Edward Snowden

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pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Then He Became One,” Ars Technica, June 26, 2013, https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/06/exclusive-in-2009-ed-snowden-said-leakers-should-be-shot-then-he-became-one/. 42. Edward Snowden, interview with Hubert Siebel on ARD (German television channel), January 26, 2014, transcript at https://edwardsnowden.com/2014/01/27/video-ard-interview-with-edward-snowden/. 43. “Tomgram: Glenn Greenwald, How I Met Edward Snowden,” Tom Dispatch, May 13, 2014, http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/175843/tomgram %3A_glenn_greenwald,_how_i_met_edward_snowden/. 44. Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, and Laura Poitras, “Edward Snowden: The Whistleblower behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations,” Guardian, June 11, 2013. 45. Luke Harding, “How Edward Snowden Went from Loyal NSA Contractor to Whistleblower,” Guardian, February 1, 2014. 46. James Bamford, “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story of the Most Wanted Man in the World,” Wired, August 13, 2014. 47.

Willing to accept the consequences,” the right-wing talk show personality (@glennbeck) tweeted on June 9, 2013, https://twitter.com/glennbeck/status/343816977929867265. 49. Bamford, “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story.” 50. Barton Gellman, “Edward Snowden, After Months of NSA Revelations, Says His Mission’s Accomplished,” Washington Post, December 23, 2013. 51. Scott Shane, “Documents on 2012 Drone Strike Detail How Terrorists Are Targeted,” New York Times, June 24, 2015. 52. Dave Cole, “We Kill People Based on Metadata,” New York Review of Books, May 10, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2014/05/10/we-kill-people-based-metadata/. 53. Micah Lee, “Edward Snowden Explains How to Reclaim Your Privacy,” The Intercept, November 12, 2015, https://theintercept.com/2015/11/12 /edward-snowden-explains-how-to-reclaim-your-privacy/. 54. Adrian Chen, “The Underground Website Where You Can Buy Any Drug Imaginable,” Gawker, June 1, 2011, http://gawker.com/the-underground-website-where-you-can-buy-any-drug-imag-30818160. 55. “5 Things to Know About the Silk Road Trial,” Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2015. 56.

Laura Poitras, Risk, documentary film, May 2016. 108. “The NSA and Its Willing Helpers,” Spiegel Online, July 8, 2013, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-whistleblower-edward-snowden-on-global-spying-a-910006.html. 109. Patrick Howell O’Neill, “Tor Now Reaches 200,000 Users in Russia,” Daily Dot, June 18, 2014, https://www.dailydot.com/news/russia-tor-users-censorship/. 110. mikeperry, “This Is What a Tor Supporter Looks Like: Edward Snowden,” Tor Project (blog), December 30, 2015, https://blog.torproject.org/blog/what-tor-supporter-looks-edward-snowden. 111. While Edward Snowden stayed quiet regarding US government backing of Tor, the government continued funding it. In 2014, Tor financial disclosures revealed that government contracts added up to $2.3 million, or roughly 90 percent of its discosed budget for that year.


pages: 562 words: 153,825

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

See Spencer Ackerman, “Edward Snowden Did Enlist for Special Forces, US Army Confirms,” Guardian, June 10, 2013, www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/10/edward-snowden-army-special-forces. After an interlude of recovery: Snowden, interview with author, July 1, 2015, Moscow. post as security guard: Ibid. A journalist for Campus Reform obtained documents via a public records request from the University of Maryland, confirming that Snowden worked at CASL from January 28, 2005, through November 11, 2005. See Oliver Darcy, “Exclusive: Snowden Earned Annual Salary of $29K in First NSA Job,” Campus Reform, July 12, 2013, www.campusreform.org/?ID=4843. classified spaces for secret NSA research: Asawin Suebaeng, “What Happens in the University of Maryland NSA Facility Where Edward Snowden Worked?,” Mother Jones, June 12, 2013, www.motherjones.com/mojo/2013/06/university-maryland-edward-snowden-nsa.

The accompanying story is Cora Currier, “The FBI’s Secret Rules,” Intercept, June 30, 2016, republished on January 31, 2017, at https://perma.cc/HRW5-ETNP. his coming-out video: The Guardian posted the videotaped interview: Laura Poitras and Glenn Greenwald, “NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden: ‘I Don’t Want to Live in a Society That Does These Sort of Things,’” Guardian, on June 9, 2013, www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/09/nsa-whistleblower-edward-snowden-interview-video. Hong Kong–based reporter: Lana Lam, “EXCLUSIVE: Whistle-Blower Edward Snowden Talks to South China Morning Post,” South China Morning Post, June 12, 2013, at https://perma.cc/7BM6-7DBQ. “Put the data you have uncovered”: Dafna tweeted a photo from the restaurant. “I just got @bartongellman’s fortune cookie,” she wrote on October 27, 2013, https://perma.cc/9KP2-RNPD.

See Xavier Harding, “Google Has 7 Products with 1 Billion Users,” Popular Science, February 1, 2016, www.popsci.com/google-has-7-products-with-1-billion-users/. “Wow! This is very exciting for me!”: Transcript of live chat on Jabber instant messaging service between Edward Snowden and Daniel Ellsberg, September 8, 2013, on file with author. “that the so-called intelligence community”: Daniel Ellsberg, “Edward Snowden: Saving Us from the United Stasi of America,” Guardian, June 10, 2013, at https://perma.cc/F7RD-LK5V. bore little resemblance: Some have seen these differences as essential to the legitimacy of their respective leaks, comparing Snowden unfavorably to Ellsberg. See Malcolm Gladwell, “Daniel Ellsberg, Edward Snowden, and the Modern Whistle-Blower,” New Yorker, December 19 and 26, 2016, at https://perma.cc/YU2E-EY8W. then six hypotheses: Ashkan typed out a quick and dirty list: 1 brute forcing 1024 (or possibly longer) SSL certificates 2 flaw in SSL implementation (i.e linux flavor of openSSL) 3 obtaining companies’ SSL session tickets (for those use PFS) 4 obtaining companies’ SSL private cert (i.e hacking into the server) 5 getting a root/trusted CA that to sign a cert for them (or secretly being the trusted cert) 6 they have a master flaw in ALL SSL more than six years: SSO Collection Optimization (“Midpoint_TLC_Optimization_w_Google_Exploitation.pptx”), slide 17, had a sample that was classified on January 8, 2007.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Chelsea Manning was prohibited: David Dishneau (20 Jul 2012), “Manning largely barred from discussing WikiLeaks harm,” Associated Press, http://seattletimes.com/html/nationworld/2018724246_apusmanningwikileaks.html. Edward Snowden claims: The country is fairly evenly divided on this point. Seth Motel (15 Apr 2014), “NSA coverage wins Pulitzer, but Americans remain divided on Snowden leaks,” Pew Research Center, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/04/15/nsa-coverage-wins-pulitzer-but-americans-remain-divided-on-snowden-leaks. John Kerry insisted that: Jonathan Topaz (28 May 2014), “John Kerry: Edward Snowden a ‘coward … traitor,’” Politico, http://www.politico.com/story/2014/05/edward-snowden-coward-john-kerry-msnbc-interview-nsa-107157.html. Hillary Clinton proclaimed: Phoebe Greenwood (4 Jul 2014), “Edward Snowden should have right to legal defense in US, says Hillary Clinton,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/04/edward-snowden-legal-defence-hillary-clinton-interview.

James Bamford (15 Mar 2012), “The NSA is building the country’s biggest spy center (watch what you say),” Wired, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/03/ff_nsadatacenter/all. It secretly inserts weaknesses: Bruce Schneier (4 Oct 2013), “Attacking Tor: How the NSA targets users’ online anonymity,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/tor-attacks-nsa-users-online-anonymity. “endpoint security is so terrifically weak”: Glenn Greenwald and Edward Snowden (17 Jun 2013), “Edward Snowden: NSA whistleblower answers reader questions,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/17/edward-snowden-nsa-files-whistleblower. Discoverers can sell vulnerabilities: The ethics of this is discussed here. Serge Egelman, Cormac Herley, and Paul C. van Oorschot (9-12 Sep 2013), “Markets for zero-day exploits: Ethics and implications,” New Security Paradigms Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, http://www.nspw.org/papers/2013/nspw2013-egelman.pdf.

Rahul Sagar (20 Dec 2013), “Creaky leviathan: A comment on David Pozen’s Leaky Leviathan,” Harvard Law Review Forum 127, http://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/forvol127_sagar.pdf. whistleblowing the civil disobedience: These two essays make this point. danah boyd (19 Jul 2013), “Whistleblowing is the new civil disobedience: Why Edward Snowden matters,” apophenia, http://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2013/07/19/edward-snowden-whistleblower.html. William E. Scheuerman (Sep 2014), “Whistleblowing as civil disobedience: The case of Edward Snowden,” Philosophy and Social Criticism 40, http://psc.sagepub.com/content/40/7/609.abstract. The NGO Human Rights Watch: G. Alex Sinha (28 Jul 2014), “With liberty to monitor all,” Human Rights Watch, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2014/07/28/liberty-monitor-all-0. whistleblowers provide another oversight: Rahul Sagar (2013), Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy, Princeton University Press, http://press.princeton.edu/titles/10151.html.


pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

p. 48 the NSA had been collecting users’ private communications: Glenn Greenwald and Ewen MacAskill, “NSA Prism Program Taps in to User Data of Apple, Google and Others,” Guardian, June 7, 2013; Barton Gelman and Laura Poitras, “US, British Intelligence Mining Data from Nine US Internet Companies in Broad Secret Program,” Washington Post, June 7, 2013. p. 48 Snowden answering questions: On June 9, the Guardian ran a short film by Laura Poitras. It showed Snowden answering questions posed by Greenwald. “NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden: ‘I don’t want to live in a society that does these sort of things,’” Guardian, video, June 9, 2013, www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/09/nsa-whistleblower-edward-snowden-interview-video. p. 48 The Mira Hotel in Kowloon: Ewen MacAskill, “Edward Snowden: How the Spy Story of the Age Leaked Out,” Guardian, June 12, 2013. p. 49 “I will never commit suicide” (Binney): Laura Poitras, Astro Noise: A Survival Guide for Living under Total Surveillance (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 2016), 100. pp. 49–50 The Program (Binney): ibid.

p. 70 mysterious source had contacted another Freedom of the Press Foundation board member: Greenwald, No Place to Hide, 7. pp. 70–2 twelve-minute instructional video: anon108 [Edward Snowden], “GPG for Journalists,” uploaded Sunday, January 6, 2013, vimeo.com/user15675314. p. 72 “Cincinnatus” described his mounting frustration: Greenwald, No Place to Hide, 10. p. 72 Snowden had seen The Program and read what Greenwald had written about her in Salon: Maass, “How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets.” pp. 72–3 “The surveillance you’ve experienced means you’ve been selected”: Poitras, Citizenfour, 4:22–5:06. p. 73 DARKDIAMOND for Laura and SILVERSHOT for Micah: Poitras, Astro Noise, 101. p. 73 COPPERCOMET for Greenwald: Edward Snowden to Laura Poitras in an encrypted email on April 21, 2013. pp. 73–4 Henk Penning on trust: “On the Apache.org Web of Trust,” WebCite, webcitation.org.

p. 84 as if the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street had clasped hands: Adam Serwer, “‘Stop Watching Us’ Sees a Chance to Reform the NSA,” MSNBC, October 26, 2013, Msnbc.com. p. 85 march from Union Station to the Capitol Mall: “#StopWatchingUs Rally against Mass Surveillance: Live Updates,” RT Question More, October 26, 2013, rt.com. p. 85 Snowden statement: Jesselyn Radack, “My Visit with Edward Snowden,” Nation, October 17, 2013; “Stop Watching Us Rally 10/26/13 Edward Snowden Statement,” YouTube. p. 85 “Privacy Chernobyl”: Till Wäscher, “Six Frames against Surveillance,” Internet Policy Observatory, Globalnetpolicy.org. p. 86 eight activists broke into an FBI field office: Betty Medsger, The Burglary: The Discovery of J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret FBI (New York: Vintage Books, 2014). p. 86 headlines and televised news reports followed: Betty Medsger, “Stolen Documents Describe FBI Surveillance Activities,” Washington Post, March 24, 1971; Michael Isikoff, “NBC Reporter Recalls Exposing FBI Spying,” NBC News, January 8, 2014.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks

Vintage ISBN: 978-0-8041-7352-0 Vintage eBook ISBN: 978-0-8041-7353-7 www.vintagebooks.com v3.1 Contents Cover About the Author Title Page Copyright Foreword by Alan Rusbridger Prologue: The Rendezvous 1. TheTrueHOOHA 2. Civil Disobedience 3. The Source 4. Puzzle Palace 5. The Man in the Room 6. Scoop! 7. The Planet’s Most Wanted Man 8. All of the Signals All of the Time 9. You’ve Had Your Fun 10. Don’t Be Evil 11. Flight 12. Der Shitstorm! 13. The Broom Cupboard 14. Shoot the Messenger Epilogue: Exile Acknowledgements Foreword Edward Snowden is one of the most extraordinary whistleblowers in history. Never before has anyone scooped up en masse the top-secret files of the world’s most powerful intelligence organisations, in order to make them public. But that was what he did. His skills are unprecedented. Until the present generation of computer nerds came along, no one realised it was possible to make off with the electronic equivalent of whole libraries full of triple-locked filing cabinets and safes – thousands of documents and millions of words.

I think that readers of this book might well see the value of introducing a UK equivalent to the first amendment of the US constitution, which protects the freedom of the press. It is a freedom that can protect us all. Alan Rusbridger Editor-in-chief, Guardian London, February 2014 Prologue: The Rendezvous Mira Hotel, Nathan Road, Hong Kong Monday 3 June 2013 ‘I don’t want to live in a world where everything that I say, everything I do, everyone I talk to, every expression of creativity or love or friendship is recorded …’ EDWARD SNOWDEN It began with an email. ‘I am a senior member of the intelligence community …’ No name, no job title, no details. The Guardian columnist Glenn Greenwald, who was based in Brazil, started to correspond with this mysterious source. Who was he? The source said nothing about himself. He was an intangible presence, an online ghost. Possibly even a fiction. After all, how could it be real? There had never before been a big leak out of the National Security Agency.

Accompanying Greenwald was Laura Poitras, also an American citizen, documentary film-maker and notable thorn in the side of the US military. She had been a matchmaker, the first to point Greenwald in the ghost’s direction. The two journalists were given meticulous instructions. They were to meet in a less-trafficked, but not entirely obscure, part of the hotel, next to a large plastic alligator. They would swap pre-agreed phrases. The source would carry a Rubik’s cube. Oh, and his name was Edward Snowden. It appeared the mystery interlocutor was an experienced spy. Perhaps one with a flair for the dramatic. Everything Greenwald knew about him pointed in one direction: that he was a grizzled veteran of the intelligence community. ‘I thought he must be a pretty senior bureaucrat,’ Greenwald says. Probably 60-odd, wearing a blue blazer with shiny gold buttons, receding grey hair, sensible black shoes, spectacles, a club tie … Greenwald could visualise him already.


pages: 253 words: 75,772

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald

airport security, anti-communist, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, Ted Kaczynski, WikiLeaks

Through a carefully cultivated display of intimidation to anyone who contemplated a meaningful challenge, the government had striven to show people around the world that its power was constrained by neither law nor ethics, neither morality nor the Constitution: look what we can do and will do to those who impede our agenda. Snowden had defied the intimidation as directly as possible. Courage is contagious. I knew that he could rouse so many people to do the same. At 2:00 p.m. Eastern time on Sunday, June 9, the Guardian published the story that revealed Snowden to the world: “Edward Snowden: The Whistleblower Behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations.” The top of the article featured Laura’s twelve-minute video; the first line read, “The individual responsible for one of the most significant leaks in US political history is Edward Snowden, a 29-year-old former technical assistant for the CIA and current employee of the defence contractor Booz Allen Hamilton.” The article told Snowden’s story, conveyed his motives, and proclaimed that “Snowden will go down in history as one of America’s most consequential whistleblowers, alongside Daniel Ellsberg and Bradley Manning.”

Glenn Greenwald No Place to Hide Edward Snowden, the NSA and the Surveillance State CONTENTS Title Page About the Author Also by Glenn Greenwald Dedication Epigraph Introduction 1. Contact 2. Ten Days in Hong Kong 3. Collect It All 4. The Harm of Surveillance 5. The Fourth Estate Epilogue A Note on Sources Acknowledgments Endpage Copyright ABOUT THE AUTHOR GLENN GREENWALD is the author of several US bestsellers, including How Would A Patriot Act? and A Tragic Legacy. Acclaimed as one of the twenty-five most influential political commentators by the Atlantic, Greenwald is a former constitutional law and civil rights attorney. He has been a columnist for the Guardian and his work has appeared in numerous newspapers and political news magazines, including The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

I spent the next two years covering every aspect of the NSA warrantless wiretapping scandal, on my blog and in a bestselling 2006 book. My position was straightforward: by ordering illegal eavesdropping, the president had committed crimes and should be held accountable for them. In America’s increasingly jingoistic and oppressive political climate, this proved to be an intensely controversial stance. It was this background that prompted Edward Snowden, several years later, to choose me as his first contact person for revealing NSA wrong-doing on an even more massive scale. He said he believed I could be counted on to understand the dangers of mass surveillance and extreme state secrecy, and not to back down in the face of pressure from the government and its many allies in the media and elsewhere. The remarkable volume of top secret documents that Snowden passed on to me, along with the high drama surrounding Snowden himself, have generated unprecedented worldwide interest in the menace of mass electronic surveillance and the value of privacy in the digital age.


pages: 422 words: 104,457

Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

In 2013, Manning was sentenced to: Paul Lewis, “Bradley Manning Given 35-Year Prison Term for Passing Files to WikiLeaks,” Guardian, August 21, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/21/bradley-manning-35-years-prison-wikileaks-sentence. Snowden obtained temporary political asylum: Alec Luhn, Luke Harding, and Paul Lewis, “Edward Snowden Asylum: US ‘Disappointed’ by Russian Decision,” Guardian, August 1, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/01/edward-snowden-asylum-us-disappointed. In 2013, the Justice Department informed: Devlin Barrett, “U.S. Seized Phone Records of AP Staff,” Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324715704578481461374133612.html. “We regard this action”: Gary Pruitt (president and CEO of the Associated Press), “Updated: AP Responds to Latest DOJ Letter,” May 14, 2013, http://blog.ap.org/2013/05/13/ap-responds-to-intrusive-doj-seizure-of-journalists-phone-records/.

The trackers also include many of the institutions that are supposed to be on our side, such as the government and the companies with which we do business. Of course, the largest of the dragnets appear to be those operated by the U.S. government. In addition to its scooping up vast amounts of foreign communications, the National Security Agency is also scooping up Americans’ phone calling records and Internet traffic, according to documents revealed in 2013 by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. But the NSA is not alone (although it may be the most effective) in operating dragnets. Governments around the world—from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe—are snapping up surveillance technology, ranging from “massive intercept” equipment to tools that let them remotely hack into people’s phones and computers. Even local and state governments in the United States are snapping up surveillance technology ranging from drones to automated license plate readers that allow them to keep tabs on citizens’ movements in ways never before possible.

In 1981, when President Ronald Reagan authorized limited domestic spying in order to seek Soviet infiltrators, he ordered the intelligence agencies to use “the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad.” Over the years, Reagan’s directive has been interpreted to mean that domestic spying should be done cautiously, and only in cases where there is reason to suspect a crime. But after 9/11, the requirement to establish some kind of suspicion before engaging in domestic spying was, for all intents and purposes, tossed aside. Documents revealed by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden paint a devastating portrait of how a single decision made in the days after the attack opened the floodgates for vast domestic dragnets. According to a leaked draft of a 2009 inspector general’s report, the NSA’s domestic spying began on September 14, 2001, three days after the attacks, when the agency’s director, Michael Hayden, approved warrantless interception of any U.S. phone call to or from specific terrorist-identified phone numbers in Afghanistan.


pages: 383 words: 105,021

Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War by Fred Kaplan

Cass Sunstein, computer age, data acquisition, drone strike, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, game design, hiring and firing, index card, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, national security letter, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Y2K, zero day

These were the first of many stories: For the journalists’ accounts of their encounters with Snowden, see “Live Chat: NSA Surveillance: Q&A with Reporter Barton Gellman,” July 15, 2014, http://live.washingtonpost.com/nsa-surveillance-bart-gellman.html; and Laura Poitras’s documentary film, CitizenFour, 2014. For critical views of Snowden, see Fred Kaplan, “Why Snowden Won’t (and Shouldn’t) Get Clemency,” Slate, Jan. 3, 2014, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/war_stories/2014/01/edward_snowden_doesn_t_deserve_clemency_the_nsa_leaker_hasn_t_proved_he.html; Mark Hosenball, “NSA Memo Confirms Snowden Scammed Passwords from Colleagues,” Reuters, Feb. 13, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/13/us-usa-security-idUSBREA1C1MR20140213; George Packer, “The Errors of Edward Snowden and Glenn Greenwald,” Prospect, May 22, 2014, http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/features/the-errors-of-edward-snowden-and-glenn-greenwald. From that point on, the Chinese retort: At a later summit, in September 2015, Obama and Xi agreed not to “conduct or knowingly support” cyber theft of “intellectual property” with the “intent of providing competitive advantage to companies or commercial sectors.”

“demonstrated a clear ability”: “Iran—Current Topics, Interaction with GCHQ: Director’s Talking Points,” April 2013, quoted and linked in Glenn Greenwald, “NSA Claims Iran Learned from Western Cyberattacks,” The Intercept, Feb. 10, 2015, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/02/10/nsa-iran-developing-sophisticated-cyber-attacks-learning-attacks/. The document comes from the cache leaked by Edward Snowden. The essential point is confirmed by interviews. At what point, he asked: Gates, Duty, 451; and interviews. “Previous cyber-attacks had effects”: Sanger, Confront and Conceal, 200. “Trilateral Memorandum of Agreement”: The memorandum of agreement is mentioned in a footnote in Barack Obama, Presidential Policy Directive, PPD-20, “U.S. Cyber Operations Policy,” Oct. 2012, https://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/ppd/ppd-20.pdf. PPD-20 is among the documents leaked by Edward Snowden. An action report on the directive: This is noted in boldfaced brackets in the copy of the document that Snowden leaked. “You can’t have something that’s a secret”: Andrea Shalal-Esa, “Ex-U.S.

The next morning: The date of the first meeting at Fort Meade comes from a highly entertaining video of Geoffrey Stone delivering the “Journeys” lecture at the University of Chicago, sometime in 2014, http://chicagohumanities.org/events/2014/journeys/geoffrey-stone-on-the-nsa; substance of the session comes from that video and interviews. In Cyber War, he’d criticized: Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake, Cyber War (New York: HarperCollins, 2010), passim, esp. 44ff. Stone was no admirer of Snowden: “Is Edward Snowden a Hero? A Debate with Journalist Chris Hedges and Law Scholar Geoffrey Stone,” Democracy Now, June 12, 2013, http://www.democracynow.org/2013/6/12/is_edward_snowden_a_hero_a.; and interviews. Moreover, if the metadata revealed: The figure of twenty-two NSA officials comes from the White House, Liberty and Security in a Changing World: Report and Recommendations of the President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communication Technologies, Dec. 12, 2013 (hereinafter cited as “President’s Review Group”), 98, https://www.nsa.gov/civil_liberties/_files/liberty_security_prgfinalreport.pdf; the rest of this section, unless otherwise noted, comes from interviews.


pages: 50 words: 15,603

Orwell Versus the Terrorists: A Digital Short by Jamie Bartlett

augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Satoshi Nakamoto, technoutopianism, Zimmermann PGP

Contents About the Book About the Author Title Page Introduction A Brief History of the Crypto-Wars A New Battle Orwell The Terrorists In Defence of the Security Services Who Wins? Acknowledgements Notes The Dark Net Copyright About the Book On 5 June 2013, the Guardian began publishing a series of documents leaked by NSA contractor Edward Snowden, revealing the extent of internet surveillance undertaken by government and intelligence agencies. It provoked an immediate outcry. ‘I didn’t want to change society,’ Snowden would later say, in exile. ‘I wanted to give society a chance to determine if it should change itself.’ And to some extent, he has. Snowden’s leaks have provoked important debates about the precarious balance between individual privacy and national security on the internet.

About the Author Jamie Bartlett is the Director of the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media at the think tank Demos, where he specialises in online social movements and the impact of technology on society. He is the author of The Dark Net, and of #intelligence, a report on the future of internet surveillance, co-authored with Sir David Omand, a former Director of GCHQ. He lives in London. Orwell versus the Terrorists Crypto-Wars and the Future of Internet Surveillance Jamie Bartlett Introduction In late 2012 the National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden contacted Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald, saying he had sensitive documents about government surveillance he would like to share. In early 2013 he started sending Greenwald – along with the documentary maker Laura Poitras – evidence that revealed the extent of internet surveillance by the US, UK and other governments. In May, fearing prosecution, Snowden left the US, and flew to Hong Kong.

But the point is: it’s possible, and you may not even notice if it came to pass. Civil liberties groups believe companies, police and governments have a mutual interest in keeping the data gold rush going. Intelligence agencies don’t need to spy on you any more: they simply go to your internet company, and prise out of them what they need. (This, incidentally, is precisely what the NSA’s Prism programme did – which was the very first revelation made by Edward Snowden.) And of course, having all this information centralised in one place is inevitably a honeypot for fraudsters and hackers, with identity and data theft increasing at an alarming rate. Perhaps we’re sleepwalking into a new age, a world where everything is captured, stored, analysed, repackaged and sold. And where could that lead? What else could our data reveal about us? So-called ‘big data’ analysis is already able to predict a lot of human behaviour: what we might buy, what books we’ll read, what movies we’ll watch.


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The other is to gather information on how to destroy those computer networks and the infrastructure attached to them should the president ever give that order. On the Internet battlefield, TAO is surveilling potential targets. Were an order to attack ever given, they would help lead the charge. US officials and intelligence experts estimate that TAO has implanted spying devices in at least 85,000 computer systems in 89 countries, according to classified documents that were released by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2010, TAO conducted 279 operations. The unit has cracked the encryption that underpins widely used e-mail systems, including BlackBerry, in order to spy on computer users around the world. It has even gone so far as to divert the shipments of its targets’ computers to an NSA facility and then implant spyware inside the computers. A TAO PowerPoint presentation detailing its exploits boasts a modified version of the familiar Intel logo.

Classified NSA documents show that the agency has targeted the networks of Huawei, the world’s biggest telecommunications maker, which is based in China. US intelligence officials and some lawmakers have suspected for years that Huawei is a proxy for the Chinese military and intelligence services. US regulatory agencies have blocked the installation of Huawei telecom equipment, including switches and routers, in this country for fear they’ll be used as a conduit for cyber spying. Edward Snowden told Chinese journalists that the NSA broke in to computers at Beijing’s Tsinghua University, one of the country’s top education and research institutions. Snowden described the hacking as extensive. On one day in January 2013, the NSA had penetrated at least sixty-three university computers or servers, according to documents Snowden showed the journalists. Those documents proved the NSA had done as he claimed, Snowden said, because they showed Internet protocol addresses that could have been obtained only by someone with physical access to the computers.

The NSA secretly commandeers computers in these countries as well, and can use them to launch malicious software, so that it can’t easily be traced back to the United States. Several dozen clandestine CIA officers trained for the black-bag operations to implant this spyware now work full-time at NSA headquarters in Fort Meade. The CIA has also set up its own hacker force, known as the Information Operations Center, or IOC. According to a budget document leaked by Edward Snowden, this CIA group has grown in size in recent years and now employs hundreds of people, making it one of the agency’s largest groups. The IOC launches cyber attacks and recruits foreign spies to help conduct its operations, according to the document. The Internet has become a battlefield. In recent years the alliance between soldiers and spies has grown stronger, and they have expanded the terrain on which they fight together.


pages: 305 words: 93,091

The Art of Invisibility: The World's Most Famous Hacker Teaches You How to Be Safe in the Age of Big Brother and Big Data by Kevin Mitnick, Mikko Hypponen, Robert Vamosi

4chan, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, connected car, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pattern recognition, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, Tesla Model S, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

INTRODUCTION Time to Disappear Almost two years to the day after Edward Joseph Snowden, a contractor for Booz Allen Hamilton, first disclosed his cache of secret material taken from the National Security Agency (NSA), HBO comedian John Oliver went to Times Square in New York City to survey people at random for a segment of his show on privacy and surveillance. His questions were clear. Who is Edward Snowden? What did he do?1 In the interview clips Oliver aired, no one seemed to know. Even when people said they recalled the name, they couldn’t say exactly what Snowden had done (or why). After becoming a contractor for the NSA, Edward Snowden copied thousands of top secret and classified documents that he subsequently gave to reporters so they could make them public around the world. Oliver could have ended his show’s segment about surveillance on a depressing note—after years of media coverage, no one in America really seemed to care about domestic spying by the government—but the comedian chose another tack.

The most popular method of e-mail encryption is PGP, which stands for “Pretty Good Privacy.” It is not free. It is a product of the Symantec Corporation. But its creator, Phil Zimmermann, also authored an open-source version, OpenPGP, which is free. And a third option, GPG (GNU Privacy Guard), created by Werner Koch, is also free. The good news is that all three are interoperational. That means that no matter which version of PGP you use, the basic functions are the same. When Edward Snowden first decided to disclose the sensitive data he’d copied from the NSA, he needed the assistance of like-minded people scattered around the world. Paradoxically, he needed to get off the grid while still remaining active on the Internet. He needed to become invisible. Even if you don’t have state secrets to share, you might be interested in keeping your e-mails private. Snowden’s experience and that of others illustrate that it isn’t easy to do that, but it is possible, with proper diligence.

After that time has expired, the carriers insist that your text messages are stored only on the phones that send and receive them, and the number of messages stored varies by the phone model. Despite these claims, I think all mobile operators in the United States retain text messages regardless of what they tell the public.4 There is some doubt surrounding this claim by the carriers. Documents exposed by Edward Snowden suggest a tight relationship between the NSA and at least one of the carriers, AT&T. According to Wired, beginning in 2002—shortly after 9/11—the NSA approached AT&T and asked them to begin building secret rooms in some of the carrier’s facilities. One was to be located in Bridgeton, Missouri, and another on Folsom Street in downtown San Francisco. Eventually other cities were added, including Seattle, San Jose, Los Angeles, and San Diego.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

Fatal System Error showed the scale of the danger, looking especially at how organized crime and some of the world’s most powerful governments were collaborating to leverage inherently flawed technology, the failure of the market for security products, and minimal regulation. At the heart of that book was a true tale of Russian intelligence collaborating with criminal hackers, a scenario that went from shocking at the time of publication in 2010 to widely accepted today. Since then, many books have tackled the military-internet complex, intelligence gathering, and cyberwarfare, together with WikiLeaks, Edward Snowden, and the 2016 US election. Missing in all of them has been a compelling account of the people dedicated to information security who are out of the spotlight or even in the shadows, fighting to protect our personal data and freedom as well as our national security. In many cases, these people are more colorful than their adversaries. That is especially true of the people whose tale is told in this book: key members of the Cult of the Dead Cow, who have played a role in all of the major issues cited above.

The grandson of Greek Cypriot immigrants who ended up in Sacramento, Stamos had a trajectory similar to Adam’s—public schools, serious technical higher education, and then jobs as a principled hacker. One of his first was at @stake, working for Mudge and others in the L0pht who had wowed him by testifying to Congress in 1998, under their hacker handles, about the dismal state of cybersecurity. Following in cDc’s footsteps, Stamos had earned a reputation for independence. When Edward Snowden leaked files showing that the NSA was collaborating closely with the big internet companies, especially to scoop up data on people in other countries, Stamos gave a heartfelt talk on ethics at the biggest hacking conference, Def Con. He declared that despite the lack of widely enforced moral codes, security experts should consider resigning their posts rather than violate human rights. For all the stridency, Yahoo hired Stamos as chief information security officer, part of the general public response by Silicon Valley giants to the exposure of complicity.

And the majority of hackers did not want to announce themselves as mercenaries or paint a target on themselves for other hackers or governments that might be interested in hacking them for an easy zero-day harvest. So the gray trade grew, driven by useful rumors at Def Con and elsewhere, and stayed out of public sight for a decade. The first mainstream articles on the zero-day business appeared not long before Edward Snowden disclosed that it was a fundamental part of US government practice, in 2013. As offensive capabilities boomed, defense floundered. Firms like @stake tried to protect the biggest companies and, more importantly, get the biggest software makers to improve their products. But just like the government, the criminal world had discovered hacking in a big way. Modest improvements in security blacklisted addresses that were sending the most spam.


pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

I am at my very core a creature of the internet. My earliest childhood had computers hooked up via creaking modems to the bulletin boards that were the precursor of the popular web. As an adult, my childhood obsession had metamorphosed into using the internet, and working to chronicle it – as a tech journalist, as a WikiLeaks staffer, as someone later working on the NSA (National Security Agency) leaks from Edward Snowden, who documented how the intelligence agencies dominated the networks that had felt like my home. A decade or more of reporting on the internet takes you across the world – from south London squats full of idealistic hackers, to secure operations rooms. For this book, I have tried to get inside the closed rooms, to meet the people who’ve made the decisions that have shaped the internet and to hold them to account.

ICANN had always worked relatively independently and transparently, but as the internet grew in power and importance, the USA’s semi-official oversight role began to become more contentious, especially in Russia, China and their allies, leading for calls for the UN or some other body to be given a formal role overseeing some of the key protocols, such as DNS and allocation of addresses. These calls only heightened after the extensive revelations from NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden in 2013 and 2014. These are covered more extensively in Chapter 6, but in short showed the US abusing its role overseeing the internet’s protocols and security to give itself access to intelligence from foreign powers. These scandals fed into years of talks to remove the USA’s formal role overseeing ICANN, which was finally agreed early in 2016, and actually done very late in that year, right at the end of Barack Obama’s term in office.5 The result of trying to make the situation less political, of course, is that the system is very political: the US no longer has a formal role overseeing ICANN, but the UN doesn’t either.

The reason we were sitting there was that we were confident it would be worth the wait, because if everything worked okay – and that felt like a big ‘if’ – we would, just as soon as that progress bar hit 100 per cent, become the first UK reporters to set eyes on thousands of documents revealing the activities of GCHQ, the UK’s signals intelligence agency. That progress bar was tracking the decryption of tens of thousands of top-secret intelligence documents leaked by the NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden. Not even he had read them all, but from his time working with the USA’s intelligence agency, he’d relayed one tip of what to look for, and this was all that we’d have to go on as a start. We had no details, no explanations, no lengthy guide. We had a note with one word on it: ‘TEMPORA’. We had no idea what it was, or what it meant, but for investigative journalists, like any other gossip, there is no greater bait than a hint at a mystery, especially one that apparently is on the verge of being solved.


pages: 397 words: 110,222

Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

When Krall called, she was all business. “I need to talk to you about something,” she said urgently. Apple had a new problem, and it was with the federal government. Apple had complied with government access before—handing over data when presented with a court order. Apple could even extract data held on phones, and quietly did so for years. But in the wake of National Security Agency (NSA) whistleblower Edward Snowden in 2013, Apple reengineered its software (starting with iOS 8), making it impossible for even it to access data held locally on an iPhone. After a horrific and tragic terrorist attack, the government wanted Apple to break its own security to help the government. The whole debacle turned on two seemingly distant pieces of law: the 1789 All Writs Act, and the more recent but no less outdated 1977 case known as United States v.

The case was starting to pick up steam in the press—in some ways, it was a legal case that everyone could understand. After all, most people have an opinion about terrorism and what the government should do about it. Moreover, 77 percent of Americans now own a smartphone. Most people feel their privacy being invaded more viscerally when the government wants access to a device that is within arm’s reach at all times. When the NSA’s Section 215 metadata program was revealed by Edward Snowden there was some pushback in the press and popular culture (and some modest legislative reform), but to a lot of people the country’s spookiest spy agency felt very far away. Section 215, which ran from 2001 until 2015, captured the incoming and outgoing calls of everyone in the United States. The government was not listening in to the calls, but rather was capturing the dates, times, durations, and phone numbers used—in other words, just the non-content metadata.

Under certain conditions, this is one technique law enforcement forensic engineers are able to perform to unlock a device they’ve seized, if all other forensic techniques fail. Apple is also capable of doing this, however to my knowledge they do not. Under a subpoena, Apple will, however, copy off the same readable contents of the file system if given a warrant. Google did not offer full-disk encryption on its Android devices either. However, everyone’s notion of security changed overnight when Edward Snowden became a household name in June 2013. Snowden, a young contractor for the NSA, leaked a trove of classified documents to two American reporters, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras. (Greenwald famously almost missed the Snowden story as he found setting up encrypted e-mail too difficult.) They reported on a seemingly endless amount of materials from Snowden’s cache, describing in detail how the NSA was conducting its espionage and by what legal means.


pages: 482 words: 121,173

Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

., Company Officials: Internet Surveillance Does Not Indiscriminately Mine Data,” Washington Post, June 8, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-company-officials-internet-surveillance-does-not-indiscriminately-mine-data/2013/06/08/5b3bb234-d07d-11e2-9f1a-1a7cdee20287_story.html?utm_term=.b5761610edb1. Back to note reference 4. Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, and Laura Poitras, “Edward Snowden: The Whistleblower Behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations,” Guardian, June 11, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/09/edward-snowden-nsa-whistleblower-surveillance. Back to note reference 5. Michael B. Kelley, “NSA: Snowden Stole 1.7 Million Classified Documents and Still Has Access to Most of Them,” Business Insider, December 13, 2013, https://www.businessinsider.com/how-many-docs-did-snowden-take-2013-12. Back to note reference 6. Ken Dilanian, Richard A.

Memoli, “Snowden Smuggled Out Data on Thumb Drive, Officials Say,” Los Angeles Times, June 13, 2013, http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jun/13/nation/la-na-nsa-leaks-20130614. Back to note reference 7. Nick Hopkins, “UK Gathering Secret Intelligence Via Covert NSA Operation,” Guardian, June 7, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jun/07/uk-gathering-secret-intelligence-nsa-prism; see also Mirren Gidda, “Edward Snowden and the NSA Files—Timeline,” Guardian, August 21, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/23/edward-snowden-nsa-files-timeline. Back to note reference 8. William J. Cuddihy, The Fourth Amendment: Origins and Meaning, 1602–1791 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 441. Back to note reference 9. Ibid., 442. Back to note reference 10. Ibid., 459. Back to note reference 11. Frederick S.

A couple of press reports focused on Pincus’s suggestion that Obama pardon Snowden. Seth Rosenblatt, “‘Pardon Snowden,’ One Tech Exec Tells Obama, Report Says,” Cnet, December 18, 2013, https://www.cnet.com/news/pardon-snowden-one-tech-exec-tells-obama-report-says/; Dean Takahashi, “Zynga’s Mark Pincus Asked Obama to Pardon NSA Leaker Edward Snowden,” VentureBeat, December 19, 2013, https://venturebeat.com/2013/12/19/zyngas-mark-pincus-asked-president-obama-to-pardon-nsa-leaker-edward-snowden/. Back to note reference 30. “Transcript of President Obama’s Jan. 17 Speech on NSA Reform,” Washington Post, January 17, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/full-text-of-president-obamas-jan-17-speech-on-nsa-reforms/2014/01/17/fa33590a-7f8c-11e3-9556-4a4bf7bcbd84_story.html?utm_term=.c8d2871c4f72.


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The Panama Papers: Breaking the Story of How the Rich and Powerful Hide Their Money by Frederik Obermaier

banking crisis, blood diamonds, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, family office, high net worth, income inequality, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, mega-rich, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, out of africa, race to the bottom, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

It goes without saying that we are all very nervous. We have been working on this for over a year and no one knows what will happen next. How will other media institutions take up the story? How will the general population respond? Or will the story fail to attract the attention it deserves, dismissed as ‘just another leak’? A colleague calls unexpectedly: ‘Edward Snowden has just tweeted us!’ We look at each other, baffled. 7.48pm. Edward Snowden? We go on Twitter, and indeed, Edward Snowden has tweeted this message to his 2 million followers: ‘Biggest leak in the history of data journalism just went live, and it’s about corruption.’ Snowden also provides a link to the Süddeutsche Zeitung website and the English version of our article on Iceland and the shell companies owned by Prime Minister Sigmundur Gunnlaugsson and two other cabinet members.

‘The biggest leak in the history of data journalism’ Edward Snowden The inside story from the journalists who set the investigation in motion. Late one evening, investigative journalist Bastian Obermayer receives an anonymous message offering him access to secret data. Through encrypted channels, he then receives documents showing a mysterious bank transfer for $500 million in gold. This is just the beginning. Obermayer and fellow Süddeutsche Zeitung journalist Frederik Obermaier find themselves immersed in a secret world where complex networks of shell companies help to hide those who don’t want to be found. Faced with the largest data leak in history, they activate an international network of journalists to follow every possible line of enquiry. Operating for over a year in the strictest secrecy, they uncover a global elite living by a different set of rules: prime ministers, dictators, oligarchs, princelings, sports officials, big banks, arms smugglers, mafiosi, diamond miners, art dealers and celebrities.

Contents Foreword Prologue 1 Start 2 Vladimir Putin’s mysterious friend 3 The shadow of the past 4 Commerzbank and its lies 5 Mossack Fonseca’s role in the Syrian war 6 From the Waffen-SS to the CIA and Panama 7 The football factory 8 On fishing, finding and fine art 9 A view of the White House 10 Sparks fly 11 Fear and trepidation 12 The Siemens millions 13 ‘Regarding my meeting with Harry Potter. . .’ 14 A secret meeting with Alpine views 15 Mossfon Holdings 16 Spirit of Panama 17 The world is not enough 18 The looting machine 19 Secret meetings in the Komitèrom 20 At the mercy of monsters 21 The red nobility 22 The Gas Princess and the Chocolate King 23 Those German banks 24 A raid by the Vikings of finance 25 Dead-end trails 26 United by marriage, united by money 27 Star, star, Mega Star 28 The fourth man and FIFA 29 The 99 per cent and the future of tax havens 30 The cold heart of the offshore world Epilogue The revolution will be digitized Acknowledgements Glossary Notes Foreword There are moments in history when a big truth is suddenly revealed. In 2010 leaked US diplomatic cables showed the White House’s private thinking about its friends and enemies. Three years later a contractor working for the National Security Agency exposed how the US and the UK are secretly spying on their own citizens. His name was Edward Snowden. We learned that spooks from Britain’s listening station GCHQ could – if they wanted – bug your iPhone. Or remotely activate your laptop web camera. Snowden’s revelations caused outrage and started a global conversation about the boundaries of privacy in a digital age. Except in Britain, land of James Bond, where many met his revelations with a complacent shrug. In April 2016 something else hidden in plain sight was exposed.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

Failures of access control have been behind some of the more spectacular cyber-related scandals in recent years, like the case of Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks in 2010, which we explore next, and the 2013 Edward Snowden case (where a low-level contractor working as a systems administrator at the NSA had access to a trove of controversial and top-secret programs, which he leaked to the press). These cases illustrate poor access control in all its glory, from low-level individuals being granted default access to anything and everything they wanted, to poor efforts to log and audit access (for several months after Edward Snowden went public with leaked documents about its various monitoring programs, the NSA still didn’t know how many more documents he had taken, but hadn’t yet released). Whether the organization is the NSA or a cupcake store, the questions about how data is compartmentalized are essential.

Is the individual authorized to buy something, like an account on an online gambling site? And even if so, is the individual old enough to participate? Or, at a slightly larger world stage, just because someone has access to a military’s classified networks, should the person be authorized to read and copy every file in them (a practice that would haunt the US military in the Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden leaks)? The entire problem was perhaps best illustrated by one of the most cited cartoons in history. In 1993, New Yorker magazine published a drawing by Peter Steiner of two dogs sitting near a computer. One dog tells the other, “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.” Yet this isn’t to say that people can’t find out private details about you if they want. Every activity on the Internet is data being routed from an Internet Protocol (IP) address.

In the attack on RSA, the attackers wanted key business secrets in order to spy on other companies. For Stuxnet (a case we’ll explore further in Part II), the attackers wanted to disrupt industrial control processes involved in uranium enrichment, so as to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program. Finally, it is useful to acknowledge when the danger comes from one of your own. As cases like Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks or Edward Snowden and the NSA scandal illustrate, the “insider threat” is particularly tough because the actor can search for vulnerabilities from within systems designed only to be used by trusted actors. Insiders can have much better perspectives on what is valuable and how best to leverage that value, whether they are trying to steal secrets or sabotage an operation. It is also important to consider whether the threat actor wants to attack you, or just wants to attack.


pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen

air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

“If there was a unifying theme of President Obama’s speech,” wrote Benjamin Wittes on the influential national security blog Lawfare, “it was an effort to align himself as publicly as possible with the critics of the positions his administration is taking without undermining his administration’s operational flexibility in actual fact. To put it crassly, the president sought to rebuke his own administration for taking the positions it has—but also to make sure that it could continue to do so.” Similarly, Obama’s January 2014 speech, in which he said he wanted to reform the NSA, appeared designed to placate Americans alarmed by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden’s disclosures of mass surveillance, while actually doing little to limit the NSA’s powers. And Obama’s subsequent proposal to scale back domestic phone data collection was considered little more than a half measure by privacy advocates. Washington’s global war on terror is now in its second decade, thanks to the bipartisan veneer it has gained under Bush and Obama. It shows no signs of slowing down; hustlers and freebooters continue to take full advantage, and the war’s unintended consequences continue to pile up.

He claims that he recorded every minute of Al Jazeera’s network broadcast nonstop from February 2004 until the London Olympics in the summer of 2012. “That’s over 8 billion frames.” Today, Dennis Montgomery continues to argue that he is not a fraud, that his technology is genuine, and that he performed highly sensitive and valuable work for the CIA and the Pentagon. After former NSA contractor Edward Snowden leaked documents about the NSA’s domestic surveillance operations in 2013, Montgomery suggested to me that he could provide the documents that would prove not only that he had been telling the truth, but that he had also been used by top U.S. intelligence officials in highly questionable intelligence operations. But Montgomery has never provided the documents to back up his assertions.* 3 The New Oligarchs Dennis Montgomery is, of course, an extreme example of the new kind of counterterrorism entrepreneur who prospered in the shadows of 9/11.

That same secrecy has surrounded NSA’s operations ever since, even as the NSA has continued to push for greater access to the domestic communications of American citizens. Secrecy continues to shield the NSA from uncomfortable questions about the growing role of the agency and its contractors in data mining and the burgeoning field of cybersecurity. The only way the American public ever learns what the NSA is doing to them is from whistleblowers, including, most recently, former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who leaked documents about the rise of the NSA’s massive data-mining operations during the Obama administration. To keep the war on terror going, the government has tried to make sure that whistleblowers are isolated and ostracized. People like Diane Roark. She was perhaps the most courageous whistleblower of the post-9/11 era, and yet her story has never been fully told. She fought a lonely battle against the most powerful forces unleashed in Washington in the global war on terror.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Besides transnational organized crime syndicates, hacktivists—politically motivated cyber attackers—represent one of the most influential and powerful groups in cyberspace. Anonymous, LulzSec, AntiSec, WikiLeaks, and the Syrian Electronic Army fall into this group and launch their attacks in retaliation for perceived injustices. Personalities such as Julian Assange, Chelsea (Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden have become household names for challenging some of the world’s most powerful institutions and for releasing data that others would most certainly have preferred remain hidden. While Assange, Manning, and Snowden have been propelled onto the covers of newspapers around the world, other hacktivist groups prefer that their individual members remain discreetly hidden in subordination to the organization itself and its broader agenda.

Given that Iran had just bested that attack, one security researcher noted the Islamic Republic’s technical bombardments have graduated from being the equivalent of “a few yapping Chihuahuas into a pack of fire-breathing Godzillas.” Of course, there have also been widespread allegations of hacking by the United States against the rest of the world, based largely on the numerous classified documents stolen and unilaterally released by the former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden beginning in June 2013. Snowden detailed at great length the global technical surveillance apparatus run by the National Security Agency and provided documentary evidence to support his claims in discussions with the journalists Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras. Programs such as PRISM and XKeyscore subsequently came to light, as did the NSA’s purported ability to track billions of e-mails, phone messages, chat sessions, and SMS texts each and every day.

Meet the Data Brokers Acxiom, Epsilon, Datalogix, RapLeaf, Reed Elsevier, BlueKai, Spokeo, and Flurry—most of us have never heard of these companies, but together they and others are responsible for a rapidly emerging data surveillance industry that is worth $156 billion a year. While citizens around the world reacted with shock at the size and scope of the NSA surveillance operations revealed by Edward Snowden, it’s important to note that the $156 billion in annual revenue earned by the data broker industry is twice the size of the U.S. government’s intelligence budget. The infrastructure, tools, and techniques employed by these firms rest almost entirely in the private sector, and yet the depth to which they can peer into any citizen’s life would make any intelligence agency jealous with envy. Data brokers get their information from our Internet service providers, credit card issuers, mobile phone companies, banks, credit bureaus, pharmacies, departments of motor vehicles, grocery stores, and increasingly our online activities.


pages: 579 words: 160,351

Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now by Alan Rusbridger

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Filter Bubble, forensic accounting, Frank Gehry, future of journalism, G4S, high net worth, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks

He insisted we suspend the normal rules of moderation for his column: there would be no moderation. He didn’t believe in what he thought of as ‘censorship’. He would rather talk to sceptics or trolls than have them filtered out. When I last looked he had nearly a million followers on Twitter and had tweeted 72,000 times.1 He was quite happy – excited, even – to believe that some of his readers knew more than he did. He would learn from them. One certainly did. His name was Edward Snowden.2 And Glenn Greenwald, not ‘a proper reporter’, helped the Guardian win the Pulitzer prize. The second rule breaker was a Dutch journalist who had trained as an anthropologist. At the age of 26, Joris Luyendijk found himself switching careers and becoming a newspaper correspondent in Cairo. After a few years doing what foreign correspondents do – from Lebanon and East Jerusalem after Egypt – he wrote a book, People Like Us,3 which was as much about the failure of journalists adequately to explain the Middle East as it was about the region he had set out to cover.

Were we reaching a stage when the distinction between ‘journalism’ and other forms of publishing information was so blurred as to be meaningless? ‘If it’s true information, we don’t care where it comes from,’ was Assange’s riposte to what he saw as liberal hand-wringing. ‘Let people fight with the truth, and when the bodies are cleared there will be bullets of truth everywhere.’ To Raffi Khatchadourian of the New Yorker, there was a difference between someone like Chelsea Manning or Edward Snowden and the exploitation of hacking by foreign powers: ‘State-sponsored information warfare is nothing like what activist hackers and whistleblowers do,’ he wrote in an August 2017 article. ‘The latter take personal risks – with their freedom, and their reputation – to release information that matters to them. For a state, there is no personal risk, no courage, and the content may not even be terribly important.

It is rare for editors to be called to parliament to justify something they have published. Almost exactly 250 years earlier, in 1763, John Wilkes1 had been one: hauled in front of MPs to be accused of sedition and treason after publishing issue number 45 of his scabrous newspaper, the North Briton, which had been blisteringly rude about King George III. The Home Affairs committee was notionally looking into counter-terrorism. But today they wanted to know about Edward Snowden, the former National Security Agency (NSA) operative who had given the Guardian and others a very large number of top-secret NSA and GCHQ2 documents showing the extent of the surveillance by states. Such a leak had never happened before. The NSA was so hermetically closed it was known as No Such Agency. The UK’s Intelligence and Security committee had met a month earlier in a dramatic hearing in which Britain’s three senior spy chiefs ventured into the public glare for the first time to denounce the Snowden disclosures.


pages: 434 words: 117,327

Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America by Cass R. Sunstein

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, anti-globalists, availability heuristic, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Nate Silver, Network effects, New Journalism, night-watchman state, obamacare, Potemkin village, random walk, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

See Barton Gellman, “Edward Snowden, After Months of NSA Revelations, Says His Mission’s Accomplished,” Washington Post, December 23, 2013, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/edward-snowden-after-months-of-nsa-revelations-says-his-missions-accomplished/2013/12/23/49fc36de-6c1c-11e3-a523-fe73f0ff6b8d_story.html?utm_term=.afb795ce3bb1; Amy Davidson Sorkin, “Did Edward Snowden Break His Oath?” New Yorker, January 5, 2014, http://www.newyorker.com/news/amy-davidson/did-edward-snowden-break-his-oath. 35. See, e.g., Glenn Greenwald et al., “Edward Snowden: The Whistleblower Behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations,” The Guardian, June 11, 2013 (“I’m willing to sacrifice all of that because I can’t in good conscience allow the US government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building”); James Bamford, “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story,” Wired, August 2014 (explaining Snowden’s concerns about overbroad US surveillance in China). 36.

News & World Report, May 18, 2016, https://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2016–05–18/civil-liberties-and-national-security-expert-on-edward-snowden-and-the-nsa (interview with Geoffrey Stone). 33. In response to the fallout from Snowden, President Obama issued PPD-28 to address concerns about privacy protections for non-US citizens abroad, but this document did not bring material changes to US law or practice. See Presidential Policy Directive—Signals Intelligence Activities, January 17, 2014, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/17/presidential-policy-directive-signals-intelligence-activities. The broader point is that Snowden’s leaks of information about surveillance programs outside the United States directed at non-US persons cannot be characterized as whistleblowing to actions illegal under US law. 34. See Barton Gellman, “Edward Snowden, After Months of NSA Revelations, Says His Mission’s Accomplished,” Washington Post, December 23, 2013, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/edward-snowden-after-months-of-nsa-revelations-says-his-missions-accomplished/2013/12/23/49fc36de-6c1c-11e3-a523-fe73f0ff6b8d_story.html?

The hope was that public oversight mechanisms could be replicated in secret by imposing legal restrictions, enhancing internal transparency, and creating multiple channels of accountability. THE GRAND BARGAIN WAS SUCCESSFUL IN STAMPING OUT THE POLITICAL abuses it aimed to address. In the four decades after the Church Committee, there has been no evidence that presidents and senior executive officials have used the Deep State to attack political enemies or subversive forces in the United States. Ironically, Edward Snowden’s leak in 2013 of information about US signals intelligence practices confirmed the success of the grand bargain. Snowden revealed the massive scope of US signals intelligence collection at home and abroad. He also revealed a new and serious post–Church Committee problem: the rise of secret legal interpretation by executive lawyers and secret courts that can distort the meaning of public laws in ways that allow for intelligence collection against Americans that departs from public expectation.19 But Snowden also showed that the political abuses of the pre-1975 era were gone.


pages: 443 words: 116,832

The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Duncan Campbell, “Revealed: GCHQ’s Beyond Top Secret Middle Eastern Internet Spy Base,” The Register, June 3, 2014. 59. Formally, the NSA refers to DANCINGOASIS as SIGAD US-3171, and the program appears on a chart showing overall collection outcomes. Glenn Greenwald made the chart public when he published No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the US Surveillance State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014), but the program is not discussed in the book, perhaps due to his agreement with Edward Snowden not to discuss programs related to military activities. Greenwald / MacMillan, “Documents from No Place to Hide,” 79. For analysis, see Peter Koop, “NSA’s Largest Cable Tapping Program: DANCINGOASIS,” Electrospaces, June 7, 2015. 60. [Author redacted], “Utility of ‘Security Conferences,’ ” posting on internal NSA discussion board, published as “I Hunt Sys Admins,” alongside Ryan Gallagher and Peter Maass, “Inside the NSA’s Secret Efforts to Hunt and Hack System Administrators,” The Intercept, March 20, 2014, 2. 61.

The analysts then rushed that information to Rice and others, who used it to guide their negotiating strategy. It worked. The resolution passed, twelve to two. President Obama hailed the resolution’s passage as delivering “the toughest sanctions ever faced by the Iranian government.”3 The United States had deployed its espionage capabilities for insights into other countries, then turned those insights into geopolitical advantage. Rice remarked in a file later leaked by Edward Snowden that the NSA’s intelligence effort had “helped me to know when the other [state’s representatives] were telling the truth … revealed their real position on sanctions … gave us an upper hand in negotiations … and provided information on various countries’ ‘red lines.’ ”4 This case reveals an important fact: the United States and its allies have what some in the NSA call a “home-field advantage” when it comes to cyber operations.

In general, the agency is much less interested in Netflix binge-watching or Spotify streaming than in messages between potential intelligence targets. Since the former take up so much data, it is often best for the agency not to store them at all.22 When looking for a needle in a haystack, the solution is rarely to add more hay. Much of the hard data on passive collection, including that done using transit authority, comes from the documents leaked in 2013 by Edward Snowden, a contractor to the NSA. This means that the evidence of NSA activities is ample but imperfect. On the one hand, some of the leaked documents are likely to overstate NSA capabilities and successes; just as in every organization, employees have incentives to make their programs look good. On the other hand, since most of the leaked files are over five years old, it is likely that NSA capabilities have gotten much better in the intervening years as technology has progressed.


pages: 324 words: 96,491

Messing With the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News by Clint Watts

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Chelsea Manning, Climatic Research Unit, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Julian Assange, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

This is where WikiLeaks’ methods are oddly misaligned with the declared intentions of those who provide them with secrets. The couriers of WikiLeaks secrets, at least for their big public disclosures, arise not from the most corrupt, oppressive regimes in the world, but the most open, for the consequences of these data thefts in the former is death, and in the latter fame. Two Americans, Chelsea Manning (the former Bradley Manning) and Edward Snowden, remain the most famous couriers connected to WikiLeaks. The former fed the outlet; the latter was assisted by it. Their disclosures surfaced in different places, but in spirit they sought the same goal: the transparency and accountability of the U.S. government. Both insiders were young at the time of their insider breaches, in their twenties. Both spent only a short time in their government roles before spilling the beans on their employer, the U.S. government.

Both spent only a short time in their government roles before spilling the beans on their employer, the U.S. government. Manning began basic training on October 2, 2007, before arriving in Fort Drum, New York. Manning had a difficult time in training, and she found herself sitting in Baghdad by October 2009. In January 2010, only three months after arriving in Iraq, she contacted WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks acted not as an outlet for Edward Snowden, but a shepherd. After Snowden departed for Hong Kong in May 2013, having stolen vast collections of highly sensitive U.S. intelligence, his next move was not to stand trial and be exonerated by the public for his breach, but to seek safe harbor. Snowden needed help, and WikiLeaks stepped in, dispatching Sarah Harrison, of WikiLeaks’ legal defense team, to Hong Kong, where she then traveled alongside Snowden as he made his way to Moscow.

The Russian president’s best friend—a cellist called Sergei Roldugin—is at the centre of a scheme in which money from Russian state banks is hidden offshore.”31 Deeper analysis of the records suggests that the law firm represented one step in a shell game of financial maneuvers and false deals by which money moved out of Russia and then back into the hands of Putin’s close friends and family—money and transactions that never bore Putin’s name.32 The Panama Papers shared one thing with the disclosures of Edward Snowden: the organization whose information was stolen wasn’t breaking the law. Mossack Fonseca provided fully legal services. The ICIJ followed up in 2017 with another bombshell, the Paradise Papers. This time, 13.4 million documents focused on the Bermudan law firm Appleby. Again ICIJ received documents and then siphoned them to “more than 380 journalists from over 90 media organizations in 67 countries,” who spent months analyzing the documents before release.33 The Paradise Papers showed how Appleby had helped “clients reduce their tax burden; obscure their ownership of assets like companies, private aircraft, real estate and yachts; and set up huge offshore trusts that in some cases hold billions of dollars.”


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

On the whole, democratically elected governments are comparatively open technical systems, and authoritarian regimes are relatively closed technical systems. Indeed, a spectrum of regimes from “open” to “closed” may capture more of the important nuances in what makes a contemporary government than a spectrum that gauges levels of “democracy” and “authoritarianism.” The surveillance scandals triggered by Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning and the censorship tactics exposed by the OpenNet Initiative complicate many governments’ claims to being democratic. Thinking in terms of democracy and authoritarianism does not make sense in a world where authoritarian governments use digital media to measure and respond to public opinion in positive ways. A growing number of regimes permit no public displays of dissent or high-level elections but do build new ways of interacting with citizens, encourage involvement in public policy, permit digital activism on particular issues such as pollution and corruption, and allow local elections for minor offices.

Yet people migrated to other hashtags, making for a dynamic flow of content that was propelled by an eagerness to help one another.17 The story here is not that people tweeted and saved the world—the story is about altruism and survival strategies. Will the internet of things be a conduit for altruism? The Internet Is Also a Surveillance State While social media has helped communities connect during a crisis, it also provides big governments with a powerful surveillance tool. Edward Snowden gave us two lessons about how information technologies are used in the name of national security. The first is that the intelligence services don’t have a magic decryption key that unlocks everybody’s secrets. They have the political, economic, and social ties, or at least leverage, to get secrets out of the businesses that own and operate the infrastructure. The second is that most intelligence-technology services are contracted out to private firms.

When overwhelmed, governments have begun to address Anonymous as an equal in negotiation. The government of the Philippines has tried to engage with the group by making concessions and involving it in national cyberstrategy.18 Internet pundits have added to the chaos of international politics. Julian Assange’s online WikiLeaks project exposed diplomatic correspondence and upset many delicately balanced relationships among states and between power brokers. Both Assange and Edward Snowden decided that democracies were the least likely to provide them with just treatment as whistle blowers. The Russians gave Assange an online talk show and have sheltered Snowden. Moreover, many kinds of authoritarian regimes like Russia now employ their own social media gurus to engage with the public. Having more information and communication technologies hasn’t made international affairs more transparent, honest, or democratic.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

(New York: Routledge, 2004). 19. Trevor Timm, “Congress wants NSA reform after all. Obama and the Senate need to pass it,” theguardian.com, June 20, 2014. 20. Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014). 21. “Cyber security in the post-Snowden era,” panel at 2014 Ottawa Conference on Defence and Security. Video available at http://www.cpac.ca/en/programs/public-record/episodes/31366144. (Last accessed July 2, 2014.) 22. See the website of Reset the Net at resetthenet.org. 23. Quoted in Derek Mead, “‘The Bottom Line Is That Encryption Does Work’: Edward Snowden at SXSW,” motherboard.vice.com, March 10, 2014. 24. “On the FBI Raid,” March 7, 2012, last accessed July 8, 2014, http://pastebin.com/vZEteA3C. 25. “Why I’m Going to Destroy FBI Agent Robert Smith Part Three Revenge of the Lithe,” YouTube video, posted by Grenalio Kristian Perdana Siahaan, Nov. 25, 2012, last accessed July 3, 2014, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?

I am ashamed to admit that when I found out he was British and sixteen, a picture immediately popped into my mind. It was not as if the “nihilists, anarchists, activists, Lulzsec, Anonymous, twenty­somethings who haven’t talked to the opposite sex in five or six years,” the description of hackers provided by Michael Haydn, the ex-director of the CIA and NSA, in reference to those who would come to support Edward Snowden.1 What did come to mind was a pale waif whose wealthy parents thoughtlessly shipped him off at a tender age to boarding school. As it turns out, once he was eighteen, tflow was revealed to be Mustafa Al Bassam, and pictures confirmed that he was not pasty white. He moved to London from Iraq with his family when he was six years old, fleeing Saddam Hussein. His father is a doctor—a general practitioner—so they are financially middle class.

They claimed to have infiltrated various internal networks of the US Department of Energy, where they sent messages urging employees to work against the government rather than for it. They hacked the federal contractor ManTech International, publishing over four hundred megabytes of content that detailed ManTech’s dealings with NATO and the US Army (plus all its employees’ emails). They struck at the mega-security contractor Booz Allen Hamilton; while they were unable to obtain actual documents—though one of Booz Allen Hamilton’s employees at the time, Edward Snowden, eventually would—they managed to download ninety thousand military emails from the company’s site, which they threw up on The Pirate Bay with a long analysis noting “key facts” about the company, such as its funding breakdown. Things had taken a very serious turn. During this surge of activity, arrests became more commonplace. By the end of July, fourteen Americans had been arrested for DDoSing PayPal, and British authorities had arrested two members of LulzSec: Topiary in Scotland and tflow in London (tflow’s name was not released at the time because he was still a minor).


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Permanent Record by Edward Snowden

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, pre–internet, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, WikiLeaks, zero day

Love and Exile Notes Acknowledgments About the Author Copyright First published 2019 by Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, LLC First published in the UK 2019 by Macmillan This electronic edition first published in the UK 2019 by Macmillan an imprint of Pan Macmillan 20 New Wharf Road, London N1 9RR Associated companies throughout the world www.panmacmillan.com ISBN 978-1-5290-3567-4 Copyright © Edward Snowden 2019. Jacket design by Rodrigo Corral Jacket photograph © Platon The right of Edward Snowden to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. You may not copy, store, distribute, transmit, reproduce or otherwise make available this publication (or any part of it) in any form, or by any means (electronic, digital, optical, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the publisher.

All of these devices—wrapped, clamped, cuffed, and belted tightly around me—were connected to the large black polygraph machine placed on the table in front of me. Behind the table, in a nicer chair, sat the polygrapher. She reminded me of a teacher I once had—and I spent much of the test trying to remember the teacher’s name, or trying not to. She, the polygrapher, began asking questions. The first ones were no-brainers: Was my name Edward Snowden? Was 6/21/83 my date of birth? Then: Had I ever committed a serious crime? Had I ever had a problem with gambling? Had I ever had a problem with alcohol or taken illegal drugs? Had I ever been an agent of a foreign power? Had I ever advocated the violent overthrow of the United States government? The only admissible answers were binary: “Yes” and “No.” I answered “No” a lot, and kept waiting for the questions I’d been dreading.

Meanwhile, the dozen coworkers sitting to your left and right—the same coworkers you work with on the same projects daily—might technically be employed by a dozen different companies, and those companies might still be a few degrees removed from the corporate entities that hold the primary contracts with the agency. I wish I remembered the exact chronology of my contracting, but I don’t have a copy of my résumé anymore—that file, Edward_Snowden_Resume.doc, is locked up in the Documents folder of one of my old home computers, since seized by the FBI. I do recall, however, that my first major contracting gig was actually a subcontracting gig: the CIA had hired BAE Systems, which had hired COMSO, which hired me. BAE Systems is a midsize American subdivision of British Aerospace, set up expressly to win contracts from the American IC.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

However, most journalists, imperfect though they are, do have a commitment to ‘the best available version of the truth’ and to holding the powerful to account. The industry’s decline is desperately worrying because almost every story that uncovers shadowy influences in our politics – lobbying, manipulation, corruption – is the result of painstaking, expensive journalism: the Pentagon Papers, the Edward Snowden leaks, the Paradise Papers or even the Observer’s recent investigations into the role played by data analytics firms during the EU referendum. Traditional media is not dead just yet – and journalists have an important job of building public trust in their work too, which has also been in sharp decline over the past several years. But if the tech gets more complicated, more pervasive and more political (and it will) then we will need ever-more-careful – and probably extremely expensive – investigations to uncover what’s going on.

It was easy to spot: its coal black brick façade stood out from its grey neighbours like an unusual stone on the beach, and ‘Institute of Cryptoanarchy’ was written in bright white letters on the front. I was a little late, and the place was already teeming with scores of men in their twenties and thirties speaking in the mid-Atlantic English that almost every hacker, crypto-enthusiast and bitcoiner seems to possess. A 3D printer whirred in the background, and bitcoin t-shirts and posters of Edward Snowden were available for sale. Within a cable’s reach of every plug socket, eyes stared at lines and lines of the incomprehensible language of computers: Java, Ruby, C++. As I wandered about looking for somewhere to charge up my devices, I spotted ‘The Crypto-Anarchist Manifesto’ printed out and pinned to the wall: A specter is haunting the modern world, the specter of crypto anarchy. Computer technology is on the verge of providing the ability for individuals and groups to communicate and interact with each other in a totally anonymous manner . . .

And people trust bitcoin and the maths that underpins it. At the institute’s cafe the staff were paid in bitcoin; rent collected for their co-working space was paid in bitcoin, too. I was given a little plastic card with a QR code, and transferred bitcoin on to it using one of three yellow ATM machines. From that point on, every time I wanted anything I just scanned the QR code. A coffee. Ping! A Red Bull. Ping! Some goulash. Ping! A postcard of Edward Snowden. Ping! I didn’t use my koruna once.* Bitcoin is more than just money, though: it’s a new way of handling information. Bear with me on this short-but-important technical detour. Every time someone sends a bitcoin payment to a recipient, a record of the transaction is stored in something called the blockchain, a huge database of every bitcoin transaction ever made. Transactions are collected into blocks, with each block representing about ten minutes’ worth of transactions.


pages: 363 words: 105,039

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers by Andy Greenberg

air freight, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, clean water, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global supply chain, hive mind, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, pirate software, pre–internet, profit motive, ransomware, RFID, speech recognition, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Army base in the west of the country whose role as an intelligence operation was at the time secret and would only later be revealed in the classified documents leaked by the NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden. 9 THE DELEGATION Rob Lee describes starting his job at the NSA as something like connecting his brain to a vast, ultra-intelligent hive mind. Suddenly he had access to not only expert colleagues but the agency’s corpus of classified knowledge, as well as its vast intelligence collection abilities. Lee, of course, says little about the details of where that intelligence came from. But thanks in part to Edward Snowden, we know that it included a broad array of secret data-gathering tools, labeled broadly as “signals intelligence,” or “sigint,” that ranged from the ability to siphon vast quantities of raw internet data from undersea cables to hacking enemy systems administrators and looking over their shoulders at private networks.

That “Illuminati” reference and Guccifer 2.0’s name were meant to convey a kind of rogue hacktivist, stealing and leaking the documents of the powerful to upend the corrupt social order. The original Guccifer had been a Romanian amateur hacker named Marcel Lehel Lazăr who had broken into the email accounts of high-profile figures like Colin Powell, the Rockefeller family, and the sister of former president George W. Bush. Guccifer 2.0 took on the persona of a cocky eastern European cyberpunk who idolized figures like the original Guccifer, Edward Snowden, and Julian Assange. “Personally I think that I’m among the best hackers in the world,” he would write in a FAQ. When CrowdStrike maintained that Guccifer 2.0 was a thin disguise meant to obscure the Russian state hackers behind the DNC intrusion, Guccifer 2.0 shot back with vague denials. “They just fucked up! They can prove nothing!” he wrote. “All I hear is blah-blah-blah, unfounded theories and somebody’s estimates.”

Experts largely agreed the profit motive was likely a cover story, that the Shadow Brokers were probably state-sponsored hackers, not cybercriminals, and they were seeking above all to embarrass the NSA. Jake Williams, for his part, immediately suspected Russia. “There’s only one government capable of doing this,” he said flatly. Another, less expected former NSA figure offered a similar suggestion. Edward Snowden, the NSA whistle-blower who’d leaked a top secret trove of the agency’s documents three years earlier, posted a series of messages on Twitter outlining a larger theory. He guessed that the Shadow Brokers were indeed Russian, that they’d stolen the NSA tools from a “staging server” used as a kind of field outpost for the agency’s hacking operations, and that the thieves’ primary motive was to shame the NSA and broadcast a specific message: We know what you’re up to.


pages: 453 words: 114,250

The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

Walt, ‘With Telegram, a reclusive social media star rises again’, Fortune, 23 February 2016, http://fortune.com/telegram-pavel-durov-mobile-world-congress/ 38‘FAQ’, Telegram, https://telegram.org/faq#q-do-you-process-data-requests 39G. Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the US surveillance state, New York NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2014, p. 7. 40R. McCormick, ‘Edward Snowden’s favorite encrypted chat app is now on Android’, The Verge, 3 November 2015, https://www.theverge.com/2015/11/3/9662724/signal-encrypted-chat-app-android-edward-snowden 41R. Kilpatrick, ‘China blocks Telegram messenger, blamed for aiding human rights lawyers’, Hong Kong Free Press, 13 July 2015, https://www.hongkongfp.com/2015/07/13/china-blocks-telegram-messenger-blamed-for-aiding-human-rights-lawyers/ 42CNN Library, ‘Paris attacks fast facts’, CNN, 8 December 2015, https://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/08/europe/2015-paris-terror-attacks-fast-facts/index.html; S.

The indictment of Unit 61398 was a major shot across the bows of China’s cyberespionage operation, and the fact that Washington would risk relations with its most important trading partner demonstrated the severity of harm being experienced by US companies. The US, of course, had long hacked other countries. Within months of Mandiant’s first report on Unit 61398, former National Security Agency contractor, Edward Snowden, flew to Hong Kong, from where he began making dramatic revelations about the extent of US government surveillance and spying. The US had also allegedly built and deployed – along with Israeli intelligence – the Stuxnet virus, a carefully designed cyber-weapon that wreaked havoc on Iran’s nuclear energy programme. But to the Americans, this type of espionage was wholly different to the Chinese hacking, which often targeted private companies and appeared to be done for the benefit of Chinese businesses.

Like Durov himself, the app was protean, registered as a company in multiple countries to avoid regulations.37 On Telegram, user data is spread across servers around the world, making it harder to subpoena, and chats can be set to self-destruct after a certain amount of time.38 Its logo was a white paper plane, flying through the air. The launch of the app was well timed, coming on the back of not only an uptick in censorship in Russia, but also the revelations, courtesy of Edward Snowden, of the breadth and scale of US spying overseas. Telegram gave users a way (at least in theory) to avoid NSA and FSB snooping, and to communicate securely and secretly. It’s difficult to recall, post-Snowden, how rare encryption once was, even among some in the cybersecurity community. Glenn Greenwald, who helped break the NSA spying story, almost missed out on it due to his lack of a secure email account and initial unwillingness to use the clunky PGP encryption method to communicate with Snowden.39 Telegram, along with a similar app, Signal, which was endorsed by Snowden himself, helped make encrypted communications easy and straightforward.40 Increased competition from these apps in turn forced larger tech companies to adopt similar security protocols, with Facebook-owned WhatsApp and Microsoft-owned Skype both adopting end-to-end encryption for fear of losing market share.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

As its power grows, China is promoting a global norm of national, territorial control over the internet—and all other means of communication—effected both by domestic measures and through international organisations such as the International Telecommunication Union. (I say more about this under principle 9.) China’s Westphalian-Huntingtonian insistence on ‘information sovereignty’ resonates with many postcolonial countries, as well as postimperial ones such as Russia, especially following Edward Snowden’s revelations about the degree of US surveillance of international electronic traffic. Graciously visiting a Snowden-shaken Brazil in 2014, president Xi Jinping inaugurated a Portuguese-language version of the Baidu search engine and smiled on Brazilian partnership agreements signed by Huawei and Alibaba. He then pronounced: ‘In the current world, the development of the internet has posed new challenges to national sovereignty, security and development interests, and we must respond to this earnestly.

Angels, solicitous for our individual privacy rather than company profits or government interests, would have designed it differently. But the internet is not in the gentle arms of angels. It is run and exploited by companies and, to a varying but always significant degree, controlled and accessed by governments. Each of those two forms of power, private and public, constitutes a threat to privacy; the combination of the two, P2, is the biggest threat of all. This is the lesson that people rightly drew from Edward Snowden’s revelations that US and British authorities had both legally compelled telecommunications and internet companies to share data with them and illegally tapped into their cables. (More on this in the next chapter.) ARE YOU EVER ALONE? ‘Surveillance is the business model of the internet’, says security expert Bruce Schneier. ‘We build systems that spy on people in exchange for services.

But maybe the combined secret power of the state and companies, P2, is sometimes such that you need these extraordinary measures to combat it? It was not just hacktivists who covered their faces with the stylised Guy Fawkes mask of Anonymous, inspired by the film ‘V for Vendetta’, when they joined real-life protests at what they saw as the abuse of anonymous state and corporate power revealed by Julian Assange and Edward Snowden.144 After all, police or secret services would photograph you as you marched, and enter your digital image ineradicably into a searchable database. Perhaps it takes anonymous to restrain the power of anonymous? 8 SECRECY ‘We must be empowered to challenge all limits to freedom of information justified on such grounds as national security’. S: You can’t say that. C: Why not? S: We can’t tell you.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, an organization that seeks to protect free speech online, decried it as offering insufficient protection for independent bloggers, reiterating its earlier argument that “Congress should link shield law protections to the practice of journalism as opposed to the profession.” The Senate debate over who is a “journalist” arose in the aftermath of WikiLeaks, whose activity has been defined as both journalism and espionage. Expanding the definition of a journalist means expanding the legal protection journalists receive. “I can’t support it if everyone who has a blog has a special privilege … or if Edward Snowden were to sit down and write this stuff, he would have a privilege. I’m not going to go there,” said Senator Dianne Feinstein, in a statement political commentator Matt Drudge denounced as “fascist.” The debate over who is a journalist is a debate over journalistic privilege. But in a prestige economy, the privilege to protect the confidentiality of sources is not the only privilege at play.

If you need convincing that foreign policy needs new blood, look at the state of the world around you. The strongest argument against the status quo is the status quo itself. —Originally published March 20, 2014 Snowden and the Paranoid State “Paranoids are not paranoid because they’re paranoid,” Thomas Pynchon wrote in Gravity’s Rainbow, “but because they keep putting themselves, fucking idiots, deliberately into paranoid situations.” On June 23, 2013, Edward Snowden left China, a repressive state with a vast surveillance system, to fly to Russia, a repressive state with an even vaster surveillance system, in order to escape America, where he had worked for a surveillance system so vast he claims it gave him “the power to change people’s fates.” In proclaiming his ability to change the fates of others, Snowden lost control of his own. He was lambasted as the instigator of international conspiracies and praised as the source of their revelation.

It means that people in positions of power—in government and in corporations like Facebook and Google—need to come clean with what they know and why they want to know it. Our privacy settings, literally and figuratively, need to stop shifting. Our privacy expectations need to stop being dictated by those who read our mail. Until then, paranoia will rule. “Power is impenetrable,” wrote Elias Canetti, in his 1960 study of paranoia in politics. “The man who has it sees through other men, but does not allow them to see through him.” Edward Snowden proclaimed he could see through everybody. And then he said he was on our side. That is the novelty of this whole affair. He saw through us and we watched him run. —Originally published August 5, 2013 Iraq and the Reinvention of Reality The worst thing about the Iraq war was not that people got away with lying. It was that they did not—and it did not matter. The tenth anniversary of the American invasion of Iraq was a week of media culpa.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Certainly online eyes remain much less valuable than offline ones, with average advertising rates of the printed edition of a major newspaper being around ten times its online cost.36 The same is true of the value of offline versus online readers, with the Newspaper Association of America estimating that the average print reader is worth around $539 versus the $26 value of the online reader.37 And free certainly isn’t working as an economic model for online newspapers. Take, for example, the world’s third most frequently visited news website, the London Guardian. In spite of breaking the News of the World phone hacking scandal and the Edward Snowden and WikiLeaks stories, the Guardian has reported operating losses of more than £100 million since 2010, with a stunning £50 million lost just between 2012 and 2013.38 No wonder the Guardian is experimenting with a robot-generated print edition called #Open001, which replaces editors with algorithms to select relevant stories for publication.39 But robots can’t write the kind of high-quality journalism that distinguishes the Guardian from most of its rivals.

But Mielke’s work has been memorialized in the old Berlin headquarters of the Stasi, which has been transformed into a museum displaying the technologies of surveillance that he used to snoop on the East German people. The former East German Ministry for State Security is located on a particularly gray, nondescript street near the Magdalenenstrasse U-Bahn station, a few subway stops away from the center of Berlin. It’s not too far from the US embassy on Pariser Platz, where, the American whistle-blower Edward Snowden revealed, the NSA had a spy hub that monitored the cell phone calls of German chancellor Angela Merkel16—a privacy breach so angering Merkel that the chancellor, who grew up in East Germany, compared the snooping practices of the NSA to the Stasi’s.17 Nor is it a great distance from the British embassy beside the Brandenburg Gate, where, according to documents leaked by Snowden, the British intelligence agency GCHQ was running its own separate spying operation on the German government.18 The gray old Stasi headquarters in Berlin, permanently frozen now in its 1989 appearance, is defiantly analog.

“Who should we fear more with our data: the government or companies?” asks Guardian columnist Ana Marie Cox.47 Unfortunately, however, it’s not an either/or question. In today’s networked world, we should fear both the government and private big data companies like Facebook and Google. We got a preview of this terrifying new world in the summer of 2013 with the National Security Agency data-mining Prism scandal revealed by the former NSA analyst Edward Snowden. “If Big Brother came back, he’d be a public-private partnership,” explained the British historian Timothy Garton Ash. And it’s exactly this kind of partnership between big data companies like Google and the NSA—both the government and private companies—that we should most fear. According to a June 2013 report in the New York Times, the Prism program “grew out of the National Security Agency’s desire several years ago to begin addressing the agency’s need to keep up with the explosive growth of social media.”48 Prism showed the backdoor access to the data of their customers that Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, PalTalk, AOL, Skype, YouTube, and Apple all gave—or were legally required to give, according to these companies—to the government.


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The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

It has been alleged – although never proven – that the 9/11 terrorists used PGP encryption in their communications: ‘I have no idea whatsoever about that,’ says Omand. But he is convinced that terrorists would have been ‘delighted’ by information about the Edward Snowden leaks. ‘You can be sure that they were following the story very closely indeed: as would have been the Russian and Chinese governments.’ I asked him if he was worried about the rise in crypto-parties, or more widespread adoption of Tor, Mailpile and Dark Wallets. Might it make us less safe? ‘Yes, it does concern me. But you won’t stop the intelligence machine.’ He thinks intelligence officers will find a way around it – they have to – but it might end up being more intrusive than using the alleged methods exposed by Edward Snowden. He recounts that during the Cold War, Soviet cyphers were too strong for GCHQ to break, so British intelligence switched to recruiting more Soviet agents.

Gmail, by contrast, is supremely sleek, simple and fast. So Smári and two colleagues decided to develop their own, easy-to-use, encrypted email system – and raised $160,000 in August 2013 from supporters on Indiegogo to do so. It’s called Mailpile. ‘It will be feature-complete, and easy to use,’ Smári explains, opening his laptop to give me a sneak preview. It certainly looks good. In 2013, documents released by Edward Snowden alleged that the NSA, working with Britain’s GCHQ and others, was – among other things – tapping seabed ‘backbone’ internet cables, installing back-door access to private company servers and working to crack (and weaken) encryption standards, often without much legal basis, let alone a public debate. Fearful of government surveillance, ordinary people are taking measures to make themselves more secure online, and using software designed by people like Smári to help them.

p.97 ‘One is a social media platform . . .’ Technically speaking, Twister doesn’t store the posts themselves into the blockchain, but rather just the username records. p.98 ‘So Smári and two colleagues . . .’ http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/Mailpile-taking-email-back. p.99 ‘The cypherpunk message isn’t going unheeded . . .’ http://www.dailydot.com/news/pgp-encryption-snowden-prism-nsa/. p.99 ‘In 2013, documents released by Edward Snowden . . .’ James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald, ‘Revealed: how US and UK spy agencies defeat internet privacy and security’, Guardian, 6 September 2013 [http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/nsa-gchq-encryption-codes-security (accessed 20 November 2013)]; Ellen Nakashima, ‘NSA has made strides in thwarting encryption used to protect Internet communication’, Washington Post, 5 September 2013, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-09-05/world/41798759_1_encryption-nsa-internet (accessed 20 November 2013).


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The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The emotional repercussions of disturbing encounters can be felt long after the danger has passed; romantic relationships are severed by distance; the future is perpetually uncertain. Poitras, however, wasn’t complaining. She experiences her work as a gift, a difficult process but a deeply satisfying one, and was already busy planning her next project, about the erosion of civil liberties in the wake of the war on terror. In January 2013 she was contacted by an anonymous source that turned out to be Edward Snowden, the whistle-blower preparing to make public a trove of documents revealing the National Security Administration’s massive secret digital surveillance program. He had searched Poitras out, certain that she was someone who would understand the scope of the revelations and the need to proceed cautiously. Soon she was on a plane to Hong Kong to shoot an interview that would shake the world and in the middle of another film that would take her places she never could have predicted at the outset.2 No simple formula explains the relationship between creative effort and output, nor does the quantity of time invested in a project correlate in any clear way to quality—quality being, of course, a slippery and subjective measure in itself.

(New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013); Kate Losse’s The Boy Kings: A Journey into the Heart of the Social Network (New York: Free Press, 2012); Evgeny Morozov’s The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011) and To Save Everything Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism (New York: PublicAffairs, 2013); Eli Pariser’s The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You (New York: Penguin Press, 2011); Robert McChesney’s Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy (New York: The New Press, 2013); and Siva Vaidhyanathan’s The Googlization of Everything: (And Why We Should Worry) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). 3. On the existence of a sprawling international surveillance infrastructure, see the reporting of Glenn Greenwald on Edward Snowden’s leaks pertaining to the National Security Administration for the Guardian and Barton Gellman for the Washington Post. For more information about uncompetitive business practices, read about the antitrust investigation into Google, which critics say unfairly blocks or demotes its rivals. For example, Brent Kendall, Amir Efrati, Thomas Catan, and Shira Ovide, “Behind Google’s Antitrust Escape,” Wall Street Journal, January 5, 2013.

For example, Mother Jones reported that streaming an album multiple times can quickly have more of an energy impact than producing and shipping a CD. 12. Mooallem, “The Afterlife of Cellphones.” 13. Leonard, The Story of Stuff, 202–3. 14. Mooallem, “The Afterlife of Cellphones.” 15. Chip Bayers, “Why Silicon Valley Can’t Sell,” Ad Week, July 11, 2011. 16. Julia Angwin, “Sites Feed Personal Details to New Tracking Industry,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2010; Documents released by Edward Snowden reveal that corporate tracking enables government snooping: “The National Security Agency is secretly piggybacking on the tools that enable Internet advertisers to track consumers, using ‘cookies’ and location data to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance.” Ashkan Soltani, Andrea Peterson, and Barton Gellman, The Washington Post, “NSA Uses Google Cookies to Pinpoint Targets for Hacking,” December 10, 2013. 17.


pages: 170 words: 51,205

Information Doesn't Want to Be Free: Laws for the Internet Age by Cory Doctorow, Amanda Palmer, Neil Gaiman

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Brewster Kahle, cloud computing, Dean Kamen, Edward Snowden, game design, Internet Archive, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, profit maximization, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transfer pricing, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy

Would Iran really hesitate to ensure that they could conduct Staatstrojaner-grade surveillance on anyone, without the inconvenience of installing a Staatstrojaner-type program in the first place? If they chose to, Iran could just ban the sale of computers unless UEFI was set to require surveillance-friendly operating systems out of the box. And if it can happen there, it can happen here. 3.10 A World of Control and Surveillance THE EDWARD SNOWDEN leaks left much of the world in shock. Even the most paranoid security freaks were astounded to learn about the scope of the surveillance apparatus that had been built by the NSA, along with its allies in the “Five Eyes” countries (the UK, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia). The nontechnical world was most shocked by the revelation that the NSA was snaffling up such unthinkable mountains of everyday communications.

But more important, content-blocking and surveillance are the province of book burners and censors, not creators and publishers. We have fought for generations for the freedom of conscience necessary to have a robust intellectual and creative sphere. Our forebears risked jail, violence, even death for these freedoms. We owe it to them—and to our children—to pledge ourselves anew to these values in the era of the Internet. Edward Snowden taught us that the Internet could be harnessed and turned into an intrusive and terrifying surveillance mechanism. And since the Internet is likely to be a fixture in our lives and the lives of our children, we all have a duty to stop arguing about whether the Internet is good or bad for us and our particular corner of the world—a duty to figure out how to make the Internet into a force for helping people work and live together, with the privacy, self-determination, and freedom from interference and control that are the hallmarks of a just society.

On bad days, I’m petrified of the extent to which a despot could use technology to perfectly spy, to perfectly coordinate an army of thugs. But even on those bad days, I believe that the only answer to this fear is to seize the means of information and ensure that technology’s benefits are distributed to everyone, not just the powerful. A refusal to engage with (or protect) technology doesn’t mean that the bad guys won’t get it—just that the good guys will end up unarmed in the fights that are to come. Edward Snowden, our only credible authority on the capabilities of the world’s spy agencies, tells us that cryptography works. Good, secure networking technology allows everyday people the power to communicate with one another with such a high degree of security that even the most powerful, most adept surveillance agencies in the world can’t spy on them. Anything that can keep out the spies can also keep out crooks, voyeurs, and other creeps.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

The mass expansion of the privatized surveillance state was confined to the realm of science fiction before that fateful September day in 2001. Today, there are 4 million US citizens who hold Top Secret security clearance, of whom 500,000 are contractors.31 Robert Greiner, who was the CIA station chief in Islamabad, Pakistan, at the time of the 9/11 attacks, said in 2010 that he believed at least half of the staff working at the CIA’s counterterrorism center were private contractors.32 Former NSA employee Edward Snowden exposed the dangers of mass surveillance being managed by private enterprise when he leaked documents in 2013 proving how easy it was for firms such as Booz Allen Hamilton to view and store information on citizens. It is nothing less than a privatized, modern-day Stasi. The claim that “the world is a battlefield” reflects a military ideology pursued by both Democrat and Republican administrations, as has been detailed by investigative journalist Jeremy Scahill.

He also explained that the intelligence being relied upon was often wrong, and that during the raids he struggled to make sense of the chaos unleashed in Afghan homes when the US soldiers burst in on sleeping men, women, and children. Carol slammed the presence of US special forces, calling them mere “Taliban hunters.” She argued that “being Taliban or related to Taliban members is not necessarily against the country’s positive future, but [the] US seems to see all Taliban as enemy.” This did not bode well for future peace in Afghanistan. Documents released by former NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden revealed that NATO killed not just Taliban leaders but countless low-level and mid-level Afghans, as well as drug dealers. Little evidence was needed to kill these individuals. The head of ISAF intelligence in Afghanistan, Michael T. Flynn, explained the mindset: “The only good Talib is a dead Talib.”70 Another consequence of intelligence privatization was that local security entrepreneurs had become the new Afghan elite—the inevitable rise of locals out to exploit the naivety of the country’s occupiers.

It was a city with armies of golf carts, which minors were allowed to drive around town. Vinnie was my host for the day, and he drove us in his SUV for two hours to Lumpkin. He had worked in PR for all of his professional life, from the US military in Kuwait to the US National Park Service. He was skeptical of foreign military interventions, was a supporter of journalist Glenn Greenwald and former NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, and said that the immigration system needed urgent reform. He was not the typical representative of a hardline government department known for brutally expelling immigrants. Vinnie said that the Stewart center had provided essential economic opportunities in Lumpkin, an undeveloped town. The detention center parking lot was filled with vehicles when we arrived. Vinnie parked in the section designated for ICE staff, and nearby was a padlocked enclosure where visiting law-enforcement officers left their weapons upon entry.


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

The Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, is how the Internet physically routes traffic through the various cables and other connections between service providers, countries, and continents. Because there’s no authentication in the system and everyone implicitly trusts all information about speed and congestion, BGP can be manipulated. We know from documents disclosed by government-contractor-turned-leaker Edward Snowden that the NSA uses this inherent insecurity to make certain data streams easier to eavesdrop on. In 2013, one company reported 38 different instances where Internet traffic was diverted to routers at Belarusian or Icelandic service providers. In 2014, the Turkish government used this technique to censor parts of the Internet. In 2017, traffic to and from several major US ISPs was briefly routed to an obscure Russian Internet provider.

Of course, this cuts both ways: countries can use offered source code to find vulnerabilities to exploit. In 2017, HP Enterprise faced criticism because it had given Russia the source code to its ArcSight line of network security products. Governments aren’t just compromising products and services in their own countries during the design and production process. They’re interdicting the distribution process as well, either individually or in bulk. According to NSA documents from Edward Snowden, the NSA was looking to put its own backdoor in Huawei’s equipment. We know from the Snowden documents that NSA employees would routinely intercept Cisco networking equipment being shipped to foreign customers and install eavesdropping equipment. That was done without Cisco’s knowledge—and the company was livid when it found out—but I’m sure there are other American companies that are more cooperative.

But anything we pay in improved security results in better security technologies, fewer criminals, more secure corporate practices, and so on—all things that will continue to pay off year after year. There’s a joke that says technologists look to the law to solve their problems, while lawyers look to technology to solve their problems. In truth, to make any of this work, technology and law have to work together. This is the most important lesson of the Edward Snowden documents. We always knew that technology could subvert law. Snowden showed us that law—especially secret law—can also subvert technology. Both must work together, or neither can work. Part II describes how we can do that. 6 What a Secure Internet+ Looks Like In 2016, the Norwegian Consumer Council evaluated three Internet-connected dolls. The group found that the companies’ terms of use and privacy policies showed a “disconcerting lack of regard for basic consumer and privacy rights,” and were “generally vague about data retention,” and that two of the toys “transfer personal information to a commercial third party, who reserves the right to use this information for practically any purpose, unrelated to the functionality of the toys themselves.”


pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

But as one travels through America’s Rust Belt cities, where the forces of technology have destroyed jobs, one sees signs of real suffering—high rates of addiction and suicide and shortened life expectancies. What is the technology fix for these cancers of the spirit? The answer escapes me. Or think about the people—celebrities and others—who are subjected to anonymous hate-filled trolls on Twitter. What is the technology solution to this problem? For all the outrage generated by Edward Snowden over National Security Agency spying, the average citizen has voluntarily (though unknowingly) turned over to Google and Facebook far more personal information than the government will ever have. And even if we are aware that Google’s and Facebook’s primary business is “surveillance marketing”—selling our personal information to advertisers for billions of dollars—we somehow trust that they will not exploit this information in ways that might harm us.

The Internet giants were developing a reach that the spooks in Fort Meade, the NSA’s HQ in Maryland, could only dream of. So the spooks stepped in and more than nine corporations obliged by delivering their clients’ data. It was, and is, the largest hack in human history—so far.” Where does surveillance marketing stop and spying begin? When Greenwald’s article, based on the revelations of Edward Snowden, came out, Zuckerberg responded that the government had done a “bad job” of protecting people’s privacy. “Frankly I think the government blew it,” he said. But just how hard did he fight to protect the data of his users? And had Facebook, in its commercial hoovering of consumer data, done an equally bad job of protecting its users’ privacy? This also seems to be why Apple didn’t receive more vocal support from Facebook and Google in February of 2016, when it chose to resist the FBI’s request that it build a trapdoor into the encryption of the iPhone 6.

Like the Kochs, Google and Facebook are in the extraction industry—their business model is to extract as much personal data from as many people in the world at the lowest possible price and to resell that data to as many companies as possible at the highest possible price—data is the new oil. And like Koch Industries, Google and Facebook create externalities during the extraction process. Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, outlined some of these externalities: Edward Snowden showed we’ve inadvertently built the world’s largest surveillance network with the web. China can make it impossible for people there to read things, and just a few big service providers are the de facto organizers of your experience. Others include YouTube’s decision to make available all the world’s music for free, which makes it impossible for many musicians to make a living. In addition, Google’s ability to promote its own services has turned competitive services such as MapQuest into “zombies.”


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

But the Israelis also reportedly hacked Syria’s air-defense system using on-board technology for an “air-to-ground electronic attack” and then further penetrated the system through computer-to-computer links, according to US intelligence analysts.27 A recent report from the US Government Accountability Office describes air-to-ground attacks as useful for reaching “otherwise inaccessible networks” that can’t be reached through a wired connection.28 In 2011, during the civilian uprising in Libya, there had also been talk of using cyberattacks to sever that country’s military communications links and prevent early-warning systems from detecting the arrival of NATO warplanes. The plan was nixed, however, because there wasn’t enough time to prepare the attack. The need for a longer lead time is one of the primary drawbacks of digital operations—designing an attack that won’t cascade to nontargeted civilian systems requires advance reconnaissance and planning, making opportunistic attacks difficult.29 More recently, leaks from former NSA systems administrator Edward Snowden have provided some of the most extensive views yet of the government’s shadowy cyber operations in its asymmetric war on terror. The documents describe NSA elite hacker forces at Fort Meade and at regional centers in Georgia, Texas, Colorado, and Hawaii, who provide US Cyber Command with the attack tools and techniques it needs for counterterrorism operations. But the government cyberwarriors have also worked with the FBI and CIA on digital spy operations, including assisting the CIA in tracking targets for its drone assassination campaign.

Although Flame had a long list of files it was seeking, it didn’t steal every file it found. Instead, it extracted 1 KB of text from each and transmitted it back to one of the command servers. From there it was likely passed to another location, where Raiu suspected the attackers had a supercomputer set up to sift through all the text samples that came in and determine which files the attackers wanted to grab in full. Notably, a year later when the NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden were published, they described a system codenamed TURBINE that was designed to do something very similar to this. (See this page.) With such an elaborate operation set up for Flame, it was no surprise that the attack had been around for a while. The earliest infection uncovered, on a machine in Europe, occurred in December 2007.7 A machine in Dubai was struck in April 2008. Some of the domains the attackers used for their command servers were also registered around this time.

.…” If it was NOBUS, he said, officials might “let it ride” and take advantage of the vulnerability for a while, at the same time knowing full well “that the longer this goes, the more other people might actually be able to exploit it.”38 But given the state of computer security today, and the amount of hammering the United States is taking from cyberattacks, Hayden said he was prepared to acknowledge that it might be time to reevaluate this process. “If the habits of an agency that were built up in a pre-digital, analog age … are the habits of an agency [that is] culturally tilted a little too much toward the offense in a world in which everybody now is vulnerable,” he said, then the government might want to reassess. In a report issued by a surveillance reform board convened by the White House in the wake of the Edward Snowden leaks, board members specifically addressed this issue and recommended that the National Security Council establish a process for reviewing the government’s use of zero days. “US policy should generally move to ensure that Zero Days are quickly blocked, so that the underlying vulnerabilities are patched on US Government and other networks,” the review board wrote, noting that only “in rare instances, US policy may briefly authorize using a Zero Day for high priority intelligence collection, following senior, interagency review involving all appropriate departments.”39 In almost all instances, they wrote, it is “in the national interest to eliminate software vulnerabilities rather than to use them for US intelligence collection.”


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Around the time of our second meeting, Edward Snowden was stuck in the Moscow airport, trying to find someone who would take him in. Reportedly, he wanted to go to Venezuela, transiting through Havana, but I knew that if the Cubans aided Snowden, any rapprochement between our countries would prove impossible. I pulled Alejandro Castro aside and said I had a message that came from President Obama. I reminded him that the Cubans had said they wanted to give Obama “political space” so that he could take steps to improve relations. “If you take in Snowden,” I said, “that political space will be gone.” I never spoke to the Cubans about this issue again. A few days later, back in Washington, I woke up to a news report: “Former U.S. spy agency contractor Edward Snowden got stuck in the transit zone of a Moscow airport because Havana said it would not let him fly from Russia to Cuba, a Russian newspaper reported.”

Legally, we couldn’t say what the support was; all I could say were things like “This is going to be different—in both scope and scale—in terms of what we are providing to the opposition.” I was giving partial answers about an incremental response and felt as though whatever stockpile of credibility I had built up over four years was being drawn down. That summer had been thankless in so many other ways. It began with the spectacle of Edward Snowden releasing a devastating cache of classified information in June, fleeing to Hong Kong, and then somehow boarding a plane to Moscow even though he had no passport. There were weeks of drip-drip-drip revelations about U.S. surveillance, the same tactic that would shadow the run-up to our 2016 elections, involving the same people: Russia, Wikileaks. I had to spend my days explaining to our liberal base that Obama wasn’t running a surveillance state because of the activities of the NSA, which we couldn’t really talk about.

His own election in 2012 was marked by large street demonstrations and a healthy opposition. Once he was restored to power, the momentum in the U.S.-Russia relationship ground to a halt. The first time Obama met with Putin after he became president again, Putin showed up forty-five minutes late. Putin rebuffed further discussions on arms control and missile defense. Russia continued its blank check of support for Assad. In August of 2013, Russia granted Edward Snowden asylum in Moscow. As a former spy, Putin surely understood the gravity of someone making off with the blueprints for how a nation conducts surveillance. In response, Obama canceled a planned state visit to Moscow. He didn’t want to navigate the sideshow of Snowden being in the same city, but he also saw no point in attending a summit where nothing was going to be accomplished. I also noticed an unusual coziness among the Russians, Snowden, and Wikileaks—the way in which Wikileaks connected with Snowden, who was clearly being monitored by the Russians; the way in which the disclosures coincided largely with Russian interests, including the leaks from Snowden’s stolen cache that seemed focused on sabotaging America’s relationships abroad—particularly our alliance with Germany.


pages: 302 words: 74,350

I Hate the Internet: A Novel by Jarett Kobek

Anne Wojcicki, Burning Man, disruptive innovation, East Village, Edward Snowden, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, liberation theology, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, packet switching, PageRank, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Whole Earth Catalog

I simply want to say, Good luck, kid! You’re gonna need it! “Yet then I rebuke myself. I worry that the feeling is my own spiritual dissolution. But it can’t be, can it? I still feel young. It’s the others who’ve gotten old. Darling, what I wouldn’t give for some friends as wild and maniacal as dear sweet Edward Snowden.” Baby wasn’t the only person looking at America and feeling as if its unwitting citizens were born into complex and impossible systems of unfathomable evil. The story of the season was about a eumelaninless guy named Edward Snowden, who contracted for an American intelligence agency called the National Security Agency. The NSA was like the CIA, except the NSA didn’t have field agents and hadn’t funded the creation of American literary fiction. Snowden had worked for the CIA before he worked for the NSA.

There’s no such thing as privacy when the police systematically target you for every manner of abuse and stitch you up on bullshit drug charges. There’s no such thing as privacy when every person on the street suspects you of anything. Watching the media coverage of Snowden’s revelations, it was hard not to feel like the world had been transformed. It had become a place where the greatest concern was whether or not mass produced cellphones were turning White people into Black ones. When Edward Snowden made his foray into the seedy world of hotel room revelations. he brought along some reading material. He had two books with him. The first one was the hardcover edition of Homeland by Cory Doctorow. It was published by an imprint called Tor Teen. The second book was a trade paperback of Baby’s Annie Zero. chapter twenty-four A Buzzfeed contributor wrote an article about Adeline’s twenty best tweets.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

I follow David Brin, who has both written science fiction and gone by the “futurist” label, when he says that he is “much more interested in exploring possibilities than likelihoods, because a great many more things might happen than actually do.”29 The importance of assessing possibility rather than likelihood is that it puts our collective action at the center, while making confident predictions only encourages passivity. In the same essay, Brin cites George Orwell’s 1984 as a “self-preventing prophecy” that helped prevent the scenario it described from coming true. In the wake of the War on Terror and former National Security Agency (NSA) analyst Edward Snowden’s disclosures about NSA surveillance, one can question just how self-preventing that particular prophecy was, but the general point stands. If this book contributes in some small way to making the oppressive futures described self-preventing, and their egalitarian alternatives self-fulfilling, then it will have served its purpose. 1 COMMUNISM: EQUALITY AND ABUNDANCE Kurt Vonnegut’s first novel, Player Piano, describes a society that seems, on the surface, like a postlabor utopia, where machines have liberated humans from toil.

A 2013 report from the International Network of Civil Liberties Organizations documents the widespread “use of lethal and deadly force in response to largely peaceful gatherings seeking to express social and political viewpoints,” in places ranging from Canada to Egypt to Kenya to South Africa to the United States.31 The crackdown on the Occupy movement was one example of this, a show of force by squads of armored cops in cities across the country. Meanwhile the surveillance-state techniques revealed by former National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden and others show just how powerful are the state’s tools for repressing dissent and monitoring the activities of activists. In this context, it becomes easier to envision the slippage from inhuman prisons, violent police crackdowns, and occasional summary executions to more systematic forms of elimination. Algorithmic targeting, combined with the increasing power of unmanned combat drones, promises to ease the moral discomfort of mass killing, by distancing those who mobilize violence from their targets.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

The anti-Narratives emerge most powerfully from the pioneers in this collective de-programming exercise, the ice-breakers who, for diverse reasons, are prepared to go into incredibly hostile environments with nothing more than their self-faith to keep them going: It all begins with the whistle blowers, particularly those who can leak substantive documentation rather than personal stories and hearsay. Chelsea née Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden are the two main figures here, heroes in a real sense. Other whistle blowers of note are Annie Machon, Gareth Williams, Russel Tice, Jeffrey Sterling, Stephen Jin-Woo Kim, Jesselyn Radack, Thomas Drake, Daniel Ellsberg, and William Binney. We then have the independent media who are willing to report these documents, at personal risk. There is Julian Assange, building wikileaks.org around Manning's leaks, and Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras, reporting in the Guardian on Edward Snowden's leaks. Again, heroic figures who have changed the course of history. We see academics like Dr Daniele Ganser, who know their history and are immune to this particular Narrative because they have seen so many like it.

The burden rests on whistle blowers, and the life of a whistle blower is not an easy one. Leaking sensitive information about malpractice in a business usually leads to firing, blacklisting, and poverty. It's still better than the life of a person who leaks state secrets. Such individuals tend to get suicidal in the most creative ways. Even darknets can't always survive determined leaks, as Chelsea née Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden showed. No security is perfect because it depends on people, and people make mistakes. Someone plugs an off-the-shelf laptop into a darknet, and suddenly it's trivial to copy gigabytes of documents to a USB drive. A maintenance engineer calls the head of operations warning that there's a problem with a router and they have to reset a password. However that "engineer" is a hacker and he gets the system password and access to every every server.

A handful of phone companies control Internet access for most people, and a handful of websites account for most Internet traffic. The capturing of the airwaves is an old sport. What's shifted is the sheer volume and focus. It's the mass digitization of social activity, and its concentration, that has created fertile ground for the greatest spy regime of all time. The Listeners In 2013, Edward Snowden focused the public's attention on the scale and audacity of the global surveillance state, mainly the American parts, and the roles played by the UK and France. The goal of this surveillance state was, and presumably still is, to know everything about everyone, all the time. However, the growth of the global surveillance state wasn't really news. We've been hearing reports of this for some time.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

As long as Americans were frightened of speaking against civil rights legislation or, later, of being assailed as racists, sexists, homophobes, or xenophobes, their political representatives could resist nothing that presented itself in the name of “civil rights.” This meant that conflict, when it eventually came, would be constitutional conflict, with all the gravity that the adjective “constitutional” implies. 7 Winners Outsourcing and global value chains—Politicized lending and the finance crisis—Civil rights as a ruling-class cause—Google and Amazon as governments in embryo—Eliot Spitzer, Edward Snowden, and surveillance—The culture of internet moguls—The affinity between high tech and civil rights—The rise of philanthropy—Obama: governing without government—Nudge and behavioral economics—From gay rights to gay marriage—Windsor: the convergence of elites—Obergefell: triumph of the de facto constitution It took a long time for Americans to realize that the New Economy was a new economy. They were accustomed to marketing hype.

No sooner had big government been “discredited” than the computer revolution tipped the balance of power back in its favor, much as the introduction of artillery in the fifteenth century, by permitting the reduction of upstart noblemen’s castles, had restored certain lost prerogatives of kings. With the help of technology, Reaganite capitalism undid the democratic achievements of Reaganite politics. The problem was not the expansion of government until it crowded out the private sector—it was the expansion of the private sector until it became a kind of government. Eliot Spitzer, Edward Snowden, and surveillance The internet, for a while, empowered people as consumers, but it left them more vulnerable as citizens. The ambitious New York attorney general Eliot Spitzer was a pioneer of information-age government, waging a selective investigatory crusade against those who did business in the state. He rooted out abuses in the investment banking world, where the regulatory regime had not caught up to the conflicts of interest unleashed by the Clinton administration’s bank deregulation.

., drew the attention of financial investigators under the Bank Secrecy Act, which was just then being aggressively used to fight terrorism. Politically, Spitzer lived by the sword and died by it. Cyberspace not only held private repositories of data that the state could subpoena and examine. It also offered undreamed-of avenues for government to set up its own surveillance. In the early summer of 2013, Edward Snowden, a young infrastructure analyst with experience at both the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency, fled to Hong Kong and then to Russia after revealing to the Guardian and other newspapers the extent of the U.S. government’s spying programs. Snowden was a contractor with an impressive intellect, great initiative, and top-level security clearances. Politically he was hard to pigeonhole.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

User profiling through big-data analysis and inference techniques is opening the way for new, much more customized and personalized services, which can benefit users and consumers, but which also raise important concerns when it comes to user privacy and individual autonomy. Given increased concerns around cyber crime and identity theft, in many jurisdictions, the balance between surveillance and freedom is rapidly tipping towards increased monitoring, as shown by revelations brought to light by Edward Snowden, the American intelligence analyst who leaked documents relating to US national security operations. Availability and inclusion As the global economy increasingly moves into the digital realm, the availability of reliable internet infrastructure becomes a crucial prerequisite for a flourishing economy. Governments need to understand the potential provided by these technological advances. Not only do they need to adopt these technologies to optimize their internal operations, they also need to promote and support their widespread deployment and use to move forward towards a globally connected information society.

In our new digital age, it is indeed difficult to step back, though not impossible. 3.5.3 Managing Public and Private Information One of the greatest individual challenges posed by the internet, and our increasing degree of interconnectedness in general, concerns privacy. It is an issue that looms larger and larger because, as the Harvard University political philosopher Michael Sandel has observed “we seem to be increasingly willing to trade privacy for convenience with many of the devices that we routinely use”.68 Spurred in part by the revelations of Edward Snowden, the global debate about the meaning of privacy in a world of greater transparency has only just begun, as we see how the internet can be an unprecedented tool of liberation and democratization and at the same time, an enabler of indiscriminate, far-reaching and almost unfathomable mass surveillance. Why does privacy matter so much? We all instinctively understand why privacy is so essential for our individual selves.


pages: 301 words: 85,263

New Dark Age: Technology and the End of the Future by James Bridle

AI winter, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, congestion charging, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Snowden, fear of failure, Flash crash, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, late capitalism, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, oil shock, p-value, pattern recognition, peak oil, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stem cell, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, Uber for X, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

The next day came the exposure of the PRISM operation, which gathered up all of the data passing through the servers of the largest internet companies – including emails, documents, voice and video chats, and pictures and videos from Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, Apple and others. A short time later, it was revealed that the intelligence agencies’ reach went even deeper into the system, including the collection of raw data from the actual cables that carry information around the world. When asked what it was like to use NSA’s back end system, XKeyscore, Edward Snowden replied, ‘You could read anyone’s email in the world, anybody you’ve got an email address for. Any website: You can watch traffic to and from it. Any computer that an individual sits at: You can watch it. Any laptop that you’re tracking: you can follow it as it moves from place to place throughout the world.’19 It became clear that the international nature of the internet meant that there was no possible restriction on its surveillance, no objection to governments spying upon their own citizens; everyone was a foreigner to someone, and once the data was collected it went into the pot.

Regin, a piece of malware used to infiltrate telecom systems in Belgium and the Middle East, contained cricket-themed code words like LEGSPIN and WILLISCHECK, believed to refer to English fast bowler Bob Willis.23 Another GCHQ operation to harvest IP addresses of website visitors was code-named KARMA POLICE, apparently after the Radiohead song of the same name, which includes the lyric, ‘This is what you’ll get when you mess with us.’24 The stories continued for months, obscure technological jargon became common knowledge, and poorly designed Powerpoint slides were seared into the memory of millions. Code words multiplied, becoming a kind of sinister poetry: TEMPORA, MUSCULAR, MYSTIC, BLARNEY and BOUNDLESS INFORMANT; NOSEY SMURF, HIDDEN OTTER, CROUCHING SQUIRREL, BEARDED PIGGY and SQUEAKY DOLPHIN. Ultimately, these endless lists come to obscure the practical reality of a global surveillance system that is irreducible to its component parts. As Edward Snowden wrote in his first email to the filmmaker Laura Poitras, ‘Know that every border you cross, every purchase you make, every call you dial, every cell phone tower you pass, friend you keep, article you write, site you visit, subject line you type, and packet you route, is in the hands of a system whose reach is unlimited but whose safeguards are not.’25 But what remains most striking, just a few years after the revelations, is ultimately not their extent, but how obvious they should have been – and how little has changed.

The scale of the black budget was there for anyone to see; the listening stations built for the Cold War were still humming away, even expanding; the fields of antennae and satellite dishes appeared on Google Maps, perched on white cliffs over the cable landing sites. GCHQ even had a trade union until 1984, when it was very publicly banned by Margaret Thatcher in one of the longest running labour disputes of the twentieth century. Yet discussions of the agencies’ capabilities remained the preserve of students of intelligence – and, as we will see in the next chapter, fodder for conspiracy theorists. It wasn’t until the 2013 release of documents by Edward Snowden that some kind of critical paranoid mass was achieved. Why this should have been the case is debatable; perhaps it was the sheer volume of it, and its visual and narrative flair. It overflowed our ability to ignore it, simply by keeping on coming, day after day, in a welter of buzzwords and ridiculous project names and eye-searing Powerpoint slides, like a never-ending marketing meeting with Satan himself.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Currently, the safest thing one can do is use TailsOS, an operating system that exists solely on a USB stick or other storage device and is reflashed (i.e., erased of data outside the operating system itself) every time it is used. It is like having a brand new Internet identity every time you use it. When used in combination with other privacy techniques, TailsOS can even help circumvent government or other spying significantly. TailsOS was credited by Edward Snowden as being instrumental in helping him maintain his privacy while he leaked what are now known as the Snowden Documents.5 The people who can take advantage of Bitcoin in order to move money overseas without government approval are people who already fly under the radar. Preventing someone from moving their life savings out of a country before they emigrate elsewhere without paying taxes is not likely the kind of financial crime most of us worry about stopping.

The concept of government-endorsed backdoors faded from the cryptography community—although that didn’t stop the NSA from covertly adding its own backdoors, as when it paid security firm RSA to preserve security flaws for its snooping operations.5,6 Yet it could be argued they eventually lost the larger battle for the mind—if not the heart—of the general public. Even though the public had gained the ability to keep its communications private, the vast majority didn’t feel like they needed to. From the mid-1990s and until Edward Snowden’s revelations of widespread and illegal government spying, the general public overwhelmingly used the Internet, email, and other forms of electronic communication completely unencrypted, mostly oblivious to the inherent risk. Meanwhile, the government designed surveillance programs and built backdoors into our technology. Even today, after Snowden’s revelations, the vast majority of users still send their emails unencrypted and browse the web using Firefox, Chrome, or Internet Explorer—rarely do they add extra security features.

More recently, financial giants Goldman Sachs,18 USAA,19 and NASDAQ20 all announced they were jumping on the Bitcoin bandwagon and were exploring technologies based on the blockchain. The list of merchants that accept Bitcoin has also continued to grow and now includes Microsoft, PayPal’s Braintree, Dell, DishNetwork, Expedia, Overstock.com, The American Red Cross, RE/MAX London, Save The Children, Edward Snowden’s legal defense fund, and countless others.21,22 One Bitcoin exchange, Circle, is registered and compliant with the New York Department of Financial Services. During the 2016 US presidential race, Rand Paul, a major candidate for the Republican nomination, was accepting Bitcoin donations. I don’t pretend to know what the future of Bitcoin looks like. However, Mt. Gox was arguably the worst thing that could have happened to Bitcoin and it didn’t kill the currency.


pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

As result, there was an absence of worthwhile criticism. The sum total of internet users was climbing, major internet companies gained leverage and power, and calls for digital abstinence became less realistic day by day. Still, several years passed before the media responded appropriately. Sara Watson, author of the Columbia Journalism Review report “Toward a Constructive Technology Criticism,” identifies Edward Snowden’s leaks in 2013 as a transformative event that fostered more pointed and nuanced coverage of the internet. Instead of vague stakes like “is it good or is it bad,” moving forward, commentary about the internet involved specifics like diminishing privacy, the fallout of security breaches, and how platforms manipulate user behavior. As Watson explains, what “blossomed out of [the Snowden story] was an understanding of how much more the technology industry deserved investigative attention and journalistic resources.

With regard to #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen, the word “inclusive” might be more appropriate than “intersectional,” as it applied to women of color more broadly. In any case, it highlighted how people who benefit from one privilege can be hindered by other forms of oppression in other contexts, or contribute to the oppression of another community. What might have been an uncomfortable conversation delivered by other means came through with stunning poignance and dignity. I learned from it. A lot of people did. It was a summer of portents. Edward Snowden had just appeared on camera from a hotel room in Hong Kong, and a few months later, Chelsea Manning was convicted, after a court-martial predicated on a judge’s failure to understand how the internet actually worked. #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen was groundbreaking and whistle-blowing, too, but due to the nature of its distribution—over Twitter, using hashtags—its significance is often undermined.

Throwing money at diversity programs was less fraught than examining the causes for the lack of it (patriarchy, white supremacy, and capitalism). Heartwarming images of ten-year-old girls learning Python could temporarily overshadow other issues that Silicon Valley was increasingly held accountable for, like the vast and growing economic inequality in the Bay Area, the omnisurveillance that Edward Snowden’s disclosures brought to public attention, surveillance capitalism, and how the tech industry exacerbated lack of public trust in institutions. Capitalizing on intersectionality isn’t an altogether bad thing. It’s just complicated. It is wonderful, for example, that Google provides pads and tampons in men’s rooms of some of its offices. Google also lets people announce their pronouns with stickers at tech conference check-ins, but meanwhile Google donates money to anti-LGBTQ politicians.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

Miller also highlights the troubling practices of detaining and searching US citizens because of their political, academic, and journalistic activities. Agents have watchlists; people on these lists can be arrested and interrogated and have their electronic possessions seized when crossing the border. The journalist and filmmaker Laura Poitras was detained multiple times after she worked with whistleblower Edward Snowden and produced a film called My Country, My Country, which criticizes US policy in the Middle East. American scholars of Islam and the Middle East have been accused of terrorism, detained without lawyers, and had their personal and electronic possessions searched and seized without a warrant. In none of these cases was there any question about their citizenship. The Border Patrol has never had any effective accountability mechanism.

While there is insufficient evidence to support claims by Naomi Wolf and others that the federal government organized or coordinated the local efforts to shut down Occupy, it is clear that federal intelligence agencies, working with local law enforcement, were actively gathering and sharing information about the movement with each other and with financial institutions.40 In the end, the decision to break up Occupy encampments in hundreds of cities was made by local political leaders and carried out by local police, though the timing and tools used to accomplish them may have grown out of federally-coordinated information sharing. Entrapment Police have fought the War on Terror nationally and locally through widespread surveillance, entrapment, and inflaming public fears, with little increase in public safety. Whistleblower Edward Snowden, with the help of journalist Glenn Greenwald, helped to expose the true extent of government spying, which violates constitutional principles and existing laws.41 Americans have come to understand that their telephone and electronic communications are not secure and that this is being done in collusion with major communications corporations. The government has yet to produce a single terrorism case from this surveillance.

Jeffrey Smith, “Senate Report Says National Intelligence Fusion Centers Have Been Useless,” Foreign Policy, October 3, 2012. 37Michael German and Jay Stanley, Fusion Center Update (New York: American Civil Liberties Union, 2008). 38Missouri Information Analysis Center, “The Modern Militia Movement,” MIAC, February 20, 2009; The Constitution Project, “Recommendations for Fusion Centers” (Washington, DC: The Constitution Project, 2012). 39Beau Hodai, Dissent or Terror: How the Nation’s Counter Terrorism Apparatus, in Partnership with Corporate America, Turned on Occupy Wall Street (Madison, WI: Center for Media and Democracy, 2013). 40Gavin Aronsen, “What the FBI’s Occupy Docs Do—and Don’t—Reveal,” Mother Jones, January 7, 2013. 41Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014). 42Human Rights Watch, Illusions of Justice: Human Rights Abuses in US Terrorism Prosecutions (New York: Human Rights Watch and Columbia Law School Human Rights Institute, 2014). 43Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman, Enemies Within: Inside the NYPD’s Secret Spying Unit and bin Laden’s Final Plot Against America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013). 44New York Civil Liberties Union, “Raza v.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Starbucks, Amazon, and Alaska Airlines have expressed interest in placing analysts at the WJAC.182 After FedEx’s CEO announced that his company would cooperate with the government, FedEx received a range of government perks including special access to government security databases, a seat on the FBI’s regional terrorism task force—where it was the only private company so represented— and an exceptional license from the state of Tennessee to develop an internal police force.183 Like the banks integrated into the Lower Manhattan setup, FedEx is sharing the privileges and immunities of the state, but not the accountability. Google is also reported to have entered into deals with the NSA, but an effort by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) to find out whether that was indeed the case was quashed by a federal 50 THE BLACK BOX SOCIETY judge.184 The NSA neither confirms nor denies working with Google to develop its intelligence operations, even after the spectacular revelations of Edward Snowden in 2013. Armies and spies have always relied on stealth; after all, loose lips sink ships. But secrecy also breeds conflicts of interest. Why should Google worry about potential antitrust violations if it’s monitoring Internet access side by side with the DHS and the NSA?185 Like the “too big to fail” banks, it may be “too important to surveillance” for the government to alienate the firm. In 2013, in fact, leaked documents showed that the NSA (or a British partner) targeted the official who was in charge of investigating Google’s alleged violations of EU competition law.186 As a growing literature suggests, privatization can be more than a transaction between government and business.

It can be a marriage—a secret marriage—with a hidden economy of favors exchanged.187 Revolving-door issues loom especially large; government officials looking out for their futures may channel work to a company or industry they have their eyes on.188 Many security officials go on to lucrative private-sector employment soon after leaving public service.189 The manipulation of threat perception by the “homeland security-industrial complex” feeds corporate profits as well as government budgets. All Threats, All Hazards, All Information? Though critics like James Bamford and Tim Shorrock have thoughtfully covered the intelligence beat for years, the full extent of the government’s independent data-gathering practices exploded into public awareness in 2013, when NSA contractor Edward Snowden leaked material documenting extensive domestic surveillance. Snowden’s files suggest that the NSA is working directly with (or hacking) our largest telecom and Internet companies to store and monitor communications; that the agency can seize and bug computers that have never been attached to the Internet; and that it can crack many types of encryption that had previously been thought secure.190 Very little of this relentless collecting is inspired by suspicion about any particular person or plot.

We may learn a great deal about the target of the hack, but innocent people’s secrets can be exposed as well. A fully transparent society would be a nightmare of privacy invasion, voyeurism, and intellectual property theft. Sometimes the route to orderly and productive investigation is to entrust the job to a small group of experts. For example, courts often need to have a deep knowledge about events leading up to a legal dispute. Even leading leakers seem to agree: both Julian Assange and Edward Snowden fi ltered their revelations though trusted news sources. I call this general trend “qualified transparency”—limiting revelations in order to respect all the interests involved in a given piece of information. As time goes on, the negative impact of disclosure fades. Statutes of limitation run; power moves to other hands; technology that was once state-of-the-art becomes irrelevant. In the corporate context, at least, far more should eventually be revealed than we presently are privy to.


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The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

A Hacker’s Dream In the wake of the 2016 legal battle between Apple and the FBI over the latter’s demand that the smartphone maker give the law enforcement agency access to customers’ encrypted data, consumers would seem to be between a rock and a hard place. If we want to live in the digital economy, it seems, either we let private companies control the data with all the capacity for abuse that entails or we let governments control those private companies and expose ourselves to the kind of intrusions that Edward Snowden revealed at the NSA. But the choice need not be so stark. We hope to demonstrate that the solution may lie in a third way, one that involves reimagining the very structure of how online data is organized. The ideas behind Bitcoin and blockchain technology give us a new starting point from which to address this problem. That’s because the question of who controls our data should stem first from a more fundamental question about who or what institutions we must trust in order to engage in commerce, obtain services, or participate in modern society.

Not only would that company gain an unprecedented, privileged window onto the entire world of material things and human activity, but it would, in effect, put those centrally controlled companies in charge of what will be billions of machine-to-machine transactions of tokens and digital currencies. That would give a new meaning to the phrase “too big to fail.” One alternative is for governments to act as gatekeepers—but if you think Edward Snowden’s NSA snooping allegations were bad, just imagine the Feds intermediating all the personally revealing data flowing from your gadgets. No thanks. “The Internet was originally built on trust,” write the authors of the IBM paper, Veena Pureswaran and Paul Brody. “In the post-Snowden era, it is evident that trust in the Internet is over. The notion of IoT solutions built as centralized systems with trusted partners is now something of a fantasy.”

How many of these new “IDs” do these tech giants manage? Well, Facebook’s subscribers now exceed 2 billion and Google’s are at 1.2 billion (via Gmail), while Twitter’s active users number around 320 million. If there were ever a measure of the influence these companies wield over our lives, surely it is that the data they hold on us quite literally defines who we are. This kind of corporate intrusion has sparked a backlash in the West. Edward Snowden’s revelations on the U.S. National Security Agency’s surveillance of personal data also entangled companies like this and thrust the issue into public debate. In James Graham’s engaging play Privacy, which featured Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe in the lead role for its New York premier (and included a cameo video feed from Snowden himself), audience members got a disturbing view of how the data on their phones accumulates and can be used against them, as those who gave permission had their trips with ride-hailing service Uber displayed on a giant screen.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Currency, Contracts, and Applications beyond Financial Markets The potential benefits of the blockchain are more than just economic—they extend into political, humanitarian, social, and scientific domains—and the technological capacity of the blockchain is already being harnessed by specific groups to address real-world problems. For example, to counter repressive political regimes, blockchain technology can be used to enact in a decentralized cloud functions that previously needed administration by jurisdictionally bound organizations. This is obviously useful for organizations like WikiLeaks (where national governments prevented credit card processors from accepting donations in the sensitive Edward Snowden situation) as well as organizations that are transnational in scope and neutral in political outlook, like Internet standards group ICANN and DNS services. Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models.

Wikipedia is a similar transnational public good that is currently subject to a local jurisdiction that could impose on the organization an artificial or biased agenda. It is possible that blockchain mechanisms might be the most efficient and equitable models for administering all transnational public goods, particularly due to their participative, democratic, and distributed nature. A notable case in which jurisdictional nation-state entities were able to effect centralized and biased control is WikiLeaks. In the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing case in 2010, individuals were trying to make financial contributions in support of the WikiLeaks organization but, strongarmed by centralized government agendas, credit card payment networks and PayPal, refused to accept such contributions, and WikiLeaks was effectively embargoed.75 Bitcoin contributions, had they been possible at the time, would have been direct, and possibly produced a different outcome.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Over the last decade, the U.S. government has, by law and by policy, granted itself massive electronic surveillance capabilities. Due to vigorous reporting and important leaks from intelligence-industry whistleblowers, we now know that U.S. intelligence agencies, along with their foreign partners, have access to immense quantities of Internet traffic, some of it available in real time. “They quite literally can watch your ideas form as you type,” NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden told the Washington Post. The NSA recently opened a $2 billion data center in Utah, a facility designed to help crack previously unbreakable encryption methods and to store and mine the billions of e-mails, phone calls, and other electronic communications that the NSA sucks up around the world. The data center is designed to handle a yottabyte—1 septillion bytes—or more of data. That’s hundreds of times more information than passes through the Internet each year; it’s vastly more than the sum of all human knowledge.

It’s not easy trying to become a micro-celebrity. Living in an environment of mutual surveillance produces its own anxieties. Surveillance, after all, is predicated on vigilance, discernment, and judgment. It’s an environment of suspicion, the definition of which has become elastic in an age of ubiquitous surveillance, when intelligence services, Facebook, and market research firms insist on collecting data about everyone. Edward Snowden helped popularize the term “suspicionless surveillance.” By this, he meant surveillance without cause, which shifts the presumption of innocence toward guilt. The mutual surveillance of social media still has the skeptical and judgmental qualities of classic surveillance, but now we must prove ourselves not as innocent but as worthy of interest, of being followed and celebritized. When viewed through the lens of surveillance culture, the rhetoric of tech executives isn’t surprising.

Our friends become our press agents, and we return the favor for them, knowing that it grants us social capital. And we’ll present our lives as precious and perfect and worthy of being known, because there is no trite saying that better embodies celebrity than “fake it till you make it.” Your public awaits; it just might not know it yet. In rare cases, visibility serves as a form of security. Edward Snowden outed himself as the source of NSA leaks because it ensured that he couldn’t be spirited back to the United States and kept incommunicado. He pursued and embraced viral fame because there was safety in having his name known. To use a term native to digital culture, one that I’ll explore more deeply in the next chapter, he “doxed” himself—he revealed his identity. By shedding the cloak of anonymity, he hoped to protect himself and gain sympathy from a wider public.


Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

The second issue of Wired magazine, issued in May 1993, featured three of these “crypto rebels,” faces covered by white plastic masks with keys printed on their foreheads, bodies wrapped in the American flag. Ten years later, the Anonymous movement, which embodied many of the same rebellious values, would embrace nearly identical Guy Fawkes masks as its trademark. Another decade after that, Edward Snowden, the iconic intelligence leaker who likewise combined a belief in the power of encryption with far-out libertarian ideas, also appeared wrapped in the American flag on the cover of Wired. The movement’s breathless optimism expressed itself in slogans and themes: that information wanted to be free, sources open, anonymity protected, and personal secrets encrypted by default, yet government secrets could be exposed by whistle-blowers, preferably anonymously, on peer-to-peer networks.

And yet, at the fringes, this emerging subculture embraced a combination of radical transparency and radical anonymity, along with hacking-and-leaking, stealing-and-publishing—and thus created what had existed only temporarily before: the perfect cover for active measures, and not only thanks to the white noise of anonymous publication activity, from torrents to Twitter. What made the cover perfect was the veritable celebrity culture that surrounded first Julian Assange, then Chelsea Manning, and finally Edward Snowden. These self-described whistle-blowers were widely idolized as heroes, seen by their supporters as unflinching and principled in the face of oppression. The situation was a dream come true for old-school disinformation professionals. The internet first disempowered journalism and then empowered activism. By the early 2010s, it was easier than ever to test, amplify, sustain, and deny active measures, and harder than ever to counter or suppress rumors, lies, and conspiracy theories.

In 2010, Chelsea Manning, then a twenty-two-year-old Army private known as Bradley,8 leaked more than a quarter million State Department and Department of Defense documents to WikiLeaks. The leaked diplomatic cables spanned about a decade, and turned Assange and his website into household names. By 2013, Cryptome had collected and published just 70,000 files, many random and hand-curated. WikiLeaks was pushing out secret information on an industrial scale. Then, in June 2013, Edward Snowden opened the floodgates. The precise number of files Snowden exfiltrated from the NSA remains unclear, as does the number of files that were passed on to various media outlets and how access to the documents spread from these initial brokers as more and more media organizations reported on the files. One nearly insurmountable problem was that many of the secret files were difficult to read and interpret, and yet the material was irresistible.


pages: 389 words: 108,344

Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn

airport security, anti-communist, drone strike, Edward Snowden, friendly fire, Google Earth, license plate recognition, RAND corporation, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

Settling into their new home, the terrorists stayed in regular contact with the organization by phoning al-Midhar’s father-in-law’s house in Yemen, which served as an al-Qaeda message center. These conversations were duly swept up by the NSA’s omnivorous global eavesdropping system, but the intelligence went no further. Many years later, the electronic intelligence agency, under fire thanks to whistle-blower Edward Snowden’s revelations of its mass surveillance programs, would claim that had such programs been in place before 9/11, they would have nipped the attacks in the bud. President Obama himself, in defending the massive domestic “metadata” phone records program, repeated this canard. But, as a number of former senior NSA officials swiftly pointed out, the NSA not only had been intercepting calls to and from the Yemeni house since 1996 but also could very easily have traced them back to San Diego.

Then, later, when we went to get one of those people, the device pings his phone and tells us where he is.” The devices, also known generically as “virtual base-tower receivers,” could be carried not only by a person or vehicle but also in a pod mounted on a drone. The implications of these developments in tracking technology were thrilling, at least to the NSA and its partners. An NSA document dated March 3, 2005, and later released by the whistle-blower Edward Snowden asks rhetorically: What resembles “LITTLE BOY” [one of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan during World war II] and as LITTLE BOY did, represents the dawn of a new era (at least in SIGINT and precision geolocation)? If you answered a pod mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is currently flying in support of the Global War on Terrorism, you would be correct. If and when everything worked as planned, the drones would not only help locate targets via their cell phones but also stream video of them and their locations before they finally broadcast dramatic imagery of their destruction for screening to an appreciative audience on Kill TV.

A simple check on Internet job postings from corporations on contract to service the system helps to convey the scale of the business. Openings at just the Langley node, for example, were appearing daily, with no sign of a slowdown even as Washington rang with talk of austerity and “a hollowed out military.” A typical day’s sample in early March 2014 advertised openings for, variously, a “systems administrator” (the position that Edward Snowden put to good use) required by CACI International, a “subject matter expert” sought by Sehike Consulting, an “intelligence capabilities analyst” required by Digital Management, while General Dynamics was looking for a network engineer. All positions required at least a Top Secret Clearance, and most mandated SCI (special compartmented information), which usually meant signals intelligence. Salaries ranged between $120,000 and $170,000 annually, though of course the contractors would be adding a hefty overhead when submitting bills to the taxpayer.


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The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

But of course, even if this is true, it doesn’t really answer the question. That’s because it depends on what you are hiding and whom you are hiding it from. Hiding a criminal past is one thing; hiding Jews in your basement from the Nazis is another. In reality, there are much more basic reasons information privacy matters to us. The Pool of Information In the summer of 2014, following the revelations of Edward Snowden, the Washington Post revealed what many had long suspected: that the NSA, in targeting foreign nationals, is collecting and storing extremely large amounts of information on American citizens.5 This information is not restricted to meta-data of the sort collected by the NSA’s infamous phone data collection program. It is content—photos, Web chats, emails and the like. U.S. law prevents the targeting of U.S. citizens without a warrant (even if it is just a warrant from the secret court established for this purpose by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978).

This is not just common sense, it explains why the NSA’s repeated assertions that they aren’t actually looking at the content of emails, or targeting Americans, should have been greeted with skepticism. The pool of data is a pool of knowledge. Knowledge is power; and power corrupts. It is difficult to avoid drawing the inference that absolute knowledge might corrupt absolutely. That, not surprisingly, is the view of folks like Edward Snowden. But a growing number of stories strongly suggest that fear of abuse is more than a mere theoretical worry. These examples are not constrained to the widely reported cases of NSA employees using their access to spy on sexual partners,6 nor to similar cases in the UK where analysts collected sexually explicit photos of citizens without cause. More troubling, if less titillating, is the fact that the secret FISA court itself has complained that the NSA misrepresented its compliance with the court’s previous rulings that various NSA techniques were unconstitutional.7 In other words, the FISA court is being ignored by the very agency it is assigned to oversee and monitor.


The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew

active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

Glad-well, ‘Daniel Ellsberg, Edward Snowden, and the Modern Whistle-Blower’. 76. Pozen, ‘The Leaky Leviathan’. 77. Woodward quotes Gates’s comment on his website, bobwoodward.com. 78. Bob Woodward, ‘How Mark Felt Became “Deep Throat”’, Washington Post, 20 June 2005. 79. ‘Ex-Code Analyst Explains His Aim’, The New York Times, 19 July 1972. 80. Adrian Chen, ‘After 30 Years of Silence, the Original NSA Whistleblower Looks Back’; http://gawker.com/after-30-years-of-silence-the-original-nsa-whistleblow-1454865018. 81. See above, p. 478. 82. See above, pp. 583–4, 591–3, 675. 83. See above, p. 673. 84. See above, p. 675. 85. Aldrich, GCHQ, pp. 399–400. 86. Andrew, For the President’s Eyes Only, pp. 483–4. 87. ‘Trump CIA director blames “worship of Edward Snowden” for rise in leaks’, Guardian, 24 June 2017. 88. https://www.cia.gov/news-information/speeches-testimony/2017-speeches-testimony/pompeo-delivers-remarks-at-csis.html. 89.

Often referred to as a quasi-mafia, an oblique mention of ‘the Family’ is enough to indicate which family you mean. Seemingly half of the Tunisian business community can claim a Ben Ali connection through marriage . . .70 The publication of such reports arguably raised the reputation of the US foreign service. A limited number of ambassadors were, however, forced to leave or change their posts. Manning’s achievements as a whistleblower were far outdone by Edward Snowden, an NSA contractor who claimed that its electronic eavesdropping had spiralled out of control. In 2013 Snowden downloaded 1.5 million highly classified intelligence documents onto thumbnail drives – the largest ever breach of Western SIGINT security. Even Julian Assange was taken aback. Andrew O’Hagan, who was commissioned to ghostwrite Assange’s autobiography (which was never completed), found him ‘like an ageing movie star, . . . a little put out by the global superstardom of Snowden’.71 As Snowden began to release documents for publication by global media, he took refuge in, successively, Hong Kong and Moscow.

In 1971 Ellsberg secretly gave The New York Times a copy of a top-secret 7, 000-page study of US decision-making in Vietnam from 1945 to 1968 which became known as the ‘Pentagon Papers’. Unlike Mark Felt, Ellsberg’s identity quickly became public knowledge. Charged on twelve felony counts which carried a total maximum sentence of 115 years, he was found not guilty at a trial in 1973 on the grounds of governmental misconduct and illegal evidence gathering against him.§ Ellsberg later became a supporter of WikiLeaks, Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden. Ellsberg’s example inspired NSA’s first whistleblower, Perry Fellwock, a 25-year-old former analyst opposed to the Vietnam War, to give an interview in 1972 to the radical Ramparts magazine. So little had been made public about NSA that Fellwock was the first insider to reveal that it had a budget larger than the CIA’s and to give some details of the global UKUSA network, but damaged his credibility by claiming total success in SIGINT operations against the Soviet Union: ‘The fact is that we’re able to break every code they’ve got, understand every type of communications equipment and enciphering device they’ve got.’* The New York Times reported that its own ‘intelligence sources both in and out of the Government had corroborated much of Mr.


Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport

Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, commoditize, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining, Thomas Davenport

He emphasizes the need for “analytics that work,” which he describes as analytics that are reliable and robust and capable of being automated. The analytics, algorithms, and user interfaces must be connected to provide new methods to interact with and support the “human in the loop.” Perhaps some of this push toward automation is being driven by the fact that at least one “human in the loop” in the intelligence community, Edward Snowden, used the data from the military and intelligence machinery to become what Michael Hayden, a former CIA and National Security Agency director, called “the most costly leaker of American secrets in the history of the Republic.”13 Chapter_01.indd 19 03/12/13 3:24 AM 20 big data @ work One element of the new architecture for big data is the view of ­discovery and analysis as the first order of business.

Davenport, Paul Barth, and Randy Bean, “How Big Data Is Different,” MIT Sloan Management Review (Fall 2012), http:// sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-fall/54104/how-big-data-is-different/. 11. Schwartz was interviewed by Paul Barth and Randy Bean for “How Big Data Is Different.” 12. Spencer Ackerman, “Welcome to the Age of Big Drone Data,” Wired.com, April 25, 2013, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2013/04/drone-sensors-big-data/. Notes.indd 211 03/12/13 1:13 PM 212 Notes 13. Michael Hayden, “Ex-CIA Chief: What Edward Snowden Did,” CNN.com, July 19, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/19/opinion/hayden-snowden-impact. 14. Peter Drucker, “The Next Information Revolution,” Forbes ASAP, August 24, 1998. 15. Thomas H. Davenport, “Recorded Future: Analyzing Internet Ideas About What Comes Next,” Case 613-083 (Boston: Harvard Business School, 2013). 16. Anand Rajaram, “More Data Usually Beats Better Algorithms,” Datawocky (blog), http://anand.typepad.com/datawocky/2008/03/more-data-usual.html. 17.


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The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Nor could it effectively play its role as the most powerful country, the de facto policeman of the world. So it developed these capacities on the side without much oversight from society. This set the scene for a Leviathan, though subject to myriad constraints and still wearing the imprint of its foundational weakness, in command of an unshackled security service and military. The resulting fearsome face of the American Leviathan was on display when Edward Snowden laid bare the massive surveillance and data-gathering activities of the National Security Agency targeted at U.S. citizens that had been taking place without any checks from society or even other branches of government. What Bill of Rights? So why did the FPD harass the city’s black citizens so much? The short answer is: Money, no doubt mixed with racism. Ferguson used its police department to raise revenues.

The public-private partnerships and the constraints on the state, even as it was getting emboldened, have shaped other dimensions of state actions as well. They explain how the U.S. mobilized for World War II and the way it organized to fight the Cold War. They also account for the controversial role that contractors and companies such as Halliburton and Blackwater played in the Iraq War. It’s worth recalling that Edward Snowden, at the time of his explosive revelations about the National Security Agency’s secret data collection program, was a private contractor for the Central Intelligence Agency. Who Gets Their Kicks on Route 66? The shifting mix of private and public provision was an expedient way for the American state to gain greater capacity over time, but it also meant that it was particularly hamstrung in dealing with several critical problems.

Well said. But how can the citizenry do that if it has no idea about what the FBI, the CIA, or the military are up to? The revelations about the NSA wiretapping programs should thus be seen as a continuation of this trend of expanding military and security powers away from the supervision and monitoring of either other branches of the government or society at large. Information revealed by Edward Snowden indicates that the NSA used several different media, ranging from Internet servers and satellites to underwater fiber-optic cables and phone records in order to collect information about both foreigners, including leaders of American allies such as Germany and Brazil, and millions of Americans. The expansion of the NSA’s data collection mission appears to have taken place mostly under the auspices of Keith Alexander, its chairman between 2005 and 2014, whose unhinged approach is summarized by his question “Why can’t we collect all the signals all the time?”


pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

The best way to accomplish this is to keep the public in the dark. The deep affection for secrecy shown by both the Bush and Obama administrations is not surprising in light of their illegal or at least questionable surveillance of American citizens, which they tried to hide from the public, Congress, and the courts.74 This is one reason President Obama was so determined to punish Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden, and more generally why he went to war with unprecedented fervor against reporters and whistleblowers.75 He also went to great lengths to disguise how deeply involved the United States was in the Syrian civil war, and to divulge as little information as possible about drone strikes. Obama was given to claiming that he ran “the most transparent administration in history.”76 If true, the credit should go to the reporters and whistleblowers who defied his deep commitment to government secrecy.

Normally, to obtain a search warrant, investigators must show there is probable cause to think an individual is engaging in illegal activity. Even when the government thinks someone is dangerous or behaving unlawfully, it ordinarily cannot act without judicial approval. There is little doubt the Bush administration was engaged in warrantless surveillance of American citizens from shortly after 9/11 until January 2007.80 We also know, thanks to Edward Snowden, that the government, mainly the NSA, also searches and stores vast amounts of emails and text-based messages.81 While limited by law to monitoring international communications for foreign intelligence purposes, the NSA nevertheless collected domestic communications between American citizens. The government also regularly collects telephone records of millions of Americans and keeps track of “telephony metadata” that includes the phone numbers of parties to a call, its duration, location, and time.

James Risen, State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration (New York: Free Press, 2006); James Risen, Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014). Also see Dana Priest and William M. Arkin, Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State (New York: Back Bay Books, 2011); Charlie Savage, Power Wars: The Relentless Rise of Presidential Authority and Secrecy (New York: Back Bay, 2017). 75. Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (New York: Picador, 2015), chap. 5. 76. Jonathan Easley, “Obama Says His Is ‘Most Transparent Administration’ Ever,” The Hill, February 14, 2013. 77. These definitions are taken from John J. Mearsheimer, Why Leaders Lie: The Truth about Lying in International Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), chap. 1. 78. This problem is particularly acute in the case of the United States because its huge size and providential geography make it a remarkably secure country.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

The information studies scholars Jean-François Blanchette and Deborah Johnson suggest that the tremendous capture and storage of data, without plans for data disposal, undermines our “social forgetfulness,” a necessary new beginning or “fresh start,” that should be afforded people in the matter of their privacy record keeping. They argue that much policy and media focus has been on the access and control that corporations have over our personal information, but less attention had been paid to the retention of our every digital move.15 The Edward Snowden revelations in 2014 made some members of the public aware that governments, through multinational corporations such as Verizon and Google, were not only collecting but also storing private records of digital activity of millions of people around the world. The threats to democracy and to individual privacy rights through the recording of individuals’ information must be taken up, particularly in the context of persistent racialized oppression.

“Security Whitepaper: Google Apps Messaging and Collaboration Products,” 2011, linked from Google, “Data and Security,” accessed August 16, 2016, www.google.com/​about/​datacenters/​inside/​data-security/. 22. See Storm, 2014. 23. Blanchette and Johnson, 2002, 36. 24. See Xanthoulis, 2012, 85, citing Fleischer, 2011. 25. Ibid. 26. See Google, 2012. 27. A comprehensive timeline of Edward Snowden’s whistleblowing on the U.S. government’s comprehensive surveillance program is detailed by the Guardian newspaper in MacAskill and Dance, 2013. 28. Tippman, 2015. 29. Kiss, 2015. 30. Goode, 2015. 31. See Robertson, 2016. 32. Ibid. CHAPTER 5. THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE PUBLIC 1. See the plan at “The Plan for Dartmouth’s Freedom Budget: Items for Transformative Justice at Dartmouth,” Dartblog, accessed August 9, 2017, www.dartblog.com/​Dartmouth_​Freedom_​Budget_​Plan.pdf. 2.


pages: 269 words: 79,285

Silk Road by Eileen Ormsby

4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, fiat currency, Firefox, Julian Assange, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Right to Buy, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, trade route, Turing test, web application, WikiLeaks

Other, smaller stores offered sales of a single product – marijuana, for example, or the prescription drug Xanax. One store was perhaps not as dark as the others: ‘Medical marijuana market ONLY. No chems allowed.’ Others, darker: they offered to sell cyanide, ricin and other poisons that had no discernible medical or recreational purpose. Browsing the Hidden Wiki makes it obvious why many who visit the dark web want their activities to remain anonymous. Even before the Edward Snowden affair, where a former CIA employee leaked details of global surveillance operations by governments, people had become suspicious that authorities could track every site visited and every keystroke made, which could become rather inconvenient for those who wanted to purchase cocaine or heroin online. It was even more awkward for the people selling ecstasy or methamphetamine through the internet.

As membership grew, the servers strained under the enormous amount of traffic and Silk Road became the target of malicious hackers and, some suspected, law enforcement attempting to bring the website down. It wasn’t difficult to imagine what law enforcement thought of the technologies that allowed black markets to thrive openly and in defiance of politicians, police and outraged talkback callers. Tor, PGP and bitcoin had made their lives very difficult. When whistleblower Edward Snowden released his barrage of documents in 2013, purportedly among them was a top-secret National Security Agency (NSA) presentation from June 2012 about Tor. The leaked document described the ways in which NSA had been frustrated by Tor and the agency’s acknowledgment that Tor was really quite secure. One of the slides emphatically stated ‘Tor Stinks’, which is funny when you think that Tor was developed and funded by the US military.


pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

The CIA was also in the midst of a news frenzy about enhanced interrogation techniques such as waterboarding. The last thing it needed was another media black eye, even if our program was effective and legal. In fact, Morell’s instincts proved prophetic. On November 14, 2013, The Wall Street Journal actually did run a headline that said “CIA’s Financial Spying Bags Data on Americans.” But coming as it did in the midst of a wave of similar revelations by defector Edward Snowden, this disclosure went almost unnoticed. I told Morell that we would end our SEC referrals, and I offered to provide him with the technical specifications needed to assure the agency that the information we used was open source and involved no individuals. He thanked me, and with that the meeting was over. Only later did I realize that MARKINT, at least as far as the CIA was concerned, had just become a dead letter.

It collects intelligence information on foreign targets by surreptitiously hacking into their computers and telecommunications systems, cracking passwords, compromising the computer security systems protecting the targeted computer, stealing the data stored on computer hard drives, and then copying all the messages and data traffic passing within the targeted email and text-messaging systems. Spying operations such as TAO are far more sophisticated than the relatively simple sweeps of e-mail and telephone message traffic revealed by Edward Snowden in 2013. Wall Street is also improving its finance-related cyberabilities. On July 18, 2013, a securities industry trade organization sponsored a financial war game, called Quantum Dawn 2, that involved more than five hundred individuals from about fifty entities and government agencies. Quantum Dawn 2 was aimed principally at preventing attacks that would disrupt normal trading. While useful, this goal falls short of preparing for a more sophisticated type of attack that would mimic, rather than disrupt, order-entry systems.

The BRICS reaffirmed their commitment to their new multilateral lending facility at their summit in St. Petersburg on September 5, 2013, held in conjunction with the G20 Leaders Summit. At that summit, the BRICS agreed that their contributions to the new fund would come 41 percent from China, 18 percent each from Russia, Brazil, and India, and 5 percent from South Africa. In a surprising coda to the revelations of U.S. spying on allies emerging from defector Edward Snowden, Brazil announced plans in September 2013 to build a twenty-thousand-mile undersea fiber optic cable network from Fortaleza, Brazil, to Vladivostok, Russia, with links in Cape Town, South Africa, Chennai, India, and Shantou, China, to be completed by 2015. This system is tantamount to a BRICS Internet intended to be free from U.S. surveillance. The United States has long had excellent capability in tapping into undersea cables, so the actual security of the new system may be problematic.


pages: 502 words: 128,126

Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire by Danny Dorling, Sally Tomlinson

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Etonian, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, housing crisis, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, wealth creators

Tory in charge of Universal Credit fails to turn up to emergency debate on bungled rollout’, Daily Mirror, 24 October, http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/wheres-david-gauke-tory-charge-11400282 48 Press Association (2018) ‘Government faces £1.67bn bill for underpaying disabled benefits’, Powys County Times, 17 October, http://www.countytimes.co.uk/news/national/16989630.government-faces-167bn-bill-for-underpaying-disabled-benefits/ 49 Bowcott, O. (2017) ‘Lord Chief Justice attacks Liz Truss for failing to back Article 50 judges’, The Guardian, 22 March, https://www.theguardian.com//politics/2017/mar/22/lord-chief-justice-castigates-liz-truss-for-failing-to-defend-judges 50 Chambre, A. (2017) ‘Liz Truss says she would now back Brexit’, Politics Home, 11 October, https://www.politicshome.com/news/uk/foreign-affairs/brexit/news/89727/liz-truss-says-she-would-now-back-brexit 51 Mason, R. (2013) ‘Edward Snowden NSA files: Guardian should be prosecuted, says Tory MP’, The Guardian, 22 October, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/oct/22/edward-snowden-guardian-should-be-prosecuted-tory-mp 52 Cole, H. (2017) ‘Defending the indefensible: Theresa May backs Attorney General Jeremy Wright after he lands public with MASSIVE bill by losing Brexit case’, The Sun, 24 January, https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2697011/theresa-may-backs-attorney-general-jeremy-wright-after-he-lands-public-with-massive-bill-by-losing-brexitcase/ 53 Smith, M., Blanchard, J. and Bloom, D. (2016) ‘Highest-earning Tory MP claimed £1 on expenses for cheap bin bags’, Daily Mirror, 13 May, https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/highest-earning-tory-mp-claimed-7959693 54 McSmith, A. (2016) ‘Geoffrey Cox: Tory MP has expenses claim for 49p pint of milk rejected by Commons’, The Independent, 14 January, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/geoffrey-cox-tory-mp-has-expenses-claim-for-49p-pint-of-milk-rejected-by-commons-a6813131.html 55 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandon_Lewis#Expenses 56 Dunt, I. (2012) ‘The Ten Worst MPs on Twitter: 8 – Damian Hinds’, Politics.co.uk, 15 May, http://www.politics.co.uk/comment-analysis/2012/05/15/the-ten-worst-mps-on-twitter-8-damian-hinds 57 Wilby, P. (2018) ‘The European Research Group is the Tory group more powerful than Momentum’, New Statesman, 4 February, https://www.newstatesman.com/2018/02/european-research-group-tory-group-more-powerful-momentum 58 Montgomerie, T. and Pancevski, B. (2017) ‘May drafts Gove in to Brexit war Cabinet’, Sunday Times, 3 November, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/theresa-may-drafts-michael-gove-into-brexit-war-cabinet-p6g0rdzz0 59 Hope, C. (2012) ‘Exclusive: Cabinet is worth £70million’, Daily Telegraph, 27 May, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/9290520/Exclusive-Cabinet-is-worth-70million.html 60 Weaver, M. (2015) ‘British slavery reparations Q&A’, The Guardian, 30 September, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/30/british-slavery-reparations-qa 61 Belltoons.co.uk, 21 November 2015. 62 BrexitCentral (2017) ‘Brexit News for Wednesday 6 September’, http://brexitcentral.com/today/brexit-news-wednesday-6-september/ 63 Hope, C. (2012) ‘Exclusive: Cabinet is worth £70million’, op. cit. 64 Watkins, J. et al. (2017) ‘Effects of health and social care spending constraints on mortality in England: a time trend analysis’, British Medical Journal Open, pp. 7, 11, http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/11/e017722 65 Lambert, V. (2014).

She was highly criticised by the Lord Chief Justice for her (anticipated) failure to visibly support the judiciary after tabloid newspapers referred to the High Court of Justice with headlines like ‘Enemies of the People’.49 In 2017, she became Chief Secretary to the Treasury. She voted Remain and then switched to Brexit.50 Julian Smith, an MP since 2010, was little known before being promoted from Deputy to Chief Whip in November 2017. In 2013, he was accused of authoritarianism when he called for The Guardian newspaper to be prosecuted for publishing stories about the extent of state surveillance based on leaks from the US whistleblower Edward Snowden. His remarks were condemned as McCarthyism and ‘absolute scaremongering’ by Labour MPs.51 Jeremy Wright [3] became Attorney General in 2014, breaking the usual tradition of appointing a QC. Under Wright’s aegis, the government was repeatedly taken to court and lost, appealed and lost again. After failing to overturn a court case insisting that Parliament had a right to vote on Brexit, a Conservative MP simply said, ‘It would be better to have a more senior lawyer around the table.’52 Jeremy Wright became Culture Secretary on 9 July 2018.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Ben Schiller, “A Revolution of Outcomes: How Pay-for-Success Contracts Are Changing Public Services,” Co.Exist, www.fastcoexist.com/3047219/a-revolution-of-outcomes-how-pay-for-success-contracts-are-changing-public-services. Also see: www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/11/20/building-smarter-more-efficient-government-through-pay-success. 29. R. C. Porter, “Can You ‘Snowden-Proof’ the NSA?: How the Technology Behind the Digital Currency—Bitcoin—Could Stop the Next Edward Snowden,” Fortuna’s Corner, June 3, 2015; http://fortunascorner.com/2015/06/03/can-you-snowden-proof-the-nsa-how-the-technology-behind-the-digital-currency-bitcoin-could-stop-the-next-edward-snowden/. 30. Elliot Maras, “London Mayoral Candidate George Galloway Calls for City Government to Use Block Chain for Public Accountability,” Bitcoin News, July 2, 2015; www.cryptocoinsnews.com/london-mayoral-candidate-george-galloway-calls-city-government-use-block-chain-public-accountability/. 31.

PRIVACY, FREE SPEECH, AND FREE PRESS ON THE BLOCKCHAIN Personal privacy, free speech, and free press are essential to an open, free, and prosperous society. On one hand, citizens must be able to communicate privately and anonymously. On the other hand, they must be able to speak freely and securely without fear of repercussion. Online censorship, the hacking of large institutions and civil society, and Edward Snowden’s revelations of mass and targeted surveillance and data fracking have driven citizens of well-established democracies to seek anonymity and encryption technologies. These tools enable them to disguise their identities and scramble their messages in transit and in storage so that only authorized persons may access them. Here’s the rub—encryption technologies are either not legal for individual use or not readily available in those countries whose citizens need them most.


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

An Iowa Democrat became notorious in 2014, for example, when he tried to insult an Iowa Republican by calling him “a farmer from Iowa who never went to law school.” Similarly, it was “unprofessionalism” (in the description of Thomas Friedman) that embarrassed the insubordinate Afghan-war General Stanley McChrystal, who made ill-considered remarks about the president to Rolling Stone magazine. And in the summer of 2013, when National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden exposed his employer’s mass surveillance of email and phone calls, the aspect of his past that his detractors chose to emphasize was … his failure to graduate from high school.14 How could such a no-account person challenge this intensely social-science-oriented administration? But it was public school teachers who made the most obvious target for professional reprimand by the administration.

She was introduced on that occasion by Google’s Eric Schmidt, who praised her as “the most significant secretary of state since Dean Acheson”; Hillary reciprocated by calling Schmidt a “co-conspirator” and welcomed the participation of his company, which she said was “co-hosting” the freedom-ringing proceedings.18 As everyone would soon learn with the help of a National Security Agency contractor named Edward Snowden, to understand the Internet in terms of this set-piece battle of free speech versus censorship was to miss the point entirely. There’s something else the Internet makes it easy for governments to do—something called “mass surveillance,” and, we later learned, the very government Hillary Clinton served was the one doing it. Not some despot in Damascus. Not some terrorist in Tripoli. Her government.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Some premium news organizations, such as the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, have thus far avoided that fate thanks to paywalls or freemium models. But few have actually changed their fundamental model. Meanwhile, a plethora of new media startups have entered the field, among them Medium, Inside, BuzzFeed, Mashable, Blendle and Correspondent. The Guardian, a UK-based newspaper best known for unleashing Edward Snowden’s revelations onto the world, has been furiously innovating on the traditional model of newsgathering. Advised by industry icons Jeff Jarvis and Nicco Mele (who describes the Guardian’s model in his recent book, The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath), the Guardian has been audacious in its efforts to reinvent journalism. Here are some of the paper’s initiatives: In 2007, the Guardian offered a free blogging platform for thought leaders and created online forums and discussion groups [Community and Crowd].

Goodman recommends that CIOs run Red Ops teams to find hidden breaches before external agents can exploit them, pointing to a study showing that if you leave a thumb drive in an office parking lot, 60 percent of employees will plug it into their corporate computers to see what is on it (thus instantly compromising security). If the company logo happens to be printed on the thumb drive (an absurdly easy ruse), a whopping 90 percent of employees will plug it in. Does your company’s CIO ban all thumb drives and work overtime to alert all employees (not to mention contractors, who are the potential Edward Snowdens on your payroll) to this particular danger? Key Area to Track Implications and Actions BYOx Bring your own devices, technology, services and sensors to the company, providing a lot more data and resulting in more possibilities and innovation. Cloud access Access to social technologies, data and services everywhere, independent of location (cloud access). AI assistants Artificial intelligence to manage appointments, planning, information, help/FAQ, etc.


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

The conflict around digital freedoms regards the condition of the individual vis-à-vis large-scale organisations such as corporations and the state and the emergence of new forms of online surveillance. The consequences of Big Data on civil liberties and individual privacy have become widely debated after a number of famous events, from the revelations made in 2013 by U.S. information analyst Edward Snowden about the way digital companies were collaborating with the National Security Agency to conduct mass surveillance on internet users, to the 2018 controversy surrounding Cambridge Analytica and its data misuse. A concern about privacy was also central to Pirate Parties’ campaigning in defence of peer-to-peer file-sharing, as it was felt that preventing people from downloading copyrighted material would have involved large-scale surveillance.

The first and perhaps most important is privacy, against the perception that citizens are left with no defence in a world of constant surveillance for commercial or security purposes, waged by digital corporations and governments. In fact, since Pirate Parties’ early days, one of the arguments in defence of peer-to-peer file exchange was precisely that in order to block it, governments would have had to conduct very intrusive controls on people’s online activities. The urgency of this issue has become all the more apparent in the aftermath of the 2013 Edward Snowden revelations about the doings of the National Security Agency mass surveillance operations, and after the Cambridge Analytica scandal which highlighted the scale of Facebook’s mishandling of user data. Activists have proposed various solutions, including the use of encrypted communication and the development of the Tor (the onion router) tunnelling service, which shields internet users from control over their internet activity.


pages: 499 words: 144,278

Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

It’s like, what the fuck are you talking about?” Phillips laughs. He decided he was a “small government socialist,” supporting a state that provided basic humanitarian goods like centralized health care, but otherwise kept its nose out of people’s business. That wasn’t the way the world was going, though. Indeed, increasingly the government was getting caught poking its nose deeply into people’s lives. In 2013, Edward Snowden revealed that the NSA was collecting everyday Americans’ phone calls, hoovering up chat messages, and tapping into the backbones of services like Google and Yahoo! Phillips was horrified. But it also seemed like an area where he could make an impact. He’d been reading up on cryptographic history and watching videos where Julian Assange and the founders of the Tor project talked about the need for better, easy-to-use tools for everyday people to enable them to remain private online.

“People should have the ability to read freely, speak freely, which you don’t have when everything is being watched by the government, and they can take action against you when they don’t like what they’re seeing,” she says. “The kid who got raided in New York for having a cop emoji next to a gun emoji? That’s nuts, that’s insane and draconian.” Nonetheless, she’d still sometimes get called paranoid. “You’re a conspiracy theorist,” she’d be told—until 2013, when Edward Snowden made the headlines. A computer-security contractor for the NSA, Snowden leaked thousands of documents showing that the agency was, indeed, spying on everyday Americans to a fantastic degree. The Snowden revelations galvanized cypherpunks, and they also provided a measure of validation. See, we’re not tinfoil-hat crazy. This stuff really is happening. “It’s been useful to point to documents,” Helsby says.

: Barton Gellman, “NSA Infiltrates Links to Yahoo, Google Data Centers Worldwide, Snowden Documents Say,” Washington Post, October 30, 2013, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-infiltrates-links-to-yahoo-google-data-centers-worldwide-snowden-documents-say/2013/10/30/e51d661e-4166-11e3-8b74-d89d714ca4dd_story.html; Barton Gellman, Aaron Blake, and Greg Miller, “Edward Snowden Comes Forward as Source of NSA Leaks,” Washington Post, June 9, 2013, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/intelligence-leaders-push-back-on-leakers-media/2013/06/09/fff80160-d122-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_story.html. crowdsourced-journalism project: Andy Greenberg, ‘‘Anonymous’ Barrett Brown Is Free—and Ready to Pick New Fights,” Wired, December 21, 2016, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.wired.com/2016/12/anonymous-barrett-brown-free-ready-pick-new-fights/.


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Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Live together cheaply, building open-source infrastructure with the locals. Repeat until it becomes a network. The unMonastery vision went viral among the Edgeryders. It fit into a widely felt longing at the time, evident in many parts of Europe and North America where protest had been breaking out, to start figuring out practical alternatives to the failed order. This was the period, too, of National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden’s leaks, of persecuted hacker Aaron Swartz’s suicide, of blockades against techie commuter buses in San Francisco. Google became one of the world’s leading lobbyists, and Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos bought the Washington Post. The internet could no longer claim to be a postpolitical subculture; it had become the empire. As tech achieved its Constantinian apotheosis, old religious tropes seemed to offer a return to lost purity, a desert in which to flee, the stark opposite of Silicon Valley.

When I was first deciding whether to join, I went to visit May First’s founders, Jamie McClelland and Alfredo Lopez, at their office in Sunset Park, Brooklyn, where we spent a few hours discussing our technological preferences and life stories. I learned that they pay a premium to keep the servers in the city, rather than in some far-off data center. It’s important for them to have physical access in case something goes haywire. They like to keep our data close. I joined May First about a year after Edward Snowden’s leaks, when it became clearer how the National Security Agency had deputized corporate cloud services for blanket surveillance. I’m not sure if I do anything especially worth spying on, but I figured I’d try to opt out. The May First team has a record of resistance to snooping law-enforcement agencies; McClelland more recently told me about the security system they’d built around the servers, which relays its data outside US borders.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

The Magnitsky Act was one of the few serious attempts by Congress to curb Russian organized crime and influence-peddling during the Obama administration. During his 2012 presidential debate with Mitt Romney, Obama laughed off the Russian threat, telling Romney: “The 1980s called—they want their foreign policy back.”32 But even after the dangers of Putin’s Russia were clear, the administration did little to combat them. Obama’s second term was particularly egregious in its dereliction of duty. In 2013, Russia gave shelter to Edward Snowden, an NSA employee who had fled there with an enormous cache of stolen classified documents. In 2014, Russia invaded Crimea and then held an illegal referendum that allowed the Kremlin to annex Ukraine territory. In 2015, Russia committed war crimes in Syria and began its illicit influence operations in Western elections—not only in the United States, but in the United Kingdom prior to the Brexit referendum.

I was also not surprised when, over the course of the next few years, officials gradually revealed that Russian hackers had targeted election systems in 2016 in all fifty states.23 The most damning evidence of this was brought forward by NSA whistleblower Reality Winner, a twenty-five-year-old Air Force veteran who anonymously sent proof of the attacks to the website The Intercept. The Intercept then published the leaked information in a way that made Winner easy for officials to identify and then arrest.24 The Intercept is home to Glenn Greenwald, the journalist famous for aiding Kremlin abettor Julian Assange and Edward Snowden, who gained asylum in Russia after fleeing the United States with classified documents. In 2018, Winner was jailed under the Espionage Act and was given the longest sentence in US history for her particular offense, totaling sixty-three months.25 She is banned from speaking to the press. No government official has bothered to interview Winner about her explosive findings, not even Robert Mueller.26 There remains to this day a publicly available NSA document showing that US voting infrastructure was attacked.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

They also act as aerial drones and doctor’s assistants. They’re even beginning to be seen in the boardroom and the workplace. Many commercial robots look like vacuum cleaners with a screen on top and are no more than ventriloquist’s dummies; after the comical first impression, it’s disconcerting to realize that there’s a real person at the other end of the device. A striking recent example was a talk by Edward Snowden at the TED2014 conference.4 The controversial NSA whistleblower was in hiding somewhere in Russia, but he was represented on stage by a screen attached to two long legs that ended in a motorized cart. Snowden communicated with the moderator and turned toward the audience to answer questions; he could see and hear everything that was going on. At a 2012 symposium on “Space Exploration via Telepresence,” held at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, scientists rubbed shoulders with roboticists and technology entrepreneurs.

Intriguingly, telepresence doesn’t have to convey the remote scene with perfect fidelity, because the brain has a tendency to “fill in the blanks” and “smooth out the rough edges” of any representation that is familiar. See “Another Look at ‘Being There’ Experiences in Digital Media: Exploring Connections of Telepresence with Mental Imagery” by I. Rodriguez-Ardura and F. J. Martinez-Lopez 2014. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 30, pp. 508–18. 3. Brother Assassin by F. Saberhagen 1997. New York: Tor Books. 4. See http://www.ted.com/talks/edward_snowden_here_s_how_we_take_back_the_internet. 5. “Multi-Objective Compliance Control of Redundant Manipulators: Hierarchy, Control, and Stability” by A. Dietrich, C. Ott, and A. Albu-Schaffer 2013. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, pp. 3043–50. 6. Human Haptic Perception, ed. by M. Grunwald 2008. Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlag. 7. “Telepresence” by M.


Mindf*ck: Cambridge Analytica and the Plot to Break America by Christopher Wylie

4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, chief data officer, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, computer vision, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Etonian, first-past-the-post, Google Earth, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

I had no interest in being at the center of some massive Guardian exposé. I was exhausted, I had been burned over and over, and I wished that I could just put the Cambridge Analytica ordeal in the past. On top of that, Cambridge Analytica was no longer just a company. My old boss Steve Bannon was now sitting in the White House and on the National Security Council of the most powerful nation on earth. I had seen what happened to whistleblowers like Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning when they were at the mercy of the full force of the U.S. government. It was too late to change the outcome of the Brexit vote or the U.S. presidential election. I had tried to warn people, and no one seemed to care. Why would they care now? But Cadwalladr cared. When I read what she had already published, I could see that she was on the trail of Cambridge Analytica and AIQ but had not yet cracked how deep their misdeeds actually went.

But a good defense does not prevent a lawsuit from being filed in the first place, and fighting Cambridge Analytica in court would mean hundreds of thousands of pounds in legal fees—money I didn’t have. All the same, I remained determined that the full story come out. My best course of action, I soon discovered, ran through Donald Trump’s hometown. Carole passed me on to Gavin Millar QC, a well-known barrister in London at Matrix Chambers who had worked on the Edward Snowden case for The Guardian, and he suggested that I give the story to an American newspaper. The First Amendment provided U.S. newspapers with much stronger defenses against accusations of libel, he said. The New York Times was far less likely to back down than The Guardian had been, and it would never delete parts of articles after the fact. This was a brilliant suggestion. It also ensured that the story would get as much play in the United States as in Britain.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

His writings for Foreign Policy in Focus have been syndicated in the Nation, Common Dreams, Truthout, and AlterNet, among many other progressive outlets, as well as in regionally focused publications like the Asia Times and Informed Comment. Conn Hallinan can be read at dispatchesfromtheedgeblog.wordpress.com. Sarah Harrison is a journalist, and WikiLeaks’ investigations editor. In June 2013, Harrison accompanied Edward Snowden when he left Hong Kong to seek asylum, ensuring he could leave Hong Kong safely and receive asylum from the Russian Federation. She is the acting director of the Courage Foundation, which manages the legal defense of Edward Snowden, among others, and fights for the protection of truth-tellers worldwide. Harrison was a senior coordinator in the Cablegate publication, and in the creation of the PlusD archive. Richard Heydarian is an assistant professor in political science at De La Salle University, Philippines, where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on international relations.

As Russ Wellen shows in Chapter 7, in the decade following the century’s turn the US has pursued a policy of aggressive NATO expansion, challenging Russia’s regional hegemony within Eastern Europe and the former Soviet area and seeking to subvert nuclear treaties to maintain its strategic advantage. As the cables show, these efforts have not gone unnoticed by Russia, and are recurring points of conflict in US-Russian diplomatic relations, even during the most cordial of periods. The chapter provides the necessary context for recent East-West tensions centering around Syria, Ukraine, and the granting of asylum to Edward Snowden, and yields critical insight into a geopolitical relationship that, if mishandled, threatens the survival of our civilization and even of our species. Perhaps no region of the world demonstrates the full spectrum of US imperial interference as vividly as Latin America. Since the 1950s, US policy in Central and South America has popularized the concept of the CIA coup d’état, deposing democratically elected left-wing governments and installing US-friendly right-wing dictatorships; inaugurating legacies of brutal civil war, death squads, torture, and disappearances; and immiserating millions to the benefit of the American ruling class.


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The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age by David E. Sanger

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, computer age, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, ransomware, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Robert Work, the former deputy secretary of state who pushed the Pentagon into competing in this arena, told my colleague Cade Metz. “This is a Sputnik moment.” Work’s analogy captured a critical truth: any breakthroughs produced by the concentrated Chinese effort will flow directly to the country’s military might. An equivalent to the Silicon Valley/Washington divide, which bubbled along before Edward Snowden’s disclosures and re-erupted in the battles over the government’s effort to get a back door into encrypted systems, does not exist in China. Yet in the United States, the divide is widening. The Cold War model, in which breakthroughs in American military technology and the space program flowed to the commercial sector, is gone forever. The reverse model—using the skills of Silicon Valley to create the next-generation weapons—has run headlong into political and cultural opposition.

The catalog revealed: I had been aware of these technologies in 2012, when I first published accounts of Olympic Games, in which they were important. But I withheld some of the details at the request of American officials who did not believe the Iranians yet understood how the technology worked. After the Snowden revelations, of course, they had a road map. “You have not heard me as the director say”: Maya Rhodan, “New NSA Chief: Snowden Didn’t Do That Much Damage,” Time, June 30, 2014, time.com/2940332/nsa-leaks-edward-snowden-michael-rogers/. But Merkel was outraged: Alison Smale, “Germany, Too, Is Accused of Spying on Friends,” New York Times, May 6, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/05/06/world/europe/scandal-over-spying-shakes-german-government.html. Unsatisfied, Merkel called Obama: David E. Sanger and Alison Smale, “U.S.-Germany Intelligence Partnership Falters Over Spying,” New York Times, December 17, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/12/17/world/europe/us-germany-intelligence-partnership-falters-over-spying.html?


pages: 394 words: 112,770

Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House by Michael Wolff

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, centre right, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, illegal immigration, impulse control, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

His case against American intelligence included its faulty information about weapons of mass destruction that preceded the Iraq war, a litany of Obama Afghanistan-Iraq-Syria-Libya and other war-related intelligence failures, and, more recently, but by no means least of all, intelligence leaks regarding his purported Russian relationships and subterfuges. Trump’s criticism seemed to align him with the left in its half century of making a bogeyman of American intelligence agencies. But, in quite some reversal, the liberals and the intelligence community were now aligned in their horror of Donald Trump. Much of the left—which had resoundingly and scathingly rejected the intelligence community’s unambiguous assessment of Edward Snowden as a betrayer of national secrets rather than a well-intentioned whistle-blower—now suddenly embraced the intelligence community’s authority in its suggestion of Trump’s nefarious relationships with the Russians. Trump was dangerously out in the cold. Hence, Kushner thought it was sensible to make a reach-out to the CIA among the first orders of the new administration’s business. * * * Trump did not enjoy his own inauguration.

He assured the transition team—among others, Vice President-elect Pence—that there were no discussions of Obama administration sanctions against the Russians, an assurance Pence publicly repeated. Yates now told the White House that Flynn’s conversation with Kislyak had actually been captured as part of an “incidental collection” of authorized wiretaps. That is, a wiretap had presumably been authorized on the Russian ambassador by the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and, incidentally, picked up Flynn. The FISA court had achieved a moment of notoriety after the Edward Snowden revelations briefly made it a bête noire for liberals who were angry about privacy incursions. Now it was achieving another moment, but this time as the friend of liberals, who hoped to use these “incidental” wiretaps as a way to tie the Trump camp to a wide-ranging conspiracy with Russia. In short order, McGahn, Priebus, and Bannon, each with prior doubts about Flynn’s reliability and judgment—“a fuck-up,” according to Bannon—conferred about the Yates message.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, animal electricity, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

Our global economy produces most of its value by manipulating immaterial symbols.16 The computer metaphor extends to our personal lives and values, too. Millions of us live double lives: physical and digital. Not only are we members of digital social networks, but our personal data are hosted in numerous databases that are controlled by governments, insurance companies, utilities, banking, and so on. For many of us, our digital existence – and the rights it confers – is extremely important and vulnerable. When former CIA analyst Edward Snowden revealed the extent of government spying by the NSA on US citizens, his revelations shook the political system of the Western world. What is the meaning of democracy in the twenty-first century when the state can keep a watchful eye on each and every one of us (i.e. our ‘digital’ selves)? Who watches the watchmen17 in a digital world? Plato seems to have won every argument: form comes before matter.

Neither she nor her parents were aware she was pregnant29 at the time. Target’s algorithm knew it before they did! The incident was picked up by the media, and created the spooky feeling that Target was actually stalking its customers, gravely affecting the company’s reputation. That spooky feeling that someone is watching us online was further accentuated following the revelations of US National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden in 2013. According to classified documents leaked by Snowden to the Guardian newspaper, the NSA spied on US citizens as well as on citizens from other countries, including top foreign politicians, by ‘listening in’ to their conversations over the Internet. Data from these conversations were stored in massive computer server farms, where they were mined by algorithms searching for patterns. Although the NSA was authorised by the US administration to execute such a global surveillance in order to prevent terrorist attacks, the fact that the US government spied on its own citizens created a dangerous precedent that struck at the foundations of a liberal society and of the US Constitution.


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Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

The Russian parliament’s once boisterous lower house (the Duma) is now little more than a rubber stamp for Vladimir Putin’s post-post–Cold War policy agenda. Media freedoms have taken a beating in Latin America, Turkey, Hungary, the Middle East and northern Africa, as nervous authorities adapt to weakening economic conditions. In developed democracies, voter participation rates are in long-term decline, and civil liberties have been clawed back in the name of public security. (Since Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the surveillance activities of the National Security Agency [NSA] in 2013, this once-hushed trade-off has been loudly debated, but it has not been reversed.) On the other hand, the Arab Spring revolutions from 2010 onward across the Arab world, the dissolution of Myanmar’s military junta in 2011, stirrings of political reform in Cuba, Hong Kong’s “umbrella revolution” pro-democracy demonstrations in 2014, and even the evolving rhetoric of the Chinese Communist Party make it clear that “democracy,” in some form, is a prerequisite to “legitimacy” everywhere in today’s world.

Industrial Renewal in the 21st Century: Evidence from US Cities. Oxford: Oxford Martin School. Retrieved from www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk. 69. Gunn, Steven (2010). “War and the Emergence of the State: Western Europe 1350–1600.” In European Warfare 1350–1750, edited by F. Tallett and D. Trim. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–73. 70. Sands, Philippe (2014, May 23). “No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA and the Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald—a Review.” The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com. 71. Gallagher, Ryan (2014, August 25). “The Surveillance Engine: How the NSA Built Its Own Secret Google.” The Intercept. Retrieved from firstlook.org/theintercept. 72. Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527) (1532). Florentine Histories. Rome: Antonio Blado. Second Book, Chapter 22.


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The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

In the parlance of U.S. government cyber-policy makers, this debate is called the “equities issue” because it involves balancing the interests of intelligence agencies trying to attack with the concerns of government departments such as Treasury and Homeland Security that have an interest in more secure corporate networks. If the government tells the software developer, then the company issues a “patch” that can fix the problem. If the government does not tell them, then it can hack into interesting foreign networks using the vulnerability in order to learn things to protect the country. (The government creates an “exploit,” a hacking tool that takes advantage of the poorly written computer code.) After Edward Snowden stole sensitive NSA information and gave it to WikiLeaks (and the Russians), Obama appointed a five-man group to investigate and make recommendations. Dick Clarke was one of the group that became known as the Five Guys, after the Washington hamburger chain. The Five Guys’ recommendations were all made public, every single word of them, by the Obama White House. One of those recommendations was that when the NSA finds a hole in widely used software, it should tell the manufacturer, with rare exceptions.

According to press reports, the Russian GRU gained access to Kaspersky’s Moscow headquarters and then used the millions of Kaspersky Anti-Virus packages installed on computers around the world to search for documents with certain keywords. (Kaspersky denies that this is what happened.) Maybe the GRU learned those keywords, which may have been Top Secret Exceptionally Controlled Information code names, from the Edward Snowden treasure trove. In any event, one possibility is that, using a backdoor in Kaspersky Anti-Virus on Harold Martin’s home computer, the Russian GRU found a ton of NSA attack tools, perhaps including the EternalBlue exploit. Now, how would anybody know that the Russian GRU did that? Well, it just could be that Israel’s military intelligence Unit 8200 was sitting inside Kaspersky’s network watching it all go down.


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The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, popular capitalism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck

The Malvinas/Falklands war would have been impossible without the support of Washington and one of its favoured South American satellites, General Pinochet’s Chile. Since British economic and foreign policies are now in tandem with those of its imperial master, British leaders sometimes attempt to stand out by pre-empting US decisions and posturing as being tougher on assorted ‘enemies’ than Washington itself.1 As Edward Snowden has revealed, British intelligence-gathering outposts like GCHQ operate with impunity. The relative autonomy they enjoy – with less restraints than the NSA – is extremely useful for the latter, which treats GCHQ as a valued surrogate. Similarly, till 2008, British politicians liked to boast that the local ‘light-touch regulation’ put the City of London well ahead of Wall Street, as Britain’s current standing as a virtual tax haven still does, approaching Luxembourg levels if not yet those of the Cayman islands.


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

From that day forward, to carry out violence and subversion abroad, or repression and violation of fundamental rights at home, state power has regularly sought to create the misimpression that it is terrorists that you are fighting, though there are other options: drug lords, mad mullahs seeking nuclear weapons, and other ogres said to be seeking to attack and destroy us. Throughout, the basic principle remains: Power must not be exposed to the sunlight. Edward Snowden has become the most wanted criminal in the world for failing to comprehend this essential maxim. In brief, there must be complete transparency for the population, but none for the powers that must defend themselves from this fearsome internal enemy. THE SLEDGEHAMMER WORLDVIEW July 3, 2014 The front page of the NEW YORK TIMES on June 26 featured a photo of women mourning a murdered Iraqi.


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The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

The innovation of the blockchain—or, more generally, the innovation of public economic consensus by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009—proved to be the one missing piece of the puzzle that single-handedly gave the industry its next giant leap forward. The political environment seemed to almost snap into place: the great financial crisis in 2008 spurred growing distrust in mainstream finance, including both corporations and the governments that are normally supposed to regulate them, and was the initial spark that drove many to seek out alternatives. Then Edward Snowden's revelations in 2013, highlighting how active the government was in realms citizens once believed private, were the icing on the cake. Even though blockchain technologies specifically have not seen mainstream adoption as a result, the underlying spirit of decentralization to a substantial degree has. Applications ranging from Apple's phones to WhatsApp have started building in forms of encryption that are so strong that even the company writing the software and managing the servers cannot break it.


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The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

Chapter 12 Secure vs. Cure “I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded.” —EDWARD SNOWDEN1 “Today’s Web-enabled gadgets should come with a digital Miranda warning: Anything you say or do online, from a status update to a selfie, can and will be used as evidence against you on the Internet.” —NICK BILTON, New York Times2 In a world of Julian Assange’s Wikileaks and Edward Snowden’s exposé of the National Security Agency, we are progressing toward zero tolerance of governmental non-transparency.1,3 At the same time, massive Internet security breaches are occurring or being discovered, from retailers like Target to the Heartbleed bug. Just as everything is getting digitized, making it eminently portable and accessible, we’re betwixt and between. We want openness but we also want to preserve our privacy.

And what about all the breaches affecting less than five hundred patients that are not reported to the individuals? It’s bad enough that a large number of medical centers in the United States, and most of the highly prestigious ones with elaborate health information systems, have suffered a breach of electronic medical records. Although some are due to hackers (in about 14 percent of cases), far more are due to a stolen laptop or USB drive (more than 50 percent of cases). Further, according to Edward Snowden, the NSA has cracked the encryption that is used to protect medical records for Americans. With the markedly increasing use of telemedicine and virtual consults, as reviewed in Chapter 9, there must be concern about the security of these electronic exchanges. While many of the companies are using the term “secure” liberally in their promotional materials, all it will take is a full virtual visit to be widely transmitted over the Web before this type of medical encounter becomes suspect.


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Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Of unacknowledged moons and ‘black’ space craft moving through the pre-dawn and early evening darkness, where the rising and setting sun lights up the stainless steel bodies, and they blink in and out of sight as they glide though the backdrop of a darkened sky hundred of miles below. In most cases, the reflection is all we get.20 Fittingly for this book, Paglen’s work, like the whistle-blowing leaks of Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden, is an example of what has been called sous-surveillance – literally ‘under surveillance’ or ‘surveillance from below’. In challenging the cloak of invisibility and secrecy that obscures top-down surveillance by national security states, Paglen and the satellite-tracking community fleetingly expose one crucial material embodiment of the increasingly secretive and authoritarian nature of security politics.21 Predictably, further exposures come from the strategic competitors of the United States.

As part of his research, Rowell paid particular attention to the largest and most important of the National Security Agency’s global satellite surveillance stations: the notionally British Royal Air Force base at Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire, England. Steve Rowell’s chance meeting with a Ministry of Defence police vehicle outside the Menwith Hill NSA Base The 560-acre Menwith Hill site – known to the NSA and NRO as ‘Field Station 83’ – is one of three key US satellite bases at the heart of the globe-spanning communications surveillance system known as PRISM, a system powerfully exposed by the NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden in 2011.25 Like a dystopian film set, the base’s architecture of over thirty Kevlar radomes sits rather incongruously within the pastoral landscapes of North Yorkshire’s valleys. Its razor-wired peripheries are circled by US military guards, and its 2,300 employees are drawn from all of the three key players in the US satellite-surveillance complex.26 Menwith Hill’s recently expanded and modernised fields of radomes house extraordinarily powerful systems for scooping up all electromagnetic wireless and satellite phone calls and data and video transmissions over large geographical areas.


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The Profiteers by Sally Denton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche

Caught in the crossfire between the diplomats of the State Department and the chauvinists in the military, between Arabists and Zionists, neocons and pragmatists, Pollard was the poster boy for the trampling of civil liberties under the guise of national security. “Whoever has studied the Pollard case keeps wondering what the government is hiding,” a venerable journalist described the “ ‘Catch-22’ Plight” of the imprisoned spy. Decrying the “bullying tactics” of federal prosecutors, the Wall Street Journal opined that “Even Pollard Deserves Better Than Government Sandbagging.” Revelations in 2013 by former US National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden that the United States had spied on at least two Israeli prime ministers brought new frostiness to Israeli-American relations—and new life to the “Free Jonathan Pollard” movement. A number of high-level US intelligence, diplomatic, and military officials joined the escalating campaign to protest the sentence and call for mercy. Then, anti-Pollard sentiments were inflamed when, in August 2014, Snowden revealed that “Israel has been caught carrying out aggressive espionage operations against American targets for decades,” an allegation denied by Israeli officials, who insisted that Jerusalem stopped spying on the United States after the conviction of Pollard in the late 1980s.

Another potential catastrophe ensued when six nuclear missiles from a North Dakota facility were accidentally attached to an airplane’s wings and flown across several states before being left unattended on a public tarmac. There were reports of air force officers falling asleep while guarding launch codes for nuclear weapons. There was another chilling vulnerability: that of what was called the “insider threat.” Epitomized by Edward Snowden, the private contractor working for the National Security Agency who gained access to the NSA’s classified secrets, including the “launch codes for America’s nuclear weapons but also for designing the equipment that decrypts the codes,” the insider threat was far more sophisticated and opaque than in the days of the Manhattan Project. That Obama, as president, manifested such a bold, far-reaching, and progressive nuclear-free vision at such a precarious moment was due in large part to his surprising and opportunistic alignment with George Shultz.


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Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

Keller was criticized for holding back a story about secret domestic government eavesdropping at the request of the White House, which argued that disclosure of the National Security Agency’s secret monitoring would inhibit the government’s counterterrorism abilities. When the Times finally did publish the story, it shocked the country and won a Pulitzer Prize. This story, in fact, was the prelude to the even bigger disclosures of Edward Snowden years later. The Times was hardly the only quality news organization to misreport the lead-up to the Iraq War, but because of its stature its mistakes damaged the institution more deeply. There were a few organizations, like the McClatchy chain’s Washington bureau, that reported skeptically about the prewar intelligence. But their voices were whispers in comparison, in part because the chain did not have a newspaper in D.C. and wasn’t widely read.

The Obama administration initiated more criminal leak probes, and I became embroiled in fights with the White House over publishing intelligence stories it deemed irresponsible. When I was quoted saying the Obama administration was the most secretive of any I had covered, the president’s press secretary, Jay Carney, accused me of abusing my position. Then we were beaten by the Washington Post and the Guardian on a purloined document revealing widespread NSA eavesdropping. The disclosure of far more pervasive domestic spying came from Edward Snowden, a young contractor for the agency who had stolen massive numbers of files about the most sensitive programs run by the government and its British counterpart, the Government Communications Headquarters. Knowing we had held James Risen and Eric Lichtblau’s story on NSA wiretapping eight years earlier, Snowden didn’t trust the Times. Seeing the Post brandish its exclusives each day was deeply frustrating.

There’s just no question that the email exchanges inside the Democratic Party were newsworthy.” There were not clear guidelines. But in 2014, when internal Sony emails were hacked, Baquet and the Times decided not to use the stolen material in coverage. Earlier, though, I had opened the door by publishing front-page stories based on stolen documents, relying on contraband first from U.S. Army Private Chelsea Manning and later from NSA contractor Edward Snowden. These documents revealed major stories about failures of the Iraq War and government snooping, which made their publication worth it, I thought. Newsworthiness and the Times’s responsibility to inform the public were the right standards to use, but these were all hard calls. The paper did delve into scandals involving Trump, especially Paul Manafort’s financial dealings with shady Ukrainians, for which he was indicted by special counsel Robert Mueller in 2017.


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The Tyranny of Metrics by Jerry Z. Muller

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Chelsea Manning, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, deskilling, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, performance metric, price mechanism, RAND corporation, school choice, Second Machine Age, selection bias, Steven Levy, total factor productivity, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

In 2010, Bradley Manning, an intelligence analyst in the American Army, took it upon himself to disclose hundreds of thousands of sensitive military and State Department documents through WikiLeaks.5 One result was the publication of the names of confidential informants, including political dissidents, who had spoken with American diplomats in Iran, China, Afghanistan, the Arab world, and elsewhere.6 As a consequence, some of these individuals had to be relocated to protect their lives. More importantly, the revelations made it more difficult for American diplomats to acquire human intelligence in the future, since the confidentiality of conversations could not be relied upon. Then, in 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer security specialist formerly employed by the CIA and more recently as a contractor for the NSA in Hawaii, systematically set out to copy thousands of highly secret documents from a variety of government agencies in order to expose the American government’s surveillance programs. Among the many sensitive documents he made available to the press was the eighteen-page text of Presidential Policy Directive 20 on cyber operations, revealing every foreign computer system targeted for potential action—a document published in full by the British journal The Guardian.


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Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

We Can and Must Understand Computers NOW Noah Wardrip-Fruin1 (1)Department of Computational Media, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, MS:SOE3, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA Noah Wardrip-Fruin Email: nwf@soe.ucsc.edu 14.1 Three Phrases From the endlessly quotable Ted Nelson—whose neologisms pepper the language we use to understand the present, from “hypertext” to “visualization”—perhaps no phrase is better known than, “You Can and Must Understand Computers NOW.” It was emblazoned across the Computer Lib side of his 1974 Computer Lib/Dream Machines (CL/DM), the most influential book in the history of computational media.1 Nelson’s call is not only memorable today, but still quite relevant. For example, consider the recent revelations of massive government surveillance, as disclosed by Edward Snowden and others. Without a deep understanding of computing, one might debate whether the vision of Total Information Awareness is morally right, or is instead sending us down a path to an “Orwellian,” 1984-style future. However, with a deep understanding of computing, one can not only raise the questions of morality in more depth, but one can also see that Total Information Awareness is a technically unworkable fantasy (like the Star Wars program pursued by the Reagan administration in the non-fictional 1980s) providing a false rationale for treating everyone as a suspect.


The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

It is a fact that Putin, like many Russians, resents the treatment of Russia by the West after the Cold War, symbolized by the incorporation of former Russian satellites into the European Union and the expansion of NATO. Russian nationalists and many populists in Europe and the US share a common hostility to the transnational European Union as well as contemporary transatlantic social liberalism. In addition, Western intelligence authorities claim that Russian intelligence operatives have engaged in trying to promote conflict in the US and other countries by helping whistle-blowers like WikiLeaks and Edward Snowden leak stolen or classified information and by bombarding carefully targeted audiences with Internet memes and ads. Let us stipulate that this is all true. It was also true in the 1950s that there really were a small number of communists in the US, including a few high-ranking government officials, who spied for the Soviet Union, as well as many more Soviet sympathizers. There were also genuine Soviet disinformation campaigns in the Cold War West.


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How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, different worldview, disruptive innovation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

NINETEEN Institutional Costs PART V: Managing War’s Paradoxes ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABOUT ROSA BROOKS NOTES INDEX For Joe, Anna, and Clara PART I Tremors A Window of Opportunity One ordinary day in 2010, I sat in an anonymous Pentagon conference room with a dozen other people, listening as briefers from the military’s Special Operations Command went over plans for an impending strike against a terrorist operative. Sending in special operations forces would be too risky, they said; we would therefore most likely strike the target using missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle. I can’t tell you the region or the identity of the target. During my twenty-six months working at the Defense Department, I signed dozens of papers promising to keep the secret stuff secret, and unlike Edward Snowden, I have no desire to give out classified information—or live life as a fugitive. But I think I can say that the target was a youngish man, probably not more than thirty. I dutifully studied the small photo displayed on the briefing slides. It showed an ordinary face, the kind you might see on any street in Sana’a or Karachi—or New York or London. But this, the briefers assured us, was no ordinary young man; there was solid evidence (not detailed) of his involvement in numerous terror plots (exhaustively detailed).

The men and women who worked in these dim rooms were pleased to have a visitor from “mission control,” as someone jokingly called the Pentagon—they were glad to show off their clever technological tricks. I can’t tell you what any of those tricks are: they’re the most secret kind of secret, since if any bad guys came to know about them, they wouldn’t work anymore. But just imagine. Imagine the things you think you already know the NSA can do, thanks to Edward Snowden and press reports, and multiply that. Imagine we had the ability to take technologies our adversaries trust and turn them to our own uses. That’s the sort of thing CYBERCOM and a handful of other small Defense Department and intelligence organizations exist to do. It’s not just about protecting email and financial software, or monitoring websites used by U.S. adversaries. Some of it’s even more sophisticated and surprising.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

In the face of all the agitation and criticism that came with Nord Stream, Moscow had a message for the Europeans. At the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, Gazprom CEO Alexey Miller told a room largely full of Europeans, “Get over your fear of Russia, or run out of gas.” Chapter 12 UKRAINE AND NEW SANCTIONS On June 23, 2013, whatever remained of the post–Cold War comity began to unravel. On that day, Edward Snowden, a disgruntled contractor for the U.S. National Security Agency, boarded a flight in Hong Kong for Moscow. He was not carrying a valid visa, but the Russians let him in. But he did carry something of enormous value—the “keys to the kingdom” of U.S. intelligence—vast amounts of files he had stolen from the NSA. From that would flow a breakdown and then a crisis centered on Ukraine and its borders that would splinter East and West and jump-start a new cold war.

“But the signal had already been sent.”4 * * * — While all of this was unfolding, the 2014 Winter Olympics was taking place in the snow-covered mountains above Sochi, in the south of Russia—a great celebration of Russia’s return from the abyss of the Soviet collapse. The chief celebrant was Vladimir Putin. The opening ceremony featured a sweeping musical tribute to Russian history. Many heads of state were in attendance, including Xi Jinping. But not Barack Obama, not with Edward Snowden a guest of the Kremlin and not in light of new Russian legislation on homosexuality that the Obama administration had condemned. Representing the United States instead was Janet Napolitano, a former member of Obama’s cabinet and now chancellor of the University of California. At some point, amid all the glory and glitter of the Olympics, the Russian government—presumably Putin and an inner circle—made a decision.


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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Not only was ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), the Internet addressing authority, established in California and its relationship with the US federal authorities long controversial, but today the United States is still (and may remain) the unnamed, unmarked center of addressable Internet space (US websites are usually “.com” not “.co.us” as they would be without this infrastructural exceptionalism). It is in this context that the National Security Agency's (NSA) comprehensive data capture, surveillance, storage, and metadata analysis programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden and colleagues are understood to represent a strong American state maneuver of sovereign control over (or, at the very least, of policing of) the spectral spaces of planetary-scale computation. The willing and unwilling complicity of major commercial Cloud platforms in this endeavor associates them directly with the reach of that claim, and so the Monroe Doctrine of the Cloud and the Google Grossraum are seen by some to conceal only one another.

Palantir's analysts, for example, use the company's software to provide structure to unstructured government data, and so their work provides for us at least a reasonable model for the sort of activities that Snowden's leaks shed light on. But instead of watching from some sterilized perch, even the User of the Palantir software is participating in the tracing of the column. “Palantir's central privacy and security protection would be … ‘the immutable log.’ Everything a user does in Palantir creates a trail that can be audited. No Russian spy, jealous husband or Edward Snowden can use the tool's abilities without leaving an indelible record of his or her actions.”70 This meta-metadata recursivity is a key aspect for how such systems function. The fact that analyst B has already established links between persons X and Y becomes the trail that analyst C explores. The query becomes the quarry. Meta-meta-metadata of any event in the world becomes in a sense the event itself, and just like you or me, the event itself, the column, also secretes more information that it contains within it.

We discussed the strong gravity field between the overestimation of WikiLeaks’ significance and Truther websites, which suggests that apophenia has, for the geopolitics of technology, risen to the level of a political ethics, and that the “Influencing Machine” is no longer the purview of psychiatrists but now also sociologists. 20.  “But Palantir's central privacy and security protection would be what Karp calls, with his academic's love of jargon, ‘the immutable log.’ Everything a user does in Palantir creates a trail that can be audited. No Russian spy, jealous husband or Edward Snowden can use the tool's abilities without leaving an indelible record of his or her actions. Why had the thought of these data mining projects analyzing their own use not occurred to me until just now?” Andy Greenberg, “How a ‘Deviant’ Philosopher Built Palantir, a CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut,” Forbes, August 14, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/agent-of-intelligence-how-a-deviant-philosopher-built-palantir-a-cia-funded-data-mining-juggernaut/2/. 21. 


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

Our goal was to tell you about incredible new technologies that can understand you well enough to predict what you will need next and to automate many mundane tasks. But with each chapter we found new privacy issues, and some are too serious to brush aside. While we were busy searching the world for mobile, social media, sensor, data and location technologies, the issues of government surveillance became a prominent national issue in the United States. As the names Bradley (Chelsea) Manning, Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, and Edward Snowden emerged from the headlines into the national consciousness, public attention came to focus on the role of the secret FISA court, the electronic surveillance of millions of Americans under a National Security Agency data-mining operation called PRISM and so much more. We are just a couple of tech enthusiasts, and some of these national issues would normally go well beyond our purview, were it not for the fact that the same technologies we are extolling are being used to secretly watch people.


pages: 164 words: 57,068

The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society by Charles Handy

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, bonus culture, British Empire, call centre, Clayton Christensen, corporate governance, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, falling living standards, future of work, G4S, greed is good, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, late capitalism, mass immigration, megacity, mittelstand, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Veblen good, Walter Mischel

Openness frees up organisations just as it did in Gutenberg’s day when the power of the priesthood was undone by the circulation of the Bible to all who wanted it. Then religion finally belonged to the people, not to the priests. The latter did not, however, give up without a fight, nor will the modern custodians of information. Religion tried to use the Inquisition to re-establish control. Edward Snowden and other hackers have demonstrated that there can be few real secrets any more but the establishment is fighting back, also probably in vain. Here too, when what was secret is revealed the result is often not as explosive as everyone expected. Transparency is not always as risky as it seems. On the other hand, the freedom that the infosphere gives us can be confusing and challenging. When I read an email or a tweet, if I do not know the writer, I cannot know where he is, or even if it is he and not she or they.


pages: 558 words: 164,627

The Pentagon's Brain: An Uncensored History of DARPA, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency by Annie Jacobsen

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, John Markoff, John von Neumann, license plate recognition, Livingstone, I presume, low earth orbit, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, place-making, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

Certain members of Congress were cleared to know about some of them, but not all of them. Major elements of DARPA’s Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD) and Genoa II programs, including the physical nodes that already existed at INSCOM and in Germany, were folded into a classified NSA system called PRISM—a massive covert electronic surveillance and data-mining program that would create an international uproar in 2013 after NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden leaked thousands of pages of classified documents to the press. Some DARPA programs with public faces were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security, including the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS), Activity Recognition and Monitoring (ARM), and Human Identification at a Distance (HumanID). These programs, managed by the Office of Biometric Identity Management and the TSA, oversaw identity recognition software systems at airports and borders, and in public transportation systems and other public spaces.

In Iraq and Afghanistan, by 2011 the Army had intrusively mapped the human terrain of at least 3.7 million foreigners, many of whom were enemy combatants in war zones. Apart from the effectiveness of any of that work—and as of 2015 the Islamic State controlled much of Iraq, while Afghanistan was spiraling into further chaos—there exists an important question for Americans to consider. In the summer of 2013, whistleblower Edward Snowden released classified information that showed the National Security Agency had a clandestine data-mining surveillance program in place, called PRISM, which allowed the NSA to collect information on millions of American citizens. Both of these programs had origins in DARPA’s Total Information Awareness program. In the wake of the Snowden leak, the NSA admitted, after first denying, that it does collect information on millions of Americans but stated that none of the information is synthesized or analyzed without a warrant.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

He is an expert in computer security, and he has uncovered the software vulnerabilities in products ranging from widely used programming languages to the music industry’s digital locks to the code in electronic voting machines. He was a witness for the Justice Department in its landmark antitrust case against Microsoft. Felten also testified on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union in its suit challenging the National Security Agency’s collection of the telephone call records of American citizens—the surveillance program disclosed by Edward Snowden’s leaks—as a violation of the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable search and seizure. In a lengthy conversation, I happened to bring up the old Kodak experience. Felten reminded me that we revisited that issue about a decade ago, when fairly high-quality cameras became a standard feature on cell phones. Soon, shots surreptitiously taken in locker rooms and public showers were being posted on the Internet.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

Similarly, it should require that governments assist private-sector efforts to detect, contain, respond to, and recover from these events and should mandate that governments report vulnerabilities to vendors rather than stockpile, sell, or exploit them. In retrospect, our preparation for defending our company values and building trust in the face of an international crisis had begun with a very public challenge that had occurred just over a year earlier. When the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden boarded a plane in May 2013 to flee the United States for China on his way to asylum in Russia, the very founding principles of America—not to mention those of our own company—immediately came into play. I was to become CEO in only a few short months, but at the time I ran our cloud and enterprise business, which stored many terabytes of emails and other data on servers worldwide. The battle between individual, timeless liberties like privacy and freedom of speech and public demands for safety and security was now at my door.


The Ethical Algorithm: The Science of Socially Aware Algorithm Design by Michael Kearns, Aaron Roth

23andMe, affirmative action, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, general-purpose programming language, Google Chrome, ImageNet competition, Lyft, medical residency, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, p-value, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, personalized medicine, pre–internet, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, replication crisis, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, short selling, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, superintelligent machines, telemarketer, Turing machine, two-sided market, Vilfredo Pareto

Second, both deployments were used to privately gather data that the companies had previously not been gathering at all, rather than implementing differential privacy on top of datasets that they already had available to them. For Google and Apple, the trade-offs that go with the local model of privacy make sense. First, neither company is necessarily trusted by its users. No matter what you think about the companies themselves, there is a real risk that data they store on their servers will be revealed to others via hacking or government subpoena. For example, in 2013, Edward Snowden released thousands of documents revealing intelligence-gathering techniques used by the National Security Agency (NSA). Among the revelations were that the NSA had been eavesdropping on communications that flowed between Google (and Yahoo) data centers, without Google’s knowledge. Security has been tightened since then—but whether or not surreptitious data exfiltration has been stopped, there is still much data released to national governments via the ordinary legal process.


pages: 281 words: 71,242

World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

“Real-Time reports in Google Analytics provided the campaign a window into voters’ questions and concerns, and allowed them to deliver answers directly from the campaign through search ads.” Google was hardly modest in assessing how it contributed to the campaign’s success: “The results from Election Day speak for themselves: a resounding victory, with nearly every battleground state falling into the President’s column.” We don’t need to assume the worst about the tech companies to fear their capacity to swing votes. As we have seen from the Edward Snowden saga, a rogue programmer can find ways to undermine highly secure systems. Marius Milner, an engineer at Google, abused his access to Google’s street-mapping vehicles. These cars traversed the roadways of America, taking pictures, which Google would stitch together into a coherent view. Milner programmed Google’s cars to tap the WiFi signals coming from the homes they passed, sweeping up private data, even email correspondence.


Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

But the combination of aggressiveness, high risk tolerance, concentrated power, and key partnerships means that Cisco’s work will continue to be innovative, even when the headlines of the day turn bleak. The inevitable signs of economic slowdown began to appear in 2012–2013; by the next year, a wild card news item assured that Cisco’s efforts in China would be a rough ride for the next few years. LESSONS LEARNED By 2014, the political winds, far stronger than any experienced in Songdo, were buffeting Cisco’s business strategy and results in China. As Edward Snowden became famous to some, infamous to others, fresh questions about nations undertaking surveillance—and embroiling IT companies in the efforts—surfaced and consumed the media’s attention for weeks. The U.S. National Security Agency, long regarded as aggressive in its tactics against other countries, stood accused of intercepting and modifying IT equipment before it was shipped to China and other nations.


Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy by Philippe van Parijs, Yannick Vanderborght

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Albert Einstein, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, centre right, collective bargaining, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, declining real wages, diversified portfolio, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, open borders, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, universal basic income, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor

But Â�after all, we have had massive growth since the beginning of the golden sixties—Â�GDP per capita has doubled or trebled since then—Â�and we have not exactly seen the end of joblessness and job insecurity.7 Each of Â�these doubts about growth as a solution to unemployment and precariousness in the context of further automation could be challenged in variÂ�ous ways. But together they suffice to explain and justify growing calls for a more credible response to the impending challenge. Even NSA whistleÂ� blower Edward Snowden has reached this conclusion. He told The Nation in 2014: “As a technologist, I see the trends, and I see that automation inevi6 The Instrument of Freedom tably is Â�going to mean fewer and fewer jobs. And if we do not find a way to provide a basic income for Â�people who have no work, or no meaningful work, Â�we’re Â�going to have social unrest that could get Â�people killed.”↜8 Basic Income Thus, the expectation that meaningful work will be lacking easily leads to the conviction that the growing jobless population must be provided with some means of livelihood.

Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Van Berkel, Rik et al. 1993. Met z’n allen zwijgen in de woestijn. Een onderzoek naar het basisinkomen binnen de Voedingsbond FNV. University of Utrecht: Vakgroep Algemene Sociale Wetenschappen. Vandenbroucke, Frank. 1997. “A propos de l’instauration pragmatique d’une allocation universelle.” La Revue nouvelle 105: 161–166. Vanden Heuvel, Katrina, and Stephen F. Cohen. 2014. “Edward Snowden: A ‘Nation’ Interview.” Nation, October 20. Vanderborght, Yannick. 2001. “La France sur la voie d’un ‘revenu minimum inconditionnel’?” Mouvements 15–16: 157–165. —Â�—Â�—. 2002. “Belgique: VIVANT ou l’allocation universelle pour seul programme electoral.” Multitudes 8: 135–145. 366 B ibliogra p hy —Â�—Â�—. 2004a. “La faisabilité politique d’un revenu inconditionnel.” PhD diss., Université catholique de Louvain.


pages: 366 words: 76,476

Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One's Looking) by Christian Rudder

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Howard Zinn, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, p-value, pre–internet, race to the bottom, selection bias, Snapchat, social graph, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the scientific method

For the government picture, a sliver is all I have, because that’s all we’ve been able to see of it. We do know that the UK has 5.9 million security cameras, one for every eleven citizens. In Manhattan, just below Fourteenth Street, there are 4,176. Satellites and drones complete the picture beyond the asphalt. Though there’s no telling what each one sees, it’s safe to say: if the government is interested in your whereabouts, one sees you. And besides, as Edward Snowden revealed, much of what they can’t put a lens on they can monitor at leisure from the screen of an NSANet terminal, location undisclosed. Because so much happens with so little public notice, the lay understanding of data is inevitably many steps behind the reality. I have to say, just pausing to write this book, I’m sure I’ve lost ground. Analytics has in many ways surpassed the information itself as the real lever to pry.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

We discussed releasing genetically modified organisms with gene drive technology into the wild and extreme geological engineering, for example, throwing diamond dust into the stratosphere to reflect the sun’s rays to cool the earth. We had what I believe to be the first public talk about a campus hack (what MIT calls a particular category of pranks), where students put a fire truck on the MIT dome in the middle of the night. We had Edward Snowden video conference in to give a talk about technologies to protect journalists in war zones. We had Alexandra Elbakyan, the controversial creator of Sci-Hub, the website that illegally hosts almost all of the academic papers available online for free, to the dismay and anger of academic publishers. At the conference we also announced the formation of a $250,000 Disobedience Prize, funded by Reid Hoffman, to be awarded to a person or group engaged in what we believe is excellent disobedience for the benefit of society.


pages: 252 words: 79,452

To Be a Machine: Adventures Among Cyborgs, Utopians, Hackers, and the Futurists Solving the Modest Problem of Death by Mark O'Connell

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer age, cosmological principle, dark matter, disruptive innovation, double helix, Edward Snowden, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Extropian, friendly AI, global pandemic, impulse control, income inequality, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mars Rover, means of production, Norbert Wiener, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge

At the opposite end of the desk was a smiling woman with short silver hair, wearing a blue polo shirt, likewise branded; this was Arati Prabhakar, DARPA’s director. “Wow, that’s terrific to see!” she said. I found it difficult to accommodate the sight of this pleasant-looking woman, smiling fondly at the driving robot, with what I knew about the organization she led. When I thought of DARPA, I thought, among other things, of its administration of the so-called Information Awareness Office, exposed by the former CIA employee Edward Snowden as a mass surveillance operation organized around a database for the collection and storage of the personal information (emails, telephone records, social networking messages, credit card and banking transactions) of every single resident of the United States, along with those of many other countries, all of which was accomplished by tapping into the user data of marquee-name tech companies like Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, Skype, Google—the corporate proprietors of the sum of things that might be factually and usefully said about you, your information.


pages: 281 words: 78,317

But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

If we think about the trajectory of anything—art, science, sports, politics—not as a river but as an endless, shallow ocean, there is no place for collective wrongness. All feasible ideas and every possible narrative exist together, and each new societal generation can scoop out a bucket of whatever antecedent is necessary to support their contemporary conclusions. When explained in one sentence, that prospect seems a little terrible. But maybe that’s just because my view of reality is limited to river-based thinking. I’ve slowly become an admirer of Edward Snowden, the former government employee who leaked thousands of classified documents and now lives in exile. I was initially skeptical of Snowden, until I saw the documentary Citizenfour. Granted, Citizenfour is a non-objective telling of his story, produced by the journalists Snowden was aligned with. It could be classified as a propaganda film. But it’s impossible to watch Snowden speak without trusting the sincerity of his motives and the tenacity of his central argument.


pages: 245 words: 72,893

How Democracy Ends by David Runciman

barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Internet of things, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, Yogi Berra

Hobbes wanted his state to have eyes in the back of its head. Otherwise there could be no true security, since political trouble can break out in the most unexpected places. Bentham created a different version of the same idea. He designed a prison he called the Panopticon. It was constructed on a circular model that would allow the governor to keep permanent watch on the inmates. Whistleblower Edward Snowden’s nickname for the National Security Agency (NSA), whose secret mass surveillance operations he revealed to the world, was ‘the Panopticon’. Bentham’s original purpose in designing his prison was to ensure that convicted criminals did not use prison as an opportunity to conspire with each other. The governor couldn’t hear everything that went on, so Bentham wanted to ensure he could always see who was mixing with whom.


pages: 319 words: 75,257

Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy by David Frum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, illegal immigration, immigration reform, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley

Such is the nature of politics and time. Old issues fade; new issues appear. Former allies find themselves at dagger’s point; former adversaries forge new alliances. It’s much more likely that George W. Bush and Barack Obama will vote for the same candidate for president in 2020 than it is that George W. Bush and Donald Trump will vote for the same candidate. The people who most vociferously cheered for Edward Snowden and Julian Assange in the first half of the 2010s made clear they preferred Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton in the second half. Is anti-vaccination a left-wing or right-wing movement? Hard to say. Who is more anti-Semitic, the far left or the far right? Again, hard to say. Who is more likely to absorb Putin’s online propaganda and favor his foreign policy over America’s, Bernie bros or MAGA hats?


pages: 444 words: 84,486

Radicalized by Cory Doctorow

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, call centre, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, Flash crash, G4S, high net worth, information asymmetry, license plate recognition, obamacare, old-boy network, six sigma, TaskRabbit

In a world full of easy dystopias, he writes the hard utopia, and what do you know, his utopia is both more thought-provoking and more fun.’ Kim Stanley Robinson ‘A dystopian future is in no way inevitable; [Doctorow] reminds us that the world we choose to build is the one we’ll inhabit. Technology empowers both the powerful and the powerless, and if we want a world with more liberty and less control, we’re going to have to fight for it.’ Edward Snowden ‘The darker the hour, the better the moment for a rigorously imagined utopian fiction. Walkaway is now the best contemporary example I know of, its utopia glimpsed after fascinatingly extrapolated revolutionary struggle. A wonderful novel: everything we’ve come to expect from Cory Doctorow and more.’ William Gibson Cory Doctorow has authored the Bhagavad Gita of hacker/maker/burner/open source/git/gnu/wiki/99%/adjunct faculty/Anonymous/shareware/thingiverse/cypherpunk/LGTBQIA*/squatter/upcycling culture and zipped it down into a pretty damned tight techno-thriller with a lot of sex in it.’


pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The World Conference on International Telecommunications, held in Dubai in December 2012, ended with no consensus as to whether the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), established in 1947 for different purposes, would gain oversight over the Internet, something that would bring about a larger role for governments. What little consensus there was on how to handle data in a manner that protected privacy broke down in the wake of the revelations by the disgruntled former CIA employee Edward Snowden; the EU Court of Justice voided the 2000 Safe Harbor accord, causing frictions across the Atlantic until a U.S.-EU pact was reached in 2016 that addressed EU concerns.23 Overall, the governance gap over all things cyber expanded, the result of rapid technological innovation and an absence of much in the way of consensus as to what the rules ought to be. The U.S. goals for a cyberspace that is open, interoperable, reliable, and secure appear to be in jeopardy


pages: 347 words: 94,701

Don't Trust, Don't Fear, Don't Beg: The Extraordinary Story of the Arctic 30 by Ben Stewart

3D printing, Desert Island Discs, Edward Snowden, mega-rich, new economy, oil rush, Skype, WikiLeaks

v=8xRT7wQiebw 83http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/17/russia-greenpeace-gazprom-idUSL6N0I73BV20131017 84http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 85http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 86http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 87http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 88http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis63.htm#1963selma1 89http://www.crmvet.org/info/lithome.htm 90http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/al4.htm 91http://www.nps.gov/semo/historyculture/index.htm 92http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/28/newsid_4264000/4264241.stm 93http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2009/01/20090107151130srenod0.5167658.html#axzz3EDtsZjvF 94http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 95http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/152694/view 96http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 97http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 98http://www.academia.edu/1005097/The_Rainbow_Warrior_bombers_media_and_the_judiciary_Public_interest_v_privacy 99http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2005/jul/15/activists.g2 100http://www.academia.edu/1005097/The_Rainbow_Warrior_bombers_media_and_the_judiciary_Public_interest_v_privacy 101David Lange, My Life (Auckland, 2005), pp. 222–3, pp. 274–5. 102Terry Crowdy, Military Misdemeanours: Corruption, Incompetence, Lust and Downright Stupidity (Oxford, 2007), p. 246. 103http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/article1980551.ece 104http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/may/25/usnews.france 105http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 106Dear Comrade 107http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1059107.html 108http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-06/dutch-urge-release-of-greenpeace-crew-in-court-clash-with-russia.html 109http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-2458302/DOMINIC-LAWSON-Putins-brute-Greenpeace-bigger-menace-future.html 110http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/article1323429.ece 111http://best-museums.com/russia/85-museum-crosses.html 112http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/anna-akhmatova 113http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/135936 114http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/135936 115http://articles.latimes.com/1999/oct/17/news/mn-23277 116http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/press/releases/Greenpeace-Current-draft-of-Russian-amnesty-does-not-include-Arctic-30/ 117http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/press/releases/Russian-parliament-votes-for-amnesty-for-Arctic-30/ 118http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/vladimir-putin/10527779/Vladimir-Putin-pardons-oil-tycoon-Mikhail-Khodorkovsky-in-Amnesty.html 119http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/19/russia-never-worked-edward-snowden-nsa-putin 120http://eng.kremlin.ru/news/7040 121http://www.ship-technology.com/projects/mikhail_ulyanov/ INDEX Akhan, Gizem, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 198 Akhmatova, Anna 277, 278 Alexander (lawyer) 243, 263 Alexei (inmate) 101, 108, 109–10, 211 imprisonment of 110 Allakhverdov, Andrey, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 110–11, 125 Amnesty International, Litvinov Sr alerts 86 Anders, William 1 Andrews, Iris 136 Andropov, Yuri 95 Anton (inmate) 282, 295, 305, 310, 311, 317 Arctic: ‘always been Russian’ 176 calls for sanctuary status of 346–7 as planet’s air conditioner 131 Russian platform in, see Arctic 30 activists/crew; Prirazlomnaya platform and Russian seabed flag 129, 170, 176 Arctic 30 activists/crew: accused of being CIA 49 and Amnesty Bill 329–33 bail applications for 290–1, 296–300, 302–4, 305–11, 319; granted, see individual activists/crew calls to Russian embassies for release of 134 campaign to free: apology statement drafted by 173–4; appeals launched by 155, 179–80; Christensen made leader of 51–2; and Christensen’s global sources 168; Emergency Day of Solidarity 134–5; further global action by 193, 296–7; Gazprom stations shut down by 139; global co-ordination by 136–7; global hubs of 135; London hub of 135–6; and UEFA Champions League game 137–9 charges against 204 eventual numbers calling for release of 346 families called from Arctic Sunrise by 53 hashtag devised for 50 initial interrogations of 57–8 Investigative Committee HQ arrival of 56 Investigative Committee tries to split 252 jail arrival of, Murmansk 68–9 jail arrival of, St Petersburg 276–7 jail sentences pronounced on 65–6 London homecoming of members of 335–6 Moscow march for release of 208 Murmansk arrival of 55–6 Nobel laureates’ plea for 199 piracy charges against 5, 58, 101, 109, 121, 147; hooliganism substituted for 204–6 post-release bonds among women of 323 post-release confinement of 328 Presidential Council for Civil Society and Human Rights offers to act as guarantor for 263 at Prirazlomnaya protest 19–28 prison psychologist’s meeting with 119–20 prison transfer of 270–3, 275–6; prospect of 257–8, 260, 264, 267–9 Russian citizens complain about detention of 129 smuggled letters to and from 159–60 state broadcaster’s news reports on 110–11 supplies got to 162 thirtieth day of imprisonment of 193 Tutu’s letter concerning 198 see also Arctic Sunrise Arctic Sunrise: film footage of Russians’ raid on, see camera memory card, footage on FSB’s drugs-find claim concerning 189–93 guns fired towards 25–6, 28–9 ITLOS orders release of 322 Prirazlomnaya hailed by 21 Prirazlomnaya platform observed by 11–12 RHIBs launched from 11–12 Russian occupation of 31–41 Russians’ aggressive radio messages to 14 Russians disable comms systems of 37 towing of, to Murmansk 41–7 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Argus 342, 348 Artamov, Andrey 8 Auden, W.H. 93 Ayliffe, Ben 33, 136, 172, 186–7, 289, 302, 306 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 190 ‘Babinski, Mr’ (smuggler) 160, 163, 205, 226 Ball, Phil: and Amnesty Bill 332 appeal of 181 bail application of 319; granted 321 camera memory card hidden and smuggled out by, see camera memory card, footage on cell of 73 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 and Mikhail Ulyanov 340, 347–8 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison messages of 85, 102 release of, on bail 321–2, 325–6 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 73, 75, 79, 85, 102, 144, 155–6, 202, 262; and cell searches 163; and Gulag Gazette 212–15; and ‘Why I am not a hooligan’ letter 205–6 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg, awaiting paperwork for release 321, 325 strip-searched 71 and Winter Olympics campaign design 172 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Beauchamp, Jon, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 263 Beránek, Jan 297–8, 299, 302, 303, 306, 307–8 Bolshevik Revolution in 90 Boris (inmate) 7–10 passim, 109, 112–15, 122–3, 142, 148, 194–5, 202, 206, 251–2, 267–8, 269 charges against 6 described 5–6 Borman, Frank 1 BP: Deepwater Horizon platform of, see Deepwater Horizon platform Northstar drilling operations of 128 Brezhnev, Leonid 95, 96 Bronshtein, Lev 89 (See also Leon Trotsky) Brownell, Sonia 93 Bryan, Kieron: appeal of 181 camera memory card hidden by 45 cell of 71–2 described 71 and fellow inmate (Ivan) 72–3 girlfriend of (Nancy) 182 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 marriage of 343 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison messages of 85 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 71–3, 74–5, 79, 85, 100 Cairn Energy 127–9, 131 camera memory card, footage on 43–4, 155–6, 163–4, 181 Christensen downloads 182 handed to ‘Mona’ 181 handed to Rondal 182 shown to ITLOS Dutch delegation 261 TV stations transmit 261–2 Camp Artek 247 Chaplin, Charlie 244 Chilingarov, Artur 129–30, 176 Christensen, Mads, 128, 135, 137, 167–8, 185, 289, 290–1, 302–3, 306 and Amnesty Bill 331 bail amount proposed by 291 first, most urgent task of 52 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 190–1, 193 global sources run by 168 leadership of campaign to free Arctic 30 handed to 51–2 London HQ connection to office of 135 and Naidoo’s letter to Putin 186–8 Christensen, Nora 135–6 Chuprov, Vladimir 192 Cold War 244 Daily Mail 273–4 D’Alessandro, Cristian: at gunpoint 23 release of, on bail 315 Davies, Andrew 50 Davis, Ruth 136, 168–9, 173, 345 and Sixsmith 168–72 Day-Lewis, Cecil 93 Deepwater Horizon platform 83, 87, 127–8, 133 Desert Island Discs 342 Dillais, Louis-Pierre 247 Dolgov, Roman 8–10 appeal of 179–80; and judge’s silly antics 180 arrest of 8 bail application of 319; granted 321 calendar made by 144 described 76 jail sentence pronounced on 65 release of, on bail 321–2 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 8–9, 10, 76–8, 115, 123–4, 144; video link from, to court appeal 180 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 287 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew doroga (road), see SIZO-1 isolation jail, Murmansk Dubček, Alexander 94, 95 Dzerzhinsky, Felix 174 Dzhugashvili, Josef, see Stalin, Joseph Eells, Josh 246, 249 Esperanza 128 European Parliament, call of, for Arctic sanctuary 347 Exxon 87 Fainberg, Viktor 95 Federal Security Bureau (FSB) 50, 55, 121, 147, 239–40, 291 drugs-find claim of 189–93 Litvinov interviewed by 207–11, 252–5 and possible raid on Greenpeace office 185–6 Putin appointed to head 175 suspected false intelligence from 168 see also Russia Fedotov, Mikhail 263, 287–8 Finland, call of, for Arctic sanctuary 347 First Circle, The (Solzhenitsyn) 92 French secret service 15 Gagarin, Yuri 247 Galich, Aleksandr 94 Gazprom 8, 16, 131–2, 344 campaigners shut down stations of 139 continuing demonstrations against 197–8 Izvestia owned by 257 lies from 49 as proxy for Kremlin 137 Putin congratulates 339–40 TV channel owned by 87 and UEFA Champions League game 137–9 Germany, Nazi government in 91 Gold, Nina 122, 147, 148–9, 195, 251, 311, 329, 343 Golitsyn, Vladimir 261 Gostev (security official) 255–6 Greenpeace: and Amnesty Bill 329 Arctic Sunrise’s occupation communicated to 42 Cairn campaign of, see Cairn Energy campaign of, to free Arctic 30, see Arctic 30 activists/crew: campaign to free crew’s relatives contacted by 44 growth of, in size and scope 248–9 Hewetson’s history of sailing with 12 initial actions of, after Arctic Sunrise occupation 49–51 lawyers assembled by 50 Mail article on 273–4 North Pole sanctuary plan of 130 possible bugging of 51 possible raid by FSB on 185–6 Putin furious with 168 TV programme’s claims against 87 youth movement pickets office of 198–9 Gulag Archipelago, The (Solzhenitsyn) 276–7 Gulag Chronicle 212–18, 226 Gulag Gazette 212–15 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, see Deepwater Horizon platform Gumilev, Lev 277 Hamilton, Neil 136, 167 Harper, Stephen 130 Harris, Alex: in Amazon 83 appeal of 183 bail granted to 310 becomes Greenpeace volunteer 83 cell of 70–1 email to parents from 29–30 in Galápagos Islands 83 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 parents called from Arctic Sunrise by 53 prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 70–1, 78–9, 81–4, 116–17, 124–5; ‘curling tongs’ sent to 162, 163; Speziale’s tapping code with 84, 145, 204 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 282–3, 299–300 SIZO-5, St Petersburg 285–6 strip-searched 70 tweet of 38–9 Willcox’s reunion with 319 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Harris, Cliff 82, 183 Harris, Lin 82 Haussmann, David 65 Hewetson, Frank: and Amnesty Bill 333 arrest of 8 bail granted to 311 and Cairn Energy 129 ‘Colonel’ sobriquet of 13 diary entries of: post-release 328–9, 333, 335, 342–4; in SIZO-1, Murmansk 156–7, 159, 193, 194–5, 197, 202–3, 206–7, 251–2, 267; in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 281–2, 295, 305, 309–10, 311, 317 and father’s wartime experiences 196 grappling hook skewers 12–13 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 leaves Russia 335 memory stick hidden by 45 other activists blame 272–3, 275, 281–2, 328 panic attack suffered by 6, 149–54 piracy charge put to 120 plane’s take-off blocked by 12 post-release diary entries of 328–9, 333, 335, 342–4 post-release family reunion for 329 postponement of hearing concerning 67 power stations broken into by 12 Prirazlomnaya platform observed by 11–12 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 317–19 ‘review’ of prison by 220–2 Russian commandos kick 33 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 5–10, 100, 101–2, 109, 112–15, 119–23, 142, 147–50, 154, 219–20; and Arctic Sunrise film footage 262; diary entries of 156–7, 159, 193, 194–5, 197, 202–3, 206–7, 251–2, 267; Popov’s interview with 220–3 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 280–2, 317–19; British consuls visit 292–3; diary entries of 281–2, 291, 295, 305, 309–10, 311, 317 Sunrise crew first met by 15–16 suspicious hotel man followed by 325–6 tuna protest of 13 US bans 12 and Valium 5, 6 wife’s letter to 147, 148–9 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Hewetson, Joe 195, 206, 251, 329, 342, 343 Hewetson, Michael 195–7 Hewetson, Nell 195, 206, 311, 329, 342, 343 Hitler, Adolf, Molotov signs pact with 91 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 244–5 Human Rights Watch, Litvinov Sr alerts 86 Hurricane (RHIB) 20, 23–4 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg, officials’ tour of 285–6 Independent on Sunday 221 International Herald Tribune 93, 256 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Kremlin contemptuous of 263–4 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 155, 260–1, 263, 290, 322 ITLOS, see International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Ivan (inmate) 72–3, 74–5, 79, 269 Izvestia 255–7 Jensen, Anne Mie, release of, on bail 313–14 Kenyon, Laura 185, 191 Khodorkovsky, Mikhail 64, 176, 330, 345 King, Martin Luther 245–6 Kopelev, Lev 91–2, 93, 94, 97, 300 Korean War 244 Kresty jail, see SIZO-1, St Petersburg Kulluk platform 132 Ladoga 11, 12, 20 Arctic Sunrise challenged by 21 Saarela and Weber detained on 26–7 shots fired by 25–6, 28–9 Larisa (lawyer) 178–9 Lawson, Dominic 273–4 Lenin, Vladimir 89 Lenin’s Tomb (Remnick) 96 Leonid (inmate) 75 Liddle, Rod 274 Litvinov, Anitta 97, 226, 300 Litvinov, Dimitri (Dima): bail application of 320; granted 321 border guard’s exchange with 334 boss cell’s circular to 103–4 described 13 exile childhood of 96 father compares protests of, with own 344 father discovers fate of 86–7 fist of fear felt by 143 grandfather of, see Kopelev, Lev great-grandfather of, see Litvinov, Maxim homophobia fears of 54 initial interrogation of 57–9 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 Kresty governor’s gift to 321 leaves Russia 333–4 letter of, to son 300–1, 309 other activists blame 272–3, 281–2, 328 piracy charge put to 58–9 postponement of hearing concerning 67 previous arrests of 46, 274 Prirazlomnaya hailed by 21 prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 321–2 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise Siberia upbringing of 13 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 99–108, 109–10, 141, 143, 207–12, 252, 257–60; and discovered letters 225–8, 240–1; and FSB 207–11, 252–5; letters smuggled from 161; library discovered by 143; messages of 102; Popov’s interview with 232–41; and prison psychologist 227–8; and punishment cell 229–32; and radio report heard in cell 60–1; and smoking 211–12 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 279–80, 287–8, 300–1, 309 smoking quit by 343 strip-searched and fingerprinted 60 US move of 97 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Litvinov (née Low), Ivy 90 Litvinov, Lara 97 Litvinov, Lev 97, 230, 300–1 Litvinov, Maxim 89, 90–1 Litvinov (née Kopelev), Maya 93, 96 US move of 97 Litvinov, Pavel 85–7, 92–8, 320, 323–4, 344–5 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 192–3 Izvestia letter of 255–6 and KGB 93, 95, 96, 255–6 and son’s bail application 319–20 tried and convicted 95–6, 344 US move of 97 Lost Child of Philomena Lee, The (Sixsmith) 169 Lovell, Jim 1 McCarthy, Joe 244 McCartney, Paul 199–200 Maciel, Ana Paula 303–4 bail application of 305–6; granted 306 release of, on bail 312 Mafart, Lt Col.


pages: 299 words: 88,375

Gray Day: My Undercover Mission to Expose America's First Cyber Spy by Eric O'Neill

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, computer age, cryptocurrency, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full text search, index card, Internet of things, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, ransomware, rent control, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, thinkpad, web application, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, young professional

We are diligent to the point of being human early-alert systems. Look around you every once in a while. You might spot a spy. The NSA could have done a better job of heeding that old Russian proverb made famous by President Ronald Reagan. In 2013 a contractor and former CIA employee walked out of the NSA with thumb drives loaded with (according to the NSA) an estimated 1.7 million classified files. Edward Snowden has personally admitted to stealing hundreds of thousands of highly classified files detailing US intelligence-collection programs by the NSA. (The actual number is likely somewhere in the middle.) According to the director of national intelligence, Snowden’s information leak has compromised critical foreign intelligence collection sources and may be one of the most damaging in US history.


pages: 322 words: 92,769

The Alps: A Human History From Hannibal to Heidi and Beyond by Stephen O'Shea

car-free, clockwork universe, Edward Snowden, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Snapchat, trade route

The verdant valley of the Rhône in Valais eventually becomes a rocky declivity in Wallis, with the river itself now a rush of whitewater. On the north side of the mountain wall, near the village of Susten, at a height of about 150 meters, rises a forest of white satellite dishes pointed in all directions. Are they placed there to detect whether anyone in Wallis is not speaking Swiss German? I learn later that the impressive array owes more to listening than talking. The facility would make Edward Snowden ill: Part of the Swiss military system Onyx, the dishes conduct electronic surveillance on all and sundry. There are three such sites in Switzerland, constantly monitoring civilian and military communications conducted via satellite, such as faxes, internet traffic, and telephone calls. In 2007, thanks to a leak to a newspaper, it was revealed that Onyx had intercepted a fax from the Egyptian government to its embassy in London confirming the existence of black sites, CIA torture hot spots in eastern Europe.


pages: 372 words: 92,477

The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cashless society, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Norman Macrae, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, open economy, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, pension reform, pensions crisis, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit maximization, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, too big to fail, total factor productivity, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, zero-sum game

And here too the voters have suffered from getting their desires satisfied. The balance between liberty and security has shifted dramatically in a way that may not have advanced security but has certainly diminished liberty. Until recently it was assumed that the evils of the security state were confined to “over there,” to Guantánamo, Abu Ghraib, and extraordinary rendition. But the disclosures from two whistle-blowers, Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden, have revealed a veritable secret Leviathan, capable of classifying more than ninety-two million documents in one year and giving 1.8 million people “top security” clearance, including Manning, a lowly private in his early twenties with a record of emotional instability.2 And who was in charge of all this? The authority to monitor the private conversations of American citizens (and non-American citizens, like Angela Merkel) has come from secret judicial orders ­issued by a secret court based on a secret interpretation of the law.


pages: 293 words: 90,714

Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

In the United States, it’s called a “neckdown” when curbs are extended to provide pedestrians with a short, safer crossing distance. Clarence Eckerson Jr., from Streetfilms.org, thought up “snowy neckdown” and, in collaboration with Aaron Naparstek, Streetsblog founder and former editor-in-chief, the latter gave the world the word and hashtag “sneckdown.” It describes how snowfall in a city reveals how much unused space there is on the streets. This is a fantastic whistleblower technique. The sneckdown is the Edward Snowden of urbanism. As ever, the hashtag is great to explore. CHAPTER 9 MYTHBUSTING The great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie, deliberate, contrived, and dishonest, but the myth, persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic. John F. Kennedy Dress for your destination, not your journey. Anyone who knows me know that I am an idealist with a company and not a businessman with ideals.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The second Gulf War was roundly condemned by Germany and France, even as George W. Bush and Tony Blair allegedly prayed together for a successful outcome. While the UK still talks in romantic terms about its ‘special relationship’ with the US, it’s special largely because it is so unequal, as Anthony Eden discovered to his personal cost during the Suez Crisis. And Germany’s relations with the US temporarily soured when Edward Snowden’s WikiLeaks revealed that Chancellor Angela Merkel’s mobile phone had been hacked by the US National Security Agency. Presumably, Barack Obama was hastily removed from her speed dial. A third way might simply be a moral equivalent of the Washington Consensus. In this case, behaviours should somehow be judged relative to moral norms established by America’s Founding Fathers and subsequently delivered to the world through the benevolent exercise of American ‘soft power’.


pages: 316 words: 90,165

You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thales of Miletus, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Zipcar

A permanent record of our movements over days, months, and years, these maps can reveal the most salient details of our lives—political and religious beliefs, suspicious friendships, bad habits. Much of this information is accumulated by corporations like Google and the major cell phone carriers. They mine it for insights about our tastes and habits, the better to target those profitable little ads that pop up on our phones. But in May 2013, a series of revelations by Edward Snowden, a former technician at the US National Security Agency, revealed that American intelligence agencies also scrutinize these databases, enabling them to subject millions of citizens to near-constant location surveillance. Perhaps the NSA’s methods have made us a little safer from assault by terrorists, but they have also sown distrust of our own government. Many of us fret that our phones have become battery-powered snitches, betraying our secrets by recording our whereabouts.


pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom

autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

As everyone knows, people send out unconscious signals, and, as I am a chameleon by nature, one of the things I do is “become” the person I’m talking to, since we tend to respond to the people who are most similar to us. This turned out to be harder than usual in Russia, where trust is generally lacking. Most people there don’t look you in the eyes, and their gazes have a cloudy, dissociated look. Decades before Julian Assange and Edward Snowden made headlines, Russians knew their phone lines were being tapped. My Moscow-based employer had a dozen or so cell phones on him at all times. The people who mattered most to him had their own dedicated phones, and whenever one rang, he had to sort through his briefcase to find it. When he spoke, his words were hushed, a hand always covering his mouth in case someone could read his lips. I’m always looking for topics, symbols, actions and behaviors that ground or define a culture and can serve as a footbridge of sorts between a stranger—me—and the local residents.


pages: 296 words: 98,018

Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World by Anand Giridharadas

"side hustle", activist lawyer, affirmative action, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, friendly fire, global pandemic, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyperloop, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor, zero-sum game

They might have taken an interest in the details of a health care system that was allowing the unusual phenomenon of a developed country regressing in this way, or in the persistence of easily preventable deaths in the developing world. They might not have thought of themselves at all, given how long they were likely to live because of their tremendous advantages. “It seems pretty egocentric while we still have malaria and TB for rich people to fund things so they can live longer,” Bill Gates has said. * * * — Perhaps the most unlikely featured speaker at Summit at Sea was Edward Snowden, American whistleblower, scourge of the National Security Agency. He was in Russia, coming to the ship via video. His interviewer was Chris Sacca, a wildly successful VC (Instagram, Kickstarter, Twitter, Uber). One of the founders of Summit walked onstage and said, “We need truth-tellers and thought leaders like Chris Sacca.” Two truth-tellers for the price of one. Sacca, taking the stage, praised Summit for becoming what he called “a platform for entrepreneurship, for justice.”


Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? by Bill McKibben

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Flynn Effect, Google Earth, Hyperloop, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, life extension, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart meter, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, supervolcano, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Y2K, yield curve

The great advantage of the twenty-first century should be that we can learn from having lived through the failures of the twentieth. We’re able, as people were not a hundred years ago, to scratch some ideas off the list. It’s very useful to know, for example, that state communism is a really terrible idea. And it’s not as if we have nothing any longer to fear from a powerful central government; as Edward Snowden demonstrated, nation-states are still in the surveillance business. Also, Alexa. But overlearning the lessons of the past is just as dangerous as ignoring them. If you can’t distinguish between national health insurance and indentured servitude, if Denmark reminds you of North Korea, then you damage the present in the name of the past. If you must resist the Clean Air Act because of your visceral fear that it might lead to so much government that your drugstore gets taken away, then the twentieth century has become not a teacher but an irrational barrier.


pages: 374 words: 97,288

The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy by Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

3D printing, Airbnb, anti-communist, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, George Akerlof, Hush-A-Phone, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, peer-to-peer, price discrimination, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, software as a service, software patent, software studies, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy

That decision too was eventually overturned. See Camfield v. City of Okla. City, 248 F.3d 1214, 1217 (10th Cir. 2001). 19. Iain Thompson, “Adobe Spies on Readers: EVERY DRM Page Turn Leaked to Base over SSL,” Register (London), October 23, 2014, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/10/23/adobe_updates_digital_editions_encryption/, accessed June 15, 2015. 20. Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014). 21. Throughout this book, we have opted to use the gender-neutral singular “they” wherever possible. See Jeff Guo, “Sorry, grammar nerds. The singular ‘they’ has been declared Word of the Year,” Washington Post, January 8, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/01/08/donald-trump-may-win-this-years-word-of-the-year/, accessed March 16, 2016. 22.


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

However, using Aadhaar to accurately identify those individuals deserving of social welfare benefits has been acknowledged by the present government as an essential step towards welfare reforms, and has always been a key goal of the programme. Citizen groups concerned with data privacy and security objected to the idea of creating a database containing the demographic and biometric data of all Indian residents, fearing the emergence of a surveillance state in which biometric information could be used as a targeting mechanism; at a time when whistle-blowers like Edward Snowden have revealed the extent to which governments can snoop into the private lives of unsuspecting citizens, such a database might prove an irresistible temptation to a government wanting to keep tabs on its people, violating their right to privacy in the process. Given that India still doesn’t have a single, well-defined law that regulates data privacy, such concerns were valid. The UIDAI was well aware of these issues, and hence designed all of Aadhaar’s data collection, storage and retrieval processes with great emphasis on security.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

State power has to be protected from its domestic enemy; in sharp contrast, the population is not secure from state power. A striking illustration is the radical attack on the Constitution by the Obama administration’s massive surveillance program. It is, of course, justified by “national security.” That is routine for virtually all actions of all states and so carries little information. When the NSA’s surveillance program was exposed by Edward Snowden’s revelations, high officials claimed that it had prevented fifty-four terrorist acts. On inquiry, that was whittled down to a dozen. A high-level government panel then discovered that there was actually only one case: someone had sent $8,500 to Somalia. That was the total yield of the huge assault on the Constitution and, of course, on others throughout the world.23 Britain’s attitude is interesting: in 2007, the British government called on Washington’s colossal spy agency “to analyze and retain any British citizens’ mobile phone and fax numbers, emails, and IP addresses swept up by its dragnet,” the Guardian reported.24 That is a useful indication of the relative significance, in government eyes, of the privacy of its own citizens and of Washington’s demands.


pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

PRIVACY When phasing out paper currency, the most fundamental and difficult issue is how to balance an individual’s privacy rights with the government’s need to enforce laws, collect taxes, and combat terrorism. This is an important and subtle question that requires considerable attention, and it goes far beyond the narrow confines of any debate on the role of paper currency.6 Whatever one thinks of American privacy activist and former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden, the revelations that have come out from the material he released show that the government already has eavesdropping capabilities once thought to be purely in the realm of science fiction. And it is only going to get worse. Extensive government monitoring of cell phones and emails has already exploded as an issue. GPS systems in telephones and autos allow tracking of these devices. In major cities like London, New York, and Beijing, security cameras are everywhere.


pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

No one wants to be too liberal in what they accept—the opposite, in fact. The brutal, inarguable, profitable demands of this kind of power cracked apart the unique social webs of the Hack-Tic era. The openness that we loved in so many areas of life, from our minds to our markets, has now become a liability. “I remember what the Internet was like before it was being watched, and there has never been anything in the history of man that is like it,” Edward Snowden once observed, nostalgic for the datascape he saw melt away during his time at the NSA. There is a whole new generation of young programmers who won’t ever know the original, generous ethos of a publication like Hack-Tic. There is a fresh cohort of the digital age that now operates at levels of technical mastery far beyond anything that might have been imagined in the Citicorp building basement twenty years ago.


pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

After originally stating unequivocally in his confirmation hearing that he would not allow torture tactics to return, he followed up with an addendum: “If experts believed current law was an impediment to gathering vital intelligence to protect the country, I would want to understand such impediments and whether any recommendations were appropriate for changing current law.” He has also called for a reversal of the limited restrictions on digital surveillance put in place after Edward Snowden’s revelations. Even without the blessing of Congress or the CIA, an administration that is determined to violate the law can, unfortunately, find a way. The likeliest route for Trump is to outsource this dirty work to private contractors. None other than Blackwater founder Erik Prince (who happens to be the brother of Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos) has been counseling Trump behind the scenes.


Rogue States by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus

The US rejects the ICESCR with disdain, as discussed below, along with the UD quite generally. The normal stance of a rogue state. One of Washington’s grand hopes for Cuba is that it will accept US initiatives to improve the use of the Internet, permitting US telecom companies to provide Internet infrastructure and services to Cuba. Even in the current state of deprivation and tyranny depicted in US coverage, Cubans are likely to have heard of a gentleman named Edward Snowden, and might therefore be pardoned if they are skeptical about this munificent offer.12 The stream of denunciations of Cuban human rights violations consistently manages to ignore the fact that the worst of these are clearly in Guantánamo, which the US stole from Cuba at gunpoint a century ago, rejecting Cuban requests for its return since Cuba attained its independence in 1959; and the fact that Cuban human rights violations, while real and meriting censure, pale into insignificance in comparison with the crimes of US dependencies in the region, which elicit substantial aid and diplomatic support, not sanctions.


pages: 417 words: 97,577

The Myth of Capitalism: Monopolies and the Death of Competition by Jonathan Tepper

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, diversification, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, merger arbitrage, Metcalfe's law, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, passive investing, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, undersea cable, Vanguard fund, very high income, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

If the original incarnations of Communism under Lenin, Stalin, and Mao failed because central planning was a disaster, Big Data will now come to the rescue. Last year, Jack Ma, founder of Alibaba, the online platform with over half a billion users, argued, “Big Data will make the market smarter and make it possible to plan and predict market forces so as to allow us to finally achieve a planned economy.”2 The 2013 revelations of Edward Snowden exposed the involvement of American companies and intelligence agencies in programs that gave the government access to personal data. Americans were briefly outraged and then continued their lives as they did before. In fact, consumers were inviting Big Brother into their homes. Millions of consumers now have “smart” devices like Amazon Echo or Google Home that can accurately fingerprint voices and are always on.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

If your watch is not just telling time but your location, schedule, and communications, that makes it a device that is ripe for the hacking. The Cold War did not lack for political and military tension, but it did have a clear set of alliances organized around the binary of the struggle between Communist and Western bloc countries. The Code War has no such simple organization, and traditional alliances have fractured. After the revelations of Edward Snowden, the governments and public of European countries condemned American cyberpractices. Billions of dollars of business were lost by American telecommunications and technology companies, which were no longer trusted. One study pegged the loss to American businesses in the cloud computing industry alone at between $22 billion and $25 billion over three years. Yet there is little to no prospect for any sort of short-term progress to be made developing international law, treaties, or other frameworks establishing norms and rules for cyberactivity.


pages: 370 words: 107,791

Burning Down the Haus: Punk Rock, Revolution, and the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Tim Mohr

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sexual politics, side project

As for those few souls who weren’t inclined to fit in, people tended to encourage them to stick to the norm—nobody likes a person who makes things difficult for everyone else. Still, it’s important to realize that conformity and complacency didn’t distinguish the DDR from other countries. For an entire century, most Americans went about their daily lives despite the gross injustice of Jim Crow laws: Not my problem. The total indifference with which most Americans reacted to Edward Snowden’s revelations of mass warrantless surveillance is another example: I’ve got nothing to hide. Or white America’s collective shrug at the militarization of its police forces and the ongoing flood of evidence of horrific police brutality: They’re not coming for me. People look away. It’s natural. People defend the norm without having to be prodded to do so. That’s just the way people are. Until they really do come for you.


pages: 409 words: 105,551

Team of Teams: New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World by General Stanley McChrystal, Tantum Collins, David Silverman, Chris Fussell

Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Black Swan, butterfly effect, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chelsea Manning, clockwork universe, crew resource management, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, job automation, job satisfaction, John Nash: game theory, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Pierre-Simon Laplace, RAND corporation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

“This disclosure is not just an attack on America’s foreign policy interests,” said Secretary of State Hillary Clinton the day after the State Department cables leaked. “It is an attack on the international community.” Never before in U.S. history had so much classified material been compromised in one blow. Since then, several similar incidents have unfolded, most notably the even bigger leak perpetrated by contractor Edward Snowden. An investigation identified the soldier, who by then had been demoted to private first class, as Bradley Manning.* A Fox News op-ed asked with outrage how “all this leaked information was the work of a single 22-year-old enlisted man in the Army.” The author was incredulous: “How could one individual gain such access to all that classified material? Clearly we have grossly under-prioritized information security.”


pages: 410 words: 106,931