Edward Snowden

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pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Chelsea Manning was prohibited: David Dishneau (20 Jul 2012), “Manning largely barred from discussing WikiLeaks harm,” Associated Press, http://seattletimes.com/html/nationworld/2018724246_apusmanningwikileaks.html. Edward Snowden claims: The country is fairly evenly divided on this point. Seth Motel (15 Apr 2014), “NSA coverage wins Pulitzer, but Americans remain divided on Snowden leaks,” Pew Research Center, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/04/15/nsa-coverage-wins-pulitzer-but-americans-remain-divided-on-snowden-leaks. John Kerry insisted that: Jonathan Topaz (28 May 2014), “John Kerry: Edward Snowden a ‘coward … traitor,’” Politico, http://www.politico.com/story/2014/05/edward-snowden-coward-john-kerry-msnbc-interview-nsa-107157.html. Hillary Clinton proclaimed: Phoebe Greenwood (4 Jul 2014), “Edward Snowden should have right to legal defense in US, says Hillary Clinton,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/04/edward-snowden-legal-defence-hillary-clinton-interview.

James Bamford (15 Mar 2012), “The NSA is building the country’s biggest spy center (watch what you say),” Wired, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/03/ff_nsadatacenter/all. It secretly inserts weaknesses: Bruce Schneier (4 Oct 2013), “Attacking Tor: How the NSA targets users’ online anonymity,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/tor-attacks-nsa-users-online-anonymity. “endpoint security is so terrifically weak”: Glenn Greenwald and Edward Snowden (17 Jun 2013), “Edward Snowden: NSA whistleblower answers reader questions,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/17/edward-snowden-nsa-files-whistleblower. Discoverers can sell vulnerabilities: The ethics of this is discussed here. Serge Egelman, Cormac Herley, and Paul C. van Oorschot (9-12 Sep 2013), “Markets for zero-day exploits: Ethics and implications,” New Security Paradigms Workshop, Banff, Alberta, Canada, http://www.nspw.org/papers/2013/nspw2013-egelman.pdf.

Rahul Sagar (20 Dec 2013), “Creaky leviathan: A comment on David Pozen’s Leaky Leviathan,” Harvard Law Review Forum 127, http://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/forvol127_sagar.pdf. whistleblowing the civil disobedience: These two essays make this point. danah boyd (19 Jul 2013), “Whistleblowing is the new civil disobedience: Why Edward Snowden matters,” apophenia, http://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2013/07/19/edward-snowden-whistleblower.html. William E. Scheuerman (Sep 2014), “Whistleblowing as civil disobedience: The case of Edward Snowden,” Philosophy and Social Criticism 40, http://psc.sagepub.com/content/40/7/609.abstract. The NGO Human Rights Watch: G. Alex Sinha (28 Jul 2014), “With liberty to monitor all,” Human Rights Watch, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2014/07/28/liberty-monitor-all-0. whistleblowers provide another oversight: Rahul Sagar (2013), Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy, Princeton University Press, http://press.princeton.edu/titles/10151.html.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

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affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks

Vintage ISBN: 978-0-8041-7352-0 Vintage eBook ISBN: 978-0-8041-7353-7 www.vintagebooks.com v3.1 Contents Cover About the Author Title Page Copyright Foreword by Alan Rusbridger Prologue: The Rendezvous 1. TheTrueHOOHA 2. Civil Disobedience 3. The Source 4. Puzzle Palace 5. The Man in the Room 6. Scoop! 7. The Planet’s Most Wanted Man 8. All of the Signals All of the Time 9. You’ve Had Your Fun 10. Don’t Be Evil 11. Flight 12. Der Shitstorm! 13. The Broom Cupboard 14. Shoot the Messenger Epilogue: Exile Acknowledgements Foreword Edward Snowden is one of the most extraordinary whistleblowers in history. Never before has anyone scooped up en masse the top-secret files of the world’s most powerful intelligence organisations, in order to make them public. But that was what he did. His skills are unprecedented. Until the present generation of computer nerds came along, no one realised it was possible to make off with the electronic equivalent of whole libraries full of triple-locked filing cabinets and safes – thousands of documents and millions of words.

I think that readers of this book might well see the value of introducing a UK equivalent to the first amendment of the US constitution, which protects the freedom of the press. It is a freedom that can protect us all. Alan Rusbridger Editor-in-chief, Guardian London, February 2014 Prologue: The Rendezvous Mira Hotel, Nathan Road, Hong Kong Monday 3 June 2013 ‘I don’t want to live in a world where everything that I say, everything I do, everyone I talk to, every expression of creativity or love or friendship is recorded …’ EDWARD SNOWDEN It began with an email. ‘I am a senior member of the intelligence community …’ No name, no job title, no details. The Guardian columnist Glenn Greenwald, who was based in Brazil, started to correspond with this mysterious source. Who was he? The source said nothing about himself. He was an intangible presence, an online ghost. Possibly even a fiction. After all, how could it be real? There had never before been a big leak out of the National Security Agency.

Accompanying Greenwald was Laura Poitras, also an American citizen, documentary film-maker and notable thorn in the side of the US military. She had been a matchmaker, the first to point Greenwald in the ghost’s direction. The two journalists were given meticulous instructions. They were to meet in a less-trafficked, but not entirely obscure, part of the hotel, next to a large plastic alligator. They would swap pre-agreed phrases. The source would carry a Rubik’s cube. Oh, and his name was Edward Snowden. It appeared the mystery interlocutor was an experienced spy. Perhaps one with a flair for the dramatic. Everything Greenwald knew about him pointed in one direction: that he was a grizzled veteran of the intelligence community. ‘I thought he must be a pretty senior bureaucrat,’ Greenwald says. Probably 60-odd, wearing a blue blazer with shiny gold buttons, receding grey hair, sensible black shoes, spectacles, a club tie … Greenwald could visualise him already.


pages: 422 words: 104,457

Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

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AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

In 2013, Manning was sentenced to: Paul Lewis, “Bradley Manning Given 35-Year Prison Term for Passing Files to WikiLeaks,” Guardian, August 21, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/21/bradley-manning-35-years-prison-wikileaks-sentence. Snowden obtained temporary political asylum: Alec Luhn, Luke Harding, and Paul Lewis, “Edward Snowden Asylum: US ‘Disappointed’ by Russian Decision,” Guardian, August 1, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/01/edward-snowden-asylum-us-disappointed. In 2013, the Justice Department informed: Devlin Barrett, “U.S. Seized Phone Records of AP Staff,” Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324715704578481461374133612.html. “We regard this action”: Gary Pruitt (president and CEO of the Associated Press), “Updated: AP Responds to Latest DOJ Letter,” May 14, 2013, http://blog.ap.org/2013/05/13/ap-responds-to-intrusive-doj-seizure-of-journalists-phone-records/.

The trackers also include many of the institutions that are supposed to be on our side, such as the government and the companies with which we do business. Of course, the largest of the dragnets appear to be those operated by the U.S. government. In addition to its scooping up vast amounts of foreign communications, the National Security Agency is also scooping up Americans’ phone calling records and Internet traffic, according to documents revealed in 2013 by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. But the NSA is not alone (although it may be the most effective) in operating dragnets. Governments around the world—from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe—are snapping up surveillance technology, ranging from “massive intercept” equipment to tools that let them remotely hack into people’s phones and computers. Even local and state governments in the United States are snapping up surveillance technology ranging from drones to automated license plate readers that allow them to keep tabs on citizens’ movements in ways never before possible.

In 1981, when President Ronald Reagan authorized limited domestic spying in order to seek Soviet infiltrators, he ordered the intelligence agencies to use “the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad.” Over the years, Reagan’s directive has been interpreted to mean that domestic spying should be done cautiously, and only in cases where there is reason to suspect a crime. But after 9/11, the requirement to establish some kind of suspicion before engaging in domestic spying was, for all intents and purposes, tossed aside. Documents revealed by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden paint a devastating portrait of how a single decision made in the days after the attack opened the floodgates for vast domestic dragnets. According to a leaked draft of a 2009 inspector general’s report, the NSA’s domestic spying began on September 14, 2001, three days after the attacks, when the agency’s director, Michael Hayden, approved warrantless interception of any U.S. phone call to or from specific terrorist-identified phone numbers in Afghanistan.


pages: 50 words: 15,603

Orwell Versus the Terrorists: A Digital Short by Jamie Bartlett

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augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Satoshi Nakamoto, technoutopianism, Zimmermann PGP

Contents About the Book About the Author Title Page Introduction A Brief History of the Crypto-Wars A New Battle Orwell The Terrorists In Defence of the Security Services Who Wins? Acknowledgements Notes The Dark Net Copyright About the Book On 5 June 2013, the Guardian began publishing a series of documents leaked by NSA contractor Edward Snowden, revealing the extent of internet surveillance undertaken by government and intelligence agencies. It provoked an immediate outcry. ‘I didn’t want to change society,’ Snowden would later say, in exile. ‘I wanted to give society a chance to determine if it should change itself.’ And to some extent, he has. Snowden’s leaks have provoked important debates about the precarious balance between individual privacy and national security on the internet.

About the Author Jamie Bartlett is the Director of the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media at the think tank Demos, where he specialises in online social movements and the impact of technology on society. He is the author of The Dark Net, and of #intelligence, a report on the future of internet surveillance, co-authored with Sir David Omand, a former Director of GCHQ. He lives in London. Orwell versus the Terrorists Crypto-Wars and the Future of Internet Surveillance Jamie Bartlett Introduction In late 2012 the National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden contacted Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald, saying he had sensitive documents about government surveillance he would like to share. In early 2013 he started sending Greenwald – along with the documentary maker Laura Poitras – evidence that revealed the extent of internet surveillance by the US, UK and other governments. In May, fearing prosecution, Snowden left the US, and flew to Hong Kong.

But the point is: it’s possible, and you may not even notice if it came to pass. Civil liberties groups believe companies, police and governments have a mutual interest in keeping the data gold rush going. Intelligence agencies don’t need to spy on you any more: they simply go to your internet company, and prise out of them what they need. (This, incidentally, is precisely what the NSA’s Prism programme did – which was the very first revelation made by Edward Snowden.) And of course, having all this information centralised in one place is inevitably a honeypot for fraudsters and hackers, with identity and data theft increasing at an alarming rate. Perhaps we’re sleepwalking into a new age, a world where everything is captured, stored, analysed, repackaged and sold. And where could that lead? What else could our data reveal about us? So-called ‘big data’ analysis is already able to predict a lot of human behaviour: what we might buy, what books we’ll read, what movies we’ll watch.


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The other is to gather information on how to destroy those computer networks and the infrastructure attached to them should the president ever give that order. On the Internet battlefield, TAO is surveilling potential targets. Were an order to attack ever given, they would help lead the charge. US officials and intelligence experts estimate that TAO has implanted spying devices in at least 85,000 computer systems in 89 countries, according to classified documents that were released by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2010, TAO conducted 279 operations. The unit has cracked the encryption that underpins widely used e-mail systems, including BlackBerry, in order to spy on computer users around the world. It has even gone so far as to divert the shipments of its targets’ computers to an NSA facility and then implant spyware inside the computers. A TAO PowerPoint presentation detailing its exploits boasts a modified version of the familiar Intel logo.

Classified NSA documents show that the agency has targeted the networks of Huawei, the world’s biggest telecommunications maker, which is based in China. US intelligence officials and some lawmakers have suspected for years that Huawei is a proxy for the Chinese military and intelligence services. US regulatory agencies have blocked the installation of Huawei telecom equipment, including switches and routers, in this country for fear they’ll be used as a conduit for cyber spying. Edward Snowden told Chinese journalists that the NSA broke in to computers at Beijing’s Tsinghua University, one of the country’s top education and research institutions. Snowden described the hacking as extensive. On one day in January 2013, the NSA had penetrated at least sixty-three university computers or servers, according to documents Snowden showed the journalists. Those documents proved the NSA had done as he claimed, Snowden said, because they showed Internet protocol addresses that could have been obtained only by someone with physical access to the computers.

The NSA secretly commandeers computers in these countries as well, and can use them to launch malicious software, so that it can’t easily be traced back to the United States. Several dozen clandestine CIA officers trained for the black-bag operations to implant this spyware now work full-time at NSA headquarters in Fort Meade. The CIA has also set up its own hacker force, known as the Information Operations Center, or IOC. According to a budget document leaked by Edward Snowden, this CIA group has grown in size in recent years and now employs hundreds of people, making it one of the agency’s largest groups. The IOC launches cyber attacks and recruits foreign spies to help conduct its operations, according to the document. The Internet has become a battlefield. In recent years the alliance between soldiers and spies has grown stronger, and they have expanded the terrain on which they fight together.


pages: 372 words: 109,536

The Panama Papers: Breaking the Story of How the Rich and Powerful Hide Their Money by Frederik Obermaier

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banking crisis, blood diamonds, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, family office, high net worth, income inequality, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, out of africa, race to the bottom, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

It goes without saying that we are all very nervous. We have been working on this for over a year and no one knows what will happen next. How will other media institutions take up the story? How will the general population respond? Or will the story fail to attract the attention it deserves, dismissed as ‘just another leak’? A colleague calls unexpectedly: ‘Edward Snowden has just tweeted us!’ We look at each other, baffled. 7.48pm. Edward Snowden? We go on Twitter, and indeed, Edward Snowden has tweeted this message to his 2 million followers: ‘Biggest leak in the history of data journalism just went live, and it’s about corruption.’ Snowden also provides a link to the Süddeutsche Zeitung website and the English version of our article on Iceland and the shell companies owned by Prime Minister Sigmundur Gunnlaugsson and two other cabinet members.

‘The biggest leak in the history of data journalism’ Edward Snowden The inside story from the journalists who set the investigation in motion. Late one evening, investigative journalist Bastian Obermayer receives an anonymous message offering him access to secret data. Through encrypted channels, he then receives documents showing a mysterious bank transfer for $500 million in gold. This is just the beginning. Obermayer and fellow Süddeutsche Zeitung journalist Frederik Obermaier find themselves immersed in a secret world where complex networks of shell companies help to hide those who don’t want to be found. Faced with the largest data leak in history, they activate an international network of journalists to follow every possible line of enquiry. Operating for over a year in the strictest secrecy, they uncover a global elite living by a different set of rules: prime ministers, dictators, oligarchs, princelings, sports officials, big banks, arms smugglers, mafiosi, diamond miners, art dealers and celebrities.

Contents Foreword Prologue 1 Start 2 Vladimir Putin’s mysterious friend 3 The shadow of the past 4 Commerzbank and its lies 5 Mossack Fonseca’s role in the Syrian war 6 From the Waffen-SS to the CIA and Panama 7 The football factory 8 On fishing, finding and fine art 9 A view of the White House 10 Sparks fly 11 Fear and trepidation 12 The Siemens millions 13 ‘Regarding my meeting with Harry Potter. . .’ 14 A secret meeting with Alpine views 15 Mossfon Holdings 16 Spirit of Panama 17 The world is not enough 18 The looting machine 19 Secret meetings in the Komitèrom 20 At the mercy of monsters 21 The red nobility 22 The Gas Princess and the Chocolate King 23 Those German banks 24 A raid by the Vikings of finance 25 Dead-end trails 26 United by marriage, united by money 27 Star, star, Mega Star 28 The fourth man and FIFA 29 The 99 per cent and the future of tax havens 30 The cold heart of the offshore world Epilogue The revolution will be digitized Acknowledgements Glossary Notes Foreword There are moments in history when a big truth is suddenly revealed. In 2010 leaked US diplomatic cables showed the White House’s private thinking about its friends and enemies. Three years later a contractor working for the National Security Agency exposed how the US and the UK are secretly spying on their own citizens. His name was Edward Snowden. We learned that spooks from Britain’s listening station GCHQ could – if they wanted – bug your iPhone. Or remotely activate your laptop web camera. Snowden’s revelations caused outrage and started a global conversation about the boundaries of privacy in a digital age. Except in Britain, land of James Bond, where many met his revelations with a complacent shrug. In April 2016 something else hidden in plain sight was exposed.


pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen

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air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

“If there was a unifying theme of President Obama’s speech,” wrote Benjamin Wittes on the influential national security blog Lawfare, “it was an effort to align himself as publicly as possible with the critics of the positions his administration is taking without undermining his administration’s operational flexibility in actual fact. To put it crassly, the president sought to rebuke his own administration for taking the positions it has—but also to make sure that it could continue to do so.” Similarly, Obama’s January 2014 speech, in which he said he wanted to reform the NSA, appeared designed to placate Americans alarmed by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden’s disclosures of mass surveillance, while actually doing little to limit the NSA’s powers. And Obama’s subsequent proposal to scale back domestic phone data collection was considered little more than a half measure by privacy advocates. Washington’s global war on terror is now in its second decade, thanks to the bipartisan veneer it has gained under Bush and Obama. It shows no signs of slowing down; hustlers and freebooters continue to take full advantage, and the war’s unintended consequences continue to pile up.

He claims that he recorded every minute of Al Jazeera’s network broadcast nonstop from February 2004 until the London Olympics in the summer of 2012. “That’s over 8 billion frames.” Today, Dennis Montgomery continues to argue that he is not a fraud, that his technology is genuine, and that he performed highly sensitive and valuable work for the CIA and the Pentagon. After former NSA contractor Edward Snowden leaked documents about the NSA’s domestic surveillance operations in 2013, Montgomery suggested to me that he could provide the documents that would prove not only that he had been telling the truth, but that he had also been used by top U.S. intelligence officials in highly questionable intelligence operations. But Montgomery has never provided the documents to back up his assertions.* 3 The New Oligarchs Dennis Montgomery is, of course, an extreme example of the new kind of counterterrorism entrepreneur who prospered in the shadows of 9/11.

That same secrecy has surrounded NSA’s operations ever since, even as the NSA has continued to push for greater access to the domestic communications of American citizens. Secrecy continues to shield the NSA from uncomfortable questions about the growing role of the agency and its contractors in data mining and the burgeoning field of cybersecurity. The only way the American public ever learns what the NSA is doing to them is from whistleblowers, including, most recently, former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who leaked documents about the rise of the NSA’s massive data-mining operations during the Obama administration. To keep the war on terror going, the government has tried to make sure that whistleblowers are isolated and ostracized. People like Diane Roark. She was perhaps the most courageous whistleblower of the post-9/11 era, and yet her story has never been fully told. She fought a lonely battle against the most powerful forces unleashed in Washington in the global war on terror.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Failures of access control have been behind some of the more spectacular cyber-related scandals in recent years, like the case of Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks in 2010, which we explore next, and the 2013 Edward Snowden case (where a low-level contractor working as a systems administrator at the NSA had access to a trove of controversial and top-secret programs, which he leaked to the press). These cases illustrate poor access control in all its glory, from low-level individuals being granted default access to anything and everything they wanted, to poor efforts to log and audit access (for several months after Edward Snowden went public with leaked documents about its various monitoring programs, the NSA still didn’t know how many more documents he had taken, but hadn’t yet released). Whether the organization is the NSA or a cupcake store, the questions about how data is compartmentalized are essential.

Is the individual authorized to buy something, like an account on an online gambling site? And even if so, is the individual old enough to participate? Or, at a slightly larger world stage, just because someone has access to a military’s classified networks, should the person be authorized to read and copy every file in them (a practice that would haunt the US military in the Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden leaks)? The entire problem was perhaps best illustrated by one of the most cited cartoons in history. In 1993, New Yorker magazine published a drawing by Peter Steiner of two dogs sitting near a computer. One dog tells the other, “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.” Yet this isn’t to say that people can’t find out private details about you if they want. Every activity on the Internet is data being routed from an Internet Protocol (IP) address.

In the attack on RSA, the attackers wanted key business secrets in order to spy on other companies. For Stuxnet (a case we’ll explore further in Part II), the attackers wanted to disrupt industrial control processes involved in uranium enrichment, so as to sabotage the Iranian nuclear program. Finally, it is useful to acknowledge when the danger comes from one of your own. As cases like Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks or Edward Snowden and the NSA scandal illustrate, the “insider threat” is particularly tough because the actor can search for vulnerabilities from within systems designed only to be used by trusted actors. Insiders can have much better perspectives on what is valuable and how best to leverage that value, whether they are trying to steal secrets or sabotage an operation. It is also important to consider whether the threat actor wants to attack you, or just wants to attack.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Besides transnational organized crime syndicates, hacktivists—politically motivated cyber attackers—represent one of the most influential and powerful groups in cyberspace. Anonymous, LulzSec, AntiSec, WikiLeaks, and the Syrian Electronic Army fall into this group and launch their attacks in retaliation for perceived injustices. Personalities such as Julian Assange, Chelsea (Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden have become household names for challenging some of the world’s most powerful institutions and for releasing data that others would most certainly have preferred remain hidden. While Assange, Manning, and Snowden have been propelled onto the covers of newspapers around the world, other hacktivist groups prefer that their individual members remain discreetly hidden in subordination to the organization itself and its broader agenda.

Given that Iran had just bested that attack, one security researcher noted the Islamic Republic’s technical bombardments have graduated from being the equivalent of “a few yapping Chihuahuas into a pack of fire-breathing Godzillas.” Of course, there have also been widespread allegations of hacking by the United States against the rest of the world, based largely on the numerous classified documents stolen and unilaterally released by the former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden beginning in June 2013. Snowden detailed at great length the global technical surveillance apparatus run by the National Security Agency and provided documentary evidence to support his claims in discussions with the journalists Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras. Programs such as PRISM and XKeyscore subsequently came to light, as did the NSA’s purported ability to track billions of e-mails, phone messages, chat sessions, and SMS texts each and every day.

Meet the Data Brokers Acxiom, Epsilon, Datalogix, RapLeaf, Reed Elsevier, BlueKai, Spokeo, and Flurry—most of us have never heard of these companies, but together they and others are responsible for a rapidly emerging data surveillance industry that is worth $156 billion a year. While citizens around the world reacted with shock at the size and scope of the NSA surveillance operations revealed by Edward Snowden, it’s important to note that the $156 billion in annual revenue earned by the data broker industry is twice the size of the U.S. government’s intelligence budget. The infrastructure, tools, and techniques employed by these firms rest almost entirely in the private sector, and yet the depth to which they can peer into any citizen’s life would make any intelligence agency jealous with envy. Data brokers get their information from our Internet service providers, credit card issuers, mobile phone companies, banks, credit bureaus, pharmacies, departments of motor vehicles, grocery stores, and increasingly our online activities.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

(New York: Routledge, 2004). 19. Trevor Timm, “Congress wants NSA reform after all. Obama and the Senate need to pass it,” theguardian.com, June 20, 2014. 20. Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014). 21. “Cyber security in the post-Snowden era,” panel at 2014 Ottawa Conference on Defence and Security. Video available at http://www.cpac.ca/en/programs/public-record/episodes/31366144. (Last accessed July 2, 2014.) 22. See the website of Reset the Net at resetthenet.org. 23. Quoted in Derek Mead, “‘The Bottom Line Is That Encryption Does Work’: Edward Snowden at SXSW,” motherboard.vice.com, March 10, 2014. 24. “On the FBI Raid,” March 7, 2012, last accessed July 8, 2014, http://pastebin.com/vZEteA3C. 25. “Why I’m Going to Destroy FBI Agent Robert Smith Part Three Revenge of the Lithe,” YouTube video, posted by Grenalio Kristian Perdana Siahaan, Nov. 25, 2012, last accessed July 3, 2014, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?

I am ashamed to admit that when I found out he was British and sixteen, a picture immediately popped into my mind. It was not as if the “nihilists, anarchists, activists, Lulzsec, Anonymous, twenty­somethings who haven’t talked to the opposite sex in five or six years,” the description of hackers provided by Michael Haydn, the ex-director of the CIA and NSA, in reference to those who would come to support Edward Snowden.1 What did come to mind was a pale waif whose wealthy parents thoughtlessly shipped him off at a tender age to boarding school. As it turns out, once he was eighteen, tflow was revealed to be Mustafa Al Bassam, and pictures confirmed that he was not pasty white. He moved to London from Iraq with his family when he was six years old, fleeing Saddam Hussein. His father is a doctor—a general practitioner—so they are financially middle class.

They claimed to have infiltrated various internal networks of the US Department of Energy, where they sent messages urging employees to work against the government rather than for it. They hacked the federal contractor ManTech International, publishing over four hundred megabytes of content that detailed ManTech’s dealings with NATO and the US Army (plus all its employees’ emails). They struck at the mega-security contractor Booz Allen Hamilton; while they were unable to obtain actual documents—though one of Booz Allen Hamilton’s employees at the time, Edward Snowden, eventually would—they managed to download ninety thousand military emails from the company’s site, which they threw up on The Pirate Bay with a long analysis noting “key facts” about the company, such as its funding breakdown. Things had taken a very serious turn. During this surge of activity, arrests became more commonplace. By the end of July, fourteen Americans had been arrested for DDoSing PayPal, and British authorities had arrested two members of LulzSec: Topiary in Scotland and tflow in London (tflow’s name was not released at the time because he was still a minor).


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Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

On the whole, democratically elected governments are comparatively open technical systems, and authoritarian regimes are relatively closed technical systems. Indeed, a spectrum of regimes from “open” to “closed” may capture more of the important nuances in what makes a contemporary government than a spectrum that gauges levels of “democracy” and “authoritarianism.” The surveillance scandals triggered by Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning and the censorship tactics exposed by the OpenNet Initiative complicate many governments’ claims to being democratic. Thinking in terms of democracy and authoritarianism does not make sense in a world where authoritarian governments use digital media to measure and respond to public opinion in positive ways. A growing number of regimes permit no public displays of dissent or high-level elections but do build new ways of interacting with citizens, encourage involvement in public policy, permit digital activism on particular issues such as pollution and corruption, and allow local elections for minor offices.

Yet people migrated to other hashtags, making for a dynamic flow of content that was propelled by an eagerness to help one another.17 The story here is not that people tweeted and saved the world—the story is about altruism and survival strategies. Will the internet of things be a conduit for altruism? The Internet Is Also a Surveillance State While social media has helped communities connect during a crisis, it also provides big governments with a powerful surveillance tool. Edward Snowden gave us two lessons about how information technologies are used in the name of national security. The first is that the intelligence services don’t have a magic decryption key that unlocks everybody’s secrets. They have the political, economic, and social ties, or at least leverage, to get secrets out of the businesses that own and operate the infrastructure. The second is that most intelligence-technology services are contracted out to private firms.

When overwhelmed, governments have begun to address Anonymous as an equal in negotiation. The government of the Philippines has tried to engage with the group by making concessions and involving it in national cyberstrategy.18 Internet pundits have added to the chaos of international politics. Julian Assange’s online WikiLeaks project exposed diplomatic correspondence and upset many delicately balanced relationships among states and between power brokers. Both Assange and Edward Snowden decided that democracies were the least likely to provide them with just treatment as whistle blowers. The Russians gave Assange an online talk show and have sheltered Snowden. Moreover, many kinds of authoritarian regimes like Russia now employ their own social media gurus to engage with the public. Having more information and communication technologies hasn’t made international affairs more transparent, honest, or democratic.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

It has been alleged – although never proven – that the 9/11 terrorists used PGP encryption in their communications: ‘I have no idea whatsoever about that,’ says Omand. But he is convinced that terrorists would have been ‘delighted’ by information about the Edward Snowden leaks. ‘You can be sure that they were following the story very closely indeed: as would have been the Russian and Chinese governments.’ I asked him if he was worried about the rise in crypto-parties, or more widespread adoption of Tor, Mailpile and Dark Wallets. Might it make us less safe? ‘Yes, it does concern me. But you won’t stop the intelligence machine.’ He thinks intelligence officers will find a way around it – they have to – but it might end up being more intrusive than using the alleged methods exposed by Edward Snowden. He recounts that during the Cold War, Soviet cyphers were too strong for GCHQ to break, so British intelligence switched to recruiting more Soviet agents.

Gmail, by contrast, is supremely sleek, simple and fast. So Smári and two colleagues decided to develop their own, easy-to-use, encrypted email system – and raised $160,000 in August 2013 from supporters on Indiegogo to do so. It’s called Mailpile. ‘It will be feature-complete, and easy to use,’ Smári explains, opening his laptop to give me a sneak preview. It certainly looks good. In 2013, documents released by Edward Snowden alleged that the NSA, working with Britain’s GCHQ and others, was – among other things – tapping seabed ‘backbone’ internet cables, installing back-door access to private company servers and working to crack (and weaken) encryption standards, often without much legal basis, let alone a public debate. Fearful of government surveillance, ordinary people are taking measures to make themselves more secure online, and using software designed by people like Smári to help them.

p.97 ‘One is a social media platform . . .’ Technically speaking, Twister doesn’t store the posts themselves into the blockchain, but rather just the username records. p.98 ‘So Smári and two colleagues . . .’ http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/Mailpile-taking-email-back. p.99 ‘The cypherpunk message isn’t going unheeded . . .’ http://www.dailydot.com/news/pgp-encryption-snowden-prism-nsa/. p.99 ‘In 2013, documents released by Edward Snowden . . .’ James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald, ‘Revealed: how US and UK spy agencies defeat internet privacy and security’, Guardian, 6 September 2013 [http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/nsa-gchq-encryption-codes-security (accessed 20 November 2013)]; Ellen Nakashima, ‘NSA has made strides in thwarting encryption used to protect Internet communication’, Washington Post, 5 September 2013, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-09-05/world/41798759_1_encryption-nsa-internet (accessed 20 November 2013).


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Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

As its power grows, China is promoting a global norm of national, territorial control over the internet—and all other means of communication—effected both by domestic measures and through international organisations such as the International Telecommunication Union. (I say more about this under principle 9.) China’s Westphalian-Huntingtonian insistence on ‘information sovereignty’ resonates with many postcolonial countries, as well as postimperial ones such as Russia, especially following Edward Snowden’s revelations about the degree of US surveillance of international electronic traffic. Graciously visiting a Snowden-shaken Brazil in 2014, president Xi Jinping inaugurated a Portuguese-language version of the Baidu search engine and smiled on Brazilian partnership agreements signed by Huawei and Alibaba. He then pronounced: ‘In the current world, the development of the internet has posed new challenges to national sovereignty, security and development interests, and we must respond to this earnestly.

Angels, solicitous for our individual privacy rather than company profits or government interests, would have designed it differently. But the internet is not in the gentle arms of angels. It is run and exploited by companies and, to a varying but always significant degree, controlled and accessed by governments. Each of those two forms of power, private and public, constitutes a threat to privacy; the combination of the two, P2, is the biggest threat of all. This is the lesson that people rightly drew from Edward Snowden’s revelations that US and British authorities had both legally compelled telecommunications and internet companies to share data with them and illegally tapped into their cables. (More on this in the next chapter.) ARE YOU EVER ALONE? ‘Surveillance is the business model of the internet’, says security expert Bruce Schneier. ‘We build systems that spy on people in exchange for services.

But maybe the combined secret power of the state and companies, P2, is sometimes such that you need these extraordinary measures to combat it? It was not just hacktivists who covered their faces with the stylised Guy Fawkes mask of Anonymous, inspired by the film ‘V for Vendetta’, when they joined real-life protests at what they saw as the abuse of anonymous state and corporate power revealed by Julian Assange and Edward Snowden.144 After all, police or secret services would photograph you as you marched, and enter your digital image ineradicably into a searchable database. Perhaps it takes anonymous to restrain the power of anonymous? 8 SECRECY ‘We must be empowered to challenge all limits to freedom of information justified on such grounds as national security’. S: You can’t say that. C: Why not? S: We can’t tell you.


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Information Doesn't Want to Be Free: Laws for the Internet Age by Cory Doctorow, Amanda Palmer, Neil Gaiman

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Brewster Kahle, cloud computing, Dean Kamen, Edward Snowden, game design, Internet Archive, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, optical character recognition, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit maximization, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transfer pricing, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy

Would Iran really hesitate to ensure that they could conduct Staatstrojaner-grade surveillance on anyone, without the inconvenience of installing a Staatstrojaner-type program in the first place? If they chose to, Iran could just ban the sale of computers unless UEFI was set to require surveillance-friendly operating systems out of the box. And if it can happen there, it can happen here. 3.10 A World of Control and Surveillance THE EDWARD SNOWDEN leaks left much of the world in shock. Even the most paranoid security freaks were astounded to learn about the scope of the surveillance apparatus that had been built by the NSA, along with its allies in the “Five Eyes” countries (the UK, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia). The nontechnical world was most shocked by the revelation that the NSA was snaffling up such unthinkable mountains of everyday communications.

But more important, content-blocking and surveillance are the province of book burners and censors, not creators and publishers. We have fought for generations for the freedom of conscience necessary to have a robust intellectual and creative sphere. Our forebears risked jail, violence, even death for these freedoms. We owe it to them—and to our children—to pledge ourselves anew to these values in the era of the Internet. Edward Snowden taught us that the Internet could be harnessed and turned into an intrusive and terrifying surveillance mechanism. And since the Internet is likely to be a fixture in our lives and the lives of our children, we all have a duty to stop arguing about whether the Internet is good or bad for us and our particular corner of the world—a duty to figure out how to make the Internet into a force for helping people work and live together, with the privacy, self-determination, and freedom from interference and control that are the hallmarks of a just society.

On bad days, I’m petrified of the extent to which a despot could use technology to perfectly spy, to perfectly coordinate an army of thugs. But even on those bad days, I believe that the only answer to this fear is to seize the means of information and ensure that technology’s benefits are distributed to everyone, not just the powerful. A refusal to engage with (or protect) technology doesn’t mean that the bad guys won’t get it—just that the good guys will end up unarmed in the fights that are to come. Edward Snowden, our only credible authority on the capabilities of the world’s spy agencies, tells us that cryptography works. Good, secure networking technology allows everyday people the power to communicate with one another with such a high degree of security that even the most powerful, most adept surveillance agencies in the world can’t spy on them. Anything that can keep out the spies can also keep out crooks, voyeurs, and other creeps.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

The anti-Narratives emerge most powerfully from the pioneers in this collective de-programming exercise, the ice-breakers who, for diverse reasons, are prepared to go into incredibly hostile environments with nothing more than their self-faith to keep them going: It all begins with the whistle blowers, particularly those who can leak substantive documentation rather than personal stories and hearsay. Chelsea née Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden are the two main figures here, heroes in a real sense. Other whistle blowers of note are Annie Machon, Gareth Williams, Russel Tice, Jeffrey Sterling, Stephen Jin-Woo Kim, Jesselyn Radack, Thomas Drake, Daniel Ellsberg, and William Binney. We then have the independent media who are willing to report these documents, at personal risk. There is Julian Assange, building wikileaks.org around Manning's leaks, and Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras, reporting in the Guardian on Edward Snowden's leaks. Again, heroic figures who have changed the course of history. We see academics like Dr Daniele Ganser, who know their history and are immune to this particular Narrative because they have seen so many like it.

The burden rests on whistle blowers, and the life of a whistle blower is not an easy one. Leaking sensitive information about malpractice in a business usually leads to firing, blacklisting, and poverty. It's still better than the life of a person who leaks state secrets. Such individuals tend to get suicidal in the most creative ways. Even darknets can't always survive determined leaks, as Chelsea née Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden showed. No security is perfect because it depends on people, and people make mistakes. Someone plugs an off-the-shelf laptop into a darknet, and suddenly it's trivial to copy gigabytes of documents to a USB drive. A maintenance engineer calls the head of operations warning that there's a problem with a router and they have to reset a password. However that "engineer" is a hacker and he gets the system password and access to every every server.

A handful of phone companies control Internet access for most people, and a handful of websites account for most Internet traffic. The capturing of the airwaves is an old sport. What's shifted is the sheer volume and focus. It's the mass digitization of social activity, and its concentration, that has created fertile ground for the greatest spy regime of all time. The Listeners In 2013, Edward Snowden focused the public's attention on the scale and audacity of the global surveillance state, mainly the American parts, and the roles played by the UK and France. The goal of this surveillance state was, and presumably still is, to know everything about everyone, all the time. However, the growth of the global surveillance state wasn't really news. We've been hearing reports of this for some time.


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The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Certainly online eyes remain much less valuable than offline ones, with average advertising rates of the printed edition of a major newspaper being around ten times its online cost.36 The same is true of the value of offline versus online readers, with the Newspaper Association of America estimating that the average print reader is worth around $539 versus the $26 value of the online reader.37 And free certainly isn’t working as an economic model for online newspapers. Take, for example, the world’s third most frequently visited news website, the London Guardian. In spite of breaking the News of the World phone hacking scandal and the Edward Snowden and WikiLeaks stories, the Guardian has reported operating losses of more than £100 million since 2010, with a stunning £50 million lost just between 2012 and 2013.38 No wonder the Guardian is experimenting with a robot-generated print edition called #Open001, which replaces editors with algorithms to select relevant stories for publication.39 But robots can’t write the kind of high-quality journalism that distinguishes the Guardian from most of its rivals.

But Mielke’s work has been memorialized in the old Berlin headquarters of the Stasi, which has been transformed into a museum displaying the technologies of surveillance that he used to snoop on the East German people. The former East German Ministry for State Security is located on a particularly gray, nondescript street near the Magdalenenstrasse U-Bahn station, a few subway stops away from the center of Berlin. It’s not too far from the US embassy on Pariser Platz, where, the American whistle-blower Edward Snowden revealed, the NSA had a spy hub that monitored the cell phone calls of German chancellor Angela Merkel16—a privacy breach so angering Merkel that the chancellor, who grew up in East Germany, compared the snooping practices of the NSA to the Stasi’s.17 Nor is it a great distance from the British embassy beside the Brandenburg Gate, where, according to documents leaked by Snowden, the British intelligence agency GCHQ was running its own separate spying operation on the German government.18 The gray old Stasi headquarters in Berlin, permanently frozen now in its 1989 appearance, is defiantly analog.

“Who should we fear more with our data: the government or companies?” asks Guardian columnist Ana Marie Cox.47 Unfortunately, however, it’s not an either/or question. In today’s networked world, we should fear both the government and private big data companies like Facebook and Google. We got a preview of this terrifying new world in the summer of 2013 with the National Security Agency data-mining Prism scandal revealed by the former NSA analyst Edward Snowden. “If Big Brother came back, he’d be a public-private partnership,” explained the British historian Timothy Garton Ash. And it’s exactly this kind of partnership between big data companies like Google and the NSA—both the government and private companies—that we should most fear. According to a June 2013 report in the New York Times, the Prism program “grew out of the National Security Agency’s desire several years ago to begin addressing the agency’s need to keep up with the explosive growth of social media.”48 Prism showed the backdoor access to the data of their customers that Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, PalTalk, AOL, Skype, YouTube, and Apple all gave—or were legally required to give, according to these companies—to the government.


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The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The emotional repercussions of disturbing encounters can be felt long after the danger has passed; romantic relationships are severed by distance; the future is perpetually uncertain. Poitras, however, wasn’t complaining. She experiences her work as a gift, a difficult process but a deeply satisfying one, and was already busy planning her next project, about the erosion of civil liberties in the wake of the war on terror. In January 2013 she was contacted by an anonymous source that turned out to be Edward Snowden, the whistle-blower preparing to make public a trove of documents revealing the National Security Administration’s massive secret digital surveillance program. He had searched Poitras out, certain that she was someone who would understand the scope of the revelations and the need to proceed cautiously. Soon she was on a plane to Hong Kong to shoot an interview that would shake the world and in the middle of another film that would take her places she never could have predicted at the outset.2 No simple formula explains the relationship between creative effort and output, nor does the quantity of time invested in a project correlate in any clear way to quality—quality being, of course, a slippery and subjective measure in itself.

(New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013); Kate Losse’s The Boy Kings: A Journey into the Heart of the Social Network (New York: Free Press, 2012); Evgeny Morozov’s The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011) and To Save Everything Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism (New York: PublicAffairs, 2013); Eli Pariser’s The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You (New York: Penguin Press, 2011); Robert McChesney’s Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy (New York: The New Press, 2013); and Siva Vaidhyanathan’s The Googlization of Everything: (And Why We Should Worry) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). 3. On the existence of a sprawling international surveillance infrastructure, see the reporting of Glenn Greenwald on Edward Snowden’s leaks pertaining to the National Security Administration for the Guardian and Barton Gellman for the Washington Post. For more information about uncompetitive business practices, read about the antitrust investigation into Google, which critics say unfairly blocks or demotes its rivals. For example, Brent Kendall, Amir Efrati, Thomas Catan, and Shira Ovide, “Behind Google’s Antitrust Escape,” Wall Street Journal, January 5, 2013.

For example, Mother Jones reported that streaming an album multiple times can quickly have more of an energy impact than producing and shipping a CD. 12. Mooallem, “The Afterlife of Cellphones.” 13. Leonard, The Story of Stuff, 202–3. 14. Mooallem, “The Afterlife of Cellphones.” 15. Chip Bayers, “Why Silicon Valley Can’t Sell,” Ad Week, July 11, 2011. 16. Julia Angwin, “Sites Feed Personal Details to New Tracking Industry,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2010; Documents released by Edward Snowden reveal that corporate tracking enables government snooping: “The National Security Agency is secretly piggybacking on the tools that enable Internet advertisers to track consumers, using ‘cookies’ and location data to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance.” Ashkan Soltani, Andrea Peterson, and Barton Gellman, The Washington Post, “NSA Uses Google Cookies to Pinpoint Targets for Hacking,” December 10, 2013. 17.


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Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

But the Israelis also reportedly hacked Syria’s air-defense system using on-board technology for an “air-to-ground electronic attack” and then further penetrated the system through computer-to-computer links, according to US intelligence analysts.27 A recent report from the US Government Accountability Office describes air-to-ground attacks as useful for reaching “otherwise inaccessible networks” that can’t be reached through a wired connection.28 In 2011, during the civilian uprising in Libya, there had also been talk of using cyberattacks to sever that country’s military communications links and prevent early-warning systems from detecting the arrival of NATO warplanes. The plan was nixed, however, because there wasn’t enough time to prepare the attack. The need for a longer lead time is one of the primary drawbacks of digital operations—designing an attack that won’t cascade to nontargeted civilian systems requires advance reconnaissance and planning, making opportunistic attacks difficult.29 More recently, leaks from former NSA systems administrator Edward Snowden have provided some of the most extensive views yet of the government’s shadowy cyber operations in its asymmetric war on terror. The documents describe NSA elite hacker forces at Fort Meade and at regional centers in Georgia, Texas, Colorado, and Hawaii, who provide US Cyber Command with the attack tools and techniques it needs for counterterrorism operations. But the government cyberwarriors have also worked with the FBI and CIA on digital spy operations, including assisting the CIA in tracking targets for its drone assassination campaign.

Although Flame had a long list of files it was seeking, it didn’t steal every file it found. Instead, it extracted 1 KB of text from each and transmitted it back to one of the command servers. From there it was likely passed to another location, where Raiu suspected the attackers had a supercomputer set up to sift through all the text samples that came in and determine which files the attackers wanted to grab in full. Notably, a year later when the NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden were published, they described a system codenamed TURBINE that was designed to do something very similar to this. (See this page.) With such an elaborate operation set up for Flame, it was no surprise that the attack had been around for a while. The earliest infection uncovered, on a machine in Europe, occurred in December 2007.7 A machine in Dubai was struck in April 2008. Some of the domains the attackers used for their command servers were also registered around this time.

.…” If it was NOBUS, he said, officials might “let it ride” and take advantage of the vulnerability for a while, at the same time knowing full well “that the longer this goes, the more other people might actually be able to exploit it.”38 But given the state of computer security today, and the amount of hammering the United States is taking from cyberattacks, Hayden said he was prepared to acknowledge that it might be time to reevaluate this process. “If the habits of an agency that were built up in a pre-digital, analog age … are the habits of an agency [that is] culturally tilted a little too much toward the offense in a world in which everybody now is vulnerable,” he said, then the government might want to reassess. In a report issued by a surveillance reform board convened by the White House in the wake of the Edward Snowden leaks, board members specifically addressed this issue and recommended that the National Security Council establish a process for reviewing the government’s use of zero days. “US policy should generally move to ensure that Zero Days are quickly blocked, so that the underlying vulnerabilities are patched on US Government and other networks,” the review board wrote, noting that only “in rare instances, US policy may briefly authorize using a Zero Day for high priority intelligence collection, following senior, interagency review involving all appropriate departments.”39 In almost all instances, they wrote, it is “in the national interest to eliminate software vulnerabilities rather than to use them for US intelligence collection.”


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

The mass expansion of the privatized surveillance state was confined to the realm of science fiction before that fateful September day in 2001. Today, there are 4 million US citizens who hold Top Secret security clearance, of whom 500,000 are contractors.31 Robert Greiner, who was the CIA station chief in Islamabad, Pakistan, at the time of the 9/11 attacks, said in 2010 that he believed at least half of the staff working at the CIA’s counterterrorism center were private contractors.32 Former NSA employee Edward Snowden exposed the dangers of mass surveillance being managed by private enterprise when he leaked documents in 2013 proving how easy it was for firms such as Booz Allen Hamilton to view and store information on citizens. It is nothing less than a privatized, modern-day Stasi. The claim that “the world is a battlefield” reflects a military ideology pursued by both Democrat and Republican administrations, as has been detailed by investigative journalist Jeremy Scahill.

He also explained that the intelligence being relied upon was often wrong, and that during the raids he struggled to make sense of the chaos unleashed in Afghan homes when the US soldiers burst in on sleeping men, women, and children. Carol slammed the presence of US special forces, calling them mere “Taliban hunters.” She argued that “being Taliban or related to Taliban members is not necessarily against the country’s positive future, but [the] US seems to see all Taliban as enemy.” This did not bode well for future peace in Afghanistan. Documents released by former NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden revealed that NATO killed not just Taliban leaders but countless low-level and mid-level Afghans, as well as drug dealers. Little evidence was needed to kill these individuals. The head of ISAF intelligence in Afghanistan, Michael T. Flynn, explained the mindset: “The only good Talib is a dead Talib.”70 Another consequence of intelligence privatization was that local security entrepreneurs had become the new Afghan elite—the inevitable rise of locals out to exploit the naivety of the country’s occupiers.

It was a city with armies of golf carts, which minors were allowed to drive around town. Vinnie was my host for the day, and he drove us in his SUV for two hours to Lumpkin. He had worked in PR for all of his professional life, from the US military in Kuwait to the US National Park Service. He was skeptical of foreign military interventions, was a supporter of journalist Glenn Greenwald and former NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, and said that the immigration system needed urgent reform. He was not the typical representative of a hardline government department known for brutally expelling immigrants. Vinnie said that the Stewart center had provided essential economic opportunities in Lumpkin, an undeveloped town. The detention center parking lot was filled with vehicles when we arrived. Vinnie parked in the section designated for ICE staff, and nearby was a padlocked enclosure where visiting law-enforcement officers left their weapons upon entry.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

Starbucks, Amazon, and Alaska Airlines have expressed interest in placing analysts at the WJAC.182 After FedEx’s CEO announced that his company would cooperate with the government, FedEx received a range of government perks including special access to government security databases, a seat on the FBI’s regional terrorism task force—where it was the only private company so represented— and an exceptional license from the state of Tennessee to develop an internal police force.183 Like the banks integrated into the Lower Manhattan setup, FedEx is sharing the privileges and immunities of the state, but not the accountability. Google is also reported to have entered into deals with the NSA, but an effort by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) to find out whether that was indeed the case was quashed by a federal 50 THE BLACK BOX SOCIETY judge.184 The NSA neither confirms nor denies working with Google to develop its intelligence operations, even after the spectacular revelations of Edward Snowden in 2013. Armies and spies have always relied on stealth; after all, loose lips sink ships. But secrecy also breeds conflicts of interest. Why should Google worry about potential antitrust violations if it’s monitoring Internet access side by side with the DHS and the NSA?185 Like the “too big to fail” banks, it may be “too important to surveillance” for the government to alienate the firm. In 2013, in fact, leaked documents showed that the NSA (or a British partner) targeted the official who was in charge of investigating Google’s alleged violations of EU competition law.186 As a growing literature suggests, privatization can be more than a transaction between government and business.

It can be a marriage—a secret marriage—with a hidden economy of favors exchanged.187 Revolving-door issues loom especially large; government officials looking out for their futures may channel work to a company or industry they have their eyes on.188 Many security officials go on to lucrative private-sector employment soon after leaving public service.189 The manipulation of threat perception by the “homeland security-industrial complex” feeds corporate profits as well as government budgets. All Threats, All Hazards, All Information? Though critics like James Bamford and Tim Shorrock have thoughtfully covered the intelligence beat for years, the full extent of the government’s independent data-gathering practices exploded into public awareness in 2013, when NSA contractor Edward Snowden leaked material documenting extensive domestic surveillance. Snowden’s files suggest that the NSA is working directly with (or hacking) our largest telecom and Internet companies to store and monitor communications; that the agency can seize and bug computers that have never been attached to the Internet; and that it can crack many types of encryption that had previously been thought secure.190 Very little of this relentless collecting is inspired by suspicion about any particular person or plot.

We may learn a great deal about the target of the hack, but innocent people’s secrets can be exposed as well. A fully transparent society would be a nightmare of privacy invasion, voyeurism, and intellectual property theft. Sometimes the route to orderly and productive investigation is to entrust the job to a small group of experts. For example, courts often need to have a deep knowledge about events leading up to a legal dispute. Even leading leakers seem to agree: both Julian Assange and Edward Snowden fi ltered their revelations though trusted news sources. I call this general trend “qualified transparency”—limiting revelations in order to respect all the interests involved in a given piece of information. As time goes on, the negative impact of disclosure fades. Statutes of limitation run; power moves to other hands; technology that was once state-of-the-art becomes irrelevant. In the corporate context, at least, far more should eventually be revealed than we presently are privy to.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

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23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Over the last decade, the U.S. government has, by law and by policy, granted itself massive electronic surveillance capabilities. Due to vigorous reporting and important leaks from intelligence-industry whistleblowers, we now know that U.S. intelligence agencies, along with their foreign partners, have access to immense quantities of Internet traffic, some of it available in real time. “They quite literally can watch your ideas form as you type,” NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden told the Washington Post. The NSA recently opened a $2 billion data center in Utah, a facility designed to help crack previously unbreakable encryption methods and to store and mine the billions of e-mails, phone calls, and other electronic communications that the NSA sucks up around the world. The data center is designed to handle a yottabyte—1 septillion bytes—or more of data. That’s hundreds of times more information than passes through the Internet each year; it’s vastly more than the sum of all human knowledge.

It’s not easy trying to become a micro-celebrity. Living in an environment of mutual surveillance produces its own anxieties. Surveillance, after all, is predicated on vigilance, discernment, and judgment. It’s an environment of suspicion, the definition of which has become elastic in an age of ubiquitous surveillance, when intelligence services, Facebook, and market research firms insist on collecting data about everyone. Edward Snowden helped popularize the term “suspicionless surveillance.” By this, he meant surveillance without cause, which shifts the presumption of innocence toward guilt. The mutual surveillance of social media still has the skeptical and judgmental qualities of classic surveillance, but now we must prove ourselves not as innocent but as worthy of interest, of being followed and celebritized. When viewed through the lens of surveillance culture, the rhetoric of tech executives isn’t surprising.

Our friends become our press agents, and we return the favor for them, knowing that it grants us social capital. And we’ll present our lives as precious and perfect and worthy of being known, because there is no trite saying that better embodies celebrity than “fake it till you make it.” Your public awaits; it just might not know it yet. In rare cases, visibility serves as a form of security. Edward Snowden outed himself as the source of NSA leaks because it ensured that he couldn’t be spirited back to the United States and kept incommunicado. He pursued and embraced viral fame because there was safety in having his name known. To use a term native to digital culture, one that I’ll explore more deeply in the next chapter, he “doxed” himself—he revealed his identity. By shedding the cloak of anonymity, he hoped to protect himself and gain sympathy from a wider public.


pages: 389 words: 108,344

Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn

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airport security, anti-communist, Edward Snowden, friendly fire, Google Earth, license plate recognition, RAND corporation, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, too big to fail

Settling into their new home, the terrorists stayed in regular contact with the organization by phoning al-Midhar’s father-in-law’s house in Yemen, which served as an al-Qaeda message center. These conversations were duly swept up by the NSA’s omnivorous global eavesdropping system, but the intelligence went no further. Many years later, the electronic intelligence agency, under fire thanks to whistle-blower Edward Snowden’s revelations of its mass surveillance programs, would claim that had such programs been in place before 9/11, they would have nipped the attacks in the bud. President Obama himself, in defending the massive domestic “metadata” phone records program, repeated this canard. But, as a number of former senior NSA officials swiftly pointed out, the NSA not only had been intercepting calls to and from the Yemeni house since 1996 but also could very easily have traced them back to San Diego.

Then, later, when we went to get one of those people, the device pings his phone and tells us where he is.” The devices, also known generically as “virtual base-tower receivers,” could be carried not only by a person or vehicle but also in a pod mounted on a drone. The implications of these developments in tracking technology were thrilling, at least to the NSA and its partners. An NSA document dated March 3, 2005, and later released by the whistle-blower Edward Snowden asks rhetorically: What resembles “LITTLE BOY” [one of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan during World war II] and as LITTLE BOY did, represents the dawn of a new era (at least in SIGINT and precision geolocation)? If you answered a pod mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is currently flying in support of the Global War on Terrorism, you would be correct. If and when everything worked as planned, the drones would not only help locate targets via their cell phones but also stream video of them and their locations before they finally broadcast dramatic imagery of their destruction for screening to an appreciative audience on Kill TV.

A simple check on Internet job postings from corporations on contract to service the system helps to convey the scale of the business. Openings at just the Langley node, for example, were appearing daily, with no sign of a slowdown even as Washington rang with talk of austerity and “a hollowed out military.” A typical day’s sample in early March 2014 advertised openings for, variously, a “systems administrator” (the position that Edward Snowden put to good use) required by CACI International, a “subject matter expert” sought by Sehike Consulting, an “intelligence capabilities analyst” required by Digital Management, while General Dynamics was looking for a network engineer. All positions required at least a Top Secret Clearance, and most mandated SCI (special compartmented information), which usually meant signals intelligence. Salaries ranged between $120,000 and $170,000 annually, though of course the contractors would be adding a hefty overhead when submitting bills to the taxpayer.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

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3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Currently, the safest thing one can do is use TailsOS, an operating system that exists solely on a USB stick or other storage device and is reflashed (i.e., erased of data outside the operating system itself) every time it is used. It is like having a brand new Internet identity every time you use it. When used in combination with other privacy techniques, TailsOS can even help circumvent government or other spying significantly. TailsOS was credited by Edward Snowden as being instrumental in helping him maintain his privacy while he leaked what are now known as the Snowden Documents.5 The people who can take advantage of Bitcoin in order to move money overseas without government approval are people who already fly under the radar. Preventing someone from moving their life savings out of a country before they emigrate elsewhere without paying taxes is not likely the kind of financial crime most of us worry about stopping.

The concept of government-endorsed backdoors faded from the cryptography community—although that didn’t stop the NSA from covertly adding its own backdoors, as when it paid security firm RSA to preserve security flaws for its snooping operations.5,6 Yet it could be argued they eventually lost the larger battle for the mind—if not the heart—of the general public. Even though the public had gained the ability to keep its communications private, the vast majority didn’t feel like they needed to. From the mid-1990s and until Edward Snowden’s revelations of widespread and illegal government spying, the general public overwhelmingly used the Internet, email, and other forms of electronic communication completely unencrypted, mostly oblivious to the inherent risk. Meanwhile, the government designed surveillance programs and built backdoors into our technology. Even today, after Snowden’s revelations, the vast majority of users still send their emails unencrypted and browse the web using Firefox, Chrome, or Internet Explorer—rarely do they add extra security features.

More recently, financial giants Goldman Sachs,18 USAA,19 and NASDAQ20 all announced they were jumping on the Bitcoin bandwagon and were exploring technologies based on the blockchain. The list of merchants that accept Bitcoin has also continued to grow and now includes Microsoft, PayPal’s Braintree, Dell, DishNetwork, Expedia, Overstock.com, The American Red Cross, RE/MAX London, Save The Children, Edward Snowden’s legal defense fund, and countless others.21,22 One Bitcoin exchange, Circle, is registered and compliant with the New York Department of Financial Services. During the 2016 US presidential race, Rand Paul, a major candidate for the Republican nomination, was accepting Bitcoin donations. I don’t pretend to know what the future of Bitcoin looks like. However, Mt. Gox was arguably the worst thing that could have happened to Bitcoin and it didn’t kill the currency.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Currency, Contracts, and Applications beyond Financial Markets The potential benefits of the blockchain are more than just economic—they extend into political, humanitarian, social, and scientific domains—and the technological capacity of the blockchain is already being harnessed by specific groups to address real-world problems. For example, to counter repressive political regimes, blockchain technology can be used to enact in a decentralized cloud functions that previously needed administration by jurisdictionally bound organizations. This is obviously useful for organizations like WikiLeaks (where national governments prevented credit card processors from accepting donations in the sensitive Edward Snowden situation) as well as organizations that are transnational in scope and neutral in political outlook, like Internet standards group ICANN and DNS services. Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models.

Wikipedia is a similar transnational public good that is currently subject to a local jurisdiction that could impose on the organization an artificial or biased agenda. It is possible that blockchain mechanisms might be the most efficient and equitable models for administering all transnational public goods, particularly due to their participative, democratic, and distributed nature. A notable case in which jurisdictional nation-state entities were able to effect centralized and biased control is WikiLeaks. In the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing case in 2010, individuals were trying to make financial contributions in support of the WikiLeaks organization but, strongarmed by centralized government agendas, credit card payment networks and PayPal, refused to accept such contributions, and WikiLeaks was effectively embargoed.75 Bitcoin contributions, had they been possible at the time, would have been direct, and possibly produced a different outcome.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

User profiling through big-data analysis and inference techniques is opening the way for new, much more customized and personalized services, which can benefit users and consumers, but which also raise important concerns when it comes to user privacy and individual autonomy. Given increased concerns around cyber crime and identity theft, in many jurisdictions, the balance between surveillance and freedom is rapidly tipping towards increased monitoring, as shown by revelations brought to light by Edward Snowden, the American intelligence analyst who leaked documents relating to US national security operations. Availability and inclusion As the global economy increasingly moves into the digital realm, the availability of reliable internet infrastructure becomes a crucial prerequisite for a flourishing economy. Governments need to understand the potential provided by these technological advances. Not only do they need to adopt these technologies to optimize their internal operations, they also need to promote and support their widespread deployment and use to move forward towards a globally connected information society.

In our new digital age, it is indeed difficult to step back, though not impossible. 3.5.3 Managing Public and Private Information One of the greatest individual challenges posed by the internet, and our increasing degree of interconnectedness in general, concerns privacy. It is an issue that looms larger and larger because, as the Harvard University political philosopher Michael Sandel has observed “we seem to be increasingly willing to trade privacy for convenience with many of the devices that we routinely use”.68 Spurred in part by the revelations of Edward Snowden, the global debate about the meaning of privacy in a world of greater transparency has only just begun, as we see how the internet can be an unprecedented tool of liberation and democratization and at the same time, an enabler of indiscriminate, far-reaching and almost unfathomable mass surveillance. Why does privacy matter so much? We all instinctively understand why privacy is so essential for our individual selves.


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

But of course, even if this is true, it doesn’t really answer the question. That’s because it depends on what you are hiding and whom you are hiding it from. Hiding a criminal past is one thing; hiding Jews in your basement from the Nazis is another. In reality, there are much more basic reasons information privacy matters to us. The Pool of Information In the summer of 2014, following the revelations of Edward Snowden, the Washington Post revealed what many had long suspected: that the NSA, in targeting foreign nationals, is collecting and storing extremely large amounts of information on American citizens.5 This information is not restricted to meta-data of the sort collected by the NSA’s infamous phone data collection program. It is content—photos, Web chats, emails and the like. U.S. law prevents the targeting of U.S. citizens without a warrant (even if it is just a warrant from the secret court established for this purpose by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978).

This is not just common sense, it explains why the NSA’s repeated assertions that they aren’t actually looking at the content of emails, or targeting Americans, should have been greeted with skepticism. The pool of data is a pool of knowledge. Knowledge is power; and power corrupts. It is difficult to avoid drawing the inference that absolute knowledge might corrupt absolutely. That, not surprisingly, is the view of folks like Edward Snowden. But a growing number of stories strongly suggest that fear of abuse is more than a mere theoretical worry. These examples are not constrained to the widely reported cases of NSA employees using their access to spy on sexual partners,6 nor to similar cases in the UK where analysts collected sexually explicit photos of citizens without cause. More troubling, if less titillating, is the fact that the secret FISA court itself has complained that the NSA misrepresented its compliance with the court’s previous rulings that various NSA techniques were unconstitutional.7 In other words, the FISA court is being ignored by the very agency it is assigned to oversee and monitor.


Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport

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Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining

He emphasizes the need for “analytics that work,” which he describes as analytics that are reliable and robust and capable of being automated. The analytics, algorithms, and user interfaces must be connected to provide new methods to interact with and support the “human in the loop.” Perhaps some of this push toward automation is being driven by the fact that at least one “human in the loop” in the intelligence community, Edward Snowden, used the data from the military and intelligence machinery to become what Michael Hayden, a former CIA and National Security Agency director, called “the most costly leaker of American secrets in the history of the Republic.”13 Chapter_01.indd 19 03/12/13 3:24 AM 20  big data @ work One element of the new architecture for big data is the view of ­discovery and analysis as the first order of business.

Davenport, Paul Barth, and Randy Bean, “How Big Data Is Different,” MIT Sloan Management Review (Fall 2012), http:// sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-fall/54104/how-big-data-is-different/. 11.  Schwartz was interviewed by Paul Barth and Randy Bean for “How Big Data Is Different.” 12.  Spencer Ackerman, “Welcome to the Age of Big Drone Data,” Wired.com, April 25, 2013, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2013/04/drone-sensors-big-data/. Notes.indd 211 03/12/13 1:13 PM 212  Notes 13.  Michael Hayden, “Ex-CIA Chief: What Edward Snowden Did,” CNN.com, July 19, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/19/opinion/hayden-snowden-impact. 14.  Peter Drucker, “The Next Information Revolution,” Forbes ASAP, August 24, 1998. 15.  Thomas H. Davenport, “Recorded Future: Analyzing Internet Ideas About What Comes Next,” Case 613-083 (Boston: Harvard Business School, 2013). 16.  Anand Rajaram, “More Data Usually Beats Better Algorithms,” Datawocky (blog), http://anand.typepad.com/datawocky/2008/03/more-data-usual.html. 17. 


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

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23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Equally important for this to be successful is dealing with big unresolved issues of privacy and security. Failure to do that could destroy the very possibilities that open medicine could realize. That’s next up. Chapter 12 Secure vs. Cure “I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded.” —EDWARD SNOWDEN1 “Today’s Web-enabled gadgets should come with a digital Miranda warning: Anything you say or do online, from a status update to a selfie, can and will be used as evidence against you on the Internet.” —NICK BILTON, New York Times2 In a world of Julian Assange’s Wikileaks and Edward Snowden’s exposé of the National Security Agency, we are progressing toward zero tolerance of governmental non-transparency.1,3 At the same time, massive Internet security breaches are occurring or being discovered, from retailers like Target to the Heartbleed bug.

And what about all the breaches affecting less than five hundred patients that are not reported to the individuals? It’s bad enough that a large number of medical centers in the United States, and most of the highly prestigious ones with elaborate health information systems, have suffered a breach of electronic medical records. Although some are due to hackers (in about 14 percent of cases), far more are due to a stolen laptop or USB drive (more than 50 percent of cases). Further, according to Edward Snowden, the NSA has cracked the encryption that is used to protect medical records for Americans. With the markedly increasing use of telemedicine and virtual consults, as reviewed in Chapter 9, there must be concern about the security of these electronic exchanges. While many of the companies are using the term “secure” liberally in their promotional materials, all it will take is a full virtual visit to be widely transmitted over the Web before this type of medical encounter becomes suspect.


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The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, jitney, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

The CIA was also in the midst of a news frenzy about enhanced interrogation techniques such as waterboarding. The last thing it needed was another media black eye, even if our program was effective and legal. In fact, Morell’s instincts proved prophetic. On November 14, 2013, The Wall Street Journal actually did run a headline that said “CIA’s Financial Spying Bags Data on Americans.” But coming as it did in the midst of a wave of similar revelations by defector Edward Snowden, this disclosure went almost unnoticed. I told Morell that we would end our SEC referrals, and I offered to provide him with the technical specifications needed to assure the agency that the information we used was open source and involved no individuals. He thanked me, and with that the meeting was over. Only later did I realize that MARKINT, at least as far as the CIA was concerned, had just become a dead letter.

It collects intelligence information on foreign targets by surreptitiously hacking into their computers and telecommunications systems, cracking passwords, compromising the computer security systems protecting the targeted computer, stealing the data stored on computer hard drives, and then copying all the messages and data traffic passing within the targeted email and text-messaging systems. Spying operations such as TAO are far more sophisticated than the relatively simple sweeps of e-mail and telephone message traffic revealed by Edward Snowden in 2013. Wall Street is also improving its finance-related cyberabilities. On July 18, 2013, a securities industry trade organization sponsored a financial war game, called Quantum Dawn 2, that involved more than five hundred individuals from about fifty entities and government agencies. Quantum Dawn 2 was aimed principally at preventing attacks that would disrupt normal trading. While useful, this goal falls short of preparing for a more sophisticated type of attack that would mimic, rather than disrupt, order-entry systems.

The BRICS reaffirmed their commitment to their new multilateral lending facility at their summit in St. Petersburg on September 5, 2013, held in conjunction with the G20 Leaders Summit. At that summit, the BRICS agreed that their contributions to the new fund would come 41 percent from China, 18 percent each from Russia, Brazil, and India, and 5 percent from South Africa. In a surprising coda to the revelations of U.S. spying on allies emerging from defector Edward Snowden, Brazil announced plans in September 2013 to build a twenty-thousand-mile undersea fiber optic cable network from Fortaleza, Brazil, to Vladivostok, Russia, with links in Cape Town, South Africa, Chennai, India, and Shantou, China, to be completed by 2015. This system is tantamount to a BRICS Internet intended to be free from U.S. surveillance. The United States has long had excellent capability in tapping into undersea cables, so the actual security of the new system may be problematic.


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Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Ben Schiller, “A Revolution of Outcomes: How Pay-for-Success Contracts Are Changing Public Services,” Co.Exist, www.fastcoexist.com/3047219/a-revolution-of-outcomes-how-pay-for-success-contracts-are-changing-public-services. Also see: www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2013/11/20/building-smarter-more-efficient-government-through-pay-success. 29. R. C. Porter, “Can You ‘Snowden-Proof’ the NSA?: How the Technology Behind the Digital Currency—Bitcoin—Could Stop the Next Edward Snowden,” Fortuna’s Corner, June 3, 2015; http://fortunascorner.com/2015/06/03/can-you-snowden-proof-the-nsa-how-the-technology-behind-the-digital-currency-bitcoin-could-stop-the-next-edward-snowden/. 30. Elliot Maras, “London Mayoral Candidate George Galloway Calls for City Government to Use Block Chain for Public Accountability,” Bitcoin News, July 2, 2015; www.cryptocoinsnews.com/london-mayoral-candidate-george-galloway-calls-city-government-use-block-chain-public-accountability/. 31.

PRIVACY, FREE SPEECH, AND FREE PRESS ON THE BLOCKCHAIN Personal privacy, free speech, and free press are essential to an open, free, and prosperous society. On one hand, citizens must be able to communicate privately and anonymously. On the other hand, they must be able to speak freely and securely without fear of repercussion. Online censorship, the hacking of large institutions and civil society, and Edward Snowden’s revelations of mass and targeted surveillance and data fracking have driven citizens of well-established democracies to seek anonymity and encryption technologies. These tools enable them to disguise their identities and scramble their messages in transit and in storage so that only authorized persons may access them. Here’s the rub—encryption technologies are either not legal for individual use or not readily available in those countries whose citizens need them most.


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Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

Some premium news organizations, such as the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, have thus far avoided that fate thanks to paywalls or freemium models. But few have actually changed their fundamental model. Meanwhile, a plethora of new media startups have entered the field, among them Medium, Inside, BuzzFeed, Mashable, Blendle and Correspondent. The Guardian, a UK-based newspaper best known for unleashing Edward Snowden’s revelations onto the world, has been furiously innovating on the traditional model of newsgathering. Advised by industry icons Jeff Jarvis and Nicco Mele (who describes the Guardian’s model in his recent book, The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath), the Guardian has been audacious in its efforts to reinvent journalism. Here are some of the paper’s initiatives: In 2007, the Guardian offered a free blogging platform for thought leaders and created online forums and discussion groups [Community and Crowd].

Goodman recommends that CIOs run Red Ops teams to find hidden breaches before external agents can exploit them, pointing to a study showing that if you leave a thumb drive in an office parking lot, 60 percent of employees will plug it into their corporate computers to see what is on it (thus instantly compromising security). If the company logo happens to be printed on the thumb drive (an absurdly easy ruse), a whopping 90 percent of employees will plug it in. Does your company’s CIO ban all thumb drives and work overtime to alert all employees (not to mention contractors, who are the potential Edward Snowdens on your payroll) to this particular danger? Key Area to Track Implications and Actions BYOx Bring your own devices, technology, services and sensors to the company, providing a lot more data and resulting in more possibilities and innovation. Cloud access Access to social technologies, data and services everywhere, independent of location (cloud access). AI assistants Artificial intelligence to manage appointments, planning, information, help/FAQ, etc.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

They also act as aerial drones and doctor’s assistants. They’re even beginning to be seen in the boardroom and the workplace. Many commercial robots look like vacuum cleaners with a screen on top and are no more than ventriloquist’s dummies; after the comical first impression, it’s disconcerting to realize that there’s a real person at the other end of the device. A striking recent example was a talk by Edward Snowden at the TED2014 conference.4 The controversial NSA whistleblower was in hiding somewhere in Russia, but he was represented on stage by a screen attached to two long legs that ended in a motorized cart. Snowden communicated with the moderator and turned toward the audience to answer questions; he could see and hear everything that was going on. At a 2012 symposium on “Space Exploration via Telepresence,” held at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, scientists rubbed shoulders with roboticists and technology entrepreneurs.

Intriguingly, telepresence doesn’t have to convey the remote scene with perfect fidelity, because the brain has a tendency to “fill in the blanks” and “smooth out the rough edges” of any representation that is familiar. See “Another Look at ‘Being There’ Experiences in Digital Media: Exploring Connections of Telepresence with Mental Imagery” by I. Rodriguez-Ardura and F. J. Martinez-Lopez 2014. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 30, pp. 508–18. 3. Brother Assassin by F. Saberhagen 1997. New York: Tor Books. 4. See http://www.ted.com/talks/edward_snowden_here_s_how_we_take_back_the_internet. 5. “Multi-Objective Compliance Control of Redundant Manipulators: Hierarchy, Control, and Stability” by A. Dietrich, C. Ott, and A. Albu-Schaffer 2013. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, pp. 3043–50. 6. Human Haptic Perception, ed. by M. Grunwald 2008. Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlag. 7. “Telepresence” by M.


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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Not only was ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), the Internet addressing authority, established in California and its relationship with the US federal authorities long controversial, but today the United States is still (and may remain) the unnamed, unmarked center of addressable Internet space (US websites are usually “.com” not “.co.us” as they would be without this infrastructural exceptionalism). It is in this context that the National Security Agency's (NSA) comprehensive data capture, surveillance, storage, and metadata analysis programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden and colleagues are understood to represent a strong American state maneuver of sovereign control over (or, at the very least, of policing of) the spectral spaces of planetary-scale computation. The willing and unwilling complicity of major commercial Cloud platforms in this endeavor associates them directly with the reach of that claim, and so the Monroe Doctrine of the Cloud and the Google Grossraum are seen by some to conceal only one another.

Palantir's analysts, for example, use the company's software to provide structure to unstructured government data, and so their work provides for us at least a reasonable model for the sort of activities that Snowden's leaks shed light on. But instead of watching from some sterilized perch, even the User of the Palantir software is participating in the tracing of the column. “Palantir's central privacy and security protection would be … ‘the immutable log.’ Everything a user does in Palantir creates a trail that can be audited. No Russian spy, jealous husband or Edward Snowden can use the tool's abilities without leaving an indelible record of his or her actions.”70 This meta-metadata recursivity is a key aspect for how such systems function. The fact that analyst B has already established links between persons X and Y becomes the trail that analyst C explores. The query becomes the quarry. Meta-meta-metadata of any event in the world becomes in a sense the event itself, and just like you or me, the event itself, the column, also secretes more information that it contains within it.

We discussed the strong gravity field between the overestimation of WikiLeaks’ significance and Truther websites, which suggests that apophenia has, for the geopolitics of technology, risen to the level of a political ethics, and that the “Influencing Machine” is no longer the purview of psychiatrists but now also sociologists. 20.  “But Palantir's central privacy and security protection would be what Karp calls, with his academic's love of jargon, ‘the immutable log.’ Everything a user does in Palantir creates a trail that can be audited. No Russian spy, jealous husband or Edward Snowden can use the tool's abilities without leaving an indelible record of his or her actions. Why had the thought of these data mining projects analyzing their own use not occurred to me until just now?” Andy Greenberg, “How a ‘Deviant’ Philosopher Built Palantir, a CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut,” Forbes, August 14, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/agent-of-intelligence-how-a-deviant-philosopher-built-palantir-a-cia-funded-data-mining-juggernaut/2/. 21. 


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The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

His writings for Foreign Policy in Focus have been syndicated in the Nation, Common Dreams, Truthout, and AlterNet, among many other progressive outlets, as well as in regionally focused publications like the Asia Times and Informed Comment. Conn Hallinan can be read at dispatchesfromtheedgeblog.wordpress.com. Sarah Harrison is a journalist, and WikiLeaks’ investigations editor. In June 2013, Harrison accompanied Edward Snowden when he left Hong Kong to seek asylum, ensuring he could leave Hong Kong safely and receive asylum from the Russian Federation. She is the acting director of the Courage Foundation, which manages the legal defense of Edward Snowden, among others, and fights for the protection of truth-tellers worldwide. Harrison was a senior coordinator in the Cablegate publication, and in the creation of the PlusD archive. Richard Heydarian is an assistant professor in political science at De La Salle University, Philippines, where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses on international relations.

As Russ Wellen shows in Chapter 7, in the decade following the century’s turn the US has pursued a policy of aggressive NATO expansion, challenging Russia’s regional hegemony within Eastern Europe and the former Soviet area and seeking to subvert nuclear treaties to maintain its strategic advantage. As the cables show, these efforts have not gone unnoticed by Russia, and are recurring points of conflict in US-Russian diplomatic relations, even during the most cordial of periods. The chapter provides the necessary context for recent East-West tensions centering around Syria, Ukraine, and the granting of asylum to Edward Snowden, and yields critical insight into a geopolitical relationship that, if mishandled, threatens the survival of our civilization and even of our species. Perhaps no region of the world demonstrates the full spectrum of US imperial interference as vividly as Latin America. Since the 1950s, US policy in Central and South America has popularized the concept of the CIA coup d’état, deposing democratically elected left-wing governments and installing US-friendly right-wing dictatorships; inaugurating legacies of brutal civil war, death squads, torture, and disappearances; and immiserating millions to the benefit of the American ruling class.


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Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

Of unacknowledged moons and ‘black’ space craft moving through the pre-dawn and early evening darkness, where the rising and setting sun lights up the stainless steel bodies, and they blink in and out of sight as they glide though the backdrop of a darkened sky hundred of miles below. In most cases, the reflection is all we get.20 Fittingly for this book, Paglen’s work, like the whistle-blowing leaks of Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden, is an example of what has been called sous-surveillance – literally ‘under surveillance’ or ‘surveillance from below’. In challenging the cloak of invisibility and secrecy that obscures top-down surveillance by national security states, Paglen and the satellite-tracking community fleetingly expose one crucial material embodiment of the increasingly secretive and authoritarian nature of security politics.21 Predictably, further exposures come from the strategic competitors of the United States.

As part of his research, Rowell paid particular attention to the largest and most important of the National Security Agency’s global satellite surveillance stations: the notionally British Royal Air Force base at Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire, England. Steve Rowell’s chance meeting with a Ministry of Defence police vehicle outside the Menwith Hill NSA Base The 560-acre Menwith Hill site – known to the NSA and NRO as ‘Field Station 83’ – is one of three key US satellite bases at the heart of the globe-spanning communications surveillance system known as PRISM, a system powerfully exposed by the NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden in 2011.25 Like a dystopian film set, the base’s architecture of over thirty Kevlar radomes sits rather incongruously within the pastoral landscapes of North Yorkshire’s valleys. Its razor-wired peripheries are circled by US military guards, and its 2,300 employees are drawn from all of the three key players in the US satellite-surveillance complex.26 Menwith Hill’s recently expanded and modernised fields of radomes house extraordinarily powerful systems for scooping up all electromagnetic wireless and satellite phone calls and data and video transmissions over large geographical areas.


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Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

The Russian parliament’s once boisterous lower house (the Duma) is now little more than a rubber stamp for Vladimir Putin’s post-post–Cold War policy agenda. Media freedoms have taken a beating in Latin America, Turkey, Hungary, the Middle East and northern Africa, as nervous authorities adapt to weakening economic conditions. In developed democracies, voter participation rates are in long-term decline, and civil liberties have been clawed back in the name of public security. (Since Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the surveillance activities of the National Security Agency [NSA] in 2013, this once-hushed trade-off has been loudly debated, but it has not been reversed.) On the other hand, the Arab Spring revolutions from 2010 onward across the Arab world, the dissolution of Myanmar’s military junta in 2011, stirrings of political reform in Cuba, Hong Kong’s “umbrella revolution” pro-democracy demonstrations in 2014, and even the evolving rhetoric of the Chinese Communist Party make it clear that “democracy,” in some form, is a prerequisite to “legitimacy” everywhere in today’s world.

Industrial Renewal in the 21st Century: Evidence from US Cities. Oxford: Oxford Martin School. Retrieved from www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk. 69. Gunn, Steven (2010). “War and the Emergence of the State: Western Europe 1350–1600.” In European Warfare 1350–1750, edited by F. Tallett and D. Trim. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–73. 70. Sands, Philippe (2014, May 23). “No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA and the Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald—a Review.” The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com. 71. Gallagher, Ryan (2014, August 25). “The Surveillance Engine: How the NSA Built Its Own Secret Google.” The Intercept. Retrieved from firstlook.org/theintercept. 72. Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527) (1532). Florentine Histories. Rome: Antonio Blado. Second Book, Chapter 22.


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How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

NINETEEN Institutional Costs PART V: Managing War’s Paradoxes ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABOUT ROSA BROOKS NOTES INDEX For Joe, Anna, and Clara PART I Tremors A Window of Opportunity One ordinary day in 2010, I sat in an anonymous Pentagon conference room with a dozen other people, listening as briefers from the military’s Special Operations Command went over plans for an impending strike against a terrorist operative. Sending in special operations forces would be too risky, they said; we would therefore most likely strike the target using missiles fired from an unmanned aerial vehicle. I can’t tell you the region or the identity of the target. During my twenty-six months working at the Defense Department, I signed dozens of papers promising to keep the secret stuff secret, and unlike Edward Snowden, I have no desire to give out classified information—or live life as a fugitive. But I think I can say that the target was a youngish man, probably not more than thirty. I dutifully studied the small photo displayed on the briefing slides. It showed an ordinary face, the kind you might see on any street in Sana’a or Karachi—or New York or London. But this, the briefers assured us, was no ordinary young man; there was solid evidence (not detailed) of his involvement in numerous terror plots (exhaustively detailed).

The men and women who worked in these dim rooms were pleased to have a visitor from “mission control,” as someone jokingly called the Pentagon—they were glad to show off their clever technological tricks. I can’t tell you what any of those tricks are: they’re the most secret kind of secret, since if any bad guys came to know about them, they wouldn’t work anymore. But just imagine. Imagine the things you think you already know the NSA can do, thanks to Edward Snowden and press reports, and multiply that. Imagine we had the ability to take technologies our adversaries trust and turn them to our own uses. That’s the sort of thing CYBERCOM and a handful of other small Defense Department and intelligence organizations exist to do. It’s not just about protecting email and financial software, or monitoring websites used by U.S. adversaries. Some of it’s even more sophisticated and surprising.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

Our global economy produces most of its value by manipulating immaterial symbols.16 The computer metaphor extends to our personal lives and values, too. Millions of us live double lives: physical and digital. Not only are we members of digital social networks, but our personal data are hosted in numerous databases that are controlled by governments, insurance companies, utilities, banking, and so on. For many of us, our digital existence – and the rights it confers – is extremely important and vulnerable. When former CIA analyst Edward Snowden revealed the extent of government spying by the NSA on US citizens, his revelations shook the political system of the Western world. What is the meaning of democracy in the twenty-first century when the state can keep a watchful eye on each and every one of us (i.e. our ‘digital’ selves)? Who watches the watchmen17 in a digital world? Plato seems to have won every argument: form comes before matter.

Neither she nor her parents were aware she was pregnant29 at the time. Target’s algorithm knew it before they did! The incident was picked up by the media, and created the spooky feeling that Target was actually stalking its customers, gravely affecting the company’s reputation. That spooky feeling that someone is watching us online was further accentuated following the revelations of US National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden in 2013. According to classified documents leaked by Snowden to the Guardian newspaper, the NSA spied on US citizens as well as on citizens from other countries, including top foreign politicians, by ‘listening in’ to their conversations over the Internet. Data from these conversations were stored in massive computer server farms, where they were mined by algorithms searching for patterns. Although the NSA was authorised by the US administration to execute such a global surveillance in order to prevent terrorist attacks, the fact that the US government spied on its own citizens created a dangerous precedent that struck at the foundations of a liberal society and of the US Constitution.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

Our goal was to tell you about incredible new technologies that can understand you well enough to predict what you will need next and to automate many mundane tasks. But with each chapter we found new privacy issues, and some are too serious to brush aside. While we were busy searching the world for mobile, social media, sensor, data and location technologies, the issues of government surveillance became a prominent national issue in the United States. As the names Bradley (Chelsea) Manning, Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, and Edward Snowden emerged from the headlines into the national consciousness, public attention came to focus on the role of the secret FISA court, the electronic surveillance of millions of Americans under a National Security Agency data-mining operation called PRISM and so much more. We are just a couple of tech enthusiasts, and some of these national issues would normally go well beyond our purview, were it not for the fact that the same technologies we are extolling are being used to secretly watch people.


pages: 160 words: 46,449

The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck

The Malvinas/Falklands war would have been impossible without the support of Washington and one of its favoured South American satellites, General Pinochet’s Chile. Since British economic and foreign policies are now in tandem with those of its imperial master, British leaders sometimes attempt to stand out by pre-empting US decisions and posturing as being tougher on assorted ‘enemies’ than Washington itself.1 As Edward Snowden has revealed, British intelligence-gathering outposts like GCHQ operate with impunity. The relative autonomy they enjoy – with less restraints than the NSA – is extremely useful for the latter, which treats GCHQ as a valued surrogate. Similarly, till 2008, British politicians liked to boast that the local ‘light-touch regulation’ put the City of London well ahead of Wall Street, as Britain’s current standing as a virtual tax haven still does, approaching Luxembourg levels if not yet those of the Cayman islands.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

We Can and Must Understand Computers NOW Noah Wardrip-Fruin1 (1)Department of Computational Media, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, MS:SOE3, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA Noah Wardrip-Fruin Email: nwf@soe.ucsc.edu 14.1 Three Phrases From the endlessly quotable Ted Nelson—whose neologisms pepper the language we use to understand the present, from “hypertext” to “visualization”—perhaps no phrase is better known than, “You Can and Must Understand Computers NOW.” It was emblazoned across the Computer Lib side of his 1974 Computer Lib/Dream Machines (CL/DM), the most influential book in the history of computational media.1 Nelson’s call is not only memorable today, but still quite relevant. For example, consider the recent revelations of massive government surveillance, as disclosed by Edward Snowden and others. Without a deep understanding of computing, one might debate whether the vision of Total Information Awareness is morally right, or is instead sending us down a path to an “Orwellian,” 1984-style future. However, with a deep understanding of computing, one can not only raise the questions of morality in more depth, but one can also see that Total Information Awareness is a technically unworkable fantasy (like the Star Wars program pursued by the Reagan administration in the non-fictional 1980s) providing a false rationale for treating everyone as a suspect.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

The innovation of the blockchain—or, more generally, the innovation of public economic consensus by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009—proved to be the one missing piece of the puzzle that single-handedly gave the industry its next giant leap forward. The political environment seemed to almost snap into place: the great financial crisis in 2008 spurred growing distrust in mainstream finance, including both corporations and the governments that are normally supposed to regulate them, and was the initial spark that drove many to seek out alternatives. Then Edward Snowden's revelations in 2013, highlighting how active the government was in realms citizens once believed private, were the icing on the cake. Even though blockchain technologies specifically have not seen mainstream adoption as a result, the underlying spirit of decentralization to a substantial degree has. Applications ranging from Apple's phones to WhatsApp have started building in forms of encryption that are so strong that even the company writing the software and managing the servers cannot break it.


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

From that day forward, to carry out violence and subversion abroad, or repression and violation of fundamental rights at home, state power has regularly sought to create the misimpression that it is terrorists that you are fighting, though there are other options: drug lords, mad mullahs seeking nuclear weapons, and other ogres said to be seeking to attack and destroy us. Throughout, the basic principle remains: Power must not be exposed to the sunlight. Edward Snowden has become the most wanted criminal in the world for failing to comprehend this essential maxim. In brief, there must be complete transparency for the population, but none for the powers that must defend themselves from this fearsome internal enemy. THE SLEDGEHAMMER WORLDVIEW July 3, 2014 The front page of the NEW YORK TIMES on June 26 featured a photo of women mourning a murdered Iraqi.


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Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

He is an expert in computer security, and he has uncovered the software vulnerabilities in products ranging from widely used programming languages to the music industry’s digital locks to the code in electronic voting machines. He was a witness for the Justice Department in its landmark antitrust case against Microsoft. Felten also testified on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union in its suit challenging the National Security Agency’s collection of the telephone call records of American citizens—the surveillance program disclosed by Edward Snowden’s leaks—as a violation of the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable search and seizure. In a lengthy conversation, I happened to bring up the old Kodak experience. Felten reminded me that we revisited that issue about a decade ago, when fairly high-quality cameras became a standard feature on cell phones. Soon, shots surreptitiously taken in locker rooms and public showers were being posted on the Internet.


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But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

If we think about the trajectory of anything—art, science, sports, politics—not as a river but as an endless, shallow ocean, there is no place for collective wrongness. All feasible ideas and every possible narrative exist together, and each new societal generation can scoop out a bucket of whatever antecedent is necessary to support their contemporary conclusions. When explained in one sentence, that prospect seems a little terrible. But maybe that’s just because my view of reality is limited to river-based thinking. I’ve slowly become an admirer of Edward Snowden, the former government employee who leaked thousands of classified documents and now lives in exile. I was initially skeptical of Snowden, until I saw the documentary Citizenfour. Granted, Citizenfour is a non-objective telling of his story, produced by the journalists Snowden was aligned with. It could be classified as a propaganda film. But it’s impossible to watch Snowden speak without trusting the sincerity of his motives and the tenacity of his central argument.


pages: 540 words: 103,101

Building Microservices by Sam Newman

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airport security, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, business process, call centre, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, defense in depth, Edward Snowden, fault tolerance, index card, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, job automation, load shedding, loose coupling, platform as a service, premature optimization, pull request, recommendation engine, social graph, software as a service, the built environment, web application, WebSocket, x509 certificate

In the next chapter, we’ll take a different holistic view of our systems to consider some of the unique advantages — and challenges — that fine-grained architectures can provide in the area of security. Chapter 9. Security We’ve become familiar with stories about security breaches of large-scale systems resulting in our data being exposed to all sorts of dodgy characters. But more recently, events like the Edward Snowden revelations have made us even more aware of the value of data that companies hold about us, and the value of data that we hold for our customers in the systems we build. This chapter will give a brief overview of some aspects of security you should consider when designing your systems. While not meant to be exhaustive, it will lay out some of the main options available to you and give you a starting point for your own further research.


pages: 347 words: 94,701

Don't Trust, Don't Fear, Don't Beg: The Extraordinary Story of the Arctic 30 by Ben Stewart

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3D printing, Desert Island Discs, Edward Snowden, new economy, oil rush, Skype, WikiLeaks

v=8xRT7wQiebw 83http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/17/russia-greenpeace-gazprom-idUSL6N0I73BV20131017 84http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 85http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 86http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 87http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 88http://www.crmvet.org/tim/timhis63.htm#1963selma1 89http://www.crmvet.org/info/lithome.htm 90http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/al4.htm 91http://www.nps.gov/semo/historyculture/index.htm 92http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/28/newsid_4264000/4264241.stm 93http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2009/01/20090107151130srenod0.5167658.html#axzz3EDtsZjvF 94http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 95http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/152694/view 96http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 97http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 98http://www.academia.edu/1005097/The_Rainbow_Warrior_bombers_media_and_the_judiciary_Public_interest_v_privacy 99http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2005/jul/15/activists.g2 100http://www.academia.edu/1005097/The_Rainbow_Warrior_bombers_media_and_the_judiciary_Public_interest_v_privacy 101David Lange, My Life (Auckland, 2005), pp. 222–3, pp. 274–5. 102Terry Crowdy, Military Misdemeanours: Corruption, Incompetence, Lust and Downright Stupidity (Oxford, 2007), p. 246. 103http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/article1980551.ece 104http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/may/25/usnews.france 105http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/pete-willcox-high-seas-avenger-20140324 106Dear Comrade 107http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1059107.html 108http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-06/dutch-urge-release-of-greenpeace-crew-in-court-clash-with-russia.html 109http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-2458302/DOMINIC-LAWSON-Putins-brute-Greenpeace-bigger-menace-future.html 110http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/article1323429.ece 111http://best-museums.com/russia/85-museum-crosses.html 112http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/anna-akhmatova 113http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/135936 114http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/135936 115http://articles.latimes.com/1999/oct/17/news/mn-23277 116http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/press/releases/Greenpeace-Current-draft-of-Russian-amnesty-does-not-include-Arctic-30/ 117http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/press/releases/Russian-parliament-votes-for-amnesty-for-Arctic-30/ 118http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/vladimir-putin/10527779/Vladimir-Putin-pardons-oil-tycoon-Mikhail-Khodorkovsky-in-Amnesty.html 119http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/19/russia-never-worked-edward-snowden-nsa-putin 120http://eng.kremlin.ru/news/7040 121http://www.ship-technology.com/projects/mikhail_ulyanov/ INDEX Akhan, Gizem, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 198 Akhmatova, Anna 277, 278 Alexander (lawyer) 243, 263 Alexei (inmate) 101, 108, 109–10, 211 imprisonment of 110 Allakhverdov, Andrey, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 110–11, 125 Amnesty International, Litvinov Sr alerts 86 Anders, William 1 Andrews, Iris 136 Andropov, Yuri 95 Anton (inmate) 282, 295, 305, 310, 311, 317 Arctic: ‘always been Russian’ 176 calls for sanctuary status of 346–7 as planet’s air conditioner 131 Russian platform in, see Arctic 30 activists/crew; Prirazlomnaya platform and Russian seabed flag 129, 170, 176 Arctic 30 activists/crew: accused of being CIA 49 and Amnesty Bill 329–33 bail applications for 290–1, 296–300, 302–4, 305–11, 319; granted, see individual activists/crew calls to Russian embassies for release of 134 campaign to free: apology statement drafted by 173–4; appeals launched by 155, 179–80; Christensen made leader of 51–2; and Christensen’s global sources 168; Emergency Day of Solidarity 134–5; further global action by 193, 296–7; Gazprom stations shut down by 139; global co-ordination by 136–7; global hubs of 135; London hub of 135–6; and UEFA Champions League game 137–9 charges against 204 eventual numbers calling for release of 346 families called from Arctic Sunrise by 53 hashtag devised for 50 initial interrogations of 57–8 Investigative Committee HQ arrival of 56 Investigative Committee tries to split 252 jail arrival of, Murmansk 68–9 jail arrival of, St Petersburg 276–7 jail sentences pronounced on 65–6 London homecoming of members of 335–6 Moscow march for release of 208 Murmansk arrival of 55–6 Nobel laureates’ plea for 199 piracy charges against 5, 58, 101, 109, 121, 147; hooliganism substituted for 204–6 post-release bonds among women of 323 post-release confinement of 328 Presidential Council for Civil Society and Human Rights offers to act as guarantor for 263 at Prirazlomnaya protest 19–28 prison psychologist’s meeting with 119–20 prison transfer of 270–3, 275–6; prospect of 257–8, 260, 264, 267–9 Russian citizens complain about detention of 129 smuggled letters to and from 159–60 state broadcaster’s news reports on 110–11 supplies got to 162 thirtieth day of imprisonment of 193 Tutu’s letter concerning 198 see also Arctic Sunrise Arctic Sunrise: film footage of Russians’ raid on, see camera memory card, footage on FSB’s drugs-find claim concerning 189–93 guns fired towards 25–6, 28–9 ITLOS orders release of 322 Prirazlomnaya hailed by 21 Prirazlomnaya platform observed by 11–12 RHIBs launched from 11–12 Russian occupation of 31–41 Russians’ aggressive radio messages to 14 Russians disable comms systems of 37 towing of, to Murmansk 41–7 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Argus 342, 348 Artamov, Andrey 8 Auden, W.H. 93 Ayliffe, Ben 33, 136, 172, 186–7, 289, 302, 306 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 190 ‘Babinski, Mr’ (smuggler) 160, 163, 205, 226 Ball, Phil: and Amnesty Bill 332 appeal of 181 bail application of 319; granted 321 camera memory card hidden and smuggled out by, see camera memory card, footage on cell of 73 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 and Mikhail Ulyanov 340, 347–8 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison messages of 85, 102 release of, on bail 321–2, 325–6 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 73, 75, 79, 85, 102, 144, 155–6, 202, 262; and cell searches 163; and Gulag Gazette 212–15; and ‘Why I am not a hooligan’ letter 205–6 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg, awaiting paperwork for release 321, 325 strip-searched 71 and Winter Olympics campaign design 172 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Beauchamp, Jon, in SIZO-1, Murmansk 263 Beránek, Jan 297–8, 299, 302, 303, 306, 307–8 Bolshevik Revolution in 90 Boris (inmate) 7–10 passim, 109, 112–15, 122–3, 142, 148, 194–5, 202, 206, 251–2, 267–8, 269 charges against 6 described 5–6 Borman, Frank 1 BP: Deepwater Horizon platform of, see Deepwater Horizon platform Northstar drilling operations of 128 Brezhnev, Leonid 95, 96 Bronshtein, Lev 89 (See also Leon Trotsky) Brownell, Sonia 93 Bryan, Kieron: appeal of 181 camera memory card hidden by 45 cell of 71–2 described 71 and fellow inmate (Ivan) 72–3 girlfriend of (Nancy) 182 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 marriage of 343 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison messages of 85 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 71–3, 74–5, 79, 85, 100 Cairn Energy 127–9, 131 camera memory card, footage on 43–4, 155–6, 163–4, 181 Christensen downloads 182 handed to ‘Mona’ 181 handed to Rondal 182 shown to ITLOS Dutch delegation 261 TV stations transmit 261–2 Camp Artek 247 Chaplin, Charlie 244 Chilingarov, Artur 129–30, 176 Christensen, Mads, 128, 135, 137, 167–8, 185, 289, 290–1, 302–3, 306 and Amnesty Bill 331 bail amount proposed by 291 first, most urgent task of 52 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 190–1, 193 global sources run by 168 leadership of campaign to free Arctic 30 handed to 51–2 London HQ connection to office of 135 and Naidoo’s letter to Putin 186–8 Christensen, Nora 135–6 Chuprov, Vladimir 192 Cold War 244 Daily Mail 273–4 D’Alessandro, Cristian: at gunpoint 23 release of, on bail 315 Davies, Andrew 50 Davis, Ruth 136, 168–9, 173, 345 and Sixsmith 168–72 Day-Lewis, Cecil 93 Deepwater Horizon platform 83, 87, 127–8, 133 Desert Island Discs 342 Dillais, Louis-Pierre 247 Dolgov, Roman 8–10 appeal of 179–80; and judge’s silly antics 180 arrest of 8 bail application of 319; granted 321 calendar made by 144 described 76 jail sentence pronounced on 65 release of, on bail 321–2 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 8–9, 10, 76–8, 115, 123–4, 144; video link from, to court appeal 180 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 287 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew doroga (road), see SIZO-1 isolation jail, Murmansk Dubček, Alexander 94, 95 Dzerzhinsky, Felix 174 Dzhugashvili, Josef, see Stalin, Joseph Eells, Josh 246, 249 Esperanza 128 European Parliament, call of, for Arctic sanctuary 347 Exxon 87 Fainberg, Viktor 95 Federal Security Bureau (FSB) 50, 55, 121, 147, 239–40, 291 drugs-find claim of 189–93 Litvinov interviewed by 207–11, 252–5 and possible raid on Greenpeace office 185–6 Putin appointed to head 175 suspected false intelligence from 168 see also Russia Fedotov, Mikhail 263, 287–8 Finland, call of, for Arctic sanctuary 347 First Circle, The (Solzhenitsyn) 92 French secret service 15 Gagarin, Yuri 247 Galich, Aleksandr 94 Gazprom 8, 16, 131–2, 344 campaigners shut down stations of 139 continuing demonstrations against 197–8 Izvestia owned by 257 lies from 49 as proxy for Kremlin 137 Putin congratulates 339–40 TV channel owned by 87 and UEFA Champions League game 137–9 Germany, Nazi government in 91 Gold, Nina 122, 147, 148–9, 195, 251, 311, 329, 343 Golitsyn, Vladimir 261 Gostev (security official) 255–6 Greenpeace: and Amnesty Bill 329 Arctic Sunrise’s occupation communicated to 42 Cairn campaign of, see Cairn Energy campaign of, to free Arctic 30, see Arctic 30 activists/crew: campaign to free crew’s relatives contacted by 44 growth of, in size and scope 248–9 Hewetson’s history of sailing with 12 initial actions of, after Arctic Sunrise occupation 49–51 lawyers assembled by 50 Mail article on 273–4 North Pole sanctuary plan of 130 possible bugging of 51 possible raid by FSB on 185–6 Putin furious with 168 TV programme’s claims against 87 youth movement pickets office of 198–9 Gulag Archipelago, The (Solzhenitsyn) 276–7 Gulag Chronicle 212–18, 226 Gulag Gazette 212–15 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, see Deepwater Horizon platform Gumilev, Lev 277 Hamilton, Neil 136, 167 Harper, Stephen 130 Harris, Alex: in Amazon 83 appeal of 183 bail granted to 310 becomes Greenpeace volunteer 83 cell of 70–1 email to parents from 29–30 in Galápagos Islands 83 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 66 leaves Russia 334–5 parents called from Arctic Sunrise by 53 prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 70–1, 78–9, 81–4, 116–17, 124–5; ‘curling tongs’ sent to 162, 163; Speziale’s tapping code with 84, 145, 204 in SIZO-5, St Petersburg 282–3, 299–300 SIZO-5, St Petersburg 285–6 strip-searched 70 tweet of 38–9 Willcox’s reunion with 319 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Harris, Cliff 82, 183 Harris, Lin 82 Haussmann, David 65 Hewetson, Frank: and Amnesty Bill 333 arrest of 8 bail granted to 311 and Cairn Energy 129 ‘Colonel’ sobriquet of 13 diary entries of: post-release 328–9, 333, 335, 342–4; in SIZO-1, Murmansk 156–7, 159, 193, 194–5, 197, 202–3, 206–7, 251–2, 267; in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 281–2, 295, 305, 309–10, 311, 317 and father’s wartime experiences 196 grappling hook skewers 12–13 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 leaves Russia 335 memory stick hidden by 45 other activists blame 272–3, 275, 281–2, 328 panic attack suffered by 6, 149–54 piracy charge put to 120 plane’s take-off blocked by 12 post-release diary entries of 328–9, 333, 335, 342–4 post-release family reunion for 329 postponement of hearing concerning 67 power stations broken into by 12 Prirazlomnaya platform observed by 11–12 at Prirazlomnaya protest, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 317–19 ‘review’ of prison by 220–2 Russian commandos kick 33 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise in SIZO-1, Murmansk 5–10, 100, 101–2, 109, 112–15, 119–23, 142, 147–50, 154, 219–20; and Arctic Sunrise film footage 262; diary entries of 156–7, 159, 193, 194–5, 197, 202–3, 206–7, 251–2, 267; Popov’s interview with 220–3 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 280–2, 317–19; British consuls visit 292–3; diary entries of 281–2, 291, 295, 305, 309–10, 311, 317 Sunrise crew first met by 15–16 suspicious hotel man followed by 325–6 tuna protest of 13 US bans 12 and Valium 5, 6 wife’s letter to 147, 148–9 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Hewetson, Joe 195, 206, 251, 329, 342, 343 Hewetson, Michael 195–7 Hewetson, Nell 195, 206, 311, 329, 342, 343 Hitler, Adolf, Molotov signs pact with 91 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 244–5 Human Rights Watch, Litvinov Sr alerts 86 Hurricane (RHIB) 20, 23–4 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg, officials’ tour of 285–6 Independent on Sunday 221 International Herald Tribune 93, 256 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Kremlin contemptuous of 263–4 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 155, 260–1, 263, 290, 322 ITLOS, see International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Ivan (inmate) 72–3, 74–5, 79, 269 Izvestia 255–7 Jensen, Anne Mie, release of, on bail 313–14 Kenyon, Laura 185, 191 Khodorkovsky, Mikhail 64, 176, 330, 345 King, Martin Luther 245–6 Kopelev, Lev 91–2, 93, 94, 97, 300 Korean War 244 Kresty jail, see SIZO-1, St Petersburg Kulluk platform 132 Ladoga 11, 12, 20 Arctic Sunrise challenged by 21 Saarela and Weber detained on 26–7 shots fired by 25–6, 28–9 Larisa (lawyer) 178–9 Lawson, Dominic 273–4 Lenin, Vladimir 89 Lenin’s Tomb (Remnick) 96 Leonid (inmate) 75 Liddle, Rod 274 Litvinov, Anitta 97, 226, 300 Litvinov, Dimitri (Dima): bail application of 320; granted 321 border guard’s exchange with 334 boss cell’s circular to 103–4 described 13 exile childhood of 96 father compares protests of, with own 344 father discovers fate of 86–7 fist of fear felt by 143 grandfather of, see Kopelev, Lev great-grandfather of, see Litvinov, Maxim homophobia fears of 54 initial interrogation of 57–9 jail arrivals of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew jail sentence pronounced on 87 Kresty governor’s gift to 321 leaves Russia 333–4 letter of, to son 300–1, 309 other activists blame 272–3, 281–2, 328 piracy charge put to 58–9 postponement of hearing concerning 67 previous arrests of 46, 274 Prirazlomnaya hailed by 21 prison transfer of, see under Arctic 30 activists/crew release of, on bail 321–2 and Russian seizure of Arctic Sunrise, see under Arctic Sunrise Siberia upbringing of 13 in SIZO-1, Murmansk 99–108, 109–10, 141, 143, 207–12, 252, 257–60; and discovered letters 225–8, 240–1; and FSB 207–11, 252–5; letters smuggled from 161; library discovered by 143; messages of 102; Popov’s interview with 232–41; and prison psychologist 227–8; and punishment cell 229–32; and radio report heard in cell 60–1; and smoking 211–12 in SIZO-1, St Petersburg 279–80, 287–8, 300–1, 309 smoking quit by 343 strip-searched and fingerprinted 60 US move of 97 see also Arctic 30 activists/crew Litvinov (née Low), Ivy 90 Litvinov, Lara 97 Litvinov, Lev 97, 230, 300–1 Litvinov, Maxim 89, 90–1 Litvinov (née Kopelev), Maya 93, 96 US move of 97 Litvinov, Pavel 85–7, 92–8, 320, 323–4, 344–5 and FSB’s drugs-find claim 192–3 Izvestia letter of 255–6 and KGB 93, 95, 96, 255–6 and son’s bail application 319–20 tried and convicted 95–6, 344 US move of 97 Lost Child of Philomena Lee, The (Sixsmith) 169 Lovell, Jim 1 McCarthy, Joe 244 McCartney, Paul 199–200 Maciel, Ana Paula 303–4 bail application of 305–6; granted 306 release of, on bail 312 Mafart, Lt Col.


pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom

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autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

As everyone knows, people send out unconscious signals, and, as I am a chameleon by nature, one of the things I do is “become” the person I’m talking to, since we tend to respond to the people who are most similar to us. This turned out to be harder than usual in Russia, where trust is generally lacking. Most people there don’t look you in the eyes, and their gazes have a cloudy, dissociated look. Decades before Julian Assange and Edward Snowden made headlines, Russians knew their phone lines were being tapped. My Moscow-based employer had a dozen or so cell phones on him at all times. The people who mattered most to him had their own dedicated phones, and whenever one rang, he had to sort through his briefcase to find it. When he spoke, his words were hushed, a hand always covering his mouth in case someone could read his lips. I’m always looking for topics, symbols, actions and behaviors that ground or define a culture and can serve as a footbridge of sorts between a stranger—me—and the local residents.


pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

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Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

PRIVACY When phasing out paper currency, the most fundamental and difficult issue is how to balance an individual’s privacy rights with the government’s need to enforce laws, collect taxes, and combat terrorism. This is an important and subtle question that requires considerable attention, and it goes far beyond the narrow confines of any debate on the role of paper currency.6 Whatever one thinks of American privacy activist and former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden, the revelations that have come out from the material he released show that the government already has eavesdropping capabilities once thought to be purely in the realm of science fiction. And it is only going to get worse. Extensive government monitoring of cell phones and emails has already exploded as an issue. GPS systems in telephones and autos allow tracking of these devices. In major cities like London, New York, and Beijing, security cameras are everywhere.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

If your watch is not just telling time but your location, schedule, and communications, that makes it a device that is ripe for the hacking. The Cold War did not lack for political and military tension, but it did have a clear set of alliances organized around the binary of the struggle between Communist and Western bloc countries. The Code War has no such simple organization, and traditional alliances have fractured. After the revelations of Edward Snowden, the governments and public of European countries condemned American cyberpractices. Billions of dollars of business were lost by American telecommunications and technology companies, which were no longer trusted. One study pegged the loss to American businesses in the cloud computing industry alone at between $22 billion and $25 billion over three years. Yet there is little to no prospect for any sort of short-term progress to be made developing international law, treaties, or other frameworks establishing norms and rules for cyberactivity.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

State power has to be protected from its domestic enemy; in sharp contrast, the population is not secure from state power. A striking illustration is the radical attack on the Constitution by the Obama administration’s massive surveillance program. It is, of course, justified by “national security.” That is routine for virtually all actions of all states and so carries little information. When the NSA’s surveillance program was exposed by Edward Snowden’s revelations, high officials claimed that it had prevented fifty-four terrorist acts. On inquiry, that was whittled down to a dozen. A high-level government panel then discovered that there was actually only one case: someone had sent $8,500 to Somalia. That was the total yield of the huge assault on the Constitution and, of course, on others throughout the world.23 Britain’s attitude is interesting: in 2007, the British government called on Washington’s colossal spy agency “to analyze and retain any British citizens’ mobile phone and fax numbers, emails, and IP addresses swept up by its dragnet,” the Guardian reported.24 That is a useful indication of the relative significance, in government eyes, of the privacy of its own citizens and of Washington’s demands.


Rogue States by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus

The US rejects the ICESCR with disdain, as discussed below, along with the UD quite generally. The normal stance of a rogue state. One of Washington’s grand hopes for Cuba is that it will accept US initiatives to improve the use of the Internet, permitting US telecom companies to provide Internet infrastructure and services to Cuba. Even in the current state of deprivation and tyranny depicted in US coverage, Cubans are likely to have heard of a gentleman named Edward Snowden, and might therefore be pardoned if they are skeptical about this munificent offer.12 The stream of denunciations of Cuban human rights violations consistently manages to ignore the fact that the worst of these are clearly in Guantánamo, which the US stole from Cuba at gunpoint a century ago, rejecting Cuban requests for its return since Cuba attained its independence in 1959; and the fact that Cuban human rights violations, while real and meriting censure, pale into insignificance in comparison with the crimes of US dependencies in the region, which elicit substantial aid and diplomatic support, not sanctions.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

In a coveillant society a sense of entitlement can emerge: Every person has a human right to access, and a right to benefit from, the data about themselves. But every right requires a duty, so every person has a human duty to respect the integrity of information, to share it responsibly, and to be watched by the watched. The alternatives to coveillance are not promising. Outlawing the expansion of easy tracking will probably be as ineffectual as outlawing easy copying. I am a supporter of the whistle-blower Edward Snowden, who leaked tens of thousands of classified NSA files, revealing their role in secretly tracking citizens, primarily because I think the big sin of many governments, including the U.S., is lying about their tracking. Big governments are tracking us, but with no chance for symmetry. I applaud Snowden’s whistle-blowing not because I believe it will reduce tracking, but because it can increase transparency.


pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo

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Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, market bubble, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

No one wants to be too liberal in what they accept—the opposite, in fact. The brutal, inarguable, profitable demands of this kind of power cracked apart the unique social webs of the Hack-Tic era. The openness that we loved in so many areas of life, from our minds to our markets, has now become a liability. “I remember what the Internet was like before it was being watched, and there has never been anything in the history of man that is like it,” Edward Snowden once observed, nostalgic for the datascape he saw melt away during his time at the NSA. There is a whole new generation of young programmers who won’t ever know the original, generous ethos of a publication like Hack-Tic. There is a fresh cohort of the digital age that now operates at levels of technical mastery far beyond anything that might have been imagined in the Citicorp building basement twenty years ago.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

Writ large, cryptocurrencies can trace their roots through centuries of innovations that have enhanced human communication and exchange, from the printing press through the telegraph to the Internet. But, as noted above, the most direct precursor came from the Cypherpunks. The group had got its start in the early 1990s as a loose affiliation of cryptography wizards who shared a common concern about the creeping erosion of privacy and individual disempowerment in modern society. (This was long before anybody had used the term Big Data, had heard of Edward Snowden, or had an inkling the U.S. National Security Agency was spying on everybody.) One of this group’s first ideas was a digital currency. The movement was founded in September 1992, when a mob of ponytailed coders were invited to the Oakland home of cryptography enthusiast Eric Hughes. In the United States, Arkansas governor Bill Clinton was about to defeat President George Bush in the November election, ending twelve years of Republican rule.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

A vast data-mining project that was intended to hunt terrorists online by collecting and connecting the dots in oceans of credit card, email, and phone records, the project started a privacy firestorm and was soon canceled by Congress in May of 2003. Although Total Information Awareness vanished from public view, it in fact moved into the nation’s intelligence bureaucracy only to become visible again in 2013 when Edward Snowden leaked hundreds of thousands of documents that revealed a deep and broad range of systems for surveillance of any possible activity that could be of interest. In the pantheon of DARPA directors, Tether was also something of an odd duck. He survived the Total Information Awareness scandal and pushed the agency ahead in other areas with a deep and controlling involvement in all of the agency’s research projects.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

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4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

Within Bitcoin, the most ambitious projects aimed to build services that allowed for the exchange of dollars and euros for Bitcoins without going through a central service like Coinbase or Bitstamp. Everyone now saw that any company that handled traditional currencies would inevitably be subject to traditional regulations. Events in the broader world validated many of the fears that had originally driven the Cypherpunks and Satoshi to imagine a revolutionary new currency. Government documents leaked by Edward Snowden showed, over the course of 2013, that the National Security Agency had indeed been secretly monitoring the electronic communications of a wide swath of American citizens. But the relatively apathetic public response to the tales of NSA surveillance suggested that most Americans didn’t actually care much if the government was collecting information about them. What did it matter to the ordinary citizen if he or she wasn’t doing anything wrong?


pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

I meet him at his chambers on Doughty Street, a Central London street of Georgian houses lined with trees. ‘I find that the security services today are so much in hock to America,’ says Robertson, who has taken on several cases against MI5 and MI6. ‘We have the assets in the sense of [RAF listening station] Little Sai Wan and [intelligence agency] GCHQ, but they’re all in hock to America.’ Indeed, according to leaks from the former US National Security Agency analyst Edward Snowden, GCHQ – General Communications Headquarters – was a cornerstone of the UK–US relationship. His revelations suggested that the NSA had been paying GCHQ around £100 million over three years as part of a joint covert mass-surveillance programme. According to legal advice given to MPs in January 2014, a large chunk of this spying was illegal. The greatest threat to individual freedom would arise from the ‘war on terror’, launched by the US after the attacks of 11 September 2001 with enthusiastic support from the British Establishment.


pages: 455 words: 138,716

The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap by Matt Taibbi

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banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, butterfly effect, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Edward Snowden, ending welfare as we know it, forensic accounting, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, information retrieval, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, naked short selling, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, regulatory arbitrage, short selling, telemarketer, too big to fail, War on Poverty

Not long before I met her, she and her kids had been living in Kissimmee, Florida, and had been forced to go on public assistance. In Riverside, California, you get a hundred bucks and a thank-you for bringing a fraud case to light. When you scratch the same civic itch at JPMorgan Chase, you lose everything you own and end up living the life of a financial fugitive. Linda and her kids, when I met them, seemed like a family on the run. Her experience was an early precursor to the Edward Snowden story, and I was meeting her in the Sheremetyevo airport stage of her odyssey. She told me to whip out a notebook and get ready for a long story. “I first got to Chase,” she began, “by way of Washington Mutual.” She’d worked at WaMu as the vice president of enterprise operations, from 2004 till Washington Mutual was sold to JPMorgan Chase during the banking crisis of 2008. Hers was a sort of roving-fixer job, in which she and a team of executives would deal with potentially embarrassing messes as they popped up across the bank’s different administrative systems.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Similarly, law enforcement agencies have used the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act to justify more federal and police snooping and gathering of warrantless information, while the NSA used ISPs such as AT&T to boost surveillance of emails. But this does not make them government servants. To the contrary, the Internet Society continuously engineers Internet architecture to better protect against surveillance, while tech firms have actively invested in evading the excessive scope of NSA programs for their users’ and customers’ data. Lavabit, a secure email provider used by Edward Snowden, shut itself down in 2013 rather than hand over its SSL keys to the FBI. Microsoft has resisted U.S. government efforts to demand access to some of its users’ data that is held outside the United States. Apple’s iOS 8 and the latest Android both feature encryption protocols that no longer allow any access to user data—preventing not only the U.S. government but also hackers (particularly from China) who have exploited previous versions’ back doors from accessing it.*5 The Internet’s earliest origins lie in efforts to create redundant communications in the event of enemy attack.


pages: 675 words: 141,667

Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell

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barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

Another example may be found in the distinctive prose of journalist Thomas Friedman, who referred to new information technologies such as personal computing, Internet telephony, and wireless devices as “steroids” that are “amplifying and turbocharging all the other flatteners.”5 The consequences of all of this turbocharged flattening, of course, depend on one’s point of view: when Google complained in 2010 that the Chinese government was censoring search results from google.cn, the Chinese newspaper Global Times defended China’s right to protect itself from American “information imperialism.” Google’s high-minded defense of the freedom of expression was, the Global Times declared, a ruse – a “disguised attempt to impose its values on other cultures in the name of democracy.”6 The inherent contradictions and tensions bundled within terms such as “openness” and “transparency” have been further exposed by activists such as Chelsea Manning, Aaron Swartz, and Edward Snowden who put powerful institutions in uncomfortable positions by publicizing data that were intended to be secret. In other words, openness (and its ally, transparency) is easy to promote in rhetoric but more complicated to adhere to in practice. One comes away from the popular accounts of high-tech globalization with an oversimplified, linear, and somewhat deterministic view of the relationship between technology and society: for better and for worse, the Internet and digital technologies have thrust an unprecedented era of openness on us.


pages: 554 words: 167,247

Money, Politics, Back-Room Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System by Steven Brill

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, business process, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, obamacare, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, the payments system, young professional

Interesting issues. No lobbying. And a company that she thought was several rungs above her previous private employer, WellPoint, when it came to civic-mindedness. Critics of Washington’s revolving door did not see it that way, particularly a journalist writing for The Guardian named Glenn Greenwald—the same Glenn Greenwald who was soon to make headlines for working with National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden to reveal the thousands of files Snowden took when he left the NSA. Calling Fowler “the architect” of Obamacare, Greenwald noted that she had worked for WellPoint, the giant insurer, before rejoining Baucus’s staff to draft the law. “The bill’s mandate,” he wrote, “that everyone purchase the products of the private health insurance industry, unaccompanied by any public alternative, was a huge gift to that industry.”


pages: 554 words: 167,247

America's Bitter Pill: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System by Steven Brill

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, business process, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, obamacare, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, the payments system, young professional

Interesting issues. No lobbying. And a company that she thought was several rungs above her previous private employer, WellPoint, when it came to civic-mindedness. Critics of Washington’s revolving door did not see it that way, particularly a journalist writing for The Guardian named Glenn Greenwald—the same Glenn Greenwald who was soon to make headlines for working with National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden to reveal the thousands of files Snowden took when he left the NSA. Calling Fowler “the architect” of Obamacare, Greenwald noted that she had worked for WellPoint, the giant insurer, before rejoining Baucus’s staff to draft the law. “The bill’s mandate,” he wrote, “that everyone purchase the products of the private health insurance industry, unaccompanied by any public alternative, was a huge gift to that industry.”


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

These include the Federal Reserve Board, the intelligence agencies, the military, and specialized agencies like NASA and the Centers for Disease Control.15 On the state and local levels, attorneys general or prosecutors are given a great deal of discretion over whether to bring charges against individuals accused of crimes, and they are free to enter into plea bargains—much more so than, say, their German counterparts. The military is typically allowed substantial autonomy with regard to operational matters. And, as the world has come to know through the revelations of Edward Snowden, the National Security Agency has been given broad leave to collect data not just on foreign activities but also on American citizens since September 11, 2001.16 While many American libertarians and conservatives would like to abolish these agencies altogether, it is hard to see how it would be possible to govern properly without them under modern circumstances. America today has a vast, diverse, complex national economy, connected to a globalized world economy that moves with extraordinary speed and that takes a great deal of expertise to master.