, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Golden Gate Park, impulse control, Malacca Straits, Rat Park, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

I knew I should be intrigued, but I was bored and restless. They seemed to relish us, to draw something special from our novelty. I never knew quite what. The following day was our last. We were finally approaching the backbone of the Malay Peninsula, a ridge that ran continuously from the top to the bottom of the country, with smaller ridges radiating out on both sides, tumbling down toward the Malacca Strait in the west and the South China Sea in the east. Here at the summit were the Cameron Highlands, a paradise of cool breezes blowing across hilltops at least a thousand metres above sea level. The hills were covered with tea—miles and miles of minty green shrubs—interspersed by occasional clusters of giant trees, each with its retinue of primary growth. And plantations. Big houses. Running water.


pages: 371 words: 98,534

Red Flags: Why Xi's China Is in Jeopardy by George Magnus

3D printing, 9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Malacca Straits, means of production, megacity, money market fund, moral hazard, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old age dependency ratio, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, speech recognition, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, urban planning, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (i) Hua Guofeng (i) Huangpu district (Shanghai) (i) Huawei (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) hukou (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Human Freedom Index (i) Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of (i) Hunan (i) Hungary (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) ICORs (incremental capital-output ratios) (i), (ii), (iii) n4 IMF Article IV report (i) on broadening and deepening of financial system (i) China urged to devalue (i) China’s integration and (i) concern over smaller banks (i) concern over WMPs (i) credit gaps (i) credit intensity (i) GP research (i) ICOR (i) n4 laissez-faire ideas (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i), (ii), (iii) Renminbi reserves (i) risky corporate loans (i) Special Drawing Rights (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) WAPs (i) immigrants see migrants income inequality (i) India Adam Smith on (i) ASEAN (i) BRI misgivings (i) BRICS (i), (ii) comparative debt in (i) demographic dividend (i) economic freedom level (i) frictions with (i) Nobel Prize (i) pushing back against China (i) regional allies of (i) SCO member (i) Indian Ocean access to ports (i) African rail projects and (i) Chinese warships enter (i) rimland (i) shorelines (i) Indo-Pacific region (i), (ii) Indonesia Asian crisis (i) BRI investment (i) debt and GDP (i) GDP (i) rail transport projects (i) RCEP (i) retirement age (i) trade with China (i) Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (i), (ii) Industrial Revolution (i), (ii) industrialisation (i), (ii) Industry and Information Technology, Minister of (i) infrastructure (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) (i) Inner Mongolia (i), (ii) innovation (i), (ii) Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith) (i) Institute for International Finance (i) institutions (i), (ii) insurance companies (i), (ii), (iii) intellectual property (i) interbank funding (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) investment (i), (ii), (iii) Iran (i) Ireland (i), (ii), (iii) Iron Curtain (i) ‘iron rice bowl’ (i) Israel (i), (ii) Italy (i), (ii), (iii) Jakarta (i), (ii) Japan acts of aggression by (i) aftermath of war (i) ASEAN (i) between the wars (i) bond market (i) Boxer Rebellion and (i) Chiang Kai-shek fights (i) China and (i) China’s insecurity (i) credit gap comparison (i) dispute over Diaoyu islands (i), (ii) export-led growth (i), (ii) financial crisis (i) friction with (i) full-scale war with China (i), (ii) growth (i) high-speed rail (i) India and (i) Liaodong peninsula (i) Manchuria taken (i), (ii), (iii) Mao fights (i) middle- to high-income (i) migrants to (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratio (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i) pushing back against China (i) RCEP (i) Renminbi block, attitude to (i) research and development (i) rimland (i) robots (i) seas and islands disputes (i) Shinzō Abe (i) TPP (i) trade and investment from (i) yen (i) Jardine Matheson Holdings (i) Jiang Zemin 1990s (i) Deng’s reforms amplified (i), (ii), (iii) influence and allies (i) Xiao Jianhua and (i) Johnson, Lyndon (i) Julius Caesar (i) Kamchatka (i) Kashgar (i) Kashmir (i) Kazakhstan (i), (ii) Ke Jie (i) Kenya (i) Keynes, John Maynard (i) Kharas, Homi (i) Kissinger, Henry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Korea (i), (ii), (iii) see also North Korea; South Korea Korean War (i), (ii) Kornai, János (i), (ii), (iii) n16 Kowloon (i), (ii) Krugman, Paul (i) Kunming (i) Kuomintang (KMT) (i), (ii) Kyrgyzstan (i) Kyushu (i) labour productivity (i) land reform (i) Laos (i), (ii), (iii) Latin America (i), (ii), (iii) Lattice Semiconductor Corporation (i) leadership (i) Leading Small Groups (LSGs) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Lee Kuan Yew (i) Lee Sodol (i) Legendary Entertainment (i) Lehman Brothers (i) lending (i) Leninism governance tending to (i) late 1940s (i) party purity (i) Xi’s crusade on (i), (ii) Lenovo (i), (ii) Lewis, Arthur (i) Lewis turning point (i) LGFVs (local government financing vehicles) (i) Li Keqiang (i), (ii) Liaodong peninsula (i), (ii) LinkedIn (i) Liu He (i), (ii), (iii) Liu Xiaobo (i) local government (i), (ii), (iii) London (i), (ii), (iii) Luttwak, Edward (i), (ii), (iii) Macartney, Lord George (i), (ii), (iii) Macau (i), (ii) Made in China 2025 (MIC25) ambitious plans (i) importance of (i) mercantilism (i) priority sectors (i) robotics (i) Maddison, Angus (i), (ii), (iii) n3 (C1) Maghreb (i) major banks see individual entries Malacca, Straits of (i) Malay peninsula (i) Malaysia ASEAN member (i) Asian crisis (i) high growth maintenance (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) rail projects (i), (ii) Renminbi reserves (i) TPP member (i) trade with (i) Maldives (i) Malthus, Thomas (i), (ii) Manchuria Communists retake (i) Japanese companies in (i) Japanese puppet state (i), (ii), (iii) key supplier (i) North China Plain and (i) Pacific coast access (i) Russian interests (i) targeted (i) Manhattan (i), (ii) see also New York Mao Zedong arts and sciences (i) China stands up under (i) China under (i) Communist Party’s grip on power (i) consumer sector under (i) Deng rehabilitated (i) Deng, Xi and (i) east wind and west wind (i) Great Leap Forward (i) industrial economy under (i) nature of China under (i) People’s Republic proclaimed (i) positives and negatives (i) property rights (i) women and the workforce (i) Xi and (i) Maoism (i) Mar-a-Lago (i) Mark Antony (i) Market Supervision Administration (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) Marxism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Mauritius (i) May Fourth Movement (i) McCulley, Paul (i) n18 Mediterranean (i) Menon, Shivshankar (i) mergers (i) MES (market economy status (ii)) Mexico completion of education rates (i) debt comparison (i) GDP comparison (i) NAFTA (i) pensions comparison (i) TPP member (i) US border (i) viagra policy (i) Middle East (i), (ii), (iii) middle-income trap (i), definition (i) evidence and argument for (i) governance (i) hostility to (i) hukou system (i) lack of social welfare for (i) low level of (i) migrant factory workers (i) patents and innovation significance (i) significance of technology tech strengths and weaknesses (i) total factor productivity focus (i) vested and conflicted interests (i) ultimate test (i) World Bank statistics (i) migrants (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Ming dynasty (i) Minsky, Hyman (i) mixed ownership (i), (ii) Modi, Narendra (i) Mombasa (i) monetary systems (i) Mongolia (i), (ii) Monogram (i) Moody’s (i) Morocco (i) mortality rates (i) see also population statistics mortgages (i) motor cars (i), (ii) Moutai (i) Mundell, Robert (i) Muslims (i) Mutual Fund Connect (i) Myanmar ASEAN (i) Chinese projects (i) disputes (i) low value manufacturing moves to (i) Qing Empire in (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) ‘Myth of Asia’s Miracle, The’ (Paul Krugman) (i) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) (i) Nairobi (i) Namibia (i) Nanking (i) Treaty of (i), (ii) National Bureau of Statistics fertility rates (i) GDP figures (i) ICOR estimate (i), (ii), (iii) n4 SOE workers (i) National Cyberspace Work Conference (i) National Development and Reform Commission (i), (ii), (iii) National Financial Work Conferences (i) National Health and Family Planning Commission (i) National Medium and Long-Term Plan for the Development of Science and Technology (i) National Natural Science Foundation (i) National People’s Congress 2007 (i) 2016 (i) 2018 (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) National People’s Party of China (i) National Science Foundation (US) (i) National Security Commission (i) National Security Strategy (US) (i), (ii) National Supervision Commission (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Needham, Joseph (i) Nepal (i), (ii) Netherlands (i) New Development Bank (i), (ii) New Eurasian Land Bridge (i) New Territories (i), (ii) New York (i) see also Manhattan New Zealand (i), (ii), (iii) Next Generation AI Development Plan (i) Nigeria (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) Ningpo (i) Nixon, Richard (i) Nobel Prizes (i), (ii) Nogales, Arizona (i) Nogales, Sonora (i) Nokia (i) non-communicable disease (i) non-performing loans (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) North China Plain (i) North Korea (i) see also Korea Northern Rock (i) Norway (i) Nye, Joseph (i) Obama, Barack Hu Jintao and (i) Pacific shift recognised (i) Renminbi (i) US and China (i), (ii) OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) China’s ranking (i) GDP rates for pension and healthcare (i) GP doctors in (i) tertiary education rates (i) US trade deficit with China (i) Office of the US Trade Representative (i) Official Investment Assistance (Japan) (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) Olson, Mancur (i) Oman (i) one-child policy (i), (ii) Opium Wars financial cost of (i) First Opium War (i), (ii), (iii) Qing dynasty defeated (i) Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Shanghai (i) Pacific (i), (ii), (iii) Padma Bridge (i) Pakistan Economic Corridor (i) long-standing ally (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) Paris (i) Party Congresses see numerical list at head of index patents (i) Peking (i), (ii), (iii) see also Beijing pensions (i) People’s Bank of China see also banks cuts interest rates again (i) floating exchange rates (i) lender of last resort (i), (ii) long term governor of (i) new rules issued (i) new State Council committee coordinates (i) places severe restrictions on banks (i) publishing Renminbi values (i) Renminbi/dollar rate altered (i) repo agreements (i) sells dollar assets (i) stepping in (i) Zhou Xiaochuan essay (i) People’s Daily front-page interview (i), (ii) on The Hague tribunal (i) riposte to Soros (i) stock market encouragement (i) People’s Liberation Army (i), (ii) Persia (i) Persian Gulf (i), (ii) Peru (i) Pettis, Michael (i) n12 Pew Research (i) Peyrefitte, Alain (i) Philippines (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Piraeus (i) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) (i) Poland (i), (ii), (iii) ‘Polar Silk Road’ (i) Politburo (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pollution (i) Polo, Marco (i) Pomeranz, Kenneth (i) population statistics (i) see also ageing trap; WAP (working-age population) consequences of ageing (i) demographic dividends (i), (ii) hukou system and other effects (i) low fertility (i), (ii), (iii) migrants (i), (ii) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) one-child policy (i), (ii) places with the most ageing populations (i) rural population (i) savings trends (i) technology and (i) under Mao (i) women (i) Port Arthur (i) Port City Colombo (i), (ii) Portugal (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pricing (i), (ii) private ownership (i), (ii) productivity (i), (ii) Propaganda, Department of (i) property (i) property rights (i) Puerto Rico (i) Punta Gorda, Florida (i) Putin, Vladimir (i) Qianlong, Emperor (i) Qing dynasty (i), (ii), (iii) Qingdao (i) Qualcomm (i) Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qiushi, magazine (i) rail network (i), (ii) RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) (i), (ii), (iii) real estate (i), (ii) reform authoritative source warns of need for (i), (ii) different meaning from West (i) of economy via rebalancing (i), (ii) as embraced by Deng Xiaoping (i) fiscal, foreign trade and finance (i), (ii) Hukou (i) of ownership (i) state-owned enterprises (i) third plenum announcements (i) in Xi Jinping’s China (i) ‘Reform and Opening Up’ (Deng Xiaoping) (i), (ii), (iii) regulations and regulatory authorities (financial) (i), (ii) Reinhart, Carmen (i) Renminbi (i) 2015 mini-devaluation and capital outflows (i), (ii) appreciates (i) banking system’s assets in (i) bloc for (i) capital flight risk (i) devaluation (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) dim sum bonds (i) efforts to internationalise (i) end of peg (i) foreign investors and (i) fully convertible currency, a (i) growing importance of (i) IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (i) Qualified Institutional Investors (i) in relation to reserves (i) Renminbi trap (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) share of world reserves (i) significance of (i), (ii) Special Drawing Rights and (i), (ii) US dollar and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) repo markets (i), (ii) research and development (R&D) (i), (ii) Resources Department (i) retirement age (i) Rhodium Group (i) rimland (i) Robinson, James (i) robots (i) Rogoff, Kenneth (i) Roman Empire (i) Rotterdam (i) Rozelle, Scott (i) Rudd, Kevin (i) Rudong County (i) Rumsfeld, Donald (i) Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (i) rural workers (i) Russia see also Soviet Union 19th century acquisitions (i), (ii) ageing population (i) BRI and (i) BRICS (i), (ii), (iii) C929s (i) China’s view of (i) early attempts at trade (i) fertility rates (i) Human Freedom Index (i) middle income trap and (i) Pacific sea ports (i) Polar Silk Road (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) Ryukyu Islands (i) Samsung (i) San Francisco (i) SASAC (i), (ii) Saudi Arabia (i) savings (i), (ii), (iii) Scarborough Shoal (i) Schmidt, Eric (i) Schumpeter, Joseph (i) SCIOs (i) Second Opium War (i) Second World War China and Japan (i), (ii) economic development since (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) US and Japan (i) Senkaku islands see Diaoyu islands separatism (i), (ii) Serbia (i) service sector (i), (ii) Seventh Fleet (US) (i) SEZs (special economic zones) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) shadow banks (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) n18 see also banks Shandong (i), (ii) Shanghai 1st Party Congress (i) arsenal (i) British influence in (i) central bank established (i) Deng’s Southern Tour (i) firms halt trading (i) income per head (i) interbank currency market (i) PISA scores (i) pollution (i) property price rises (i) stock market (i), (ii), (iii) Western skills used (i) Shanghai Composite Index (i), (ii) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai Free Trade Zone (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai–Hong Kong Bond Connect Scheme (i) Shanghai–Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme (i), (ii) Shanghai World Financial Centre (i) Shenzhen first foreign company in (i) n3 (Intro.)


pages: 424 words: 108,768

Origins: How Earth's History Shaped Human History by Lewis Dartnell

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, clean water, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Google Earth, Khyber Pass, Malacca Straits, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, peak oil, phenotype, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spice trade, supervolcano, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Alexander the Great crossed eastwards here in 334 BC to conquer Persia.48 ‡ Before the invention of the magnetic compass for navigation, sailing across open sea was just too dangerous when the night-time stars were obscured from view. § When in 1611 the Dutch established a new, faster passage from South Africa to the East Indies–the Brouwer Route which we’ll discuss in Chapter 8–the key gateway, and thus their strategic focus, shifted from the Malacca Strait to the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. ¶ The island nation of Japan also underwent over two centuries of isolationism from the 1630s. During the Edo period, the sakoku (‘closed country’) policy barred most foreigners from entering Japan, and prohibited the Japanese from travelling overseas or building ocean-going ships. The only connection with the outside world was through a single trading post the Dutch were permitted to run on a tiny island within the bay of Nagasaki.


Arabs: A 3,000 Year History of Peoples, Tribes and Empires by Tim Mackintosh-Smith

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, invention of movable type, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, New Urbanism, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scramble for Africa, trade route

In contrast to these three straits, the seaward prospect from the instep of the peninsular foot, the south coast, does not invite crossings: there isn’t a whole lot of land ahead of you until you reach Antarctica. But that same south coast lies in the realm of seasonal winds that would eventually take Arabian sailors and settlers round the Indian Ocean rim, in a great and growing mercantile crescent that would stretch from Mozambique to the Malacca Strait and beyond. Their camels of the sea would be as sleek and hardy as their ships of the desert, and the winds they would domesticate and make their own: ‘monsoon’ is from Arabic mawsim, ‘season for sailing’. Turning to the north, where the peninsula articulates with the main body of Eurasia, there is no barrier, no Himalaya to stop you crossing from Peninsula to Crescent and into further lands.

Admittedly, it didn’t help to have Mongols and Mamluks, Berbers and Franks forming that inescapable border, blocking their access to the broad Eurasian stage of events; not to mention Timur and the Ottomans looming, just as that same Eurasia was convalescing after the first onslaught of the Black Death. But there would be an escape route, a back door via the fertile fringe of Arabia’s coastline. For if continental prospects were blocked, there was still an ocean opening out from the far south of the Arabs’ island: a whole monsoon world, from Mozambique to the Malacca Strait and beyond. The hero of al-Hariri’s Maqamat, Abu Zayd, was to venture through the back door. An illustration in the famous manuscript shows him as one of a row of queasy faces aboard a leaky-looking dhow. Another shows the dhow beside an island inhabited by apes and parrots, but also by fantastic creatures with human faces. That island belongs to fiction, but there were plenty of solid islands and coastlands explored by real-life adventurers, traders, scholars, Sufis, chancers, beachcombers: individuals who were following through, belatedly, from the great Arab diaspora of the seventh and eighth centuries.


pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Those that are able to fully participate in society and compete for jobs commensurate with their skills and training will reinforce social trust and create better opportunities for their children. Making such services available is a sound investment for governments and community groups that see migrants for what most of them are: capable and hard-working people aspiring to social mobility. The scale of contemporary migration has contributed to settlement in ethnic enclaves. Historically, this is not a new phenomenon. Centuries ago, merchants in the Malacca Straits (Malaysia) or Alexandria (Egypt) would cluster and organize by country of origin, sometimes by force of the law. However, when new migrants become integrated into an urban underclass that is afflicted with social pathologies (poverty, violence, and criminal activity), aspirations for social mobility are undermined. Second-generation children may end up with worse life prospects than their parents.


pages: 419 words: 119,368

Espresso Tales by Alexander McCall Smith

cuban missile crisis, language of flowers, Malacca Straits, sensible shoes, South China Sea, upwardly mobile

When I was a little boy I hated things to end, as all children do, except their childhood – no child, of course, wants his childhood to go on forever. And when I became a young man, I found that I still hated things to end, though now, of course, I was learning how quickly and hard upon each other’s heels do the endings come. “Today, our dear friend, Domenica, told us that she was proposing to go away for some time. She is a scholar, and she obeys the tides of scholarship. These tides, she told us, now take her to the distant Malacca Straits, to a particularly demanding piece of fieldwork. I have my own views on that project, but I respect Domenica for her bravery in going to live amongst those whom she intends to study. “We who are left behind in Edinburgh can only imagine the dangers which she will face. But tonight we can assure her that she goes with our love, which is what we would wish, I’m sure, to any friend about to undertake a journey.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

It’s a reflection of how much has changed. Absurd just two decades ago, today it makes sense to build a behemoth (400 meters long, 59 meters wide) that will never pass through the Panama Canal (not even the new, larger Panama locks opened in 2016) and can barely scrape through the Suez. As global trade volumes recover, it may soon make sense to build even bigger, “Malacca-max” container ships that can pass through neither. The Malacca Strait—global shipping’s third pincer point, which connects the Pacific, China and the Far East to the Indian Ocean—is where future volumes will be. The logic that today tells shipping companies to pass through the Suez Canal, bypassing Africa, will compete more and more with a logic that says it pays to go the long way around. Marginal no more, African ports such as Durban, Mombasa and Dar es Salaam are important waypoints on growing trade lanes between Africa and Oceania, between Africa and South America, and between West and East Africa.


pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

You are not worried about average outcomes; you are worried about the worst things that could possibly happen to you. A bad draw—the tree that falls in an electrical storm and crushes your home—could be devastating. Thus, most of us are willing to pay a predictable amount—even one that is more than we expect to get back—in order to protect ourselves against the unpredictable. Almost anything can be insured. Are you worried about pirates? You should be, if you ship goods through the South China Sea or the Malacca Strait. As The Economist explains, “Pirates still prey on ships and sailors. And far from being jolly sorts with wooden legs and eye patches, today’s pirates are nasty fellows with rocket-propelled grenades and speedboats.” There were 266 acts of piracy (or attempts) reported to the International Maritime Organization in 2005. This is why firms sending cargo through dangerous areas buy marine insurance (which also protects against other risks at sea).


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

As the Chinese and Southeast Asian markets, totaling two billion consumers in all, continue to expand, the economic logic of linking them grows more and more powerful. The SKRL will also have geopolitical attractions for China, as it will reach the Bay of Bengal, connected to the Indian Ocean, in southern Thailand and the western Malay Peninsula. Such a route could create an overland alternative to the vulnerable sea lines of communication (SLOCs) running through the Malacca Strait, although it does face periodic political challenges, such as the 2018 ambivalence of Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamad. Compared to other ambitious projects connecting China to South and Central Asia, the SKRL is a particularly appropriate platform to demonstrate China’s technical capabilities in high-speed rail technology. China now has the largest high-speed rail network in the world, providing valuable, saleable production experience.


pages: 407

Disrupt and Deny: Spies, Special Forces, and the Secret Pursuit of British Foreign Policy by Rory Cormac

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, illegal immigration, land reform, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, private military company, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Despite earlier American scepticism, the CIA now believed that Nasser would be forced to agree to a compromise settlement.51 Confrontation The same approach simultaneously applied to Indonesia. Confrontation had continued into 1964 after Indonesian ‘volunteers’ escalated sabotage activity along the jungled border with Borneo and President Sukarno’s forces began OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 06/02/18, SPi 170 E n d of E m pi r e to cross the Malacca Straits and infiltrate the Malaysian Peninsula. From the summer of 1964, Burrows and his Joint Action Committee approved a number of defensive measures including deniable operations to disrupt bands of Indonesian guerrillas within an initial limit of 3,000 yards across the border.52 Shortly afterwards, the SAS moved into a new role as local military operatives pressed for more sophisticated reconnaissance and a special offensive force.53 Meanwhile, SIS and special forces busily trained Malaysian instructors in the art of subversion.These operations proved more difficult in Sumatra, which was under strict police control, but enjoyed some success in Celebes, where a strong independence movement had developed.54 Within this framework, SAS and SBS teams patrolled the jungle, protecting posts on the front line.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Mexico, for example, is developing vibrant second cities not only along the U.S. border but throughout the country. Dubai could have fallen victim to the political and economic dysfunctions that plague the Middle East, but instead it has managed to turn itself into the commercial hub of a region that sits on 60 percent of the world’s known oil reserves. On a map of global shipping routes showing critical chokepoints—from the Malacca Strait to the Panama Canal and the Strait of Hormuz—Dubai is perched like a cashier overseeing the flow of oil out of troubled oil states such as Iraq and Iran. Dubai has in fact prospered more than its oil-rich neighbors by turning itself into their regional headquarters for shipping as well as travel, information technology, and financial services. In Dubai the state is unobtrusive, but everything is monitored, often by surveillance camera.


pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

The desire of the Obama administration to bring Iran in from the cold could make life easier for the Chinese on this score. There are other possible long-term scenarios. China’s highest priority is Taiwan, and the biggest obstacle in the way of reunification is American military support for the island. The most likely cause of military conflict between China and the US is Taiwan; and in the event of war, China would be extremely anxious about the security of its maritime oil supply routes, especially in the Malacca Strait and the South China Sea, which could easily be severed by the US’s superior air and naval power. In such an eventuality, Iran could at some point offer the possibility of a land-based supply route from West to East Asia. But there is another possible future scenario, namely that China and the US could arrive at some kind of trade-off involving Taiwan and Iran in which the US agrees to stop sending weapons to Taiwan and China volunteers to do the same with Iran.


pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

It was in the Near East and Iran that Islam had been established by Muhammad’s Arab armies in the seventh century over the ruins of Byzantine and Sassanid rule. By AD 750, most of Central Asia was Muslim. After 1000, Muslim Turks invaded North India, drawn by the ‘gold rush’ for Indian treasure36 to create a series of conquest states. By the thirteenth century, Islam had reached Bengal and the trading towns of the Malacca Strait, the launching pad for its advance into the Malay archipelago. The Sudanic lands south of the Sahara were also being Islamized by the eleventh century. Medieval Europeans were dazzled by the fabulous wealth and intellectual sophistication of the Islamic world. There were good reasons for this. Far more than the ‘colonial’ West, the Islamic Near East was the intellectual legatee of the Ancient World and home to an intellectual culture that had all but collapsed in the ‘Dark Ages’ of the West.


The Outlaw Ocean: Journeys Across the Last Untamed Frontier by Ian Urbina

9 dash line, Airbnb, British Empire, clean water, Costa Concordia, crowdsourcing, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, forensic accounting, global value chain, illegal immigration, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Maui Hawaii, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, standardized shipping container, statistical arbitrage, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Science 279, no. 5352 (1998): 860–63. Pew Charitable Trusts, Environmental Initiatives. “Fish Aggregating Devices (FADS) Position Paper.” June 28, 2011. Phillips, Richard. A Captain’s Duty: Somali Pirates, Navy SEALs, and Dangerous Days at Sea. New York: Hyperion, 2010. Raban, Jonathan, ed. The Oxford Book of the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Raymond, Catherine Z. “Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved.” Naval War College Review 62, no. 3 (Summer 2009): 31–42. Rediker, Marcus. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. Roberts, Callum M. Ocean of Life: How Our Seas Are Changing. London: Allen Lane, 2012. ———. The Unnatural History of the Sea. Washington, D.C.: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 2008. Roberts, Stephen.


pages: 762 words: 246,045

The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson

Admiral Zheng, fixed income, Khyber Pass, land tenure, Malacca Straits, post scarcity, South China Sea, trade route

'It's good,' he said to Kyu after thinking it over some more. 'Nothing bad can happen to us on this voyage, anyway.' And so it proved. Black squalls, bearing directly down on them, unaccountably evaporated just as they struck. Giant seas rocked all the horizons, great dragon tails visibly whipping up the waves, while they sailed serenely over a moving flat calm at their centre. They even sailed through the Malacca Strait without hindrance from Palembanque, or, north of that, from the myriad pirates of Cham, or the Japanese wakou – though, as Kyu pointed out, no pirate in his right mind would chal lenge a fleet so huge and powerful, tooth of the Buddha or no. Then as they sailed into the south China Sea, someone saw the Dalada floating about the ship at night, as if, he said, it were a little candle flame. 'How does he know it wasn't a candle flame?'


pages: 1,056 words: 275,211

Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan by Herbert P. Bix

anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, defense in depth, European colonialism, land reform, Malacca Straits, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

On March 7 the liaison conference formalized the rapidly expanding Pacific offensive in a new policy document, whose first article declared: “In order to force Britain to submit and the United States to lose its will to fight, we shall continue expanding from the areas we have already gained,” and while “working long-term to establish an impregnable strategic position, we shall actively seize whatever opportunities for attack may occur.”12 The next day Lae and Salamaua in New Guinea were occupied. By April 1942 the Japanese had captured strategic points in the remote Andaman and Nicobar Islands, territory belonging to British India and running from the Malacca Straits all the way to the mouth of the Indian Ocean, thereby forcing the small British fleet in the Indian Ocean to remove to the coast of East Africa. Meanwhile, in Southeast Asia, Japanese army troops had earlier captured British Singapore on February 15. They had massed in Thailand and from there pushed into the British territory of Burma, capturing Rangoon (Burma’s main port) on March 8, Lashio (the starting point of the Burma Road) on April 28, and Mandalay on May 1.


pages: 1,042 words: 273,092

The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan

access to a mobile phone, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, Stuxnet, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, yield management, Yom Kippur War

As a middleman, his livelihood depended on being able to buy the right goods at prices his customers would be willing to pay.35 With millions of pounds of spices, above all pepper, reaching Europe each year, what had been an elite luxury business quickly became part of the cultural and commercial mainstream, driven by mass-market supply and demand. The potential for profit explains why the Portuguese set about building a Silk Road of their own, establishing a chain of ports and harbours linking Lisbon with the coast of Angola, Mozambique and East Africa and beyond in a sprawling set of trading stations with permanent colonies dotted from India to the Malacca Straits and the Spice Islands. They met with considerable success in doing so – to the point that within a few decades of Vasco da Gama’s expedition to India, a substantial part of Portuguese state revenues came from the spice trade.36 Nevertheless, they faced stern challenges, not least because others were determined not to miss out on a share of the market. After taking control of Egypt in 1517 following a period of turbulence in the Near and Middle East, the Ottomans emerged as the dominant force in the eastern Mediterranean – and as a major threat to Europe.