Parag Khanna

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pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

—Chuck Hagel, former U.S. secretary of defense “To get where you want to go, it helps to have a good map. In Connectography, Parag Khanna surveys the economic, political, and technological landscape and lays out the case for why ‘competitive connectivity’—with cities and supply chains as the vital nodes—is the true arms race of the twenty-first century. This bold reframing is an exciting addition to our ongoing debate about geopolitics and the future of globalization.” —Dominic Barton, global managing director, McKinsey & Company “This is probably the most global book ever written. It is intensely specific while remaining broad and wide. Its takeaway is that infrastructure is destiny: Follow the supply lines outlined in this book to see where the future flows.” —Kevin Kelly, co-founder, Wired “Parag Khanna takes our knowledge of connectivity into virgin territory, providing an entire atlas on how old and new connections are reshaping our physical, social, and mental worlds.

—Kevin Kelly, co-founder, Wired “Parag Khanna takes our knowledge of connectivity into virgin territory, providing an entire atlas on how old and new connections are reshaping our physical, social, and mental worlds. This is a deep and highly informative reflection on the meaning of a rapidly developing borderless world. Connectography proves why the past is no longer prologue to the future. There’s no better guide than Parag Khanna to show us all the possibilities of this new hyperconnected world.” —Mathew Burrows, director, Strategic Foresight Initiative at the Atlantic Council, and former counselor, U.S. National Intelligence Council “Reading Connectography is a real adventure. The expert knowledge of Parag Khanna has produced a comprehensive and fascinating book anchored in geography but extending to every field that connects people around the globe. His deep analysis of communications, logistics, and many other globally critical areas is remarkable. The book is full of fascinating insights that we normally would not notice, and his writing reflects his extensive travel experience.

He makes a persuasive case: Connectography is as compelling and richly expressive as the ancient maps from which it draws its inspiration.” —Sir Martin Sorrell, founder and CEO, WPP “From Lagos, Mumbai, Dubai, and Singapore to the Amazon, the Himalayas, the Arctic, and the Gobi desert steppe, Parag Khanna’s latest book provides an invaluable guide to the volatile, confusing worlds of early twenty-first-century geopolitics. A provocative remapping of contemporary capitalism based on planetary mega-infrastructures, intercontinental corridors of connectivity, and transnational supply chains rather than traditional political borders.” —Neil Brenner, director, Urban Theory Lab, Harvard University Graduate School of Design “In high style, Parag Khanna reimagines the world through the lens of globally connected supply chain networks. It is a world still fraught with perils—old and new—but one ever more likely to nurture peace and sustain progress.”


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Also by Parag Khanna The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order Copyright © 2011 by Parag Khanna All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, an imprint of The Random House Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., New York. RANDOM HOUSE and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. eISBN: 978-0-679-60428-0 www.atrandom.com Jacket design: Chin-Yee Lai Jacket photograph: © Brand X/age fotostock v3.1 For Manjula and Sushil Khanna, aka Mom and Dad Contents Cover Other Books by This Author Title Page Copyright Dedication Part One THE NEW WORLD ORDER … REALLY Chapter One Mega-diplomacy Diplomacy Is Dead! Long Live Diplomacy! The New Middle Ages The New Rules of the Game Generation Y Geopolitics Chapter Two The New Diplomats From Model United Nations to Model Medievalism The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Diplomats America’s “Diplomacy in Action” Celebrity Diplomats: Does Life Imitate Art?

New York: Pantheon Books, 2000. Yunus, Muhammad. Banker to the Poor: Micro-lending and the Battle Against World Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs, 1999. ———. Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York: PublicAffairs, 2007. Zielonka, Jan. Europe as Empire: The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. About the Author PARAG KHANNA directs the Global Governance Initiative at the New America Foundation. Author of the previous international bestseller The Second World, he was picked as one of Esquire’s Most Influential People of the Twenty-first Century and featured on Wired’s Smart List. He has been a fellow at the Brookings Institution and researched at the Council on Foreign Relations. During 2007, he was a senior geopolitical adviser to U.S.


pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

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Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, fixed income, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Parag Khanna, Pareto efficiency, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K, zero-sum game

Inequality may be more stable in technologically advanced countries, where inexpensive goods substitute for the human capital that every third-world slum dweller acquires, the capacity and confidence to improvise and get by with next to nothing. Evgeny Morozov 16. The Naked and the TED The New Republic No one has mastered the art of the long takedown review quite like Evgeny Morozov. In taking on some new e-books published by the increasingly ubiquitous TED conference brand (Hybrid Reality: Thriving in the Emerging Human-Technology Civilization, by Parag Khanna and Ayesha Khanna; The Demise of Guys: Why Boys Are Struggling and What We Can Do About It, by Philip Zimbardo and Nikita Duncan; and Smile: The Astonishing Powers of a Simple Act, by Ron Gutman), Morozov argues that many of the shiny and exciting and easily digestible ideas propagated by TED are actually very dangerous. As he reveals the fallacies of the TED worldview, Morozov offers prose that is as precise as his target is muddled.

Only the rare reader would finish this piece of digito-futuristic nonsense unconvinced that technology is—to borrow a term of art from the philosopher Harry Frankfurt—bullshit. No, not technology itself; just much of today’s discourse about technology, of which this little e-book is a succinct and mind-numbing example. At least TED Books—the publishing outlet of the hot and overheated TED Conference, which brought this hidden gem to the wider public—did not kill any trees in the publishing process. It might seem odd that Parag Khanna would turn his attention to the world of technology. He established his reputation as a wannabe geopolitical theorist, something of a modern-day Kissinger, only wired and cool. For almost a decade he has been writing pompous and alarmist books and articles that herald a new era in international relations. He has also been circling the globe in a tireless effort to warn world leaders that democracy might be incompatible with globalization and capitalism.

But perhaps this is what the Hybrid Age is all about: marketing masquerading as theory, charlatans masquerading as philosophers, a New Age cult masquerading as a university, business masquerading as redemption, slogans masquerading as truths. • • • This book is not just useless piffle about technology; it is also an endorsement of some rather noxious political ideas. Those already familiar with Parag Khanna’s earlier celebrations of autocracies in Southeast Asia will not be surprised by some of the most outrageous paragraphs in his TED book. China is one of the Khannas’ role models. They have the guts to write that “a decade from now we will look back at China’s 12th Five-Year Plan as the seminal document of the early 21st century.” Take your pick: Twelfth Five-Year Plan or Charter 08. Somehow the latter never gets a mention in this book.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

An even sharper antipolitical—and even antidemocratic—sentiment can be observed in the work of Parag Khanna, the geopolitics wunderkind who has recently reinvented himself as a technology visionary. In Hybrid Reality, coauthored with his wife, Khanna suggests that not just talk but even elections might need to go so that technocratic modes of governance can continue unabated. Drawing on the generativity theory of Jonathan Zittrain—Internet-centrism rears its ugly head again, lending support to crazy governance ideas—Khanna writes, in the euphemistic style of the Chinese politburo, that “a generative governance system can be designed to provide stability and positive change at the same time.” What does any of this mean? Well, “positive change” for Parag Khanna means that “using technology to deliberate on matters of national importance, deliver public services, and incorporate citizen feedback may ultimately be a truer form of direct participation than a system of indirect representation and infrequent elections.”

(New York: HarperCollins, 2009), 48. 133 “to the extent that . . . new media”: Anthony Ha, “Sean Parker: Defeating SOPA was the ‘Nerd Spring,’” TechCrunch, March 12, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/03/12/sean-parker-defeating-sopa-was-the-nerd-spring. 133 “a vegetarian trapped inside the sausage factory”: quoted in Steven Levy, In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 327. 133 “an incumbent protection machine”: Derek Thompson, “Google’s CEO: ‘The Laws Are Written by Lobbyists,’” The Atlantic, October 1, 2010, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2010/10/googles-ceo-the-laws-are-written-by-lobbyists/63908. 133 “it is overdue to rethink”: Noveck, Wiki Government, 16. 133 “the digital environment offers”: ibid., 40. 133 “most of the work”: ibid., 40. 134 “a generative governance system can”: Parag Khanna and Ayesha Khanna, Hybrid Reality: Thriving in the Emerging Human-Technology Civilization, Kindle ed. (New York: TED Conferences, 2012). 134 “positive change . . . using technology”: ibid., Kindle location 730–731. 134 “we cannot be afraid of technocracy”: ibid., Kindle location 733–734. 134 “To the extent that China provides”: ibid., Kindle location 736–737. 135 “Thinking about government policy sends shivers”: David Ewing Duncan, “Why Do Our Best and Brightest End Up in Silicon Valley and Not D.C.?

Stoll, “Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks, and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers,” Journal of Law and Economics 49, no. 2 (2006): 451–480. 211 Another recent study found: Kwoh Leslie, “Facebook Profiles Found to Predict Job Performance,” Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204909104577235474086304212.html. 211 “social norms and traditions are strong”: Strahilevitz, Information and Exclusion, 51. 213 “whatever the mix of good and bad”: Gordon Crovitz, “Is Technology Good or Bad? Yes,” Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703579804575441461191438330.html. 213 “whether it’s good for society or bad”: Nick Bilton, I Live in the Future and Here’s How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted (New York: Random House Digital, 2010), 216. 213 “the flow of technology is at most slowed”: Parag Khanna and Ayesha Khanna, Hybrid Reality: Thriving in the Emerging Human-Technology Civilization (New York: TED Conferences, 2012). 214 Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought: Langdon Winner, Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978). 214 What Technology Wants: Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

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Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

But this book is not written for Americans only, for the task of adapting the United States to a world of multiple superpowers and an amorphous but deepening globalization is too important to be left to Americans alone. War may be God’s way of teaching Americans geography, but there is a new geography of power that everyone in the world must understand better. If we do not find common ground in our minds, then nothing can save us. Parag Khanna New York August 2007 INTRODUCTION: INTER-IMPERIAL RELATIONS IN THE 1990S, as bombed-out buildings in the Balkans crumbled, who managed the reconstruction of these war-torn nations? When Mexico’s currency crashed to the point of debt default, who bailed it out? When the former Soviet republics in Central Asia were flung into independence, who settled their borders and boosted their trade?

Tauris, 1994); Burgat, Face to Face with Political Islam, 180; Amr Hamzawy, “The Key to Arab Reform: Moderate Islamists,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Policy Brief no. 40, August 2005; and Judy Barsalou, “Islamists at the Ballot Box: Findings from Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, and Turkey,” United States Institute of Peace, Special Report no. 144, July 2005. 10. Saad Eddin Ibrahim, “Islam Can Vote, If We Let It,” New York Times, May 21, 2005. 11. Lawrence Groo and Parag Khanna, “The Regime Change We Need,” The National Interest, Winter 2006. 12. Steven A. Cook, “The Promise of Pacts,” Journal of Democracy 17, no. 1 (January 2006). 13. “The U.S. Project for Democracy in the Greater Middle East—Yes, but with Whom?” Al-Hayat, February 23, 2004. 14. Shibley Telhami, “In the Middle East, the Third Way Is a Myth,” Washington Post, February 17, 2006. 15. As Ray Takeyh points out, “The central dilemma of the Arab political order is not unfamiliarity with the process of political competition, but an entrenched elite that is determined to retain power.”

In his masterful rebuttal of Karl von Clausewitz’s famous dictum that “war is the continuation of politics by other means,” historian John Keegan argues that war is natural and cultural—nature, not nurture—preceding even the creation of polities, states, and armies. From cannibalism to conflicts among nations, strife is part of the human condition. Keegan, A History of Warfare (New York: Vintage, 1993). 81. Harold Nicolson, Diplomacy, 13. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Parag Khanna is a senior research fellow and director of the Global Governance Initiative in the American Strategy Program of the New America Foundation. He has been a fellow at the Brookings Institution, and has worked for the World Economic Forum in Geneva and the Council on Foreign Relations. During 2007 he was a senior geopolitical adviser to U.S. Special Operations Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. Born in India, Khanna was raised in the UAE, New York, and Germany.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

., The Future of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011). 11 Other kinds of transnational organizations are also challenging the power of nation-states: One of the earliest policy analyses of the challenge posed by transnational organizations to the power of nation-states, and how the Internet had amplified the power of new actors, was by Jessica T. Matthews, “Power Shift,” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 1 ( January/February 1997), 50–66. Parag Khanna argues that the world is entering a new phase that he calls the “new medievalism,” in which states must share power with other transnational actors. Parag Khanna, How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance (New York: Random House, 2011). 13 Communication Power: Manuel Castells, Communication Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 346–362, 431–432. CHAPTER 2: RISE OF THE DIGITAL COMMONS 17 In his book The Wealth of Networks: Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007), 472. 18 The World Wide Web, invented two decades after the Internet: For Berners-Lee’s firsthand account, see Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web (New York: HarperOne, 1999). 20 In 1989, the computer scientist Richard Stallman got the ball rolling: Though the distinction may seem arcane to nonprogrammers, there are important philosophical differences between developers of open-source software—a much broader set of people—and adherents of the free software movement.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

It took two weeks: Bronk, interview. By the time the attack: Ibid.; “The Shamoon Attacks.” Two weeks later, Shamoon: Bronk, interview; Camilla Hall and Javier Blas, “Aramco Cyber Attack Targeted Production,” Financial Times, December 10, 2012, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/5f313ab6-42da-11e2-a4e4-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2qP9F3kEY; Bronk and Tikk-Ringas, “Hack or Attack?” Saudi Aramco is responsible: Parag Khanna, “The Rise of Hybrid Governance,” McKinsey & Company, October 2012, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/public_sector/the_rise_of_hybrid_governance. Little did it know that its: Christopher Bronk and Eneken Tikk-Ringas, “The Cyber Attack on Saudi Aramco,” Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, April–May 2013, 81–96, http://www.iiss.org/en/publications/survival/sections/2013-94b0/survival–global-politics-and-strategy-april-may-2013-b2cc/55-2-08-bronk-and-tikk-ringas-e272; Jim Garamone, “Panetta Spells Out DOD Roles in Cyberdefense,” American Forces Press Service, US Department of Defense, October 11, 2012, http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?

China surpassed New Zealand’s neighbor: “Invest in New Zealand: Statistics,” New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, https://www.nzte.govt.nz/en/invest/statistics//. He has proposed that Detroit: Andreessen, “Turn Detroit into Drone Valley.” Today 54 percent of the world’s: “World’s Population Increasingly Urban with More Than Half Living in Urban Areas,” United Nations, July 10, 2014, http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/world-urbanization-prospects-2014.html; Parag Khanna, “Beyond City Limits,” Foreign Policy, August 16, 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/08/16/beyond_city_limits?page=0,0. Cities are incubators of growth: Andrew F. Haughwout and Robert P. Inman, “How Should Suburbs Help Their Central Cities? Growth and Welfare Enhancing Intra-metropolitan Fiscal Distributions,” Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 2004, http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/economists/haughwout/suburbs_help_central_cities_haughwout.pdf.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

“These city leaders are nonideological,” Palmisano posited, echoing storied New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, who famously said “There is no Democratic or Republican way of cleaning the streets.” Palmisano concluded, “They get things done. . . . Smarter city leaders think—and manage—for the long term.”58 At the very least, for the next election. Today, cities are the most pragmatic and effective level of government. In an era of gridlock at the national level, as Parag Khanna and David Skilling, who both serve as foreign policy advisors to the nation-state of Singapore, have argued in their essay “Big Ideas from Small Places,” “cities and provinces around the world are assuming a more important leadership role on global policy issues.”59 Even as they grow larger, cities maintain a sense of shared destiny that mobilizes people to work together. We’ve seen this pragmatic focus at work throughout this chapter.

id=5444. 46Nigel Jacob, telephone interview by author, August 13, 2012. 47Nigel Jacob and Chris Osgood, telephone interview by author, March 25, 2011. 48Jacob, interview, August 13, 2012. 49Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 50Jacob, interview, August 13, 2012. 51Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 52Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 53Jacob, interview, August 13, 2012. 54Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 55Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 56All quotes in this section are from Daniel Sarasa and Juan Pradas, interview by author, November 30, 2011. 57Anthony M. Townsend, “Digitally mediated urban space: new lessons for design,” Praxis: Journal of writing + building 6 (2004), 100–105. 58Steve Hamm, “Living Blogging from Smarter Cities Rio: Day 1,” last modified November 9, 2011, http://asmarterplanet.com/blog/2011/11/live-blogging-from-smarter-cities-rio-day-1.html#more-12843. 59Parag Khanna and David Skilling, “Big ideas from small places,” CNN Global Public Square, blog, last modified November 1, 2011, http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/11/01/big-ideas-from-small-places/. 60Jacob and Osgood, interview, March 25, 2011. 61Daniel Kaplan, “Open Public Data: Then What?—Part 1,” Open Knowledge Foundation, blog, last modified January 11, 2008, http://blog.okfn.org/2011/01/28/open-public-data-then-what-part-1/.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

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airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

If it is, it’s because I’ve benefited from all sorts of brilliant folks helping me figure out which end is up. My gratitude to all my friends and colleagues willing to listen to my thoughts and improve upon them: Peter Apps, Matthew Bishop, Vint Cerf, Steve Clemons, Jared Cohen, Sam DiPiazza, Catherine Fieschi, Chrystia Freeland, David Fromkin, Martina Gmur, Ken Griffin, Nikolas Gvosdev, Guy Hands, Ken Hersh, Zachary Karabell, Tom Keene, Parag Khanna, Sallie Krawcheck, Dan and Eric Loeb (no relation), Steve Mann, Maziar Minovi, Bijan Mossavar-Rahmani, Nader Mousavizadeh, Martin Nagele, Mary Pang, Niko Pfund, Juan Pujadas, Gideon Rachman, Doug and Heidi Rediker, Joel Rosenthal, Marci Shore, Doug Shuman, Martin Sorrell, Larry Summers, Nick Thompson, Enzo Viscusi, Fareed Zakaria, and Bob Zoellick. Nouriel Roubini has been my confederate for about a decade.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

McNeill, Something New under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World (New York, 2000), 107. 29. Mark Magnier, “Bribery and Graft Taint Every Facet of Life in China,” Los Angeles Times, December 29, 2008. 30. Barry Naughton, “China: Which Way the Political Economy?,” Paper delivered at the UCLA Brenner Seminar, April 9, 2007. 31. Lin, “Lessons of China’s Transition”: 3. The opinion expressed is that of Grzegorz W. Kolodko. 32. Parag Khanna, “Waving Goodbye to Hegemony,” New York Times Magazine, January 27, 2008. 33. Manu Goswami, Producing India: From Colonial Economy to National Space (Chicago, 2004), 46–53. 34. Ibid., 224–26, 233. 35. Pranah Bardhan, “What Makes a Miracle?: Some Myths about the rise of China and India,” Boston Review (January–February 2008); Heston and Sicular, “China and Development Economics,” 31. 36. Los Angeles Times, July 7, 1973, Part 1:6. 37.

How They Long for Your Firm Embrace,” New York Times, January 30, 2008. 33. Deepak Lal, Reviving the Invisible Hand: The Case for Classical Liberalism in the Twenty-first Century (Princeton, 2006), 214–19. 34. Elisabeth Rosenthal, “European Support for Bicycles Promotes Sharing of the Wheels,” New York Times, November 10, 2008. 35. Fareed Zakaria, “Is America in Decline? Why the United States Will Survive the Rise of the Rest,” Foreign Affairs, 87 (2008): 26–27; Parag Khanna, “Waving Goodbye to Hegemony,” New York Times Magazine, January 27, 2008. 36. Joseph A. Schumpter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 3rd ed. (New York, 1950), 61. Table of Contents Acknowledgments 1. The Puzzle of Capitalism 2. Trading in New Directions 3. Crucial Developments in the Countryside 4. Commentary on Markets and Human Nature 5. The Two Faces of Eighteenth-Century Capitalism 6.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Massive Anonymous ‘Million Mask March’ as It Happened,” RT, Dec. 24, 2013; “Anonymous (Group),” Wikiquote. 35 When MasterCard, Visa: Lauren Turner, “Anonymous Hackers Jailed for DDoS Attacks on Visa, MasterCard, and PayPal,” Independent, Jan. 24, 2013. 36 Anonymous is strongly against: Karol Snapbacks, “Anonymous Explaining Why They Hacked PSN/Sony,” YouTube, April 22, 2011; Quinn Norton, “Anonymous Goes After World Governments in Wake of Anti-SOPA Protests,” Wired, Jan. 25, 2012; Lisa Vaas, “Anonymous Bullies Sony and Nintendo over SOPA Support,” Naked Security, Jan. 3, 2012. 37 Anonymous views itself: Quinn Norton, “How Anonymous Picks Targets, Launches Attacks, and Takes Powerful Organizations Down,” Wired, July 3, 2012. 38 Even some of the group’s most ardent critics: “Hackers Take Down Child Pornography Sites,” BBC, Oct. 24, 2011. 39 In recognition of their growing power: Barton Gellman, “The World’s 100 Most Influential People: 2012,” Time, April 18, 2012. 40 Their burgeoning influence and capabilities: “Snowden Leaks: GCHQ ‘Attacked Anonymous’ Hackers,” BBC, Feb. 5, 2014. 41 Meanwhile, terrorist organizations too: For detailed information on terrorist and jihadist use of technology, see the United Nations Counterterrorism Implementation Task Force report Countering the Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes, May 2011. 42 “do the things you”: Paul Tassi, “ISIS Uses ‘GTA 5’ in New Teen Recruitment Video,” Forbes, Sept. 20, 2014. 43 Internet reconnaissance and research: Thomas Harding, “Terrorists ‘Use Google Maps to Hit UK Troops,’ ” Telegraph Online, Jan. 13, 2007; Caroline McCarthy, “Report: JFK Terror Plotters Used Google Earth,” CNET, June 4, 2007. 44 For instance, “Ramzi Yousef”: Jack Kelley, “Terror Groups Hide Behind Web Encryption,” USA Today, Feb. 5, 2001. 45 Widely available online are documents: Gabriel Weimann, How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet, United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 116, March 2004. 46 In a striking example of how dangerous: “Search of Tsarnaev’s Phones, Computers Finds No Indication of Accomplice, Source Says,” NBC News, April 23, 2013. 47 “The trio reportedly made fraudulent”: Counter-terrorism Implementation Task Force, Countering the Use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes, May 2011, 18. 48 Even the infamous 2002 Bali bombing mastermind: Q&A with Tom Kellermann, “Internet Fraud Finances Terrorism,” Discovery News, Feb. 11, 2013. 49 Samudra was technologically savvy: Alan Sipress, “An Indonesian’s Prison Memoir Takes Holy War into Cyberspace,” Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2004. 50 Terrorists seem to be getting: Jeremy Scott-Joynt, “Warning Signs for the Funding of Terror,” BBC, July 20, 2005; Gordon Rayner and David Williams, “Revealed: How MI5 Let 7/7 Bombers Slip Through Their Fingers,” Daily Mail, May 1, 2007. 51 The Filipino hacking cell: Associated Press, “Filipino Police Arrest 4 Suspected AT&T Hackers,” CBS News, Nov. 27, 2011; Somini Sengupta, “Phone Hacking Tied to Terrorists,” New York Times, Nov. 26, 2011; Daily Mail Reporter, “Four Filipinos Arrested for Hacking AT&T Phone ‘to Fund Saudi Terror Group,’ ” Daily Mail, Nov. 28, 2011; Jennifer Rowland, “The LWOT: Phone Hacking Linked to Terrorist Activity,” Foreign Policy, Nov. 29, 2011. 52 Though the average Internet user: Marc Goodman and Parag Khanna, “The Power of Moore’s Law in a World of Geotechnology,” The National Interest, February 2013. 53 Though a $50,000 criminal: Siobhan Gorman, August Cole, and Yochi Dreazen, “Computer Spies Breach Fighter-Jet Project,” Wall Street Journal, April 21, 2009. 54 In May 2013: Ernesto Londono, “Pentagon: Chinese Government, Military Behind Cyberspying,” Washington Post, May 6, 2013. 55 Over the years, it has been reported: Ellen Nakashima, “Confidential Report Lists U.S.

Chapter 3: Moore’s Outlaws 1 According to the International Telecommunication Union: Miniwatts Marketing Group, “Internet Users in the World,” Internet World Stats, Dec. 31, 2013, http://​www.​internetworldstats.​com/. 2 Though it took nearly forty years: Miniwatts Marketing Group, “Internet Growth Statistics,” Internet World Stats, Feb. 6, 2013, http://​www.​internetworldstats.​com/. 3 The greatest growth: Miniwatts Marketing Group, “Internet Users in the World, Distribution by World Regions,” Internet World Stats, Feb. 5, 2014, http://​www.​internetworldstats.​com/. 4 And while half the world: Doug Gross, “Google Boss: Entire World Will Be Online by 2020,” CNN, April 15, 2013. 5 The concept was named: Marc Goodman and Parag Khanna, “Power of Moore’s Law in a World of Geotechnology,” National Interest, Jan./Feb. 2013. 6 Incredibly, it literally: Cliff Saran, “Apollo 11: The Computers That Put Man on the Moon,” Computer Weekly, July 13, 2009. 7 The modern smart phone: Peter Diamandis, “Abundance Is Our Future.” TED Talk, Feb. 2012. 8 As a result of mathematical repercussions: Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns,” Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 7, 2001. 9 “law of accelerating returns”: Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Penguin, 2006). 10 Early criminal entrepreneurs: Evan Andrews, “6 Daring Train Robberies,” History.​com, Oct. 21, 2013. 11 Their carefully planned heist: Brett Leppard, “The Great Train Robbery: How It Happened,” Mirror, Feb. 28, 2013. 12 The incident kept the PlayStation: Keith Stuart and Charles Arthur, “PlayStation Network Hack: Why It Took Sony Seven Days to Tell the World,” Guardian, Feb. 5, 2014; “Credit Card Alert as Hackers Target 77 Million PlayStation Users,” Mail Online, Feb. 5, 2014. 13 In the end, financial analysts: J.


pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum

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Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Roy Jenkins, Churchill (London, 2001). Samuel Johnson, Rasselas (Penguin Classics, London, 1976). Tony Judt, Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (London, 2007). —, Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century (London, 2008). Fred Kaplan, Lincoln: The Biography of a Writer (New York, 2008). Thomas Keneally, Lincoln (London, 2003). Frank Kermode, The Age of Shakespeare (London, 2004). Parag Khanna, The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order (London, 2008). Mark Kishlansky, A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603–1714 (London, 1996). Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (London, 2007). James Kynge, China Shakes the World (London, 2006). Mark Leonard, What Does China Think? (London, 2008). Seth Lerer, Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language (New York, 2007).


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

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anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Hannah Brown Gordon and Stéphanie Abou of Foundry also provided invaluable support. And I am grateful to my boss, John Micklethwait, for the time off from The Economist during which I wrote this. Some of the material appeared in different form in the pages of that publication. Numerous friends and experts read chapters, catching errors and infelicities: Ilker Aytürk, Robert Greenberg, Prashant Keshavmurthy, Parag Khanna, Victor Mair, Prune Perromat, Don Ringe, and Ann Senghas. Stewart James-Lejárcegui gave a particularly sharp and helpful read of the whole thing. Bill Poser answered questions about China and Japan, as did Mohamed Maamouri about Arabic, and Geoff Pullum has been a lively correspondent over the years. Cameron Sinclair kindly helped organize the notes. The usual disclaimers—that any remaining mistakes are mine, not theirs—apply.


pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

His prism is correct: We should focus more on the ‘rest,’ even if America is still the premier superpower. . . . As the Iraq war drags on and China rises, the larger story of the post–Cold War era has come into sharp relief: We are not the center of the universe. It matters less that particular countries are pro- or anti-American than that the world is increasingly non-American. We need to get over ourselves.” —Parag Khanna, Washington Post Book World “Zakaria . . . is judicious, reasonable, smooth, [and] intelligent. . . . He points out that, aside from some pockets of backwardness, the whole world has been getting much richer. . . . Even though the economic scene looks gloomier now than it did when he finished his book, Zakaria is correct to insist that many people everywhere have benefitted from the global boom.”


pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

—PROFESSOR DOUGLAS RUSHKOFF, Professor of Media Theory and Digital Economics at CUNY Queens, author, and documentarian “Power rests in the network—but the network itself is a complex and moving target. In this personal account of rising from outsider to insider among today’s levers of global power, Sandra Navidi explains how the many high-profile names, readers will recognize in these pages, are themselves hubs and connectors, and how their relations to each other are the bonds of influence that shape the world.” —PARAG KHANNA, Senior Research Fellow in the Centre on Asia and Globalisation at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore, global strategist, author, Managing Partner of Hybrid Reality, and Cofounder & CEO of Factotum “This book is unique in describing and analyzing the human behavior in the upper circles of the global financial system. I agree with the author that unethical behavior has aggravated the increasing wealth gap and social stratification, and thus has fundamentally shaken society’s trust in our financial system.


pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, iterative process, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Parag Khanna, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Taylor, ‘Globalization and Capital Markets’, in Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor and Jeffrey G. Williamson (eds.), Globalization in Historical Perspective (Chicago, 2003), pp. 173f. 13 Clark, Farewell, chs. 13, 14. 14 David M. Rowe, ‘The Tragedy of Liberalism: How Globalization Caused the First World War’, Security Studies, 14, 3 (Spring 2005), pp. 1-41. 15 See for example Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (New York, 2008) and Parag Khanna, The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order (London, 2008). 16 Jim Rogers, A Bull in China: Investing Profitably in the World’s Greatest Market (New York, 2007). 17 Robert Blake, Jardine Matheson: Traders of the Far East (London, 1999), p. 91. See also Alain Le Pichon, China Trade and Empire: Jardine, Matheson & Co. and the Origins of British Rule in Hong Kong, 1827-1843 (Oxford / New York, 2006). 18 Rothschild Archive London, RFamFD/13A/I; 13B/1; 13C/I; 13D/1; 13D/2; 13/E. 19 Henry Lowenfeld, Investment: An Exact Science (London, 1909), p. 61. 20 John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919), ch. 1. 21 Maddison, World Economy, table 2-26a. 22 Lance E.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Our gratitude to all our friends and colleagues whose ideas and thoughts we’ve benefited from: Elliott Abrams, Ruzwana Bashir, Michael Bloomberg, Richard Branson, Chris Brose, Jordan Brown, James Bryer, Mike Cline, Steve Coll, Peter Diamandis, Larry Diamond, Jack Dorsey, Mohamed El-Erian, James Fallows, Summer Felix, Richard Fontaine, Dov Fox, Tom Freston, Malcolm Gladwell, James Glassman, Jack Goldsmith, David Gordon, Sheena Greitens, Craig Hatkoff, Michael Hayden, Chris Hughes, Walter Isaacson, Dean Kamen, David Kennedy, Erik Kerr, Parag Khanna, Joseph Konzelmann, Stephen Krasner, Ray Kurzweil, Eric Lander, Jason Liebman, Claudia Mendoza, Evgeny Morozov, Dambisa Moyo, Elon Musk, Meghan O’Sullivan, Farah Pandith, Barry Pavel, Steven Pinker, Joe Polish, Alex Pollen, Jason Rakowski, Lisa Randall, Condoleezza Rice, Jane Rosenthal, Nouriel Roubini, Kori Schake, Vance Serchuk, Michael Spence, Stephen Stedman, Dan Twining, Decker Walker, Matthew Waxman, Tim Wu, Jillian York, Juan Zarate, Jonathan Zittrain and Ethan Zuckerman.


pages: 489 words: 132,734

A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook

Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

A History of Future Cities bristles with questions, both answered and unanswerable, that provoke the reader to want even more.” —Thomas S. Hines, Times Literary Supplement “Whatever the futures of these four cities hold, Brook cautions that progress and growth need more than construction projects and infrastructure.” —Daily Beast “Penetrating. . . . [Brook] sketches a portrait of a place that is not just a city, but an idea, and a dream.” —Parag Khanna, CNN “A fascinating and erudite look at where westernization ends and modernization begins. . . . [P]rofound and profoundly hopeful.” —Mark Pabst, Financialist “[An] engaging, quite original take on urban planning. . . . Wholly readable.” —Alan Moores, Seattle Times “Meticulously researched. . . . Brook relays these complicated histories succinctly, densely and vividly.” —Journal Sentinel “The book’s readability . . . belies a huge research effort and narrative ability on Brook’s part, facilitating deep understanding of the social and physical structures of each city.”


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

I remember how eagerly I, along with my cousins, would wait for uncles and aunts visiting from abroad—inevitably, their suitcases would arrive stuffed with Toblerone chocolate bars and packets of chips. The Indian community has spread its roots across the world, from the eighteenth-century indentured laborers who were shipped to Southeast Asia and Europe to the immigrants to the Commonwealth through the 1950s and the engineers emigrating to the United States in the 1970s. So far and wide has the community spread that, as the writer Parag Khanna noted, “The sun never sets on the Indian diaspora.” And these Indians have been a ready conduit for the country’s soft power, in terms of our film, literature, art and music. Our attitudes toward our NRI community have changed as our economyhas globalized. Dr. Vijay Kelkar remembers how Indira Gandhi arranged a conference of senior Indian economists in 1980 to discuss the problem of “brain drain” from India—the government considered skilled Indians leaving for jobs abroad a major problem.


pages: 1,016 words: 283,960

Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World by Nir Rosen

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Ayatollah Khomeini, failed state, glass ceiling, Google Earth, liberal capitalism, Parag Khanna, selection bias, unemployed young men, urban sprawl, éminence grise

—Thomas E. Ricks, author of Fiasco and The Gamble “The world would be a more dangerous place without Nir Rosen’s Aftermath. His bracing recounting of the invasion of Iraq and subsequent insurgency, and blunt dissection of the myths surrounding the surge are an essential antidote to the complacency that has set in as America exits Iraq—and which could lead to similar debacles in the future.” —Parag Khanna, author of The Second World: How Emerging Powers Are Redefining Global Competition in the Twenty-first Century “Aftermath is a masterwork, the product of a life devoted to a relentless pursuit of the knowledge and understanding of strange men who walk in nearly unimaginable paths across the far places of the world. I first met Nir Rosen when we sat together on a panel discussion on the ‘Newshour.’