European colonialism

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pages: 651 words: 135,818

China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg

barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Yet, significant divergences from colonialism as it was experienced in Africa—such as China’s fundamental respect for the sovereignty of African states; its active nurturing of relations with African states in international fora; and its interest in African people as consumers rather than laborers—suggest that China and Africa are engaging in postcolonial relations of interdependency, however economically imbalanced these relations may be. A Chinese “Scramble for Africa?” Geopolitical and Macroeconomic Factors Referring to China’s investments and involvement in Africa from 1996 to 2006 as China’s “Scramble for Africa,” critical observers draw a clear comparison between China and European colonial powers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.3 Several macroeconomic and geopolitical factors that propelled the European “scramble” for Africa also appear to be at work in China’s recent engagement on the continent. During the European colonial era, as during the past decade of Chinese activity, the objective of external powers in Africa was to gain economic and 04-7561-4 ch4.qxd 9/16/08 4:11 PM Page 67 Engaging Postcolonial Interdependencies 67 political advantage for the interventionist power.4 This overriding reality offers preliminary evidence that China’s current engagement with Africa is (neo)colonial: in this basic analysis, China uses its power to influence relatively weaker African economic and political systems in its own interest.

In an ironic twist, as soon as China systematically withdrew its imports from the South African textile and apparel markets, the void was filled not by rejuvenated South African products but by cheap imports from Bangladesh and Vietnam, suggesting that in the twenty-first century Africa is being buffeted by the broader challenges of globalization, rather than by specific competition from China.16 Utilization of the African labor force marks another significant difference between China’s contemporary investment and European colonial activities in Africa. During the colonial period, European states leaned heavily on African peasant labor for the extraction of colonial wealth. By means of ruthless campaigns of forced and poorly paid labor, colonial states throughout the continent 04-7561-4 ch4.qxd 9/16/08 4:11 PM Page 72 72 stephanie rupp coerced able-bodied adults to undertake arduous work to fill the colonial cof-fers. The cardinal rule of colonial economics was that each colony had to pay for itself; colonial officials were systematic in collecting taxes from African producers to underwrite their subjugation. Hut and capitation taxes necessitated the procurement or production of resources that could be sold for hard (always European) currency. In many regions of Africa, European colonial officials applied notoriously brutal measures to ensure the collection of taxes.

Thus, while the Chinese government has made a concerted effort to extend a degree of socioeconomic assistance as part of its partnership with African nations, its state-centered approach has resulted in a fundamental decoupling of these programs from the often rural communities 04-7561-4 ch4.qxd 9/16/08 4:11 PM Page 77 Engaging Postcolonial Interdependencies 77 that would most benefit from them, and the people whose lives are directly affected by the presence of Chinese extractive industries. In the Cultural Arena China’s cultural approach to engaging Africa diverges from the European colonial model of cultural paternalism. Fundamentally, China is not driven by a “civilizing mission” to reform and save African individuals from their perceived primitivity. Unlike attempts by French colonial authorities to create “Frenchmen” from their African subjects by imparting French language, eti-quette, and habits, Chinese authorities have no interest in transforming Africans into “Chinamen.” European colonial attitudes were paradoxical: paternalistic attempts to bring “civilized” ways of life to African subjects were debasing, even as this cultural engagement signaled the shared essence of humanity and fraternité.


pages: 547 words: 172,226

Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, working poor

And ultimately their retreat from trade would not save them from Europeans; by the end of the eighteenth century, nearly all were part of European colonial empires. WE SAW IN CHAPTER 7 how European expansion into the Atlantic fueled the rise of inclusive institutions in Britain. But as illustrated by the experience of the Moluccas under the Dutch, this expansion sowed the seeds of underdevelopment in many diverse corners of the world by imposing, or further strengthening existing, extractive institutions. These either directly or indirectly destroyed nascent commercial and industrial activity throughout the globe or they perpetuated institutions that stopped industrialization. As a result, as industrialization was spreading in some parts of the world, places that were part of European colonial empires stood no chance of benefiting from these new technologies.

“I’VE SEEN THE FUTURE, AND IT WORKS”: GROWTH UNDER EXTRACTIVE INSTITUTIONS What Stalin, King Shyaam, the Neolithic Revolution, and the Maya city-states all had in common and how this explains why China’s current economic growth cannot last 6. DRIFTING APART How institutions evolve over time, often slowly drifting apart 7. THE TURNING POINT How a political revolution in 1688 changed institutions in England and led to the Industrial Revolution 8. NOT ON OUR TURF: BARRIERS TO DEVELOPMENT Why the politically powerful in many nations opposed the Industrial Revolution Photo Inserts 9. REVERSING DEVELOPMENT How European colonialism impoverished large parts of the world 10. THE DIFFUSION OF PROSPERITY How some parts of the world took different paths to prosperity from that of Britain 11. THE VIRTUOUS CIRCLE How institutions that encourage prosperity create positive feedback loops that prevent the efforts by elites to undermine them 12. THE VICIOUS CIRCLE How institutions that create poverty generate negative feedback loops and endure 13.

In West Africa there was rapid economic development based on the export of palm oil and ground nuts; throughout southern Africa, Africans developed exports to the rapidly expanding industrial and mining areas of the Rand in South Africa. Yet these promising economic experiments were obliterated not by African culture or the inability of ordinary Africans to act in their own self-interest, but first by European colonialism and then by postindependence African governments. The real reason that the Kongolese did not adopt superior technology was because they lacked any incentives to do so. They faced a high risk of all their output being expropriated and taxed by the all-powerful king, whether or not he had converted to Catholicism. In fact, it wasn’t only their property that was insecure. Their continued existence was held by a thread.


pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger

California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

Coffee, however, was already firmly entrenched in German habits, and it managed to survive the various taxations, prohibitions, and general suppression exercised against its use. Today, in fact, Germany is the world’s third largest coffee consumer. Colonialism and the Spread of the Bean Beginning in the early 1700s, under the control of a handful of colonial powers, coffee cultivation increased dramatically throughout the tropics over the ensuing centuries. For most European colonial powers, coffee was a dream crop: a habit-forming, high-value tropical product that traveled well, with a ready market back home. Accompanying its expansion was a litany of cruelly inhumane and rapacious practices used for cultivating the bean, practices that indelibly scarred the landscapes and peoples unfortunate enough to be associated with the crop. Massive forest clearing and slavery were the seeming requisites behind growing coffee in virgin colonial lands, and the forces unleashed in this process have not yet played themselves out.

In 1773 citizens of Boston (“disguised” as natives) boarded English ships in the city harbor and threw the tea cargoes overboard, therein inspiring a lasting national affection for that other drink, coffee, which could be imported directly from French and Dutch colonies in the Caribbean. From that time, drinking coffee was viewed as a patriotic act, and drinking tea was seen as un-American. Curiously, then, whereas European colonialism seemed to dictate where coffee was cultivated and drunk, in the case of the United States, it was the end of colonialism, dramatically reflected in the Boston Tea Party, that marked coffee’s rise to prominence. The initiation of coffee as the American national drink in the late eighteenth century set the stage for a series of developments in the U.S. coffee trade that took place over the following two centuries—principally, the growth of a coffee trade infrastructure that served to smooth the flow of beans and bucks between producing and consuming nations.

This infrastructure included the centralization of the coffee roasting industry, technological innovations facilitating higher yields, increasingly efficient transport mechanisms, and geopolitical developments favoring the growth of symbiotic relationships between the United States and key producing countries. Later conglomeration of roasters into multinational corporations and the growth of Brazil and Colombia as the primary powers behind coffee production both echo some of the themes found in coffee’s early European colonial history—namely, the ongoing struggle for monopolistic control and regulation of a sector capable of generating tremendous revenues and power. The attendant social and ecological costs of the commerce in coffee, however, were also globalized. Increasingly powerful, the roasting corporations eventually became nearly indistinguishable from government in matters of coffee as they worked closely together to ensure that trade agreements and policies aligned with their own agendas.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Now India can leverage China’s infrastructure to more efficiently deliver its own projects for Sri Lanka, from railways to housing, and use the island as a reliable back office and outsourcing site for call centers and car part assembly for the huge south Indian market of 300 million people. The Indian Ocean is once again the epicenter of competitive connectivity. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, India’s coastal kingdoms haggled with European colonial merchants to get the most favorable terms for carrying their goods to far-off markets. But whereas Sri Lanka became a European colony from the fifteenth century onward, this time it is prepared to resist any Chinese overextension beyond the projects that are mutually beneficial—armed with Chinese weapons. ATLANTIC CITIES The competition to shape maritime trade routes has become as intense in the Atlantic as in the Indian or Pacific Ocean. When the Panama Canal opened in 1914, it devastated Chile’s lovely colonial port of Valparaíso, where ships no longer needed to dock on their way around the Strait of Magellan at the tip of South America.

As the sociologist Christopher Chase-Dunn has shown, today’s world civilizational network has expanded through the interactions of once discrete regional and cultural systems, with waves of deepening connectedness launched by the confluence of new technologies, sources of capital, and geopolitical ambitions. Both the Arab conquerors of the mid-first millennium C.E. and the Mongols of the thirteenth century leveraged their organized mobility to establish vast empires. The Crusades and the Commercial Revolution of the late Middle Ages enabled the flourishing of maritime commerce and set the stage for centuries of European colonialism during which most of the world’s territory was mapped and claimed. Maps 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13, corresponding to this chapter, appear in the map insert. Globalization surged as empires expanded their connections: the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Iberian (Spanish and Portuguese) voyages and the seventeenth-century Dutch and eighteenth-century British East India companies.

But African states won’t survive at all without basic physical infrastructure. What will make the difference between celebrating independence and achieving success in Africa is not just political nation building but physical state building—both within and across borders. Africa has never had a time-out period to pause and decide how to best organize itself without outside interference. Its geopolitical complexity is the result of the layering of two centuries of European colonialism, a dozen major independence movements after World War II, the Cold War maneuverings that supported some of them while thwarting others, and the globalization of its commodities industries, which has brought in powerful foreign supply chain operators. Many of Africa’s interstate boundaries are visible only if one overlays the geometric grid of latitude and longitude, which European colonialists used rather than any sensible respect for cultural geography to draw the continent’s many straight-line borders.


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The British, in prosecuting the Hut tax war in Sierra Leone, hanged ninety-six tribal chiefs whom they blamed for the insurrection.5 European colonial officials often behaved like petty tyrants, dispensing justice (or injustice) arbitrarily with few checks on their power. Consider the following vignette from German-controlled Cameroon, where the “imperial chancellor of the protectorate, Leist, had the wives of Dahomey soldiers whipped in the presence of their husbands, which resulted in December 1893 in a revolt of the soldiers. He had female convicts brought to him from the prison at night for his sexual gratification. He was brought before a disciplinary council and condemned to be transferred to an equivalent post, with a loss of seniority, for ‘an error in the cause of duty.’”6 Indeed, an entire academic discipline devoted to exposing the horrors of European colonialism emerged in the late twentieth century, which sought to explain how contemporary Africa’s many problems are rooted in the colonial experience.

The most successful non-Western countries today are precisely those that had the most developed indigenous institutions prior to their contact with the West. The complex reasons for different development paths can be seen most vividly in the contrast between sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, the worst- and best-performing regions of the world with respect to economic development over the past half century. Sub-Saharan Africa never developed strong indigenous state-level institutions prior to its contact with the West. When the European colonial powers began the “scramble for Africa” in the late nineteenth century, they soon discovered that their new colonies were barely paying for the cost of their own administration. Britain in response adopted a policy of indirect rule, which justified minimal investment on its part in the creation of state institutions. The terrible colonial legacy was thus more an act of omission than of commission.

On the contrary, there reigns in Asia a servile spirit, which they have never been able to shake off, and it is impossible to find in all the histories of that country a single passage which discovers a freedom of spirit; we shall never see anything there but by the excess of slavery. Other political theorists, from Aristotle to Rousseau, have argued that climate and geography had an effect in shaping the nature of political institutions. By the second half of the twentieth century, however, when the European colonial empires were being disbanded and countries of the developing world were emerging as independent states, this line of reasoning began to fall out of favor. This was particularly true of arguments having to do with the effects of climate on national character and consequently development. Many of Montesquieu’s views on the differences between courageous inhabitants of northern climates and pleasure-seeking but indolent southerners were dismissed as crude stereotyping or racist prejudice.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

I'm always fascinated to read in our professional journals what they're discovering, and as I used to tell my students, the Age of Discovery may be over, but the era of geographic discovery never will be. THE SPATIAL SPECIALIZERS The stirring story of geography's early emergence, its Greek and Roman expansion, its European diversification, and its global dissemination is a saga of pioneering observation, heroic exploration, inventive mapmaking, and ever-improving interpretation, discussed in fascinating detail by the discipline's leading historian (Martin, 2005). Long before European colonialism launched the first wave of what today we call globalization, indigenous geographers were drawing maps and interpreting landscapes from Korea to the Andes and from India to Morocco. Later, geographic philosophy got caught up in European nationalism, and various "schools" of geography—German, French, British—came to reflect, and even to support and justify, national political and strategic aspirations including expansionism, colonialism, and even Nazism.

African traditional societies hunted for food or for ceremonial reasons, but not for entertainment or amusement. The notion of killing for fun and fashion was introduced by Europeans. Hindu society and religious culture in India are more protective of the natural world than many others. The extermination and near extermination of many species of animals in India took place during (Muslim) Moghul and European colonial times. Malevolent destruction of the environment continues in various—indeed many—forms today, ranging from the deliberate spilling of oil and setting of oil fires by Iraqis during the 1991 conflict over Kuwait, to the mercury poisoning of Amazonian streams by Brazilian gold miners. For the first time in human history, however, the combined impacts of humanity's destructive A FUTURE GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN POPULATION 103 and exploitative actions are threatening the entire Earth's biodiversity.

Three of these four states will determine the course of events, and it is China's historic durability and Britain's unification of India that have brought us to this momentous prospect. RED STAR RISING: CHINA'S GEOPOLITICAL GAUNTLET Napoleon, who knew a thing or two about empires and imperialism, is supposed to have remarked that China was a giant asleep, and that whoever woke it up would regret doing so. In the two centuries that followed, European colonial powers shook China's lethargic rulers, Japanese armies jolted the Chinese heartland, and Soviet ideologues got in bed with their Maoist counterparts. But China outlasted the colonialists, ousted the Japanese, and outdid their Stalinist advisors' communist fervor, all without entering the global stage. Nor did the Chinese retaliate against the Europeans, even allowing the British to reassert themselves in postwar Hong Kong.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Neutral geographic labels are ultimately much more revealing than colonial artifacts. Asia for Asians More than two millennia ago, Asia’s disparate civilizations had already established commercial ties and engaged in conflict from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas to the Indus valley. By the fifteenth century, Asia was a diplomatically, economically, and culturally connected realm stretching from Anatolia to China. European colonialism, however, fractured Asia, reducing it to a collection of adjacent territories too poor and subservient to Western powers to congeal meaningfully. The Cold War further splintered Asia into competitive spheres of influence. Over time, Arabs and Turks came to see themselves as the “Middle East” and Chinese and Japanese identified as the “Far East.” Asia ceased to be a coherent whole.9 After two centuries of division, today’s post–Cold War period marks the advent of a new phase of Asia knitting itself back together into a coherent system.

As Asian countries emulate one another’s successes, they leverage their growing wealth and confidence to extend their influence to all corners of the planet. The Asianization of Asia is just the first step in the Asianization of the world. The Asianization of the World The legacy of the nineteenth-century Europeanization and twentieth-century Americanization of the world is that most nations have been shaped by the West in some significant way: European colonial borders and administration, US invasions or military assistance, a currency pegged to the US dollar, American software and social media, and so forth. Billions of people have acquired personal and psychological connections to the West. They have English or French as a first or second language, have relatives in America, Canada, or Great Britain, cheer for an English Premier League football team, never miss films starring their favorite Hollywood actor or actress, and follow the ins and outs of US presidential politics.

With his mantra “Asia is One,” the Japanese philosopher Okakura Tenshin became a leading voice of Pan-Asianism through his writings on the historical linkages not only among East Asians but also between Chinese and Muslims. Okukura’s Indian counterpart, the Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, traveled from Japan and Korea to Persia, advocating a return to Asian ideals and traditions. Tagore’s host in China was the renowned intellectual Liang Qichao, who lamented how European colonialism had severed Asia’s historical interconnectivity and turned Asians against one another. The civil rights lawyer Mohandas K. Gandhi stepped up his campaigns of nonviolent disobedience against British rule in India throughout the 1920s, as did Aung San in Burma. By 1914, escalating tensions between European empires and their proxies exploded into war. With the promise of having Shandong returned to its possession, China sided with the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States).


pages: 378 words: 107,957

Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody by Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, desegregation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, late capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, neurotypical, phenotype, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade, white flight, women in the workforce

Though not all postcolonial scholars are postmodern in their outlook, the key figures certainly were and are, and this approach dominates postcolonial Social Justice scholarship and activism today.1 Postcolonialism and the related Theory arose in a specific historical context: the moral and political collapse of European colonialism, which had dominated global politics for more than five centuries. European colonialism began in earnest in around the fifteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth, and it proceeded upon the assumption that the European powers had a right to expand their territories and exert their political and cultural authority over other peoples and regions. Though this sort of empire-building attitude was a standard one typical to many, if not most, cultures before the twentieth century, European colonialism was equipped with sweeping explanations, stories, and justifications of itself—or metanarratives—that proclaimed and sought to legitimize this right in its own terms.

Though this sort of empire-building attitude was a standard one typical to many, if not most, cultures before the twentieth century, European colonialism was equipped with sweeping explanations, stories, and justifications of itself—or metanarratives—that proclaimed and sought to legitimize this right in its own terms. These included la mission civilisatrice (the civilizing mission) in French colonialism and Manifest Destiny in North America—concepts central to knowledge production and political organization from before the Enlightenment right through the Modern period.2 Then, with surprising rapidity, European colonialism faltered and collapsed in the middle of the twentieth century. Following World War II especially, decolonization efforts proceeded quickly on both the material and political levels, and, by the early 1960s, moral concerns about colonialism were prominent in both the academy and among the general public, especially on the radical left. The collapse of colonialism was therefore at the heart of the social and political milieu in which postmodernism arose, especially in the academies of Continental Europe.

The Bible, for example, written over two thousand years ago in the Mediterranean, where black, brown, and white people were to be found, is filled with moralistic tribalism, but makes almost no mention of skin color. In late medieval England, references to “black” people often simply described the hair color of Europeans now regarded as “white.” While other factors may have contributed, race and racism as we understand them today probably arose as social constructions, made by Europeans to morally justify European colonialism and the Atlantic Slave Trade. European historians have tracked the rise of color-based prejudice over the early modern period, from roughly 1500 to 1800, and argued that prejudice on the grounds of religious difference gave way to racism—a belief in the superiority of some races over others—over the course of the seventeenth century.1 In order to justify the abuses of colonialism and the kidnapping, exploitation, and abuse of slaves, their victims had to be regarded as inferior or subhuman (even if they had converted to Christianity).


pages: 265 words: 71,143

Empires of the Weak: The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order by Jason Sharman

British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, European colonialism, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land tenure, offshore financial centre, passive investing, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, profit maximization, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs

I also emphasize what those in the social sciences, especially International Relations and political science, can learn from recent revisionist historians’ work about relations between Europeans and other civilizations in Africa, Asia, and the Americas to supplant the military revolution thesis. Any effort to understand a topic as huge as the creation and workings of the early modern global international order requires the insights of different disciplines. The Shape of the Argument A recent book observes that “in all the debate, few scholars have actually tested [the] claim that the military revolution underlay European colonialism. To what extent did Europe’s military innovations between 1450 and 1700 actually provide Europeans an edge in warfare?”1 The evidence I present in Chapters 1–3 shows that the military revolution thesis simply does not fit with the evidence from either Spanish conquests in the New World, or Portuguese, Dutch, and English engagements in Asia and Africa. To begin with, the styles of warfare Europeans used abroad were almost completely different from those that they used at home.

Individuals who go into combat believing they are immune to bullets are disproportionately likely to be killed or wounded, and groups in which this belief is widespread are disproportionately likely to be defeated. The lack of an elimination effect cannot be attributed to all parties operating with the same beliefs, as there were a variety of armed groups engaged that did not believe in bulletproofing. These ranged from European colonial armies to Communist forces disdainful of “reactionary” and “bourgeois” traditional beliefs, post-independence Western interventions, mercenary forces, and conventionally trained African armies. Sometimes these conventional forces massacred opponents who believed in bulletproofing, but at other times they lost. The balance of losses to wins for magically inspired forces was not sufficient to eradicate or even diminish this practice.

Pulling back to look at the logic that underlies the military revolution thesis, the idea that international security competition ruthlessly and efficiently winnows institutional forms to promote a convergence on the best-adapted and most military effective solutions, either through rulers’ rational decision making, or through Darwinian elimination via conquest, is a poor fit with the rise of European colonial empires. Losing in the End: Decolonization and Insurgency from 1945 Can we explain European expansion without explaining European contraction also? Outside of the settler countries of the Americas and Oceania, European dominance fell even more suddenly than it had been established. By most measures, the European empires reached their greatest territorial extent in the inter-war years. Yet in the period 1945–1975 a cumulating combination of political retrenchment and military defeat saw empires replaced by an international system of unprecedented homogeneity centered on sovereign states.


pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

America exerted a powerful fascination for the European imagination, even if one strand of scientific thought regarded this ‘new’ continent as a harsh and hostile environment in which human physique displayed strong degenerative tendencies.52 What excited Europeans was the belief that they had both the right and the means to ‘make’ or remake America in Europe’s image, or even as an improved version of the old continent. This intellectual imperialism derived in part from the ease with which European rule had been established, and the completeness of the native collapse. But it was also founded upon a set of social and cultural assumptions famously expressed by John Locke. It was the Amerindians’ failure to develop a system of property that Europeans could recognize, so Locke argued, that justified the Europeans’ colonial land grab.53 But although Locke evidently regarded the Ottoman Empire as a hateful tyranny, and hoped for a revolt by the Christians it had conquered, he displayed no similar assurance that Europe had any title to the conquest and occupation of Africa and Asia – even if it had the means. In this, Locke, who was exceptionally widely read in the travel and geographical literature of his day,54 was probably reflecting the respectful tone of the most influential contemporary writing on the Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal and Chinese empires.

It was the one place where Europeans had established a permanent settlement long before the late nineteenth century. Since around 1700, Dutch-speaking farmers (Boers) had moved up from the Cape, slowly imposing their power on the African peoples they met. In the late 1830s they surged forward in a series of ‘treks’ to occupy the northern half of modern South Africa, the plains of the ‘highveld’. After 1870 this localized brand of European colonialism was suddenly energized by new mineral wealth – first diamonds, then gold. To the British government, overlords of the Cape since 1815, it was the perfect chance to steer a backward region away from its cycle of costly frontier wars. They wanted South Africa to be like Canada: a federal dominion, economically progressive, ‘British’ in outlook, and loyal to the empire. British trade would flourish, and the Cape would be safe for Britain’s Indian traffic.

East Asia’s future as a sphere of Western influence was at best uncertain. The European great powers had squabbled irritably over the share-out of territory and influence in North Africa and the Middle East. The size and scale of the American economy raised awkward questions over howfar American interests could be accommodated in a global economy centred on London and partitioned spatially between the European colonial powers. The frantic pace at which international trade and investment had been growing seemed to be easing off. Social unrest in Europe’s industrial economies threatened to clip the wings of the great-power governments and to rein in their global ambitions and strategies. But, before the influence of any of these changes could be felt internationally, world politics were transformed by a volcanic explosion, beginning in Europe but rapidly spreading to engulf every important state across the breadth of Eurasia.


Affluence Without Abundance: The Disappearing World of the Bushmen by James Suzman

access to a mobile phone, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, clean water, discovery of the americas, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, full employment, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, means of production, Occupy movement, open borders, out of africa, post-work, quantitative easing, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, We are the 99%

This left the Khoisan living in the Kalahari Basin and in much of what is now South Africa’s Northern Cape Province undisturbed. The only clear impact of these migrations on these populations was the adoption of cattle and sheep herding by some groups that by the fifteenth century were concentrated in the better-watered lands around what are now the vineyards and fruit farms of South Africa’s Western Cape. It was only when European colonialism began to reshape southern Africa that the independence and autonomy of Khoisan in the vast Kalahari Basin would eventually be challenged. 3 A Beachside Brawl The most startling thing about Cape Cross, on Namibia’s storm-battered Atlantic coast, is the smell. It lingers heavy in the saline air, reaches deep into your sinuses, and then creeps down the back of your throat. It is a nasal cacophony of acrid, fishy fecal decay so strong that it reduces the view in front of you into soft focus and smothers the source of this smell—eighty thousand Cape fur seals barking, grunting, fighting, and farting—into dull white noise.

And he would also not have realized that they managed to do this by not having to work very hard at all, and so had as much free time as only the most indolent of the nobles back in Portugal. Da Gama’s voyage presaged an era of unimaginable change for Khoisan across southern Africa. For some this process began the moment the first Portuguese sails pierced the Atlantic horizon off the Cape of Good Hope. For others it was marked by the progressive expansion of European colonialism northward from the Cape. For others still, like the Nyae Nyae Ju/’hoansi, it would be heralded by the arrival of the Marshall family’s convoy in 1951. By the 1850s only those Bushmen who lived north of the Cape Colony’s (modern South Africa’s) borders, in the vast Kalahari Basin, still maintained their independence in any meaningful way. Protected by an arid environment that was hostile to farmers, many of these Bushmen continued to hunt and gather well into the twentieth century.

Markers in the genes of other Bushman groups living closer to farming settlements, like the G/wikhoe of the central Kalahari or the Hai//om of northwestern Namibia, show much more recent and extensive evidence of gene flow with Bantu from places like Bosutswe. In the end, the challenge of finding enough water for cattle in the Kalahari, like so many obstacles that stalled the advance of agriculture and commerce, was cracked by technology. By midway through the nineteenth century, the pressures of an ever-expanding European colonial presence across southern Africa had already forced some pastoralist peoples to try their luck herding along some of the Kalahari omiramba and in areas like Ghanzi, where a limestone ridge cut through the sand overburden, creating a series of easily accessible natural wells. But as abundant as the grazing was, there was seldom enough water in the dry seasons to make permanent settlement in much of the Kalahari a serious option.


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The Second World Wars: How the First Global Conflict Was Fought and Won by Victor Davis Hanson

British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, friendly fire, means of production, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, South China Sea, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

He accepted that the German navy was far weaker in a relative sense in 1939 than it had been in 1914, and the so-called naval parity achieved by the Z-Plan (the Kriegsmarine’s ten-year agenda to create a huge fleet) was still nearly a decade away. At the beginning of the war a prescient Admiral Raeder lamented that his far-too-small surface fleet could do little against the British navy except “die with honor.” At a later point Hitler assumed that eventually the Japanese navy and its martial audacity could tie down both the European colonials and the United States in a Pacific slugfest. The fear of Soviet communism, or, after 1940, the allure of rich orphaned European colonies in the Pacific, or the resentment of serial British and American bullying—any or all would ensure Japan’s eagerness to fight alongside Germany. Yet fighting a common enemy separately was not quite the same as fighting it in synchronized and complementary fashion. The use of the vaguer Axis rather than Allies to describe the German relationship with Italy and Japan was revealing.

Anthony Eden quotes a pathetic diary entry of Neville Chamberlain weirdly blaming the Austrian Anschluss on Eden, who had resigned as foreign secretary, for supposedly alienating Mussolini—in a manner that his successor, the appeasing Lord Halifax, would never have: “It is tragic to think that very possibly this [the Anschluss] might have been prevented if I had had Halifax at the Foreign Office instead of Anthony at the time I wrote my letter to Mussolini.”27 Aside from the failure to recognize that past victory is a quickly wasting asset, some in Britain, France, and the United States privately felt that Germany had some legitimate grievances about the loss of territory from World War I. Japan—a member of the Allied councils in the aftermath of World War I—perhaps also had reasonable claims. Even by Western colonial reckoning, the Japanese, more so than distant European colonial powers, deserved the greater sphere of influence among their Asian brethren. Japan chafed under European condescension. So it quietly continued its efforts to establish a first-rate navy and trained superb naval aviators on the assumption that it would expand a new Pacific sphere of influence that would be protected by a fleet of aircraft carriers. In response, British and Americans continued to dream that such emulative peoples could hardly master Western technology and tactics.28 Such confusion ensured that should the Axis powers be content with their occupations and limit their annexations to just a few neighboring and weaker states—Abyssinia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Manchuria, and Korea—then there would be no good reason to resort to another world war to stop them.

Many of Nagumo’s aviators privately were relieved that the fleet was playing it safe and going home after just two strikes at Pearl Harbor. Perhaps most important, the fleet commander knew that many in the reactionary Japanese admiralty would consider Pearl Harbor a success by virtue of the destruction of the prestigious American battleship fleet.7 In the seven months following Pearl Harbor, the Japanese fleet ran wild, easily erasing the old European colonial and American spheres of influence. Naval superiority meant virtually unopposed landings at the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, New Britain, the Gilbert Islands, Guam, and Hong Kong. The Japanese are often scolded by historians for becoming infected with the “Victory Disease” early in the war. Yet in just four early naval battles preceding the Battle of the Coral Sea—at Pearl Harbor, Singapore, in the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea—they sank or grounded six Allied battleships, one carrier, one battle cruiser, six cruisers, and five destroyers, and killed over six thousand British, Dutch, Commonwealth, and American seamen, all without suffering a single ship lost and fewer than two hundred dead.


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The Next Factory of the World: How Chinese Investment Is Reshaping Africa by Irene Yuan Sun

barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, Computer Numeric Control, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, manufacturing employment, means of production, mobile money, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population

I spent a year bearing witness to the things that are wrong and unfair in our world today—children dealing with the brunt of HIV/AIDS, environmental degradation, poverty—and I had nothing to offer. The idea that education was the key to my kids’ future seemed empty. That felt sacrilegious at the time, but I sensed that my teaching reinforced rather than expanded the ways in which Africa relates to the world. Receiving wisdom from foreigners who supposedly know better: it’s an old trope, dating back at least to European colonial ideology in Africa, and it has never worked. What else would it take for African countries to pull off the transformation I had seen China make in my short lifetime? Strangely, it was on a blind date that I began to encounter a new reality. A Chinese man from whom I regularly bought vegetables insisted that I come over for dinner one weekend to meet his “good friend.” I agreed, mostly to stay on good terms with my vegetable dealer.

We can wait another fifty years.” … Factories live and die. They take root in a place, thrive for a while, and then fade away. From British textile factories in the nineteenth century to Detroit auto plants and Japanese TV makers in the twentieth, factories come, then factories go. In Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, factories were coming to life. In the heady years following independence from European colonialism for vast swaths of the continent, both foreign investors and national governments were optimistic about the prospects for large-scale manufacturing in Africa. Shortly after Nigeria’s independence from Great Britain, in 1960, foreign investment helped create the first textile mill in the country. Kaduna Textile Mills was an immediate success, turning a profit from its very first month in operation.2 A former manager recounts how by just taking around samples of his product, “a fabric heavily filled with starch and calendered so that it almost shone,” he was “able to sell six months’ production within a morning’s stroll around Manchester and a brief visit to Liverpool, with only the inconvenience of taking one of the buyers out to lunch.”3 More companies entered the market, looking for a piece of the action, and Nigeria soon became a major textiles production hub.

She is a graduate of Harvard Business School, Harvard Kennedy School, and Harvard College. *In fact, historians would point out that the Tungs’ arrival in the mid twentieth century was actually the third wave of Chinese immigration to Africa. The first wave came in the form of prisoners brought by the Dutch via Southeast Asia in the seventeenth century. The second wave consisted of Chinese contract laborers who came to the continent during the height of European colonialism, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For example, in 1904, the British government brought 64,000 Chinese indentured laborers to work in South African gold mines. *Name changed to protect privacy.


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Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

The declining sovereignty ofnation-states and their increasing inability to regulate economic and cultural exchanges is in fact one ofthe primary symptoms ofthe coming ofEmpire. The sovereignty ofthe nation-state was the cornerstone ofthe imperialisms that European powers constructed throughout the modern era. By ‘‘Em- pire,’’ however, we understand something altogether different from ‘‘imperialism.’’ The boundaries defined by the modern system of nation-states were fundamental to European colonialism and eco- nomic expansion: the territorial boundaries ofthe nation delimited the center ofpower from which rule was exerted over external foreign territories through a system of channels and barriers that alternately facilitated and obstructed the flows of production and circulation. Imperialism was really an extension ofthe sovereignty ofthe European nation-states beyond their own boundaries.

Part ofthe S O V E R E I G N T Y O F T H E N A T I O N - S T A T E 107 ‘‘modernizing’’ effects of the nation in subordinated countries has been the unification ofdiverse populations, breaking down reli- gious, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic barriers. The unification of countries such as Indonesia, China, and Brazil, for example, is an ongoing process that involves overcoming innumerable such barriers—and in many cases this national unification was prepared by the European colonial power. In cases ofdiasporic populations, too, the nation seems at times to be the only concept available under which to imagine the community ofthe subaltern group—as, for example, the Aztlań is imagined as the geographical homeland of‘‘la Raza,’’ the spiritual Latino nation in North America. It may be true, as Benedict Anderson says, that a nation should be understood as an imagined community—but here we should recog- nize that the claim is inverted so that the nation becomes the only way to imagine community!

For example, upon arriving in India and finding no historiography they could use, British administrators had to write their own ‘‘Indian history’’ to sustain and further the interests of colonial rule. The British had to historicize the Indian past in order to have access to it and put it to work. This British creation ofan Indian history, however, like the formation of the colonial state, could be achieved only by imposing European colonial logics and models on Indian reality.24 India’s past was thus annexed so as to become merely a portion of British history—or rather, British scholars and administrators created an Indian history and exported it to India. This historiography supported the Raj and in turn made the past inaccessible to Indians as history. The reality ofIndia and Indians was thus supplanted by a powerful representation that posed them as an other to Europe, a primitive stage in the teleology ofcivilization.


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Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, traveling salesman

As I have said, Conrad does not give us the sense that he could imagine a fully realized alternative to imperialism: the natives he wrote about in Africa, Asia, or America were incapable of independence, and because he seemed to imagine that European tutelage was a given, he could not foresee what would take place when it came to an end. But come to an end it would, if only because—like all human effort, like speech itself—it would have its moment, then it would have to pass. Since Conrad dates imperialism, shows its contingency, records its illusions and tremendous violence and waste (as in Nostromo), he permits his later readers to imagine something other than an Africa carved up into dozens of European colonies, even if, for his own part, he had little notion of what that Africa might be. To return to the first line out of Conrad, the discourse of resurgent empire proves that the nineteenth-century imperial encounter continues today to draw lines and defend barriers. Strangely, it persists also in the enormously complex and quietly interesting interchange between former colonial partners, say between Britain and India, or between France and the Francophone countries of Africa.

At its heart lay the axiom that non-Europeans should not represent their views of European and American history as those histories impinged on the colonies; if they did, they had to be very firmly resisted. The entire legacy of what can metaphorically be called the tension between Kipling, who finally saw only the politics of empire, and Fanon, who tried to look past the nationalist assertions succeeding classical imperialism, has been disastrous. Let us allow that, given the discrepancy between European colonial power and that of the colonized societies, there was a kind of historical necessity by which colonial pressure created anti-colonial resistance. What concerns me is the way in which, generations later, the conflict continues in an impoverished and for that reason all the more dangerous form, thanks to an uncritical alignment between intellectuals and institutions of power which reproduces the pattern of an earlier imperialist history.

We are fortunate that several young scholars have developed the study of imperial power sufficiently so as to let us observe the aesthetic component involved in the survey and administration of Egypt and India. I have in mind, for example, Timothy Mitchell’s Colonising Egypt,76 where it is shown that the practice of building model villages, discovering the intimacy of harem life, and instituting new modes of military behavior in an ostensibly Ottoman, but really European, colony not only reconfirmed European power, but also produced the added pleasure of surveying and ruling the place. That bond between power and pleasure in imperial rule is marvelously demonstrated by Leila Kinney and Zeynep Çelik in their study of belly-dancing, where the quasi-ethnographic displays afforded by European expositions in fact came to be associated with consumerist leisure based in Europe.77 Two related offshoots of this are excavated in T.


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The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl

anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, North Sea oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Generously allowing both the United States and Britain their share in the Anglo-Saxon heritage, Streit proposed that the model of federation would be provided by the American Constitution, while Britain would contribute the tradition of representative government as such.7 The area which could be united on this basis in the more modest version of 1941 was reduced to the actual Anglo-Saxon world: North America, Britain, the white Dominions, Ireland, and the white population of South Africa.8 Like the ‘Grand Area’ projected by Council on Foreign Relations planners as necessary for the survival of liberal capitalism, Streit’s federal union was conceived basically in sphere-of-interest terms, although its potential for expansion was crucial to the scheme’s logic. Western Europe, Scandinavia, Latin America, but also in the long run, the European colonies — might gradually be incorporated until a truly world government was achieved. If, as Streit proclaimed, ‘despite all that the Nazis, the Stalinists and their stooges say, the Union policy (was) the opposite of imperialism’, the difference would have eluded most non-Anglo-Saxons.9 Reciprocating Streit’s vision in this respect, George Catlin may be singled out as the second major ideologue working for Atlantic unity on the eve of US entry into the war.

Significantly, however, of the series of American projects launched in the period, only one was meant to cover the world at large. Point Four, so named for being the fourth of a number of items announced by Truman in his Inaugural Address of January 1949, was an assistance programme to underdeveloped countries. It was meant, according to its author, ‘to enable [the underdeveloped countres] to help themselves to become growing, strong allies of freedom’. For this role, they needed both to emancipate themselves from European colonialism and to stop short of socialism; Point Four accordingly had ‘nothing in common with either the old imperialism of the last century or the new imperialism of the Communists’.70 When Point Four was enacted in 1950, its budget was ten and a half million dollars less than the minimum requested and, even with subsequent accretions, it remained extremely cheap compared to comprehensive assistance plans like Marshall Aid.

In the 1950s, threats had to make up for the absence of any positive plan for the world. ‘Strategically, it was a defensive age’, Calleo observes, ‘even if the tactics were often aggressive’.12 With respect to the periphery, the anti-communism and anti-colonialism which in the Marshall Plan had been depicted as a transcendent Free World strategy, now degenerated into rivalry as short-term considerations became the sole point of reference. At least until 1956, European colonial powers actively sought to reinforce and recapture imperial positions, encouraged by the defensive posture of the United States. In some cases, as in the Suez affair, the susceptibilities of Middle Eastern and African countries were taken into account by US policy-makers for tactical reasons. Broadly speaking, however, there was no comprehensive effort on the part of the United States to actively create viable social relations in the underdeveloped world which would secure its dependence on metropolitan capitalism in a post-colonial era.


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The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis

American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine

In fact, though, the superpowers were finding it increasingly difficult to manage the smaller powers, whether allies or neutrals in the Cold War, while at the same time they were losing the authority they had once taken for granted at home. The weak were discovering opportunities to confront the strong. The nature of power was changing because the fear of power, as traditionally conceived, was diminishing. Mallets were indeed beginning to turn into flamingos, and balls into hedgehogs. I. THE FIRST signs that this was happening came with the decline and eventual demise of European colonialism, a process that began before the Cold War started, paralleled its early development, and only gradually affected its subsequent evolution. The European domination of the world dated from the 15th century, when Portugal and Spain first perfected the means of transporting men, weapons, and—without realizing it—germs across the oceans that had hitherto kept human societies apart.3 By the end of the 19th century, there was little territory left that was not controlled by Europeans or their descendants.

Nor did decolonization become a significant issue during the early Cold War. The Soviet Union remained anti-imperialist—how could it not be?—but advancing revolution in what was coming to be called the “third world” was less important to Stalin in the immediate postwar years than recovering from the war and attempting to spread his influence as widely as possible in Europe. The United States, for its part, was not about to defend European colonialism either. Its own history had begun in rebellion against an empire, and although the Americans had taken colonies of their own at the end of the 19th century—the Philippines being the most significant—they had never been comfortable with colonialism, preferring instead to exert their influence abroad by economic and cultural means. Neither Moscow nor Washington lamented the decline of European empires, therefore, nor did the power vacuums that were developing outside of Europe, as a result, at first preoccupy them.

Stalin had succumbed to these when he allowed Kim Il-sung to attack South Korea, while simultaneously encouraging Ho Chi Minh’s war against the French in Indochina. The old dictator knew little about the “third world,” however, and undertook no sustained effort to project Soviet influence into it. Khrushchev was more energetic: unlike Stalin, he loved to travel abroad and rarely missed a chance to do so. Among his favored destinations were the newly independent countries that were emerging from European colonial rule. “I’m not an adventurer,” Khrushchev explained, “but we must aid national liberation movements.”6 The Americans feared precisely this. Colonialism, they believed, was an antiquated institution that could only discredit the West in the regions where it had existed, while weakening its practitioners in Europe, where they needed to be strong. But the United States could not detach itself from its British, French, Dutch, and Portuguese allies just because they still maintained colonial possessions: restoring security and prosperity in postwar Europe was too important.


Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies by Jared M. Diamond

affirmative action, Atahualpa, British Empire, California gold rush, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, invention of movable type, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, James Watt: steam engine, Maui Hawaii, QWERTY keyboard, the scientific method, trade route

A L T H O U G H Y ALI'S QUESTION concerned only the contrasting life- styles of New Guineans and of European whites, it can be extended to a larger set of contrasts within the modern world. Peoples of Eurasian ori- gin, especially those still living in Europe and eastern Asia, plus those transplanted to North America, dominate the modern world in wealth and power. Other peoples, including most Africans, have thrown off European colonial domination but remain far behind in wealth and power. Still other peoples, such as the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, the Americas, and southernmost Africa, are no longer even masters of their own lands but have been decimated, subjugated, and in some cases even exterminated by European colonialists. Thus, questions about inequality in the modern world can be reformu- lated as follows.

Thus, large-scale economic exchanges of food, between communities at different altitudes specializing in different types of food production, never developed in New Guinea. Such exchanges in the Andes, Alps, and Himalayas not only increased population densities in those areas, by providing people at all altitudes with a more balanced diet, but also promoted regional economic and political integration. For all these reasons, the population of traditional New Guinea never exceeded 1,000,000 until European colonial governments brought West- ern medicine and the end of intertribal warfare. Of the approximately nine world centers of agricultural origins that we discussed in Chapter 5, New Guinea remained the one with by far the smallest population. With a mere 1,000,000 people, New Guinea could not develop the technology, writing, and political systems that arose among populations of tens of millions in China, the Fertile Crescent, the Andes, and Mesoamerica.

The sole part of New Guinea where Europeans do not suffer from severe health problems is the highlands, above the altitudinal ceiling for malaria. But the highlands, already occupied by dense populations of New Guineans, were not reached by Europeans until the 1930s. By then, the Australian and Dutch colonial governments were no longer willing to open up lands for white settlement by killing native people in large numbers or driving them off their lands, as had happened during earlier centuries of European colonialism. The remaining obstacle to European would-be settlers was that Euro- pean crops, livestock, and subsistence methods do poorly everywhere in the New Guinea environment and climate. While introduced tropical American crops such as squash, corn, and tomatoes are now grown in small quantities, and tea and coffee plantations have been established in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, staple European crops, like wheat, barley, and peas, have never taken hold.


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Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, one-state solution, price stability, too big to fail

Within the American evangelical scene, the voices of the “Merrills” weakened and were almost silenced by the vociferous sermons of the “Blackstones,” whose numbers increased enormously in the twentieth century. Their positive view of Zionism was reinforced by the growing tension between the missionaries and the Islamic religious establishments in the eastern Mediterranean. The missionaries, who once preached for liberation from European colonialism, hoped that American Christianity and not the Islamic tradition would become the leading light of the new nations, as indeed would become the case. In many ways, the second and third generations of missionaries became the first “Orientalists”—in the full negative meaning of the term. But even before Edward Said attracted our attention to this group, another Edward was warning, forty years before Said’s Orientalism appeared, of the dubious impact of the Orientalist missionary.

In his important work on the subject, Stephen Sizer has revealed how Christian Zionists have constructed a historical narrative that describes the Muslim attitude to Christianity throughout the ages as a kind of a genocidal campaign, first against the Jews and then against the Christians.12 Hence, what were once hailed as moments of human triumph in the Middle East—the Islamic renaissance of the Middle Ages, the golden era of the Ottomans, the emergence of Arab independence and the end of European colonialism—were recast as the satanic, anti-Christian acts of heathens. In the new historical view, the United States became St. George, Israel his shield and spear, and Islam their dragon. THE KING-CRANE LEGACY In the heart of Ohio lies the town of Oberlin. At the beginning of the nineteenth century it was still a typical Midwest American village, surrounded by infinite cornfields, away from the ivy towers of the East and West coasts.

The American president wished to exploit the results of the war by disintegrating the big colonial empires in the name of the right to independence and self-determination. In the Wilsonian vision, the Arab peoples, too, were entitled to the national liberation denied them during four hundred years of Ottoman rule. Wilson suspected that Britain and France wanted to replace Turkish imperialism with European colonialism. He therefore asked the Peace Conference in Versailles to send a commission of inquiry to the Arab world to ascertain the peoples’ aspirations there. The survey included Palestine, and King was his favored candidate to head the mission.13 King’s partner for the mission came from a very different place. In the northeastern part of Istanbul, the University of Bogazici overlooks the straits of the Bosphorus.


State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, information asymmetry, liberal world order, Live Aid, Nick Leeson, Pareto efficiency, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

The monopoly of legitimate power that states exercise allows individuals to escape what Hobbes labeled the “war of every man against every man” domestically but serves as the basis for conflict and war at an international level. The task of modern 1 2 state-building politics has been to tame the power of the state, to direct its activities toward ends regarded as legitimate by the people it serves, and to regularize the exercise of power under a rule of law. Modern states in this sense are anything but universal. They did not exist at all in large parts of the world like sub-Saharan Africa before European colonialism. After World War II decolonization led to a flurry of state-building all over the developing world, which was successful in countries like India and China but which occurred in name only in many other parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The last European empire to collapse—that of the former Soviet Union—initiated much the same process, with varying and often equally troubled results.

Moreover, most countries in need of nation-building are failed states or other types of postconflict societies with far 38 state-building more severe governance problems than the average recipient of a conditional loan. If nation-building means the creation of self-sustaining state capacity that can survive once foreign advice and support are withdrawn, then the number of historical cases where this has happened successfully drops to a depressingly small handful. The most notable examples come from the history of European colonialism. The British above all succeeded in creating durable institutions in a number of their colonies, such as the Indian civil service and the legal systems in Singapore and Hong Kong that are widely credited as laying the basis for postindependence democracy in the first case and economic growth in the latter two. The Japanese as well left behind some durable institutions during their colonial period in Taiwan and Korea; despite the hatred of many Koreans for Japan, South Korea has sought to recreate many Japanese institutions, from industrial combines to one-party government.


White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard

British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal

This ageold ‘diversion’ of identities, from Eastern to Central Europe, accompanied the Zionist movement from the days of Herzl himself, who, despite being raised in Budapest until the age of eighteen, was educated in German and rejected with contempt any sign of his Hungarian identity or language.24 Just as these pseudo-geographical references have crept into, and manipulated, Israeli social and cultural mores, so too did they shape the narrative Tel Aviv wrote for itself in the 1980s about its 1930s architecture. Bauhaus Style structures were presented as strictly Central European in comparison with the eclectic, Orientalist architecture of the 1920s, which commentators like Nitza Szmuk depicted as Eastern European.25 This, despite the fact that Orientalism by definition is an occidental term routed in the West European colonial heritage, that nowhere else in the world was there an example of Eastern European colonial architecture to refer to, and that it was indisputable that the central figures in the eclectic oriental architecture of the 1920s (Alexander Brewald, for example) were of German origin. Eastern European elements in Tel Aviv’s architecture of the 1920s were introduced in a similar way to Oriental influences: as something of a parody. The poet David Shimonovitz tapped into this distaste, scornfully describing Tel Aviv in its first decade as ‘a mixture between Berdichev and Baghdad’.26 The city’s modern architecture, on the other hand, was sold as distinctly, unequivocally Central European.

They laid them, row upon row, in straight lines, angles and curves, attached iron and wood frames to them, clad them in plaster, a mixture of lime with sand, and rendered the simple forms white – making poetry out of plain materials to shape an urban expanse.59 The decision to specify those ‘students of medicine, law and philosophy’ who, far from home, had got down on their knees to mix the concrete of a new nation is revealing in itself. It demonstrates another attempt to present Tel Aviv’s history as separate from the wider historiography of the region while exposing popular Zionist virtues of manual work and autarky. This point has always been crucial for the apologetics of the Zionist Project and its position vis-à-vis Europe: Zionism distinguished itself from European colonialism by claiming its intention had always been to colonize the territory, not the population.60 And yet, despite the pronounced virtues of Hebrew labour, it is very likely that beside those students, the construction sites in the 1930s were packed with real labourers, in most cases Arabs or Yemenite Jews.61 One might cross-check this with the claim of Haim Hefer, who played a similar role to that of Karavan but in the field of writing.


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The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah

affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

Du Bois was not remotely parochial in his interests or his analyses: and when he said that race was to be the problem of the twentieth century, he didn’t just mean in his own country, and he didn’t just mean his own race. He was talking, as he said, about “over half the world”; elsewhere in the address, he spoke not just of “the millions of black men in Africa, America and the Islands of the Sea,” but of “the brown and yellow myriads elsewhere.”20 So Du Bois had very much in mind the ways in which race figured in the European colonial schemes that were reshaping Africa and Asia as well as its role in the American social injustices he had experienced at first hand. Indeed, European colonial conquest in Africa was still very much under way when he spoke to the delegates in London. In West Africa, the final British conquest of Kumasi, where I grew up, occurred just a few weeks after Du Bois’s London conference; and the Sokoto caliphate, in northern Nigeria, was conquered only in 1903. In the North, Morocco became a French protectorate in 1912, Egypt a British one in 1914.

The continued denial by many Japanese of the scale, or even the occurrence, of these atrocities mirrors the forms of denial of those who deny the mass murder of Armenians in Turkey or Jews in the Nazi genocide. Less violent, but as racially grounded, are the anti-African attitudes reported by black visitors to China, who hear themselves described as hēi guǐ (black ghosts). Among the hundreds of thousands of Chinese now working in Africa, racial condescension of a sort familiar from the European colonial period is common (and, alas, anti-Chinese attacks have occurred in many African countries in recent years).27 While these East Asian attitudes must have roots in earlier traditions of the sort of xenophobia that is found historically around the planet, they are no longer independent of racial attitudes that came from the traditions of Europe and North America. Racial discrimination and insult remain global phenomena.


Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

The explanation proposed by Acemoglu et al. for why figure 7.3 holds for former colonies is that Europeans created good institutions in some colonies, particularly places such as the United States, Canada, and Australia (what Alfred Crosby calls the neo-Europes), and bad ones in others (for example, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa).27 These institutions had a strong tendency to persist over time. Why did different institutions develop in different European colonies? The The Latin American Equilibrium 173 simplest answer is that the economic institutions in various colonies were shaped by Europeans to benefit themselves. Moreover, because conditions and endowments differed between colonies, Europeans consciously created different economic institutions. There are several important empirical regularities connecting these initial conditions to current outcomes. Of particular importance are initial population density and the disease environment faced by Europeans. Figure 7.7 shows that there is a strong inverse relationship between population density in 1500 and current expropriation risk for former European colonies. Figure 7.8 shows that colonies where the disease environment was worse for Europeans also have worse economic institutions today.

As a final and telling piece of evidence, information about nominal wages and prices in central Mexico from Charles Gibson suggests that, in the century after the conquest, while the indigenous population collapsed, real wages were at best unchanged and probably fell.8 This fact is in startling contradiction to the Malthusian situation which supposedly characterized the premodern economy of Europe. Of course, during this period, the United States and Canada were also European colonies and, indeed, at the time of the declared independence of the United States in 1776, differences in prosperity among Mexico, Brazil, and the United States were minimal.9 The relative gap 162 Institutional Factors in Latin America’s Development 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 1520 1575 1625 1710 1778 1820 1840 1860 1880 1921 1950 1973 1988 1992 Mayan Population Total Guatemalan Population figure 7.1 Historical Estimates of Population in Guatemala.

The different colonial experiences of the United States versus Latin America is of course primary in explaining the final outcomes of the regions for virtually all of the authors in this volume. James Robinson, who made a strong case that institutions are what determine the gap, also argued that the different institutional inheritances are the result of the differing colonial legacies of the respective regions. For him, the European colonial intrusion interacted with the local environment to produce different institutions; where Europeans went to settle in large numbers (as in British America), they brought with them their own institutions of property rights and self-government; where they ended up ruling over large indigenous slave populations (as in Spanish America), they left no similar enduring institutions for the great mass of citizens within the society.


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The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity by Peter Schwartz, Peter Leyden, Joel Hyatt

American ideology, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, computer age, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, hydrogen economy, industrial cluster, informal economy, intangible asset, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, open borders, Productivity paradox, QR code, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Y2K

SOME of The EARly pRoddiNq CAME IROM The ScAwdiNAviAN COUNTRIES, wiTh TheiR lowq T«A' diTIONS of CONSCIENTiOUS INTROSpECTiON Awd SOCIAl ACTIViSM. SOME pRoddiNq CAME (ROM Those cARRyinq ON The leqAcy of ThE EUROPEAN sociAlisT MOVEMENTS. BUT IN ThE ENd, whAT MOVEd T^E EUROPEANS TO ACTION WAS ACCEpTiNq itlAT T^E MOST TROubkd ReqiONS of The wofild hAd ONly REcewly bcEN T^EiR colowiES. FOR MOST of The TWENTieh CENTURY, T!HIE VAST MAJORITY of ThE Uwds IN ihe Middls EAST Awd AfRicA hAd BEEN uwdER EUROPEAN coloNiAl CONTROL MOST AFRICAN NATJONS hAd BEEN qivEN TheiR iNdepENdeNCE AS IATE AS The 1960s. By The end of T^E CENTURA ThESE WERE ihf. MOST IMpOVEfiishEd. Ths coloNiAl lEqAcy, howtvER, WAS NOT All NEqATlve. ThE EUROPEANS hAd A dEEp UNdERSTANdiNq of ^ESE REqiows Awd could build ON TIES ThAT WENT FAR bAck—IN SOME CASES, CENTURIES. ThfiRE WERE MVRIAd pERSONAl ANd buSINESS RilATJONShipS ThAT COuld bE lEVERAqEd TO hfilp ThESE COUNTRIES.

The Persiaas, who dominate Iran, have fought with the Arabs to the Gulf region for even longer. For most of this century, the Kurds have fought for their own country against the Turks and the Iraqis. These struggles have nothing to do with Arabs versus Jews or Christians versus Muslims. However, the legacy of Western colonialism in the Middle East has colored all of these local struggles. Most Islamic societies were dominated first by European colonial powers and often later by Western companies— and these intruders often displayed a disrespect for local culture. The local people then equated modernization with Westernization. To modernize was to become like Europe or the United States, and they clearly had mixed feelings about that. In the postcolonial era, many nations of the region have developed internal struggles between the modernists, now considered secularists, and the traditionalists, who are increasingly the religious fundamentalists.


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Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, desegregation, European colonialism, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, working poor

Although in Rhode Island Quakers were automatically exempt from military service, most other colonies insisted that conscientious objectors pay a fine or hire someone to serve as a replacement, neither of which was an acceptable alternative to Quakers. In time of war this led to persecution, often imprisonment. Even before the French and Indian War, an American extension of the nearly global Seven Years War, there was almost constant warring with Indians and between European powers in North America and the Caribbean, including King William's War (1689–97), Queen Anne's War (1702–13), and King George's War (1744). To live in a European colony was to constantly be called upon to fight Europe's wars. During all these conflicts there were small numbers of Americans, not all of them religious, who refused to fight. In 1675 a few men refused to participate in preparations to defend against an Indian assault on Boston. In the early eighteenth century the Massachusetts colony found it necessary to pass a law establishing prison sentences for those who refused to bear arms.

Mennonites and other nonviolent sects retreated to their traditional posture of nonparticipation in government and were seldom heard from again until the fight over slavery heated up in the mid-nineteenth century. Quaker control of the colony lasted only seventy-four years. The central problem was that the pacifist state was part of a larger colonial system that vehemently rejected nonviolence. In the vast history of European colonialism, there are few incidents of nonviolent resistance by indigenous people, leaving unanswered the question of whether this would have worked. What is answerable is that nothing they did try worked. The indigenous people of five continents were facing an intractable enemy from a sixth continent that was convinced that they had the right to steal the land on other continents and destroy the inhabitants as peoples and cultures, and, in fact, that this was the proper thing to do.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Various combinations of these countries went to war against each other eight times between 1689 and 1815 for a total of sixty-three years.1 One major consequence of these hostilities was a sharp reduction in the intra-European trade that had grown substantially in the previous two centuries. Neighboring Great Britain and France, in particular, turned from each other as trading partners toward their overseas holdings. The wars themselves made raising revenue urgent, so heavy import tariffs became the order of the day. The various European colonies in the New World were expected to complement the economic needs of the mother country. The persistent warfare among European powers created a kind of catch-22. The warring countries needed the riches they extracted from Asia and the New World to support their wars, but the intense competition for control of these lucrative trades triggered more bellicosity. France and England confronted each other in five different spots around the globe: over cotton and silk in India, slaves on the west coast of Africa, sugar plantations in the Caribbean, Indian alliances in the Ohio River valley of the North American continent, and furs in the Hudson Bay area.

Of course the factories in the fields of the seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Caribbean sugar plantations and the silver mines of Mexico and Peru offered something of a template for the new capitalist thrust to make colonies centers of production. Governments had what companies lacked, the power to commandeer workers by extorting concessions from their compliant leaders or moving in with force where there was no recognized political order, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. European colonies already existed on the coasts as supports to long-distance commerce. The untapped riches in the African interior stirred imperial designs. European countries began to scuffle over who would get what, with little thought of the people who lived there. Cupidity, curiosity, Christian proselytizing, and militant strong-arming came into play. Abuses, unacceptable at home, became common when capitalism moved outside its original borders.

See also David Levine, At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000 (Berkeley, 2001). 4. Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Marking of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, 2000). The critical literature on this proposition is best covered in James M. Bryant, “The West and the Rest Revisited: Debating Capitalist Origins, European Colonialism, and the Advent of Modernity,” Canadian Journal of Sociology, 31 (2006). See also David Landes, “East Is East and West Is West,” in Maxine Berg and Kristine Bruland, eds., Technological Revolutions in Europe: Historical Perspectives (Northampton, MA, 1998), 19–38. For a more sympathetic response to Pomeranz, see P. H. H. Vries, “Are Coal and Colonies Really Crucial? Kenneth Pomeranz and the Great Divergence,” Journal of World History, 12 (2001). 5.


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The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler

barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile

In Papua New Guinea, the proportion of worshippers is 61.8 percent, and in sub-Saharan Africa generally, direct impact has been serious. There, Christians (and mostly Protestants) are now in the majority in almost every country where English functions as lingua-franca.7 It is ultimately impossible to disentangle the long-term effects of the religious missionary pioneers from the later workings of the European colonial enterprise more generally; for example, schools that were originally mission foundations were often later incorporated as national institutions. Nonetheless, there are already more practicing Christians in Africa than on any other continent, and on current rates of growth, by the coming decade Africa will overtake Europe as the continent with most self-identifying Christians. This is some kind of a harvest for all that Evangelical planting.

This process created Bislama and Tok Pisin, now official languages in their own right (as well as widely spoken vernaculars) in Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. When the sources are major languages that are widely known in their original forms, these creoles get little popular respect and are seen as somehow inferior alternatives to a properly learned language. This has happened a great deal on the margins of the great European colonial empires of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries. Languages such as Gullah in the southeastern USA, Haitian Creole French, Papiamentu (from Spanish or Portuguese in the southern Caribbean), spoken by marginal communities of uneducated people long treated as second-class, have been dismissed as no-account languages. But these attitudes do not survive in the long term. It is a respectable view* that the major modern Indo-European languages themselves (including, as a scattering of representative examples, German, Italian, Greek, Russian, Persian, Armenian, and Bengali) all owe their variety, which must go back at least three thousand years, to a common language that was repeatedly creolized in this way, through introduction to different populations all over Europeand the southwestern half of Asia.

There have been no institutions for Arabic, Hindi, Urdu, Malay, or Swahili, for example, despite their political and lingua-franca importance. Nor have any of the major nonindigenous users of European languages, such the USA, Canada, Mexico, or Brazil, seen value in getting into this game on behalf of their majority languages, surprising when one considers that the sheer scale of some of these states, once founded as European colonies, dwarfs the absolute size of their countries of origin. † Nations that have such languages may attempt to practice cultural diplomacy (as witness the defunct United States Information Agency, which functioned 1953–99), but if they do, they will focus on their own politics, arts, and society; they will not expect to gain sympathizers just by propagating their own language. For Arabic, such outside pressure as exists to motivate people to learn it comes from Islamic organizations rather than Arab states, and most of the actual teaching offered comes from neither, but rather from private companies in cities within the Arabic-speaking zone.


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Legacy of Empire by Gardner Thompson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, Ronald Reagan, zero-sum game

Twenty years after the foundation of the state of Israel, its Minister of Defence, Moshe Dayan, acknowledged that ‘there is not one place built in this country that did not have a former Arab population’.3 Nonetheless, Hillel Cohen (Associate Professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem) has asked, of Zionism: ‘Has it been colonialism?’4 This question requires an answer. While the question implies continuation, our focus here remains on the past. First, a note on chronology and context. In the 1890s, there was little exceptional, or to prevailing opinion exceptionable, about the Zionist project to colonise Palestine. It was launched at the high watermark of European colonialism. Indeed, these were Europeans, albeit Jewish Europeans, who were advocating it. They were imitating the peoples of the Great Powers in promoting emigration, land acquisition and longterm settlement. To this extent, Palestine was to be a new home for Jews, just as, for example, the East Africa Protectorate (Kenya) and Southern Rhodesia were to be new homes for (mainly) British white settlers of that time.

Echoing Edward Said’s advice that it would be foolish morally to equate mass dispossession with mass extermination, the Lebanese-born professor Gilbert Achcar argues persuasively that ‘the Palestinians cannot … advisedly and legitimately apply to their own case the superlatives appropriate to the Jewish genocide’.2 A different lens is required. The Palestinian experience is to be compared, rather, to the more mundane phenomena of nineteenth- and twentieth-century colonialism. In this context, Israel may be seen as the only European colonial settler state in which the political aspirations of the native population for independence have not been met. But our concern is with origins. ‘As the pogroms in Russia in the 1880s had launched modern Zionism, so the largest pogrom of all, the Holocaust, was to propel the movement, almost instantly, into statehood.’3 Benny Morris offers, here, more than a haunting parallel. That original launch, along with Zionism’s subsequent and increasingly assertive association with British imperial rule over three decades in Palestine, provides the key to understanding the shape, character and fault-lines of the state that the Second World War ‘propelled’ into being in May 1948.

., 269 Cambon, Jules, 78 Camp David, 278 Canaan, 11, 51, 53–4 Canaanites, 44, 155 Canada, 12, 248, 299 Carson, Edward, Sir, 70, 87 Carter, Morris, Sir, 330n82 Cassius Dio, 45 Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia, 4 Cecil, Robert, Lord, 93, 95–6 Chamberlain, Joseph, 79 Chancellor, John, Sir, 194, 195, 212, 257, 302 Arabs and, 195–201 Balfour Declaration, 195–6, 197, 199, 200, 201 as British High Commissioner of Palestine, 159, 161, 185, 187, 189, 194–203 despatch of January 1930: 197–200 League of Nations Mandate, 199–200 ‘Reasons for Retiring’, 201 Channing, William Ellery, 286 Childers, Erskine, 301 children of Israel, 51, 75, 318n15 Chomsky, Noam, 281, 289 Christian Zionism, 51, 53–5, 75, 229, 253 anti-Semitism, 88 Balfour Declaration, 55, 74, 92–4 Britain, 82, 142 Christian Zionism/Jewish Zionism comparison, 55 Christianity, 6, 46 Christian Arabs, 30–1, 32, 33, 39, 55, 109, 214, 224, 284 Christian-Muslim associations, 214 Jesus Christ, 46, 54 Protestantism, 54, 123, 152, 285–6 Roman Catholicism, 40, 77, 123, 315n11, 330n85 see also Christian Zionism Churchill, Winston, 123 1922 British White Paper, 127 as Colonial Secretary, 136, 143 Irgun militia and, 332n6 Palestine and, 136–8 Zionism, 69, 87, 136 Clayton, General, 109 Clemenceau, Georges, 70, 139 Cohen, Hillel, 183, 281, 284, 290 Cohen, Michael J., 34, 39, 193, 236 Cold War, 243, 256, 264, 272, 273, 280 colonialism, 33, 147, 259, 281, 283 Balfour Declaration, 95, 142 Britain, xii, xiii, 124, 300–301 British Mandate for Palestine, 135, 138, 174, 240 European colonialism, 283, 284 hybrid colonialism in Palestine, xiii, 142, 159, 218, 297–8 nationalism and, 289–90, 301 Zionism and, 281, 283–7, 289–90 Zionist colonisation of Palestine, xiii, 3, 15, 16–18, 22, 23, 31, 171, 173, 193, 198, 211, 216, 289, 294, 295, 299 Congreve, General, 49, 125–6, 139, 145–6 conversion, 5–6, 40, 41, 54 Cook, Thomas, 54 Coupland, Reginald, 330n82 Crane, Charles, 110–13 see also King-Crane Commission Report Crimean War, 63, 70 Crossman, Richard, 82 Curzon, Lord, 91–2, 109, 148–9 Cushing, Caleb, 286–7 Cyrus the Great, 44 Daily Mail (newspaper), 66, 95 The Daily Telegraph (newspaper), 233 Dalton, Hugh, 257 Dayan, Moshe, 273, 281 De Bunsen, Maurice, Sir: 1915 Report of the de Bunsen Committee, 61–4, 67, 68, 69, 70 Deedes, Wyndham, Sir, 121–3 diaspora (Jewish diaspora), 10, 24, 41, 53, 185, 265, 275, 280 70 AD diaspora, 45–6 discrimination, 5, 40, 43, 48, 117 Dominican Republic, 247 Dreyfus Affair, 4, 48, 315n11 Drummond Shiels, Thomas, Sir, 186 Dubnow, Ze’ev, 23, 50 East Africa, 11, 36, 75, 84, 107, 137 Eastern Mediterranean, xvi–xvii, 11, 45, 62, 66, 79, 94 The Economist (newspaper), 101 Eder, David, 119–20 Egypt, 45, 274 1936 demonstrations and strikes, 218 1956 Suez Crisis, 272, 332n9 1967 Six Day War, 272–3 1973 Yom Kippur, 273 Britain and, 11, 63, 69, 139 Gaza, 271, 272 Einstein, Albert, 47–8, 81, 159, 243 El Arish (Sinai), 11, 71, 75 Eliot, George: Daniel Deronda, 54, 142, 319n44 English (language), 133, 158, 181 Enlightenment, 3, 5 Haskalah/Jewish Enlightenment, 5, 19 Epstein, Yitzhak, 1, 14, 16–18, 25, 103, 241, 271–2, 286 equality, 8, 120, 190, 252 Eretz Yisrael (The Land of Israel), 13, 27, 28 Europe, xvi–xvii, 4 anti-Semitism, xi, xii, 4 Central Europe, xi, xii, 41 colonialism, 283, 284 Eastern Europe, 4, 7, 23, 47, 84, 240, 284 interest in Palestine, 152 Jewish Question, 3–4 Jews’ conversion to Christianity, 6 Exodus 1947 affair 259–60 Evian Conference (France, 1938), 246–9, 254 anti-Semitism, 247–8, 299 nimbyism, 299 Zionism, 248–9 Faisal I, King of Syria, 58–9, 71, 111, 117, 140, 170, 179, 263, 320n8 Emir, 110, 145 Fatah, 275, 278 fellahin (labourers), 22, 141, 209 Filastin (newspaper), 32, 221 Ford, Henry, 298 France, 4, 48, 58, 59, 218, 315n11 Britain and, 63–4, 68, 69–70, 77, 100, 139–40 Middle East, 68, 139 Palestine and, 140 Syria, 103, 104, 107 Zionism, 78 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement French Revolution, 3, 8 Galilee, 45, 46, 152, 168, 225, 229 Gandhi, Mahatma, 233 Gaza, 225, 259, 261, 273, 279, 280, 282 Egypt and, 271, 272 intifada, 278 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 Palestinian National Authority, 277 George V, King of the United Kingdom, 145 Germany, 70, 71, 73, 100, 139, 237 Jews in, 6–7, 8 see also Nazi Germany ghetto, 10, 14, 16, 89, 91 ghettoisation, 46 Golan Heights, 261, 273, 274–5, 282 Goldie, Annabel MacNicoll, Baroness, xiv–xv Great Powers, 13, 16, 29, 33, 34, 38, 40, 283 Greece, 78–80, 330n86 1919–22 Greco-Turkish War, 79 Grey, Lord, 73, 99–100, 101 Gruenbaum, Yitzhak, 249 Ha’aretz (newspaper), 182 Habash, George, 275 Haganah (Jewish militia), 167, 173, 216, 259, 267, 271, 290, 332n4, 333n25 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 265–6, 271 arms, 121, 216 IDF, 266, 271 Plan D, 266 World War II, 245 Haifa, 62, 64, 140, 152, 259, 260, 261, 282, 325n54 1933 protests and rioting, 215 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266 Jewish population of, 207 Sykes-Picot agreement, 67, 68 terrorism, 229 Young Men’s Muslim Association, 215 Halevi, Chaim, 185 Halifax, Lord, 248 Hamas, 277–8, 329n74 Hammond, Laurie, Sir, 330n82 ‘Handbook of Palestine’ (1922), 150–1, 153–8, 159 see also Samuel, Herbert, Sir Hankey, Maurice, 77 Hapoel Hatzair (Young Worker) party, 26–7 Hashemites, 64, 65, 268 Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment), 5, 19 Hattersley, Roy, 302 Haycraft, Thomas, Sir: Haycraft Report, 118–20, 123, 144, 297 Heath, Edward, 334n10 Hebrew, 26, 27, 167, 181, 209 as national language for Zionism in Palestine, 41, 50, 168, 316n36 as official language of Palestine, 133, 158, 168, 175 Hebron, 184–5, 220, 274 Hertzberg, Arthur, 14, 38, 50, 283, 291 The Zionist Idea, 14 Herzl, Theodor, 1, 2, 3, 4, 38, 47, 48, 88, 287, 288, 300, 317n74 alternatives to Palestine, 11 on anti-Semitism, 88 Arabs as indigenous Palestinian population, 36–7 assimilation, 7–8, 49, 162 death of, 34, 36, 37 diplomacy, 34–7, 80 on infiltration, 29, 34 Jewish Question, 1–2, 303 Judenstaat/The Jewish State, 1–2, 7–8, 10, 11, 29, 298 Political Zionism, 2, 15, 16, 50 World Zionist Organisation, 23, 34 Zionism, 2, 36–7, 55, 289, 314n5 Herzog, Chaim, ix Hess, Moses, 13, 314n5 Histadrut (labour federation), 167, 180, 181, 193, 267, 326n5 Hitler, Adolf, xi, 43, 107, 161, 207, 218, 237, 247, 293, 296, 300 al-Husayni, Amin and, 244 see also Nazi Germany; Nazism Hobsbawm, Eric, 48 Holocaust, xiv, 246, 265, 271, 293–4 Auschwitz, 49, 293 survivors of, 49, 254, 259, 294, 304 Holy Land, 11, 14, 21, 47, 54, 63, 93, 108, 112, 154, 198 Holy Places, 63, 64, 67, 75, 77, 175, 214, 216, 303, 320n10 Hope Simpson, John, Sir, 186–7 1930 Hope-Simpson Report, 183, 186, 187, 297 House of Commons (Britain), 76, 137, 190, 201, 258 House of Lords (Britain), 304 2017 debate on occasion of the Balfour Declaration centenary, xiii–xv, 300 Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion), 4, 7, 42 al-Husayni, Abd al-Qadir, 215, 267–8 al-Husayni, Amin, 33, 161, 175, 176, 177, 180, 212–14, 212, 215, 332n6 1937 Bloudan Conference, 231 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266–8 AHC, 218, 219–20, 219 exile, 230, 244 Hitler, Adolf and, 244 Holy War Army, 267 radicalisation of 217, 244 SMC, 179, 213 al-Husayni, Jamal, 267 al-Husayni, Kamil, 175 al-Husayni, Musa Kazim, 136, 175, 176, 177, 179, 211–12, 212, 213 death, 215 al-Husayni, Tahir, 33, 175 Husayni dynasty, 175, 176, 177, 179, 218 Hussein, Abdullah, 170 Hussein, Faisal, see Faisal I Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, 64–6, 67, 100, 320n8 Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan, 276 identity, 4, 6 Arab-Jewish identity, 170 assimilation and Jewish identity, 9–10 Jewish identity, 15, 170 Jewishness, 10, 54 ‘melting-pot’ metaphor, 5–6 national identity, 32, 283 Palestinian national identity, 32 see also assimilation IDF (Israel Defense Forces), 272, 273, 276, 278, 290, 333n25 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266, 270, 271 as army of occupation/instrument of colonial repression, 274 Haganah and, 266, 271 Lebanon, 276 Operation Thunderbolt, Entebbe, 276 PLO, 276 India, 62, 69, 92, 201, 256, 260 intermarriage, 5–6, 9, 40 intifada, 279 1987–1993 first intifada, 278 2000–2005 second intifada, 278–9 Iraq, 251, 280, 330n84 oil, 140 see also Mesopotamia Ireland, 105, 108, 123–7, 133, 255, 300–301 1916 Easter Rising, Dublin, 124, 324n31 independence from Britain, 124 Sinn Fein, 124 Irgun militia, 245, 246, 290, 332n6, 333n25 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 establishment of, 173 violence, 238, 255, 332n4, 332n6 World War II, 245, 246 al-‘Isa, Isa, 32 Islam, 47, 151, 180, 216 Islamic revivalism, 215 Israel (state of Israel), 227, 273–4, 282 1948 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, ix, 44, 266, 267, 294 the army and, 290–1 origins of, ix, xiii, 290–1, 300 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 settlement policy, 274 territorial limits, 274 UN 242 Resolution, 275 USA and, 280 Istiqlal (Arab Independence Party), 211, 214, 266 Italy, 49 Jabotinsky, Ze’ev (Vladimir), 143, 171, 172, 245, 271, 279, 284 Betar, 173, 185 The Iron Wall, 164, 171 Revisionist Party, 164, 167, 173, 185 Jaffa, 21, 25, 209, 228, 261 1921 disturbances, 118–20, 121, 127, 148, 174, 203 1932 National Congress of Arab Youth, 208 1933 protests and rioting, 215 1936 Arab Revolt, 218, 220–1 Arab population in, 182, 221 Jeffries, Joseph, 65–6, 113, 126, 143, 164, 168–9, 215, 303, 324n15 Balfour Declaration, 95, 96, 99, 101, 116 Palestine: The Reality, 324n15 Jerusalem, 23, 45, 63, 192, 228, 261, 278, 314–15n8 1920 disturbances of Nabi Musa, 113–17, 174, 175, 179, 203 Arab-Jewish relations, worsening of, 114 Britain and, 71 settlement programme, 274 status of, 280 Western Wall, 184, 185, 186, 328n24 Jewish Agency, 188 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 Biltmore Programme, 252 British Mandate for Palestine, 121, 123, 132, 133, 143, 167, 168, 180 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 203, 209 as parallel government alongside the mandatory government, 168 SMC/Jewish Agency comparison, 179–80 unique status of, 167 UNSCOP, 260 see also Zionist Commission Jewish history, 40, 44–50 British Mandate for Palestine and, 134, 146 ‘exile’ from Judea, 45–6 exile from Palestine, 44, 45, 46, 49, 53, 58, 271, 284 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 271 Zionist version of, 44, 46, 47, 49–50, 127, 134, 271 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 39, 149, 205, 206, 239, 280, 302–303 1920s, 159, 205–206, 223 1922 White Paper, 128 1930 White Paper, 188, 203–204, 206 1930s, 161, 203, 204, 206–10, 211, 237, 295–6 1931 General Muslim Conference, 214 1939 White Paper, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 254 ‘absorptive capacity’, 128–9, 188, 203–204, 208, 239 AHC, 220 Balfour Declaration, 138 Black Letter, 192, 204, 206 illegal immigration, 76, 129, 204, 207–208, 245, 259, 263 impact on Arabs, 183, 197, 204, 206, 235, 264 Jewish Agency, 203, 209 Jewish/Palestinian clashes and bloodshed, ix, 28–9, 30, 105, 126, 148, 185, 195, 203, 206, 208, 223, 243 Jews leaving Palestine, 39, 42, 158, 205 League of Nations Mandate, 121, 132, 204 limitation/restriction of, 112, 186, 203, 220, 234, 235, 236, 254 Nazism and, 218, 237 Palestine as Jewish national home and, 120, 159, 218, 296 Russian Jews, 4, 21, 22, 25–6, 152 suspension of, 120, 136, 177, 201, 203, 220, 236, 237, 255 World War II, 243 Zionism, 172, 296 see also aliyah Jewish Legion, 41–2 Jewish Question, x, xii, 3–7, 38, 249, 298, 300 anti-Semitism, x, 3, 6 assimilation, 5, 6–8 colonisation of Palestine as answer to, xiii, 7 conversion, 6 Herzl, Theodor, 1–2, 303 identity, 4–5 ‘return’ to Palestine, 13, 94, 105, 208, 227, 237 Zionism as answer to, 3, 38, 43, 291, 322n64 Jewish Reform Movement, 5, 19 Jewish refugees, x, 36, 147, 243, 247, 254, 255, 256, 274, 299 Jewish state in Palestine, 92, 96, 229, 241, 294 1939 White Paper, 238 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 271 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268 Balfour Declaration, 96–7, 99 Biltmore Programme, 252, 253, 254 Churchill, Winston, 69 establishment of, 271 Jewish national home as precursor to, 262 King-Crane Commission Report, 112 Lloyd George, David, 75 Peel Report, 160, 168, 221, 226, 227, 241 Samuel, Herbert, 163 UN, x, 227 Weizmann, Chaim, 97 World War II, 243 Zionism, 189, 202, 224, 252, 253, 254, 289–90 see also partition of Palestine; statehood jihad, 216 JNF (Jewish National Fund), 24, 167, 198, 210 Johnson, Albert, 298 Jordan, 261, 271, 279 Palestinian refugees in, 276 Jordan River, 11, 129, 152, 155, 170, 326n3 JTO (Jewish Territorial Organisation), 12, 46 Judaism, 4–5, 6–7, 13, 15, 46, 52 Judea, 45–6 Kalischer, Zvi, 50 Kalvarisky, Haim, 31 Kenya, 11, 142, 165, 183, 231, 283, 298 Khalidi, Rashid, 304 Khalidi, Walid, 303–04 al-Khalidi, Yusuf Diya, 30 Khalidi, Yusuf Zia, 288 King, Henry, 110–13 see also King-Crane Commission Report King-Crane Commission Report (1919), 110–13, 114, 115, 142, 233, 242, 264, 297 Kipling, Rudyard, 153 Klein, Menachem, 170 Klier, John D., 20 Koestler, Arthur, 297–8, 302–303 Krämer, Gudrun, 39, 138, 179 La Guardia, Anton, 290 Labour Party (Britain), ix Labour Zionism, 173 language, 40, 41 see also Arabic; English; Hebrew; Yiddish Laqueur, Walter, 301 Laski, Neville, 248 Law, Andrew Bonar, 70 Lawrence, T.E., 71 League of Nations, 100, 240, 326n69, 330n86 Covenant, 107, 130–1, 211 Covenant, Article 22: 131, 132, 134, 135, 197, 263, 294 dominated by Britain and France, 130 failure of, 232–3 Mandate Commission, 133, 168 mandates for Arabic-speaking Ottoman provinces, 104, 107 see also British Mandate for Palestine; League of Nations Mandate League of Nations Mandate (1922), 130–5, 170, 188 Article 2: 132, 134, 199–200 Article 4: 121, 122, 123, 132, 133, 167, 168, 199–200 Article 6: 121, 132, 167, 199–200, 204 Article 11: 133, 143, 167, 199–200 Article 22: 133 Balfour Declaration and, 105, 115, 127, 132, 134, 135, 138, 146, 148, 170, 199 draft of, 121, 146 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 121, 132, 204 League of Nations Covenant/Mandate comparison, 131–2, 134, 135 Palestine as Jewish national home, 132, 133, 134 preamble, 134 written by the British, 130, 263 see also British Mandate for Palestine Lebanon, 117, 269, 276, 320n12 1975–90 Lebanese Civil War, 276 Israel-Lebanon border/Blue Line, 282 Legislative Council, 122, 135, 158, 164–5 1922 British White Paper, 128, 129, 164 absence of, 164, 165–6, 169, 180, 326–7n6, 327n15 allocations for seats, 165 Arab opposition to, 164, 165–6, 169, 177, 199 Levi, Primo, 49, 293 Levin, Judah, 48 Likud Party, 274 Lloyd George, David, x, 56, 70, 190, 300 Balfour Declaration, x–xi, 58, 73, 74–80, 93, 97, 100, 101, 105, 148 death, 331n15 Ireland, 124–5 memoirs, 75, 76, 321n27 Palestine and, 71, 74–5, 79, 80, 136, 140, 218, 242, 301 Paris Peace Conference, 78 World War I, 71, 72–3, 76 Zionism and, xii–xiii, 57, 71, 75–6, 77, 79, 80, 93, 136, 142, 296 Lucas, F.L., 233 Luke, Harry, Sir, 195 MacDonald, Malcolm, 257, 331n13 MacDonald, Ramsay, 189–90, 200–201, 213 Black Letter, 190–4, 204, 206, 213 McMahon, Henry, Sir: 1915 McMahon letter, 64–6, 69, 100, 262 MacMichael, Harold (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 229, 246, 257 MacMillan, Margaret, 78–9, 84, 96, 124 Maisky, Ivan, 249–51, 253 Marx, Heinrich, 6 Marx, Karl, 6, 283 Marxism, 275 Marxist Zionism, 25–6, 28 Masalha, Nur, 287 Mattar, Philip, 219 Meir, Golda, 268, 269 Mesopotamia, 12, 60, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 137, 139, 140, 186 see also Iraq messianism, 14, 15, 52, 147, 285, 316n27 Middle Ages, 46, 47 Middle East, 273 Britain, 68, 70, 72, 234 France, 68, 139 Milner, Alfred, Lord, 93 Mizrahim/Mizrahi Jews, 21 Money, Major-General, 109 Monroe, Elizabeth, 101 Montagu, Edwin, xi, 40, 41, 74, 88, 90, 254, 274 1917 Montagu Memorandum, 57, 88–92 assimilation, 88–9 Balfour Declaration, 74, 88–91, 92 National Insurance Bill, 322n64 Zionism, 90, 299 Montgomery, Bernard, General, 228, 229 Morris, Benny, 26, 294 Morris, Harold, Sir, 330n82 Moses, 43, 51, 155, 318n15 Mosley, Oswald, 48 Mossessohn, Nehemia, 81 Motzkin, Leo, 287 Moyne, Lord, 246 mukhtars (village headmen), 157, 327n15 Mussolini, Benito, 232 al-Nashashibi, Raghib, 175–6, 177, 178, 212, 213, 217 AHC, 219 Nashashibi dynasty, 175, 177, 209, 218, 268 Nassar, Najib, 31 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, General, 272, 332n9 nation/nationhood, 10, 40 Jewish nationhood, 40–4, 53, 88, 92, 134, 149, 319n41 national identity, 32, 283 ‘nationalisation’ of the Jews, 43 Palestinian nationhood, 32 nationalism, 38, 288–90 Arab nationalism, 29–30, 31, 59, 83, 121, 152, 166, 169, 180, 211, 223, 262 colonialism and, 289–90, 301 Jewish nationalism, 19, 223 Palestinian nationalism, 33, 210, 211, 214, 265, 269, 289 secular nationalism, 9 Zionism as Jewish national movement, 289, 290 see also self-determination Nazi Germany, 203, 207, 295–6, 299 1938 Kristallnacht, 295 Jews in, 237, 238, 295–6 Nazi persecution, 211, 218 Nuremberg Laws, 218 state-sponsored anti-Semitism, 161, 247, 296 see also Germany; Hitler, Adolf; Nazism Nazism, xii, 47, 148, 162 extermination of Jews, 245, 252 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 218, 237 see also Hitler, Adolf; Nazi Germany Netanyahu, Benjamin, 277 Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia, 35 Nietzsche, Friedrich W., 285 nimbyism, 240, 298–300 1939 British White Paper, 237 Balfour Declaration, xi, 74, 86–8 Britain, 141, 254, 298, 300, 334n10 Evian Conference, 299 Peel Report, 226–7, 237 UNSCOP, 264 USA, 207, 299 Nixon, Richard, 273 Nordau, Max, 27 Northern Ireland, 124, 330n85 Occupied Territories, 278, 280, 282 OETA (Occupied Enemy Territory Administration), 109, 113, 116–17, 125, 138, 182 Ormsby-Gore, William, 93, 146 Orthodox Jews, 19, 39, 167 Oslo Accords (1993), 277, 278 Ottoman Empire, 13, 40, 58 1327 Press Law, 156 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1916 Arab Revolt, 65, 66, 71 Arab/Jew co-existence, 47 Britain and, 61–2, 64, 71, 72 Herzl, Theodor, 34–5 Palestine and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 post-war partition of Ottoman lands, 64, 66–7, 103, 104, 110, 146 Tanzimat/Reorganisation, 151 Young Turks, 30, 31 Oz, Amos, 9, 41 PAE (Palestinian Arab Executive), 176–8, 183, 194, 199, 208 1929–1930 delegation to London, 211, 212, 212–13 1931 General Muslim Conference, 211, 213–14 demise of, 211 shortcomings, 177 Pakistan, 256, 260 Palestine, 45, 282 1920s, x, 159 1922, 150–1, 153–8 1930s, x, 161, 167 Arabs/Muslims and Christians as indigenous population of, xi, 12, 17–18, 23, 36–7, 39, 44, 49, 58–9, 89–90, 91, 116, 149, 151, 152, 262, 271, 295, 302–303 cultural clash, 29 economy, 154–5, 180–1, 244 education, 181, 209 health issues, 153, 157 independence of, 277 infiltration, 29, 34 internationalisation of the Palestine problem, 231 Islam, 151 national consciousness, 22, 28, 32–3 national identity, 32 Ottoman government and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 population, 39, 152–3, 155, 157, 206, 236, 280 the Promised Land, 52, 58 rights of Palestinians, xii, 72, 95, 96, 97, 100, 121, 132, 134, 169, 183, 196, 197, 289 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 67–8, 69 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 162, 186, 226, 251, 253, 285, 287–8 World War I, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 World War II, 162, 243–6 Zionism and, 3, 10–13, 24, 40, 153, 314–15n8 see also the entries below related to Palestine; British mandate for Palestine; colonialism; Jewish immigration to Palestine; Jewish state in Palestine; partition of Palestine Palestine, territory of, 151, 156, 170, 282, 326n1 1922 British White Paper, 129 coasts, 154, 156 geography, 155 Syria and, 58–9, 65, 174, 214 Palestine Arab Party, 267 Palestine as Jewish national home, 10, 12, 101, 147, 159, 166, 223, 268, 297 1922 League of Nations Mandate, 132, 133, 134 1922 White Paper, 127, 130 1930 White Paper, 188, 189, 193, 194 1931 Black Letter, 191, 213 1939 White Paper, 235–6, 240, 255 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268 alternatives to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 11, 12, 36, 248, 287, 295–6 Arab opposition to, 217, 223, 228, 240 Balfour Declaration, 72, 95, 189, 197 Biltmore Programme, 252 British support for, 57–8, 89, 105, 140, 146, 174, 177, 182, 198, 204, 217, 224, 235, 239, 297 Jewish immigration and, 120, 159, 218, 296 as precursor to a Jewish state, 262 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 147, 271 ‘the shutting down’ of, 223 USA, 207 Weizmann, Chaim, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 World War II, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 249 Palestine National Congress, 176, 177 Palestinian Arab politics, 211–18, 240–1, 244 radicalisation of Arab politics, 216–17 weakness of, 217 Palestinian land, 33, 148 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1920s, 159, 182–4, 186, 198 1929 violence and disturbances, 186, 209–10 1930 Hope-Simpson Report, 183, 186, 187 1930s, 161, 206–207, 209–10 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 271 absentee landlords, 24, 31, 182–3, 328n21 eviction of Arabs from, 24, 183, 186, 209, 210, 271, 278 exclusion of Arabs from, 26, 30, 200, 271 farming, 28 inter-communal antagonism, 210 Jewish Agency, 209 Jewish agricultural colonies, 155 Jewish national territory, 210 Jews/Palestinian clashes over, 29, 223 Jezreel valley, 183 JNF, 210 kibbutz movement, 28 partition proposal and, 225 tenant farmers, 24, 25, 209 uncultivated land, 25 Zionist land reserves, 198 Zionist purchase of, 24–6, 31, 35, 159, 174, 182, 209, 210, 225, 284 Palestinian National Authority, 277, 279 Palestinian refugees, 274, 276, 278 Palin, Philip, Major-General Sir: Palin Report, 114–16, 297 Pappé, Ilan, 93 Paris Peace Conference (1919), 75, 78, 88, 96, 110, 112, 113, 124, 146, 263 League of Nations Covenant, 130 Parthian Empire, 45, 318n20 partition of Palestine, 182, 244, 256, 294 1937 Peel Commission Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 1949 Armistice lines, 261 AHC, 227–8 cantonisation/federalism, 225, 256 Jewish/Palestinian segregation, 180–2, 221, 279, 287, 294 Palestine as unitary state, 224, 234, 254, 260, 301 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271, 277, 280 Zionism, 227 see also Jewish state in Palestine; UNSCOP Passfield, Lord (Sidney Webb), 197–200 see also British White Paper (1930, Passfield White Paper) Peel, Robert, Sir, 222 Peel, William, Lord, 222 see also Peel Commission and Report Peel Commission and Report (1937), 158, 161, 166, 168, 207, 231, 233, 240, 295, 297 1936 Arab revolt, 221, 222, 233 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268–9 Arab opposition to, 161, 221, 227–8 British Mandate, abdication, 222 historic significance of, 221 Jewish state in Palestine, 160, 168, 221, 226, 227, 241 members of the Commission, 222, 330n82 nimbyism, 226–7, 237 Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 population transfer, 226, 288, 330n86 Report extracts, 222–3 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 271 UNSCOP, 227, 262, 263 PEF (Palestine Exploration Fund), 54 Peres, Shimon, 27, 50, 52 persecution, 5, 35, 40, 43, 209, 295, 298 ghettoisation, 46 Nazi persecution, 211, 218 Zionism and, 46–7, 52, 108 Persian Gulf, 62, 66, 68 PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), 275, 276 Picot, François Georges-, 66 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Pinsker, Leo, 7, 15, 28, 42, 315n15 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation), 275–7 Black September, 276 IDF, 276 Palestinian National Covenant, 275 ‘two-state solution’, 277 UN observer status, 276 Plumer, Herbert, Field Marshal (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 196 Poale Zion (Workers of Zion), 25–6 pogrom, 38, 46, 47, 87, 107, 252, 255 Russia, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also anti-Semitism; violence Poland, 4, 248, 251, 255 anti-Semitism, 161, 247 Jewish Question, x Jews in, x, 43, 207 Pollock, James, Captain, 117 al-Qassam, Izz ad-din, 215–16, 329n74 death, 216, 218 jihad, 216 Rabbinical Council, 155 Rabin, Yitzhak, 277 race, 41, 83, 87, 132, 185, 248 Jewish race, 61 rationalism, 5 Reagan, Ronald, 280 regeneration, 13, 14, 22, 27–8, 144, 205, 286 Revisionist Party, 164, 167, 172, 173, 185, 245 return ‘return’ to Palestine as answer to the Jewish Question, 13, 94, 105, 208, 227, 237 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 94, 147, 271 ‘right of return’, 271, 280, 319n42 Rogan, Eugene, 64–5 Roman Empire, 45 Romans, 44, 45, 49, 53, 315n8 Roosevelt, Franklin, 247, 253 Rose, Norman, 39, 47, 193, 285 Rothschild, Edmond de, Baron, 24, 118, 144 Rothschild, Nathan, 2nd Baronet and Lord, 72, 76, 81, 83, 95, 96, 190 Rumbold, Horace, Sir, 330n82 Ruppin, Arthur, 25 Russia, 35, 70 Jewish Question, x, 4 Jews in, x, 4, 20, 42, 57, 73–4 Jews’ conversion to Christianity, 6 Pale of Settlement, 4, 8–9, 20, 47 pogrom, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also USSR Rutenberg, Pinhas, 143 1921 Rutenberg affair, 143–4 Said, Edward, 98–9, 284, 285, 294, 302 al-Sakakini, Khalil, 30 Samaria, 45 Samuel, Herbert, Sir, 59, 60, 75, 80, 95, 115–16, 150, 303 1915 ‘The Future of Palestine’, 59–61, 63, 69 1922 British White Paper, 127 assimilation, 162 Balfour Declaration, 120–1 as British High Commissioner of Palestine, 117, 120, 122, 126, 150, 162–9, 170, 175, 179, 182, 196 gradualism, 163 Peel Report, 226 Zionism, 162, 196 see also ‘Handbook of Palestine’ San Remo Conference (1920), 103, 116, 146, 147, 162 Sand, Shlomo, 42, 44, 45, 46, 50, 318n21 Schneer, Jonathan, 69, 83, 91 Scott, C.P., 75, 77, 83, 326n64 secularism/secularisation, 5, 10, 14, 43 secular nationalism, 9 Zionism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 43, 79, 106, 107, 260, 263 Arab self-determination, 131–2, 140 Balfour Declaration, 77, 105, 110, 115, 263 Zionism, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 see also nationalism Sephardi Jews, 21–2, 23, 41, 155 Seychelles, 267, 330–1n93 Shaftesbury, Lord, 54, 88, 92–3 Shamir, Yitzhak, 246 Sharon, Ariel, 278, 279 Shavit, Ari, 10, 17, 47, 141, 144 Shaw, Walter, Sir, 186, 187, 197, 202, 297 Shertok, Moshe, 229–30 Shlaim, Avi, 32, 173, 288–9, 318n6 Shuckburgh, John, Sir, 122, 123, 127, 139 Simms, William Gilmore, 288 Sinai, 11, 71, 272, 273, 274 SMC (Supreme Muslim Council), 178–80, 213, 215 Jewish Agency/SMC comparison, 179–80 Smuts, Jan, 93 socialism/socialist Zionism, 25, 26, 28, 31, 39, 48, 180, 181, 284, 286 inter-communal socialism, 246 Sokolow, Nahum, 78, 96, 146 South America, 23, 237 sovereignty, 88, 106, 124, 275, 283 Jewish sovereignty, 1, 10, 29, 34 Stalin, Joseph, 264, 293 Stanislawski, Michael, 73 statehood, 15, 40, 44, 52, 173, 294 Palestinian statehood, 269, 280 Zionism and, 294 see also Jewish state in Palestine Stein, Kenneth, 25, 163, 210 Stern, Avraham, 245 Stern Gang, 245–6, 332n4 Storrs, Ronald, 175 Suez Canal, 61, 63, 69, 77, 82, 83, 94, 139, 140, 256 1956 Suez Crisis, 272, 332n9 Sykes, Mark, Sir, 66, 87, 93, 95, 109 anti-Semitism, 87 Zionism, 140 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), 64, 66–8, 87, 107 Palestine, 67–8, 69, 140 partition plan, 66–7, 320n12 synagogue, 47, 184, 289 Syria, 63, 218 Greater Syria, 58, 65, 69, 174, 179, 214, 320n8 Palestine and, 58–9, 65, 174, 179, 214 Syrkin, Nahman, 287 Tel Aviv, 144, 184, 261, 270, 282 population, 207 as separate ‘Jewish’ port, 221 as separate municipality, 182 settlement programme, 274 territorialism, 12, 287 terrorism, 220, 229, 255, 265, 274, 276, 277 suicide bombing, 278–9 see also Haganah; Hamas; Irgun militia; PLO; Stern Gang The Times (newspaper), 72, 92, 96 Tolstoy, Leo, 302 Torah, 19 trade union issues 181 see also Histadrut Transjordan, 170, 186, 197, 220, 221, 266, 268 Truman, Harry, 256, 264 Turkey, 136–7, 140, 330n86 UN (United Nations), xiii, 257, 258, 259–60, 280 Jewish state in Palestine, x, 227 ‘Palestine’, observer status, 278 PLO, observer status, 276 Resolution 242, 275, 277 UN General Assembly’s vote on partition proposals, 265, 277 UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on Palestine), 260–4 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 Arab case, 262–3 awarding 55% of Palestinian land to a Jewish state, x, 274 British Mandate for Palestine, 263–4 nimbyism, 264 Peel Report, 227, 262, 263 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271 USA (United States of America), 304, 332n9 1924 Johnson-Reed Act, 207, 237, 298–9, 329n62 as alternative to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 12, 23 annual quota of Jewish immigration, 237–8, 248, 254, 329n62 anti-Semitism and, xi, 86, 298 assimilation, 42, 48–9 Great Depression, 237 Israel and, 280 Jewish population in, 23, 237–8, 315n10 Jews in, xii, 23, 43, 57, 73–4, 107–108, 207, 295 Manifest Destiny, 286–7 ‘melting-pot’ metaphor, 5–6 nimbyism, 207, 299 Palestine as Jewish national home, 207 Protestantism and native Americans, 285–7 restrictions on immigration, 207, 237–8, 298–9 Statue of Liberty, 23 Zionism and, xi, 74, 86, 100, 145, 253, 285–7 Ussishkin, Menachem, 81, 288 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), 256, 264, 273, 280, 300, 332n9 see also Russia Venizelos, Eleutherios, 78–80 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, 35 Vienna (Austria), 1–2, 4 Vital, David, 6, 247 Viton, Albert, 208 Von Plehve, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich, 35, 88 Wasserstein, Bernard, 274 Wauchope, Arthur, General Sir (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 194, 196, 220 Weinstock, Nathan, 259, 314n5 Weizmann, Chaim, 20, 25, 36, 38, 52, 72–3, 78–83, 81, 147, 177, 182, 201, 285 1941 London meeting with Maisky, 247, 249–51 on Arab nationalism, 29–30 Arabs, disregard of, 141, 250–1 assimilation, 8–9, 49 Balfour Declaration, 36, 74, 75, 80–3, 90–1, 94, 96, 97, 98, 116, 117, 134, 321n43 Black Letter, 190 British Mandate for Palestine, 134, 146, 147, 149, 158 Deedes letter, answer to, 122–3 Jews as nation, 40, 42, 43 Palestine as Jewish national home, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 Peel Report, 227 as President of World Zionist Organisation, 314n6 ‘transfer’/population transfer, 186, 251, 253 What is Zionism, 8, 12, 43 World War II, 246, 249–50 Zionism, 80, 82, 254, 289, 321n43 Zionist Commission, 145 West Bank, 261, 268, 270, 271, 275, 278, 282, 320n13 1967 Six Day War, 272, 273 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 Palestinian National Authority, 277 settlement programme, 274 West Bank Barrier, 279 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, 35 Wilson, Henry, Field Marshal Sir, 125 Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, 73, 77, 100, 130–1, 146, 326n69 Fourteen Points, 106–107, 131, 135 Wingate, Orde, 229 World War I, 41–2, 49, 57, 70–1 Allies, 76–7 Balfour Declaration, 73, 76–7, 83–4, 98, 101, 105, 148 Britain, 70–1, 72, 76–7, 87, 123, 139 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Palestine, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 Zionism, 73, 83 World War II Axis powers, 244 British Mandate for Palestine, 234, 239, 254, 257 Haganah, 245 Irgun militia, 245, 246 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Jewish immigration to Palestine, 243 Jewish state in Palestine, 243 Palestine, 162, 243–6 Palestine as Jewish national home, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 245–6, 252–3 see also Holocaust World Zionist Organisation, 23, 24, 34, 39, 122, 167, 314n6 Yiddish, 20, 41, 47, 316n36 yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine) 39, 119, 166, 167, 180, 221, 241, 252, 296, 327n15 1920s, 205 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 264–6 British administration and, 217 revenue from, 144 Zionist Commission and, 145 Young Turks, 30, 31, 40 Zangwill, Israel, 12, 46, 287 The Melting Pot, 12 Zionism, 13, 171–4, 257, 288, 297 aim of, 3, 14, 24, 55 alternatives to, 19, 21–2 anachronism, 47, 48 anti-Zionism, 22, 123, 169, 304, 318n6 arms and violence, 121, 147, 264, 284, 288, 297 assimilation and, 7–10 Balfour Declaration, xi, xiii, 95–6, 98, 99, 194, 251, 317n74 birth of modern Zionism, 1–3, 47, 314n5 British Mandate for Palestine, 115, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 140, 142–7, 149, 158, 161, 167, 173–4, 190, 194, 211, 217, 241, 254, 297–8 colonialism, 281, 283–7, 289–90 colonisation of Palestine, xiii, 3, 15, 16–18, 22, 23, 31, 171, 173, 193, 198, 211, 216, 289, 294, 295, 299 criticism of, 17, 19–20, 22, 30, 38, 90, 93, 254, 280, 286 different notions of, 13–18 diplomacy for Palestine, 33–7, 40 hybridity, 52 industrialisation of Palestine, 144 as ideology, 22, 37, 38, 40–53, 55, 130, 281, 288 as Jewish national movement, 289, 290 Jewish opposition to, 19–22 Jewish Question and, 3, 38, 43, 291, 322n64 lack of appeal to Jews, 39, 42–3, 48, 74 messianism, 14–15, 52 as movement, 22, 130, 281, 289 Political Zionism, 15, 16, 22, 38, 43, 46 secularism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 Spiritual/Cultural Zionism, 15–16, 286 the term, 314–15n8 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 186, 226, 251, 285, 287–8 World War I, 73, 83 World War II, 245–6, 252–3 see also Christian Zionism Zionist Commission, 108, 117, 119, 122, 126, 163, 324n21 criticism of, 144, 145–6 establishment of, 145 organisational structure, 167–8 see also Jewish Agency; Zionist Executive Zionist Congress, 27, 251 1st Zionist Congress (1897), 15, 34, 42, 251, 314n6 7th Zionist Congress (1905), 11 12th Zionist Congress (1921), 128 16th Zionist Congress (1929), 198 17th Zionist Congress (1931), 227 18th Zionist Congress (1933), 296 see also Biltmore Conference Zionist Executive, 167, 171 Zionist organisation, registering fee, 42–3 see also World Zionist Organisation


pages: 281 words: 69,107

Belt and Road: A Chinese World Order by Bruno Maçães

active measures, Admiral Zheng, autonomous vehicles, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, cloud computing, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, global value chain, industrial cluster, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, one-China policy, Pearl River Delta, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade liberalization, trade route, zero-sum game

The Indo-Pacific thus appears as a test case of wider processes of Eurasian integration. To a considerable extent, sharp divides between regions of the kind we have been discussing have their root in the age of European colonial empires. They sometimes originated in the competition for territory and areas of influence between rival European powers. In other cases, they followed from the administrative imperative of each of these powers, which found it convenient to organize their territories in separate units. Often these divisions were superimposed on older and more permanent racial or religious divides, but European colonial power did much to reinforce them or even create them where they had a very incomplete meaning. Different regions in Asia were connected to the center in Europe in such a formalized way that relations among themselves could not be directly established but had to pass through the center, which worked as a hub assigning and distributing culture, ideas and money to the regions.


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

The Postcolonial World Paper Leviathans are not restricted to Latin America and Africa; they inhabit many different parts of the world. Several of them, like the ones we discussed in this chapter, have one thing in common—they are products of European colonization. This is true even for Liberia, which wasn’t a colony so much as an outpost for later-freed slaves of a European colony, the United States of America. This is because the way that European colonial powers governed and manipulated the institutions of many of their colonies created the conditions for Paper Leviathans to emerge. What is it about the residues of colonization that created such a state? As we have already seen in the Latin American context, two axes were particularly important. First, colonial powers introduced state institutions, but without any way for society to control them (especially since the colonizers had no interest in Africans controlling the state or its bureaucracy).

The first enticement was the history of despotic rule. The Islamic empires evolved into a rigidly despotic direction for the reasons Ibn Khaldun identified. This despotic evolution was continued and if anything aggravated by Ottoman rule. There were few pathways for society to have a say in political decision making or any type of accountability for rulers save for rebellion. After World War I, European colonial powers replaced the Ottomans. Aspirations for self-governance and independence that had built up over the last several decades were quashed and a patchwork of artificial client states was soon created. They had little in common with existing political structures and boundaries, except for their penchant for despotism. Then came oil, which would be the biggest export for the region, even if quite unequally distributed across the countries of the region.

South after the Civil War, see Woodward (1955) and Wright (1986). Alice’s race against the Red Queen is from Carroll (1871, 28–30). The classic ethnographic survey of the Tiv is Bohannan and Bohannan (1953). See Lugard (1922) for the most famous statement of his philosophy of indirect rule, and see Perham (1960) for a comprehensive biography. See Curtin (1995) on the incidence of stateless societies in West Africa at the time of European colonial conquest and Osafo-Kwaako and Robinson (2013) for some basic correlates. The Lugard quote is from Afigbo (1967, 694), and Afigbo (1972) is the seminal study of the warrant chiefs. Quotes from Bohannan are from Bohannan (1958, 3, 11). Akiga’s observation is from Akiga (1939, 264). The concept of illegibility is from Scott (2010). A good overview of communalism in Lebanon is Cammett (2014).


pages: 415 words: 127,092

Dawn of Detroit by Tiya Miles

British Empire, European colonialism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, profit motive, trade route, urban planning, white flight

Such a town could extend its economic reach across the western interior, accessing a vast array of indigenous trade alliances and moving prized materials from the Great Lakes hinterlands into the lucrative markets of North America’s eastern colonies and western Europe’s populous cities. These materials consisted in the main of treated and untreated animal skins and items crafted from peltry, like textured beaver hats of the kind we can imagine on the head of a mature Benjamin Franklin. The eighteenth century was the height of the international fur trade, which locked European colonial powers in fierce competition for indigenous trading partners: Indian men who had the skills to hunt the animals that were driving a fashion frenzy among the transatlantic cosmopolitan set. The vessels that launched from a site such as Detroit carrying away beaver, fox, and deer parts would return from the East with capital in the form of credits and payments, as well as with sundry practical wares like cloth, guns, and kettles.

But at the same time that enslaved people in Detroit confronted certain hardship, they lived in a place that afforded them a degree of constructive mobility that was not without significance. Detroit was on the far periphery of European settlement. In some senses the town was like an island in an archipelago, separated from other colonial cities by long stretches of water but connected to imperial networks through trade. Surrounded by indigenous villages and hunting grounds, Detroit had no immediate support from either European colonial or American territorial infrastructures. It possessed what legal historian Lea VanderVelde has described as “frontier characteristics,” which meant the town was perpetually engaged in “building itself up, inventing first generation solutions in the absence of long-standing institutional foundations.” Far from being strong enough to comprehensively enforce the subjugation of enslaved people, Detroit depended on the cooperation of captives in the city.

And in his forthcoming second study of indigenous peoples in the Great Lakes, Michael Witgen is endeavoring to formulate a capacious and exacting theoretical frame that historicizes the racialization of Indians in the age of U.S. expansion and interprets what he calls the “political economy of plunder” that links black and Native trajectories.16 In addition to charting complex cultural and political relations between European colonies and indigenous communities, historians of Native America have wrestled with connotations of the term “frontier,” rightly contesting the customary meaning of the word derived from historian Frederick Jackson Turner’s 1894 thesis of westward expansion.17 In Turner’s work and in American culture more generally, the word “frontier” has long suggested a line of difference between advancing white “civilization” and Native American “savagery,” where cross-cultural confrontation ultimately gives way to the perfection of the American character and expansion of the colonial enterprise captured by the idea of “manifest destiny.”


From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional

Westernization had its strongest opponents among the ulema, who saw the outgrowth of secular educational institutions and their un-Islamic teachings as a direct threat. Muslims deeply resented the granting of apparently blasphemous legal equality to non-Muslims who not only remained exempt from military conscription but could also call upon their European Christian patrons to exert pressure upon the Ottoman state with impunity (even as Muslims remained without rights in Asian and African countries administered by European colonial powers). Looking back at European attitudes towards Turkey, Hüseyin Cahid, Turkey’s most prominent journalist in the early twentieth century, explained why he and other Young Turks became such fervent nationalists and anti-imperialists: The Turk was a tyrant, an oppressor, he knew nothing of right and justice. The Turk had no conscience, he was hostile to civilization, he understood nothing, his heart was indifferent to human sentiments.

Watching Chinese labourers diligently at work in the port city, he made a canny prophecy about the future balance of power in international relations: ‘The nations which now own the world’s resources fear the rise of China, and wish to postpone the day of that rise.’29 But Tagore seemed to derive no comfort from the prospect of any country rising in the manner prescribed by the modern West. ‘The New Japan is only an imitation of the West,’ he declared at his official reception in Tokyo, which included the Japanese prime minister among other dignitaries. This did not go down well with his audience, for whom Japan was a powerful nation and budding empire, and India a pitiable European colony. Tagore had received most of his impressions of the country from Okakura, but Japan had changed rapidly in the period between 1900 and 1916. In such books as The Awakening of Japan (1904) and The Book of Tea (1906), Okakura himself had begun to advocate a more assertive Japanese identity. ‘When will the West understand, or try to understand, the East?’ he had asked exasperatedly in The Book of Tea: We Asiatics are often appalled by the curious web of facts and fancies which has been woven concerning us.

According to Foucault, ‘Islam, which is not simply a religion, but an entire way of life, an adherence to a history and a civilization – has a good chance to become a gigantic powder keg, at the level of hundreds of millions of men.’51 The Iranian Islamic Revolution became the prime example of how, in the absence of any democratic politics, Muslims could use Islamic themes of sacrifice and martyrdom to challenge despotic and corrupt rulers who claimed legitimacy both domestically and in the West as modernizers and secularizers. Although never a European colony, oil-rich Iran had been dominated by British and Russian imperialists since the nineteenth century. Al-Afghani had witnessed the first of the great anti-imperialist movements in 1891. There were more to come after the First World War. Not content with appropriating large parts of the Ottoman Empire, Lord Curzon, then the British foreign minister, hatched a scheme to annex Iran, convinced, as his early biographer Harold Nicolson put it, that ‘God had personally selected the British upper class as an instrument of the Divine Will’.


pages: 877 words: 182,093

Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, European colonialism, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, very high income, War on Poverty

The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 is estimated to have taken more lives than the contemporary First World War, the most devastating and lethal war in all of history at that point. Diseases have also affected the course of history. Europeans knew of the existence of Africa thousands of years before they learned of the existence of the Western Hemisphere. Yet European empires were established in the Western Hemisphere hundreds of years before the “scramble for Africa” began in the late nineteenth century and led to European colonial empires that extended throughout the continent. Diseases had much to do with the differing fates of these different regions of the world. Microorganisms that most of the humans involved knew nothing about at the time were, in effect, on the side of the Europeans during their conquests in the Western Hemisphere. But microorganisms were on the side of the indigenous peoples in tropical Africa.

During the era of mass immigration from Europe to the United States, Polish immigrants from Russia or from Austria— Poland itself having been dismembered and absorbed into these empires— were almost always unskilled workers, but those relatively few Polish immigrants who did have specialized work skills as weavers, tailors or cabinet makers were predominantly from Prussia,52 where they acquired such skills from being located in a German culture. During the era of European colonialism, location near Western institutions like schools gave those segments of the conquered people in such locations major advantages over their compatriots in the hinterlands. Other locational differences created other locational windfall gains or windfall losses. In colonial Ceylon, for example, British missionaries set up schools in more favored portions of the island nation, while the British authorities assigned American missionaries to the less favored northern tip of the island, where the Tamil minority was concentrated.

The enthusiastic embrace of aspects of a different culture by eighteenth century Scots and nineteenth century Japanese was a rare exception. So too was the spectacular rise of Scotland and Japan to the forefront of world achievements in a remarkably short time, as history is measured. On a smaller scale, various groups within particular non-Western countries seized upon educational opportunities presented by the presence of Western educational institutions during the era of European colonialism. Like the Scots and the Japanese, these indigenous groups often came from regions with geographic handicaps, such as soil too poor for the people in the region to support their growing population. The Ibos in the southern part of Nigeria and the Tamils in the northern part of Sri Lanka were among such groups in various times and places, including Indonesia, Algeria, and the Philippines.57 Armed with Western education and other Western cultural advantages, the Ibos and the Tamils spread out to other regions of their respective countries, outperforming other groups in businesses, civil service and the professions, bringing benefits to the general population, and at the same time stirring resentments of their striking success.


pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

“The trail was coated with the blood of thousands of Italian soldiers,” wrote Selassie. “Nevertheless, by 1889 all of Eritrea had been occupied, and Menelik [the Amhara king] had signed the Treaty of Ucciali, under which he recognized Italian rule over Eritrea.” The treaty demarcated the regional boundaries as they exist today. Selassie indicated that “two different imperial territories now existed side by side,” the one, Eritrea, governed by a white European colonial power; the other, Ethiopia, governed by a black African colonial power—the Amharas under Menelik—whose subjugation of the Tigreans to the north and of the Oromo people to the south was viewed by the indigenous inhabitants as no more preferable than any European-imposed tyranny. The fact that Eritreans, Tigreans, and Oromos viewed the black Amharas no differently than these three groups viewed the white European intruders is a truth that many in the liberal West may find hard to accept, but whose implications are crucial to a proper understanding of the present conflict.

All over western Sudan as well as in Ethiopia that summer, the United States was winning hearts and minds with similar feats. According to Brussels-based columnist Giles Merritt, writing in an October 1985 International Herald Tribune, 1985 was “the year when the United States went into Africa, one of the few remaining areas of the world it had managed to stay out of. In the past Washington has been glad to leave much of Africa under the influence of the former European colonial powers. But three million tons of U.S. food aid … changed that.” Merritt feared that such a generous outpouring of emergency aid was bound to get the United States involved in “the quagmires of African politics. The sacks of emergency grain and the seed that the Sudanese have named ‘Reagan' may prove as sure a hook as President Kennedy's handful of military advisors in Vietnam.” If only the columnist's fear had been borne out!


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

The trouble with historical analogies—with Japan and Germany widely rehearsed as appropriate prologues for the reconstruction of Iraq—is that they bear little resemblance to the circumstances of today’s failed states and deposed regimes. The details of demobilizing armies, reforming police forces, creating ethnic reconciliation programs, and jump-starting power plants and hospitals are unique aspects of modern state building: There is no template for them. Instead, we are mostly state-building in places where there never really was a state. There would be no state building to speak of were it not for the aggressive European colonialism that created the international system we take for granted today. For centuries, European colonizers fanned out across the planet for commercial gain and geopolitical advantage—along the way creating one world under their hierarchy. They forced insular societies such as China and Japan to accept their consulates, compelled the modernization of the Ottoman bureaucracy, and in the name of a mission civilisatrice created coherent administrative structures in India and Africa.

In all these ways, the new colonialists have become woven into the fabric of governance in weak states, preventing them from failing even further. There are clearly big differences between the old and new colonialism. As Tony Pipa, director of the NGO Leaders Forum, says, “Equating the two is like calling the Prius the new Hummer. They both get you from here to there, but the goals and values behind the design are completely different.” Unlike the previous European colonialism, which purposely sought to perpetuate dependency, the new colonialists want states to practice “responsible sovereignty” by which they protect their people and prevent threats from spilling over their borders.1 The new colonialism isn’t intentionally exploitative, condescending, or coercive—only unintentionally so. The new colonialists are certainly more committed to local ownership than either U.S. military occupations or traditional UN missions.


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

common trajectory: a regime of relatively slow, even retarded growth, then abrupt acceleration to fast growth in the 1950s and 1960s, with rural in-migrants increasingly sheltered in peripheral slums. Earlier in the twentieth century, the massive transfer of rural poverty to cities was prevented by the economic and political equivalents of city walls - both urban entry and, even more importantly, substantive urban citizenship were systematically withheld from large parts of the agrarian population. Keeping the Peasants Out A principal barrier, of course, was European colonialism which, in its most extreme form in the British colonial cities of eastern and southern Africa, denied native populations the rights of urban land ownership and permanent residence. The British, always the ideologues of divide and rule, feared that city life would "detribalize" Africans and foster anticolonial solidarities.3 Urban migration was controlled by pass laws, while vagrancy ordinances penalized informal labor.

In colonial slums like Medina (Dakar), Treichville (Abidjan) and Poto-Poto (Brazzaville), streets "were nothing but sand or mud alleyways instead of drainage there were only a few sewers, usually open or crudely covered with flag-stones; there was little or no water, with a few public pumps where queues waited from early in the morning. Public lighting was reserved for the European quarters. Overcrowding created a great hazard to health."10 Indeed, this almost universal refusal to provide even minimal sanitary infrastructures for the "native quarters" until the 1950s was more than stinginess: it.pointedly symbolized the lack of anyjiative "right to the city." But European colonialism was not the only international system of urban growth control. Although raised to power by peasant revolt, Asian Stalinism also tried to staunch the influx from the countryside. Initially the 1949 Chinese Revolution opened city gates to returning refugees and job-hungry peasant ex-soldiers. The result was an uncontrolled inundation of the cities: some 14 million people arrived in just four years.11 Finally, in 1953 the new regime dammed the rural flood with stringent controls over internal migration.


pages: 264 words: 74,688

Imperial Legacies by Jeremy Black;

affirmative action, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

Subsequently, in March 2018, some of those involved took part in a violent blockade of the main SOAS building, their statement protesting at “the white-supremacist hetero-patriarchal capitalist order” of university life. Meanwhile, in February 2018, the controversy was over Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery’s exhibition “The Past is Now,” in which information boards claimed that “the relationship between European colonialism, industrial production and capitalism is unique in its brutality.” The key Birmingham politician of the Victorian period, Joseph Chamberlain, an exponent of a stronger British Empire who became secretary of state for the Colonies (1895–1903), was described as “still revered despite his aggressive and racist imperial policy.” One board attacked Britain’s “hasty” departure from India in 1947 for “trauma and misogyny,” and a second board offers another partisan context: “Capitalism is a system that prioritises the interests of the individuals and their companies at the expense of the majority.”

Hall wrote that she became an historian of Britain and empire in order to explain the legacies of colonialism for the British and that she started work on Thomas Macaulay in the wake of the “War on Terror,” or, rather, the “Global War on Terrorism.” Pressing on to observe that she was opposed to the 2003 Gulf War, Hall noted that she was: horrified by the claim that the West had the right to assume such positions of moral certitude, apparently with no memory of past “civilising missions,” key aspects of some phases of European colonialisms. This was the return of the … assumption that Britain, despite its loss of empire, could use force and legislate for those others who were stuck in barbaric times, who needed white knights to rescue them. Moral rectitude was masking new geo-political claims. Britain’s shameful history in Iraq, and subsequently in Afghanistan, seemed to be entirely forgotten. The discourse of liberal humanitarian intervention under the sign of gender equality was deployed unproblematically.


pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

This article thereby firmly required colonial powers to protect their colonial subjects against—themselves.57 When the United Nations published its first report on development in 1947, Economic Development in Selected Countries: Plans, Programmes and Agencies, it included plans for “British African Non-Self-Governing and Non-Metropolitan Territories” and “French African Overseas Territories.” The introduction to the report lumps together all “governments of the less developed countries,” including the European colonial rulers of these territories next to local rulers like those in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Poland, and Yugoslavia. The report declared that all members of this diverse group of autocrats, democrats, Stalinists, and colonizers shared the “ultimate aim in economic development” which “is to raise the national welfare of the entire population.”58 POSTWAR EMPIRE Was the new development justification for empire taken seriously after the war was over?

From the thirteenth through the nineteenth centuries, Fujianese traders migrated to Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Okinawa, Vietnam, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, Singapore, and the kingdom of Ayutthaya in what is today Thailand. Already by the seventeenth century they had muscled into the role of key middlemen in East–West trade (in addition to intra-East trade) by playing off the Dutch and the Spanish against each other, trading silk, porcelain, furniture, sugar, and metal wares.15 Yet more Fujianese migration happened between the 1860s and 1930s, as European colonial plantations (such as rubber in British Malaya and Dutch Indonesia) were looking for a reliable labor force. The network of Fujianese merchants already in place was happy to help out, recruiting coolie labor back in Fujian, who then moved permanently to Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. The coolie laborers’ descendants were then available also to join the next generation of merchants in the thriving regional Fujianese trading network.16 The advice of the development experts as “official development” began after 1949 was to emphasize national industrialization over international trade.

Aleppo would thrive on this trade for the next four centuries.24 The traders were a diverse group, including Venetians, English, French, Dutch, Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christian Syrians, Turkish-speaking Ottomans, Indians, Bukharans (from modern day Uzbekistan), Armenians, Sephardic Jews expelled from Portugal, Italy, and Spain, and Arabic Jews from all over the Levant.25 They traded goods like raw silk, wool, cotton, finished fabrics, camels and camel hair, gallnuts, pistachio nuts, and drugs and gums. They got these goods from northern Syria and the Syrian desert, southeastern Anatolia, Mosul, Iran, Diyarbakr, Arabia, and Basra. From Europe, the goods included woolens, raw metals, and other goods as diverse as firearms, clocks, paper, housewares, and chemical products, not to mention products of the European colonies such as dyes, spices, sugar, and coffee. From Aleppo, most of these goods were destined for re-export to cities in the interior, in Syria, Anatolia, Iraq, and Iran.26 The twentieth century was a series of nationalist disasters for Aleppo. After World War I, Aleppo got its first blow from the carving up of the Levant into the French colonies (called League of Nations “mandates”) of Syria (containing Aleppo) and Lebanon; the British colonies (mandates) of Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq; and independent Turkey.


Year 501 by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

The same principles are amply illustrated in the 500 years of imperial crime and the way they enter history, a history sampled in the text below, persisting with little change to the present day. Part I Old Wine, New Bottles Chapter 1 “The Great Work of Subjugation and Conquest” The year 1992 poses a critical moral and cultural challenge for the more privileged sectors of the world-dominant societies. The challenge is heightened by the fact that within these societies, notably the first European colony liberated from imperial rule, popular struggle over many centuries has achieved a large measure of freedom, opening many opportunities for independent thought and committed action. How this challenge is addressed in the years to come will have fateful consequences. October 11, 1992 brings to an end the 500th year of the Old World Order, sometimes called the Colombian era of world history, or the Vasco da Gama era, depending on which adventurers bent on plunder got there first.

Reality itself is the “transcendent purpose” of the nation, which is indeed noble; the abuse of reality is the irrelevant factual record.3 The record is misleading if it keeps to the support for horrendous atrocities and fails to reveal the welcome accorded them when they are seen to be in a good cause, a leading feature of the 500-year conquest. The reaction to the US-directed atrocities in Central America in the past decade is one well-studied example. To illustrate how firmly this pillar of the traditional culture is in place, it would only be fitting to consider the earliest Asian outpost of European colonialism, the Dutch East Indies, during the era of US global management. 2. Securing the Anchor “The problem of Indonesia” is “the most crucial issue of the moment in our struggle with the Kremlin,” Kennan wrote in 1948. “Indonesia is the anchor in that chain of islands stretching from Hokkaido to Sumatra which we should develop as a politico-economic counter-force to communism” and a “base area” for possible military action beyond.

As noted earlier, it was not until the 1960s that the truth began to break through, eliciting scorn and protest from outraged loyalists.3 The Spanish effort to plunder the island’s riches by enslaving its gentle people were unsuccessful; they died too quickly, if not killed by the “wild beasts” or in mass suicide. African slaves were sent from the early 1500s, later in a flood as the plantation economy was established. “Saint Domingue was the wealthiest European colonial possession in the Americas,” Hans Schmidt writes, producing three-quarters of the world’s sugar by 1789, also leading the world in production of coffee, cotton, indigo, and rum. The slave masters provided France with enormous wealth from the labor of their 450,000 slaves, much as in the British West Indian colonies. The white population, including poor overseers and artisans, numbered 40,000.


pages: 789 words: 207,744

The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

Judging by the history of regions that came under Indian influence, we can infer that Indian rulers of the time were closer to Admiral Zheng than Columbus in their approach to power. The smaller countries of Southeast Asia are known as “the East Indies” because of the tremendous cultural, religious, and political prominence of the Indian subcontinent in their history. Indian historians indeed refer to these countries in antiquity as “Indian colonies.” However, rather than being conquered and pillaged like the European colonies of the past few centuries, they became part of a peaceful trading network that advanced their security and cultural sophistication.34 Throughout history, there have, of course, been all kinds of brutal conquerors with no qualms about slaughtering their enemies and viciously terrorizing their subjects. But the Europeans added into the mix a uniquely disruptive approach to power. Historian Joel Mokyr summarizes the Europeans’ frame of mind when they discovered the New World, writing: “When Europeans were exposed to new information, their sense of wonderment was…soon replaced by the thought of how to exploit the new knowledge.

Great Rats: The Story of Power and Exploitation Ponting, Clive. A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. New York: Penguin, 2007. A comprehensive and compelling environmental perspective on world history. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Before European Hegemony: The World System AD 1250–1350. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. An illuminating portrayal of the global order that existed before the rise of European colonialism. Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. An unflinching and shocking exposé of the brutality unleashed by the European conquest of the New World. Chapter 17. The Enigma of the Scientific Revolution Huff, Toby E. The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Steven Kalberg (Los Angeles: Roxbury, 1920/2002), xxxvi–xxxvii. (Italics in the original.) 54. Meditations Sacrae, cited in Owen Flanagan, The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a Material World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), 221; The Great Instauration, cited in Hans Jonas, The Phenomenon of Life: Toward a Philosophical Biology (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2001), 188–89. 55. See Leiss, Domination of Nature, xiv. 56. M. E. Townsend, European Colonial Expansion since 1871 (Chicago: J. Lippincott, 1941), 19; A. Supan, Die territoriale Entwicklung der Europaischen Kolonien (Gotha, 1906), 254, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/colonies.htm (accessed July 10, 2013). 57. Ponting, New Green History, 175–76. 58. Ibid., 175–76, 197–98. See also C. Erickson, “Review: Indentured Labour in the British Empire 1834–1920. By Kay Saunders,” Population Studies 39, no. 1 (1985): 1184–85. 59.


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Since humans left Africa, they have been on the move. They moved to escape flood, or drought; they moved to find new lands to farm, or seas to fish; they moved to find new opportunities away from their clans or tribes; they moved to escape conquering armies and oppressive states; they moved unwillingly, in the case of the 10 to 12 million Africans subjected to the Atlantic slave trade; they moved as invaders, like the European colonial powers or the Mongol empire; and they moved, as was the case with most immigrants at Ellis Island, in search of a fresh start in a new world. All humans are immigrants, or are descended from them, differing only in the date when we, or our ancestors, arrived at our current home. Over history, these flows have had enormous political and economic significance. The terms “immigration” and “emigration” are tied up with the notion of the nation state, as are the paraphernalia of passports, visas, customs duties and border posts.

By the end of the 1970s, the defects of the Latin American model were fairly clear; too much debt, inefficient industries, and too much state control (in 1979, the Brazilian government owned 28 of the country’s 30 largest firms).69 Those defects would prove catastrophic in the 1980s. Africa, alas, also had limited economic success in this era. The continent largely managed to throw off its European colonial masters, with the obvious exceptions of South Africa and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia). But the newly independent countries were dependent on commodity exports, and were often run by kleptocratic dictators. The per capita growth rate from 1950 to 1973 was 2%, below the world average, and half the growth rate of western Europe. The collapse of Bretton Woods In 1960, an economist named Robert Triffin predicted to the US Congress that the Bretton Woods system would eventually collapse.

Much of the continent is tropical and this makes it home to diseases like malaria and yellow fever, and energy-sapping parasites like the guinea worm. Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest agricultural yields in the world: farmers produce 1.2 tonnes of grain per hectare, compared with an average of 3 tonnes in the developing world and 8 tonnes in North America and Europe.54 The continent has also been handicapped by terrible government. Independence from the European colonial powers did not bring democracy but rather one-party rule, whether in the form of a kleptocrat like Mobutu of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) or a socialist state like Tanzania. In the latter, President Julius Nyerere nationalised industry, seized foreign-owned businesses, and forced peasants to sell grain to the government for as little as a fifth of its value.55 The 21st century has seen an improvement in Africa’s fortunes.


Amritsar 1919: An Empire of Fear and the Making of a Massacre by Kim Wagner

British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route, Wall-E

This is more than just an academic quibble: when the facts cease to matter, the very grounds upon which historical claims are made, or restitution demanded, are critically undermined. This ahistorical conceptualisation of the massacre is by no means restricted to the public sphere or popular debates. For instance, in one of the recent scholarly interventions in global history, A World Connecting, Charles S. Maier simply lists the massacre among the litany of European colonial conflicts of the early twentieth century, describing how ‘General Reginald Dyer famously emptied his machine guns against assembled Indians at Amritsar in 1919.’8 The fact that Dyer used neither machine guns nor all his ammunition is yet again an indication of the extent to which the Amritsar Massacre is referenced – not because of what happened, but rather because of what the event is taken to represent in the most abstract sense.

., col. 1777. 14.Collett, The Butcher of Amritsar, pp. 390–1. 15.Mohan, An Imaginary Rebellion, II, p. 795. 16.Drake-Brockman, Evidence, DIC, I, p. 172. 17.Collett, The Butcher of Amritsar, p. 285. 18.Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 10 and 19. 19.Bailkin, ‘The Boot and the Spleen’. 20.Sherman, State Violence, pp. 1–37. 21.Elisabeth Kolsky, ‘“Fanaticism” and State Violence in British India’, American Historical Review, 120, 4 (Oct. 2015), pp. 1218–46; and Condos, ‘“Fanaticism” and the Politics of Resistance along the North-West Frontier of British India’. 22.See also Michelle Gordon, ‘British Colonial Violence in Perak, Sierra Leone and the Sudan’ (unpublished PhD thesis, Royal Holloway, 2017). 23.See Wagner, ‘Savage Warfare’; and Sven Lindqvist, Exterminate All the Brutes (London: Granta, 2002). 24.Wagner, ‘Calculated to Strike Terror’. 25.See Huw Bennett, ‘The Other Side of the COIN: Minimum and Exemplary Force in British Counterinsurgency in Kenya’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 18, 4 (2007), 638–64; and David French, ‘Nasty Not Nice: British Counter-insurgency Doctrine and Practice, 1945–1967’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 23, 4–5 (2012), pp. 744–61. 26.Priya Satia, ‘The Defense of Inhumanity: Air Control in Iraq and the British Idea of Arabia’, American Historical Review, 111 (Feb. 2006), pp. 16–51; and Sven Lindqvist, A History of Bombing (New York: New Press, 2001). 27.See John Newsinger, British Counterinsurgency: From Palestine to Northern Ireland (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001); David French, The British Way in Counterinsurgency, 1945–1967 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011); Huw Bennett, Fighting the Mau Mau: The British Army and Counter-insurgency in the Kenya Emergency (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); and Brian Drohan, Brutality in an Age of Human Rights: Activism and Counterinsurgency at the End of the British Empire (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017). 28.Major-General Sir Charles W. Gwynn, Imperial Policing (London: Macmillan, 1934). See also Martin Thomas, Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012). 29.Churchill, Hansard, HC, Deb. 8 July 1920, vol. 131, col. 1728. 30.E.J. Thompson, Other Side of the Medal, p. 97. 31.O’Dwyer, Evidence, DIC, VI, in Datta, New Light, I, p. 140. See also Irving, Evidence, DIC, III, p. 21. 32.I have further developed this argument in Wagner, ‘Calculated to Strike Terror’, but see also Vann ‘Fear and Loathing in French Hanoi’. 33.

., Along the Archival Grain: Thinking through Colonial Ontologies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009). Swinson, A., Six Minutes to Sunset: The Story of General Dyer and the Amritsar Affair (London: Davis 1964). Tambiah, S., Levelling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflict and Collective Violence in South Asia (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996). Thomas, M., Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012). Tinker, H., The Ordeal of Love: C.F. Andrews and India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1979). Townshend, C., The British Campaign in Ireland 1919–1921: The Development of Political and Military Policies (London: Oxford University Press, 1975). Toye, R., Churchill’s Empire: The World That Made Him and the World That He Made (London: Macmillan, 2015).


pages: 295 words: 92,670

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS

The island was never returned to Spain, despite the high language of the many treaties and documents attesting to Spanish exclusivity in the Caribbean; language in Europe was one thing, whereas actions across the ocean were another altogether. The Dutch West India Company was also gearing up its activities at this time, founding Manhattan as a base for assaults on Spanish shipping in the Caribbean. As Spanish sea power waned, other European colonies grew more prosperous. The vast mountains of bullion that paid for Spain’s prominence in Europe was only as secure as the ships that carried them thousands of miles across the Atlantic, through waters ringed by dangerous reefs, infested with pirates and privateers, and prone to disastrous and unpredictable storms. If anything, the plunder of Spanish ships and illegal trade in the West Indies became more common throughout the seventeenth century, once it became known that Europe’s most powerful nation was also its most vulnerable.

The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques & Discoveries of the English Nation—Made by Sea or Overland to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of the Earth at Any Time Within the Compasse of These 1600 Years. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1926 reprint. Hakluyt, Richard. Voyages of Drake and Gilbert: Select Narratives from the Principal Navigations of Hakluyt. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. Hanke, Lewis. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949. Hart, Jonathan. Comparing Empires: European Colonialism from Portuguese Expansion to the Spanish-American War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Hart, Jonathan. Empires and Colonies. Cambridge: Polity, 2008. Hawthorne, Daniel. Ferdinand Magellan. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964. Hibbert, Christopher. The Borgias and Their Enemies, 1431–1519. New York: Harcourt, 2008. Johnson, Marion. The Borgias. London: Macdonald Futura, 1981. Joyner, Tim.


pages: 287 words: 95,152

The Dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order by Bruno Macaes

active measures, Berlin Wall, British Empire, computer vision, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, digital map, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global value chain, illegal immigration, intermodal, iterative process, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, open borders, Parag Khanna, savings glut, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, speech recognition, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, young professional, zero-sum game, éminence grise

For him this had nothing to do with geography and all to do with history, with a vision of Russia under the czars as medieval and ‘shamefully backward’.16 Modernity or capitalism or industrialization – depending on which theory you subscribed to – were seen as originally European, but capable of expanding worldwide. Over the nineteenth century the term ‘European’ was slowly replaced with ‘Western’, with the obvious intention of signalling both the universal appeal of modern ideas and the binary opposition to the old society. This opposition was an important underpinning of European colonialism, but it also served as a substratum for those who, starting in Japan in the second half of the nineteenth century, argued that Asia could embrace modernity and join the group of developed nations. Fukuzawa Yukichi famously argued that Japan should prevent the onslaught of Western civilization by casting its lot in with it, sailing the same waves, enjoying the same fruits of civilization.

What you find out looking at a map is that this statue is placed on China’s easternmost point, the very first place in China to see the sun every morning. One of the ironies of political geography in these parts is that China, the eastern empire, sits to the west and Russia, a European power, confronts it to the east. A swath of Russian territory cuts China’s Heilongjiang Province off from the Sea of Japan. Look again, more carefully, and you will realize why so many in Beijing regard the Russian Far East territory as the last remnant of European colonialism in Chinese lands. Is this monument a symbol, a proclamation that the East is Chinese? The giant character is 49 metres tall, an allusion to the founding date of the People’s Republic. In the enveloping square there is also a map of China drawn on the ground and a number of pavilions. The border guards at Kazakevichevo, while being careful not to disagree with the island’s partition, expressed obvious concerns about how it changed the security situation in Khabarovsk, the second city in the Russian Far East after Vladivostok.


pages: 312 words: 91,835

Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, mittelstand, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, transfer pricing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Being “well-born” in this world (as we also see in the literature of the time) meant being born into a high income group rather than being born in England, or China, or Russia. But as the upwardly rising line in the figure shows, that changed completely over the next century. The proportions reversed: by the mid-twentieth century, 80 percent of global inequality depended on where one was born (or lived, in the case of migration), and only 20 percent on one’s social class. This world is best exemplified by European colonialism in Africa and Asia, where small groups of Europeans disposed of incomes a couple of hundred times greater than those of the native people.11 The key point is not just to compare the incomes of Europeans in Africa with those of Africans, but to realize that these were typical incomes for such classes of people in western Europe.12 It is by juxtaposing Europeans living in close physical proximity with Africans or Asians that we can see how stark the differences were.

Theil (0), also known as the entropy index, is the only one of the popular measures of inequality in which the absolute values of inequality calculated for class (or location) do not change when the other component (location or class) is fully equalized. As a result, if the class component of Theil is calculated to be x with the actual data, then the hypothetical elimination of all locational inequalities will leave the class component (and thus the total Theil) at x. 11. It is worth mentioning here the increased spread of European colonialism, which achieved one of its high points in 1914. In 1914, almost 42 percent of the world population lived in colonies. The most important powers were Great Britain, which controlled 24 percent of the world population, and France, with about 6 percent. 12. In some individual cases, however, Europeans might have fared better by going to colonies than by staying at home. 13. “Marxist analysis should be always slightly stretched when we deal with the colonial rule.… It is neither the act of owning factories, nor [landed] estates, nor a bank balance which distinguishes the governing classes.


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

THE UNITED STATES Society 2.0 was born with the American Revolution. The state-centered 1.0 version of society never had a strong home base in the United States. In fact, 1.0 institutions, seen from a US perspective, might resemble more what people did not like about Europe—what made them leave the Old World for the New World. Early Society 2.0 in America was not formed to limit an oppressive US state, but to limit the oppressive European colonial states. As a consequence, even today, mistrust of government or anything that looks like a 1.0 structure runs deep in many parts of US culture. The 2.0 version of a market economy, however, was firmly grounded at home. Throughout the twentieth century, particularly during the Great Depression of the 1930s, negative externalities in the form of mass unemployment and poverty moved the United States toward Society 3.0.

AFRICA Research suggests that the human species originated in Africa. When the nineteenth-century colonialist Europeans and other Westerners imposed a ruthless regime of exploiting the soil and the people of Africa, millions of slaves were sold to the Americas and elsewhere. Thus, the introduction of the modern state came with an iron (and malevolent) fist. The governments that were put in place by European colonial powers first and foremost served those powers’ interests. The Arab revolution of 2011 that was ignited in Tunisia and Egypt is directed against the last strongholds of those cynical and corrupt 1.0 regimes that have continued to exist in North Africa, where Western powers have repeatedly turned a blind eye to civil rights violations in exchange for cheap oil. Throughout the late twentieth century, the World Bank (among others) facilitated a push toward Economy 2.0 institutional innovations.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

In many monogamous societies, daughters often represent nothing but a cost. Bride prices are rare among them. Instead, they feature dowries, payments from the family of the bride to the groom that are virtually unheard of in polygamous cultures. That’s probably why many traditional monogamous societies have been prone to female infanticide and feticide. Polygamy faded over the past two thousand years, first in Europe and then across much of the world, pushed by European colonial expansion. But it doesn’t seem to have been due to the opposition of women. The more likely reason is that men turned against it. One theory posits that economic development fostered monogamy because of the way it changed the reproductive goals of rich men. In less developed societies where wealth was mostly inherited, it made no sense to invest in educating one’s children. The purpose of mating was to have as many children as possible to improve the odds that a man’s genes would survive into the next generation.

These days workers draw almost 65 percent of the nation’s income in wages and benefits—about ten percentage points more than they did eighty years ago, when the government started measuring the statistic consistently. That kind of money seems like a fairly potent incentive for their employers to enslave them. So why don’t they? Perhaps we’ve learned to be repulsed by slavery. But the historical record suggests that societies’ choice of working conditions has less to do with values and morality, and more with the profitability of how labor is organized. From sixteenth-century Russia to the European colonies in the New World, the decision of whether to employ indentured or free workers has hinged on whether it is cheaper to pay a wage or to feed, clothe, and house slaves while paying for security to keep them enslaved. Throughout history, slavery was rare in subsistence economies, such as early hunter-gatherer societies where people produced just enough to stay alive. In early horticulturalist cultures, land was not productive enough to generate a surplus that would justify enslaving additional workers.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

He contends that the prevailing negative connotation of speed in relation to clocks, schedules, and Frederick Taylor’s stopwatch Scientific Management was gradually “rerouted into the excessive speed of individual pleasure.”67 164 Utopia Reconsidered The automobile was not the only invention to provide that pleasurable experience, but it transcended all others, allowing people “to feel modernity in their bones.”68 Duffy suggests (somewhat unconvincingly) that, as European colonial empires declined, experiencing speed at home replaced thrilling adventure abroad. These “speed demons” of roughly a century ago hardly saw themselves as leading slow-paced lives. The key point is how the world was perceived by ordinary people then as much as now. Unlike those ahistorical high-tech prophets, Duffy properly respects and reads the past in its own complex terms. To be sure, people who rode and witnessed early-nineteenthcentury railroads made similar statements about their own pace of change.

Post-colonial Critiques of Western Science and Technology as Measures of “Progress” A complementary critique of the utopian assumptions of Western science and technology derives from the growing “post-colonial studies” field that has emerged in recent decades. It is increasingly common for historians and other scholars to argue that Western science and technology, the commonly deployed measures of “progress” possibly leading to utopia, were utilized by European colonial powers to dominate their empires not only materially and financially (rather familiar themes) but also culturally and psychologically. The traditional condescension toward non-Western science and technology invariably reflects ignorance of the achievements in Arab lands and in China, among many other places, in the centuries before colonial empires began. Yet, as Michael Adas demonstrates in his Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance (1989), the story is more complicated.


pages: 97 words: 31,550

Money: Vintage Minis by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, European colonialism, Flash crash, greed is good, job automation, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, lifelogging, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, self-driving car, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

VOC’s military campaigns in Indonesia were financed by upstanding Dutch burghers who loved their children, gave to charity, and enjoyed good music and fine art, but had no regard for the suffering of the inhabitants of Java, Sumatra and Malacca. Countless other crimes and misdemeanours accompanied the growth of the modern economy in other parts of the planet. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY brought no improvement in the ethics of capitalism. The Industrial Revolution that swept through Europe enriched the bankers and capital-owners, but condemned millions of workers to a life of abject poverty. In the European colonies things were even worse. In 1876, King Leopold II of Belgium set up a non-governmental humanitarian organisation with the declared aim of exploring Central Africa and fighting the slave trade along the Congo River. It was also charged with improving conditions for the inhabitants of the region by building roads, schools and hospitals. In 1885 the European powers agreed to give this organisation control of 2.3 million square kilometres in the Congo basin.


pages: 372 words: 110,208

Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past by David Reich

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, European colonialism, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, supervolcano, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Tracing back, the threads wind themselves through ever more ancestors, providing information about population size and substructure in each generation. When an African American person is said to have 80 percent West African and 20 percent European ancestry, for example, a statement is being made that about five hundred years ago, prior to the population migrations and mixtures precipitated by European colonialism, 80 percent of the person’s ancestral threads probably resided in West Africa and the remainder probably lived in Europe. But such statements are like still frames in a movie, capturing one point in the past. An equally valid perspective is that one hundred thousand years ago, the vast majority of lineages of African American ancestors, like those of everyone today, were in Africa. The Story Told by the Multitudes in Our Genomes In 2001, the human genome was sequenced for the first time—which means that the great majority of its chemical letters were read.

Nearly all individuals from these mixed populations derive large stretches of their genomes from ancestors who lived on different continents fewer than twenty generations ago. A small percentage of European Americans have large stretches of African or Native American DNA as well, the legacy of people who successfully “passed” themselves off into the white majority.3 A 1973 science-fiction novel, Piers Anthony’s Race Against Time, envisions a future in which the mixing of populations initiated by European colonialism reaches its inevitable conclusion, and by the year 2300 nearly all humans belong to a “Standard” population.4 In that year, only six unmixed people are left: one pair of “purebred Caucasians,” one pair of “purebred Africans,” and one pair of “purebred Chinese.” These “purebreds” are being raised in human zoos by foster parents and are being groomed to breed with the only remaining individual of similar ancestry to sustain humanity’s diversity, a diversity that is viewed by the “Standard” population as a resource of irreplaceable biological value on the verge of being lost.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

By contrast, incomes in Western Europe grew at 1.3 per cent per year during this period, and in the US at 1.8 per cent per year – three to four times the rate of the colonised world.51 This differential in income growth rates was a major driver of global inequality. At the end of this period, Europe owned somewhere between one-third and one-half of the domestic capital of Asia and Africa, and more than three-quarters of their industrial capital.52 The story in Latin America unfolded somewhat differently. Three centuries of European colonialism came to an end in the early 19th century with revolutions led by liberators such as Simón Bolívar, who, after a long period of struggle against the Spanish Crown, won independence for Venezuela in 1821, Ecuador in 1822, Peru in 1824 and Bolivia in 1825. But these and other independent nations that emerged in the wake of decolonisation tended to be controlled by autocratic local elites who were quite happy to maintain the economic arrangements that their European counterparts had imposed.

In short, the Keynesian compromise in the West worked mostly for people who conformed to a particular norm – white, male and straight. It depended to some extent on cheap labour from women and minorities, and of course was financed in large part by surplus wealth siphoned from the rest of the world through the old colonial pipelines. A Miracle in the South The rise of Keynesianism coincided precisely with the last decades of European colonialism. In fact, it was partly due to the influence of Keynesian ideology – with its focus on fairness and welfare – that the colonial project began to seem untenable and gradually unravelled. The progressive political parties that began to take control in Europe after the Second World War had little appetite for colonialism as it conflicted with the growing discourse on equality, national sovereignty and human rights.9 Indeed, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations a few years after the war ended.


pages: 390 words: 119,527

Armed Humanitarians by Nathan Hodge

Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, European colonialism, failed state, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, jobless men, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, old-boy network, Potemkin village, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, walking around money

The command became a fully activated unitary command one year later, on October 1, 2008. In some respects AFRICOM represented a simple streamlining and reorganization of U.S. military activity in Africa. Before AFRICOM, three different commands divided responsibility for watching Africa. U.S. European Command oversaw most of sub-Saharan Africa; it tended to view Africa as an extension of former European colonial territories. U.S. Central Command, focused primarily on the Middle East, was responsible for the countries bordering on the Red Sea. The island of Madagascar was under U.S. Pacific Command, a seeming afterthought. The creation of the new command signaled a major foreign policy shift. Instead of dealing with Africa through dozens of embassies, the U.S. government could approach the continent through a powerful, unified military command.

A deadly July 2010 traffic incident involving State Department contractors led to violent street protests not far from the U.S. embassy in Kabul; every accidental shooting at a checkpoint or misdirected air strike further inflames the population and gives insurgents more fodder for propaganda. Supersizing our commitment only serves to undermine the mission in the long run. And there’s the question about whether we really even understand the long-term mission. A rich literature exists about the European colonial experience, but Americans seem to lack the same gift for self-scrutiny. In his 1936 autobiographical short story, “Shooting an Elephant,” George Orwell described his moment of awakening when he was serving as an imperial policeman in Burma. Standing in front of the elephant, rifle in hand, he realized the hollowness and futility of the European presence and of his role as an enforcer of colonial law.


pages: 393 words: 115,178

The Jakarta Method: Washington's Anticommunist Crusade and the Mass Murder Program That Shaped Our World by Vincent Bevins

Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Gini coefficient, income inequality, land reform, market fundamentalism, megacity, Nelson Mandela, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, union organizing

“Third” did not mean third-rate, but something more like the third and final act: the first group of rich white countries had their crack at creating the world, as did the second, and this was the new movement, full of energy and potential, just waiting to be unleashed. For much of the planet, the Third World was not just a category; it was a movement.11 In 1950, more than two-thirds of the world’s population lived in the Third World, and with few exceptions, these peoples had lived under the control of European colonialism.12 Some of these countries had managed to break free of imperial rule in the nineteenth century; some earned their independence when fascist forces retreated at the end of World War II; some attempted to do so in 1945, only to be re-invaded by First World armies; and for many others, the war had changed little, and they were still unfree. All of them inherited economies that were far, far poorer than those in the First World.

As the Japanese had, the Dutch employed mass violence to suppress support for the new republic. The independence leaders, a mix of nationalists, leftists, and Islamic groups, hopped around the archipelago, making alliances with local kingdoms and mounting resistance.7 In the middle of all this, in 1947, Francisca went to Holland to study in the small university town of Leiden. She attended the Royal Institute of Eastern Countries, set up to study European colonial possessions. Right away, she got involved in the Indonesian student organization, as almost everyone did. And right away, she met a man named Zain, five years her senior. She didn’t like him at first. She had considered herself “some kind of a feminist” from an early age, and had no intention of marrying, ever. She had seen that even the smartest, best-educated women in the Dutch East Indies never got to put to use all the wonderful things that they learned once they got married.


pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

One of the most remarkable examples was the huge resettlement of Sichuan province in the south-west, whose population had fallen to around half a million by 1681, but which reached 207 million in 1812 as a result of the movement of migrant-settlers, organized and orchestrated by the Qing dynasty.32 This process is still evident today, with the steady influx of Han migrants into Inner Mongolia, where they now constitute a very large majority, and into Tibet and Xinjiang, where they represent substantial minorities, possibly even a majority in the case of the latter. Resettlement has been a key tool in the process of Chinese expansion and Hanification. It is important, in this context, to distinguish between a land-based expansion like China’s and a maritime-based expansion such as those of the European empires of Britain and France. The European colonies never acquired any degree of permanence because, except in those cases where there was overwhelming white settlement, as for example in Australia and North America, it was impossible to assimilate races and cultures which, by virtue of place and distance, were entirely alien. This was quite different from China, which, because of its land-based expansion, always enjoyed the advantage of proximity, thereby enabling, if need be, the process of absorption and incorporation to take thousands of years.33 As a consequence, in terms of the consciousness of its multitudinous component groups, the Chinese empire is no longer an empire, except at its northern and especially north-western and western edges, with the population of these areas representing only 6 per cent of China’s total.34 China thus only confronts difference, for the most part, at its perimeter.

Though the proportion of China’s population who are internet users is far smaller than that in the United States, by 2008 the number of Chinese internet users had already overtaken the number of American users.29 Figure 44. Top ten internet languages, May 2008. Figure 45. World internet users, March 2008. THE CHINESE RACIAL ORDER For the last two centuries Caucasians have enjoyed a privileged position at the top of the global racial hierarchy. During the period of European colonial empires their pre-eminent position was frequently explained in terms of racial theories designed to show the inherent superiority of the white race. Since the mid twentieth century, with the defeat of Nazism followed by colonial liberation, such explicitly racial theories have been in retreat in most regions of the world and now enjoy only minority appeal in the West. Nonetheless, if such racial theories are no longer regarded for the most part as acceptable, there remains an implicit and omnipresent global racial pecking order, with whites invariably at the top.

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the table below gives a rough idea of the total size of the Chinese diaspora and the main countries where it resides. Chinese migration has a long history, dating back to the Ming dynasty in the case of South-East Asia. The global Chinese diaspora began in the nineteenth century, when there was a surplus of labour in the southern coastal provinces of China and Chinese workers were recruited for the European colonies, often as indentured labour. The biggest migratory movements were to South-East Asia, but the Chinese also went in large numbers during the second half of the nineteenth century to the United States, notably in search of gold and to build the railroads, and also to Australia and many other parts of the world including Europe and South Africa. Over the period 1844-88 alone over 2 million Chinese found their way to such diverse locations as the Malay Peninsula, Indochina, Sumatra, Java, the Philippines, Hawaii, the Caribbean, Mexico, Peru, California and Australia.


pages: 131 words: 41,052

Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century by Mark Leonard

Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, global reserve currency, invisible hand, knowledge economy, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, one-China policy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pension reform, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, shareholder value, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus

The 1980s saw remarkable levels of nail-biting and hand-wringing within the USA over the rise of Japan and its putative takeover of the commanding heights of the US economy. European investment in the USA now easily surpasses that of Japan, yet it barely merits a mention in American analysts’ dissections of European weakness. The most obvious reason for Europe’s invisibility abroad is the dark episode of European colonial history that means there is a real reluctance in Europe to adopt the trappings of empire. But there is a deeper reason for this respect for local cultures. The European vision has never aimed to establish a single model of human progress: it is about allowing diverse and competing cultures to live together in peace. This was captured most dramatically when the Northern Irish politician John Hume was given the Nobel Peace Prize.


pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

In 1941 there were a million Europeans in Algeria, a number similar to the total indigenous population at the time of the French invasion just over a century earlier. Yet by this time the Muslims had expanded in number to 6.5 million.11 The impact of imperialism on the region is today still widely resented, and with justification, just as is the far longer-lasting impact of the Ottoman Empire on the Balkans. But the demographic effect of European colonialism was to stimulate a population explosion among the local people which was ultimately to prove the grave-digger of colonialism, creating demographic circumstances that made continuing European domination impossible. In the twenty-first century there are barely any Europeans left in Algeria while France has a significant North African population. This is not the demographic outcome which would have been expected at the time of France’s occupation, when Europeans still seemed all-conquering.

., 112, 117, 119, 120; Race Suicide, 119 McCoppin, Frank, 41 McCormick, Katharine Dexter, 139 MacDonald, Ramsay, 90 Macedonia: average age, 16 Malaysia: ethnic Chinese fertility rate, 217 Malthus, Thomas: on China, 212; on conditions in USA, 65–6; on indigenous people, 59; Marx on, 174; on population growth and food supply, 11, 44–5, 52–3, 112, 131–2, 198; urges restraint and late marriage, 74; An Essay on the Principle of Population, 43–4, 129 Manchukuo, 202 Mandela, Nelson, 63 Manstein, General Fritz Erich von, 128 Mao Zedong, 213–15 Maoris, 61 Margaret Rose, Princess, 12 Marx, Karl, 122, 174 Marxism, 213, 218 May, Theresa, 151 Mbeki, Thabo, 268 median age: global rise, 274–6 Meinecke, Friedrich, 69, 93 Meir, Golda, 142 Merkel, Angela, 142, 159 Mexico: demographic pattern, 260; immigrants in USA, 153–6, 260–1; migrants leave USA, 17, 260–1; standard of living improvement, 261; USA annexes north, 57, 65–6, 68 Middle East: educational backwardness, 238–9; European imperialism in, 226; fertility rates, 230, 241; instability, 224, 226, 236–7, 241–3; League of Nations mandates, 228; median age, 225; misogyny, 239; peace prospects, 254; population growth, 239; prospective rise to power, 163; transition in, 229, 231; water supply, 239 migration: effect on demography, 17, 29, 108 Miliband, Ed, 111 military power: and numerical advantage, 18–20 modernisation (economic): and fertility rates and life expectancy, 22–3 Modi, Narendra, 264 Moldova, 191, 279 Money, Sir Leo Chiozza, 120 Morocco: fertility rate, 23, 249, 254; Jewish population, 248 mortality rate see death rate Moscow: Muslim population, 185–6 Mosley, Lady Cynthia, 75 Mubarak, Hosni, 224 Muslims: Bosnian, 189–90; fertility rates, 231, 234, 264; numbers, 245; refugees in Ottoman Empire, 226–7; in Russia, 171–2, 175, 185–6; in South Asia, 262–3; women’s status, 233, 238, 244 Mussolini, Benito, 124 Nagasaki, 211 Nagorno-Karabakh, 177 Napoleon I (Bonaparte), Emperor of the French, 19–20, 50, 79 National Birth Rate Commission (Britain), 90 National Council for Public Morals (Britain), 90 Nazis: murders by, 122; population policy, 125 New Zealand: baby boom, 136; European population and colonisation, 13, 46–7, 58–9, 61, 63; fertility rate, 144; food production, 61; immigrants, 156; low population increase, 119; non-Europeans excluded, 117–18 Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia, 195 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 45 Nigeria: fertility rate, 270; population trend, 14, 272; urbanisation, 172 Nixon, Richard M., 142 North Africa: European colonialism in, 227–8; famine (1866–8), 229; infant mortality falls, 230; instability, 224, 236–7, 242–3; population growth, 230; transition in, 229 Northern Ireland: Catholic minority, 27 Notestein, Frank, 132, 135 Novikov, Aleksey, 195 Obama, Barack, 25, 155 oil: in Middle East, 235 Okie, Howard Pitcher: America and the German Peril, 92 Opium Wars (China–Britain), 210 Orthodox religion: distribution and demographic patterns, 186–7, 190 Orwell, George: on the poor, 149; Burmese Days, 126 Oryol (Imperial Russian battleship), 195 Oslo Accord (Israel–Palestinian), 252 Ottoman Empire: in Balkans, 228; demographic data, 226–7; immigration, 227; population, 227 Pakistan: birth rate, 231; Deobandi opponents of birth control, 232; fertility rate, 262–3; immigrants in UK, 157–8; life expectancy, 181, 265 Palestinians: conflict with Israel, 239, 245–7; fertility rate, 250–2, 271; increasing median age, 253; life expectancy, 250; population increase, 249–50, 253 Pasteur, Louis, 73 pensions (old age), 152, 276 Pevsner, Nikolaus, 111 Philippines: median age, 276 Phillips, John, 3 Pill, the see contraceptive pill Pincus, Gregory, 139 plague: reduced in England, 48; see also Black Death Plus Grande Famille, La (French society), 121 Poland: Germans settle in, 125–6; immigrants in France, 110; median age, 275; migrants in France, 121; transition to capitalism, 189 poor, the: conditions, 149–50 population: and ethnicity, 112–13; and historical change, 7, 9–10; and international tensions, 94; post-First World War increase, 102–3; and racial quality, 112–15; stabilisation and ‘demographic transition’, 111, 132 potato: as staple in Ireland, 52 Protestants: fertility rates, 142, 146 Puerto Rico: fertility rate, 269; median age, 275 Putin, Vladimir, 178, 183 Qaida, al-, 142 Qatar: high per capita income, 237; immigration and population growth, 235 Quebec: French in, 60; high fertility rate, 136; independence movement, 26 Quiverfull movement (USA), 143 Quran, Holy, 232 race see ethnicity racism, 112–19, 121 Ransome, Stafford, 200 Reich, Emil: Germany’s Swelled Head, 91, 92 religion: diversity in South Asia, 360 Remennick, Larissa, 251 retirement: age and pensions, 152 Rhodes, Cecil, 68, 70, 127 Riezler, Kurt, 94 Robertson, John Mackinnon, 91 Rohrbach, Paul, 92 Roman Empire: population, 12 Romania: ethnic Hungarians in, 28; fertility rate, 187–8; population changes, 188 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 102 Roosevelt, Theodore (‘Teddy’), 111–12 Roses, Wars of the, 43 Rubio, Marco, 156 Rumbold, Joan, 3, 5, 8 rural life: historic conditions, 4 Russia (and Soviet Union): abortion legalised under Communists, 123, 168, 259; abortion rates reduced after Soviet era, 180; ageing leadership, 164–5; alcoholism, 180–1; anti-natalism, 178; childbearing age, 179; childless and single-child women, 179; deaths from diseases, 181; deaths from wars, famines and purges, 168–9; defeated by Japan (1904–5), 162, 195–6, 201; demographic transition, 167; ethnic Germans emigrate to Germany, 184; ethnic and regional differences, 170–2, 175–7, 184–5; fall in child death rates, 17, 171; female education, 167; fertility rates, 105–6, 123–4, 167, 178–80, 182–3, 207, 230–1; German fear of, 93–4, 98; industrial development, 93; influx of central Asians into towns and cities, 185; internal food supply, 96; Jewish emigrants to Israel, 170, 184, 248; life expectancy changes, 107, 169, 180–1, 207; little immigration and emigration, 170; male–female life expectancy differences, 283; median age, 166, 182, 185; migration to Siberia, 96; migration to USA, 77; Muslim population, 171–2, 175, 184–6, 227; population expansion, 69, 84–5, 93–4, 98, 104, 119, 168–9; population fall since Soviet period, 182, 207; post-war population growth rate, 169; as potential threat to Britain, 83; Putin proposes demographic changes, 184; remoteness of interior, 76; rise to power, 83–4, 127, 129, 163–5; rivalry with Anglo-Saxons, 71; Second World War with Germany, 127–8; Soviet collapse, 176–8; Soviet planned society and state control, 173–4; Soviet policy on population, 122–4; status of ethnic Russians/Slavs, 171–5, 177, 184–5; suicide rate, 181; under Bolshevik regime, 166–7; unrest in Caucasus, 177; urbanisation, 167, 170; war in Afghanistan, 165–6; wartime casualties and losses (1941–5), 204; women in workforce, 174 Russo–Japanese War (1904–5), 162, 195–6, 201 Rwanda: genocide (1994), 8; growing economy, 271 Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 224 San Francisco: population growth, 41 Sanger, Margaret, 139 Saudi Arabia: family size, 230; fertility rates, 235; immigrants, 235; oil resources, 235; status of women, 239, 244 Sauvy, Alfred, 112 Scandinavia: falling fertility rate, 144; out-of-marriage births, 146; small populations, 95 Scotland: migration to England, 46; population growth, 51, 59 Second World War: and Hitler’s obsession with population, 101; and war in Russia, 127–8 secularisation, 142 Seeley, J.


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The Desert and the Sea: 977 Days Captive on the Somali Pirate Coast by Michael Scott Moore

Albert Einstein, British Empire, clean water, Columbine, drone strike, European colonialism, Filipino sailors, fixed income, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Nelson Mandela, South China Sea, UNCLOS

He boasted about commando training in Pakistan, too, and that seemed more plausible. He might have learned some English there. In any case, he was handy with a weapon, which suggested training, and he liked the word askari, which elevated his self-esteem. The word had an odd resonance, because in East African countries once under the colonial heel of the Italians or the British or the Germans, askari used to refer to local soldiers trained by a European colonial power. Gerlach had used it as an epithet, something like “Uncle Tom.” But for Bashko it just meant “soldier,” which sounded better than “thief.” Bashko and Abdinasser both mimicked my yoga poses like housewives watching a weight-loss video. Through these improvised classes they became my “sahibs” in the Pirate Villa. Whenever I needed something, they were the guys to ask. Bashko, in particular, kept my hope alive with rumors of negotiations.

Rage remained my natural element in Galkayo, so forgiveness was elusive. Mandela had noted in his autobiography that white South African lawyers and judges under apartheid considered him a “kaffir lawyer.” Kaffir is a nasty term in Afrikaans, close to nigger or coon; it derived from the Muslim slave trade. Arab traders used it to refer to non-Muslim African slaves, people it was halal to capture. The word had spread through European colonies in Africa as an epithet for slaves as early as the 1600s. I couldn’t compare my situation to Mandela’s—he’d suffered for the color of his skin over the better part of the twentieth century, without even leaving his country—but while I lived in Somalia, the label for me was galo, kafir, infidel, and in that sense I noticed a parallel. Forgiveness for Mandela meant putting down a great deal of pride.


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The Hundred Years' War on Palestine: A History of Settler Colonialism and Resistance, 1917–2017 by Rashid Khalidi

Bernie Sanders, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Kickstarter, mass immigration, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

It could not be otherwise, for as Jabotinsky stressed, only the British had the means to wage the colonial war that was necessary to suppress Palestinian resistance to the takeover of their country. This war has continued since then, waged sometimes overtly and sometimes covertly, but invariably with the tacit or overt approval, and often the direct involvement, of the leading powers of the day and the sanction of the international bodies they dominated, the League of Nations and the United Nations. Today, the conflict that was engendered by this classic nineteenth-century European colonial venture in a non-European land, supported from 1917 onward by the greatest Western imperial power of its age, is rarely described in such unvarnished terms. Indeed, those who analyze not only Israeli settlement efforts in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the occupied Syrian Golan Heights, but the entire Zionist enterprise from the perspective of its colonial settler origins and nature are often vilified.

As newspapers like Filastin and al-Karmil reveal, this identity included love of country, a desire to improve society, religious attachment to Palestine, and opposition to European control. After the war, the focus on Palestine as a central locus of identity drew strength from widespread frustration at the blocking of Arab aspirations in Syria and elsewhere as the Middle East became suffocatingly dominated by the European colonial powers. This identity is thus comparable to the other Arab nation-state identities that emerged around the same time in Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. The al-Khalidi family, Tal al-Rish, circa 1930: Top row from left: Ismail (the author’s father), Ya‘coub, Hasan (holding Samira), Husayn (holding Leila), Ghalib. Middle row: ‘Anbara, Walid, Um Hasan (the author’s grandmother), Sulafa, Hajj Raghib (his grandfather), Nash’at, Ikram.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Thousands of Chinese families, too, elected to escape adversity by migrating overseas. Many, especially from the mountainous southeastern provinces, left for the Philippines and Southeast Asia, either as settlers or to ‘service’ the European colonies there. By 1700 some 20,000 Chinese lived in a special suburb of Manila known as the Parián (and its population would have been much larger but for the periodic massacres carried out by the Spaniards and their Filipino allies); and several thousand more lived in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became a ‘Chinese colonial town under Dutch protection’.67 The establishment of European colonies on Taiwan after 1624 created another opportunity for Chinese ‘co-colonization’. Almost immediately, the governor of Fujian province allowed ‘several tens of thousands’ of those destitute through famine to migrate to the lands around the main Dutch settlement, providing each person with three taels of silver and every family with a cow.

The summer of 1642 was the 28th coldest, and that of 1643 the 10th coldest, recorded in the northern hemisphere over the past six centuries; while the winter of 1649–50 seems to have been the coldest on record in both northern and eastern China. Abnormal climatic conditions lasted from the 1640s until the 1690s – the longest as well as the most severe episode of global cooling recorded in the entire Holocene Era – leading climatologists to dub this period ‘The Little Ice Age’.15 1. The Global Crisis. Although Europe and East Asia formed the heartland of the ‘General Crisis’, the Mughal and Ottoman empires, like the European colonies in America, also experienced episodes of severe political disruption in the mid-seventeenth century. This volume seeks to link the climatologists’ Little Ice Age with the historians’ General Crisis – and to do so without ‘painting bull's eyes around bullet holes’: without arguing that global cooling ‘must’ have somehow caused recession and revolution around the world simply because climate change is the only plausible common denominator.

Chapter 12 examines the consequences of the prolonged wars and multiple regime changes in the three kingdoms between 1642 and 1660, including the first formulation of democratic principles now regarded as central to Western society; the attempts by the central government to overthrow them between 1660 and 1688; and their limited resurrection after the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688–9. Part III considers two categories of ‘exception’ to this pattern: those areas where at least part of the population apparently emerged from the seventeenth-century trauma relatively unscathed (some European colonies in America; South and Southeast Asia; Japan); and those regions where the impact of the Little Ice Age remains ambiguous (the Great Plains of North America; Sub-Saharan Africa; Australia). Within the first category, in Mughal India and some of its neighbours, abundant resources enabled the state to ride out the crisis (chapter 13); while in Spanish Italy, the government managed to overcome major rebellions by making major concessions (chapter 14).


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The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 by Paul Kennedy

agricultural Revolution, airline deregulation, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, industrial robot, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, long peace, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, oil shock, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, zero-sum game

To the Twenty-first Century History and Speculation China’s Balancing Act The Japanese Dilemma The EEC—Potential and Problems The Soviet Union and Its “Contradictions” The United States: The Problem of Number One in Relative Decline Epilogue Notes Bibliography About the Author Other Books by This Author Also by Paul Kennedy Maps 1. World Power Centers in the Sixteenth Century 2. The Political Divisions of Europe in the Sixteenth Century 3. Charles V’s Inheritance, 15194 4. The Collapse of Spanish Power in Europe 5. Europe in 1721 6. European Colonial Empires, c. 1750 7. Europe at the Height of Napoleon’s Power, 1810 8. The Chief Possessions, Naval Bases, and Submarine Cables of the British Empire, c. 1900 9. The European Powers and Their War Plans in 1914 10. Europe After the First World War 11. Europe at the Height of Hitler’s Power, 1942 12. Worldwide U.S. Force Deployments, 1987 Tables & Charts TABLES 1.

Here, too, one can detect precedents prior to 1914, such as Arabi Pasha’s revolt in Egypt, the young Turks’ breakthrough after 1908, Tilak’s attempts to radicalize the Indian Congress movement, and Sun Yat-sen’s campaign against western dominance in China; by the same token, historians have noted how events such as the Japanese defeat of Russia in 1905 and the abortive Russian revolution of that same year fascinated and electrified proto-nationalist forces elsewhere in Asia and the Middle East.26 Ironically, yet predictably, the more that colonialism penetrated underdeveloped societies, drew them into a global network of trade and finance, and brought them into contact with western ideas, the more this provoked an indigenous reaction; whether it came in the form of tribal unrest against restrictions upon their traditional patterns of life and trade or, more significantly, in the form of western-educated lawyers and intellectuals seeking to create mass parties and campaigning for national self-determination, the result was an increasing challenge to European colonial controls. The First World War accelerated these trends in all sorts of ways. In the first place, the intensified economic exploitation of the raw materials in the tropics and the attempts to make the colonies contribute—both with manpower and with taxes—to the metropolitan powers’ war effort inevitably caused questions to be asked about “compensation,” just as it was doing among the working classes of Europe.27 Furthermore, the campaigning in West, Southwest, and East Africa, in the Near East, and in the Pacific raised questions about the viability and permanence of colonial empires in general—a tendency reinforced by Allied propaganda about “national self-determination” and “democracy,” and German counterpropaganda activities toward the Maghreb, Ireland, Egypt, and India.

Such unity had already been made redundant by the entry into the Great Power club of the Japanese, some of whose thinkers were beginning to articulate notions of an East Asian “co-prosperity sphere” as early as 1919.29 And it was overtaken altogether by the coming of the two versions of the “new diplomacy” proposed by Lenin and Wilson—for whatever the political differences between those charismatic leaders, they had in common a dislike of the old European colonial order and a desire to transform it into something else. Neither of them, for a variety of reasons, could prevent the further extension of that colonial order under the League mandates; but their rhetoric and influence seeped across imperial demarcation zones and interacted with the mobilization of indigenous nationalists. This was evident in China by the late 1920s, where the old European order of treaty privileges, commercial penetration, and occasional gunboat actions was beginning to lose ground to competing alternative “orders” proposed by Russia, the United States, and Japan, and to wilt in the face of the resurgent Chinese nationalism.30 This did not mean that western colonialism was about to collapse.


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The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Columbian Exchange, correlation coefficient, double helix, Drosophila, European colonialism, invention of gunpowder, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, longitudinal study, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the scientific method, trade route

Ironically, though, our cultural diversity has plunged even as our numbers have soared. To anyone who has not been to New Guinea, the long concealment of 50,000 people there seems incomprehensible. After all, the Grand Valley lies only 115 miles from both New Guinea's north coast and its south coast. Europeans discovered New Guinea in 1526, Dutch missionaries took up residence in 1852, and European colonial governments were established in 1884. Why did it take another fifty-four years to find the Grand Valley? The answers—terrain, food, and porters—become obvious as soon as one sets foot in New Guinea and tries to walk away from an established trail. Swamps in the lowlands, endless series of knife-edge ridges in the mountains, and jungle that covers everything reduce one's progress to a few miles per day under the best conditions.

Geography's role in determining our modern political history is even more obvious than the role I have discussed in determining the rate at which we domesticate plants and animals. From this perspective, it is almost funny to read that half of all American schoolchildren do not know where Panama is, but not at all funny when politicians display comparable ignorance. Among the many notorious examples of disasters brought on by politicians ignorant of geography, two must suffice: the unnatural boundaries drawn on the map of Africa by nineteenth-century European colonial powers, thereby undermining the stability of some modern African states that inherited those borders; and the borders of Eastern Europe drawn at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 by politicians who knew little of that region, thereby helping to fuel the Second World War. Geography used to be a required subject in US schools and colleges until a few decades ago, when it began to be dropped from many curricula.


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Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game

Even more extensive and no less profitable was Portugal’s empire, which spread outwards from the Atlantic islands of Madeira and São Tomé to include the vast territory of Brazil and numerous trading outposts in West Africa, Indonesia, India and even China. In 1493 the Pope had issued a bull allocating trade in the Americas to Spain and trade in Asia to Portugal. In this division of the world, the Portuguese had got the sugar, spices and slaves. But what the English envied most was what the Spanish discovered in America: gold and silver. European colonial empires c. 1750 Since the time of Henry VII, Englishmen had dreamt of finding an ‘El Dorado’ of their own, in the hope that England too could become rich on American metals. Time and again they had drawn a blank. The best they could ever manage was to exploit their skills as sailors to steal gold from Spanish ships and settlements. As early as March 1496, in a move clearly inspired by Columbus’s discovery of America on behalf of the Spanish crown three years before, Henry VII granted letters patent to the Venetian navigator John Cabot, giving him and his sons full and free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea [not the southern sea, to avoid conflict with Spanish discoveries], under our banners, flags and ensigns … to find discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions or provinces of heathens or infidels, in whatsoever part of the world placed, which before this time were unknown to all Christians … [and to] conquer, occupy and possess whatsoever such towns, castles, cities and islands by them thus discovered that they may be able to conquer, occupy and possess, as our vassals and governors lieutenants and deputies therein, acquiring for us the dominion, title and jurisdiction of the same towns, castles, cities, islands and mainlands so discovered … The English sense of empire envy only grew more acute after the Reformation, when proponents of war against Catholic Spain began to argue that England had a religious duty to build a Protestant empire to match the ‘Popish’ empires of the Spanish and Portuguese.

We should also remember the quality of Russian rule in Poland, the Ireland of Central Europe; and in the Caucasus, where it extended as far as Batum on the Black Sea and Astara on the Caspian Sea; in the Central Asian provinces of Turkestan and Turkmenia; and in the Far East, where the new Trans-Siberian Railway conveyed the Tsar’s writ all the way to Vladivostok and finally into Manchuria. To be sure, there were resemblances between Russian colonization of the steppe and the roughly contemporaneous colonization of the American prairies. But there were differences too. In their European colonies the Russians pursued aggressive policies of ‘russification’; coercion of the Poles was increasing at a time when the British were debating Home Rule for Ireland. In Central Asia, resistance to Russian colonization was dealt with uncompromisingly; a revolt by Muslims in Samarkand and Semirechie in 1916 was bloodily suppressed and the rebel death toll may have reached hundreds of thousands. Yet all this would pale into insignificance alongside the crimes of the Russian, Japanese, German and Italian empires in the 1930s and 1940s.


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Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade

In the sixteenth century, Spanish settlers in South America discovered that local indigenous people had, for hundreds of years, been using powdered cinchona bark as a treatment for fevers, and it seems that Jesuit priests first introduced the wonder bark to Spain. By 1630 regular shipments were being sent from Peru to Spain, from whence it was traded to other European countries. Word spread and the demand grew. By the early 1800s cinchona bark was seen as essential for the health of all those administering the European colonies in tropical areas around the world. As all this bark came from trees growing in the wild, it soon became impossible to meet the constantly increasing need for the bark, and prices soared. Finally, in 1820, two French chemists were able to extract, from the bark, an alkaloid that had antimalarial properties; they named it “quinine.” But even though quinine soon became commercially available, demand for the complete, natural cinchona bark continued, and in the mid-1850s, Peru and Bolivia tried to retain their monopoly on the export of cinchona seeds and seedlings.

However, in order to be economically successful, the colonial invaders needed plentiful supplies of cheap labor—and it was this that led to the transatlantic slave trade. The first African slaves were traded by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, and during the following four hundred years or so an estimated 12.5 million people were abducted from their homes, mainly from West and Central Africa, and shipped to the European colonies. Most were forced to work on the plantations. And those plantations not only led to massive human suffering but were (and still are) extremely damaging to the environment. Large areas of land are cleared, trees felled, fertilizers (chemical today) added to the soil, and monocultures established. Very often plantation crops are greedy for water, and this has often meant severe depletion of natural supplies.


The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly

airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

The figure below shows indeed that the minority European settlements were richer than the average of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States in 1820; the latter were democratic places with a large majority of the population European. However, these democratic countries dramatically outperformed the economies of oligarchy over the next two centuries. As Acemoglu predicted, oligarchy can perform well for a while, but tends to stagnate eventually. The Bolivian example given at the beginning of this chapter fits the pattern of oligarchy and stagnation. Fig. 14. Minority European Versus Mostly European Colonies Illiberal Democracy Fareed Zakaria, in his 2003 book, The Future of Freedom, has brought to wide attention the idea of “illiberal democracy.” Why do democracies sometimes produce awful government despite free elections? A big problem with democracy and development, particularly with uneducated voters, is that the politicians could appeal to voters’ gut instincts of hatred, fear, nationalism, or racism to win elections.

They are imperfect as a test of colonialism because these areas were not chosen randomly—they wound up that way because of factors that influenced their social evolution. There was also some degree of European control in some of these territories, like the infamous European enclaves in China. Korea and Taiwan did spend some part of the twentieth century as colonies of Japan. I compare the non-colonies to European colonies that were not settled by Europeans. The colonies settled by Europeans are a special case, discussed in an earlier chapter. The non-settlement colonies are a more natural experiment of European intervention from afar. The non-colonies had more rapid increases in secondary education from 1960 to 2001. Growth per capita from 1950 to 2001 was 1.7 percentage points higher in the non-colonies than the non-settlement colonies, a huge difference for a fifty-one-year period.


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

The mariner Zheng He, among others, passed through Surabaya, Palembang, and other Southeast Asian ports during his seven voyages to the region between 1405 and 1433.2 124 chapter 6 From the earliest days of China’s interaction with Southeast Asia, overseas Chinese (haiwai huaren) have been a central part of the equation—building cultural bridges, but often stirring antipathies and fears as well. The first wave came as merchants arrived, becoming central figures in such trading centers as Palembang and Surabaya in the course of the fourteenth century, although they were largely assimilated into the local population over the following two hundred years.3 The second and most numerous wave of migration arrived in Southeast Asia at the high tide of European colonialism during the late nineteenth century, with many being driven from China by the poverty and ruin caused by the Taiping rebellion (1850 –1864). In Southeast Asia, the Dutch, French, and British colonizers used these new migrants not only as laborers on plantations but often also as tax collectors and low-level administrators of colonial rule. This socially complex work earned them not only modest wealth but also frequently the enmity of indigenous populations such as the pribumi of Indonesia.

The first was a ­foreign-investment park in Suzhou; others dealt with city planning (Tianjin), environmental management (Guangzhou), and Internet of Things (Chongqing).63 In Conclusion Southeast Asia has broad historical and economic relations with other parts of Eurasia, including both Europe and Japan, but with a deepening recent China concentration. All of the Southeast Asian nations except Thailand were once European colonies; virtually all were occupied by Japan as well; and Vietnam, with the most complex foreign ties, also had deep Cold War ties links to the Soviet Union, as well as to the United States. The geographical and economic fulcrum for Southeast Asia’s continental ties, however, has almost invariably in recent years been China—the formidable geo-economic presence looming to the north. China’s relations with Southeast Asia are venerable, dating back to the Han period.


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Collapse by Jared Diamond

clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

In Haiti, more urgent than any of those just-mentioned consequences is the problem of the loss of wood for making charcoal, Haiti's main fuel for cooking. The difference in forest cover between the two countries is paralleled by differences in their economies. Both Haiti and the Dominican Republic are poor countries, suffering from the usual disadvantages of most of the world's other tropical countries that were former European colonies: corrupt or weak governments, serious problems of public health, and lower agricultural productivity than in the temperate zones. On all those counts, though, Haiti's difficulties are much more serious than those of the Dominican Republic. It is the poorest country in the New World, and one of the poorest in the world outside of Africa. Its perennially corrupt government offers minimal public services; much or most of the population lives chronically or periodically without public electricity, water, sewage, medical care, and schooling.

Of course the system also suffers from an abundance of problems and a deficiency of funding, but it is nevertheless impressive for a poor country with other problems and priorities. Behind the reserve system stands a vigorous indigenous conservation movement with many non-governmental organizations staffed by Dominicans themselves, rather than foisted on the country by foreign advisors. All those dissimilarities in forest cover, economy, and natural reserve system arose despite the fact that the two countries share the same island. They also share histories of European colonialism and American occupations, overwhelmingly Catholic religion coexisting with a voodoo pantheon (more notably in Haiti), and mixed African-European ancestry (with a higher proportion of African ancestry in Haiti). For three periods of their history they were joined as a single colony or country. The differences that exist despite those similarities become even more striking when one reflects that Haiti used to be much richer and more powerful than its neighbor.

During the 1700s the Spanish colony had a low population, few slaves, and a small economy based on raising cattle and selling their hides, while the French colony had a much larger population, more slaves (700,000 in 1785, compared to only 30,000 in the Spanish part), a proportionately much lower non-slave population (only 10% compared to 85%), and an economy based on sugar plantations. French Saint-Domingue, as it was called, became the richest European colony in the New World and contributed one-quarter of France's wealth. In 1795, Spain finally ceded its no-longer-valuable eastern part of the island to France, so that Hispaniola became briefly unified under France. After a slave rebellion broke out in French Saint-Domingue in 1791 and 1801, the French sent an army that was defeated by the slave army plus the effects of heavy losses to diseases.


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Escape From Rome: The Failure of Empire and the Road to Prosperity by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, disruptive innovation, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, mandelbrot fractal, means of production, Network effects, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, secular stagnation, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Casale 2010: 114–15, 119–20, 138, 155 on the viziers and their downfall, 163, 177–79 on the shift to Yemen, and 87–88, 114–19, 155–56, 162–63, 182–83 on the “Indian Ocean faction” at the Ottoman court. 69. Ibid., 182–83 (shift to private trade), 199–202 (crisis and losses), 202–3 (quote). For the crisis, see chapter 6 in this volume. 70. Wallerstein 1974: 60 (quote). 71. Abernethy 2000: 173–273, on which I draw in the following, remains the most compelling account of the causes of European colonial expansion. 72. Ibid., 206–8 (quote: 208), and more generally 192–253 for the central role of competitive fragmentation. Cf. also Chirot 1985: 192. Logic: Vries 2015: 382. 73. Constraints on expansion: Abernethy 2000: 184; Rosenthal and Wong 2011: 217. Extension: Vries 2015: 381. Contrasts: Abernethy 2000: 212–13, who speculates that a fragmented China might have behaved differently. Readiness: Wickham 2016: 232. 74.

The making of the middle sea: A history of the Mediterranean from the beginning to the emergence of the classical world. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brown, Peter. 2003. The rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and diversity, A.D. 200–1000. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Brunt, Peter A. 1987. Italian manpower 225 B.C.–A.D. 14. Reprint with postscript. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bryant, Joseph M. 2006. “The West and the rest revisited: Debating capitalist origins, European colonialism, and the advent of modernity.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 31: 403–44. Bryant, Joseph M. 2008. “A new sociology for a new history? Further critical thoughts on the Eurasian similarity and great divergences theses.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 33: 149–67. Bulliet, Richard W. 2009. Cotton, climate, and camels in early Islamic Iran: A moment in world history. New York: Columbia University Press.

See also counterfactual scenario for overseas exploration; specific mega-regions and countries German empire, 164–73, 167; ability to sustain empire of, 12, 35, 172; aristocracy in, 213, 241; castle construction in, 169; church’s role in and relationship with, 171, 346, 347, 512; compared to China, 562n30; compared to Roman empire, 213; ducal elites in, 168–69, 241; failure to expand, 166, 168, 172–73; fragmentation into quasi-polities, 169, 228; governance in, 350; integrity of ruling class in, 214; internal conflicts in (1025 to 1142), 165; land given in exchange for loyalty and military service in, 235, 238, 240–41, 562n30; Magyar raids into (tenth century), 187, 293–94; military controlled by nobles in, 169–70, 237–38, 244, 245; no standing armies in, 238; weak central power coupled with fiscal constraints in, 169–70, 214; zones of armed conflict in, 168 Germanic languages, 311–12 Germany: position in Holy Roman Empire, 195; Protestants in, 196, 197. See also Holy Roman Empire; Prussia “getting to Denmark,” 19, 539n26 Ghaznavids, 296, 301 ghost acreages, 424–25, 426–27, 588n12, 589n19, 589n21 Gibbon, Edward, 18, 128, 131, 149 Glahn, Richard von, 401, 412 globalization: criticism of and response to, 425–28; European colonial reach, 420–25, 452. See also maritime exploration and expansion; New World Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 18 Goffart, Walter, 236 Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, 183–85, 188–89, 213, 292 Goldscheid, Rudolf, 232 Goldstone, Jack, 208–10, 497, 560n16, 586n216, 595n38, 596n44, 597n68, 598n76 Goths and Gothic language, 311–12 Grainger, John D., 550n14 Great Divergence. See First Great Divergence (mid-first-millennium Europe); Second Great Divergence Great Escape: British leading the way in, 363, 501; escape simile, 537n1, 539n26; Roman legacy and, 510–26; Second Industrial Revolution’s effect, 17; significance of, 1, 8, 27, 502; values at center of modernization and, 489 Greek city-states, 52, 56, 58, 91, 93, 95, 100, 103, 109; in counterfactual to Roman empire, 113–14, 121, 522, 553n7; maritime exploration by, 430; troop numbers for, 554n18 Greek language, 311, 522–23, 573nn5–6, 601n39 Greek mathematics, 524, 601n42 Gregory VII (pope), 165, 347 Gregory IX (pope), 176 Greif, Avner, 585n199 guilds, 352–54, 361, 382, 450, 496, 509 Gungwu, Wang, 444 gunpowder, 182, 200, 399, 452, 453, 558n20 Gupta empire, 40, 219, 295, 432 Guyuk (Mongol ruler), 175, 178, 183, 186, 188 Habsburgs (sixteenth century), 192–204; compared to Roman empire, 213; counterfactual scenario for, 12, 200–201, 215, 512–13, 559n55; failure to subdue Europe, 496; geopolitical dynamics in, 212, 421; integrity of ruling class in, 214; Napoleon and, 18.


pages: 196 words: 54,339

Team Human by Douglas Rushkoff

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, gig economy, Google bus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, invisible hand, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, patient HM, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Vannevar Bush, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Our local peer-to-peer interactions, solidarity, and collective concerns were replaced by a large-scale, abstracted democratic process that couldn’t help but become more like the expression of brand affinities than of human needs. We became individuals voting our personal preferences in the seclusion of a booth, rather than groups expressing their solidarity through collaboration. This same process continues to this day. What the British East India Company, European colonial empires, and modern transnational corporations did to cooperative peoples of the world, today’s digital companies are doing to us: disconnecting us from the ground on which we stand, the communities where we live, and the people with whom we conspire. To conspire literally means to “breathe together”—something that any group of people meeting together in real space is already doing. This is why we must reclaim terra firma, the city, and the physical communities where this can happen.


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

Traveling with Eritrean guerrillas in what, according to the map, was northern Ethi­ opia, traveling in "northern Iraq" with Kurdish guerrillas, and staying in a hotel in the Caucasus controlled by a local mafia— to say nothing of my experiences in West Africa—led me to de­ velop a healthy skepticism toward maps, which, I began to realize, create a conceptual barrier that prevents us from com­ prehending the political crack-up just beginning to occur worldwide. Consider the map of the world, with its 190 or so countries, each signified by a bold and uniform color: this map, with which all of us have grown up, is generally an invention of modernism, specifically of European colonialism. Modernism, in the sense of which I speak, began with the rise of nationstates in Europe and was confirmed by the death of feudalism at the end of the Thirty Years' War—an event that was inter­ posed between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, which together gave birth to modern science. People were suddenly flush with an enthusiasm to categorize, to define. The map, THE COMING ANARCHY / 39 based on scientific techniques of measurement, offered a way to classify new national organisms, making a jigsaw puzzle of neat pieces without transition zones between them.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

By the eve of the First World War typhoid and cholera had effectively been eliminated in Europe as a result of improvements in public health and sanitation, while diphtheria and tetanus were controlled by vaccine. In the twenty-three modern Asian countries for which data are available, with one exception, the health transition came between the 1890s and the 1950s. In Africa it came between the 1920s and the 1950s, with just two exceptions out of forty-three countries. In nearly all Asian and African countries, then, life expectancy began to improve before the end of European colonial rule. Indeed, the rate of improvement in Africa has declined since independence, especially but not exclusively because of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. It is also noteworthy that Latin American countries did not fare any better, despite enjoying political independence from the early 1800s.8 The timing of the improvement in life expectancy is especially striking as much of it predated the introduction of antibiotics (not least streptomycin as a cure for tuberculosis), the insecticide DDT and vaccines other than the simple ones for smallpox and yellow fever invented in the imperial era (see below).

But in Africa the rates of infant mortality and premature death were appallingly high. Life expectancy in mid-nineteenth-century Senegal was probably in the low to mid-twenties.51 So Africa was to be the ultimate testing ground for the fourth killer application of Western civilization: the power of modern medicine to prolong human life. MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES Not for nothing was West Africa known as the white man’s graveyard: all over Africa the European colonial project ran the risk of being snuffed out in its infancy. A good illustration of the risks Europeans ran in Africa is the monument on Gorée Island to the twenty-one French doctors who perished in a yellow-fever outbreak in 1878. Tropical diseases took a heavy toll on the French colonial civil service; between 1887 and 1912, a total of 135 out of 984 appointees (16 per cent) died in the colonies.


pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower

anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

As one of the major Japanese newspapers put it after the battle of Iwo Jima, “Enemy plans to wipe Japan and the Japanese people off the face of the earth are no propaganda manifestations.”70 One of the more provocative diversions in doing military history involves imagining things that did not happen, and there are several such hypothetical possibilities that attract students of the war in Asia. What if the Japanese had attacked only the British and European colonies in Southeast Asia, for example, or had been detected en route to Pearl Harbor? What if the U.S. aircraft carriers had been at the Hawaii anchorage as expected, or the Japanese had followed up with a further wave of attacks that included targets such as the fuel storage tanks? Suppose Hitler had not declared war against the United States following Japan’s attack (it is still not clear why he did), or the Japanese had changed their naval codes and plugged their disastrous intelligence leaks before Midway, or the Japanese naval command at Leyte had been bolder and more imaginative–how would such developments have affected the course of the war?

After they had been defeated, Roosevelt once privately suggested, they should be encouraged by every means possible to intermarry with other races.20 It is in the milieu of such assumptions that the initial multipronged Japanese attack on Hawaii and Southeast Asia seemed so incredible in every sense of the word: for beyond the sheer audacity of the assault, few Westerners credited the Japanese with the mental or physical ability to formulate such complex military plans or carry them out so brilliantly. However optimistic Anglo-American leaders may have been in the summer and early autumn of 1941 concerning the possibility of forcing the Japanese to abandon their ambitions in Asia, by late November it had become clear to the top leadership that an attack was imminent. It was still assumed, however, that such an attack would be directed against the European colonies in Asia rather than the U.S. forces in Hawaii or the Philippines; and, in any case, like their British counterparts, few Americans at the command or popular level believed the Japanese would prove to be a formidable foe. Top-level U.S. military planners were by no means unaware of their relative weaknesses vis-à-vis the Japanese in 1941. On the contrary, one of the major arguments against taking a hard line on Japanese expansion in Asia at that time was that the United States was not yet adequately prepared for war.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

The quality of public schools has fallen all over the Arab region, while Islamic social networks provide food, shelter, and spiritual fulfillment to restless youth seeking a sense of belonging and importance—but similarly neglect to teach marketable skills. Idle hands do the devil’s work, and the social tinderbox created by undereducation and unemployment can be mobilized either to build a modern society or to destroy it. As the epic film The Battle of Algiers demonstrates, even 150 years of European colonialism failed to transform Arab society. What else can be done? For years Tunisians, Lebanese, Egyptians, and other Arabs have wandered in search of work in the oil industries of Libya, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, and cross-border supply chains are finally emerging that can take advantage of this fluidity of Arab labor.11 Europe has invested in special investment and export havens—a status the freewheeling port of Tangier has always enjoyed—which are emerging along the Mediterranean to create jobs, ease exports, and increase profits.

Fifteen years later, Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri and a dozen of his aides where blown into the sky in downtown Beirut, setting in motion the March 14 movement to demand removal of Syria’s military occupation. Because Lebanon has no stability, it has freedom and democracy by default. Syria, by contrast, is stabilized by leaders who allow neither freedom nor democracy. Both are linked by three major forces: the legacy of Phoenicians and Greek rule over the Levant (Tyre, Byblos, and Sidon were wealthy trade centers), European colonialism, and now a cross-border fraternal rivalry in which frequent assassinations are fair game and the sons of the now-deceased leaders Rafiq Hariri and Hafez Assad—Saad Hariri and Bashar Assad—struggle to defend their fathers’ honor. No one actually controls Lebanon, least of all the Lebanese. Lebanon’s politics are reminiscent of its archaeology in two ways: It is multilayered after millennia of being conquered while demonstrating an ability to rebuild time and again.


America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

American ideology, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

—Vachel Lindsay, "Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan" (on the defeat of William Jennings Bryan's populist campaign for president, 1896)1 R adical nationalism has many fathers, but its mother is defeat, and her milk is called humiliation. From this poisoned nourishment comes in part the tendency to chauvinist hatred which has streamed through so many of the world's nationalisms. This is self-evidently true of the nationalisms of the former European colonies, nationalisms which grew out of their conquest and occupation by European and other empires and the destruction or forced transformation of their previous economic structures and traditions of moral and political authority. It is no less true, however, of those countries which avoided direct conquest, but were forced to defend themselves, to imitate Western forms of government, economics, society and culture as best they could and reshape themselves radically in the process.

This legacy has bred in sections of the American tradition both a capacity for ruthlessness and a taste for absolute and unqualified victory of the kind which was in the end won over all the indigenous adversaries of White America. A second legacy was constant expansionism, often pushed for by the Frontier White populations against the wishes of administrations in Washington. In the South especially, this expansionist spirit was directed not just toward the Indian and Mexican lands but also to European colonial possessions in the Caribbean. In the twentieth century, as T. R. Fehrenbach has written, it carried over into support for far wider agendas: "Since 1900, Texas had increasingly fused back with the nation in foreign policy, especially when foreign policy was basically imperial— whatever name was put upon it. Texans instinctively supported anything that seemed to support American power and prestige.


pages: 801 words: 242,104

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond

clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

In Haiti, more urgent than any of those just-mentioned consequences is the problem of the loss of wood for making charcoal, Haiti’s main fuel for cooking. The difference in forest cover between the two countries is paralleled by differences in their economies. Both Haiti and the Dominican Republic are poor countries, suffering from the usual disadvantages of most of the world’s other tropical countries that were former European colonies: corrupt or weak governments, serious problems of public health, and lower agricultural productivity than in the temperate zones. On all those counts, though, Haiti’s difficulties are much more serious than those of the Dominican Republic. It is the poorest country in the New World, and one of the poorest in the world outside of Africa. Its perennially corrupt government offers minimal public services; much or most of the population lives chronically or periodically without public electricity, water, sewage, medical care, and schooling.

Of course the system also suffers from an abundance of problems and a deficiency of funding, but it is nevertheless impressive for a poor country with other problems and priorities. Behind the reserve system stands a vigorous indigenous conservation movement with many non-governmental organizations staffed by Dominicans themselves, rather than foisted on the country by foreign advisors. All those dissimilarities in forest cover, economy, and natural reserve system arose despite the fact that the two countries share the same island. They also share histories of European colonialism and American occupations, overwhelmingly Catholic religion coexisting with a voodoo pantheon (more notably in Haiti), and mixed African-European ancestry (with a higher proportion of African ancestry in Haiti). For three periods of their history they were joined as a single colony or country. The differences that exist despite those similarities become even more striking when one reflects that Haiti used to be much richer and more powerful than its neighbor.

During the 1700s the Spanish colony had a low population, few slaves, and a small economy based on raising cattle and selling their hides, while the French colony had a much larger population, more slaves (700,000 in 1785, compared to only 30,000 in the Spanish part), a proportionately much lower non-slave population (only 10% compared to 85%), and an economy based on sugar plantations. French Saint-Domingue, as it was called, became the richest European colony in the New World and contributed one-quarter of France’s wealth. In 1795, Spain finally ceded its no-longer-valuable eastern part of the island to France, so that Hispaniola became briefly unified under France. After a slave rebellion broke out in French Saint-Domingue in 1791 and 1801, the French sent an army that was defeated by the slave army plus the effects of heavy losses to diseases.


pages: 1,000 words: 247,974

Empire of Cotton: A Global History by Sven Beckert

agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, imperial preference, industrial cluster, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, women in the workforce

No longer did the personal authority of the king, the lord, or the master, or age-old custom, regulate the market; instead the market was made by explicit rules relentlessly enforced by contracts, laws, and regulations. Weaker states continued to rely on client networks, the subcontracting of authority, and arbitrary rule—characteristics that would not provide fertile ground for industrial capitalism. And as European colonialism spread its tentacles into ever more areas of the world, it further strengthened the state capacity of the colonizers, while at the same time undermining political authority and state capacity among the colonized. Just as state capacity became ever more important, its distribution around the globe became more unequal. Tellingly, even though Edward Baines argued in 1835 that “this [cotton] trade was not the nursling of government protection,” he proceeded to list in chronological order all “interferences of the legislature” that related to the cotton industry, from prohibitions to tariffs—a list that would fill seven pages, a striking reminder of the state’s importance to ensuring the “free” market of cotton.43 In Great Britain and eventually in a few other states, this dependence of capitalists on the state attached them firmly to one another and resulted in a kind of territorialization and “nationalization” of manufacturing capital.

Yet while Russia mobilized Central Asian cultivators and forcefully settled nomads to grow cotton (as had also been the case in the Ottoman Empire’s Çukurova), the United States removed most indigenous inhabitants from cotton-growing soils as it encouraged citizens from farther east to move in, combining, as historian John C. Weaver has put it, “defiant private initiative” with “the ordered, state-backed certainties of property rights.”24 Capturing and incorporating new territories as a strategy to increase cotton production for world markets was thus not just significant in the context of European colonial expansion. The U.S. cotton empire expanded at a rapid clip and entered entirely new territories. Before the Civil War, in 1860, 5,386,897 bales of cotton had been produced in the United States, but in 1920 production had increased two and a half times, to 13,429,000 bales, and the territory used for cotton grew rapidly. Twenty-two million acres of additional land was plowed under, or a little more than the total area of the state of South Carolina, or that of the nation of Portugal.25 In the United States, the expansion of land under cotton occurred in two distinct ways.

Worldwide, estimates of the number of people involved in the growing and manufacturing of cotton range from approximately 110 million households involved in the growing of cotton, 90 million in its transportation, ginning, and warehousing, and another 60 million workers operating spinning and weaving machines and stitching together clothing, to a total for all branches of that industry of 350 million people. This number, never before reached in one industry, represents between 3 and 4 percent of the world’s population. More than 35 million hectares of land are dedicated to the growing of cotton, the equivalent of the surface area of Germany.5 Some nations, just like European colonial powers in Africa a century earlier, have policies in place to force farmers to produce cotton, despite its often devastating environmental and financial consequences. Uzbekistan, for instance, one of the globe’s top ten cotton exporters, continues to force its farming population to grow cotton despite the fact that the need to irrigate its dry lands has essentially drained the Aral Sea and turned much of the country into virtual salt flats.


pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

It is useful at the outset to separate economic and political development, since the intellectual histories of these two complementary aspects of modernization have taken somewhat different paths, though the two strands had converged somewhat by the 1990s, with interesting implications for future policy. Economic Development Thinking on economic development has gone through a series of distinct stages since the dissolution of European colonial empires that began in the late 1940s. Under the early influence of the Harrod-Domar growth model, there was a widespread belief among economists that the chief obstacle to growth in newly independent countries was the so-called investment gap. 5 They tacitly assumed that underdeveloped countries were like developed countries, only lacking in capital. The development strategies promoted by the United States or multilateral agencies like the World Bank consequently focused on large infrastructure projects like dams, roads, and electricity, funneled through exist- Social Engineering and Development lg governments.


What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response by Bernard Lewis

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, lone genius, spice trade, women in the workforce

At first the sultan, undeterred by the changes in France, turned to Paris for help; the Committee of Public Safety and later the Directoire responded. French-Ottoman cooperation was briefly interrupted by the Franco-Ottoman War of 1798 to 1802, but was later resumed, only to be interrupted again when Napoleon made peace with the czar at Turkish expense. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, involving the whole of Europe, extended to Africa and more especially to Asia through the encounters there between the European colonial powers. The relative weakness of the major Islamic powers had already in a sense been revealed by the first European expansion in Asia, when even small countries like Portugal and the Netherlands were able to establish themselves on the seas and on the coasts in defiance of the Muslim powers. The impotence of the Islamic world confronted with Europe was brought home in dramatic form in 1798, when a French expeditionary force commanded by a young general called Napoleon Bonaparte invaded, occupied, and governed Egypt.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

The spread of automation, including artificial intelligence and remote intelligence, which some call the fourth industrial revolution, is still in its early stages. So too is what the American journalist Fareed Zakaria has labelled the rise of the rest.5 The emergence of China is the most dramatic event in economic history. We are living in an age of convergence no less dramatic than the age of divergence brought about by European colonialism and the Industrial Revolution. The downward pressure on the incomes of the West’s middle classes in the coming years will be relentless. The second part, Reaction, explains the resulting degeneration of Western politics. We are taught to think our democracies are held together by values. Our faith in history fuels that myth. But liberal democracy’s strongest glue is economic growth. When groups fight over the fruits of growth, the rules of the political game are relatively easy to uphold.


pages: 225 words: 61,388

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Live Aid, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Average growth rate in the past twenty years was 1 per cent and 5 per cent in the last five years: has benefited from a recent copper price surge. Chief exports: copper, gold, cotton and sugar. Political system: adopted a nominal democracy ten years ago, having spent twenty years as a one-party state led by the same political party, and the same president. This is the Republic of Dongo. While fictitious, the Republic of Dongo is not far off the reality of many African countries. Freed from European colonial rule in the 1960s, the country’s background and evolution are pretty characteristic of the average African country. A socialist economy in the 1970s, it underwent privatization in the mid-1980s, moved to a democratic regime after Glasnost and Perestroika,1 and is ranked 3 out of a possible 10 on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (where 0 is the least transparent).


pages: 219 words: 62,816

"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Today’s globalization builds on structures developed during the centuries of colonialism that preceded it. One aspect of globalization in the second half of the twentieth century has been a huge population movement from the former colonies into the lands of their former colonial masters. In order to comprehend this global phenomenon, we have to look at the socioeconomic and cultural legacy of colonialism. In broad strokes, the European colonialism that shaped the modern world could be described as the conquest of people of color by white people, the massive transfer of natural resources out of the colonies and into the colonial powers, and the dispossession of formerly self-sufficient native inhabitants as their lands were taken for the export economy. Modern colonialism began with Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the 1400s, followed by northern European expansion in the 1600s and 1700s.


pages: 221 words: 55,901

The Globalization of Inequality by François Bourguignon

Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, minimum wage unemployment, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Gordon, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, very high income, Washington Consensus

This gap in growth tends to shrink after World War II and the rise in inter-­country inequality slows, then stops. While Japan first saw significant growth during the interwar period, the Asian “dragons” (South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan) began to experience strong growth after the war, and the Latin American countries saw accelerated growth during the Second World War as a result of strong policies of import substitution. Growth also accelerated in the European colonies that achieved independence. Finally, the gap between rates of growth in developed countries and developing countries would reverse slightly before the turn of the twenty-­first century. For more than two decades now, developing countries have been catching up. This began in Asian countries, notably the Indian and Chinese giants, marching in the steps of the Asian dragons, and since then has spread progressively to a large portion of the developing world, including the African continent in the 2000s.


The Phantom Atlas: The Greatest Myths, Lies and Blunders on Maps by Edward Brooke-Hitching

digital map, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, John Harrison: Longitude, Livingstone, I presume, Thales of Miletus, trade route, UNCLOS

The mystery as to what so many men saw on those waters has never been solved. AUSTRALIA’S INLAND SEA 24°54'S, 137°13'E Maslen’s wishful mapping of Australia’s possible inland sea and river system, from The Friend of Australia (1830). It had been forty-two years since the British First Fleet, commanded by Captain Arthur Philip, landed at Australia’s Botany Bay and formed the first European colony at Port Jackson. Initially, the new land served as a penal territory, but the British were keen to push deeper into the unmapped Australian interior and get a sense of the potential for further settlement. They knew from experience that following rivers inland usually led to mountains, river systems and fertile land that frequently exceeded expectation, and so it was assumed that the same topographic logic could be applied to Australia – what kind of rich verdant paradise, it was wondered, could be waiting in the heartland?


pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

To proceed as if it can be made in London and ‘put over’ in Washington, or as if British policy can in the main develop independently and be only ‘co-ordinated’ with America is merely to kick against the pricks.” But the Roosevelt administration would not wait for victory before pressing its world vision. While White was unveiling his economic blueprint, the president was laying out his political version, central to which was the dismantling of the European colonial empires. He infuriated his devoted pen pal the prime minister with an April 11 cable blasting “the unwillingness of the British Government to concede to the Indians the right of self-government.”10 Harry Hopkins is said to have described it as “wrathfully received.”11 Churchill saw it as hypocritical, meddlesome, and irresponsible, given the immediate importance to the Allied cause of a stable India.

Whom did we say we would see at four-fifteen?” “The Netherlands—the Czechoslovakians at four-thirty,” said his assistant and diarist, Mrs. Klotz. “The Chileans, I think, are next in line,” said Collado. “They are the ones who are giving us a little trouble.” “The Chileans at four-forty-five,” Morgenthau affirmed. The one area of intense political debate within the U.S. delegation was how to deal with the European colonial powers. Did they have a right to bigger quotas because of their large, far-flung colonies? Senator Wagner couldn’t abide it. “[A]t Tehran it was decided that these countries shall have their freedom if they want it.… Now, are we doing something in here to say to them, ‘We are holding you down?’” “I think the Queen of the Netherlands would be very disturbed if you did anything,” White suggested, in reference to the Dutch East Indies.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

That breakdown is then exacerbated by the reemergence of separatist movements in Britain, Belgium, and Spain. This phenomenon then spreads to regions where borders have historically been drawn by outsiders. Local governments in the Caucasus region and Central Asia point to international recognition of independence for Kosovo as a precedent for small ethnically based states to declare independence. Former European colonies in Africa, including large resource-rich states like Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, face greater internal stresses as local governments insist on greater control over natural wealth drawn from within “their” territories. This is the relatively benign version of the wild-card scenario. What about states that depend for their stability on the revenue generated by the export of crude oil?


pages: 228 words: 69,642

Among the Islands by Tim Flannery

British Empire, colonial rule, David Attenborough, European colonialism, Kula ring

Cook encountered New Caledonia in 1774, during his second voyage, naming it New Caledonia (Caledonia being the name the Romans gave to northern Scotland) because the sparse vegetation of the island’s nickel-rich mountains reminded him of heather-clad peaks. French missionaries began arriving in the 1840s, and in 1853 the French government formally annexed it. Like Australia, New Caledonia served as a penal colony. Today, New Caledonia remains one of the world’s last European colonies. Technically, it is known as a ‘special collectivity’ of France; only in July 2010 was it decided that the Kanak flag (the flag of the indigenous people) should fly beside the tricoleur as an official flag of the territory. At the time we conducted our surveys the political environment of both Fiji and New Caledonia was changing quickly. Heading up the Fijian survey was Dr Sandra (Sandy) Ingleby, now collection manager in mammals at the Australian Museum, while I led the New Caledonian survey.


pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

But it brings with it unique assets such as the direct verbal and thematic continuities that transcend local contexts and that, for that very reason, enable a powerful articulation of the regional in its true fullness … Interacting with these vernaculars, Sanskrit is itself continuously changing, stretching the boundaries of the sayable, thinking new thoughts, searching for ways to formulate this newness.2 So on the eve of colonialism in the early eighteenth century, there was still a thriving—if diminished—cosmopolis. Sheldon Pollock writes: The two centuries before European colonialism decisively established itself in the subcontinent around 1750 constitute one of the most innovative epochs of Sanskrit systematic thought (in language analysis, logic, hermeneutics, moral-legal philosophy, and the rest). Thinkers produced new formulations of old problems, in entirely new discursive idioms, in what were often new scholarly genres employing often a new historicist framework; some even called themselves (or, more often, their enemies) “the new” scholars (navya).3 This ancient, widespread transmission was finally fractured by the establishment of English as the language of colonial politics and commerce, and the institutionalization of new dispensations of morality, knowledge, and power.


pages: 225 words: 64,595

Catch-67: The Left, the Right, and the Legacy of the Six-Day War by Micah Goodman

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, European colonialism, mass immigration, one-state solution, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

It was they who instigated the replacement of the League of Nations with the United Nations and the Security Council to enable them to rule the world through them.5 The anti-Semitic conspiracy theories born in Europe have found a new home in the heart of the Palestinian resistance. The myths are the same myths. The anti-Semitism, many Israelis fear, is the same anti-Semitism. Palestinians face Israelis and see in them European colonialism; Israelis face Palestinians and see in them European anti-Semitism. Each side sees the other as representing Europe in its ugliest and most threatening guise. Each side sees the other as the product of a broader phenomenon of which it itself is a victim. In the Palestinians’ narrative, they are the victims of Israel. In the Israelis’ narrative, they are the victims of the Palestinians. In this conflict, each side is the victim of its own victims.


pages: 231 words: 72,656

A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage

Berlin Wall, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, Copley Medal, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, multiplanetary species, out of africa, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

For the Arab origins of coffee and coffeehouse culture and the debate over coffee's effects, see Hattox, Coffee and Coffeehouses; Schapira, Schapira, and Schapira, The Book of Coffee and Tea; and Weinberg and Bealer, The World of Caffeine. The account of coffee's spread into Europe and the rise of London's coffeehouses follows Ellis, The Penny Universities, and Jacob, Coffee. For the cultivation of coffee in European colonies, see Ukers, All About Coffee, and Weinberg and Bealer, The World of Caffeine. 8. The Coffeehouse Internet For the Internet-like role of coffeehouses, see Sommerville, "Surfing the Coffeehouse," and Darnton, "An Early Information Society." For the use of coffeehouses by scientists and financiers, see Stewart, "Other Centres of Calculation"; Stewart, The Rise of Public Science; Ellis, The Penny Universities; Inwood, The Man Who Knew Too Much; Jacob, Coffee; and Waller, 1700.


Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

He flew to Nairobi to launch his new novel, Wizard of the Crow, his first in over a decade. Ngugi’s earlier works—a dozen or so novels and collections of stories, which he began publishing just after Kenyan independence in 1963—had been wildly successful, not only in Kenya but throughout the world. Through his carefully wrought characters and achingly familiar plots of loss and suffering, Ngugi captured the bewildering contradictions left behind in the wake of European colonialism. Ngugi had lived those contradictions and drew inspiration from his experiences, which were shared by so many of his fellow Kenyans. Ngugi had grown up during the 1950s, when Kenya had been rocked by the Mau Mau rebellion against its British colonizers. He had witnessed the murder CH A PTER O N E of his brother, who had died along with thousands of other Kenyans in opposing the British.


pages: 239 words: 64,987

Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World by Mark Kurlansky

British Empire, European colonialism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

While Newfoundland remained a frontier with summer fishing rooms, Massachusetts had residents who needed coopers, blacksmiths, bakers, and shipbuilders—trades—men with families that built communities. It also became an agricultural society, settlers moving ever farther toward western Massachusetts looking for fertile land to produce goods for the prosperous coastal market. As the most flourishing American community north of Virginia, New England was perfectly positioned for trade. In cod it had a product that Europe and European colonies wanted, and because of cod it had a population with spending power that was hungry for European products. This was what built Boston. The economies of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, rather than growing in tandem with the economy of New England, were being drained off by it. Lacking population and internal markets, they were fishing outposts serviced by Boston. The Newfoundland catch between April and September was more than the fishing ships could hold.


Lonely Planet Iceland (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn Bain, Alexis Averbuck

Airbnb, banking crisis, car-free, carbon footprint, cashless society, centre right, European colonialism, food miles, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, post-work, presumed consent, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, undersea cable

Icelandic tradition credits the Norse settlement of Iceland to tyrannical Harald Hårfagre (Harald Fairhair), king of Vestfold in southeastern Norway. Filled with expansionist aspirations, Harald won a significant naval victory at Hafrsfjord (Stavanger) in 890. The deposed chieftains chose to flee rather than surrender, and many wound up in Iceland. While Viking raids continued in Europe, Eiríkur Rauðe (Erik the Red) headed west with around 500 others to found the first permanent European colony in Greenland in 986. Eiríkur’s son, Leif the Lucky, went on to explore the coastline of northeast America in the year 1000, naming the new country Vínland (Wineland). Permanent settlement was thwarted by the skrælings (Native Americans), who were anything but welcoming. Viking raids gradually petered out, and the Viking Age ended with the death of King Harald Harðráði, last of the great Viking kings, who died in battle at Stamford Bridge, England, in 1066.

Scattered farmsteads rapidly cover the country. 871 Norwegian Viking Ingólfur Arnarson, credited as the country’s first permanent inhabitant, sails to the southwest coast; in time he makes his home in a promising-looking bay that he names Reykjavík. 930 The world’s oldest existing parliament, the Alþing, is founded at Þingvellir. The Icelanders’ law code is memorised by an elected law speaker, who helps to settle legal matters at annual parliamentary gatherings. 986 Erik the Red founds the first permanent European colony in Greenland, building the settlements of Eystribyggð and Vestribyggð in the southwest of the country. 1000 Iceland officially converts to Christianity under pressure from the Norwegian king, though pagan beliefs and rituals remain. Leif the Lucky lands in Newfoundland, becoming the first European to reach America. 1100–1200 Iceland’s literary Golden Age, during which the Old Norse sagas are written.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Phase I: The “Monroe Doctrine” The Latin American continent and the Caribbean islands had long been regarded as America’s “backyard”—a colloquial expression of the doctrine outlined by US president James Monroe in 1823, which stated that any European intervention in these territories would be regarded by the US as an “unfriendly act.” This was arguably hubristic, given that the United States lacked the naval capacity to enforce the doctrine at this point. But it expressed the proprietorial attitude to South America that would define US policy. Just as the United States was expanding westward, it hoped to expand to its south—and to do so, it would have to break the grip of the European colonial empires. In the meantime, American capital penetrated markets in Cuba, Brazil, Nicaragua, and beyond. And by 1890, with westward overland expansion almost completed, it began to construct a much larger navy for overseas gains. A victorious war with the Spanish Empire in 1898 won it control of Cuba and inaugurated a period of frantic military activism, saber-rattling, invasions, and occupations in Honduras, Cuba, and Nicaragua.

Domestic opposition to foreign interventions, amid a climate of quasi-isolationism, encouraged the US to intervene, in a calibrated and timely manner, only when, first, there was a clear and present danger of regional domination by revisionist states on the Eurasian landmass, and, second, its own interests (and territorial integrity) were directly threatened, as when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.1 Historically, the US saw itself as an exceptional nation, founded upon principles of liberal democracy and opposed to archaic, oppressive forms of European colonialism. After all, the US itself emerged out of a protracted struggle for independence, culminating in the American Revolutionary War against the British monarchy (1775–83). But, as scholars such as John Mearsheimer note,2 hegemonic expansion was a recurring theme throughout America’s own uniquely successful state-building project: The United States is the only regional hegemon in modern history … the Founding Fathers and their successors consciously and deliberately sought to achieve hegemony in the Americas … To realize their so-called Manifest Destiny, they murdered large numbers of Native Americans and stole their land, bought Florida from Spain (1819) and what is now the center of the United States from France (1803).


How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

Whereas Britain governed its possessions from large, prominent, and imposing edifices, the United States had no colonial building in its capital. Nor did it have a school to train colonial officials. Its territories were ruled by a haphazard and improvised set of bureaucratic arrangements under the army, navy, and Department of the Interior. It showed. The men sent to run the territories, unlike the trained administrators who oversaw European colonies, simply didn’t know much about the places to which they’d been assigned, and they cycled rapidly through their posts. Between Guam’s annexation in 1899 and World War II, it had nearly forty governors. FDR’s first governor of Puerto Rico, who served for six months, spoke no Spanish and left reporters with the distinct impression that he didn’t know where the island was. There was a period of several months when the territory of Alaska, which is half the physical size of India, didn’t have a single federal official in it.

As the president of the tire manufacturer B. F. Goodrich warned, without rubber the United States “could offer only 1860 defenses against 1942 attacks.” Without rubber—it wasn’t a hypothetical scenario. On December 7/8, 1941, Japan, worried about its own access to rubber and other critical raw materials, expanded its war beyond China and moved on to the resource-rich lands of Southeast Asia. Within months, it conquered the European colonies that accounted for 97 percent of the U.S. rubber supply. The United States and its allies were virtually cut off. It is hard to convey how dire a threat this was. “If a survey were made to determine the most frequently asked question in America today, it would probably turn out to be: ‘When are we going to get rubber—and how much?’” wrote the secretary of the interior in mid-1942. “We must get rubber—lots of it—and get it rather quickly, or our whole manner of living will be sadly awry.”


pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

The two had cut a deal in the eighteenth century, which to this day is, loosely speaking: ‘You do the politics, we’ll do the religion.’ As long as the state does not curtail the power of the clerics, most of the Wahhabi elite will not seek to overthrow it. What they failed to factor in, though, was that their ideas about the nation state would help create terrorist revolutionaries such as Osama bin Laden and many others. In the decades during which European colonialism was coming to an end, few of the new Muslim-majority nation states followed the Saudi example of using the shahada on their flags, and only a handful went for green as the dominant colour. The leaders of the new Arab states were not known for their piety, and while some were practising Muslims, most were also infused with the somewhat contradictory ideology of socialism, notably those in the Ba’ath Party which ended up running Syria and Iraq.


pages: 266 words: 76,299

Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History by Stephen Jay Gould

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, correlation coefficient, Drosophila, European colonialism, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Scientific racism, sexual politics, the scientific method, twin studies

And Lombroso himself did not rule out the “final solution”: The fact that there exist such beings as born criminals, organically fitted for evil, atavistic reproductions, not simply of savage men but even of the fiercest animals, far from making us more compassionate towards them, as has been maintained, steels us against all pity. One other social impact of Lombroso’s school should be mentioned. If human savages, like born criminals, retained apish traits, then primitive tribes—“lesser breeds without the law”—could be regarded as essentially criminal. Thus, criminal anthropology provided a powerful argument for racism and imperialism at the height of European colonial expansion. Lombroso, in noting a reduced sensitivity to pain among criminals, wrote: Their physical insensibility well recalls that of savage peoples who can bear in rites of puberty, tortures that a white man could never endure. All travelers know the indifference of Negroes and American savages to pain: the former cut their hands and laugh in order to avoid work; the latter, tied to the torture post, gaily sing the praises of their tribe while they are slowly burnt.


pages: 240 words: 74,182

This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality by Peter Pomerantsev

"side hustle", 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, citizen journalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, mega-rich, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, South China Sea

Neither was censorship something that divided people: both pro- and anti-government voices could want less of it. Instead, the divide lay in what Wu calls the ‘China as a superpower ideology’: a militarist, territorially obsessed nationalism intent on dominating others and which saw China as surrounded by enemies weaving conspiracies against her, which harped on the humiliations China suffered at the hands of European colonial powers in the nineteenth century, humiliations that the party claimed it could relieve by restoring past greatness. There were people who embraced this position, and others who didn’t. Rather than an alternative, China seemed to provide another variant of what I had encountered in the US and Russia, peddling a nostalgia for a greatness before the ‘century of humiliations’, much like Putin promised to ‘bring Russia off its knees’ and Trump to ‘Make America Great Again’.


The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise

And fascist Greece is quite all right today; it plays its NATO role, provides bases for American naval forces, and as an added attraction there is—as Secretary of Commerce Maurice Stans put it so lyrically not long ago—“the welcome that is given here to American companies and the sense of security the Government of Greece is imparting to them.” Friends and enemies can be identified, to a rather good first approximation, in terms of their role in maintaining an integrated global economy in which American capital can operate with relative freedom. The so-called “Communist” powers are particularly evil because their “do-it-yourself” model of development tends to extricate them from this system. For this reason, even European colonialism, which was bad enough, is preferable to indigenous communism. For the same reason, Washington will prefer a Trujillo to a Castro. The study group of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and the National Planning Association was perceptive, and more honest than many contemporary ideologists, when it described the primary threat of communism as the economic transformation of the Communist powers “in ways which reduce their willingness and ability to complement the industrial economies of the West,” their refusal to play the game of comparative advantage and to rely primarily on foreign investment for development.

State Department recognized, explicitly, that Ho Chi Minh was the sole significant leader of Vietnamese nationalism, but that if Vietnamese nationalism was successful, it could be a threat to the Grand Area, and therefore something had to be done about it. The threat was not so much in Vietnam itself, which is not terribly important for American purposes (the freedom to rob in Vietnam is not all that significant); the fear was that the “rot would spread,” namely, the rot of successful social and economic development. In a very poor country which had suffered enormously under European colonialism, successful social and economic development could have a demonstration effect. Such development could be a model for people elsewhere and could lead them to try to duplicate it, and gradually the Grand Area would unravel. This, incidentally, is the rational version of the domino theory. There’s another version which is used to terrify the population. You know, Ho Chi Minh will get into a canoe and land in Boston and rape your sister and that sort of thing.


pages: 717 words: 196,908

The Idea of Decline in Western History by Arthur Herman

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, David Attenborough, European colonialism, George Santayana, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, Joan Didion, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Du Bois’s view of race was more complicated than this blast of typical romantic Orientalism suggests, although, as we will discover, he owed more to that Orientalist heritage than some current admirers are willing to admit. His theories, however, were based on his reaction against the doctrines of white supremacy circulating at the time and against what he saw as their most significant consequence: the growth of European colonial empires. To Du Bois, imperialism was the West’s most characteristic product, the natural outgrowth of European civilization’s own peculiar qualities. And its evils were now the evils of the West—including the United States, a nation created and sustained by imperialism’s institutional predecessor, slavery. In 1914, Du Bois and other non-European nationalists, such as Mohandas Gandhi of India and the young Marcus Garvey of Jamaica, still lived in a world in which 80 percent of the earth’s land mass was dominated by Europeans or their descendants.

He often pointed to the French revolutionary September Massacre of 1792 and “the old Germanic custom” of sticking “the head of an enemy on a stake, for public viewing” as examples of this sort of people’s justice.62 However, the figure most associated with the liberating power of violence was Frantz Fanon. A friend and admirer of Jean-Paul Sartre, Fanon very much subscribed to the postwar French assault on Western rationality. Fanon identified that corrupt Western totalizing process with colonialism and imperialism. His call for an onslaught of “holy violence” against European colonialism, led by a rootless and impoverished Third World lumpenproletariat of fellahin , gave Marcus Garvey’s vision of an apocalyptic race war new, intellectually respectable force. The rituals of that holy violence—revolutions, assassinations, skyjackings, car bombings, and the burning of tire “necklaces”—were seen as acts of existential authenticity that would obliterate the West’s empire of bad faith.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

The Ismaili school disputes the lineage of the seventh imam, while the Zaidi school disputes that of the fifth imam. There are also several offshoots from mainstream Shia Islam, with the Alawites and Druze being considered so far away from traditional Islamic thought that many other Muslims, especially among the Sunni, do not even recognize them as being part of the religion. The legacy of European colonialism left the Arabs grouped into nation states and ruled by leaders who tended to favor whichever branch of Islam (and tribe) from which they themselves came. These dictators then used the machinery of state to ensure their writ ruled over the entire area within the artificial lines drawn by the Europeans, regardless of whether this was historically appropriate and fair to the different tribes and religions that had been thrown together.


pages: 270 words: 81,311

In the Devil's Garden: A Sinful History of Forbidden Food by Stewart Lee Allen

anti-communist, British Empire, clean water, East Village, European colonialism, Filipino sailors, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, trade route

“The barbarous Indians which know no better are constrained to make a vertue of a necessitie, and think it a good food,” wrote the author of the influential Gerard’s Herbal of 1597, “whereas we may easily judge that it nourisheth but little and is of hard and evil digestion.” Others claimed “Indian wheat” caused scabs and burned the blood. When they grew bored with blaming those red-skinned barbarians for the stuff, Europeans renamed it “Turkish wheat” after their archenemies in Istanbul and many nineteenth-century Irish preferred starvation to eating “brimstone yellow” corn bread. European colonials in America were too reliant on corn to completely snub it, so they assigned it to the lower classes. “Gentlemen’s houses,” noted Robert Beverley in 1705, “usually had bread made of wheat,” while corn bread was “mostly reserved for the servants,” an observation borne out by the African-American adage, “we grow the wheat and they give us the corn.” It was so déclassé that no American cookbook bothered to print a single corn recipe until the eve of the nineteenth century.


pages: 330 words: 83,319

The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder by Sean McFate

active measures, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, hive mind, index fund, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero day, zero-sum game

Cartels are an example of the world’s new superpowers. To defeat them, we must commit all elements of national power, not just law enforcement. It’s what we do against terrorists and other lesser threats. Third, when cartels wage war, they fight like empires. They battle each other for control of land, the resources on that land, and the people who can harvest those resources. It’s pure exploitation, just as was done in the age of European colonial empires. Material wealth and martial conquest have long been a theme of war, from the Spanish conquistadors to the British East India Company. Merging the profit motive and war is nothing new, and cartels are one more example. In the case of Acapulco, the cartels fight for a strategic transit point. To defeat a cartel, we must use strategies of empire denial, such as containment, deterrence, coercive diplomacy, and military punishment.


pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Independence was sought by virtually all the populations living under colonial rule. Interestingly, it was also supported by both the Soviet Union and the United States: the former saw it as an opportunity to win converts, while the latter feared that absent independence these societies would turn to the Soviets for support against the Western colonialists. With time, the populations of the mostly European colonial powers themselves grew weary of the costs of maintaining rule in faraway places that wanted to be on their own. By then, decolonization was viewed as a prerequisite to order, as otherwise it was feared that conflicts would develop in many of these places. That was an understandable concern, although it is one of the tragic ironies of history that the end of the colonial era, rather than promoting order, in many instances created disorder on a large scale.


Propaganda and the Public Mind by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, deindustrialization, European colonialism, experimental subject, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, interchangeable parts, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, one-state solution, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, Washington Consensus

To get back to your point, the more Europe is independent, the more weight it will be able to throw around on this issue. There are already indications of emerging trade wars with Europe, for example, over bananas. There’s a big conflict at the WTO right now between the European Union and the United States. Different corporations are involved. The E.U. has been giving preferences to former European colonies in the Caribbean. The U.S. wants in this case a “level playing field,” because the big producers, the really rich corporations, happen to be in U.S. hands. So they’d like to have a “level playing field,” which means crushing the Caribbean islands. You’ve said many times that you’re not Amnesty International. You can’t support every single issue. What are the factors that determine your involvement in a particular issue?


pages: 294 words: 82,438

Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The expanding world of the sixteenth century created new possibilities to help souls, and the simple rules of the “Formula” provided the Jesuits with the flexibility to seize these opportunities, something incumbent religious orders lacked. As a religious startup with few rules, the Jesuits were well positioned to experiment with novel ministries. The first generation of Jesuits experimented widely: they converted natives in newly formed European colonies; negotiated peace between Catholic and Protestant rulers; freed debtors from prison; ministered to repentant prostitutes; preached on the streets; brought apostates back to Catholicism; cared for disabled soldiers; nursed lepers; and brokered truces among feuding Sicilian families. Even sympathetic commentators have characterized the Jesuits’ diverse ministries as a “grocery list” that “might be separated by only a hair’s breath, or less, from opportunism.”


pages: 273 words: 83,802

Hostile Environment: How Immigrants Became Scapegoats by Maya Goodfellow

Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, falling living standards, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, moral panic, open borders, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, Winter of Discontent, working poor

Previously in Europe, the most commonly recognised figure of the asylum seeker was a white man fleeing Communism; by the end of the century and beyond, this began to change.114 From civil war in Sri Lanka and unrest in Somalia through to economic degradation in Zimbabwe and the US-led invasion of Afghanistan, all around the world people were fleeing conflict and persecution. There have always been significant numbers of people seeking asylum in the Global South – as a mere glance at the disaster wrought by the British partition of India shows – what changed was their destination, they increasingly were arriving in Europe. ‘What was different was that they were from the Global South, usually from former European colonies. This made them undesirable,’ writes political sociologist Lucy Mayblin. The legacies of colonial discourse, which classed black and brown people as somehow less than human, still survive and thrive, even as they have changed. Asylum seekers from the Global South came to be seen as ‘other’. ‘It is not the fact that they are marked as different as a consequence of their difference,’ Mayblin says, ‘but that the colonial discourses marked them as such.’


The Ages of Globalization by Jeffrey D. Sachs

Admiral Zheng, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, Commentariolus, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, European colonialism, global supply chain, greed is good, income per capita, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, packet switching, Pax Mongolica, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Japan next defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5 and established imperial rule over Korea in 1905. While Japan still lagged far behind Europe and the United States in per capita income, by 1913 Japan’s per capita income was roughly 2.5 times that of China. Europe Swallows Africa Though Africa was the poorest and least industrialized part of the world, and though Europeans had been enslaving Africans for centuries, Africa was the last continent to face the full onslaught of European colonial domination. Until the end of the nineteenth century, Europe’s imperial foothold in Africa consisted of colonies in the north and south of Africa and a few trading outposts and forts along the coasts of East and West Africa. The interior of Africa was largely beyond European control or even knowledge. The most important reason was the biogeography of disease. With a tropical climate and countless animal reservoirs of disease, tropical Africa was home to many fatal and debilitating diseases both for humans and farm animals, including horses.


pages: 266 words: 80,273

Covid-19: The Pandemic That Never Should Have Happened and How to Stop the Next One by Debora MacKenzie

anti-globalists, butterfly effect, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Donald Trump, European colonialism, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, Just-in-time delivery, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, planetary scale, reshoring, supply-chain management, uranium enrichment

Lots of countries made mistakes, and we probably haven’t made them all yet. Recognition of all that by all sides, including by China, might be a good place to start. Pathogens come from all over. The last flu pandemic started on an American-owned farm in Mexico, the biggest-ever Ebola epidemic began with the infection of a two-year-old child in one of the poorest countries in Africa. The HIV pandemic was seeded in an African society upended by European colonialism. The Zika virus started in Africa and then traveled via Asia, Micronesia, and Polynesia to Brazil, then wherever in the Americas it could find the right mosquitoes, which were themselves transported worldwide by numerous countries. Of the viruses that are still mere threats, Nipah started in Malaysia and the very similar Hendra in Australia. This is a planetary problem. Jeremy Farrar seemed to be addressing those very concerns when he spoke at a virtual meeting organized in April by the US National Academy of Sciences.


I You We Them by Dan Gretton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

He also quotes another significant study by Klemens Felden which examined fifty-one prominent antisemitic writers and texts they had written between 1865 and 1895, and found that more than half of these proposed ‘solutions’ to ‘the Jewish problem’ – nineteen of these ‘solutions’ calling for the physical extermination of the Jews. By the beginning of the twentieth century there clearly existed an extremely virulent, widespread anti-Semitism within Germany, but it seems a serious limitation in Goldhagen’s analysis to look only within Germany’s borders for the seeds of Nazism and genocidal thinking. The Swedish writer Sven Lindqvist takes a wider view, in his brilliant work on European colonialism, Exterminate All the Brutes: Europe’s destruction of the ‘inferior races’ of four continents prepared the ground for Hitler’s destruction of six million Jews in Europe … European world expansion, accompanied as it was by a shameless defence of extermination, created habits of thought and political precedents that made way for new outrages, finally culminating in … the Holocaust. It is these ‘habits of thought’ that Lindqvist returns to again and again.

Shocking not only in its own terms, but also because Germany, of all countries, should have understood, long before they did, the critical linkage between the two German genocides of the twentieth century. My own journey of understanding, which had begun with that short passage in Exterminate All the Brutes, continued when I read Mark Cocker’s Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold in 1998, which seemed to pick up Lindqvist’s broader challenge for us to understand the brutal nature of European colonial psychology. Cocker went into greater detail than Lindqvist, looking at four case studies of European exterminations of tribal peoples, including a long chapter on Germany’s extermination of the Herero and Nama. By this stage I had already begun the intensive research phase of my work on the desk killer, and I had become more and more preoccupied by the question of how Germany’s extermination of the European Jews had been possible.

Klee, Dressen and Reiss) is published in English – a riveting collection of eyewitness documentation of the Holocaust. 1991: Alan Bullock publishes Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. 1991: Art Spiegelman’s Maus, a graphic novel, is published to great acclaim, and later wins a Pulitzer Prize. 1992: Christopher Browning publishes his groundbreaking work Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland – a detailed study showing that a culture of terrifying obedience to authority, more than blood lust or violent antisemitism, was responsible for much of the mass killing in the Holocaust. 1992: Susan Griffin’s brilliant A Chorus of Stones: The Private Life of War is published – an extraordinary interweaving of memoir and history. 1992: Sven Lindqvist’s book Utrota varenda jävel is published in English as Exterminate All the Brutes – and makes a powerful argument that the Holocaust had its roots in earlier European colonial genocides. 1994: Between April and July, 800,000 people, around 70 per cent of the total Tutsi population, are killed in the Rwandan genocide. 1994: Jorge Semprún’s L’Écriture ou la vie is published in French (English edition, Literature or Life in 1997). 1994: GÖtz Aly, Peter Chroust and Christian Pross publish Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene – a brilliant study of the T4 ‘euthanasia’ programme and the corruption of the German medical establishment under Nazism. 1995: In July, Europe experiences its worst atrocity since the Second World War, when over 8,000 Bosnian Muslims are massacred at Srebrenica by the Bosnian Serb army under General Mladić. 1995: Gitta Sereny’s monumental work Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth is published, the most revealing book ever written on Speer. 1995: Bernard Schlink’s The Reader is published in Germany, and two years later, in English (and eventually translated into forty-five languages). 1996: W.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Their rights to a particular piece of land are not exclusive, as in the case of land for Greek and Roman families, but rather ones of access.19 The fact that rights were not fully private did not, as in other customary arrangements, mean that pasture lands were inevitably overexploited. The Turkana and Masai of Kenya, and the Fulani pastoralists of West Africa, all developed systems whereby segments shared pasturage with each other while excluding outsiders.20 The failure of Westerners to understand the nature of customary property rights and their embeddedness in kinship groups lies in some measure at the root of many of Africa’s current dysfunctions. European colonial officials were convinced that economic development could not occur in the absence of modern property rights, that is, rights that were individual, alienable, and formally specified through the legal system. Many were convinced that Africans, left to their own devices, did not know how to manage land efficiently or sustainably.21 They were also motivated by self-interest, either for the sake of natural resources, commercial agricultural interests, or on behalf of European settlers.

Once states come into being, kinship becomes an obstacle to political development, since it threatens to return political relationships to the small-scale, personal ties of tribal societies. It is therefore not enough merely to develop a state; the state must avoid retribalization or what I label repatrimonialization. Not all societies around the world made this transition to statehood on their own. Most of Melanesia consisted of acephalous tribal societies (that is, lacking centralized authority) prior to the arrival of European colonial powers in the nineteenth century, as did roughly half of sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of South and Southeast Asia.2 The fact that these regions had no long history of statehood very much affected their development prospects after they achieved independence in the second half of the twentieth century, especially when compared to colonized parts of East Asia where state traditions were deeply embedded.


pages: 927 words: 216,549

Empire of Guns by Priya Satia

banking crisis, British Empire, business intelligence, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

The global small-arms market became fiercely competitive as postcolonial states set up their own industries. Small arms—pistols, revolvers, carbines, handheld machine guns, rifles, shotguns, and hand grenades—remain the most abundant and most massively destructive category of weapons and the only category that continues to proliferate virtually unregulated. They inflict greatest suffering in former European colonies. There are roughly 640 million small arms in the world—mostly in private hands—increasing by 8 million each year and causing the death of one human being per minute. They are responsible for the vast majority of deaths in armed conflicts since 1945. While massive production and dumping of these long-lasting weapons during the Cold War continues to fulfill demand in the unhappiest parts of the world, the war on terror has accelerated their spread.

“Words, Deeds, and Guns: ‘Arming America’ and the Second Amendment.” William and Mary Quarterly 59 (2002): 205–10. Randell, Jacqueline. “Colt Culture: Examining Representations of the American West in Victorian London.” Columbia University Journal of Politics & Society 25 (Fall 2014): 6–26. Raudzens, George. “Military Revolution or Maritime Evolution? Military Superiorities or Transportation Advantages as Main Causes of European Colonial Conquests to 1788.” Journal of Military History 63 (1999): 631–41. ——— . “War-Winning Weapons: The Measurement of Technological Determinism in Military History.” Journal of Military History 54 (1990): 403–34. ———, ed. Technology, Disease and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Essays Reappraising the Guns and Germs Theories. Boston: Brill, 2001. Rawley, James A., and Stephen D.


Lonely Planet Iceland by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, banking crisis, capital controls, car-free, carbon footprint, cashless society, centre right, European colonialism, food miles, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Lyft, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, presumed consent, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft

Icelandic tradition credits the Norse settlement of Iceland to tyrannical Harald Hårfagre (Harald Fairhair), king of Vestfold in southeastern Norway. Filled with expansionist aspirations, Harald won a significant naval victory at Hafrsfjord (Stavanger) in 890. The deposed chieftains chose to flee rather than surrender, and many wound up in Iceland. While Viking raids continued in Europe, Eiríkur Rauðe (Erik the Red) headed west with around 500 others to found the first permanent European colony in Greenland in 986. Eiríkur’s son, Leif the Lucky, went on to explore the coastline of northeast America in the year 1000, naming the new country Vínland (Wineland). Permanent settlement was thwarted by the skrælings (Native Americans), who were anything but welcoming. Viking raids gradually petered out, and the Viking Age ended with the death of King Harald Harðráði, last of the great Viking kings, who died in battle at Stamford Bridge, England, in 1066.

Scattered farmsteads rapidly cover the country. 871 Norwegian Viking Ingólfur Arnarson, credited as the country’s first permanent inhabitant, sails to the southwest coast; in time he makes his home in a promising-looking bay that he names Reykjavík. 930 The world’s oldest existing parliament, the Alþingi, is founded at Þingvellir. The Icelanders’ law code is memorised by an elected law speaker, who helps to settle legal matters at annual parliamentary gatherings. 986 Erik the Red founds the first permanent European colony in Greenland, building the settlements of Eystribyggð and Vestribyggð in the southwest of the country. 1000 Iceland officially converts to Christianity under pressure from the Norwegian king, though pagan beliefs and rituals remain. Leif the Lucky lands in Newfoundland, becoming the first European to reach America. 1100–1230 Iceland’s literary Golden Age, during which the Old Norse sagas are written.


pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The Beauchamp Committee was established in 1785 to decide where to deport the convicts to instead; Gambia was a possibility and so was southwest Africa, but in the end the deadly local diseases were thought to pose an unacceptable risk, even to convicted criminals. (On a large expedition led by a Scottish explorer from Gambia to Niger just ten years later, every single European died.) Mortality rates in African colonies were typically 40 or 50 percent in the first year. As well as swaying the consciences of the penal authorities, all these facts were well known to potential migrants from the European colonial powers, who much preferred to settle in the safer climes of what would eventually become Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Instead of trying to send colonial settlers to areas with fearsome tropical diseases, Europeans instead made the even more brutal yet selfishly rational decision to establish the slave trade in such places and set up abusive economic systems designed to exploit the land and people or scrape up as much gold and ivory as possible in the shortest time.


Bastard Tongues: A Trailblazing Linguist Finds Clues to Our Common Humanity in the World's Lowliest Languages by Derek Bickerton

colonial rule, dark matter, European colonialism, experimental subject, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, rent control

His "hapa­ haole" had an admixture of Hawaiian words, but it was basically a local form of Pidgin English, and he along with everyone else as­ sumed that this kind of language was what Hawaiians, and later the immigrant peoples, spoke to haoles and to one another. People conveniently forgot that the social dynamic of Hawaii, especially before sugar came along, was nothing like the social dy- H BASTARD TONGUES HAWAII'S HIDDEN HISTORY namic of European colonies. Hawaii was an independent kingdom and Europeans were there on sufferance, And when you enter somebody else's country, you don't get far if you try to make them talk your language. You have to try to speak theirs. Plus there' were more concrete clues. Don't forget that Hawaii became literate very early on. Newspapers and books written in Hawaiian go far back into the nineteenth century. And in one of these books, published in 1854, the author complained that'''there has long prevailed, between natives and foreigners, a corrupted ·tongue, which the former use only to the latter, but never among themselves."


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

The uneven geographical development that results is as infinitely varied as it is volatile: a deindustrialised city in northern China; a shrinking city in what was once East Germany; the booming industrial cities in the Pearl River delta; an IT concentration in Bangalore; a Special Economic Zone in India where dispossessed peasants revolt; indigenous populations under pressure in Amazonia or New Guinea; the affluent neighbourhoods in Greenwich, Connecticut (until recently, at least, hedge fund capital of the world); the conflict-ridden oil fields in the Ogoni region of Nigeria; the autonomous zones carved out by a militant movement such as the Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico; the vast soy bean production zones in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina; the rural regions of Darfur or the Congo where civil wars relentlessly rage; the staid middle-class suburbs of London, Los Angeles or Munich; the shanty towns of South Africa; the garment factories of Sri Lanka or the call centres of Barbados and Bangalore ‘manned’ entirely by women; the new megacities in the Gulf States with their star-architect-designed buildings – all of this (and of course much more) when taken together constitutes a world of geographical difference that has been made by human action. At first blush, this world would appear to be so geographically diverse as to escape principled understanding, let alone rationalised control. How on earth does it all relate? That there are intertwinings and inter-relationships is obvious. The civil wars in Africa, in many ways sad legacies of European colonial practices, reflect the long history of corporate and state-led struggles to control Africa’s valued resources, with China these days an increasingly important player. The factory in northern China or Ohio closes down in part because the factories in the Pearl River delta open up. The call centre in Barbados or Bangalore services customers in Ohio and London and the shirts or skirts worn in Paris have labels from Sri Lanka or Bangladesh, just as the shoes that were once made in Italy now come from Vietnam.


The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

That time of crisis and disintegration is still close enough to living memory that its phases, rather than the period as a whole, have names we recognize: the First World War, the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed it, the rise to power of European fascism starting with Mussolini’s March on Rome in 1922, the bubble economy of the 1920s, the global Great Depression of the Thirties, the Second World War, and after it, the implosion of the last European colonial empires and the birth of nearly half of today’s independent nations. 63 64 T he E cotechnic F u t u re These events drew much of their momentum from one of the most sweeping changes in modern history: the end of European dominance over the rest of the planet. In 1914, most of the Earth’s land surface was either ruled from a European capital or was controlled by nations founded by European immigrants.9 By 1954, that state of affairs was no longer true.


pages: 342 words: 88,736

The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis by Ruth Defries

agricultural Revolution, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, double helix, European colonialism, food miles, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, out of africa, planetary scale, premature optimization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, social intelligence, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Land is a limited quantity, and the land that will grow wheat is absolutely dependent on difficult and capricious natural phenomena.” According to his calculations and extrapolations, land was too scarce to produce enough wheat to satisfy “the great Caucasian race,” which he claimed included “the peoples of Europe, United States, British America, the white inhabitants of South Africa, Australia, parts of South America, and the white population of the European colonies.” He estimated that the number of bread-eaters was increasing “more than 6,000,000 per annum, necessitating annual additions to the bread supply nearly one-half greater than sufficed twenty-five years ago.” “What are our prospects of obtaining this amount?” he asked. Crookes’s motives in posing the question were not all benign—one could say they were chauvinistic, if not bordering on racist: “We are born wheat eaters. . . .


pages: 1,293 words: 357,735

The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance by Laurie Garrett

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, biofilm, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of penicillin, double helix, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, global village, indoor plumbing, invention of air conditioning, John Snow's cholera map, land reform, Live Aid, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, phenotype, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, South China Sea, the scientific method, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Zimmermann PGP

A mood of activism and boldness infected the usually staid halls of medical schools internationally, inspiring would-be physicians like Tarantola to dream of a world in which villagers in Burkina Faso had as much a right to expect an eighty-year life span as did les parisiennes bourgeois. When young doctors like Tarantola looked around the world for inspiration in the 1960s, they saw people nearly their own age leading revolutions against the old European colonial powers, taking control of governments and debating the creation of new types of social orders. Like many European and American idealists, Tarantola thought that with enough energy and Western money, just about anything was possible “if there is political will.” It was with that zeal that he approached his work in the Fada N’Gourma Rural Hospital in Burkina Faso, developing a grass-roots primary health care system that radically reduced infectious disease problems in the area.

No hue and cry of protest was raised by any other African government. Thousands of Indians, most of whom had spent all their lives in East Africa, fled not only Uganda but the continent as a whole.29 Though such problems plagued all the poor nations on the planet, they were particularly acute in Africa because of its severe political and military instability. Nowhere else in the world were governments so recently freed from centuries of European colonialism. The Portuguese colonies of Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde only gained independence in the mid-1970s, after more than a decade of bloody civil war. In the southern part of the continent, warfare and instability would persist until the fates of Rhodesia, South Africa, Angola, and Southwest Africa were decided. CENTRAL EAST AFRICA To the north of those countries (which would eventually be named Zimbabwe, South Africa, Angola, and Namibia, respectively), lay a string of majority-ruled independent states sworn to boycott the still white-ruled southern states and support their various liberation movements.

Netter, AIDS in the World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 127–32. 12 Earlier circumstantial evidence led Joseph Needham to conclude that China had leprosy prior to A.D. 500, but skeletal studies found no clear leprotic remains in Asia until well after the medieval leprosy epidemic of Europe. See V. Moller-Christensen. “Evidence of Leprosy in Earlier Peoples,” in Brothwell and Sandison, eds. (1967), op. cit. Indeed, the greatest leprosy epidemics of Asia followed European colonialism of the region during the eighteenth century. 13 For these and many other cogent details on the history of tuberculosis, see F. Ryan, The Forgotten Plague: How the Battle Against Tuberculosis Was Won—and Lost (Boston: Little, Brown, 1993; and R. Dubos, “Tuberculosis,” Scientific American 181 (1949): 31–40. 14 J. B. Bass, Jr., L. S. Farer, P. C. Hopewell, et al., “Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis: Official Statement of the American Thoracic Society,” American Review of Respiratory Diseases 142 (1990): 725–35. 15 R.


The Rise and Fall of the British Nation: A Twentieth-Century History by David Edgerton

active measures, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, Donald Davies, double helix, endogenous growth, Etonian, European colonialism, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, imperial preference, James Dyson, knowledge economy, labour mobility, land reform, land value tax, manufacturing employment, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, packet switching, Philip Mirowski, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, trade liberalization, union organizing, very high income, wages for housework, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor

Adam Tooze, The Deluge: The Great War, America and the Remaking of the Global Order, 1916–1931 (London, 2014), chapter 20. 13. Frederick Cooper, Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History (Oakland, California, 2005), pp. 142–8; Jon Wilson, India Conquered: Britain’s Raj and the Chaos of Empire (London, 2016). 14. See Martin Thomas, Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge, 2012), chapter 9. 15. Ben Taylor, ‘Science and the British Police Service: Surveillance, Intelligence and the Rise of the Professional Police Officer, 1930–2000’ (PhD thesis, King’s College London, 2015). 16. Tooze, Deluge. 17. Joe Maiolo, Cry Havoc: The Arms Race and the Second World War, 1931–1941 (London, 2010). 18. This is very clear in the Daily Mail/British Movietone News film on the election: story no. 6263A, British Movietone News Archive, available at http://www.movietone.com/assets/BMN0267/wmv/BMN_6263A_3.wmv, combined with Pathé Gazette, General Election Battle 1935, British Pathé, film ID: 859.05, available at https://www.britishpathe.com/video/general-election-battle-1/query/85905, accessed 12 January 2018. 19.

.), Women, Privilege and Power (London, 2001). Thomas, Geraint, ‘Political Modernity and “Government” in the Construction of Inter-war Democracy: Local and National Encounters’, in Laura Beers and Geraint Thomas (eds.), Brave New World: Imperial and Democratic Nation-building in Britain between the Wars (London, 2011). Thomas, Martin, Violence and Colonial Order: Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940 (Cambridge, 2012). —, Fight or Flight: Britain, France, and Their Roads from Empire (Oxford, 2014). Thomas, William, Rational Action: The Sciences of Policy in Britain and America, 1940–1960 (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2015). Thompson, Andrew (ed.), Britain’s Experience of Empire in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 2012). Thompson, E. P., ‘The Peculiarities of the English’, Socialist Register (1965), reprinted in The Poverty of Theory (London, 1978). —, ‘Notes on Exterminism: The Last Stage of Civilization’, New Left Review 1 (May–June 1980).


America in the World by Robert B. Zoellick

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Corn Laws, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hypertext link, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty

While waiting, Jefferson, brimming with plans for the new republic, wrote thirty-one reports in four months, including a paper on coinage that led to the adoption of the dollar and decimal system.1 On March 1, 1784, Jefferson presented a committee plan for the governance of the trans-Appalachian territories. Jefferson viewed these lands as vital to U.S. security; they offered “defense in depth” against neighboring European colonies. Jefferson had helped organize Virginia’s military expedition to seize the Illinois country, and as governor had ceded vast real estate to the Confederation’s Western Reserve. But security required settlement.2 The key principle of Jefferson’s committee report was that new lands should become coequal states with the original thirteen. Indeed, in seeking states of approximately the same size, Jefferson recommended fourteen new states, even outnumbering the thirteen of the Revolution, and giving the entrants more votes than their predecessors under the Articles of Confederation.3 This powerful republican principle was not Jefferson’s alone, although he had first included it in a draft constitution for Virginia in 1776.

The United States annexed Hawaii in 1898, and in 1959, Congress added Hawaii as the fiftieth state. Michael Green, the author of a recent wide-ranging and insightful history of America’s “Grand Strategy” in the Asia Pacific, traces the U.S. rise as a Pacific power to Seward’s multidimensional vision of “military strength, trade, and republican values.” The secretary of state recognized Japan and China as potential independent powers, and sought to thwart European colonial moves on Korea while initiating commercial ties. The Burlingame Treaty of 1868 was China’s first “equal” treaty with a Western power.56 Given Seward’s experiences with Santo Domingo, the Trent crisis, and Mexico, it is no surprise that the secretary’s strategic eye observed the Caribbean, too. His travel there in January 1866 on a navy steamship was the first official trip by a secretary of state outside the United States.


pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

In recent decades, the most significant movements to cities have come in Africa and Asia. Karachi has been a destination for some of the most dramatic migrations of all. No one metropolis could capture the full variety of the world’s growing cities, but Karachi is representative in several ways. It’s on the Asian coastline, where massive urban growth is under way. Its modern foundations were laid during the age of European colonialism. Its great expansion coincided with the postwar collapse of empire, when industrialization attracted people to the city—as did the desperation of people seeking shelter from political or economic catastrophes. And it’s surprising to learn how often Karachi’s course has been influenced by trends, ideas, or investment from other cities. It’s a listening post where we can take in a global conversation.


pages: 334 words: 100,201

Origin Story: A Big History of Everything by David Christian

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cepheid variable, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, complexity theory, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, demographic transition, double helix, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, nuclear winter, planetary scale, rising living standards, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, Yogi Berra

(Within a year, another seventy thousand had died from injuries and radiation.) On August 9, 1945, a similar weapon was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. Act 3 includes the second half of the twentieth century and the early twenty-first century. From the bloodbath of the world wars, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the first global superpowers. There were many local wars, most aimed at overthrowing European colonial rule. But there were no more major international wars during the era of the Cold War. By now, all powers understood that there would be no victors in a nuclear war. But there were some close shaves. Soon after the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, President John Kennedy admitted that the odds of an all-out nuclear war had been “between one out of three and even.”1 The four decades after World War II witnessed the most remarkable spurt of economic growth in human history.


pages: 308 words: 99,298

Brexit, No Exit: Why in the End Britain Won't Leave Europe by Denis MacShane

3D printing, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Gini coefficient, greed is good, illegal immigration, James Dyson, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mont Pelerin Society, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reshoring, road to serfdom, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Thales and the olive presses, trade liberalization, transaction costs, women in the workforce

I was struck during the Brexit plebiscite campaign, in all the debates I engaged in with Conservative MPs and MEPs and with pro-Brexit commentators and economists, how very early on in their arguments against Europe there would be an attack on Germany as a new hegemon that was twisting the EU and the euro to be instruments of German Machtpolitik. It led the leftist economics academic Jamie Galbraith to describe Greece as a ‘European colony’, the kind of leftwing demagogy about Europe that was as damaging to any clear understanding of the EU as the rightist demagogy of a Nigel Farage or Boris Johnson. The media establishment, in the sense of the papers owned by proprietors who paid no tax in the UK, such as the Daily Mail, the Daily Telegraph, the Sun, The Times and their Sunday sister papers, were relentlessly hostile to the EU.


pages: 329 words: 102,469

Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Education is often heavily influenced by Islamist sects, such as the Wahhabis in Saudi Arabia. Under the guise of semi-Western constitutional forms, distended royal families, clans, and tribes rule through the old virtue of asabiyya, defined by a great historian of the Arab peoples, Albert Hourani, as “solidarity directed toward acquiring and keeping power.”38 They have been encouraged or at least tolerated in these ways by the West for much of the twentieth century. European colonial powers originally drew the arbitrary frontiers of their states, installed some of their ancestors as rulers, and sought to preserve cozy client relationships even after decolonization: the British with the King of Jordan, the French with the King of Morocco, and so on. The anticolonial United States has for decades been prepared to treat the oil-producing Arab countries as “a big dumb gas station,” in Thomas Friedman’s striking phrase.39 If an Arab country does hold an election there is now always a danger that a radical Islamist party will come to power—and then it might be “one man, one vote, once.”


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

While there was a vocal, idealistic faction hoping to include language about human rights and the equality of nations, the colonial powers resisted, hoping to protect their economic interests and ensure that their territorial interests would stay profitable. For all of his own high-minded rhetoric about international peace and unity, Otlet struggled to reconcile these noble sentiments with the fact of widespread European colonialism and Belgium’s own continued vested interest in the Congo. In The End of War, he devoted a section to “international territories” or colonies, asserting that “the African continent is a completely international domain.” Echoing Leopold’s humanistic rationalizations for his exploitation of the indigenous population, Otlet characterized the entire European project in Africa as “a great civilizing mission,” one born of friendship toward the native populations and predicated on a respect for their religious beliefs, family structures, and property rights—and, in the process, “making them appreciate the benefits of civilization.”17 Africa aside, for the rest of the world, Otlet prescribed a new order, one based on respect for individual rights, protection of nationalities, races, and religions, and a federation of nations to safeguard those rights.


Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood

British Empire, delayed gratification, European colonialism, lateral thinking, neurotypical, urban sprawl, wage slave

Already they’re running up his arms, the black kind and the vicious little yellow kind. Surprising what a sharp sting they can give, especially the yellow ones. He rubs them away. “It is the strict adherence to daily routine that tends towards the maintenance of good morale and the preservation of sanity,” he says out loud. He has the feeling he’s quoting from a book, some obsolete, ponderous directive written in aid of European colonials running plantations of one kind or another. He can’t recall ever having read such a thing, but that means nothing. There are a lot of blank spaces in his stub of a brain, where memory used to be. Rubber plantations, coffee plantations, jute plantations. (What was jute?) They would have been told to wear solar topis, dress for dinner, refrain from raping the natives. It wouldn’t have said raping.


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

They opposed South Africa’s entry into the Second World War, quietly supporting the Axis. But three years after the war’s end, in 1948, an assertive Afrikaner party, the National Party, won South Africa’s elections for the first time. With this victory began the period of legally enforced “apartness” or, in Afrikaans, apartheid. Before 1948, South Africa’s white rule was not unlike that in other European colonies in Africa, such as Algeria or Kenya. Apartheid, though, was a different beast: the most legally elaborate, and stiflingly oppressive, system of minority rule in the world. Blacks couldn’t move freely about the country, own land in the vast majority of it, work in skilled trades, join unions, have sex with or marry whites, or even, at apartheid’s peak, learn mathematics in school. What was the point, mused apartheid’s great architect, Hendrik Verwoerd, in teaching a subject they could never use?


pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

(Only France, with its limited navy, proved incapable of expanding in quite the same way, leading finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert to invent the concept of French luxury and achieve expansion through exports. “French fashions must be France’s answers to Spain’s gold mines in Peru,” he declared.)22 Once the overt conquests of nations and the subjugation of their people was no longer feasible, the West achieved the same thing through more virtual means. After World War II, the last of the European colonies—such as India and Palestine—were proving ungovernable. The creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund gave Western powers a new way to expand their economies without actually taking over countries. Instead, in the name of liberating these regions, they would lend large sums to so-called developing nations, at interest. In return for the privilege of going into debt, the borrowing nations would also be required to open themselves to unrestricted trade with lending nations’ corporations.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Yet it is this refusal to accommodate moderate national feeling that has reinvigorated some of those demons in the more extreme populist parties. The Euro crisis has created Greece’s fascistic Golden Dawn. Post-nationalism has turned out to have some of the same group-think qualities as nationalism itself only wrapped in moral self-regard. Unlike the British patriotic left of the Second World War and New Jerusalem period, the post-1960s new left saw nationalism in the context of European colonialism. It was not only part of the apparatus of class oppression but indistinguishable from racism too. And working class national sentiment was merely false consciousness. A narrative of progress, shaped by the history of civil rights reforms in the past few generations, saw the abolition of slavery and the emancipation of women and minorities, as a prelude to the transcending of all exclusive communities—including the nation state.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

It was the ascendant middle class, willing to challenge the aristocracy and even the clergy, that drove democratic reform. As the radical social theorist Barrington Moore said a half century ago, “no bourgeois, no democracy.”56 To be sure, the Western progress toward more democratic governance did not at first give equal rights to all—far from it. Prosperity came partly at the expense of indigenous peoples in European colonies, including those of the Dutch and the British. Belgium’s control of the Congo was particularly heinous, with the use of forced labor from the native residents to serve a small European minority of crony capitalists and government administrators.57 American success was built in part on the destruction of indigenous cultures and a revival of the abhorrent practice of slavery. But these democratic countries were not unique in their cruelty; other colonial expansionists—such as the Russians, the Ch’ing Chinese, and the Japanese—were typically far from gentle.58 Moreover, the places once colonized by Western nations have generally benefited from the legacy of liberal capitalism.


pages: 850 words: 254,117

Basic Economics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, air freight, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, barriers to entry, big-box store, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cross-subsidies, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, late fees, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, payday loans, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty

In colonial Malaya, for example, the tin mines and rubber plantations which provided much of that country’s export earnings were financed by European capital and worked by laborers from China and India, while most local commerce and industry were in the hands of the Chinese, leaving the indigenous Malays largely spectators at the modernization of their own economy. While impartiality is a desirable quality in laws, even laws which are discriminatory can still promote economic development, if the nature of the discrimination is spelled out in advance, rather than taking the form of unpredictably biased and corrupt decisions by judges, juries, and officials. The Chinese and Indians who settled in the European colonial empires of Southeast Asia never had the same legal rights as Europeans there, nor the same rights as the indigenous population. Yet whatever rights they did have could be relied upon, and therefore served as a foundation for the creation of Chinese and Indian businesses throughout the region. Similarly in the Ottoman Empire, Christians and Jews did not have the same rights as Muslims. Yet, during the flourishing centuries of that empire, the rights which Christians and Jews did have were sufficiently dependable to enable them to prosper in commerce, industry, and banking to a greater extent than the Muslim majority.

The Tamils of Sri Lanka, the Bamiléké of Cameroon, the Kabyle Berbers of Algeria, the Kikuyu of Kenya, the Toba Batak of Indonesia, the Ilocano of the Philippines, the Malayalees of Kerala in India, and the Ibo of Nigeria all come from regions too poor to support their populations, and all have unusually high rates of migration to areas outside their home regions, where they have taken up a variety of opportunities in the modern sector.{903} The era of European colonialism put Western education and Western industrial, commercial and administrative skills within reach for groups previously among the poorer indigenous people such as the Ibos in Nigeria and the Tamils in Sri Lanka, who then rose to become more prosperous than others who had been more prosperous before. The resentments of their rise, and the politicized polarizations that followed, led to bloody civil wars in both countries.


pages: 311 words: 17,232

Living in a Material World: The Commodity Connection by Kevin Morrison

addicted to oil, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, commoditize, commodity trading advisor, computerized trading, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, energy security, European colonialism, flex fuel, food miles, Hernando de Soto, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, price mechanism, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, young professional

The summit was held on the 50th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. This time the link was politically very different though – fifty years ago Mao’s China had forged relations with President Nassar of Egypt in what was seen to be an ‘anti-West’ alliance. China’s hunger for raw materials has put a new global power in Africa, which is still dealing with the legacy of European colonialism; nowhere more so than the Congo, which is once again the focus of international companies wanting to tap its riches. Doing the Congo Congo is unique in terms of colonialism. It became the private property of King Leopold II, constitutional monarch of Belgium, and the absolute ruler of the Congo during the 1880s, but there was no legal link between the two countries until 1908, when it was renamed the Belgian Congo (Wauters, 1930).


pages: 392 words: 104,760

Babel No More: The Search for the World's Most Extraordinary Language Learners by Michael Erard

Asperger Syndrome, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, complexity theory, European colonialism, pattern recognition, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Skype, Steven Pinker, theory of mind

Historical and economic forces also make up an important part of the story, not only by determining which languages one learns and what one does with them, but by calling forth and channeling the neurological traits that serve learning, speaking, and using a lot of languages. Such forces also shape who happens to have access to what opportunities for school, travel, and even literacy. Recall how European wars provided Mezzofanti with sick soldiers in polyglot hospitals, and how European colonialism gave young Cameroonian men the need to learn more languages. Clearly, the brain is an important part of the story, and hyperpolyglots seem to have unusual neurological origins. Maybe this looks like a nostalgic return to the era when people believed in elite brains, but it’s not. The new neuroscience is locating the neural signatures of high performance, figuring out how to manipulate the plasticity of specific brain systems, and trying to understand the genetic factors that impact cognitive abilities as well as disabilities.


Lonely Planet Jamaica by Lonely Planet

British Empire, buttonwood tree, carbon footprint, estate planning, European colonialism, food miles, jitney, Kickstarter, talking drums, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning

Conquest, sugar and slavery led to the island becoming Britain’s wealthiest colony, yet internal resistance helped create a national identity that led to reform and the path to independence. It's a history that has left its mark on the island, but the passion and the perseverance of its people, which have made the island and its culture so vital, still leads Jamaicans to work toward a stronger future. The Story of the Jamaican People by Philip Sherlock and Hazel Bennett offers a new interpretation of Jamaica’s history centering on Afro-Caribbean culture rather than European colonialism. Xaymaca The Caribbean was inhabited long before Christopher Columbus sailed into view, colonized by a successive wave of island-hopping incomers originally from South America. Most notable were the Arawaks, and then the Taínos who first settled ‘Xaymaca’ (‘land of wood and water’) around AD 700–800. The Taínos were both farmers and seafarers, living in large chiefdoms called caciques, and honing their skills as potters, carvers, weavers and boat builders.


pages: 341 words: 111,525

Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher

airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Live Aid, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

The greatest shame arising from Stanley's Congo journey was how it started this pattern of sovereignty-stripping, a process whereby the vast majority of Africans in the Congo and elsewhere have ended up not just without any say in the running of their country, but abused and exploited by their African leaders. While outsiders led by Stanley can be blamed for creating this situation, the people of Africa must share responsibility for showing themselves unable to change it. The Malaysian naval officer on my river boat was right to ask why former European colonies in Asia have been able to develop since independence, while those in Africa have regressed. The cruelty and greed of African dictators is mostly to blame, but it is also true that the peoples of Africa have not been capable of working together to rein in the excesses of dictators. People power in Africa has a wretched record. The challenge for the future must be to restore some sense of sovereignty and control to all in Africa, not just the elite.


pages: 396 words: 107,814

Is That a Fish in Your Ear?: Translation and the Meaning of Everything by David Bellos

Clapham omnibus, Claude Shannon: information theory, Douglas Hofstadter, Etonian, European colonialism, haute cuisine, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, natural language processing, Republic of Letters, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, speech recognition

They work into languages they have learned long after the critical age of language acquisition—they are what we termed L2 translators see here of this book. They therefore run the same kind of risk of creating unintentionally comical or offensive effects as do the creators of international signage in Croatian seaside hotels. Nida’s main concern was to try to ensure they did not. Bible translation into non-European languages, which began with European colonial expansion as early as the seventeenth century, was highly inventive from the start. Albert Cornelius Ruyl, a junior trader in the Dutch East India Company with unusual linguistic skills, first taught himself Malay—a regional contact language—when he began his service in Sumatra. He wrote a grammar, then translated the Gospel of Matthew from Dutch. Ruyl altered and adapted Malay as he went along, using words from Arabic, Portuguese, and Sanskrit when he knew no corresponding term in Malay.


Capitalism, Alone: The Future of the System That Rules the World by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, means of production, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, purchasing power parity, remote working, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

It directly caused the communist revolution of 1917 and thus led to the establishment of an alternative socioeconomic system that represented, for the better part of the twentieth century, a serious and credible challenge to capitalism. It also produced—with a delay of some twenty years, in its continuation known as World War II—a diminution in the global importance of Europe and the rise of the United States to the position of a global hegemon. And it almost certainly accelerated the process of decolonization, in part by weakening European colonial powers and in part by delegitimizing their rule. World War I did not just come out of the blue: its seeds were contained in conditions prevailing before the war. As John Hobson (1902) originally argued, the European imperialism that ultimately led to the war arose because of high domestic inequality in income and wealth generated by globalized capitalism. Lots of income in the hands of the rich (whose average propensity to consume is low) caused a disproportion between the (high) amount of savings and the availability of profitable domestic investments.


pages: 370 words: 111,129

Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India by Shashi Tharoor

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate raider, deindustrialization, European colonialism, global village, informal economy, joint-stock company, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Parkinson's law, trade route

The prolonged state of chronic hostility between India and Pakistan, punctuated by four bloody wars and the repeated infliction of cross-border terrorism as a Pakistani tactic against India, is the most obvious example. But there are others. The dramatic events in East Timor in 1999 led to the last major transfer of power to an independence movement. Yet at least closure has occurred there, unlike in Western Sahara or in those old standbys of Cyprus and Palestine, all messy legacies of European colonialism. Fuses lit in the colonial era could ignite again, as they have done, much to everyone’s surprise, in the Horn of Africa, between Ethiopia and Eritrea, where war broke out over a colonial border that the Italians of an earlier era of occupation had failed to define with enough precision and where peace simmers today amidst much uncertainty. The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, by which the British and the French agreed to carve up the former Ottoman territories between themselves and which set the boundaries between independent Syria and Iraq, is another relic of colonial history that haunts us today.


pages: 1,042 words: 273,092

The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan

access to a mobile phone, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, Stuxnet, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, yield management, Yom Kippur War

The British learnt to intervene judiciously, taking advantage of circumstances that were in their favour, but staying out of it when the dice were loaded against them. It was also becoming clear that what happened in Europe could determine one’s fate on the other side of the world. Intense arguments about who would inherit the throne of Austria could have consequences that led to fighting and exchanges of territory in European colonies all over the world: the issue of the legitimacy of Maria-Theresa’s succession in the 1740s provoked outbreaks of fighting from the Americas to the Indian subcontinent that lasted nearly a decade. The result when matters were finally settled in 1748 was that Cap Breton in Canada and Madras in India changed hands between the French and the British. This was just one example of how competition between European powers had effects on the other side of the world.

Monteil, Discours sur l’histoire universelle (al-Muqaddima), (Paris, 1978), p. 522. 16Frankopan, First Crusade, pp. 29–30. 17E. Occhipinti, Italia dei communi. Secoli XI–XIII (2000), pp. 20–1. 18J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 (Cambridge, 1997), p. 17. 19The Monk of the Lido, Monachi Anonymi Littorensis Historia de Translatio Sanctorum Magni Nicolai, in Recueil des Historiens des Croisades: Historiens Occidentaux 5, pp. 272–5; J. Prawer, The Crusaders’ Kingdom: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages (London, 2001), p. 489. 20Codice diplomatico della repubblica di Genova, 3 vols (Rome, 1859–1940), 1, p. 20. 21B. Kedar, ‘Genoa’s Golden Inscription in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre: A Case for the Defence’, in G. Airaldi and B. Kedar (eds), I comuni italiani nel regno crociato di Gerusalemme (Genoa, 1986), pp. 317–35. Also see M.-L. Favreau-Lilie, who argues that this document may have been tampered with at a later date, Die Italiener im Heiligen Land vom ersten Kreuzzug bis zum Tode Heinrichs von Champagne (1098–1197) (Amsterdam, 1989), p. 328. 22Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, 25 vols (Bologna, 1938–58), 12, p. 221.


George Marshall: Defender of the Republic by David L. Roll

anti-communist, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, David Brooks, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Trump, European colonialism, fear of failure, invisible hand, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, one-China policy, one-state solution, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

The incident was used as a pretext by Japan to take over the whole province by force. Preoccupied with the Depression, America’s diplomatic reaction was timid, and the League of Nations refused to impose sanctions on Japan. This weak response encouraged the Japanese government to withdraw from the League and foreshadowed wider aggression by Japan that would spread to the rest of China and the European colonies in East Asia. In Germany, former corporal Adolf Hitler engineered a political revolution by captivating German voters, especially the country’s six million unemployed, with his message of national redemption. Hitler was a singularly gifted speaker and performer. Between 1928 and 1932, his Nazi Party shocked the German establishment by increasing its share of the vote in the Reichstag (parliament) from 2.6 percent to 37.4 percent.

The imminence of war in Europe reverberated in the Far East. In China, Japanese armies continued advancing south, capturing the city of Nanchang on March 27. In the South China Sea, Japan’s naval forces annexed a necklace of strategically situated islands that lay athwart sea lanes to Singapore and the island of Luzon in the Philippines. As proclaimed by its foreign ministry, the Japanese were pursuing a “New Order”—one that threatened European colonies in Southeast Asia as well as the Philippines. Facing the probability of having to defend their respective homelands in Europe, the British and French navies were not large enough to also protect their resource-rich possessions in Asia against Japanese attack. On or about March 19, the president received a note through diplomatic back channels from British foreign secretary Lord Halifax suggesting that he should consider moving the U.S. fleet to Hawaii in the event war should break out in Europe.


A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories) by Barbara D. Metcalf, Thomas R. Metcalf

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, commoditize, demand response, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Silicon Valley, spice trade, telemarketer, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

In the civil lines area, existing villages were removed and replaced with paved streets and covered gutters, set out on a grid pattern and lined with newly planted avenues of trees. Population density was very low, with European residents living in ‘bungalows’, a distinctive colonial housing style meant to provide ventilation and protection from heat, in plots that could be as large as 10 acres (plate 4.3). The civil lines contained the buildings around which European colonial society revolved: government offices, the club, polo field, church, and shops. Social life – visiting, balls, certain sporting events, social drinking – were modelled on upper-class behaviour and were exclusively European. The military cantonment, again laid out on a regular grid, was directly north of the old city and, to further reassure the European civilian population, immediately adjacent to their residential 110 A Concise History of Modern India Plate 4.3 Bungalow, Civil Lines, Allahabad, photograph 1866.


pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, creative destruction, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, off grid, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

Few people in the rest of the world saw much improvement. A huge health gap emerged, mirroring the huge gaps in wealth, education, and other aspects of human welfare that arose in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The rich countries saw enormous gains, while poor countries were left behind. This dynamic began to change in the middle of the twentieth century. Following the end of World War II and the European colonial period, knowledge about good health practices, alongside critical medicines and vaccines, began to spread to developing countries. Child deaths began to fall, disease morbidity began to decline, and life expectancy began to increase, even in most of the world’s poorest countries. The combination of the dramatic declines in infant mortality, reductions in maternal mortality, and fewer deaths from malaria, tuberculosis, measles, and other diseases is translating into much longer and healthier lives.


pages: 425 words: 116,409

Hidden Figures by Margot Lee Shetterly

affirmative action, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, éminence grise

Philip Randolph, an avowed socialist who preached a fiery sermon in favor of fair employment and civil rights legislation in front of a packed audience in Norfolk in 1950, was careful in his speeches to denounce Communism as antithetical to the interests of the Negro people. Paul Robeson, Josephine Baker, and W. E. B. Du Bois were among the black leaders to draw a connection between America’s treatment of its Negro citizens and European colonialism. They traveled abroad and made speeches declaring their solidarity with the peoples of India, Ghana, and other countries that were in the early days of new regimes as independent nations or pushing with all their might to get there by agitating against their colonial rulers. The US government went so far as to restrict or revoke these firebrands’ passports, hoping to blunt the impact of their criticism of American domestic policy in the newly independent countries that the United States was eager to persuade to join its side in the Cold War.


pages: 457 words: 125,329

Value of Everything: An Antidote to Chaos The by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cleantech, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, European colonialism, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, Google Hangouts, Growth in a Time of Debt, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, rent control, rent-seeking, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software patent, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

In the fourth century BC, Aristotle distinguished a variety of more or less virtuous jobs, depending on the class (citizen or slave) of the ancient Greek polis dweller.1 In the New Testament, the apostle Matthew reported that Jesus said it was ‘easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God'.2 During the Middle Ages, the Church disparaged and even denounced moneylenders and merchants who ‘bought cheap and sold dear';3 while they may not have been lazy, they were considered unproductive and vile. Pre-modern definitions of what work was or was not useful were never clear-cut. With the onset of colonialism in the sixteenth century these definitions became even more blurred. European colonial conquest and the protection of trade routes with newly annexed lands were expensive. Governments had to find the money for armies, bureaucracies and the purchase of exotic merchandise. But help seemed to be at hand: extraordinary amounts of gold and silver were discovered in the Americas, and a vast treasure poured into Europe. As these precious metals represented wealth and prosperity, it seemed that whoever bought, owned and controlled the supply of them and the currencies minted from them was engaged in productive activities.


pages: 422 words: 119,123

To the Edges of the Earth: 1909, the Race for the Three Poles, and the Climax of the Age of Exploration by Edward J. Larson

back-to-the-land, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Livingstone, I presume, Scientific racism, the scientific method, trade route, yellow journalism

When time proved too short for both reaching the pole and prospecting in the Dry Valley, the orders gave David grounds for pushing on toward the pole over the initial objections of Mawson, who wanted to prospect in the Dry Valley, and the later pleas of Mackay, who lost all faith that they could reach the pole. The magnetic poles held a strong attraction for scientists and explorers during the Victorian era, though this had weakened by the turn of the twentieth century. Shackleton and Mawson were men of a new era; David was not. During the nineteenth century, scientific organizations and governments across Europe and in the European colonies had launched a global crusade to map the curved lines and shifting patterns of terrestrial magnetism to their convergences at the magnetic poles. It became the largest shared scientific enterprise to date, with three magnetic observatories erected with British funds in Australia alone. Navigation by compass had always required knowledge of the variation between the magnetic and geographic poles, but the discovery in the early 1800s of a relationship between current electricity and magnetic fields added to the interest in terrestrial magnetism.


The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah

Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl

They compared the specimens they found to illustrations in expensive, hand-colored and copper-engraved volumes to figure out if anyone had encountered them before, and if so, what they’d called them. But with Linnaeus’s taxonomy, they didn’t need that anymore. “Take a bird or a lizard or a flower28 from Patagonia or the South Seas, perhaps one that had had a local name for centuries, rechristen it with a Latin binomial, and presto!” writes the essayist Anne Fadiman. It became a tiny European colony. Linnaean taxonomy was a “form of mental colonising and empire-building,” a potent tool in Europe’s campaigns of conquest, writes the historian Richard Holmes. Any living creature anywhere could be fit into its order. Luminaries and royal patrons29 from across the continent called on the celebrated naturalist, bearing gifts of exotic animals to add to his menagerie, which included cockatoos, peacocks, a cassowary, four kinds of parrots, an orangutan, monkeys, an agouti, and a raccoon.


pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman

British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

Instead, the imperial mentality found comfort in the revolutionary doctrine of evolution. The anxiety which racked the Church on discovering that, in Darwin’s resonant sentence, ‘Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin’ did not shake the conviction of superiority very much. Indeed, in The Descent of Man, Darwin appeared to offer an evolutionary justification for European colonialism. Starting from the premise that ‘the western nations of Europe … now so immeasurably surpass their former savage progenitors, [that they] stand at the summit of civilization’, he determined that ‘the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the savage races through the world’. Indeed, perhaps the most curious thing of all was the superiority he claimed in seeing descent from a ‘heroic little monkey’ or ‘an old baboon’ instead of from ‘a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practises infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions’.


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Moreover, the two strongest powers, the U.S. and the Soviet Union, seemed to stand on the anti-imperialist side. The U.S. had long pursued an “open door” policy advocating formal independence for developing countries. The Soviet Union had denounced imperialism since its birth in 1917, and the communist movement it led had wide appeal in parts of the colonial world as a result. Nevertheless, the European colonial powers tried to hang on to their possessions as long as they could. Britain did finally “quit India” in 1947, but fought insurgents in Kenya, Cyprus, and Malaya before granting those countries independence. France fought losing, divisive wars in Indochina and Algeria to retain its bit of imperial gloire. Still, around the world the tide of history was clearly running in favor of self-determination.


pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

In recent decades the same blackmail from history that has afflicted modern Europe has also been assumed by a group of noticeably homogeneous nations. What is striking is that all of the other countries expected to suffer for the same sins are countries for whose creation Europe is blamed, so that the impression appears to be that the stain of the Europeans criss-crosses the whole world. Whereas for contemporary Europeans, colonialism is just one of our middle-ranking, midway sins, for Australians colonialism has become the nation’s founding, original sin. And not because like European nations it stands accused of having plundered other countries in its search for wealth, but because it stands accused of plundering itself – of being a colonialist project still sitting on its colony. For Australia colonialism is said to have started at home.


pages: 382 words: 127,510

Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire by Simon Winchester

borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, laissez-faire capitalism, offshore financial centre, sensible shoes, South China Sea, special economic zone, the market place

(Britain’s European possessions have never been numerous, despite convenience and closeness. She had Heligoland in the North Sea, and from Port Mahon in Minorca the Royal Navy ran the Balearic Islands. There were the Ionian Islands, and Malta, of course, and Cyprus (though hardly a European possession). And the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, which are not colonies, but direct dependencies of the Crown and lie outside the United Kingdom. Gibraltar is the only unquestioned European colony that remains, and is definitely the only British Imperial possession that there ever has been on the continent of Europe itself.) It took the best part of a week to climb up from the valley of the Guadalquivir to the limestone mountain chain of which Gibraltar was an outlier. I had to pass through tuna-fishing villages, where I would sip ice-cold fino and discuss the price of albacore; I stopped for half a day to inspect the great lighthouse at Cape Trafalgar—where it turned out that only one of a dozen Andalucians I questioned had ever heard of Nelson, or Villeneuve, most Spaniards evidently preferring to linger on Spain’s victories rather than her defeats.


pages: 503 words: 126,355

Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David by Lawrence Wright

Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Mahatma Gandhi, open borders, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

Eisenhower had little support in Congress for his threat to impose sanctions and withhold aid if the Israelis did not withdraw unconditionally, so he took his argument to the American people. “If we agreed that armed attack can properly achieve the purposes of the assailant, then I fear we will have turned back the clock of international order,” the president said in a nationally televised address. Ben-Gurion finally bowed to the pressure. The 1956 war, called the Suez Crisis in the West and the Tripartite Aggression in Egypt, stands as a tombstone for European colonialism. The unintended consequences for the aggressors were shattering. Both the British and the French governments fell within months of their ignominious departure from Egypt, when their countries were made to step back from long-standing roles as leading players on the world stage and merge into the chorus. In any case, the entire concept of Great Powers was obliterated by the emergence of the superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, each declaring a vital interest in the Middle East.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

In many cases, as Said of course knew, this white middle-class Westerner was the person reading Orientalism.26 Had Orientalism been only a book about Europe, its impact would have been mostly retrospective and scholarly. Said would have added a literary dimension to the enormous scholarship on empire building. In the mid-1970s, when Said was putting Orientalism together, France and Britain had dropped back from the imperial scene, their major colonies long gone. Only a handful of formally European colonies still remained. What gave Orientalism its savor and its political punch was Said’s inclusion of the United States with France and Britain: “since World War II America has dominated the Orient, and approached it as France and Britain once did,” Said writes. The American separation from Europe, the Wilsonian attempt to democratize European foreign policy, and the Cold War contrasts of Western liberty versus Soviet tyranny—Truman’s contrasts, Eisenhower’s contrasts, Kennedy’s contrasts—were a nonsense version of modern history to Said.


Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

The head of Israel’s Northern Command, General Avigdor Ben Gal, described the Arabs of Galilee (within Israel proper) as “a cancer in Israel’s body” an attitude echoed in references to the “underpopulated Galilee” (Irving Howe), meaning that the Galilee has too few Jews (but too many Arab citizens, Israel fears). Others fulminate over the Arab “crazed in the distinctive ways of his culture” and committed to “pointless” though “momentarily gratifying” acts of “bloodlust” (New Republic editor Martin Peretz) .23 These persistent attitudes, familiar throughout the history of European colonialism, help us understand what is happening today The Israeli editor Yigal Schwartz, on completing his tour as a reserve officer in the West Bank, described the prevailing attitude among the military Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Palestinian Uprising 806 as based on the assumption that they are dealing with “primitive people, Indians, whom it is our duty to educate and discipline,” teaching them that “they are children and we are parents who educate them,” with the rod if necessary.

Visiting Gaza shortly before the uprising, Prime Minister Shamir called city officials and notables to meet him, left them waiting outdoors before a locked door, and when they were finally allowed their say, abruptly informed them that Israel would never leave Gaza and departed; “humiliation from this source has a definite political significance,” Hareven adds, and did not pass unnoticed among people who have learned that “the Jews understand nothing but force.”38 These are the conditions of everyday life, more telling than the corpses and broken bones. The similarity to the deep South in its worst days is plain enough. The phenomenon is typical of European colonialism, for example George Washington, who referred to the “merciless Indian savages” of the Declaration of Independence as “beasts of prey, tho’ they differ in shape,” who must be treated accordingly39 Today, extraordinary comments pass virtually unnoticed. I will mention only one example, because of its relevance to the elite media here as well. While I was in Israel, Times correspondent Thomas Friedman had lengthy interviews in the Hebrew press in connection with his Pulitzer Prize award for “balanced and informed coverage,” including gross falsification in the service of Israeli rejectionism40 He repeated some of Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Palestinian Uprising 815 the fabrications he has helped establish, for example, that the Palestinians “refuse to come to terms with the existence of Israel, and prefer to offer themselves as sacrifices.”


pages: 1,433 words: 315,911

The Vietnam War: An Intimate History by Geoffrey C. Ward, Ken Burns

anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, friendly fire, Haight Ashbury, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, War on Poverty

He would not return for thirty years. It is impossible to know precisely where he went and what he did over much of that time. In France, he applied for a scholarship to the Colonial School that prepared civil servants to run the empire, hoping, he wrote, that the training he received might benefit his “compatriots.” His application was turned down. He returned to the sea, and witnessed the impact of European colonialism in the African and Asian ports visited by the ships on which he served. He seems to have lived in London for two years, studying English and working at the Carlton Hotel as an assistant to the celebrated chef Auguste Escoffier. He also evidently visited the United States twice, working as a pastry chef at the Parker House in Boston, cooking for a wealthy Brooklyn family, and visiting Harlem to hear Marcus Garvey denounce racism, before turning up in Paris for the peace talks.

., 3.1, 3.2 Elliott, David, 4.1, 6.1 Elliott, Duong Van Mai, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, epl.1 Ellsberg, Daniel, 9.1, 9.2, 9.1, 9.2 Emerson, Henry “Hank,” 4.1, 4.2 “End the Draft” week, 5.1, 5.2 England, see Great Britain English, Lowell Enhance program Episcopal Peace Fellowship Escoffer, Auguste Espionage Act (1917) Europe, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 4.1, 7.1 European colonialism Evanston, Ill. Ewell, Julian J., 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 8.1 Executive Office Building, Washington, D.C., 8.1, 8.2, 9.1 Faas, Horst, 4.1, 8.1, 9.1 Face the Nation Fallows, James Farina, Mimi Fassnacht, Robert Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 9.1 Felt, Harry D. Fenton, James, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3 Feraci, Carole Ferrizzi, Ron, 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 Fifth Infantry Division, U.S., Sixty-first Regiment, First Battalion, Company A Fifty-second Aviation Battalion First Amendment First Cavalry Division, U.S., 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 Third Brigade Seventh Cavalry First Battalion, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1 Second Battalion, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 8.1 Ninth Cavalry, First Squadron, 5.1, 6.1 Eleventh Armored Cavalry Seventeenth Armored Cavalry, F Troop, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 First Indochina War, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1 atrocities in, 1.1, 1.2 China and end of, 1.1, 1.2 French casualties in, 1.1, 1.2 JFK on outbreak of as proxy war U.S. and, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 4.1 see also Dien Bien Phu, battle of First Infantry Division, U.S., 3.1, 8.1 First Marine Division, U.S., 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1 First Military Police Battalion First Regiment, First Battalion, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6 Forward Headquarters Ninth Regiment First Battalion, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 Second Battalion, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 7.1 Fishel, Wesley R.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Learning in Nagasaki By the middle of the nineteenth century, European military might had proven its technological superiority over most of Asia, but one nation, Japan, remained almost completely independent of European control. When American ships showed up in 1853, Japan agreed to open itself to trade with outsiders, but still more or less on its own terms, and within forty years, Japan had thoroughly mastered Western ways and become a formidable power on the world stage. Between 1894 and 1910, the Japanese beat up the Chinese, just like a European colonial power, defeated Russia, and conquered Korea. By the middle of the twentieth century, the Japanese were building ships and airplanes as good as, and sometimes better than, their American counterparts. How could the Japanese catch up to the West so fast? One answer to this question lies in a city: Nagasaki. The first contacts between Japan and the West took place there in 1543, when Portuguese ships landed on the nearby island of Tanegashima.


pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

VOC’s military campaigns in Indonesia were financed by upstanding Dutch burghers who loved their children, gave to charity, and enjoyed good music and fine art, but had no regard for the suffering of the inhabitants of Java, Sumatra and Malacca. Countless other crimes and misdemeanours accompanied the growth of the modern economy in other parts of the planet. The nineteenth century brought no improvement in the ethics of capitalism. The Industrial Revolution that swept through Europe enriched the bankers and capital-owners, but condemned millions of workers to a life of abject poverty. In the European colonies things were even worse. In 1876, King Leopold II of Belgium set up a nongovernmental humanitarian organisation with the declared aim of exploring Central Africa and fighting the slave trade along the Congo River. It was also charged with improving conditions for the inhabitants of the region by building roads, schools and hospitals. In 1885 the European powers agreed to give this organisation control of 2.3 million square kilometres in the Congo basin.


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, Kickstarter, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

Having had two hundred years’ ‘stewardship’ of the subcontinent, it is hard to see how a further two years would have made much of a difference. For Indian leaders of both sides the British were the problem, not the solution. They did not want the British there. Nehru made the point plain: ‘I would rather have every village in India go up in flames than keep a single British soldier in India a moment longer than necessary,’ he said.10 European colonialism was no longer sustainable. And it effectively ended when the Union flag was lowered at the Vice-regal Lodge in Delhi. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, who became Governor-General of India a year after the British left, said that if the British had not transferred power when they did ‘there could well have been no power to transfer.’11 28 ‘Half-Nun, Half-Whore’ On the evening of 16 August, some of the best-known authors in Russia were packed into the lecture hall of the Leningrad Writers’ Union, a beautiful building of classical simplicity just off Nevsky Prospekt, the city’s main thoroughfare.


pages: 436 words: 76

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

Culture and Prosperity {59} Colonies such as India or Indonesia in which immigrants were a minority are not rich states-not even those colonies where settlements were large, as in South Africa, Kenya, or the West Indies. The countries of settlement not only imported technology and institutions from Western Europe: they also imported people familiar with that technology and those institutions. In European colonies the native population was not encouraged-and often, until late stages of colonialism, not permitted-to assimilate and be assimilated by the imported culture. The transfer of technology and institutions was superficial and transitory. But even if the building blocks of the market economy were imported, these new countries had to solve one problem for themselves. By the nature of settlement, there is no established system of property in land when settlers arrive in an empty territory.


pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard

air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, liberation theology, McMansion, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

The IMF was created to deal with financial imbalances between countries: its primary role was to keep the world’s currencies stable and exchangeable in order to support international trade and to provide emergency loans to any country whose economy was in such bad shape that it couldn’t participate in global trade. The World Bank was created specifically to loan money to the governments of countries devastated by World War II so they could rebuild their economies and rejoin global trade. Soon, the World Bank shifted its focus to countries and European colonies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The GATT was a complicated treaty set up to reduce national barriers to trade; in 1995 it was replaced by the international organization known as the World Trade Organization (WTO), which has even broader-reaching powers. Note that these are only the three largest of these organizations; there are dozens of additional multilateral banks, government agencies, and trade agreements that replicate the IMF/World Bank/WTO model in regional or sector-specific forms.104 Although some of the original intentions behind these institutions may have been good, their evolution over the past half century has had disastrous results for the great majority of people on the planet, and for the planet itself.


Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)

big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Sporadic unionorganizing drives at Home Depot, Target, and Wal-Mart stores have met with fierce resistance, often collapsing amid allegations that managers illegally intimidated workers. When Wal-Mart employees in a small town in Quebec became the first to form a union at one of the company’s superstores, the chain retaliated by closing the store and laying oƒ all two hundred employees. This is not a recipe for broad prosperity. Rather, this book contends, the economic structure that mega-retailers are propagating represents a modern variation on the old European colonial system, which was designed not to build economically viable and self-reliant communities, but to extract their wealth and resources. Yet many cities eagerly usher in these corporate colonizers. Some envision a tax windfall, only to discover that these sprawling stores impose a significant burden on public infrastructure and services. Or worse, after their local economies have been bulldozed, they find that they are utterly dependent on a few big boxes that might raise prices, lay oƒ employees, or threaten to move to a neighboring town if they don’t receive a tax break.


pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

Such a process, he argues, is working to gradually unravel a ‘classic and long-lasting distinction between an outer face and an inner face of the colonial condition.’6 It is important to stress, then, that the resurgence of explicitly colonial strategies and techniques amongst nation-states such as the US, UK and Israel in the contemporary ‘post-colonial’ period7 involves not just the deployment of the techniques of the new military urbanism in foreign war-zones but their diffusion and imitation through the securitization of Western urban life. As in the nineteenth century, when European colonial nations imported fingerprinting, panoptic prisons and Haussmannian boulevard-building through neighbourhoods of insurrection to domestic cities after first experimenting with them on colonized frontiers, colonial techniques today operate through what Michel Foucault termed ‘boomerang effects.’8 ‘It should never be forgotten’, Foucault wrote, that while colonization, with its techniques and its political and juridical weapons, obviously transported European models to other continents, it also had a considerable boomerang effect on the mechanisms of power in the West, and on the apparatuses, institutions, and techniques of power.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The logic of the “hand up” paradigm presumes that people universally gain a sense of self-worth through the act of consumption or through the processes by which one becomes a consumer in the first place, namely, one’s (forced) participation in a market economy. and while proclaiming the moral and ontological benefits of earning one’s keep may be a commonly held premise in so-called Western societies, it is highly problematic when one considers, for example, the manner in which it was historically exported onto, or more accurately invaded, the african continent. That is to say, the project of European colonialism was instrumental in teaching these socioeconomic lessons through a combination of brutal forced labor practices, genocidal campaigns, and propaganda efforts aimed at emphasizing both the material and spiritual rewards of market-based labor. One of the commodities enlisted in this dual process of cultural pedagogy and capitalist evangelism was, ironically enough, the bicycle. Historian nancy rose Hunt alludes to the use of bicycles among nurses working with missionary and colonial medical professionals in the Belgian Congo during the 1920s.


pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker

airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

An agreement reached by the nations with ties to Antarctica allows only 100 tourists on the shore at any time and completely prohibits all cruise ships with more than 500 passengers from entering Antarctica’s waters. But Ecuador seems of two minds about tourist restrictions. At the same time, the country is planning to build a new airport to welcome more visitors and boost the $500 million it earns annually from tourists. • • • Since the days of high-riding European colonials, tourism in Africa has been disparaged as an industry that caters to white foreigners who look down on black Africans as “exotic” natives at best. That cultural and racial chasm has been chronicled in numerous anthropological studies. In his description of Maasai dancing staged for tourists in Kenya, the scholar Edward M. Bruner captured this in a series of vignettes. The Sundowner (Hotel) presents Maasai men dancing in the context of an “Out of Africa” cocktail party near an upscale tented safari camp on the Mara reserve.


The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten

Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, different worldview, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, shared worldview, social intelligence, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey

Gradually they build the power to transform or displace the institutions of the dominant culture. The Opportunity 85 Such communities and alliances formed in significant numbers during the latter half of the twentieth century to bring forth great social movements for national independence, human and civil rights, women’s rights, peace, environmental protection, and economic justice. During a period of only fifty years these movements dismantled the prevailing system of European colonial empires, codified human rights in international law, rewrote the legal codes of nations, and redefined the prevailing cultural codes regarding relationships among men and women, races, nations, and species. These alliances are now linking into the most powerful and truly global social movement in the whole of the human experience. Birthing Global Civil Society The alliance-building processes that gave birth to this global metamovement became visible only in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro during the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), at which the world’s heads of state gathered for an Earth Summit.


pages: 513 words: 156,022

Dictatorland: The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, falling living standards, friendly fire, land reform, mandatory minimum, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, Yom Kippur War

* At a conference hall in the Ghanaian capital of Accra, beneath a banner which read ‘Hands off Africa, Africa must be free!’, sat a combative intellectual who had attained near-prophetic status among the leaders of independence movements across the continent. The previous year, on 6 March 1957, Kwame Nkrumah had wrestled the Gold Coast from the hands of the British to become the first prime minister of the newly named Republic of Ghana, one of the earliest of the former European colonies to achieve independence. His struggle had been a nonviolent, attritional campaign, punctuated by spells in prison during which his popularity had grown. His success made Ghana a blueprint for others. Delegates gathered for the first All-African Peoples’ Conference, to exchange ideas about defeating stubborn colonial regimes. Among them, captivated by Nkrumah’s speech about scientific socialism, was Patrice Lumumba, equipping himself for the seemingly hopeless struggle against the Belgians in Congo.


Triumph of the Optimists: 101 Years of Global Investment Returns by Elroy Dimson, Paul Marsh, Mike Staunton

asset allocation, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, dividend-yielding stocks, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, European colonialism, fixed income, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, index fund, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, negative equity, new economy, oil shock, passive investing, purchasing power parity, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, selection bias, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, technology bubble, transaction costs, yield curve

The markets in Ljubljana, Prague, Budapest, and Warsaw were thus just modest regional exchanges. Table 2-3 shows that, mostly, the exchanges founded during the nineteenth century were set up either in Europe, or by Europeans abroad. Of the non-European exchanges that pre-date 1900, Canada, South Africa, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, India, and Sri Lanka were all part of the British Empire, while Egypt was effectively a British protectorate. The exceptions to the European/colonial rule are the United States, Japan, Turkey, and the five Latin American markets, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Venezuela. The important issue that Table 2-3 raises is the extent to which the sixteen countries covered in this book and shown in bold typeface were representative of the world’s stock markets at the start of our research period in 1900. The left-hand pie chart of Figure 2-3 reminds us of their importance today, showing that they cover 88 percent of world stock market value.


pages: 928 words: 159,837

Florence & Tuscany by Lonely Planet

Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, European colonialism, haute couture, Kickstarter, period drama, post-work, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning

Unification didn’t end unemployment or unrest; only 2% of Italy’s population gained the right to vote in 1861 – the same 2% that controlled most of the country’s wealth. Strikes were held across the country to protest working conditions, and their brutal suppression gave rise to a new Socialist Party in 1881. The new Italian government’s money-making scheme to establish itself as a colonial power in Ethiopia and Eritrea proved a costly failure: 17,000 Italian soldiers were lost near Adowa in 1896, in what was the worst defeat of any European colonial power in Africa. When grain prices were raised in 1898, many impoverished Italians could no longer afford to buy food, and riots broke out. Rural workers unionised, and when a strike was called in 1902, 200,000 rural labourers came out en masse. Finally Italian politicians began to take the hint and initiated some reforms. Child labour was banned, working hours were set and the right to vote was extended to all men over the age of 30 by 1912 (women would have to wait for their turn at the polls until 1945).


pages: 479 words: 144,453