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back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
The economy had tanked, trillions in savings had been flushed away, and great financial houses had suddenly crashed. Reagan-style capitalism was in disgrace. In the 2008 presidential campaign, not just Barack Obama and Joe Biden but also John McCain and Sarah Palin raged against the “greed and irresponsibility” of Wall Street. “Who knew?” was not good enough. In an early 2009 column, conservative columnist David Brooks of the New York Times addressed the question of whether the root cause of our financial calamity was greed, stupidity, or both. Worried that the greed story might end with calls to “smash the oligarchy” or at least “restructure the financial sector,” Brooks opted for stupidity. Bankers were simply in over their heads, he wrote. They “got too big to manage. Instruments got too complex to understand.
The rest is history: the crash of Bear Stearns, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, and the panicked response of the Republican White House and a Democratic Congress to pour massive amounts of money into the banks, investment companies, and insurance firms that were deemed “too big to fail.” Although there undoubtedly were challenged intellects among the public and business leaders who were most responsible for the economic crisis, David Brooks’s stupidity explanation does not fit. As John Maynard Keynes, Charles Kindleberger, and many, many other economists, such as Hyman Minsky, had shown, financial excesses were built into the modern economy. Economists might have different ways of explaining the boom-and-bust cycle, but it is inevitable: what goes up must come down. This was no secret on Wall Street. The term Minsky moment was coined by an investment banker for the turning point that kicks off a panic in which investors begin dumping even high-quality assets in order to cover their debts.
“Sub-Prime Mortgage Crisis Has Spilled Over Into Home Equity Loans and Lines,” Common Sense Forecaster (blog), January 17, 2008, http://commonsenseforecaster.blogspot.com/2008/01/sub-prime-mortgage-crisis-has-spilled.html. 6. William Cohan, “A Tsunami of Excuses,” New York Times, March 11, 2009. 7. Quoted in Kevin Phillips, Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2008), 180. 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “Palin’s Kind of Patriotism,” New York Times, October 7, 2008. 9. David Brooks, “Greed and Stupidity,” New York Times, April 2, 2009. 10. Bill Marsh, “A History of Home Values,” New York Times, August 26, 2006, http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2006/08/26/weekinreview/27leon_graph2.large.gif. 11. Joe Nocera, “The Big Lie,”New York Times, December 23, 2011. Italics mine. 12. Duhigg, “Pressured to Take More Risk.” 13. Jo Becker, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, and Stephen Labaton, “White House Philosophy Stoked Mortgage Bonfire,” New York Times, December 21, 2008. 14.
Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, business process, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial independence, Flynn Effect, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, impulse control, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, loss aversion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monroe Doctrine, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, young professional
Also by David Brooks ON PARADISE DRIVE: HOW WE LIVE NOW (AND ALWAYS HAVE) IN THE FUTURE TENSE BOBOS IN PARADISE: THE NEW UPPER CLASS AND HOW THEY GOT THERE Copyright © 2011 by David Brooks All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, an imprint of The Random House Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., New York. RANDOM HOUSE and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Brooks, David The social animal: the hidden sources of love, character, and achievement / David Brooks. p. cm. eISBN: 978-0-679-60393-1 1. Man-woman relationships—United States. 2. Social mobility—United States. 3. Social status—United States. 4. Elite (Social sciences)—United States. 5. Character. I. Title.
Harrison, The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It from Itself (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 2006), xvi. 8 75 percent of the anti-Western Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 73–75. 9 Olivier Roy argues Olivier Roy, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). 10 Harold pointed out David Brooks, “The Wisdom We Need to Fight AIDS,” New York Times, June 12, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/12/opinion/12brooks.html. 11 a hospital in Namibia David Brooks, “In Africa, Life After AIDS,” New York Times, June 9, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/09/opinion/09brooks.html. 12 So the market had partially David Brooks, “This Old House,” New York Times, December 9, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/09/opinion/09brooks.html. 13 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Daniel Drezner, “The BLS Weighs in on Outsourcing,” DanielDrezner.com, June 10, 2004, http://www.danieldrezner.com/archives/001365.html and “Extended Mass Layoffs Associated with Domestic and Overseas Relocations, First Quarter 2004 Summary,” Bureau of Labor Statistics Press Release, June 10, 2004, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/reloc.nr0.htm. 14 Pankaj Ghemawat Pankaj Ghemawat, “Why the World Isn’t Flat,” Foreign Policy, February 14, 2007, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2007/02/14/why_the_world_isnt_flat?
McAdams, The Redemptive Self: Stories Americans Live By (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). 18 rumination made depressed people Wilson, 175–76. 19 “How pathetically scanty” Steven Johnson, Mind Wide Open: Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 1. ABOUT THE AUTHOR DAVID BROOKS writes an op-ed column for The New York Times. Previously, he has been a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, a contributing editor at Newsweek and The Atlantic Monthly, and an op-ed editor at The Wall Street Journal. He is currently a commentator on PBS News-Hour and contributes regularly to Meet the Press and NPR’s All Things Considered. He is the author of Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There and On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (And Always Have) in the Future Tense. His articles have appeared in The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, Forbes, The Washington Post, The Times Literary Supplement, Commentary, The Public Interest, and many other magazines. David Brooks lives in Maryland.
Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
Bobos in Paradise The New Upper Class and How They Got There David Brooks SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS NEW YORK LONDON TORONTO SYDNEY Preface This Simon & Schuster trade paperback edition 2004 Bobos in Paradise Praise for Bobos in Paradise “An absolute sparkler of a book, which should establish David Brooks—not that he needs establishing—as the smart, fun-to-read social critic of his generation.” —Christopher Buckley “In his briskly written, clever Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks astutely describes a new-ish American elite…. An enormously accomplished and perceptive reporter.” —Benjamin Schwarz, Los Angeles Times “David Brooks has written a smart, funny book about the new meritocracy, the information-age elite whose members … set the tone of our time.” —Diane White, The Boston Globe “A mixture of heartfelt fondness and dead-on ridicule, animated by an energetic glass-half-full ambivalence.
—Marta Salij, Detroit Free Press TO JANE Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Rockefeller Center 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2000 by David Brooks All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. This Simon & Schuster trade paperback edition 2004 Simon & Schuster Paperbacks and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster, Inc. For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact Simon & Schuster Special Sales at 1-800-456-6798 or email@example.com Designed by Edith Fowler Manufactured in the United States of America 20 19 18 17 The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Brooks, David [date]. Bobos in paradise: the new upper class and how they got there / David Brooks. p.cm. Includes index. 1. Elite (Social sciences)—United States. 2.
., 118–20, 123, 127, 133, 135, 188, 232 Wilson, Edmund, 142, 147, 201 Winkler, Rabbi Gershon, 224 Wolfe, Alan, 248–49 women, education of, 29–31 Woolf, Virginia, 146 World War II, 22, 24, 32 Yergin, Daniel, 148 Zola, Emile, 66, 143 About the Author DAVID BROOKS is a political journalist and “comic sociologist” who writes a biweekly Op-Ed column for The New York Times. He appears regularly on PBS’ The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer and NPR’s All Things Considered. Formerly a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, his articles have also appeared in The Atlantic Monthly, Newsweek, Reader’s Digest, Men’s Health, and other publications. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland. Advertisement Also available by David Brooks 0-7432-2739-5 Take a look at Americans in their natural habitat: guys shopping for barbecue grills, doing that special walk American men do when in the presence of lumber; super-efficient übermoms who chair school auctions, organize the PTAs, and weigh less than their kids.
The Road to Character by David Brooks
Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile
Copyright © 2015 by David Brooks All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, an imprint and division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York. RANDOM HOUSE and the HOUSE colophon are registered trademarks of Penguin Random House LLC. Excerpt from Halakhic Man by Joseph B. Soloveitchik (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983), copyright © 1983 by the Jewish Publication Society. Excerpt from George C. Marshall: Education of a General, 1880–1939 by Forrest C. Pogue (New York: Viking Books, 1963), copyright © 1963 and copyright renewed 1991 by George C. Marshall Research Foundation. Permission credits can be found on this page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brooks, David. The road to character / David Brooks. pages cm Includes bibliographical references.
Reprinted by permission of Random House, an imprint and division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. CASS SUNSTEIN: Excerpt from a toast given by Leon Wieseltier at the wedding of Cass Sunstein to Samantha Power. Used by permission. By DAVID BROOKS On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (and Always Have) in the Future Tense Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement The Road to Character ABOUT THE AUTHOR DAVID BROOKS writes an op-ed column for The New York Times, teaches at Yale University, and appears regularly on PBS NewsHour, NPR’s All Things Considered, and NBC’s Meet the Press. Previously, he has been a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, a contributing editor at Newsweek and The Atlantic Monthly, and an op-ed editor at The Wall Street Journal.
Bachman Cover Design: Eric White Cover Illustration: Ben Wiseman v4.1 a CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright INTRODUCTION: ADAM II CHAPTER 1: THE SHIFT CHAPTER 2: THE SUMMONED SELF CHAPTER 3: SELF-CONQUEST CHAPTER 4: STRUGGLE CHAPTER 5: SELF-MASTERY CHAPTER 6: DIGNITY CHAPTER 7: LOVE CHAPTER 8: ORDERED LOVE CHAPTER 9: SELF-EXAMINATION CHAPTER 10: THE BIG ME Dedication ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES PERMISSION CREDITS By David Brooks About the Author INTRODUCTION: ADAM II Recently I’ve been thinking about the difference between the résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues. The résumé virtues are the ones you list on your résumé, the skills that you bring to the job market and that contribute to external success. The eulogy virtues are deeper. They’re the virtues that get talked about at your funeral, the ones that exist at the core of your being—whether you are kind, brave, honest or faithful; what kind of relationships you formed.
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration
., 594. 148 In his 1963 work “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”: Martin Luther King Jr., “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” www.africa.upenn.edu. 149 Conservative commentator Tony Blankley: Left, Right and Center, 15 Jan. 2010, www.kcrw.com. 150 As America’s Misery Index soars: www.miseryindex.us. 151 “We have to lean on one another …”: Barack Obama, eulogy for West Virginia Miners, 25 Apr. 2010, www.whitehouse.gov. 152 David Brooks has written about the need: David Brooks, “The Broken Society,” 18 Mar. 2010, www.nytimes.com. 153 “Volunteering, especially among professional classes and the young”: Philip Blond “Cameron’s ‘Big Society,’ ” 25 Apr. 2010, www.guardian.co.uk. 154 In 2002 in San Francisco’s Mission district: “About 826,” www.826valencia.org. 155 In Brooklyn, New York, FEAST: Danny LaChance, “An Idea Grows in Brooklyn,” University of Minnesota Alumni Association, spring 2010, www.minnesotaalumni.org. 156 Matthew Bishop, U.S. business editor for the Economist: Howard Davies, “A New Take on Giving,” 10 Jan. 2009, www.guardian.co.uk. 157 Social entrepreneurs pinpoint social problems: Caroline Hsu, “Entrepreneur for Social Change,” 31 Oct. 2005, www.usnews.com. 158 Providing microcredit to small businesses: Devin Leonard, “Microcredit?
A lot of people at the top of the economic food chain have done very well shorting the middle class. But the losers in those bets weren’t Goldman Sachs investors—they were millions of Americans whose sole crime was to optimistically buy into the American Dream, only to find it had been replaced by a sophisticated scam. In November 2008, as the initial aftershocks of the economic earthquake were being felt, New York Times columnist David Brooks predicted the rise of a new social class—“the formerly middle class”—made up of those who had just joined the middle class at the end of the boom, only to fall back when the recession began.6 “To them,” he wrote, “the gap between where they are and where they used to be will seem wide and daunting.” But, in the time since Brooks wrote this, the ranks of the formerly middle class have swelled far beyond those who joined at the tail end of the boom.
As America’s Misery Index soars, so must our Empathy Index.150 THE EMPATHY INDEX: FROM THE LOCAL TO THE VIRTUAL “We have to lean on one another and look out for one another and love one another and pray for one another,” Barack Obama said when he delivered the eulogy for the fallen West Virginia miners in April 2010.151 This is a call that transcends left and right political divisions. David Brooks has written about the need to replace our “atomized, segmented society” with a society “oriented around relationships and associations”—an approach advocated by conservative British writer Phillip Blond in his book Red Tory.152 “Volunteering, especially among professional classes and the young,” Blond wrote, “has doubled in recent months”—proof, he suggests, that “the wish to make a difference is a common and rising aspiration.”153 Those who are working to address the devastation in their own communities are willing to experiment, try many things, fail, and try again, the way you do when you really care.
The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
The Case Against the Baby Boomers,” The Atlantic, October 2012. 7David Brooks, “Another Fiscal Flop,” New York Times, December 31, 2012. 8Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum, That Used To Be Us (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011), 5; Nick Anderson, “College net price is rising,” Washington Post, October 24, 2012 9“The Lost Decade of the Middle Class,” 30. 10“The Lost Decade of the Middle Class,” 48. 11“Trends in American Values: 1987–2012: Partisan Polarization Surges in Bush, Obama Years,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, June 4, 2012, 47. 12Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835, 1840, reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000). 13Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 576. 14David Brooks, “Ryan’s Biggest Mistake,” New York Times, August 23, 2012. 15Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (New York: W.
No longer do you need to work the channels of an existing bureaucracy, or go door to door for signatures; you can build the infrastructure required to promote a cause without much effort at all—even if it vanishes a second later or fails to achieve its goals.24 We’ve been empowered in nearly every aspect of our lives to move past many of the burdens that once prevented us from pursuing our personal interests and concerns. Americans of all stripes have been given the license to abandon the relationships that don’t interest them for those that do; we’ve been given the opportunity to pick and choose the relationships we most want to maintain. And that brings us to the most significant evidence of the Chinatown Bus effect: the transformation of the local neighborhood. In September 2003, New York Times columnist David Brooks published a long piece in The Atlantic magazine exploring an odd disconnect between what Americans said and how they actually behaved. Brooks had noticed that while we paid lip service to the benefits of diversity, Americans were often choosing to make “strenuous efforts to group themselves with people who [were] basically like themselves.” In theory we were drawn to the idea of mixing with other people—but when push came to shove, we frequently demurred.
One recent study has found that nearly a fifth of those who use social networks like Facebook have blocked, “unfriended,” or hidden a contact based on a political disagreement.27 It wasn’t just, as Eli Pariser articulated, that corporations were manipulating what comes up in our news feeds and ad spaces. Empowered with the opportunity to connect with people who reflect our values and outlook, we’ve become more microscopically homogenous amid a sea of diversity. In the mid-1990s, well before David Brooks had begun to note how neighborhoods were becoming monolithic and Bill Bishop had revealed the full extent of the Big Sort, a longtime editor of Governing magazine, Alan Ehrenhalt, published a book on an underappreciated shift in ordinary American life. Tracing changes in three separate neighborhoods of Chicago—one settled predominantly by working-class whites, another situated in the heart of the South Side, and a third in the more affluent suburbs—he noted one crucial similarity.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
There is mounting evidence that dense, walkable cities generate wealth by sheer virtue of the propinquity that they offer. This is a concept that is both stunningly obvious—cities exist, after all, because people benefit from coming together—and tantalizingly challenging to prove.● This hasn’t kept it from the lips of some of our leading thinkers, including Stewart Brand, Edward Glaeser, David Brooks, and Malcolm Gladwell. Speaking at the Aspen Institute, David Brooks pointed out how most U.S. patent applications, when they list similar patents that influenced them, point to other innovators located less than twenty-five miles away. He also mentioned a recent experiment at the University of Michigan, where “researchers brought groups of people together face to face and asked them to play a difficult cooperation game. Then they organized other groups and had them communicate electronically.
Lipman, “A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Costs of Working Families,” iv. 25. Ibid., 5. 26. Doherty and Leinberger, “The Next Real Estate Boom.” 27. Ibid. 28. Leinberger, “Federal Restructuring.” 29. Catherine Lutz and Anne Lutz Fernandez, Carjacked, 207. 30. Leinberger, Option, 77–78, and “Here Comes the Neighborhood”; Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution, 143. 31. Jon Swartz, “San Francisco’s Charm Lures High-Tech Workers.” 32. David Brooks, Lecture, Aspen Institute; and David Brooks, “The Splendor of Cities.” 33. Mapes, 268. 34. Jonah Lehrer, “A Physicist Solves the City,” 3. 35. Ibid., 4. 36. Hope Yen, “Suburbs Lose Young Whites to Cities”; Leinberger, Option, 170. 37. Ibid. WHY JOHNNY CAN’T WALK 1. Jim Colleran, “The Worst Streets in America.” 2. Jeff Speck, “Our Ailing Communities: Q&A: Richard Jackson.” 3. Ibid. 4. Lawrence Frank, Lecture to the 18th Congress for the New Urbanism. 5.
●According to the census, Portland’s bicycling mode share is 5.8 percent, and local studies place it at just under 8 percent. The national average is 0.4 percent. ■“The Young and the Restless,” 34. As the number of college graduates in a metropolitan area increases by 10 percent, individuals’ earnings increase by 7.7. This applies even to non–college graduates in the city because their productivity rises, too (David Brooks, “The Splendor of Cities”). ●More than twenty-five years ago, William Whyte’s research tracked the stock performance of thirty-eight New York City companies that chose to relocate to the suburbs, and found that they appreciated at less than half the rate of thirty-five similar companies that had stayed put (Whyte, City: Rediscovering the Center, 294–95). ●Kooshian and Winkelman, “Growing Wealthier,” 2.
Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
Norton Company, 2004), p. xxxii. 33 “pulled down to the ground their monarchy”: Edmund Burke, The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, vol. 5 (London: F. and C. Rivington, 1801), pp. 57 and 59. 34 “the institutionalist has a deep reverence”: See David Brooks, “What Life Asks of Us,” New York Times, January 26, 2009. 35 “Americans’ distrust of politicians”: See “Farewell Address by Senator Christopher Dodd, The Senate Chamber,” Federal News Service, December 29, 2010. 36 “ ‘bankers, bankers, bankers’ ”: See Matthew Dalton, “A Banker’s Plaintive Wail,” Davos Live, Wall Street Journal Blogs, January 27, 2011, http://blogs.wsj.com/davos/2011/01/27/a-bankers-plaintive-wail/, accessed January 19, 2012. 37 “My own trust in our political leaders is at a personal low”: David Brooks and Dick Cavett, “In Whom Can We Trust?” Opinionator: Exclusive Online Commentary from The Times, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/03/05/in-whom-can-we-trust/, accessed January 19, 2012. 38 “Obama’s faith lay in cream rising to the top”: Jonathan Alter, The Promise: President Obama, Year One (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010), p. 64. 39 “Meritocracy is a parody of democracy”: Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy (New York: W.
The revolutionaries, Burke explained, had “pulled down to the ground their monarchy; their church; their nobility; their law; their revenue; their army; their navy; their commerce; their arts; and their manufactures” leaving the door open to “an irrational, unprincipled, proscribing, confiscating, plundering, ferocious, bloody and tyrannical democracy.” Institutionalists live in fear of a society without central repositories of authority, one that could collapse into mob rule at any time. The New York Times columnist David Brooks is institutionalism’s most accessible advocate (the Times op-ed page contains multitudes) and in 2009 he laid out its vision. Citing the political scientist Hugh Heclo, who wrote the book On Thinking Institutionally, Brooks writes that “the institutionalist has a deep reverence for those who came before and built up the rules that he has temporarily taken delivery of … Lack of institutional awareness has bred cynicism and undermined habits of behavior.”
What divides the institutionalist from the insurrectionist is a disagreement over whether the greatest threat we face is distrust—a dark and nihilistic tendency that will produce a society bankrupted of norms and order—or whether the greater threat is the actual malfeasance and corruption of the pillar institutions themselves. But even the most ardent institutionalists have to admit that things aren’t working. “My own trust in our political leaders is at a personal low,” David Brooks wrote on the Times’ website in 2010. “And I actually know and like these people. I just think they are trapped in a system that buries their good qualities and brings out the bad.” Ultimately, whether you align yourself with the institutionalist or the insurrectionist side of the debate comes down to just how rotten you think our current pillar institutions and ruling class are. Can they be gently reformed at the margins or must they be radically overhauled, perhaps even destroyed and rebuilt?
Dan Ariely’s TED Talks, available online: www.TED.com Meet the authors, watch videos and more: SimonandSchuster.com authors.simonandschuster.com/Dan-Ariely WATCH DAN ARIELY’S TED TALKS Dan Ariely’s TED Talks, available for free at TED.com, are the companion to Payoff. PHOTO: BRET HARTMAN/TED RELATED TALKS ON TED.COM Barry Schwartz The way we think about work is broken What makes work satisfying? Apart from a paycheck, there are intangible values that, Barry Schwartz suggests, our current way of thinking about work simply ignores. It’s time to stop thinking of workers as cogs on a wheel. David Brooks The social animal Columnist David Brooks unpacks new insights into human nature from the cognitive sciences—insights with massive implications for economics and politics as well as our own self-knowledge. In a talk full of humor, he shows how you can’t hope to understand humans as separate individuals making choices based on their conscious awareness. Dan Pink The puzzle of motivation Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don’t: Traditional rewards aren’t always as effective as we think.
America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus
They called for regime change not only in the case of "rogue" states like Iraq, North Korea, and Iran, but also for China, which in the period before September 11 constituted their central opponent in the international system. The Kristol-Kagan agenda was driven by a belief that this kind of activist foreign policy was in the best interests of the United States. But it was also driven by a less obvious political calculation. During the Clinton years, when the United States did not seem to be facing any serious external threats, David Brooks, then an editor at the Weekly Standard, began advocating pursuit of a policy of "national greatness," taking the administration of Theodore Roosevelt as a model. 25 National greatness was seen as an antidote to the small- or anti-government liber-tarianism of one important wing of the Republican Party, the wing that had been isolationist up through the Second World War and might turn in that direction again.
Walter Russell Mead, "The Jacksonian Tradition and American Foreign Policy," National Interest 58 (1999): 5-29. Chapter 2: The Neoconservative Legacy 1. Elizabeth Drew, quoted in Joshua Muravchik, "The Neoconservative Cabal," and Howard Dean, quoted in Adam Wolfson, "Conservatives and Neoconservatives," in Irwin Stelzer, ed., The Neocon Reader (New York: Grove Press, 2005), 243, 216; Mary Wakefield, The Daily Telegraph, Jan. 9, 2004. 2. See David Brooks, "The Neocon Cabal and Other Fantasies," and Max Boot, "Myths About Neoconservatism," in Stelzer, Neocon Reader. Notes to Pages 14-20 3. See Irving Kristol, Reflections of a Neoconservative: Looking Back, Looking Ahead (New York: Basic, 1983); Kristol, Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea (New York: Free Press, 1995); and Norman Podhoretz, "Neoconservatism: A Eulogy," in Norman Podhoretz, The Norman Podhoretz Reader (New York: Free Press, 2004). 4.
See Robert Kagan, "America's Crisis of Legitimacy," Foreign Affairs 83, no. 2 (2004): 65-87, and the subsequent debate between him and Robert W Tucker and David C. Hendrickson; Tucker and Hendrick-son, "The Sources of American Legitimacy," Foreign Affairs 83, no. 6 (2004); and Kagan, "A Matter of Record," Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (2005); Kristol and Kagan, Present Dangers, 16-17. Notes to Pages 42-52 25. David Brooks, "A Return to National Greatness," Weekly Standard, Mar. 3, 1997. 26. On neoconservative issues see Francis Fukuyama, "The National Prospect Symposium Contribution," Commentary 100, no. 5 (1995): 55-56. On economics see, for example, Daniel Bell, The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism (New York: Basic, 1976), and Irving Kristol, Two Cheers for Capitalism (New York: Basic, 1978). That neoconservative treatments of economics tended toward orthodoxy was not universally true; for an interesting critique of neoclassical economics from a Straussian point of view, see Steven E.
Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
In late 2011, New York Times columnist David Brooks reported that a Gallup poll showed that in answer to the question “Which of the following will be the biggest threat to the country in the future—big business, big labor, or big government?” close to 65 percent of respondents said the government and 26 percent said corporations.26 Is that an example of the persuasion and manufacturing of consent that you alluded to? If you look a little bit beyond that question and you ask, “What do you want the government to do?” the answer will be, “Stop bailing out the banks. That’s why I hate the government. Don’t bail out the banks. Stop freeing the rich from taxes. I want more taxes on the rich. Increase spending on health and education.” And so on down the line. So yes, the question is framed so that people like David Brooks can draw this conclusion.
David Hume, “Of the First Principles of Government,” in Selected Essays, ed. Stephen Copley and Andrew Edgar (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 24. 24. Edward Bernays, Propaganda (Brooklyn: Ig Publishing, 2005), p. 127. 25. Clinton Rossiter and James Lare, The Essential Lippmann: A Political Philosophy for Liberal Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), p.91. 26. David Brooks, “Midlife Crisis Economics,” New York Times, 26 December 2011. Elizabeth Mendes, “In U.S., Fear of Big Government at Near-Record Level,” Gallup, 12 December 2011. 27. See Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Question Wording,” no date, available at http://www.people-press.org/methodology/questionnaire-design/question-wording/. 28. Eva Bertram, “Democratic Divisions in the 1960s and the Road to Welfare Reform,” Political Science Quarterly 126, no. 4 (Winter 2011–12), pp. 579–610. 29.
Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deskilling, Edmond Halley, fear of failure, Honoré de Balzac, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, McJob, McMansion, Naomi Klein, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route
In many cities, the only businesses that could legitimately claim to be community gathering places were bars, most of which were smoky, sleazy, and too loud for conversation. Plus, only goods that enhance productivity could curry favor under the new social regime; alcohol and tobacco were increasingly being seen as health-wrecking evils. “Smoking is now considered a worse sin than at least five of the ten commandments,” the New York Times columnist David Brooks explains in his book Bobos in Paradise. “Coffee becomes the beverage of the age because it stimulates mental acuity, while booze is out of favor because it dulls the judgment.” The coffee-house offered an antidote to these social deficiencies: a place to just hang out. As a comfortable and safe community nexus, free of drunks and secondhand smoke, the café eased the problem of disconnection while offering an item that people could come in for every day; it became America’s version of the British pub.
If this happened to the once-mighty Marlboro, the same fate could befall Coke, Nabisco, Levi’s, or any other name brand. (Those companies’ stock prices did indeed dive, along with many others.) Terrified executives saw that they had a simple choice: convince consumers that your brand stands for Something Important — and thus that buying your merchandise is not just crass materialism, but something closer to an artistic statement — or fall into a price-cutting bloodbath with the generics. As David Brooks, the New York Times columnist, once explained it, “The people who thrive in this period are the ones who can turn ideas and emotions into products.” In so many words, Brooks just put Starbucks’s astoundingly successful marketing apparatus in a nutshell. Through unwavering repetition of a basic theme — Starbucks coffee equals romance, relaxation, and luxury — the company made itself synonymous with those concepts, transforming a cheaply produced, age-old commodity into a “sophisticated coffee indulgence.”
My discussion of recent U.S. social trends and the changing American consumer owes much to Michael Silverstein and Neil Fiske, Trading Up: The New American Luxury (New York: Portfolio, 2003); John de Graaf, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005); Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); Juliet B. Schor, The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need (New York: HarperPerennial, 1998); and Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (New York: Marlowe, 1999). Page 75. The Staffan Linder information comes from de Graaf, Wann, and Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic.
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
It’s a donut-shaped economy without a middle. Moritz thus describes as “brutal” both the drop between 1968 and 2013 in the US minimum wage (when inflation is accounted for) from $10.70 to $7.25 and the flattening of a median household income that, not even accounting for inflation, has crawled up from $43,868 to $52,762 over the same forty-five-year period.67 According to the New York Times columnist David Brooks, this inequality represents capitalism’s “greatest moral crisis since the Great Depression.”68 It’s a crisis, Brooks says, that can be captured in two statistics: the $19 billion Facebook acquisition of the fifty-five-person instant messaging Internet app WhatsApp in February 2014, which valued each employee at $345 million; and the equally disturbing fact that the slice of the economic pie for the middle 60 percent of earners in the US economy has dropped from 53 percent to 45 percent since 1970.
As the work of prominent American psychologists like Jean Twenge, Keith Campbell, and Elias Aboujaoude indicates, our contemporary obsession with public self-expression has complex cultural, technological, and psychological origins that can’t be exclusively traced to the digital revolution.20 Indeed, Twenge and Campbell’s Narcissism Epidemic was published in 2009, before Systrom even had his “aha” moment on that Mexican beach. As David Brooks notes, our current fashion for vulgar immodesty represents another fundamental break with the Great Society, which, in contrast with today, was represented by a culture of understatement, abnegation, and modesty. “When you look from today back to 1945,” Brooks notes about the “expressive individualism” of our networked age, “you are looking into a different cultural epoch, across a sort of narcissism line.”21 Nor is Instagram alone in crossing this narcissism line.
Nunes, “Big-Bang Disruption,” Harvard Business Review, March 2013, hbr.org/2013/03/big-bang-disruption. 61 Ibid. 62 Larry Downes and Paul Nunes, Big Bang Disruption: Strategy in the Age of Devastating Innovation (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2014), p. 193. 63 Jason Farago, “Our Kodak Moments—and Creativity—Are Gone,” Guardian, August 23, 2013, theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/23/photography-photography. 64 George Packer, “Celebrating Inequality,” New York Times, May 19, 2013. 65 Ibid. 66 “The Onrushing Wave,” Economist, January 18, 2014, p. 25. 67 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap,” TechCrunch, September 9, 2013. 68 David Brooks, “Capitalism for the Masses,” New York Times, February 20, 2014. 69 Ibid. 70 George Packer, “No Death, No Taxes: The Libertarian Futurism of a Silicon Valley Billionaire,” New Yorker, November 28, 2011. 71 Ibid. 72 Ibid. 73 Robert M. Solow, “We’d Better Watch Out,” New York Times Book Review, July 12, 1987. 74 Timothy Noah, The Great Divergence: America’s Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It (New York: Bloomsbury, 2012), p. 7. 75 Eduardo Porter, “Tech Leaps, Job Losses and Rising Inequality,” New York Times, April 15, 2014. 76 Loukas Karabarbounis and Brent Neiman, “The Global Decline of Labor Share,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2014. 77 Thomas B.
The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional
While the counterculture of the '60s had targeted consumerism and capitalism in its quest to liberate America's soul, it was not long before many in the counterculture discovered that capitalism could be a potent ally in creating alternate realities within American life. The New Age movement that began in the 1970s exemplified the merging of market and countercultural values. It was a movement, in fact, that drew much of its strength from an aggressive, proselytizing merchant class. Many other Americans with countercultural sympathies also decided that making money was what could really set them free to realize their individualism. As David Brooks has recounted in Bobos in Paradise, the '60s ultimately paved the way for a permanent cease-fire in the long war between bohemian and bourgeois value systems.14 The "yuppie" phenomenon underscored how easily '60s individualism morphed into '80s materialism. The yuppie officially appeared in March 1983, discovered by Chicago Tribune columnist Bob Greene in an article about Jerry Rubin, the former yippie turned Wall Street networker.
"Work in the past 20 years has grown more insecure," conclude Neil Fligstein and Taek-Jin Shin, two scholars who examined trends between 1976 and 2000. "Job tenure is down for everyone and the possibility that workers will have to take temporary work or work involuntarily has risen.... The changes in the security of work were mirrored by changes in benefits and health and safety at work. Over time, health and pension benefits decreased for all workers."5 None of this means that Americans are ready for a socialist revolution. As David Brooks and a thousand other social critics have pointed out, Americans vote their dreams, not their realities. The middle class and the working class consistently elect politicians who actively work against their economic interests. Perhaps at no time in American history is this more true than today.6 The psychological fallout from people's economic struggles has been significant. People worry intensely about their finances, especially the heavy debt burdens that they often carry.7 Many people are also less happy.
See their discussion of individualism in Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2002), 93–117. [back] 13. Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979). For an overview of the rise of the Christian right, see Steve Bruce, The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right: Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978–1988 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). [back] 14. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000). [back] 15. Poll cited in Hendrik Hertzberg, "The Short Happy Life of the American Yuppie," in Nicolaus Mills, ed., Culture in an Age of Money: The Legacy of the 1980s in America (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1990), 71. [back] 16. Ibid., 82. [back] 17. The survey data in this area across different polls paints a somewhat murky picture.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Many new suburbs became political entities during the initial postwar period. Smaller suburban governments allowed households to cluster together in relatively homogeneous political jurisdictions. Racial, ethnic, and class concentrations existed before drivable sub-urbanism appeared on the scene, but not to the extent possible in the late twentieth century, as codified by political boundaries. As David Brooks said in his book, On Paradise Drive, “We all loudly declare our commitment to diversity, but in real life, we make strenuous efforts to find and fit in with people who make us feel comfortable.”10 This seems to work particularly well when political boundaries can be imposed to maintain homogeneity. The jurisdictions in the favored quarter, predominantly including upper- and upper-middle-class households, were better able to maintain excellent schools and keep crime low, increasing the quality of life while enhancing the value of the voters’ largest asset, their houses.
Metropolitan areas were expanding geometrically as farms were converted into subdivisions named after what they replaced—Whispering Woods, Bubbling Brook, Woodmont. Yet a countertrend had certainly started with downtowns reviving and transitand nontransit-served suburban town centers taking off with new development, revitalization, and excitement. Many contemporary observers of the built environment, such as Joel Kotkin, Robert Bruegmann, and David Brooks, feel the rediscovery of walkable urbanisn is at best a small niche, at worst a Yuppie fad that will soon fade. Kotkin disdainfully referred to downtown revitalization as a “Potemkin strategy” producing a “boutique city” for the “so-called creative class.” These critics generally feel that drivable sub-urban development is the continuation of thousands of years of sprawl. Mankind has always wanted more space, they say, and had a desire to be away from other humans, and the car was just the next step in that millennia-old progression.
Homophily in race and ethnicity creates the strongest divides in our personal environments, with age, religion, education, occupation, and gender following in roughly that order. Geographic propinquity, families, organizations, and isomorphic positions in social systems all create contexts in which homophilous relations form.” Miller McPherson, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook, “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks,” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (August 2001): 415–444. 10. David Brooks, On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (and Always Have) in the Future Tense (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 69. 11. Myron Orfield, Metropolitics: A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press; Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1997). 12. This was in spite of a Presidential Executive Order by Carter, which was later reissued by Clinton, that encouraged agencies to locate downtown.
23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
“Supply Chain Scenario Modeler: A Holistic Executive Decision Support Solution,” Interfaces (a journal published by INFORMS, a professional society for operations research and management sciences) 44, no. 1 (February 2014): 85–104. In Atlanta: Information for the Emory University Hospital comes mainly from Dr. Timothy Buchman, and interviews with him on Sept. 1 and Oct. 9, 2013. David Brooks, my colleague: David Brooks column, “The Philosophy of Data,” New York Times, Feb. 5, 2013, p. A23. Ninety percent of all of the data: The estimate comes from IBM Research. http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/infographic/storwize-data.html. In 2014, International Data Corporation estimated: This is from yearly report on data conducted by the research firm IDC, and sponsored by the data storage company, EMC. http://www.emc.com/about/news/press/2014/20140409-01.htm.
Indeed, the long view of the technology is that it will become a layer of data-driven artificial intelligence that resides on top of both the digital and the physical realms. Today, we’re seeing the early steps toward that vision. Big-data technology is ushering in a revolution in measurement that promises to be the basis for the next wave of efficiency and innovation across the economy. But more than technology is at work here. Big data is also the vehicle for a point of view, or philosophy, about how decisions will be—and perhaps should be—made in the future. David Brooks, my colleague at the New York Times, has referred to this rising mind-set as “data-ism”—a term I’ve adopted as well because it suggests the breadth of the phenomenon. The tools of innovation matter, as we’ve often seen in the past, not only for economic growth but because they can reshape how we see the world and make decisions about it A bundle of technologies fly under the banner of big data.
Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport
8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, deliberate practice, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy
The journalist Mason Currey, who spent half a decade cataloging the habits of famous thinkers and writers (and from whom I learned the previous two examples), summarized this tendency toward systematization as follows: There is a popular notion that artists work from inspiration—that there is some strike or bolt or bubbling up of creative mojo from who knows where… but I hope [my work] makes clear that waiting for inspiration to strike is a terrible, terrible plan. In fact, perhaps the single best piece of advice I can offer to anyone trying to do creative work is to ignore inspiration. In a New York Times column on the topic, David Brooks summarizes this reality more bluntly: “[Great creative minds] think like artists but work like accountants.” This strategy suggests the following: To make the most out of your deep work sessions, build rituals of the same level of strictness and idiosyncrasy as the important thinkers mentioned previously. There’s a good reason for this mimicry. Great minds like Caro and Darwin didn’t deploy rituals to be weird; they did so because success in their work depended on their ability to go deep, again and again—there’s no way to win a Pulitzer Prize or conceive a grand theory without pushing your brain to its limit.
For an individual focused on deep work, the implication is that you should identify a small number of ambitious outcomes to pursue with your deep work hours. The general exhortation to “spend more time working deeply” doesn’t spark a lot of enthusiasm. To instead have a specific goal that would return tangible and substantial professional benefits will generate a steadier stream of enthusiasm. In a 2014 column titled “The Art of Focus,” David Brooks endorsed this approach of letting ambitious goals drive focused behavior, explaining: “If you want to win the war for attention, don’t try to say ‘no’ to the trivial distractions you find on the information smorgasbord; try to say ‘yes’ to the subject that arouses a terrifying longing, and let the terrifying longing crowd out everything else.” For example, when I first began experimenting with 4DX, I set the specific important goal of publishing five high-quality peer-reviewed papers in the upcoming academic year.
“There is a popular notion that artists”: from the following Slate.com article: Currey, Mason. “Daily Rituals.” Slate, May 16, 2013. http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/features/2013/daily_rituals/john_updike_william_faulkner_chuck_close_they_didn_t_wait_for_inspiration.html. “[Great creative minds] think like artists”: from Brooks, David. “The Good Order.” New York Times, September 25, 2014, op-ed. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/26/opinion/david-brooks-routine-creativity-and-president-obamas-un-speech.html?_r=1. “It is only ideas gained from walking that have any worth”: This Nietzsche quote was brought to my attention by the excellent book on walking and philosophy: Gros, Frédérick. A Philosophy of Walking. Trans. John Howe. New York: Verso Books, 2014. Make Grand Gestures “As I was finishing Deathly Hallows there came a day”: from the transcript of Rowling’s 2010 interview with Oprah Winfrey on Harry Potter’s Page: http://www.harrypotterspage.com/2010/10/03/transcript-of-oprah-interview-with-j-k-rowling/.
Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional
Despite the elite’s fixation on entrepreneurship and knowledge workers, America is powered by wage-earners who punch the clock, wear uniforms, and don’t remotely have any power to “lean in” to climb the corporate ladder. For decades now we’ve been sold the idea that a growing army of knowledge workers, innovating and ideating in amenity-rich office parks, hold the key to our nation’s prosperity. Column after column written by the likes of Thomas Friedman and David Brooks argue that the future success of our economy rests on cultivating skills such as creative problem-solving and critical thinking, with a special affinity for fields in science, technology, and engineering. What they fail to acknowledge is that those spots in our labor force are minuscule compared to the scads of new jobs being created in home health care, fast food, and retail. This elite blind spot continues to distort our economic thinking and denigrates the majority of work being done in our country.
In Coming Apart, Murray bemoans a white working class that has seemingly lost the hunger to work and is now engaging in all manner of activities similar to those of the “black underclass”: illegitimacy, crime, and drug use. Political scientist Robert Putnam also explored the disparities in familial upbringing between college-educated and non-college-educated households in his most recent book, Our Kids. While Putnam’s book lacks the judgmental bromides of Murray’s, it nonetheless paints a picture of a working class that is mired in drug abuse, teen pregnancy, abusive marriages, and absent parents. David Brooks, the moralizing columnist at the New York Times, devoted one of his columns to the lessons we must take from Putnam’s book. Writing in his typical condescending manner, he asserted, “It’s not only money and better policy that are missing in these circles; it’s norms. The health of society is primarily determined by the habits and virtues of its citizens. In many parts of America there are no minimally agreed upon standards for what it means to be a father.
Matt Bruenig, “The Poverty Capitalism Creates,” Policy Shop Blog, Demos, May 1, 2015, at http://www.demos.org/blog/5/1/15/poverty-capitalism-creates. 18. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action,” Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor, March 1965, at http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-meynihan.htm. 19. Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Revisiting the Moynihan Report, cont.,” The Atlantic, June 18, 2013. 20. David Brooks, “The Cost of Relativism,” New York Times, March 10, 2015. 21. Bryce Covert and Josh Israel, “What 7 States Discovered After Spending More than $1 Million Drug-Testing Welfare Recipients,” Center for American Progress Action Fund, February 26, 2015, at http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2015/02/26/3624447/tanf-drug-testing-states/; Jason Stein, “Scott Walker’s Light-on-Details Drug-Testing Plan a Hit on the Stump,” Milwaukee-Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, March 17, 2015, at http://www.jsonline.com/news/statepolitics/scott-walkers-light-on-details-drug-testing-plan-a-hit-on-the-stump-b99461974z1-296580231.html. 22.
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
As we have already seen, it was involved in founding Peers through its executive Douglas Atkin. Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers’ What’s Mine Is Yours1 was an important book for the Sharing Economy, setting out a vision that has helped to define the movement. The book opens with the story of Airbnb’s beginnings, and Botsman also looks to Airbnb to set the tone for her TED talk on sharing. When leading public commentators like New York Times columnists David Brooks and Thomas Friedman write about the Sharing Economy, they look to Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky. And Chesky speaks out about the values of sharing; in March 2014 he wrote a photo-heavy manifesto-like short essay called “Shared City,” which started like this: Imagine if you could build a city that is shared. Where people become micro-entrepreneurs, and local mom and pops flourish once again. Imagine a city that fosters community, where space isn’t wasted, but shared with others.
New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman lauds “Airbnb’s real innovation—a platform of ‘trust’—where everyone could not only see everyone else’s identity but also rate them as good, bad or indifferent hosts or guests. This meant everyone using the system would pretty quickly develop a relevant ‘reputation’ visible to everyone else in the system.” 2 Friedman was writing just a couple of weeks after his New York Times stablemate David Brooks described “How Airbnb and Lyft Finally Got Americans to Trust Each Other”: “Companies like Airbnb establish trust through ratings mechanisms . . . People in the Airbnb economy don’t have the option of trusting each other on the basis of institutional affiliations, so they do it on the basis of online signaling and peer evaluations.” 3 Sharing Economy companies are not the first to use ratings and algorithms to guide behavior.
Re/code, May 31, 2014. http://recode.net/2014/05/31/tech-titans-on-income-inequality-and-their-stingy-stingy-industry/. Bradshaw, Tim. “Lunch with the FT: Brian Chesky,” December 26, 2014. http://www .ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/fd685212-8768-11e4-bc7c-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition =intl#axzz3UxDunrnM. Brooks, David. “The Evolution of Trust.” The New York Times, June 30, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/01/opinion/david-brooks-the-evolution-of-trust .html. Bruce, Chris. “Uber Miami Accused of Coaching Drivers to Circumvent Airport Laws.” Autoblog, November 14, 2014. http://www.autoblog.com/2014/11/14/uber-coaching-airport-drivers-violate-rules/. Bulajewski, Mike. “The Cult of Sharing,” August 5, 2014. http://www.mrteacup.org/post/the-cult-of-sharing.html. Burkhardt, Paul, and Chris Waring. “An NSA Big Graph Experiment,” May 20, 2013. http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/SDI/2013/slides/big_graph_nsa_rd_2013_56002v1 .pdf.
Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Walter Mischel
Open tournament despite a severe, painful knee injury, the golfer Tiger Woods’s imperturbable top-down focus on his game brought him near godlike status in our increasingly distractible culture. (According to his father, by the age of six months, little Tiger could settle into his bouncy-chair and focus on watching golf for two hours.) Even the New York Times’s psychologically savvy political columnist David Brooks took a break from election-year commentary to enthuse about the hero’s mental energy: “In a period that has brought us instant messaging, multitasking, wireless distractions and attention deficit disorder, Woods has become the exemplar of mental discipline.” Like all great athletes, he has superb physical skills, but as Brooks points out, “It is his ability to enter the cocoon of concentration that is written about and admired most.”
Boston: Beacon Press, 2006. p.12. The rates of psychological problems: Peter Suedfeld, “Stressful levels of environmental stimulation,” in I. G. Sarason and C. D. Spielberger (eds.), Stress and Anxiety, Halstead, 1979. CHAPTER 1: PAY ATTENTION p.17. Many extraordinary achievers are fueled: David Lykken, “Mental Energy.” Intelligence 33, 2005. p.18. Even the New York Times’s psychologically savvy: David Brooks, “The Neural Buddhists.” New York Times, July 13, 2008. p.19. An amusing experiment on “change blindness”: Daniel J. Simons and Christopher F. Chabris, “Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events.” Perception 28, 1999. p.20. A little knowledge about this neurological “biased competition”: Robert Desimone and John Duncan, “Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention.”
Augustine, Saint awareness Bach, Johann Sebastian ballet Bardeen, John Bartók, Béla bathrooms Beatles beauty bias Beck, Aaron behavioral change behavioral economics behavioral research behavioral therapy Be Here Now (Alpert) Behrmann, Marlene Bell, Joshua Beowulf Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo Bhagavan Das biased competition Bible Big Sort, The (Bishop and Cushing) bird-watching birthdays Bishop, Bill BlackBerries blacks Blake, William body image Bonanno, George bonding boredom Born Fighting (Webb) bottom-up attention magicians and negative emotion and pros and cons of bounded rationality Bradbury, Thomas Bradley, Charles Brahms, Johannes brain ADHD and amygdala of cerebellum of cortex of creativity and Davidson’s views on hemispheric neglect and hippocampus of insula of left hemisphere of LSD and motivation and multitasking and neuroplasticity of Norman’s conceptual model of older vs. younger parietal and frontal cortexes of paying attention and Posner’s model of attentional system of prefrontal cortex of right hemisphere of time-traveling capacity of visual cortex of Brain Fitness program “Break-Up” (radio show episode) Brim, Gilbert Brooks, David Brooks, Rodney Brown, Bill Browning, Elizabeth Barrett brownout Brown University Bryant, Fred Buckley, William F., Jr. Buddha Buddhism bulimics bull’s-eye mode of paying attention Burke, Edmund Burke, Renny Burke, Tracey cafeteria line workers California, well-being in California Milk Processor Board cancer Capote, Truman cardiovascular disease careers, choice of cars Carstensen, Laura Castellanos, Javier cell phones CEOs change blindness character moments Chartrand, Tanya Chicago, University of childbirth children ADHD in, see ADHD attention drugs and creativity and depressed electronic communications gap of executive attention of neurophysiological differences in personality tests for productivity and quality and quantity of family time of socialization and language learning in China, Chinese motivation of Chouinard, Yvon Clement VIII, Pope Clinton, Bill “cocktail party effect” coffee Cog (robot) cognition consciousness and see also thought cognitive appraisal of emotions cognitive illusions cognitive therapy colleges admissions process at selection of Collins, Phil compassion computers attentional training and concentration creativity and interference with machines and Ritalin and time and top-down attention and work and Concerta consciousness cosmic health and consumer goods Consumer Reports contamination, fear of context, Asian focus on control relationships and conversation dinnertime e-mail or voice mail vs.
The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr
Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
As a team of Cornell University researchers put it in a 2008 paper, “With the GPS you no longer need to know where you are and where your destination is, attend to physical landmarks along the way, or get assistance from other people in the car and outside of it.” The automation of wayfinding serves to “inhibit the process of experiencing the physical world by navigation through it.” 4 As is so often the case with gadgets and services that ease our way through life, we’ve celebrated the arrival of inexpensive GPS units. The New York Times writer David Brooks spoke for many when, in a 2007 op-ed titled “The Outsourced Brain,” he raved about the navigation system installed in his new car: “I quickly established a romantic attachment to my GPS. I found comfort in her tranquil and slightly Anglophilic voice. I felt warm and safe following her thin blue line.” His “GPS goddess” had “liberated” him from the age-old “drudgery” of navigation. And yet, he grudgingly confessed, the emancipation delivered by his in-dash muse came at a cost: “After a few weeks, it occurred to me that I could no longer get anywhere without her.
We may grimace when we hear people talk of “finding themselves,” but the figure of speech, however vain and shopworn, acknowledges our deeply held sense that who we are is tangled up in where we are. We can’t extract the self from its surroundings, at least not without leaving something important behind. A GPS device, by allowing us to get from point A to point B with the least possible effort and nuisance, can make our lives easier, perhaps imbuing us, as David Brooks suggests, with a numb sort of bliss. But what it steals from us, when we turn to it too often, is the joy and satisfaction of apprehending the world around us—and of making that world a part of us. Tim Ingold, an anthropologist at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, draws a distinction between two very different modes of travel: wayfaring and transport. Wayfaring, he explains, is “our most fundamental way of being in the world.”
Chapter Six: WORLD AND SCREEN 1.William Edward Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific (London: John Murray, 1824), 277. 2.Claudio Aporta and Eric Higgs, “Satellite Culture: Global Positioning Systems, Inuit Wayfinding, and the Need for a New Account of Technology,” Current Anthropology 46, no. 5 (2005): 729–753. 3.Interview of Claudio Aporta by author, January 25, 2012. 4.Gilly Leshed et al., “In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM, 2008), 1675–1684. 5.David Brooks, “The Outsourced Brain,” New York Times, October 26, 2007. 6.Julia Frankenstein et al., “Is the Map in Our Head Oriented North?,” Psychological Science 23, no. 2 (2012): 120–125. 7.Julia Frankenstein, “Is GPS All in Our Heads?,” New York Times, February 2, 2012. 8.Gary E. Burnett and Kate Lee, “The Effect of Vehicle Navigation Systems on the Formation of Cognitive Maps,” in Geoffrey Underwood, ed., Traffic and Transport Psychology: Theory and Application (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005), 407–418. 9.Elliot P.
The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin
affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, young professional
During the same period, meanwhile: More than two million people are now employed in education and health services, up from less than 1.5 million in January 2000, according to seasonally adjusted data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In 1967, 97 percent of American men: Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney, “The Problem with Men: A Look at Long-Term Employment Trends,” Brookings Institution, December 3, 2010. http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2010/1203_jobs_greenstone_looney.aspx. New York Times columnist David Brooks: David Brooks, “The Missing Fifth,” The New York Times, May 9, 2011. In 1950, roughly one in twenty men: According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, the employment-population ratio for men between twenty-five and fifty-four was 95.3 percent in 1950 and 81.4 percent in 2011. When asked by The New York Times: Andrew Goldman, “Larry Summers, Un-king of Kumbaya,” The New York Times Magazine, May 12, 2011.
There were good industrial jobs, so you could have a good industrial, blue-collar career. Now those jobs are gone.” Lately economists have begun to focus on this lack of wage opportunities for men as “the single most destructive social force of our era,” says Michael Greenstone, an MIT economist and former chief economist on the White House Council of Economic Advisers for President Barack Obama. New York Times columnist David Brooks memorably defined this problem as “the missing fifth,” referring to the percentage of men—most of them without a college diploma—who are not getting up and going to work. In 1950, roughly one in twenty men of prime working age was not working; today that ratio is about one in five, the highest ever recorded. When asked by The New York Times what keeps him up at night, Larry Summers, Obama’s chief economic adviser, zeroed in on the same phenomenon.
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog
This Will Make You Smarter New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking Edited by John Brockman Foreword by David Brooks Contents David Brooks: Foreword John Brockman: Preface: The Edge Question Martin Rees “Deep Time” and the Far Future Far more time lies ahead than has elapsed up until now. Marcelo Gleiser We Are Unique Modern science, traditionally considered guilty of reducing our existence to a pointless accident in an indifferent universe, is actually saying the opposite. P.Z. Myers The Mediocrity Principle Everything that you as a human being consider cosmically important is an accident. Sean Carroll The Pointless Universe Looking at the universe through our anthropocentric eyes, we can’t help but view things in terms of causes, purposes, and natural ways of being.
Ernst Pöppel A Cognitive Toolkit Full of Garbage Because we are a victim of our biological past, and as a consequence a victim of ourselves, we end up with shabby SHAs, having left behind reality. Acknowledgments Index About the Author Books by John Brockman Credits Copyright About the Publisher Footnotes Foreword David Brooks Columnist, New York Times; author, The Social Animal Every era has its intellectual hotspots. We think of the Bloomsbury Group in London during the early twentieth century. We think of the New York intellectuals who wrote for little magazines like Partisan Review in the 1950s. The most influential thinkers in our own era live at the nexus of the cognitive sciences, evolutionary psychology, and information technology.
Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby
AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
National Trust for Historic Preservation, “HOPE Crew—Hands-On Preservation Experience: Engaging a New Generation of Preservationists,” https://savingplaces.org/hope-crew/#.VjLRoLerTIU. 13. Yale Books Unbound, “Robots in Our Midst: A Conversation with Jerry Kaplan,” Yale University Press blog, July 29, 2015, http://blog.yupnet.org/2015/07/29/robots-in-our-midst-a-conversation-with-jerry-kaplan/. 14. David Brooks, “The Working Nation,” New York Times, October 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/opinion/david-brooks-the-working-nation.html?_r=1. 15. Edward Moore Geist, “Is Artificial Intelligence Really an Existential Threat to Humanity?,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July 30, 2015, http://thebulletin.org/artificial-intelligence-really-existential-threat-humanity8577. 16. Colin Marrs, “Artificial Intelligence Services,” PublicTechnology.net, February 18, 2015, https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/features/artificial-intelligence-services.
University of London professor Guy Standing, who coined the term “precariat” to describe a working class increasingly stressed by precarious work arrangements, says that, even more important than a redistribution of wealth, guarantees of basic income would constitute a “redistribution of security.” Opponents of the idea are much more inclined to think humans are naturally lazy, and that if given the opportunity to do nothing for their income, will do exactly that. While such critics are legion, we would put, for example, New York Times columnist David Brooks in this camp. Brooks has said that, as part of a job creation agenda, the government should “reduce its generosity to people who are not working but increase its support for people who are.”14 To find out who is right, the city of Utrecht, Netherlands, in partnership with researchers from the University of Utrecht, has taken the portion of its residents who are already on welfare, and who are currently obliged to fulfill certain requirements to keep receiving it, and divided them into three groups.
The Start-Up of You by Reid Hoffman
Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs
An alliance is always an exchange, but not a transactional one. A transactional relationship is when your accountant files your tax returns and in exchange you pay him for his time. An alliance is when a coworker needs last-minute help on Sunday night preparing for a Monday morning presentation, and even though you’re busy, you agree to go over to his house and help. These “volleys of communication and cooperation” build trust. Trust, writes David Brooks, is “habitual reciprocity that becomes coated by emotion. It grows when two people … slowly learn they can rely upon each other. Soon members of a trusting relationship become willing to not only cooperate with each other but sacrifice for each other.”9 You cooperate and sacrifice because you want to help a friend in need but also because you figure you’ll be able to call on him in the future when you are the one in a bind.
Neil Rackham and John Carlisle, “The Effective Negotiator, Part I: The Behaviour of Successful Negotiators,” Journal of European Industrial Training 2, no. 6 (1978): 6–11, doi:10.1108/eb002297 8. Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels, The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). 9. David Brooks, The Social Animal (New York: Random House, 2011), 155. 10. How is he defining weak tie? In the study, he uses frequency of contact as a proxy for how strong the relationship is. This is an imperfect measure: you may see your secretary or the doorman every day, but that does not make him a strong tie. Granovetter acknowledged that measuring the strength of a relationship is a broader “combination of the amount of time, emotional intensity, the intimacy (mutual confiding), and the reciprocal services which characterize the tie.”
Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
A humble approach to our technologies helps us strive to understand these human-made, messy constructions, yet still yield to our limits. And this humble approach to technology fits quite nicely with biological thinking. While at every moment an incremental approach to knowledge provides additional understanding of a system, this iterative process will always feel incomplete. And that’s okay. New York Times columnist David Brooks has noted, “Wisdom starts with epistemological modesty.” Humility, alongside an interest in the details of complex systems, can do what both fear and worship cannot: help us peer and poke around the backs of our systems, even if we never look them in the face with complete understanding. In many instances, an incomplete muddle of understanding may be the best that we can do. But it’s far better than nothing.
video game designer and writer Ian Bogost: Ian Bogost, “The Cathedral of Computation,” The Atlantic, January 15, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/. a perfect and immaculate process: This is discussed further in Bogost, “Cathedral of Computation.” the “humble programmer”: Edsger Dijkstra, “The Humble Programmer.” Communications of the ACM 15, no. 10 (1972): 859–66. “Wisdom starts with epistemological modesty”: David Brooks, The Road to Character (New York: Random House, 2015), 263. nevertheless see a “glorious mess”: Carl Zimmer, “Is Most of Our DNA Garbage?” The New York Times Magazine, March 5, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/magazine/is-most-of-our-dna-garbage.html. The book includes maxims: These examples are all from Appendix I of John Gall, The Systems Bible: The Beginner’s Guide to Systems Large and Small, 3rd ed.
Stuffocation by James Wallman
3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Martin Wolf, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar
For updates since then, see Ronald Inglehart, “Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006”, West European Politics Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2, January–March 2008; also, the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Many make sense of the shift to less materialistic values by referring to Abraham Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review Vol. 50, No. 4, 1943. Also, read about a generational shift to post-materialism in David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. Advertising agency research This research was conducted by an advertising agency called Euro RSCG Worldwide, which, in the time it’s taken me to write the book, has become Havas Worldwide. The research paper is called The New Consumer (www.thenewconsumer.com). I calculated the number of people who might have had enough of stuff based on The New Consumer statistics that 67% believe most of us would be better off if we lived more simply, and that there are 63.23 million people in the UK, and 313.9 million in the US.
For a rigorous analysis of the millennials’ housing aspirations, read Nathan Morris, “Why Generation Y is Causing the Great Migration of the 21st Century”, on the website of a design firm called Placemakers (www.placemakers.com), 9 April 2012. “Rather than owning a thing”: millennials not so interested in material objects Various sources, including Tammy Erickson, “Meaning Is the New Money”, HBR Blog Network, 23 March 2011; and David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. The rise of services like Zipcar, Spotify, and Netflix For excellent introductions to how these companies operate, read Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers, “Beyond Zipcar: Collaborative Consumption”, Harvard Business Review, October 2010; and, for the rise of these services, read “All Eyes on the Sharing Economy”, The Economist, 9 Mar 2013.
The Big Shift: Navigating the New Stage Beyond Midlife by Marc Freedman
airport security, Berlin Wall, David Brooks, follow your passion, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, McMansion, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, transcontinental railway, working poor, working-age population
Today, it is time to take on the social construction project that is the Encore Stage of life, to finish the story of longer life courses, to change the shape of lives from one tailored for a century past to one designed for the years ahead. It is a time to create the “Indian summer” G. Stanley Hall articulated, in place of the long, gray winter so widely assumed today. THE GENERATIVITY REVOLUTION Of all the benefits to be realized through creating a new stage, the biggest prize of all may be a cultural transformation to accompany the talent revolution described above. We could produce what columnist David Brooks calls a Generativity Revolution. Many are concerned today, across the political spectrum, that we are disregarding our future, leaving matters worse for coming generations environmentally, educationally, financially, and in myriad other ways. Bill Clinton made this observation in 2010, contending that we need to once again become a “tomorrow society,” to get back into “the future business.” There is growing worry that we have lost that powerful instinct as a nation, that we have gotten off track, that we face a new kind of deficit, a posterity deficit.
Time, February 29, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171, 1718568,00.html. 41 The writer, Christopher Noxon: Christopher Noxon, Rejuvenile: Kickball, Cartoons, Cupcakes, and the Reinvention of the American Grown-Up (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006). 42 two New York Times columns: Nicholas D. Kristof, “Geezers Doing Good,” New York Times, July 20, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/20/opinion/20kristof.html; David Brooks, “The Geezers’ Crusade,” New York Times, February 1, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/02/opinion/02brooks.html. 43 The late Daniel Boorstin: Betty Friedan, The Fountain of Age (New York: Touchstone, 1993). 47 pick up a copy of the January–February 2010 issue: Jack A. Goldstone, “The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World,” Foreign Affairs, January–February 2010. 48 Economist Laurence Kotlikoff, in his book: Laurence J.
Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks
What is uncommon is for anyone to pay attention when it happens, let alone object on their behalf, because they typically are not people with powerful connections. Klein’s indignation over Libby’s unfair treatment was echoed by many in the establishment media. The former Time editor in chief Norman Pearlstine wrote a book denouncing Fitzgerald’s investigation, while the New York Times columnist David Brooks condemned the prosecution in multiple venues as a “farce.” But perhaps the most revealing pro-Libby defense came from the Washington Post’s Richard Cohen, who—as we just saw—had gleefully celebrated the pardon bequeathed to his “Safeway buddy” Caspar Weinberger. Cohen’s June 2007 defense of Libby was a true tour de force of apologia, highlighting the function of our Beltway media stars when it comes to elite immunity.
ABC News Abrams, Elliott Abu Ghraib prison Abzug, Bella ACLU Adams, Abigail Adams, John Addington, David Afghanistan war African Americans Alexander, Michelle Algeria al-Qaeda Alter, Jonathan American Civil Liberties Union American Enterprise Institute American International Group (AIG) Andrews, Bruce Answers to Monsieur de Meusnier’s Questions (Jefferson) Anti–Drug Abuse Acts (1986, 1988) antitrust laws Arar, Maher Argentina Armey, Dick Armitage, Richard Ash, Mimi Ashcroft, John Assange, Julian assassination of American citizens AT&T Atlantic Australia Austria auto company bailouts Awlaki, Anwar al- Bagram prison Balko, Radley bank holding company Bank of America bankruptcy laws banks accounting practices and deregulation of financial crisis and foreclosure fraud and Geithner and retroactive immunity and Barclays Capital Barnes, Fred Barofsky, Neil Barr, William Barry, John Bear Stearns Bechtel Corporation Beckett, Katherine BellSouth Berenson, Brad Bethune, Brian Biden, Joe Bill Moyers Journal (TV show) Bill of Rights Black, Bill Black, Charlie BlackRock Blagojevich, Rod Blankfein, Laura Blankfein, Lloyd Bloomberg news Blow, Charles Blue Dogs Democrats Blumenthal, Paul Blumenthal, Sidney Boehner, John Boeing Boland Amendment (1982) Booz Allen Borger, Gloria Boston Phoenix Boumediene ruling Bradbury, Steven Brennan, John Britain British International Criminal Court Act (2001) Broder, David Brooks, David Brown, Roy BSKH & Associates Buffett, Warren Bunch, Will Bureau of Corporations Bureau of Justice Statistics Burger, Warren Burton, Bill Bush, George H. W. Iraqgate and Iran-Contra and Bush, George W. defense of, and shared guilt detainees and DOJ opposition to extra-legal power and financial crisis and foreign rule of law and Iran-Contra and Iraq war and Libby and media and memoirs of Michael McConnell and Obama fails to investigate Plame outing and public opinion on Spain and state secrets and telecom immunity and torture and U.S. attorney firings and warrantless eavesdropping and whistle-blowers and Bush, Jeb BusinessWeek Bybee, Jay torture memo of 2002 Byrne Formula Grant program C2 Group Caddo County, Louisiana California Cambodia campaign contributions financial industry and prison industry and telecoms and Canada “Can You Even Imagine How Bad It Must Have Been?”
Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill
barriers to entry, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce
In general, jobs that require social skills (like public relations), creativity (like fashion design), or precise perception and manipulation (like boilermaking) are the least likely to become automated. Jobs that require physical proximity or high levels of training are also unlikely to be outsourced. Another important consideration regarding earning to give is the risk of losing your values by working in an environment with people who aren’t as altruistically inclined as you are. For example, David Brooks, writing in The New York Times, makes this objection in response to a story of Jason Trigg, who is earning to give by working in finance: You might start down this course seeing finance as a convenient means to realize your deepest commitment: fighting malaria. But the brain is a malleable organ. Every time you do an activity, or have a thought, you are changing a piece of yourself into something slightly different than it was before.
App Academy, a three-month intensive programming school: Marcus Wohlsen, “Tuition at Learn-to-Code Boot Camp is Free—Until You Get a Job,” Wired, March 15, 2013. whether a job will be around in the future: For an in-depth analysis, see Carl B. Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?” Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, September 17, 2013, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf. David Brooks, writing in The New York Times: Brooks, David, “The Way to Produce a Person,” The New York Times, June 3, 2013. GiveDirectly has raised more than $20 million: “Financials,” GiveWell, https://www.givedirectly.org/financials.html. Professor William Nordhaus at Yale University has estimated: William D. Nordhaus, “Schumpeterian Profits in the American Economy: Theory and Measurement,” NBER working paper no. 10,433 (April 2004), 22.
What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson
Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, invisible hand, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks
We don’t have any doubt about this.”26 Their approach echoes the work of the sociologist Max Weber, who attributed Europe’s economic success after the renaissance to the moral values imbued by Protestantism; hard work and accumulation became legitimate moral goals. More recently, economists have tried to discover why some Eastern European countries have made a successful transition to capitalism following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, while others have not. After testing a litany of potential explanations, they concluded, in the words of the journalist David Brooks, “Finally, and most important, there is the level of values. A nation’s economy is nestled in its moral ecology. Economic performance is tied to history, culture and psychology.”27 This analysis creates a problem for those who try to describe economics in purely mathematical terms. The issue is not whether the Chinese or the observers of Eastern Europe are right in their conclusions. (We suspect both are oversimplified.)
Galbraith goes on to note, “One of the costs … [of mathematical economics] … was the removal of the subject several steps further from reality” (259). 24. Andrew Scott, professor of economics at London Business School, in his private review and critique of this chapter, October 2014. 25. Smith, Wealth of Nations, bk. 4, Introduction. 26. Quoted in Niall Ferguson, Civilization: The West and the Rest (Penguin 2011), 287. 27. David Brooks, “The Legacy of Fear,” New York Times, November 10, 2014. 28. Andrew Scott, professor of economics at London Business School, in his private review and critique of this chapter, October 2014. 29. He went on, incorrectly, as it would later prove, to say that this propensity is to be “in no other race of animals.” Smith, Wealth of Nations, bk. 1, chap. 2. 30. R. H. Coase, “The Lighthouse in Economics,” in The Firm, the Market, and the Law, chap. 6 (University of Chicago Press, 1988). 31.
Designing Your Life: How to Build a Well-Lived, Joyful Life by Bill Burnett, Dave Evans
David Brooks, fear of failure, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, market design, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs
Klemmer, “Parallel Prototyping Leads to Better Design Results, More Divergence, and Increased Self-Efficacy,” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions 17, no. 4 (Dec. 2010). 2. In addition to Homer and the Greeks, we borrowed the term “odyssey years” from David Brooks, the noted New York Times columnist. In his October 9, 2007, column, Brooks was describing the new realities of twenty-two-to-thirty-five-year-old Americans when he said, “With a little imagination it’s possible even for baby boomers to understand what it’s like to be in the middle of the odyssey years [italics added]. It’s possible to see that this period of improvisation is a sensible response to modern conditions.” David Brooks, “The Odyssey Years,” The Opinion Pages, New York Times, October 9, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/09/opinion/09brooks.html?_r=0. Chapter 7 How Not to Get a Job 1.
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey
That means that Republican counties grew by 1 million more people a year than Democratic counties. And projections from the U.S. Census Bureau show that this trend will continue—will even accelerate—in the current century. Birthrates are higher in Republican areas than in Democratic areas. This phenomenon has been described as the "liberal baby bust" by USA Today. In 2004, New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote that the higher birthrates in Republican areas were part of a "natalism" movement. "They are having three, four or more kids," Brooks wrote of America's "natalists." "Their personal identity is defined by parenthood. They are more spiritually, emotionally and physically invested in their homes than in any other sphere of life, having concluded that parenthood is the most enriching and elevating thing they can do.
I would not want to see my grandchildren raised in downtown Minneapolis in an environment that is different from the one out here. I want to split my own wood and be less dependent on government." Randy Penrod, a 285-pound rugby player and Scott County's Republican Party chair, said that Republicans and Democrats have a basic difference: "I have a theory that the farther away you are from another human being, the more likely you are to be a Republican." New York Times columnist David Brooks described the exurbs in his impressionistic 2004 book On Paradise Drive. After these fast-growing counties appeared to have reelected Bush that year, there was a mini-burst of research into what the exurbs were all about. The research was never particularly rewarding because nobody could agree on how an exurb differed from a suburb or a rural community. But anyone who has visited the outskirts of a U.S. city recently has seen these communities clinging to the hull of the city, just outside the older suburbs.
Scott Keeter of the Pew Research Center provided this analysis to the author. In one difference from Bob Cushing's analysis, Keeter slightly changed the dividing line for a strong partisan county. Instead of a io-point difference, Keeter designated "landslide" counties as those with 20-point margins. Just under half the voters in 2004 lived in one of these counties. 6. Phillip Longman, "The Liberal Baby Bust," USA Today, March 14, 2006; David Brooks, "The New Red-Diaper Babies," New York Times, December 7, 2004; Joel Kotkin and William Frey, "Parent Trap," New Repuhlic, December 2, 2004, http://www.joelkotkm.com/Politics/NR%20Parent_Trap.htm. 7. Ronald Brownstein, "As Democrats Look West, Colorado Budges," Los Angeles Times, September 28, 2006. 8. Bob Cushing used county-to-county migration data provided by the IRS to do this analysis. 3.
Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra
The parents of British children—who spend an average of six hours a day in front of such screens—“felt that they had things about right,” summarized Lydia Plowman, the lead British researcher of a long-term study of media use.12 In families where the culture is to leave kids to their own devices (literally), what role do hours of screen time play in a child’s psychological development, school progress, or even happiness? Screens and Social Class Before I even get to the screens, consider how skill gaps are widened by social class. In The Social Animal, David Brooks describes some of the ways that child-rearing styles among lower-class families differ from the engaged, debate- and tutorial-driven parenting of the professional classes. In lower-class homes “there tends to be a much starker boundary between the adult world and the children’s world,” Brooks writes. “Parents tend to think that the cares of adulthood will come soon enough and that children should be left alone to organize their own playtime.”
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). 16. Elizabeth Vandewater, David Bickham, and June Lee, “Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities,” Pediatrics 117, no. 2 (2006); Mendelsohn et al., “Infant Television and Video Exposure”; Tomopoulous et al., “Infant Media Exposure.” 17. Kevin Hartnett, “The Perils of Parenting Style,” Pennsylvania Gazette, September/October 2011; David Brooks, The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (New York: Random House, 2012). 18. Brooks, The Social Animal. 19. Hartnett, “The Perils of Parenting Style”; Lareau, Unequal Childhoods. 20. De Decker et al., “Influencing Factors of Screen Time.” 21. B. Hart and T. R. Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children (Baltimore: Brookes, 1995); Lareau, Unequal Childhoods; Brooks, The Social Animal. 22.
Barack Obama, The Audacity of Hope (New York: Vintage, 2006). 27. Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff, “The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers.” 28. Nicholas D. Kristof, “How Mrs. Grady Transformed Olly Neal,” New York Times, January 22, 2012. 29. Robert D. Putnam, “Requiem for the American Dream? Unequal Opportunity in America,” lecture presented at the Aspen Ideas Festival, Aspen, CO, June 29, 2012; David Brooks, “The Opportunity Gap,” New York Times, July 9, 2012; Margaret Wente, “The Long Climb from Inequality,” Globe and Mail, July 14, 2012; Sean F. Reardon, “No Rich Child Left Behind,” New York Times, April 28, 2013; Sean F. Riordan, “The Widening Academic Achievement Gap between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations,” in Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children, ed.
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
It is increasingly conceived as a federation of subcultures and the society or city itself being thought of as a “community of communities.” Before concluding this discussion of the community culture, it should be pointed out that ethnicity is a predominant base of cultural diversity, but it is not the only source. Lifestyles, social values, and identity politics are other contributors to the cultural diversity of cities and societies. Bohemians, Yuppies, Punks, or, to use David Brooks’s term for the new upper class, Bobos19 are often viewed as distinct cultural communities on the basis of their lifestyles and values. Yet much of the multiculturalism discourse is about ethnic communities and their subcultures. This is how the term community culture will be used in the book. Ethnicity, Identity, and Community Culture Ethnicity is a social boundary that defines who is inside and also, by implication, outside a group.
This concept overlaps with civic culture, though the latter includes formal rules and rights of participating and benefiting from governmental institutions. The Culture of Cities, 11. Claude S. Ficher, “The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A TwentiethCentury Assessment,” American Journal of Sociology 101, no. 3 (1995), 568. Barry Wellman and Barry Leighton, “Networks, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Approaches to the Study of the Community Question,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 14, no. 3 (1979), 363–90. Kymlicka, Multicultural Odysseys, 44. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001). Richard Alba and Victor Nee, Remaking the American Mainstream (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 11. Waldinger and Bozorgmehr, “The Making of a Multicultural Metropolis,” 30. Adapted from Wsevolod Isajiw, Definitions of Ethnicity, Occasional Papers in Ethnic and Immigration Studies (Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1979), 25.
Gerard Bouchard and Charles Taylor, Building the Future, Report of Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles (Quebec, 2008), 19. Banting, Courchene, and Seidle, “Introduction” in Belonging? ed. Banting, Courchene, and Seidle, 1. Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions (Toronto: Penguin, 1994), 113. David Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 3. David Brooks, “The Death of Multiculturalism,” New York Times, 27 April 2006, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E1DC133FF9 34A15757C0A9609C8B63. Lawrence Martin, “Enough of Multiculturalism – Bring on the Melting Pot,” Globe and Mail, 31 March 2009, A17. Jan Rath, “Debating Multiculturalism,” Harvard International Review, 6 January 2011, http://hir.harvard.edu/archives/2773. Arjun Appadurai, The Future as a Cultural Fact (London: Verso, 2013), 179, 182.
Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mortgage debt, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K
House majority leader Eric Cantor, who had maneuvered into becoming the point man for the Republican Right and/or who was irked at being cut out of the secret Obama-Boehner talks, had torpedoed the deal. He told Boehner that House Republicans would not accept any tax increases and that Boehner had to back out of talks with Obama. Boehner bowed to that dictum and rejoined the Republican chorus against any tax increase. Republican-friendly columnist David Brooks exploded in exasperation at the adamant refusal of the Tea Party–dominated Republicans to accept what he saw as Obama’s lopsided concessions. In a New York Times column headlined “The Mother of All No-Brainers,” Brooks wrote: “A normal Republican Party would seize the opportunity to put a long-term limit on the growth of government,” but not a Republican Party in the grip of the Tea Party Right.
Seeing no realistic prospect for change, Snowe said bluntly: “I am not prepared to commit myself to an additional six years in the Senate.” Some mainstream Republican senators such as Orrin Hatch of Utah and Richard Lugar of Indiana, like GOP presidential candidates playing to the hard-core Right in the primaries, swerved to adopt hard right positions in their reelection campaigns to ward off Tea Party purging. Hatch survived the initial Tea Party purge, but Lugar was knocked off. Conservative columnist David Brooks likened Republican primaries to “heresy trials” imposing ideological purity, and he sharply chided Hatch and Lugar for bowing to these pressures. “It’s not honorable to kowtow to the extremes so you can preserve your political career,” Brooks commented. “Of course, this is exactly what has been happening in the Republican Party for the past half century. Over the decades, one pattern has been constant: [Right] Wingers fight to take over the party, mainstream Republicans bob and weave to keep their seats.
Realpolitik,” The New York Times, July 11, 2011; “Boehner Says Obama ‘Not Serious’ About Deficit,” CBS News, Face the Nation, May 15, 2011; Kane, “President, Speaker Motivated by ‘Big Deal.’ ” Matt Bai, “The Game Is Called Chicken,” The New York Times Magazine, April 1, 2012. 70 The risk was Kane, “President, Speaker Motivated by ‘Big Deal.’ ” 71 Boehner had to back out Ibid.; David A. Fahrenthold and Paul Kane, “Eric Cantor Emerges a Key Player in Debt Negotiations,” The Washington Post, July 11, 2011. 72 “The Mother of All No-Brainers” David Brooks, “The Mother of All No-Brainers,” The New York Times, July 5, 2011. 73 In this final push, their grand bargain Bai, “The Game Is Called Chicken,” and Peter Wallstein, Lori Montgomery, and Scott Wilson, “He Promised Change in Washington. Then the Debt Deal Collapsed. So Obama Changed Course,” The Washington Post, March 18, 2012. 74 Lowest level in sixty years Senator Daniel K. Inouye, “Domestic Discretionary Spending Flat Since 2001; Not Responsible for Growing Debt,” press release, Senate Committee on Appropriations, June 30, 2011, http://appropriations.senate.gov. 75 Third lowest overall tax rates “U.S.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra
Boko Haram Bombetoka Bay Bonde, Bob Bork, Les Boston Consulting Group Boston Globe Bourguiba, Habib Boys & Girls Clubs of America Brainerd, Mary “Brains & Machines” (blog) Braun, Gil Brazil breakers, super-empowered; degrading of; humiliation and; weak states and Brew “Brief History of Jews and African Americans in North Minneapolis, A” (Quednau) Brimeyer, Jim Brin, Sergey broadband Broadgate, Wendy Brock, David Brooks, David Brooks, Mel Brookview golf club Brown, John Seely Brynjolfsson, Erik Bucksbaum, Phil Buffett, Warren building information modeling buildings, energy efficient Burke, Edmund Burke, Tom Burnett, T Bone Burning Glass Technologies business: social responsibility and Business Bridge Business Insider Busteed, Brandon Bustle.com “Caddie Chatter” (Long and Seitz) Cairo calcium carbonate California, University of, at San Diego Cambodia campaign spending Campbell, James R.
In a world of super-empowered individuals we need to redouble our efforts to ensure that in as many ways as possible we are creating moral contexts and weaving healthy interdependencies that embrace the immigrant, the stranger, and the loner, and inspire more people in more places to want to make things rather than break things. There is no restraint stronger than thinking your friends and family will hate or disrespect you for what you do—and that can be generated only by a community. “All over the country there are schools and organizations trying to come up with new ways to cultivate character,” my colleague David Brooks noted in his November 27, 2015, column in The New York Times. “The ones I’ve seen that do it best, so far, are those that cultivate intense, thick community. Most of the time character is not an individual accomplishment. It emerges through joined hearts and souls, and in groups.” One way to reinforce and scale the character-building norms of healthy communities is by showing people the joys and the fruits that can come from joining hearts, souls, and hands—what happens when we don’t just not do unto others but actually do with others in ways that are big and hard and make a difference.
The families of the boys received settlements from the City of Saint Paul and the School District because of the incident at a popular site for fossil hunting under a slope. Some of that money is being used to build a school and an orphanage in East Africa.” Innovation Comes in Small Packages Time and again I saw proof just in little St. Louis Park of Gidi Grinstein’s dictum that social innovation is happening all over the country today at the local level. Nothing new has to be invented—all that exists just needs to be scaled, or as my colleague David Brooks observed in his June 21, 2016, New York Times column: “The social fabric is tearing across this country, but everywhere it seems healers are rising up to repair their small piece of it. They are going into hollow places and creating community, building intimate relationships that change lives one by one.” People in the St. Louis Park community feel so strongly about their public schools that they created a foundation to provide teachers with supplemental support for special projects.
Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser
agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment
Lovins, Soft Energy Paths: Toward a Durable Peace (New York: Harper & Row, and Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1979), 38–39. 4. David B. Brooks, John B. Robinson, and Ralph D. Torrie, 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada, vol. 1, National Report of Friends of the Earth Canada to the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and Environment Canada (Ottawa: 1983), italics added. Note to the reader: Robert Bott, David Brooks, and John Robinson, Life After Oil: A Renewable Energy Policy for Canada (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1983) is the most accessible of the several versions of the Canadian soft energy path study. 5. David B. Brooks, Another Path Not Taken: A Methodological Exploration of Water Soft Paths for Canada and Elsewhere, Report to Environment Canada (Ottawa: Friends of the Earth Canada, 2003). 6. Brooks et al., 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada. 7.
Brooks, Another Path Not Taken: A Methodological Exploration of Water Soft Paths for Canada and Elsewhere, Report to Environment Canada (Ottawa: Friends of the Earth Canada, 2003). 6. Brooks et al., 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada. 7. Stobaugh and Yergin, Energy Future. The original study was reported in the Demand and Conservation Panel of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, “U.S. Energy Demand: Some Low Energy Futures,” Science, April 14, 1978. 8. See, for example, Brooks et al., Another Path Not Taken. 9. Ralph Torrie and David Brooks, with Ed Burt, Mario Espejo, Luc Gagnon, and Susan Holtz, 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada — 1988 Update (Ottawa: The Canadian Environmental Network, 1988). 10. $30 per barrel in 2000 and $55 per barrel in 2025. 11. Janet Shawin, “Charting a New Energy Future,” State of the World: 2003 (Washington, D.C.: The Worldwatch Institute, 2003). 12. Ralph Torrie, Richard Parfett, and Paul Steenhof, Kyoto and Beyond: The Low Emissions Path to Innovation and Efficiency (Vancouver: The David Suzuki Foundation, and Ottawa: Climate Action Network Canada, 2002). 13.
Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal
1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog
Certainly non-genetic factors play a role, but of great importance is the nature of and extent to which our genes are connected with serotonin, a molecule that conveys messages to and from nerve cells and that affects our behavior. Experiments to determine the role of serotonin indicate that, as the phrase goes, optimists are genetically predisposed to see the world differently from pessimists and skeptics. It would surely be revealing to conduct experiments on avowed utopians or other persistently upbeat persons. Nevertheless, as New York Times columnist David Brooks reminded us in 2008, “Today, if you look at people who study how genetics shape human behavior, you ﬁnd a collection of anti-Frankensteins. As the research moves along, the scientists grow more modest about what we are close to knowing and achieving,” contrary to earlier proclamations of the “discovery of an aggression gene, a happiness gene, or a depression gene.”49 Moreover, as the New York Times detailed in a 2010 article entitled “Awaiting the Genome Payoff,” in the ten years since the completion of the ﬁrst draft of the Human Genome Project and the identiﬁcation of our roughly 22,000 human genes, few drugs have been developed.
See also Henry Petroski, The Essential Engineer: Why Science Alone Will Not Solve Our Global Problems (New York: Knopf, 2010), ch. 11. See, for example, Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientiﬁc Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 ), ix–xlii. See “Psychology: Sunny Side Up: Optimism, it Seems, is in the Genes,” The Economist, 390 (February 28, 2009), 85; and David Brooks, “The Luxurious Growth: What Our Genes Don’t Tell Us,” New York Times, July 15, 2008, A19. See also the letters in response to Brooks’ column, New York Times, July 17, 2008, A22; and Margaret Wente, “Optimism Is Highly Overrated,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), May 16, 2009, A21. Andrew Pollack, “Awaiting the Genome Payoff,” New York Times, June 15, 2010, B1, B5 (the quotation comes from B5). See also Christopher Westphal, “Biotechnology’s New Frontier,” Boston Globe, June 14, 2010, A11; and Carolyn Johnson, “Born to Age Gracefully: Genes Hold Clues on Who May Live Long and Prosper,” Boston Globe, July 2, 2010, A1, A8.
The World Beyond Your Head: On Becoming an Individual in an Age of Distraction by Matthew B. Crawford
airport security, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, digital Maoism, Google Glasses, hive mind, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, large denomination, new economy, new new economy, online collectivism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy
That kind of full-throated affirmation has always been at odds with the agnosticism that is thought to be part of democratic good manners. In a study conducted in the summer of 2008, the Notre Dame sociologist Christian Smith and his colleagues conducted in-depth interviews with 230 young American adults about their moral lives. What they found is nothing so exciting as depravity, but rather a depressing inarticulacy. Summarizing Smith’s findings, David Brooks wrote, “Many were quick to talk about their moral feelings but hesitant to link these feelings to any broader thinking about a shared moral framework … As one put it, ‘I mean, I guess what makes something right is how I feel about it. But different people feel different ways, so I couldn’t speak on behalf of anyone else as to what’s right and wrong.’”1 It was Thomas Hobbes who first made the privatization of judgment a political principle.
Robert Richardson (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 132, emphasis added. In this popular essay James is giving practical advice that is based on the James-Lange theory of emotions, according to which feeling tends to follow action. 7. I owe this insight to a conversation with Talbot Brewer. 8. Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2011), 177. 9. Ibid., 10. 11. THE FLATTENING 1. David Brooks, “If It Feels Right,” The New York Times, September 12, 2011. 2. This point is made by Talbot Brewer in The Retrieval of Ethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 3. I owe the argument of this paragraph, and some of the language, to conversations and email exchanges with William Hasselberger and Talbot Brewer. They, in turn, report that they have been informed by Cora Diamond, “‘We Are Perpetually Moralists’: Iris Murdoch, Fact, and Value,” in Iris Murdoch and the Search for Human Goodness, ed.
The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy
Reform conservatism’s ideas—promoting early childhood education, for example, allowing states to manage their own transportation projects with their own fuel taxes—emphasize the brass tacks realism of traditional conservatism that has always appealed to Middle America. As important, that realism once formed the basis for a lot of bipartisan compromise and effective legislation. It was always the pragmatists on the left and on the right who found ways to work together on big issues, such as tax reform. And while pragmatism has been the first thing to suffer under brand politics in the Impulse Society, there are models for bringing it back. As David Brooks, another conservative voice at The New York Times, points out, conservative politicians of the nineteenth century—Abraham Lincoln, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whigs—built powerful majorities by focusing on basic, nonpartisan issues such as social mobility and economic opportunity and, importantly, by “using the power of government to give marginalized Americans the tools to compete in a capitalist economy.”
Liz Kennedy, “Citizens Actually United: The Bi-Partisan Opposition to Corporate Political Spending and Support for Common Sense Reform,” Demos, Oct. 25, 2012, http://www.demos.org/publication/citizens-actually-united-bi-partisan-opposition-corporate-political-spending-and-support. 23. Chris Myers, “Conservatism and Campaign Finance Reform: The Two Aren’t Mutually Exclusive,” RedState, April 24, 2012, http://www.redstate.com/clmyers/2013/04/24/conservatism-and-campaign-finance-reform/. 24. David Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition,” The New York Times, Jan 30, 2014. 25. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/. 26. In Robert Frank, The Darmn Economy: Liberty, Competition, and Common Good. 27. Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition.” Footnotes Chapter 1 * Traffic fatalities in the 1920s were about seventeen times higher, per mile traveled, than today
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
The United States is gradually reaching the end of a cataclysm, economic rather than military, but a cataclysm nonetheless, and it is impossible not to wonder what ordinary American life will look like in the postrecession future. Some of the most intriguing questions this time are ones of culture, demographics, and the use of physical space. It is perfectly possible to argue, as critics such as Joel Kotkin and David Brooks do, that the rules are not about to change—that the auto-dependent existence, suburban expansion, and the urban decline of the late twentieth century will simply resume. It is also possible to argue, as do critics on the other side, such as Christopher Leinberger and Arthur C. Nelson, that the Great Recession will prove to be a cultural and demographic turning point. Cities and suburbs will cease to play the role that they played in the second half of the twentieth century.
., “Light Rail Packed for Grand Debut,” Arizona Republic, December 28, 2008, p. 1. 17 “Now that it’s up”: Carol Johnson, personal interview, November 2009. 18 “Our presence will be catalytic”: Michael Crow, quoted in Craig Harris, “Trio Frame Future for Downtown,” Arizona Republic, January 4, 2006, p. 1B. 19 “ASU downtown is more than a few nuggets”: Phil Gordon interview. 20 “People weren’t buying to flip”: Eric Brown, personal interview, December 2009. 21 “Life happens under five stories”: Ibid. 22 “The less frequently you use your car”: Grady Gammage interview. 23 “This isn’t an urban city”: Don Keuth interview. 24 “We have all these people”: Carol Johnson interview. 25 “When I think about Chicago”: Alicia Porter, quoted in The Arizona We Want (Phoenix: Center for the Future of Arizona, 2009), p. 32. 26 “There is something genuinely vital”: Grady Gammage interview. 27 “We’re not a global city”: Don Keuth interview. CHAPTER NINE: URBANIZING THE SUBURBS 1 77 percent of Generation Y: John McIlwain, Housing in America: The Next Decade (Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2010), p. 15. 2 “Generation Y’s attitudes toward home ownership”: Ibid. 3 In a poll cited by The New York Times in 2009: David Brooks, “I Dream of Denver,” New York Times op-ed column, February 17, 2009, p. 33. 4 “Once the economy recovers”: McIlwain, Housing in America, p. 26. 5 The demographer Arthur C. Nelson calculated: Arthur C. Nelson, quoted in Ellen Dunham-Jones and June Williamson, Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs (New York: Wiley, 2008), p. 10. 6 “Stapleton was a significant proving ground”: Peter Park, personal interview, July 2010. 7 “People got married at Villa Italia”: Bob Murphy, personal interview, July 2010. 8 “It was a boarded-up mall”: Ibid. 9 “The most important part”: Mark Falcone, personal interview, July 2010. 10 “It didn’t take long”: Bob Murphy interview. 11 “the first project in Colorado”: City of Englewood, Colorado, website, http://englewoodgov.org/Index.aspx?
Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor
,” Policy Analysis, October 20, 2014, http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/war-poverty-turns-50-are-we-winning-yet (accessed May 26, 2015). 53. Ibid. 54. Robert Rector, “How Poor Are America’s Poor? Examining the ‘Plague’ of Poverty in America,” Heritage Foundation, August 27, 2007, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2007/08/how-poor-are-americas-poor-examining-the-plague-of-poverty-in-america (accessed May 26, 2015). 55. David Brooks, “The Nature of Poverty,” New York Times, May 1, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/01/opinion/david-brooks-the-nature-of-poverty.html (accessed May 26, 2015). 56. Charles Murray, Coming Apart (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), pp. 226–27. 57. Lawrence M. Mead, From Prophecy to Charity: How to Help the Poor (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2011), p. 34. 58. Ibid., pp. 30–31; Lawrence M. Mead, The New Politics of Poverty (New York: Basic Books, 1992), p. 50. 59.
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
DUMB DATA As powerful as big data is, there are some things that it does not do well and for which there is little chance of meaningful improvement in the foreseeable future. I don’t see any developments in big data that will change the old truism that machines are adept at things humans find difficult (such as working 24 hours straight or quickly solving a complex math problem) and humans are adept at things that machines find difficult (such as creativity or understanding social and cultural context). New York Times columnist David Brooks has pointed out that data has failed to analyze the social aspects of interaction or to recognize context: “People are really good at telling stories that weave together multiple causes. Data analysis is pretty bad at narrative and emergent thinking, and it cannot match the explanatory suppleness of even a mediocre novel.” It is also the case that while analyzing ever-larger data sets will produce outcomes like near-perfect machine translation, it will also produce a larger number of spurious correlations.
., “Marital Satisfaction and Break-Ups Differ across On-Line and Off-Line Meeting Venues,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 25 (2013), http://www.pnas.org/content/110/25/10135.full. Critics like writer Leon Wieseltier: Leon Wieseltier, “What Big Data Will Never Explain,” New Republic, March 26, 2013. As a response to this: http://openag.io/about-us/principals-use-cases/. Data analysis is pretty bad: David Brooks, “What Data Can’t Do,” New York Times, February 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/opinion/brooks-what-data-cant-do.html?_r=0. When Harvard University’s big data: Kalev Leetaru, “Why Big Data Missed the Early Warning Signs of Ebola,” Foreign Policy, September 26, 2014, http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/09/26/why-big-data-missed-the-early-warning-signs-of-ebola/#trending. Once it was clear that Ebola: “Ebola Cases Could Skyrocket by 2015, Says CDC,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63, Washington Post, http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/page/national/ebola-cases-could-skyrocket-by-2015-says-cdc/1337/.
air freight, Al Roth, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, endowment effect, financial innovation, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, housing crisis, invisible hand, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, market bubble, Murray Gell-Mann, payday loans, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Thaler, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Upton Sinclair
Worse, our mistakes of judgment can aggregate in the market, sparking a scenario in which, much like an earthquake, no one has any idea what is happening. (Al Roth, an economist at Harvard, and one of the smartest people I know, has summarized this issue by saying, “In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is a great deal of difference.”) A few days after Greenspan’s congressional testimony, the New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote that Greenspan’s confession would “…amount to a coming-out party for behavioral economists and others who are bringing sophisticated psychology to the realm of public policy. At least these folks have plausible explanations for why so many people could have been so gigantically wrong about the risks they were taking.”3 All of a sudden, it looked as if some people were beginning to understand that the study of small-scale mistakes was not just a source for amusing dinner-table anecdotes.
Klaus’s interest in decision making is mostly based on his attempts to make sense of his own deviation from rationality, whether it is his smoking habit or his procrastination in delaying work for the pleasure of watching soccer on television. It was only fitting that we worked together on procrastination. Klaus is currently a professor at INSEAD. Notes 1. James Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte Madrian, “$100 Bills on the Sidewalk: Suboptimal Saving in 401(k) Plans,” Yale University, working paper. 2. Steven Levitt and John List, “Homo economicus Evolves,” Science (2008). 3. David Brooks, “The Behavioral Revolution,” New York Times (October 27, 2008). 4. Jodi Kantor, “Entrees Reach $40,” New York Times (October 21, 2006). 5. Itamar Simonson, “Get Closer to Your Customers by Understanding How They Make Choices,” California Management Review (1993). 6. Louis Uchitelle, “Lure of Great Wealth Affects Career Choices,” New York Times (November 27, 2006). 7. Katie Hafner, “In the Web World, Rich Now Envy the Superrich,” New York Times (November 21, 2006). 8.
The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef
big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, knowledge worker, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Having worked in both sectors, from the factory floor at Hiram Walker to the mall record store (and even my first Toronto job temping at a call centre), I see much in common with the relationship to work (being told what to do) and a wider class sensibility (feeling as if somebody else controls your destiny). As for lifestyle, Florida argues the creative class is not just a blending of bourgeois and bohemian values, as outlined in David Brook’s 2000 book Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There, an early look at what would inform Florida’s creative class, but transcends those two categories completely. ‘Spurred on by the creative ethos, we blend work and lifestyle to construct our identities as creative people,’ writes Florida. ‘Today, the people in my interviews identify themselves through a tangle of connections to a myriad creative activities.
Airbnb, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, information retrieval, invention of the telegraph, planetary scale, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, sentiment analysis, social web, statistical model, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, white flight
by Robin Dunbar. Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler have also studied this in modern groups. See the 2010 Harvard Magazine article “Networks, neolithic to now” for an overview. 5. For a great overview (with data) of Dunbar’s number and online games, see Christopher Allen’s post “The Dunbar number as a limit to group sizes” on his blog Life With Alacrity. 6. For lots of detail about group dynamics, see David Brook’s book The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (Random House, 2011). 7. For more information on Stanley Milgram’s experiments, including challenges to his methods, see the Wikipedia article on Small world experiment. 8. See the 2008 research paper “Planetary-scale views on a large instant-messaging network” by Jure Leskovec and Eric Horvitz (where they analyzed 30 billion conversations among 240 million MSN users). 9.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
Fairfax isn’t officially a city—it doesn’t even have its own zip code—but if its size was measured in mall and office space, it would be the sixth-largest in the country. Fairfax today is wealthier than either Bangkok or New Delhi, and it hasn’t plateaued yet. While America grapples with double-digit unemployment, the Obama administration has added hundreds of thousands of jobs around Washington. What you make of this depends on your politics. Armchair sociologists with a local’s bias and conservative bent—like Joel Garreau or the New York Times columnist David Brooks—see a shining, privately owned and publicly financed city on a hill. A liberal polemicist like Thomas Frank, on the other hand, finds a starched-and-pressed Sodom: When you drive among these wonders, northern Virginia appears as a kind of technicolor vision of prosperity, American-style; a distillation of all that is mighty and righteous about the American imperium: the airport designed by Eero Saarinen; the shopping mall so vast it dwarfs other cities’ downtowns; the finely tuned high-performance cars zooming along an immaculate private highway; the masses of flowers in perfectly edged beds; the gas stations with Colonial Williamsburg cupolas; the street names, even, recalling our cherished American values: Freedom, Market, Democracy, Tradition, and Signature drives; Heritage Lane; Founders Way; Enterprise, Prosperity, and Executive Park avenues; and a Chivalry Road that leads, of course, to Valor Court.
The nascent aerotropolis is making the same, albeit less fatal, mistakes of a Schaumburg or Fairfax at warp speed, spreading across so many cities, counties, and assorted municipal entities that no one is in a position to fill in everyone on the bigger picture, which is how Cal Fulenwider was able to sell his own in the first place. Denver may be squandering its best chance to avoid a repeat of the urban planning (or lack thereof) on the city’s south side. “We don’t even have words to describe these places,” David Brooks wrote. “Over the past few decades, dozens of scholars have studied places like Arapahoe County,” where exurban Cherry Hills, Centennial, and much of Aurora are located. “They’ve coined terms to capture the polymorphous living arrangements found in these fast growing regions: edgeless city, major diversification center, multicentered net, ruraburbia, boomburg, spread city, technoburb, suburban growth corridor, sprinkler cities.”
For an introduction to New Urbanism and the ideas of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, I recommend Suburban Nation. The notion of Denver and the Front Range as a “megapolitan” and one of several “mountain megas” including Phoenix, Las Vegas, and northern New Mexico was advanced by Robert E. Lang and Mark Muro of the Brookings Institution in their 2008 report “Mountain Megas: America’s Newest Metropolitan Places and a Federal Partnership to Help Them Prosper.” David Brooks reflected on the exurban fringe of Arapahoe County in On Paradise Drive. A copy of the Stapleton “Green Book” was given to me by Forest City Stapleton’s Tom Gleason. Gleason, who was once Mayor Federico Peña’s press secretary, also supplied background on Peña’s decision to shutter the airport in the first place. For details on the LEED certification program and all it entails, visit the U.S.
The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David K. Shipler
Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, full employment, illegal immigration, late fees, low skilled workers, payday loans, profit motive, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, working poor
Balloting seems driven more by aspiration than complaint. Time magazine found in a 2000 survey that 19 percent of Americans thought they were in the top 1 percent of wage-earners, and another 20 percent expected to be in the future. “So right away you have 39 percent of Americans who thought that when Mr. Gore savaged a plan that favored the top i percent, he was taking a direct shot at them,” wrote David Brooks, a senior editor at The Weekly Standard.3 When self-delusion distorts behavior at the polls, it has damaging consequences for those of low income. Voting is the basic building block of democratic government, and government is the instrument best positioned to make a difference to the working poor. No key sector of this free-enterprise system, whether business or charity, escapes the pervasive influence wielded by government through tax policy, regulation, wage requirements, subsidies, grants, and the like.
Chapter Eleven: Skill and Will 1. “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000,” U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, February 2002, Table B, pp. 6–7. 2. Los Angeles Times, Apr. 7, 2003, p. A20 and New York Times, Apr. 23, 2008, p. Ai. Of the total inmate population, which reached 2.3 million in 2006, nearly 143,000 were non-citizens and over 90,000 were minors. 3. David Brooks, “The Triumph of Hope Over Self-Interest,” New York Times, Jan. 12, 2003, Section 4, p. 15. 4. Liana Fox, “What a New Federal Minimum Wage Means for the States,” Economic Policy Inst., June 1, 2007. 5. The ACORN Living Wage Resource Center, http://www.livingwagecampaign.org/shortwins.php. 6. Robert Pear, “Aid to Poor Faces Tighter Scrutiny,” New York Times, Feb. 5, 2003, p. Ai. 7. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 25, 2008, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nro.htm. 8.
All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce
The new rich know they’re doing well, but they also want to feel like they’re doing good…and they desperately want to raise their children with the values that helped them get where they are.” In that vein, Beverly Hills psychologist Lee Hausner notes that one of the main worries afflicting the new rich is that they will fail to pass on middle-class values to their children. Not for them the over-the-top spending of Larry Ellison or of Bill Koch, who built his son a two-acre playground complete with a dozen jungle gyms. Writer and New York Times columnist David Brooks christened this new affluent class—children of the 1960s who have melded capitalist success virtues with countercultural values—bourgeois bohemians, or Bobos for short. According to Brooks, in his tongue-in-cheek sociological study Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There, while these new billionaires have no problem spending their hard-earned dollars on beautiful homes and yachts, woe betide anyone who flaunts his riches egregiously.
Likewise, the recluse Richard Wendt: Elisa Williams, “Work Speaks for Itself,” Forbes, Oct. 9, 2000. 83. Wynn, who suffers from a rare disease: Nick Poumgarten, “The $40-million Elbow,” The New Yorker, Oct. 23, 2006. 84. In the late 1990s: Michaels, “The Mass-Market Rich.” 85. “Theirs is not old wealth”: Dinesh D’Souza, “A Century of Wealth: The Billionaire Next Door,” Forbes, Oct. 11, 1999. 86. “Earlier this century”: David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), p. 47. 10. Heirs Sources interviewed for this chapter: Nelson W. Aldrich Jr., author, Old Money: The Mythology of Wealth in America (1988); Natalie A. Black; Peter Buffett; Susie Buffett; Sara Hamilton of Family Office Exchange; Dr. Lee Hausner, of the family-wealth consulting firm IFF Advisors; Andrew Keyt, executive director of the Chicago Family Business Center at Loyola University; Herbert V.
Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional
One of the most interesting and productive areas of inquiry is the field of behavioral economics, which explores how individuals make decisions—sometimes in ways that aren’t as rational as economists have traditionally theorized. We humans underestimate some risks (obesity) and overestimate others (flying); we let emotion cloud our judgment; we overreact to both good news and bad news (rising home prices and then falling home prices). Most of this was obvious to Shakespeare, but it’s relatively new to mainstream economics. As New York Times columnist David Brooks noted, “Economic behavior can be accurately predicted through elegant models. This view explains a lot, but not the current financial crisis—how so many people could be so stupid, incompetent and self-destructive all at once. The crisis has delivered a blow to classical economics and taken a body of psychological work that was at the edge of public policy thought and brought it to front and center.”4 Of course, most of the old ideas are still pretty darn important.
Thomas Friedman, “Senseless in Seattle,” New York Times, December 1, 1999. 2. Claudia Goldin and Cecilia Rouse, “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians,” American Economic Review, September 2000. 3. Charles Himmelberg, Christopher Mayer, and Todd Sinai, “Assessing High House Prices: Bubbles, Fundamentals and Misperceptions,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 19, no. 4 (Fall 2005). 4. David Brooks, “An Economy of Faith and Trust,” New York Times, January 16, 2009. CHAPTER 1. THE POWER OF MARKETS 1. M. Douglas Ivester, Remarks to the Economic Club of Chicago, February 25, 1999. 2. Stephen Moore and Julian Simon, The Greatest Century That Ever Was: 25 Miraculous Trends of the Past 100 Years, Cato Institute Policy Analysis, No. 364 (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, December 15, 1999). 3.
Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall
Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, lump of labour, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor
This category comprises semiskilled workers, many of whom are employed in factories or in the service sector (as clerks and sales associates, for instance), where their responsibilities involve routine, mechanized tasks requiring little skill beyond basic literacy and a brief period of on-the-job training.10 Members of the upper-middle class are often thought to have achieved the American Dream; unlike many in the upper class, however, most members of the upper-middle class must work for a living. Early in the twenty-first century, two best-selling books offered new concepts about the upper-middle class. In Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks suggests that many people in the upper-middle class are now “the new upper class,” a well-educated elite 9781442202238.print.indb 165 2/10/11 10:47 AM 166 Chapter 6 that he calls “Bobos” (bourgeois bohemians).11 Based in part on information in the New York Times wedding section about brides, grooms, and their families, Brooks argues that the “white-shoed, Whartonized, Episcopalian establishmentarians with protruding jaws” are long gone from the ranks of the privileged upper class, having been replaced by “mountaineering-booted overachievers with excellent orthodontia and impressive GRE scores.”12 However, Brooks’s description of the future prospects of the so-called Bobos gives them the appearance of being upper-middle class at best: But members of today’s educated class can never be secure about their own future.
“Inside the Middle Class: Bad Times Hit the Good Life,” Pew Social Trends, April 9, 2008, http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/706/middle-class-poll (accessed July 29, 2010). 8. Barbara Ehrenreich, Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class (New York: HarperPerennial, 1990), 13. 9. Gilbert, The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. 10. Gilbert, The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. 11. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000). 12. E. J. Graff, “Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There,” American Prospect, May 22, 2000, 52, quoting Brooks, Bobos in Paradise. 13. Brooks, Bobos in Paradise, 52. 14. “It Would Never Work Out . . .” (cartoon), New Yorker, March 25, 2002, 75. 15. Benjamin DeMott, The Imperial Middle: Why Americans Can’t Think Straight about Class (New York: William Morrow, 1990); Gregory Mantsios, “Media Magic: Making Class Invisible,” in Privilege: A Reader, ed.
8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight
See Bruce Niendorf and Kristine Beck, “Good to Great, or Just Good?” Academy of Management Perspectives 22, no. 4 (2008): 13–20. See also Bruce Resnick and Timothy Smunt, “Good to Great to …?” Academy of Management Perspectives 22, no. 4 (2008): 6–12. 25. correlation between extroversion and leadership: Timothy Judge et al., “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 4 (2002): 765–80. See also David Brooks, “In Praise of Dullness,” New York Times, May 18, 2009, citing Steven Kaplan et al., “Which CEO Characteristics and Abilities Matter?” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14195, July 2008, a study finding that CEO success is more strongly related to “execution skills” than to “team-related skills.” Brooks also cited another study by Murray Barrick, Michael Mount, and Timothy Judge, surveying a century’s worth of research into business leadership and finding that extroversion did not correlate well with CEO success, but that conscientiousness did. 26.
Another study, of sixty-four traders: Mark Fenton O’Creevy et al., Traders: Risks, Decisions, and Management in Financial Markets (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005), 142–43. 26. delaying gratification, a crucial life skill: Jonah Lehrer, “Don’t,” The New Yorker, May 18, 2009. See also Jacob B. Hirsh et al., “Positive Mood Effects on Delay Discounting,” Emotion 10, no. 5 (2010): 717–21. See also David Brooks, The Social Animal (New York: Random House, 2011), 124. 27. scientists gave participants the choice: Samuel McClure et al., “Separate Neural Systems Value Immediate and Delayed Monetary Rewards,” Science 306 (2004): 503–7. 28. A similar study suggests: Hirsch, “Positive Mood Effects on Delay Discounting.” 29. Yet it was just this kind of risk-reward miscalculation: Wall Street’s judgment was clouded by a strange brew of (1) lemming-like behavior, (2) the opportunity to earn large transaction fees, (3) the fear of losing market share to competitors, and (4) the inability to properly balance opportunity against risk. 30.
Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier
3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
Thiel also advocates an end to death, to be enjoyed by the alpha proprietors of network-based monopolies. The flood of data about biology ought to be churned by cloud-based algorithms into an antidote to mortality in no time at all. That’s the expectation. The culture of power on the ’net is so different from what people everywhere else are used to that I wonder if it’s even possible to convey it. For instance, New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote1 about Thiel’s arguments based on a student’s notes,2 posted online. What he didn’t comment on was the headline on the student’s offering: Your mind is software. Program it. Your body is a shell. Change it. Death is a disease. Cure it. Extinction is approaching. Fight it. What most outsiders have failed to grasp is that the rise to power of ’net-based monopolies coincides with a new sort of religion based on becoming immortal.
The Interface to Reality 1. http://www.firstround.com/our_focus/. 2. http://www.naturalnews.com/036476_smart_meters_hacking_privacy.html. Chapter 29. Creepy 1. See http://www.fellowgeek.com/a-US-security-firm-hacked-by-Anonymous-ix1113.html and http://www.esecurityplanet.com/hackers/panda-security-hacked-lulzsec-is-your-website-safe.html. 2. http://cs-www.cs.yale.edu/homes/freeman/lifestreams.html. 3. See http://totalrecallbook.com/. Seventh Interlude: Limits Are for Mortals 1. David Brooks, “The Creative Monopoly,” New York Times, April 23, 2012. 2. http://blakemasters.tumblr.com/post/21169325300/peter-thiels-cs183-startup-class-4-notes-essay. 3. http://www.dailydot.com/society/facebook-mourning-jenna-ness-death/. 4. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2009/01/night_of_the_living_dad.html. 5. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/21/tupac-hologram-elvis-presley-marilyn-monroe_n_1818715.html. 6.
How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck
My objective is only to draw attention to the crucial significance of action patterns at the micro-level compensating for institutional deficiencies during the end-of-capitalism interregnum. 71These include precarious employment, to be celebrated as a positive incentive for competitive self-improvement and the building of an optimized entrepreneurial identity. 72On this see, among many others, David Brooks on the so-called ‘millennials’, under the title of ‘The Self-Reliant Generation’, New York Times, 8 January 2016, nytimes.com last accessed 21 January 2016. Brooks summarizes the results of survey of eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-old Americans. To quote: ‘You see an abstract celebration of creative transformation but a concrete hunger for order, security and stability … Another glaring feature of millennial culture is they have been forced to be self-reliant and to take a loosely networked individualism as the normal order of the universe.
Something is going to change.’ 73‘The most telling polling result from the 2000 election was from a Time magazine survey that asked people if they are in the top 1 percent of earners. Nineteen percent of Americans say they are in the richest 1 percent and a further 20 percent expect to be someday. So right away you have 39 percent of Americans who thought that when Mr. Gore savaged a plan that favored the top 1 percent, he was taking a direct shot at them.’ David Brooks, ‘The Triumph of Hope Over Self-Interest’, New York Times, 12 January 2003, nytimes.com, last accessed 31 December 2015. 74Although underclass drug users are kept desirably apathetic and politically incapacitated by their habit, they are the target of harsh law enforcement measures, and so are their suppliers. The reason may be that performance-replacing drugs, although they effectively disorganize the underclass as a potential political force, could subvert the competitive achievement ethic on which capitalism vitally depends.
My Start-Up Life: What A by Ben Casnocha, Marc Benioff
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, call centre, David Brooks, don't be evil, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index fund, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, Menlo Park, Paul Graham, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technology bubble, traffic fines
O’Rourke River Town, by Peter Hessler Novels I Am Charlotte Simmons, by Tom Wolfe Reading in the Dark, by Seamus Deane Dubliners, by James Joyce The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne The Plot Against America, by Philip Roth Ender’s Game, by Orson Scott Card Disgrace, by J. M. Coetze Indecision, by Benjamin Kunkel The Secret Life of Bees, by Sue Monk Kidd The Bonfire of the Vanities, by Tom Wolfe Saturday, by Ian McEwan Random On Paradise Drive, by David Brooks How to Be Alone, by Jonathan Franzen A Hope in the Unseen, by Ron Suskind Dress Your Family in Corduroy and Denim, by David Sedaris Clinton & Me, by Mark Katz What Does It Mean to Be Well Educated? by Alfie Kohn Consider the Lobster, by David Foster Wallace A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again, by David Foster Wallace 181 Acknowledgments I am lucky on many levels, and it’s most evident if I think about the people who have entered my life.
Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson
airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, working poor, X Prize
Both had a vast supply of echo chamber at their disposal back then. Now imagine they time-travel to the present. It is far easier now for each of them to stumble across divergent views—the Manhattan leftie can accidentally follow a link to National Review Online or surf past Sean Hannity on the way to Keith Olbermann, and the midwesterner can come across Ellen DeGeneres talking about her wedding plans, or follow a link to Andrew Sullivan’s blog. As David Brooks described it, “This study suggests that Internet users are a bunch of ideological Jack Kerouacs. They’re not burrowing down into comforting nests. They’re cruising far and wide, looking for adventure, information, combat and arousal.” — Like any historic disruption, the transition in journalism—from big media institutions and quasi-monopolies to a more diverse and interconnected peer network—will inevitably be painful to those of us who have, understandably, come to cherish and rely upon the old institutions.
Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy by Robert H. Frank
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, attribution theory, availability heuristic, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, experimental subject, framing effect, full employment, hindsight bias, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, labour mobility, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Thaler, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, side project, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, ultimatum game, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, winner-take-all economy
And it may be a good thing, since those who take delight in being good at something, whether earned or not, are more likely to find arenas in which they can compete successfully. Laboratory studies by psychologists support the popular wisdom that liberals are more likely than conservatives to embrace the importance of luck in life.25 But there are numerous exceptions to this pattern, and the differences between opposing views are often far more nuanced than popular accounts suggest. David Brooks, the right-of-center op-ed columnist at the New York Times, captured the middle ground nicely in a piece published during the 2012 presidential campaign. He began by quoting from a letter he said he’d received from an Ohio businessman: Dear Mr. Opinion Guy, Over the past few years, I’ve built a successful business. I’ve worked hard, and I’m proud of what I’ve done. But now President Obama tells me that social and political forces helped build that.
On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat
The ultra-Right, the right-wing extremists, who are kind of off the international spectrum, they’re opposing it, though not for reasons I like. They’re opposing it because “Why should we dedicate ourselves to solving other people’s problems and waste our own resources?” They’re literally asking, “Who’s going to defend us when we’re attacked, because we’re devoting ourselves to helping people overseas?” That’s the ultra-Right. If you look at the “moderate” Right, people like, say, David Brooks of the New York Times, considered an intellectual commentator on the right. His view is that the US effort to withdraw its forces from the region is not having a “moderating effect.” According to Brooks, when US forces are in the region, that has a moderating effect; it improves the situation, as you can see in Iraq, for example. But if we’re withdrawing our forces, then we’re no longer able to moderate the situation and make it better.
Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
The Vietnam death toll continues to mount into the present because of the chemical warfare that President Kennedy initiated there—even as he escalated American support for a murderous dictatorship to all-out attack, the worst case of aggression during Obama’s “seven decades.” Another “political persuasion” is imaginable: the outrage Americans adopt when Russia invades Afghanistan or Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait. But the secular religion bars us from seeing ourselves through a similar lens. One mechanism of self-protection is to lament the consequences of our failure to act. Thus NEW YORK TIMES columnist David Brooks, ruminating on the drift of Syria to “Rwanda-like” horror, concludes that the deeper issue is the Sunni-Shiite violence tearing the region asunder. That violence is a testimony to the failure “of the recent American strategy of light-footprint withdrawal” and the loss of what former foreign service officer Gary Grappo calls the “moderating influence of American forces.” Those still deluded by “abuse of reality”—that is, fact—might recall that the Sunni-Shiite violence resulted from the worst crime of aggression of the new millennium, the U.S. invasion of Iraq.
airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize
The availability of online information may also have fostered discussions, in some instances, that were more opinionated than informed. Information in the Internet age is newly accessible, we conclude, but is also politicized in unfamiliar ways.” 33 Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro, “Ideological Segregation Online and Offline,” National Bureau of Economic Research (April 2010), http://www.nber.org/papers/w15916. NBER Working Paper No. 15916. See also David Brooks, “Riders on the Storm.” New York Times, April 19, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/opinion/20brooks.html. 34 Gentzkow and Shapiro, “Ideological Segregation Online and Offline,” p. 4. 35 Ethan Zuckerman, in his blog: “The Partisan Internet and the Wider World,” May 24, 2010, http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2010/05/24/the-partisan-internet-and-the-wider-world/. 36 Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (W.
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra
The Richard Florida quotation is from Richard Florida, “The Conservative States of America,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2011. Acknowledgments For useful discussions and comments I wish to thank Nelson Hernandez, Anson Williams, Kenneth Regan, Jason Fichtner, Erik Brynolfsson, Andrew McGee, Don Peck, Derek Thompson, Michelle Dawson, Peter Snow, Veronique de Rugy, Garett Jones, Robin Hanson, Bryan Caplan, Alex Tabarrok, Natasha Cowen, Garry Kasparov, Vasik Rajlich, Stephen Morrow, David Brooks, Peter Thiel, Michael Mandel, and Larry Kaufman, with apologies to anyone I may have left out. Index The page numbers in this index refer to the printed version of this book. To find the corresponding locations in the text of this digital version, please use the “search” function on your e-reader. Note that not all terms may be searchable. accountability, 128–30 accreditation of schools, 182, 191 “acqhired” workers, 26 Adams, Michael, 69 advertising, 24 age of workers, 41–42, 51–52, 62–63 aggression, 106 Akst, Daniel, 202 Alger, Horatio, 230 alien intelligence, 158 altruism, 235–36 Amazon.com, 16, 17, 221 ambiguity, 126 American Medical Association (AMA), 88 Anand, Vishy, 110, 156 Anson Williams Freestyle team, 86 anti-intellectualism, 258 Aplia website, 195 Apple, 17, 28 applied sciences, 208, 210 Arab Spring, 251 Are You Smart Enough to Work at Google?
Social Democratic America by Lane Kenworthy
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school choice, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, zero day
If it eventually does happen, it will prompt a move back toward the center, some key defections from the party, or a more frequent occurrence of Democrats holding the presidency, the House, and a filibuster-proof majority in the Senate. FIGURE 5.9 Number of laws passed by Congress The line is a loess curve. Data source: Tobin Grant, personal communication. Another push toward Republican moderation could come from the growing importance of working-class whites as a constituency for the party. Some thoughtful and prominent voices on America’s right—David Brooks, Ross Douthat, David Frum, Charles Murray, Ramesh Ponnuru, Reihan Salam—have noted that this group is struggling economically and could benefit from government help.55 Finally, clear thinkers on the right will eventually realize that the key question isn’t how much government should intervene but how it should do so. As I pointed out in chapter 4, an expansion of public social programs doesn’t necessarily mean more government interference in markets and weaker competition.
Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Flynn Effect, framing effect, Google Earth, impulse control, informal economy, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, neurotypical, new economy, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind
On the complex question of which early traits predict successful and unsuccessful autistic outcomes, such as intelligence or later achievement, see Patricia Howlin, “Outcomes in Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (cited above), 201–22. See also P. Szatmari, G. Bartolucci, R. Brenner, S. Bond, and S. Rich, “A Follow-Up Study of High-Functioning Autistic Children,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 19, no. 2 (1989), 213–25. This issue remains unresolved. On The New York Times, see for instance Liesl Schillinger, “Who Do You Love?” July 13, 2008, and also David Brooks, “The Rank-Link Imbalance,” March 14, 2008. I nonetheless remain very much a fan of both of these excellent writers. The Ganz essay is in Steven O. Moldin and John L. R. Rubenstein, eds., Understanding Autism: From Basic Neuroscience to Treatment (New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006). The Bainbridge book is Beyond the Zonules of Zinn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008); see p. 283.
Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics by Glenn Greenwald
Rasmussen Reports monthly surveys have shown a sharp decline in the number of Americans considering themselves Republicans over the past eight months. A New York Times/CBS poll released in mid-December 2007, as the primary presidential season intensified, revealed that Americans have an overwhelmingly unfavorable opinion of the Republican Party (33–59 percent), while their opinion of Democrats is favorable (48–44 percent)—a bulging 15-point advantage for Democrats. In early 2008, this mountain of anti-GOP polling data led conservative David Brooks, in the New York Times, to conclude: “The Republican Party is more unpopular than at any point in the past 40 years.*1 Democrats have a 50 to 36 party identification advantage, the widest in a generation. The general public prefers Democratic approaches on health care, corruption, the economy, and Iraq by double-digit margins.” Worse still for Republicans, they are burdened with the record and reputation of one of the most widely despised presidents in American history and by the country’s most disastrous war.
The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation
These include magazines, blogs, and the “What’s News” column in the Wall Street Journal, among other sources. While informational index funds can help, reading omnivorously is still important, and we have already been given some help with this. The Atlantic has begun running a series called Media Diet, which asks influential thinkers what they read and how they get their facts and news. These influential people, from Gay Talese and the newspapers he carefully reads to David Brooks and the blogs he frequents, give their informational diets to help guide others. But when it comes to being aware of facts, there’s actually an even better solution: Stop memorizing things and just give up. That sounds terrible, but it’s not. Our individual memories can be outsourced to the cloud. Specifically, rather than relying on memorizing often out-of-date facts, and still usually only half-remembering them, embrace the idea that we have the Internet at our disposal, with search engines at our fingertips that enable us to search for any fact we need anytime.
accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, millennium bug, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, price stability, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail
The political, media, and business establishments raged at populist politicians who would risk a depression rather than disappoint their voters. This gave vent to a feeling that the Paulson Plan was the obviously right way to go and that anyone who failed to accept it right away was on the verge of imbecility. Dana Milbank of the Washington Post labeled its opponents "wing nuts," and conservative columnist David Brooks called them "nihilists." A science article in the New York Times tried to pin down the evolutionary bug that had caused the population to resist Paulson's bailout plan.54 But the "nihilists" were soon annihilated. Once the Senate had voted through a revised version of the Troubled Assets Relief Program on that Wednesday, the House got a second chance on Friday, October 3. Democrat Brad Sherman described a sense of panic among members, with increasingly absurd horror scenes being conjured up, for instance, that the stock exchange would collapse and a state of emergency would be proclaimed across the country if they voted no again."
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
Although inarguably elitist, the parties (and the old-boy systems that comprised them) made sure candidates for major office deserved to be leaders—that they possessed some essential mettle or fitness for office. Bad apples aside, most of party rank and file evinced a strong sense of morality and social responsibility born of a class-based mentality—quite a shift from what we see today. As the New York Times columnist David Brooks has observed: Today’s elite lacks the self-conscious leadership ethos that the racist, sexist and anti-Semitic old boys’ network did possess. If you went to Groton a century ago, you knew you were privileged. You were taught how morally precarious privilege was and how much responsibility it entailed. You were housed in a spartan 6-foot-by-9-foot cubicle to prepare you for the rigors of leadership. … The best of the WASP elites had a stewardship mentality, that they were temporary caretakers of institutions that would span generations.5 Before the age of radio and television, it was pretty hard to see candidates up close, so the political parties and their grand political conventions functioned as a process that delivered trustworthy leaders and policies to America.
affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight
Blumin, The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760–1900 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 1–16, 285–90; Schulman, The Seventies, 68–72; and Joseph F. Kett, Merit: The History of a Founding Ideal from the American Revolution to the Twenty-First Century (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2013), 1–14. 32. In Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks portrays the formation of a new upper class of highly educated professionals who, he says, have a hybrid culture because they have “one foot in the bohemian world of creativity and another foot in the bourgeois realm of ambition and worldly success.” David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 11. Although I also employ the term “hybrid” to describe a comparable elite group, I am concerned about a different matter than Brooks is, namely, elites’ ability to move seamlessly between upper- and middle-class worlds that remain discrete and the uses to which they put that capability. 33.
Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
—William Gibson “If we continue to develop our technology without wisdom or prudence, our servant may prove to be our executioner.”—Omar N. Bradley ✸ What is the worst advice you see or hear given in your trade or area of expertise? “If you have nothing to hide, then you don’t have to worry about privacy, and that we must sacrifice our privacy in order to have security.” ✸ Three people or sources you’ve learned from—or followed closely—in the last year? David Brooks, “The Moral Bucket List.” Nir Eyal, Hooked. Anything by Kevin Kelly, most recently The Inevitable. Spirit animal: Honey badger * * * Samy Kamkar Samy Kamkar (TW: @samykamkar, samy.pl) is one of the most innovative computer hackers in the United States. He is best known for creating the fastest-spreading virus of all time, a MySpace worm named “Samy,” for which he was raided by the United States Secret Service.
(Budd Schulberg), The Artist’s Way Morning Pages Journal (Julia Cameron), The War of Art (Steven Pressfield) Libin, Phil: The Clock of the Long Now (Stewart Brand), The Alliance (Reid Hoffman), The Selfish Gene (Richard Dawkins), A Guide to the Good Life (William Irvine) MacAskill, Will: Reasons and Persons (Derek Parfit), Mindfulness: An Eight-Week Plan for Finding Peace in a Frantic World (Mark Williams and Danny Penman), The Power of Persuasion (Robert Levine), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Nick Bostrom) MacKenzie, Brian: Tao Te Ching (Lao Tzu), Way of the Peaceful Warrior (Dan Millman) McCarthy, Nicholas: The Life and Loves of a He Devil: A Memoir (Graham Norton), I Put a Spell on You: The Autobiography of Nina Simone (Nina Simone) McChrystal, Stanley: Once an Eagle (Anton Myrer), The Road to Character (David Brooks) McCullough, Michael: The Start-up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career (Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha), Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity (David Allen), The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (Stephen R. Covey), The Checklist Manifesto (Atul Gawande) McGonigal, Jane: Finite and Infinite Games (James Carse), Suffering Is Optional (Cheri Huber), The Willpower Instinct (Kelly McGonigal), The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia (Bernard Suits) Miller, BJ: Any picture book of Mark Rothko art.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor
Many other nonprofit advocacy groups, like Public Notice, the 60 Plus Association, the Independent Women’s Forum, and American Commitment, also chimed in for the drastic spending cuts. The clamor seemed multitudinous, but beneath the surface each of these groups shared a common aquifer—the pool of cash contributed by the Koch donor network. A number of opinion writers also embraced Ryan as oracular. David Brooks, a moderately conservative New York Times columnist whose opinion Obama valued, declared Ryan’s plan “the most courageous budget reform proposal any of us have seen in our lifetimes…His proposal will set the standard of seriousness for anybody who wants to play in this discussion. It will become the 2012 Republican platform, no matter who is the nominee.” The broader news media also echoed Ryan’s claim that the federal deficit was the most pressing economic issue facing the country.
“right-wing lunacy”: Noam Scheiber, The Escape Artists: How Obama’s Team Fumbled the Recovery (Simon & Schuster, 2011). According to a New York Times analysis: These projections of the fallout from cuts in Ryan’s budget refer to its 2012 iteration and appeared in Jonathan Weisman, “In Control, Republican Lawmakers See Budget as Way to Push Agenda,” New York Times, Nov. 13, 2014. “Robin Hood in reverse”: See Jonathan Chait, “The Legendary Paul Ryan,” New York, April 29, 2012. “the most courageous”: David Brooks, “Moment of Truth,” New York Times, April 5, 2011. “The right had succeeded”: See Freeland, Plutocrats, 265. She writes, “In April and May of 2011, when unemployment was 9 percent,…the five largest papers in the country published 201 stories about the budget deficit and only sixty-three about joblessness.” “We made a mistake”: Bob Woodward, The Price of Politics (Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2013), 107.
David Brooks, desegregation, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities
For this book, I read the standards in English language arts and history/social studies in every state in the nation. 11 The law said that the state plans must include challenging academic standards, and that state plans had to win the approval of the U.S. secretary of education. However, by June 2003 every state plan was approved, even though many did not have challenging academic standards. Lynn Olson, “All States Get Federal Nod on Key Plans,” Education Week, June 18, 2003. 12 Josh Patashnik, “Reform School: The Education (On Education) of Barack Obama,” New Republic, March 26, 2008, 12-13. 13 David Brooks, “Who Will He Choose?” New York Times, December 5, 2008; Washington Post, “A Job for a Reformer,” December 5, 2008; Chicago Tribune, “Obama and Schoolkids,” December 9, 2008. Republicans recognized that President Obama was embracing some of the GOP’s core beliefs, including school choice, merit pay, and accountability. Richard N. Bond, Bill McInturff, and Alex Bratty, “A Chance to Say Yes: The GOP and Obama Can Agree on School Reform,” Washington Post, August 2, 2009. 14 Diane Ravitch, The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945-1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1983), 228-266. 15 Edward B.
The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout
Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
Box 15728, Rio Rancho, NM 87174, 800-281-9176 or 505-896-0734, www.passportintime.com. WILDERNESS VOLUNTEERS protect america’s wild places WILDLANDS ACROSS THE COUNTRY It feels great to get out and do some good honest physical labor. You work in beautiful places, meet interesting people, get relief from the hustle-bustle of daily life—and fresh perspective on what’s really important. —David Brooks, Wilderness Volunteers team leader 38 | If you have a thing about America’s wild places, like to backpack, and could pass a Marine physical (well, almost), consider a volunteer vacation with Wilderness Volunteers. This organization sends vigorous volunteers (mainly in their 20s to 40s) into America’s national and state parks to repair the damage done by heedless visitors. They restore hiking trails, clean up debris, plant strategically located trees and remove not-so-strategically located ones, and take inventory of plant and wildlife species.
Maphead: Charting the Wide, Weird World of Geography Wonks by Ken Jennings
Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, David Brooks, don't be evil, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, game design, Google Earth, helicopter parent, hive mind, index card, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, openstreetmap, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Stewart Brand, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, traveling salesman, urban planning
Lewis: A Biography (New York: HarperCollins, 2002), p. 306. 115 she had some cartographic training: “Pauline Baynes,” obituary, The Daily Telegraph, Aug. 8, 2008. 115 he doodled the map first: David and Lee Eddings, The Rivan Codex (New York: Del Rey, 1998), p. 10. 117 Baldwin Street in Dunedin: Simon Warren, 100 Greatest Cycling Climbs (London: Frances Lincoln, 2010), p. 10. 117 “The achievement of”: The Romance of the Commonplace (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Morgan Shepherd, 1902), p. 91. 120 “Nothing seems crasser”: Robert Harbison, Eccentric Spaces (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1977/2000), p. 125. CHAPTER 7: RECKONING 133 “Rote memorization must be emphasized”: “National Geography Bee?,” FOCUS on Geography 38, no. 2 (Summer 1988), pp. 33–36. 135 the old record had been shattered: David Brooks, “Mount Washington Gust Record Gone with the Wind,” Nashua Telegraph, Jan. 27, 2010. 136 the second best design: “The Great British Design Quest,” The Culture Show, BBC Two, Mar. 2, 2006. 136 “removing the smile”: Mark Easton, “Map of the Week: London without the Thames,” BBC News, Sept. 16, 2009. 136 “Can’t believe that the Thames disappeared”: @MayorOf London, Twitter status, Sept. 17, 2009. 136 The Swedish crown jewels: Peter Barber and Christopher Board, Tales from the Map Room: Fact and Fiction About Maps and Their Makers (London: BBC Books, 1993), p. 74. 138 an elaborate farm system: Ben Paynter, “Why Are Indian Kids So Good at Spelling?
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, young professional
A review by Michiko Kakutani of a book about assimilation, among other topics, by the late Harvard political scientist Samuel Huntington was condescendingly headlined “An Identity Crisis for Norman Rockwell America.” The rejection of assimilation comes down to earth in reporting on the customs and values, attitudes and practices of various immigrant communities. While celebrating cultural difference, the Times does not scrutinize the implications of those differences for immigrants or for Americans generally. David Brooks, one of the paper’s two house conservatives, has written about “cultural geography,” a term used by sociologists to explain “why some groups’ values make them embrace technology and prosper and others don’t,” which, Brooks adds, is “a line of inquiry” that P.C. piety makes it “impolite to pursue.” It is certainly a line of inquiry that has been rigorously ignored by his own paper. If immigrants leave home with problematic cultural baggage, the Times believes it is dropped on the tarmac when they land on U.S. soil or left behind when they scoot across the Mexican border.
23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, barriers to entry, brain emulation, cloud computing, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Netflix Prize, neurotypical, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, phenotype, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture
“The Relationships Between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults.” Intelligence 38 (6): 605—10. Sahakian, Barbara, and Sharon Morein-Zamir. 2007. “Professor’s Little Helper.” Nature 450 (7173): 1157—59. Salamon, Anna. 2009. “How Much It Matters to Know What Matters: A Back-of-the-Envelope Calculation.” Talk given at the Singularity Summit. Sanandaji, Tino. April 1, 2011. “David Brooks and Malcolm [Gladwell] Wrong about I.Q., Income and Wealth.” Super-Economy. http://super-economy.blogspot.com/2011/04/iq-income-and-wealth.html. Segal, Nancy L. 1999. Entwined Lives: Twins and What They Tell Us About Human Behavior. New York: Dutton. Shulman, Carl. November 23, 2008. “‘Evicting’ Brain Emulations.” Overcoming Bias (blog). http://www.overcomingbias.com/2008/11/suppose-that-ro.html.
What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce
See finance sector “Barbadosed” Bayh, Birch Bayh, Evan Beame, Abe Beck, Glenn Beecher, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Begala Berman, Ari Beyond the Melting Pot (Moynihan, Glazer) Biden, Joe “big government” Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart, The (Bishop) “birthers” Bishop, Bill Bishop, Tim Black Power movement Blaming the Victim (Ryan) Blitzer, Wolf “Blue Dog” Democrats Boehner, John Boss Tweed corruption scandal Bowers, Chris Bradlee, Ben Branch, Taylor Brazile, Donna Breaux, John Breitbart, Andrew Brennan, Peter Broder, David “Brooks Brothers riot” Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Brown, Edmund G. Brown, Pat Brown, Willie Buchanan, Pat communism and on New Haven fire department case in Nixon administration in Reagan administration Suicide of a Superpower: Will America Survive until 2025? on Tea Party 2000 election and Buchanan, William Buckley, William F., Jr. building trades, unions and Burlingame, Anson Bush, George H.
Were You Born on the Wrong Continent? by Thomas Geoghegan
Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, dark matter, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Gini coefficient, haute cuisine, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, McJob, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pensions crisis, Plutocrats, plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce
I didn’t mean this book to be so prescient. Since the collapse of U.S.-style capitalism, I’ve actually been embarrassed at how well Germany is doing. Here’s a headline from the Financial Times, April 4, 2011: “German spirits rise sky high as industry soars.” Even some of our right-of-center types have observed that a high-tax social democracy seems to be outcompeting us. (I could mention New York Times columnist David Brooks as one of several examples.) Of course they try to explain it in American terms. They claim it’s a result of the German emphasis on “consensus,” without mentioning how this “consensus” comes from the most socialist aspects of the German model, like workers being half of the directors on corporate boards. Some even mention what they fancy to be Germany’s “deregulation.” (What?) And of course there’s not one honest word about the way the model really works.
asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Cass Sunstein, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, financial innovation, Flash crash, game design, greed is good, high net worth, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, éminence grise
More than 60 percent of us: Jason DeParle, “Harder for Americans to Rise from Lower Rungs,” New York Times, January 4, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html. Instead of “disordered money behavior”: Bradley Klontz, Alex Bivens, Paul T. Klontz, Joni Wada, Richard Kahler, “The Treatment of Disordered Money Behaviors. There’s Eldar Shafir at Princeton: David Brooks, “The Unexamined Society,” New York Times, July 7, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/08/opinion/08brooks.html. There’s Roy Baumeister: Roy F. Baumeister, C. Nathan DeWall, Natalie J. Ciarocco, Jean M. Twenge, “Social Exclusion Impairs Self-regulation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2005. vol. 88, no. 4, 589. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/7938685_Social_exclusion_impairs_self-regulation.
Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith
affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator
A July 2014 New Republic article by William Deresiewicz, “Don’t Send Your Kids to an Ivy League College,” summarizes his excellently titled book Excellent Sheep and shows the level of violent disagreement that the topic of education’s purpose can spark. The author argues that the main purpose of college should be to help students in “building a soul.” This article generated over two million online hits and more readers, comments, and controversy than any article in the New Republic’s one-hundred-year history. New York Times columnist David Brooks was compelled to weigh in on the debate, offering the view that moral education is “largely abandoned ground” as universities focus on career and cognitive issues. Brooks’s column received six hundred reader comments, reflecting a level of emotion more often associated with debates on gun control than education. One fact that often remains unstated in these debates is that many schools seem to be hopelessly lost when it comes to their overarching goal.
Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller, Stanley B Resor Professor Of Economics Robert J Shiller
Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equity premium, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, loss aversion, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, wage slave
The grades they gave us were not always the highest, especially with modern standards of grade inflation, and our research assistants have then patiently explained why those low grades were deserved, and in conversations have led us out of the hole we were in. Each of these three research assistants is truly exceptional. Victoria Buhler, who accepted the job when she was a junior, was so exceptional that David Brooks wrote a New York Times column lauding her for an essay she wrote in a class at Yale. When Victoria graduated and went on to a graduate year at Cambridge, she continued work on Phishing for Phools. That was the year when Bob won the Nobel Prize, which for at least a few months is an all-absorbing state, and she played an especially important role in filling the vacuum. Her interest is international politics, and she is so talented that George confesses that he once wrote an email to her, which began, not if, but “when you are Secretary of State.”
Culture of Terrorism by Noam Chomsky
As respected liberal columnists reported with awe, Bush explained that it was his “messianic mission” to bring democracy to the Middle East that inspired the invasion of Iraq, which therefore “may be the most idealistic war fought in modern times.”1 The farce did not pass entirely without notice. Middle East scholar Augustus Richard Norton observed that “As fantasies about Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction were unmasked, the Bush administration increasingly stressed the democratic transformation of Iraq, and scholars jumped on the democratization bandwagon,” the media even more enthusiastically. There were, it is true, some discordant voices. Conservative commentator David Brooks warned that “people in the Middle East don’t always act rationally,” so democracy has its perils. Iraqis confirmed his proposition with their reaction to the new messianic mission. A Gallup poll in Baghdad found that 99 percent refused to join in the celebration. 1 percent of Iraqis felt that the goal of the war was to bring democracy, while 5 percent thought the goal was “to assist the Iraqi people.”
Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell
affirmative action, airport security, Albert Einstein, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, haute couture, Kevin Kelly, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, young professional
—Mark Athitakis, Chicago Sun-Times “Gladwell brilliantly illuminates an aspect of our mental lives that we utterly rely on yet rarely analyze, namely our ability to make snap decisions or quick judgments....Enlightening, provocative, and great fun to read.” —Donna Seaman, Booklist “Blink moves quickly through a series of delightful stories....He’s always dazzling us with fascinating information and phenomena....If you want to trust my snap judgment, buy this book: you’ll be delighted.” —David Brooks, New York Times Book Review “Compelling....Blink satisfies and gratifies....It features the fascinating case studies, skilled interweavings of psychological experiments and explanations, and unexpected connections among disparate phenomena that are Gladwell’s impressive trademark.” —Howard Gardner, Washington Post “What Stephen Hawking did for theoretical physics Malcolm Gladwell is doing for social science....Gladwell uses a series of fascinating examples to support his views, weaving scientific data into page-turning prose.”
Rust: The Longest War by Jonathan Waldman
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Anton Chekhov, computer age, David Brooks, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Golden Gate Park, index card, Isaac Newton, Mason jar, pez dispenser, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration, Y2K
Like a condition between high cholesterol and hemorrhoids, rust is a nuisance that we’d prefer not to deal with, and certainly not talk about in public. Confidentially, industry representatives inquire with Luz Marina Calle, the director of the Corrosion Technology Laboratory at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, regarding their rust woes. Privately, Americans call John Carmona, the proprietor of the Rust Store, and ask for advice. Thanks to New York Times political columnist David Brooks, the threat of moral corrosion instills more fear than the threat of physical corrosion. But from those who ascribe no shame to talking about rust, stories emerge in the manner of scars and broken bones. People talk about the bottoms of their wells, their barbecue grills, their bicycle chains. They invoke a Neil Young line. Most often, stories begin with, “Oh man, I once had this car . . .” Was it, perhaps, a Ford?
Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution by Wendy Brown
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Food sovereignty, haute couture, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, late capitalism, means of production, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, young professional
Consider Adam Smith’s concern with cultivating what he termed “the moral sentiments,” Tocqueville’s notion of “self-interest, properly understood” as the antidote to a capitalist ethic run amok, and John Stuart Mill’s insistence that individual liberty requires cultivation by education and mores if it is not to reduce to individual debauchery and civil ruin. 22. Quoted in Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall, Fiat Lux: The University of California (New York: McGraw-Hill 1967), p. 192. 23. See, for example, Verlyn Klinkenborg, “The Decline and Fall of the English Major,” op-ed, New York Times, June 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2013/06/23/opinion/sunday/the-decline-and-fall-of-the-english-major.html; and David Brooks, “The Humanist Vocation,” op-ed New York Times, June 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/opinion/brooks-the-humanistvocation.html. 24. Newfield, Unmaking the Public University, pp. 191, 193, 273. 25. See Plato, Crito, in Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, trans. F. J. Church (New York, 1956). 26. See Aristotle, Politics, trans. E. Barker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946), book 1. 264 n o t e s 27.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
And what I missed in the meta narrative, of course, is that Goldman Sachs, while perhaps corrupt, and too closely tied to government, and the recipient of far too much taxpayer support, was nonetheless not an appropriate target for anger because we just need them so badly to keep our ship afloat. Once this argument was out there it was only a matter of time before it was institutionalized in the New York Times in a column by the archpriest of American conventional wisdom, David Brooks. Brooks argued that the problem with critiques like mine was that while the financial crisis had many causes (including, he insisted with a straight face, the economic rise of China), we were just taking the easy way out—“with the populist narrative, you can just blame Goldman Sachs.” Again, Brooks never at any time took issue with any of the facts in the case against Goldman Sachs. In fact, he conceded them and insisted that this was actually the point, that it’s precisely despite the ugly facts that we must indulge the Goldmans of the world.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
For the one-in-three-Internet-users figure, see Patrick Thibodeau, “Amazon Cloud Accessed Daily by a Third of All ’Net Users,” Computerworld.com, April 18, 2012, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9226349/Amazon_cloud_accessed_daily_by_a_third_of_all_Net_users. On Apple’s valuation see Susanna Kim, “Apple Is World’s Most Valuable Company Again,” ABCNews.com, January 25, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/business/2012/01/apple-is-worlds-most-valuable-company-again/. 30. David Brooks, “The Creative Monopoly,” New York Times, April 24, 2012, A23; and Ryan Mac, “Ten Lessons from Peter Thiel’s Class on Startups,” Forbes.com, June 7, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2012/06/07/ten-lessons-from-peter-thiels-class-on-startups/. 31. Slavoj Zizek describes this issue succinctly in his essay “Corporate Rule of Cyberspace,” InsideHigherEd.com, May 2, 2011, http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2011/05/02/slavoj_zizek_essay_on_cloud_computing_and_privacy. 32.
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application
This is not reading as Marilynne Robinson described it: the encounter with a second self in the silence of mental solitude. But we no longer believe in the solitary mind. If the Romantics had Hume and the modernists had Freud, the current psychological model—and this should come as no surprise—is that of the networked or social mind. Evolutionary psychology tells us that our brains developed to interpret complex social signals. According to David Brooks, that reliable index of the social-scientific zeitgeist, cognitive scientists tell us that “our decision-making is powerfully influenced by social context”; neuroscientists, that we have “permeable minds” that function in part through a process of “deep imitation”; psychologists, that “we are organized by our attachments”; sociologists, that our behavior is affected by “the power of social networks.”
Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer-And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class by Paul Pierson, Jacob S. Hacker
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business climate, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, desegregation, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, moral hazard, Nate Silver, new economy, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce
It has done so, moreover, in an era in which, over the entire electorate, economic issues divide the parties more sharply along class lines than in the past, with Democrats favored by less affluent voters and Republicans by more affluent voters. Yes, you heard right: Evangelicals notwithstanding, economic issues divide the parties more sharply along class lines than in the past. If you listen to political pundits—particularly those on the right—you would think the exact opposite. David Brooks, Tucker Carlson, and others have expended much ink and airtime arguing that American politics had realigned around social and consumer values, rather than material issues: a less affluent red America filled with NASCAR-loving, gun-toting GOP traditionalists who oppose gay marriage versus a richer blue America filled with sushi-loving, New Yorker–reading Democratic cosmopolitans who want abortion on demand.
The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank
affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty
This includes the Ritz-Carlton “leadership center” in Chevy Chase, the Ritz-Carlton suburb in Loudoun County, and the metro area’s four Ritz-Carlton hotels. 4. I know because I read an article about the Reagan appointee who made it a showplace of outsourcing. John Rees, interview with Danford Sawyer, Review of the NEWS, July 7, 1982, pp. 39–50. 5. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991), p. 351. Washington seems to exert a magnetic attraction on celebrators of suburbia. David Brooks’s rosy meditations on suburbia in his 2004 book, On Paradise Drive, instantly mark him as an inhabitant of the D.C. metro area. The latest priest of this faith is Richard Florida, a professor at a university located in the Virginia suburbs, who finds the city “a booming, far-flung region that’s a key node in what [he] call[s] the Creative Economy.” Florida, “A Creative Crossroads,” Washington Post, May 7, 2006. 6.
Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress--And a Plan to Stop It by Lawrence Lessig
asset-backed security, banking crisis, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Edward Glaeser, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Martin Wolf, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, place-making, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
See National Center for Education Statistics, “Trend in NAEP Reading Average Scores for 17-year-old Students” (2008), available at link #62 (documenting change in average scaled reading score of 285 in 1971 to 286 in 2008); National Center for Education Statistics, “Trend in Mathematics Average Scores for 17-year-old Students” (2008), available at link #63 (documenting change in average scaled mathematics score of 304 in 1973 to 306 in 2008). 3. William Dobbie and Roland G. Fryer, Jr., “Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Bold Social Experiment in Harlem,” Harvard University (2009), available at link #64. See also David Brooks, “The Harlem Miracle,” New York Times, May 7, 2009, at A31, available at link #65. 4. Eric A. Hanushek, “Teacher Deselection,” in Creating a New Teaching Profession, Dan Goldhaber and Jane Hannaway, eds. (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 2009), 168, 172, 173. 5. See Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,” Econometrica 73 (Mar. 2005): 417, available at link #66 (measuring the importance of effective teachers), and Scholastic and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, “Primary Sources: America’s Teachers on America’s Schools” (2010), available at link #67 (same); William Dobbie and Roland G.
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Y2K
For more on military policy regarding tattoos, see Katie Zezima, “Yes, the Military Needs Bodies, but Hold the Bodywork,” New York Times, December 3, 2005; and J. D. Leipold, “Army Changes Tattoo Policy,” Army News Service, March 18, 2006. For more on the body as billboard, see Frank Eltman, “Your Ad Permanently Tattooed Here, There, and Everywhere on New York Man’s Body,” Associated Press, January 29, 2005; and Melanie Wells, “Hey, Is That an Advertisement on Your Arm?,” USA Today, July 23, 1999. Another useful article was David Brooks, “Nonconformity Is Skin Deep,” New York Times, August 27, 2006. Snowed-Under Slobs How much Americans spend on getting organized comes from Penelope Green, “Saying Yes to Mess,” New York Times, December 21, 2006. The PSB poll of slobs was conducted online on April 5–6, 2007. The book is Eric Abrahamson and David H. Freedman, A Perfect Mess: The Hidden Benefits of Disorder—How Crammed Closets, Cluttered Offices, and On-the-Fly Planning Make the World a Better Place (Little, Brown, 2006).
The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner
Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional
Why do chimpanzee mothers nurture and protect their young? Simple: Natural selection favored this behavior and, in time, it became hardwired into chimp brains. But the moment this conversation turns to human brains and actions, people get uncomfortable. The idea that much human thought is unconscious, and that evolutionary hardwiring is its foundation, is too much for many to accept. “I am not willing to assume,” wrote David Brooks, the New York Times columnist, “that our brains are like computers. . . . Isn’t it just as possible that the backstage part of the brain [meaning unconscious thought] might be more like a personality, some unique and nontechnological essence that cannot be adequately generalized about by scientists in white coats with clipboards?” What Brooks is saying here is what many of us vaguely sense: that the brain is a big, complex, physical organ at the center of which is some indefinable thing or entity that makes decisions and issues commands for reasons scientists in white coats will never be able to fathom.
conceptual framework, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Gini coefficient, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, Mohammed Bouazizi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rolodex, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, transcontinental railway, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional
In 1998 a local publisher translated Paul Fussell’s 1982 cultural satire, Class: A Guide Through the American Status System, which makes such observations as “the more violent the body contact of the sports you watch, the lower the class.” In Chinese, the satire fell away, and the book sold briskly as a field guide for the new world. “Just having money will not win you universal acclaim, respect, or appreciation,” the translator wrote in the introduction. “What your consumption reveals about you is the more critical issue.” David Brooks’s book Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There was translated into Chinese in 2002, and it became a best seller. It describes a distant world—one of American bourgeois bohemians, who mix sixties counterculture with Reagan-era economics—but, in China, it captured the strivers’ self-perception, and “Bobos,” or “bubozu,” became one of the year’s most-searched-for terms on the Chinese Internet.
The Book of Woe: The DSM and the Unmaking of Psychiatry by Gary Greenberg
Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, back-to-the-land, David Brooks, impulse control, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, late capitalism, Louis Pasteur, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, phenotype, placebo effect, random walk, statistical model, theory of mind, Winter of Discontent
He has decided that she should interview the two of us together. It’s not entirely clear to me if she is on board with that idea. Since June, Frances has mostly been quiet about the DSM. He is still blogging for The Huffington Post and Psychology Today and the Psychiatric Times, where he has weighed in on gun control and the presidential election and offered “to stop being an amateur columnist” if David Brooks would “stop being an amateur psychologist.” But the DSM has never been far from his mind, and as soon as the lights are on and the camera is running, he is back to it and drawing me into his explanation of all that has gone wrong with the DSM-5. I may be an upside-down Jesuit and he a world-weary rationalist, but for the moment, we’re just a couple of friends on the inside of the same joke. The filmmaker seems entertained, although it’s possible she is simply egging us on in hopes of capturing some outrageous Francesism on film.
Air France Flight 447, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, hiring and firing, index card, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Toyota Production System, Yom Kippur War
., “Forecasting Tournaments Tools for Increasing Transparency and Improving the Quality of Debate,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 23, no. 4 (2014): 290–95; David Ignatius, “More Chatter than Needed,” The Washington Post, November 1, 2013; Alex Madrigal, “How to Get Better at Predicting the Future,” The Atlantic, December 11, 2012; Warnaar et al., “Aggregative Contingent Estimation System”; Uriel Haran, Ilana Ritov, and Barbara A. Mellers, “The Role of Actively Open-Minded Thinking in Information Acquisition, Accuracy, and Calibration,” Judgment and Decision Making 8, no. 3 (2013): 188–201; David Brooks, “Forecasting Fox,” The New York Times, March 21, 2013; Philip Tetlock and Dan Gardner, Seeing Further (New York: Random House, 2015). A group of At various points during the GJP, the precise number of researchers involved fluctuated. questions as the experts In response to a fact-checking email, Barbara Mellers and Philip Tetlock, another of the GJP leaders, wrote: “We had two different types of training in the first year of the tournament.
The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
They could adopt poses, try on styles, and immerse themselves in seedy cultural genres without taking any of them too seriously. (In this regard they were more sophisticated than the boomers in their youth, who treated the drivel of rock musicians as serious political philosophy.) Today this discernment is exercised by much of Western society. In his 2000 book Bobos in Paradise, the journalist David Brooks observed that many members of the middle class have become “bourgeois bohemians” who affect the look of people at the fringes of society while living a thoroughly conventional lifestyle. Cas Wouters, inspired by conversations with Elias late in his life, suggests that we are living through a new phase in the Civilizing Process. This is the long-term trend of informalization I mentioned earlier, and it leads to what Elias called a “controlled decontrolling of emotional controls” and what Wouters calls third nature.182 If our first nature consists of the evolved motives that govern life in a state of nature, and our second nature consists of the ingrained habits of a civilized society, then our third nature consists of a conscious reflection on these habits, in which we evaluate which aspects of a culture’s norms are worth adhering to and which have outlived their usefulness.
bin Laden, Osama bioethics biological weapons Birmingham, Alabama, church bombing birthday paradox Black, Donald Black Death Blackwell, Aaron Blair, Tony blank slate blasphemy blood and soil blood feuds; see also revenge blood libel blood money (wergild) blood sports Bloom, Paul Bluebeard bobbies Bobo, Lawrence Bokassa, Jean-Bédel Boleyn, Anne bonobos (pygmy chimps) book production Boone, Daniel Borat (film) borderline personality disorder border wars; see also territory Bosnia Boston crime in homicides in police Public Library revolutionary and social identity TenPoint coalition Boston Strangler Bradford, William brain and aggression amygdala anterior cingulate cortex cerebral cortex cerebrum Dominance circuit dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and empathy Fear circuit forebrain frontal lobes gray matter hindbrain hypothalamus insula Intermale Aggression circuit, see brain, Dominance circuit limbic system maturation of midbrain motor strip orbital cortex damage to and emotion and empathy and Equality Matching and psychopathy and revenge and self-control and violence orbitofrontal cortex, see brain, orbital cortex parietal lobes periaqueductal gray prefrontal cortex; see also brain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; brain, frontal brain (cont.) lobes; brain, orbital cortex; brain, ventromedial prefrontal cortex Rage circuit rat Seeking circuit; see also striatum and self-control striatum, ventral Sylvian fissure temporoparietal junction ventromedial prefrontal cortex Brazil Brecke, Peter Bridges, Ruby Nell Bright, John Brisson, Jacques-Pierre Britain/United Kingdom animal rights in colonies of and Declaration of Human Rights as great power and homophobia and IQ and Long Peace opium wars political apologies by and Roman Empire slave trade violence in in war see also England; Ireland; Scotland; Wales British Empire Broca, Paul Broken Windows theory Bronner, Ethan Brooke, Rupert Brooks, David Brooks, Mel Brophy, Brigid Brown, Donald Brown, Harold Brown, Jeffrey Browning, Christopher Brownmiller, Susan Broyles, William Bruno, Giordano Brunswick, Duke of Buckley, William Buhaug, Halvard Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists bullfighting bullying Bundy, Ted Buñuel, Luis Burger, Jerry Burke, Edmund Burks, Stephen Burr, Aaron Burundi, genocide in Bush, George H.
The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil
additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra
John R. Searle, "I Married a Computer," in Richards et al., Are We Spiritual Machines? 36. John R. Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992). 37. Hans Moravec, Letter to the Editor, New York Review of Books, http://www.kurzweiltech.com/Searle/searle_response_letter.htm. 38. John Searle to Ray Kurzweil, December 15, 1998. 39. Lanier, "One Half of a Manifesto." 40. David Brooks, "Good News About Poverty," New York Times November 27, 2004, A35. 41. Hans Moravec, Letter to the Editor, New York Review of Books, http://www.kurzweiltech.com/Searle/searle_response_letter.htm. 42. Patrick Moore, "The Battle for Biotech Progress—GM Crops Are Good for the Environment and Human Welfare," Greenspirit (February 2004), http://www.greenspirit.com/logbook.cfm?msid=62. 43. Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld, private communication to Ray Kurzweil, February 2005. 44.
Stress Test: Reflections on Financial Crises by Timothy F. Geithner
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Doomsday Book, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Flash crash, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, implied volatility, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, Northern Rock, obamacare, paradox of thrift, pets.com, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tobin tax, too big to fail, working poor
The aggressiveness and design of our response helped us end the panic and exit those programs remarkably quickly, with a positive return to the taxpayer as well as a tremendous boost to the economy. Sources: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal Reserve Board, and U.S. Treasury Department. We began to see a few cracks in the relentless media negativity about our work. Axelrod once emailed to say that the right-leaning New York Times columnist David Brooks had just told him I was the “unsung hero” of the administration. “Start singing!” Axelrod wrote. Brooks did write a nice column that chronicled some of the greatest hits from earlier in the year—a New Republic essay titled “The Geithner Disaster,” a Wall Street Journal survey of forty-nine economists who gave me a failing grade—before concluding that “the evidence of the past eight months suggests that Geithner was mostly right and his critics were mostly wrong.”
Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, constrained optimization, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, incomplete markets, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, loose coupling, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, sealed-bid auction, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, working poor
The Cato Institute seconded the analysis with alacrity. The AEI then threw its weight behind the Freddie/Fannie story, with Wallison as point man, and the trusty echo chamber was revved up. Professional economists were recruited to bolster the narrative. The public-choice crowd was quick to chip in. Mark Calabria from Cato was brought in to fluff up the numbers. Dependable fellow travelers such as David Brooks, George Will, and Tyler Cowen chimed in in the columns and blogs. Douglas Holtz-Eakin signed on, in a way to soon become important in the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. Edward Pinto at AEI was brought on board to crunch some numbers. Raghuram Rajan promoted a more fuzzy-tinged and humanized version of the story in his Fault Lines. But the real agnotological breakthrough came when a respected journalist seemingly positioned outside of the Russian doll (indeed, hailing from within that brimstoned Mordor for the right, the New York Times) was somehow induced to write a book also casting Fannie and Freddie as the evil twins behind everything that went wrong in the crisis: Gretchen Morgenson and Josh Rosner’s Reckless Endangerment.
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman
Only the waters of the occupied territories are subject to Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Washington’s “Peace Process” 912 discussion, consistent with the general framework of capitulation.27 The Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty has provisions on “achieving a comprehensive and lasting settlement of all the water problems between [Israel and Jordan].” They are outlined by David Brooks of Canada’s International Development Centre, a specialist on water resources of the region and a member of Canada’s delegation to the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks on water and the environment. He observes that the terms are not “particularly remarkable as water agreements go,” with one exception: “what is omitted, or, more accurately, who is omitted. Not a word is said about water rights for the Palestinians, nor about giving them a role in managing the waters of the Jordan valley.”
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent