David Brooks

193 results back to index


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Bartels, Unequal Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), 124. 21 David Brooks, “Workers of the World, Unite!” New York Times, Jan. 3, 2012. 22 Nancy Folbre, “Defining Economic Interest.” 23 Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982) and The Logic of Collective Action (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965). 24 Joan C. Williams, “Learn to Bridge the Class Divide,” Washington Post, Sept. 26, 2010. 25 Dani Rodrik, The Globalization Paradox (New York: WW Norton, 2011), 146. 26 Ross Garnaut, “Climate Change, China Booms and Australia’s Governance Struggle in a Changing World,” 2010 Hamer Oration, University of Melbourne, Aug. 5, 2010. 27 David Brooks, “The Day After Tomorrow,” New York Times, Sept. 14, 2010. 28 Ross Garnaut, “Climate Change, China Booms and Australia’s Governance Struggle in a Changing World.” 29 Tim Colebatch, “Adapt Or Die–RBAs Bitter Medicine,” Sydney Morning Herald, June 13, 2012.

Stigler won a Nobel Prize describing it.27 Some conservatives share the frustration of economists with the inefficiencies and redistribution of income characteristic of regulatory capture, including the conservative author and blogger Ross Douthat, writing in 2010: “In case after case, Washington’s web of subsidies and tax breaks effectively takes money out of the middle class and hands it out to speculators and have-mores…. We give tax breaks to immensely profitable corporations that don’t need the money and boondoggles that wouldn’t exist without government favoritism.”28 And here is the author and New York Times columnist David Brooks: “The legitimacy of American capitalism has rested on the fact that many people, like Warren Buffett and Bill Gates, got rich on the basis of what they did, not on the basis of government connections. But over the years, business and government have become more intertwined. The results have been bad for both capitalism and government. The banks’ growing political clout led to the rule changes that helped create the financial crisis….

Congressional Democrats seeking to increase enforcement budgets have been unable to overcome Republican Party opposition united against enhanced enforcement of Wall Street. It seems, however, that such tactics do not enjoy universal support among Republicans or conservatives. University of Chicago jurist Richard A. Posner, for example, argued in January 2010: “We need a more active and intelligent government to keep our model of a capitalist economy from running off the rails.”86 And conservative journalist David Brooks compared the need to achieve balanced regulation to that of fire: “a useful tool when used judiciously and a dangerous menace when it gets out of control.”87 Deferred Prosecution Windfalls for Republican Insiders The Reagan era’s use of fines and deferred prosecutions also saw the creation of a new tactic that rewarded well-connected Republicans. It worked this way: rather than prosecute antitrust and other violators, the Bush administration negotiated punishment where violators agreed to end illegalities and accept outside monitoring.


pages: 104 words: 30,990

The Centrist Manifesto by Charles Wheelan

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demand response, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, obamacare, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, stem cell, the scientific method, transcontinental railway, Walter Mischel

Peake, “Predicting Adolescent Cognitive and Self-Regulatory Competencies from Preschool Delay of Gratification: Identifying Diagnostic Conditions,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 26, no. 6, 1990. 10 Mackenzie Weinger, “Poll: 73 Percent of Americans Say Country Headed in Wrong Direction,” Politico, August 10, 2011, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0811/61031.html. 11 “New Low: Just 14% Think Today’s Children Will Be Better Off Than Their Parents,” Rasmussen Reports, July 29, 2012, http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/business/jobs_employment/july_2012/new_low_just_14_think_today_s_children_will_be_better_off_than_their_parents. 12 Matea Gold, “2012 Campaign Set to Cost a Record $6 Billion,” Los Angeles Times, October 31, 2012. 13 Thomas Friedman, “Third Party Rising,” New York Times, November 3, 2010. 14 David Brooks, “Pundit under Protest,” New York Times, June 13, 2011. 15 Olympia Snowe, “Olympia Snowe: Why I’m Leaving the Senate,” Washington Post, March 1, 2012. 16 Monica Davey, “Lugar Loses Primary Challenge in Indiana,” New York Times, May 8, 2012. 17 Jennifer Steinhauer, “Weighing the Effect of an Exit of Centrists,” New York Times, October 8, 2012. 18 Alan Murray, “A Raging Moderate Finds Neither Party Is Interested in Him,” Wall Street Journal, March 2, 2004. 19 John P. Avlon, “What Independent Voters Want,” Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2008. 20 David Brooks, “Party No. 3,” New York Times, August 10, 2006. 21 “Congress Approval Ties All-Time Low at 10%,” Gallup Politics, August 14, 2012, http://www.gallup.com/poll/156662/congress-approval-ties-time-low.aspx. 22 “Quigley Right Choice for 5th District Seat,” Chicago Sun-Times, February 15, 2009. 23 “Price of Admission,” Historical Elections, OpenSecrets.org, http://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/stats.php?

Instead of softening the rough edges of markets and globalization, a necessary role that most Americans would thoroughly embrace, the Democrats too often stand in the way of economic progress. Democratic candidates have become beholden to interest groups with positions that are inimical to the supposed core values of the party. One cannot support the current demands of America’s teachers’ unions while simultaneously claiming to stand for poor and minority children. New York Times columnist David Brooks nicely summarized the failure of either political party to come to grips with America’s economic reality: The Republican growth agenda—tax cuts and nothing else—is stupefyingly boring, fiscally irresponsible and politically impossible. Giant tax cuts—if they were affordable—might boost overall growth, but they would do nothing to address the structural problems that are causing a working class crisis. . . .

We do need to fix a ridiculously inefficient tax code. We do need to raise taxes on polluting activities, particularly the emission of carbon. We do need to implement institutional changes that will make government more efficient and responsive. In more normal times, these are the kinds of things that pragmatic Democrats and Republicans would agree to do together. Right now, they are not getting it done. In the words of David Brooks, it is time for “an insurgency of the rational.”20 The American political landscape has evolved before. Like everything else, political parties have a life span. What happened to the Whigs? The Federalists? Life changes. The country changes. Political parties should change too. The Strategy Conventional wisdom suggests that the American political system is hostile to all third parties. That is wrong.


pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

The economy had tanked, trillions in savings had been flushed away, and great financial houses had suddenly crashed. Reagan-style capitalism was in disgrace. In the 2008 presidential campaign, not just Barack Obama and Joe Biden but also John McCain and Sarah Palin raged against the “greed and irresponsibility” of Wall Street. “Who knew?” was not good enough. In an early 2009 column, conservative columnist David Brooks of the New York Times addressed the question of whether the root cause of our financial calamity was greed, stupidity, or both. Worried that the greed story might end with calls to “smash the oligarchy” or at least “restructure the financial sector,” Brooks opted for stupidity. Bankers were simply in over their heads, he wrote. They “got too big to manage. Instruments got too complex to understand.

The rest is history: the crash of Bear Stearns, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, and the panicked response of the Republican White House and a Democratic Congress to pour massive amounts of money into the banks, investment companies, and insurance firms that were deemed “too big to fail.” Although there undoubtedly were challenged intellects among the public and business leaders who were most responsible for the economic crisis, David Brooks’s stupidity explanation does not fit. As John Maynard Keynes, Charles Kindleberger, and many, many other economists, such as Hyman Minsky, had shown, financial excesses were built into the modern economy. Economists might have different ways of explaining the boom-and-bust cycle, but it is inevitable: what goes up must come down. This was no secret on Wall Street. The term Minsky moment was coined by an investment banker for the turning point that kicks off a panic in which investors begin dumping even high-quality assets in order to cover their debts.

“Sub-Prime Mortgage Crisis Has Spilled Over Into Home Equity Loans and Lines,” Common Sense Forecaster (blog), January 17, 2008, http://commonsenseforecaster.blogspot.com/2008/01/sub-prime-mortgage-crisis-has-spilled.html. 6. William Cohan, “A Tsunami of Excuses,” New York Times, March 11, 2009. 7. Quoted in Kevin Phillips, Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2008), 180. 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “Palin’s Kind of Patriotism,” New York Times, October 7, 2008. 9. David Brooks, “Greed and Stupidity,” New York Times, April 2, 2009. 10. Bill Marsh, “A History of Home Values,” New York Times, August 26, 2006, http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2006/08/26/weekinreview/27leon_graph2.large.gif. 11. Joe Nocera, “The Big Lie,”New York Times, December 23, 2011. Italics mine. 12. Duhigg, “Pressured to Take More Risk.” 13. Jo Becker, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, and Stephen Labaton, “White House Philosophy Stoked Mortgage Bonfire,” New York Times, December 21, 2008. 14.


pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Bobos in Paradise The New Upper Class and How They Got There David Brooks SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS NEW YORK LONDON TORONTO SYDNEY Preface This Simon & Schuster trade paperback edition 2004 Bobos in Paradise Praise for Bobos in Paradise “An absolute sparkler of a book, which should establish David Brooks—not that he needs establishing—as the smart, fun-to-read social critic of his generation.” —Christopher Buckley “In his briskly written, clever Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks astutely describes a new-ish American elite…. An enormously accomplished and perceptive reporter.” —Benjamin Schwarz, Los Angeles Times “David Brooks has written a smart, funny book about the new meritocracy, the information-age elite whose members … set the tone of our time.” —Diane White, The Boston Globe “A mixture of heartfelt fondness and dead-on ridicule, animated by an energetic glass-half-full ambivalence.

—Marta Salij, Detroit Free Press TO JANE Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Rockefeller Center 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2000 by David Brooks All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. This Simon & Schuster trade paperback edition 2004 Simon & Schuster Paperbacks and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster, Inc. For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact Simon & Schuster Special Sales at 1-800-456-6798 or business@simonandschuster.com Designed by Edith Fowler Manufactured in the United States of America 20 19 18 17 The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Brooks, David [date]. Bobos in paradise: the new upper class and how they got there / David Brooks. p.cm. Includes index. 1. Elite (Social sciences)—United States. 2.

., 118–20, 123, 127, 133, 135, 188, 232 Wilson, Edmund, 142, 147, 201 Winkler, Rabbi Gershon, 224 Wolfe, Alan, 248–49 women, education of, 29–31 Woolf, Virginia, 146 World War II, 22, 24, 32 Yergin, Daniel, 148 Zola, Emile, 66, 143 About the Author DAVID BROOKS is a political journalist and “comic sociologist” who writes a biweekly Op-Ed column for The New York Times. He appears regularly on PBS’ The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer and NPR’s All Things Considered. Formerly a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, his articles have also appeared in The Atlantic Monthly, Newsweek, Reader’s Digest, Men’s Health, and other publications. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland. Advertisement Also available by David Brooks 0-7432-2739-5 Take a look at Americans in their natural habitat: guys shopping for barbecue grills, doing that special walk American men do when in the presence of lumber; super-efficient übermoms who chair school auctions, organize the PTAs, and weigh less than their kids.


pages: 487 words: 151,810

The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement by David Brooks

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, business process, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial independence, Flynn Effect, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, impulse control, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, loss aversion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, six sigma, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, young professional

Also by David Brooks ON PARADISE DRIVE: HOW WE LIVE NOW (AND ALWAYS HAVE) IN THE FUTURE TENSE BOBOS IN PARADISE: THE NEW UPPER CLASS AND HOW THEY GOT THERE Copyright © 2011 by David Brooks All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, an imprint of The Random House Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., New York. RANDOM HOUSE and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Brooks, David The social animal: the hidden sources of love, character, and achievement / David Brooks. p. cm. eISBN: 978-0-679-60393-1 1. Man-woman relationships—United States. 2. Social mobility—United States. 3. Social status—United States. 4. Elite (Social sciences)—United States. 5. Character. I. Title.

Harrison, The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It from Itself (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 2006), xvi. 8 75 percent of the anti-Western Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 73–75. 9 Olivier Roy argues Olivier Roy, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). 10 Harold pointed out David Brooks, “The Wisdom We Need to Fight AIDS,” New York Times, June 12, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/12/opinion/12brooks.html. 11 a hospital in Namibia David Brooks, “In Africa, Life After AIDS,” New York Times, June 9, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/09/opinion/09brooks.html. 12 So the market had partially David Brooks, “This Old House,” New York Times, December 9, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/09/opinion/09brooks.html. 13 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Daniel Drezner, “The BLS Weighs in on Outsourcing,” DanielDrezner.com, June 10, 2004, http://www.danieldrezner.com/archives/001365.html and “Extended Mass Layoffs Associated with Domestic and Overseas Relocations, First Quarter 2004 Summary,” Bureau of Labor Statistics Press Release, June 10, 2004, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/reloc.nr0.htm. 14 Pankaj Ghemawat Pankaj Ghemawat, “Why the World Isn’t Flat,” Foreign Policy, February 14, 2007, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2007/02/14/why_the_world_isnt_flat?

McAdams, The Redemptive Self: Stories Americans Live By (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). 18 rumination made depressed people Wilson, 175–76. 19 “How pathetically scanty” Steven Johnson, Mind Wide Open: Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 1. ABOUT THE AUTHOR DAVID BROOKS writes an op-ed column for The New York Times. Previously, he has been a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, a contributing editor at Newsweek and The Atlantic Monthly, and an op-ed editor at The Wall Street Journal. He is currently a commentator on PBS News-Hour and contributes regularly to Meet the Press and NPR’s All Things Considered. He is the author of Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There and On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (And Always Have) in the Future Tense. His articles have appeared in The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, Forbes, The Washington Post, The Times Literary Supplement, Commentary, The Public Interest, and many other magazines. David Brooks lives in Maryland.


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

We always overlook the class interests of professionals because we have trouble thinking of professionals as a “class” in the first place; like David Brooks, we think of them merely as “the best.” They are where they are because they are so smart, not because they’ve been born to an earldom or something. Truth be told, lots of Americans were relieved to see people of talent replace George W. Bush’s administration of hacks and cronies back in 2008. Those were frightening times. Still, if we want to understand what’s wrong with liberalism, what keeps this movement from doing something about inequality or about our reversion to a nineteenth-century social pattern, this is where we’re going to have to look: at the assumptions and collective interests of professionals, the Democratic Party’s favorite constituency. The historian Christopher Lasch—a kind of cosmic opposite of David Brooks—wrote in 1965 that “modern radicalism or liberalism can best be understood as a phase of the social history of the intellectuals.”3 My goal in this book is to bring Lasch’s dictum up to date: the deeds and positions of the modern Democratic Party, I will argue, can best be understood as a phase in the social history of the professionals.

Yes, social class is still all-important in politics, just like Madison, Benton, Bryan, and Truman thought it was. And yes, the Democrats are still a class party. In fact, they show admirable concern for the interests of the social class they represent. It’s just that the class they care about the most doesn’t happen to be the same one Truman, Roosevelt, and Bryan cared about. THE HIGH-BORN AND THE WELL-GRADUATED In his syndicated New York Times column for November 21, 2008, David Brooks saluted president-elect Obama for the savvy personnel choices he was then announcing. This was before Brooks had become one of the president’s favorite columnists; before the fabled “bromance” between the two men burst into the raging blaze of mutual admiration it would one day become. But the spark was there already. It was the educational pedigree of the then-forming Team Obama that won the columnist’s esteem.

The president believed this, Alter continues, for the most personal of reasons: because this was the system that had propelled him to the top. “Because he himself was a product of the great American postwar meritocracy,” Alter continues, “he could never fully escape seeing the world from the status ladder he had ascended.” Obama proceeded to fill his administration with the graduates of the most prestigious universities and professional schools, in turn causing David Brooks to feel such optimism for the country. “At some level,” Alter writes, “Obama bought into the idea that top-drawer professionals had gone through a fair sorting process, the same process that had propelled him and Michelle to the Ivy League, and were therefore in some way deserving of their elevated status.”20 What this doctrine means for the politics of income inequality should be clear: a profound complacency.


pages: 353 words: 110,919

The Road to Character by David Brooks

Cass Sunstein, coherent worldview, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, George Santayana, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

Copyright © 2015 by David Brooks All rights reserved. Published in the United States by Random House, an imprint and division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York. RANDOM HOUSE and the HOUSE colophon are registered trademarks of Penguin Random House LLC. Excerpt from Halakhic Man by Joseph B. Soloveitchik (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983), copyright © 1983 by the Jewish Publication Society. Excerpt from George C. Marshall: Education of a General, 1880–1939 by Forrest C. Pogue (New York: Viking Books, 1963), copyright © 1963 and copyright renewed 1991 by George C. Marshall Research Foundation. Permission credits can be found on this page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brooks, David. The road to character / David Brooks. pages cm Includes bibliographical references.

Reprinted by permission of Random House, an imprint and division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. CASS SUNSTEIN: Excerpt from a toast given by Leon Wieseltier at the wedding of Cass Sunstein to Samantha Power. Used by permission. By DAVID BROOKS On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (and Always Have) in the Future Tense Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement The Road to Character ABOUT THE AUTHOR DAVID BROOKS writes an op-ed column for The New York Times, teaches at Yale University, and appears regularly on PBS NewsHour, NPR’s All Things Considered, and NBC’s Meet the Press. Previously, he has been a senior editor at The Weekly Standard, a contributing editor at Newsweek and The Atlantic Monthly, and an op-ed editor at The Wall Street Journal.

Bachman Cover Design: Eric White Cover Illustration: Ben Wiseman v4.1 a CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright INTRODUCTION: ADAM II CHAPTER 1: THE SHIFT CHAPTER 2: THE SUMMONED SELF CHAPTER 3: SELF-CONQUEST CHAPTER 4: STRUGGLE CHAPTER 5: SELF-MASTERY CHAPTER 6: DIGNITY CHAPTER 7: LOVE CHAPTER 8: ORDERED LOVE CHAPTER 9: SELF-EXAMINATION CHAPTER 10: THE BIG ME Dedication ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES PERMISSION CREDITS By David Brooks About the Author INTRODUCTION: ADAM II Recently I’ve been thinking about the difference between the résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues. The résumé virtues are the ones you list on your résumé, the skills that you bring to the job market and that contribute to external success. The eulogy virtues are deeper. They’re the virtues that get talked about at your funeral, the ones that exist at the core of your being—whether you are kind, brave, honest or faithful; what kind of relationships you formed.


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

., 594. 148 In his 1963 work “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”: Martin Luther King Jr., “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” www.africa.upenn.edu. 149 Conservative commentator Tony Blankley: Left, Right and Center, 15 Jan. 2010, www.kcrw.com. 150 As America’s Misery Index soars: www.miseryindex.us. 151 “We have to lean on one another …”: Barack Obama, eulogy for West Virginia Miners, 25 Apr. 2010, www.whitehouse.gov. 152 David Brooks has written about the need: David Brooks, “The Broken Society,” 18 Mar. 2010, www.nytimes.com. 153 “Volunteering, especially among professional classes and the young”: Philip Blond “Cameron’s ‘Big Society,’ ” 25 Apr. 2010, www.guardian.co.uk. 154 In 2002 in San Francisco’s Mission district: “About 826,” www.826valencia.org. 155 In Brooklyn, New York, FEAST: Danny LaChance, “An Idea Grows in Brooklyn,” University of Minnesota Alumni Association, spring 2010, www.minnesotaalumni.org. 156 Matthew Bishop, U.S. business editor for the Economist: Howard Davies, “A New Take on Giving,” 10 Jan. 2009, www.guardian.co.uk. 157 Social entrepreneurs pinpoint social problems: Caroline Hsu, “Entrepreneur for Social Change,” 31 Oct. 2005, www.usnews.com. 158 Providing microcredit to small businesses: Devin Leonard, “Microcredit?

A lot of people at the top of the economic food chain have done very well shorting the middle class. But the losers in those bets weren’t Goldman Sachs investors—they were millions of Americans whose sole crime was to optimistically buy into the American Dream, only to find it had been replaced by a sophisticated scam. In November 2008, as the initial aftershocks of the economic earthquake were being felt, New York Times columnist David Brooks predicted the rise of a new social class—“the formerly middle class”—made up of those who had just joined the middle class at the end of the boom, only to fall back when the recession began.6 “To them,” he wrote, “the gap between where they are and where they used to be will seem wide and daunting.” But, in the time since Brooks wrote this, the ranks of the formerly middle class have swelled far beyond those who joined at the tail end of the boom.

As America’s Misery Index soars, so must our Empathy Index.150 THE EMPATHY INDEX: FROM THE LOCAL TO THE VIRTUAL “We have to lean on one another and look out for one another and love one another and pray for one another,” Barack Obama said when he delivered the eulogy for the fallen West Virginia miners in April 2010.151 This is a call that transcends left and right political divisions. David Brooks has written about the need to replace our “atomized, segmented society” with a society “oriented around relationships and associations”—an approach advocated by conservative British writer Phillip Blond in his book Red Tory.152 “Volunteering, especially among professional classes and the young,” Blond wrote, “has doubled in recent months”—proof, he suggests, that “the wish to make a difference is a common and rising aspiration.”153 Those who are working to address the devastation in their own communities are willing to experiment, try many things, fail, and try again, the way you do when you really care.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

California, New York, and Massachusetts accounted for 75 percent of venture capital in 2016…: Richard Florida, “A Closer Look at the Geography of Venture Capital in the U.S.” CityLab, February 23, 2016. A series of studies by the economists Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren…: Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren, “The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility: Childhood Exposure Effects and County-Level Estimates,” Equality of Opportunity, May 2015. David Brooks described such towns vividly…: David Brooks, “What’s the Matter with Republicans?” New York Times, July 4, 2017. CHAPTER 12: MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN … when manufacturing work becomes less available…: David Autor, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson, “When Work Disappears: Manufacturing Decline and the Falling Marriage-Market Value of Men,” National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2017. Average male wages [for working-class men] have declined since 1990 in real terms: Jared Bernstein, “Real Earnings, Real Anger,” Washington Post, March 9, 2016.

The best approach is what they do at the Cleveland Clinic…: Megan McArdle, “Can the Cleveland Clinic Save American Health Care?” Daily Beast, February 26, 2013. The Southcentral Foundation… treats health problems and behavioral problems as tied together…: Joanne Silberner, “The Doctor Will Analyze You Now,” Politico, August 9, 2017. CHAPTER 22: BUILDING PEOPLE “Character is the main object of education”: David Brooks, “Becoming a Real Person,” New York Times, September 8, 2014. … William James wrote around the same time that character and moral significance are built…: David Brooks, “Becoming a Real Person,” New York Times, September 8, 2014. SAT scores have declined significantly in the last 10 years: Nick Anderson, “SAT Scores at Lowest Level in 10 Years, Fueling Worries about High Schools,” Washington Post, September 3, 2015. … smartphone use has caused a spike in depression and anxiety…: Jean M.

When you’re used to losing people and resources, you make different choices. Finally, there are the small towns on the periphery, places that feel like they have truly been left behind. The ambient economic activity is low. There’s a rawness to them, where you sense that human beings are closer to a state of nature. They have their heads down and are just doing whatever it takes to get by. David Brooks described such towns vividly in a New York Times op-ed: Today these places are no longer frontier towns, but many of them still exist on the same knife’s edge between traditionalist order and extreme dissolution… Many people in these places tend to see their communities… as an unvarnished struggle for resources—as a tough world, a no-illusions world, a world where conflict is built into the fabric of reality… The sins that can cause the most trouble are not the social sins—injustice, incivility, etc.


pages: 476 words: 134,735

The Unpersuadables: Adventures With the Enemies of Science by Will Storr

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, full employment, George Santayana, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, Simon Singh, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies

Anderson Thompon Jnr, Why We Believe in God(s), Pitchstone, 2011, pp. 34–37. 73 a sudden explosion in creativity: Michael S. Gazzaniga, Human, Harper Perennial, 2008, p. 215. 73–74 Even today, we remain … more than two million: J. Anderson Thompon Jnr, Why We Believe in God(s), Pitchstone, 2011, pp. 34–37. 74 two hundred and fifty thousand cells a minute: David Brooks, The Social Animal, Short Books, 2011, p. 30. 74 ‘an alien kind of computational material’: David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, Canongate, 2011, p. 1. 74 capable of receiving millions of pieces of information at any given moment: David Brooks, The Social Animal, Short Books, 2011, p. x, quoting Strangers to Ourselves, by Timothy D. Wilson of the University of Virginia. 74 One cubic millimetre: Email to author from Professor Chris Frith. 74 It has eighty-six billion of these cells: James Randerson, ‘How many neurons make a human brain?

Gazzaniga, Human, Harper Perennial, 2008, p. 124. 184 incapable of making these decisions: Michael S. Gazzaniga, Human, Harper Perennial, 2008, p. 120. 185 hitting you with dread or desire: David Brooks, The Social Animal, Short Books, 2011, p. 207. 185 in the words of Professor David Eagleman: David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, Canongate, 2011, p. 104. 185 Professor Bruce Wexler writes: Bruce E. Wexler, Brain and Culture, MIT Press, 2008, p. 125. 186 he offers the example of young Native American men: Bruce E. Wexler, Brain and Culture, MIT Press, 2008, p. 126. 186 Eagleman, ‘not at the centre of the action’: David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, Canongate, 2011, p. 9. 186 Scientists at the Monell Centre, Philadelphia: David Brooks, The Social Animal, Short Books, 2011, p. 16. 186 When chickens are born in industrial hatcheries: David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, Canongate, 2011, p. 57. 186 Researcher Richard Horsey says: Richard Horsey, ‘The Art of Chicken Sexing’, UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, 2002. 187 a team led by Professor Antoine Bechara: Antoine Bechara, Hanna Damasio, Daniel Tranel and Antonio R.

Ramachandran, Phantoms in the Brain, Harper Perennial, 1998, p. 8. 75 And yet, he continues, ‘We know so little about it’: V. S. Ramachandran, Phantoms in the Brain, Harper Perennial, 1998, p. 83. 75 Other mammals give birth to their young when their brains have developed: Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis, Arrow, 2006, p. 52. 75 babies create around 1.8 million synapses per second: David Brooks, The Social Animal, Short Books, 2011, p. 47. 75 Throughout childhood, the brain is extraordinarily alive: Bruce E. Wexler, Brain and Culture, MIT Press, 2008, p. 43. 75 In his book Brain and Culture Professor Bruce E. Wexler writes: Bruce E. Wexler, Brain and Culture, MIT Press, 2008, p. 5. 76 up to 90 per cent of what you are seeing right now: Richard Gregory, ‘Brainy Mind’, British Medical Journal 317 (1998), pp. 1693–95. 76 When writer Jeff Warren was trained to ‘wake up’: Jeff Warren, Head Trip: Adventures on the Wheel of Consciousness, Oneworld, 2007, p. 117. 77 The light is not out there: David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, Canongate, 2011, p. 40. 77 The music … rose petal has no colour: Richard Gregory, ‘Brainy Mind’, British Medical Journal 317, pp. 1693–95 (1998). 77 in the words of neuroscientist Professor Chris Frith: Chris Frith, Making up the Mind, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 78 In a startling 1974 experiment that tested these principles: M.


pages: 397 words: 121,211

Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray

affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional

He observed that the new economy was ideally suited to their talents and rewarded them accordingly. In 1994, in The Bell Curve, the late Richard J. Herrnstein and I discussed the driving forces behind this phenomenon, the increasing segregation of the American university system by cognitive ability and the increasing value of brainpower in the marketplace.2 We labeled the new class “the cognitive elite.” In 2000, David Brooks brought an anthropologist’s eye and a wickedly funny pen to his description of the new upper class in Bobos in Paradise. Bobos is short for “bourgeois bohemians.” Traditionally, Brooks wrote, it had been easy to distinguish the bourgeoisie from the bohemians. “The bourgeoisie were the square, practical ones. They defended tradition and middle-class values. They worked for corporations and went to church.

The latent propensity to create a different culture existed, but the intellectuals of Harvard Square didn’t have the critical mass to reshape the community in the ways that their tastes and preferences would reshape it when a critical mass materialized.7 The New-Upper-Class Culture Over the next few decades, they got that critical mass, and the result was becoming visible by the late 1980s, when thirtysomething began. By the end of the 1990s, the new culture had fully blossomed. Its mise-en-scène is captured in Bobos in Paradise by David Brooks’s description of the transformation of Wayne, Pennsylvania, where he had attended high school in the late 1970s. Wayne is one of Philadelphia’s famous Main Line communities. When Brooks had lived there, the business district had been an unremarkable place with a few restaurants with names like L’Auberge, a few tasteful clothing stores with names like the Paisley Shop, and a small assortment of pharmacies, grocery stores, and gas stations that tended to the day-to-day needs of the affluent residents of Wayne.

The best I can do is use the DDB Life Style data that were provided to Robert Putnam in the research for Bowling Alone and are now available to other scholars.11 That database does not permit us to isolate the top few centiles—the highest income code is $100,000—but it does give a quantitative measure of the relationship between income, education, and a wide variety of tastes and preferences. I also continue to draw heavily on the work of David Brooks and Richard Florida. Both Bobos in Paradise and The Rise of the Creative Class, along with their other books, have extensive documentation, some quantitative and some qualitative, for the generalizations they draw about the tastes and preferences of their Bobos and Creative Class, respectively, and my endnotes contain references to their discussions. My generalizations are consistent with theirs.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

There is mounting evidence that dense, walkable cities generate wealth by sheer virtue of the propinquity that they offer. This is a concept that is both stunningly obvious—cities exist, after all, because people benefit from coming together—and tantalizingly challenging to prove.● This hasn’t kept it from the lips of some of our leading thinkers, including Stewart Brand, Edward Glaeser, David Brooks, and Malcolm Gladwell. Speaking at the Aspen Institute, David Brooks pointed out how most U.S. patent applications, when they list similar patents that influenced them, point to other innovators located less than twenty-five miles away. He also mentioned a recent experiment at the University of Michigan, where “researchers brought groups of people together face to face and asked them to play a difficult cooperation game. Then they organized other groups and had them communicate electronically.

Lipman, “A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Costs of Working Families,” iv. 25. Ibid., 5. 26. Doherty and Leinberger, “The Next Real Estate Boom.” 27. Ibid. 28. Leinberger, “Federal Restructuring.” 29. Catherine Lutz and Anne Lutz Fernandez, Carjacked, 207. 30. Leinberger, Option, 77–78, and “Here Comes the Neighborhood”; Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution, 143. 31. Jon Swartz, “San Francisco’s Charm Lures High-Tech Workers.” 32. David Brooks, Lecture, Aspen Institute; and David Brooks, “The Splendor of Cities.” 33. Mapes, 268. 34. Jonah Lehrer, “A Physicist Solves the City,” 3. 35. Ibid., 4. 36. Hope Yen, “Suburbs Lose Young Whites to Cities”; Leinberger, Option, 170. 37. Ibid. WHY JOHNNY CAN’T WALK 1. Jim Colleran, “The Worst Streets in America.” 2. Jeff Speck, “Our Ailing Communities: Q&A: Richard Jackson.” 3. Ibid. 4. Lawrence Frank, Lecture to the 18th Congress for the New Urbanism. 5.

●According to the census, Portland’s bicycling mode share is 5.8 percent, and local studies place it at just under 8 percent. The national average is 0.4 percent. ■“The Young and the Restless,” 34. As the number of college graduates in a metropolitan area increases by 10 percent, individuals’ earnings increase by 7.7. This applies even to non–college graduates in the city because their productivity rises, too (David Brooks, “The Splendor of Cities”). ●More than twenty-five years ago, William Whyte’s research tracked the stock performance of thirty-eight New York City companies that chose to relocate to the suburbs, and found that they appreciated at less than half the rate of thirty-five similar companies that had stayed put (Whyte, City: Rediscovering the Center, 294–95). ●Kooshian and Winkelman, “Growing Wealthier,” 2.


pages: 283 words: 87,166

Reaching for Utopia: Making Sense of an Age of Upheaval by Jason Cowley

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, liberal world order, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Right to Buy, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia

In 1972, at the age of seventy-two, suffering from insomnia and unsettled by the fame that the Nobel Prize had brought him, Kawabata killed himself by putting his head in a gas oven. As a practitioner of Zen, he did not believe in an afterlife. But perhaps he believed in the afterlife of art. And he chose well the month of his death – April, as the cherry blossom flowered. (2008) A Hesitant Radical in the Age of Trump: David Brooks David Brooks is often called the in-house conservative at the liberal New York Times but his writings are much more interesting than that reductive label would suggest. Unlike many Republicans, he is not an anti-government Randian. He rejects Trumpism but understands what has enabled it. In recent years, his probing twice-weekly columns have become more preoccupied with ethical, philosophical and theological questions.

Politics is a competition between partial truths, which is why reason and evidence are so important. Incremental improvements and progress are possible, but not inevitable. What is gained can just as easily be lost – but what is lost can also be regained. One should accept the complexity of the world and the limits of our understanding. Moderation is desirable, especially in this age of extremes. In the words of the American commentator David Brooks, ‘Being a moderate does not mean picking something mushy in the middle, but picking out the strong policies at either end, because politics is essentially about balance, getting the balance right.’ For the political philosopher and New Statesman writer John Gray, ‘politics is the pursuit of a succession of temporary remedies to recurring human evils’. That may be too dark but the subtext is this: liberal societies cannot depend on history for their survival.

I realise of course that not everything in the country happens inside the Circle Line and that’s been a very important development for me as an adult. I’ve also changed my view about the capability of central government to get everything right. I have much more confidence in strong local government, both to make successes and also to get things wrong but then be held to account.’ He joked about discovering his inner Michael Heseltine, and he was interested in, to adapt a phrase of the New York Times columnist David Brooks, ‘building relationships across differences’. Consider the Northern Powerhouse project. Richard Leese, the Labour leader of Manchester City Council, told me that he considered Osborne to be ‘a very political animal’. And yet, he added, ‘here’s a right-wing Chancellor supporting a northern Labour authority. He’s been prepared to do what we need to do to benefit the northern authorities and he’s been prepared to do it at a pace that Whitehall is not used to


pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, circulation of elites, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kenneth Arrow, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, mass incarceration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Norton Company, 2004), p. xxxii. 33 “pulled down to the ground their monarchy”: Edmund Burke, The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, vol. 5 (London: F. and C. Rivington, 1801), pp. 57 and 59. 34 “the institutionalist has a deep reverence”: See David Brooks, “What Life Asks of Us,” New York Times, January 26, 2009. 35 “Americans’ distrust of politicians”: See “Farewell Address by Senator Christopher Dodd, The Senate Chamber,” Federal News Service, December 29, 2010. 36 “ ‘bankers, bankers, bankers’ ”: See Matthew Dalton, “A Banker’s Plaintive Wail,” Davos Live, Wall Street Journal Blogs, January 27, 2011, http://blogs.wsj.com/davos/2011/01/27/a-bankers-plaintive-wail/, accessed January 19, 2012. 37 “My own trust in our political leaders is at a personal low”: David Brooks and Dick Cavett, “In Whom Can We Trust?” Opinionator: Exclusive Online Commentary from The Times, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/03/05/in-whom-can-we-trust/, accessed January 19, 2012. 38 “Obama’s faith lay in cream rising to the top”: Jonathan Alter, The Promise: President Obama, Year One (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010), p. 64. 39 “Meritocracy is a parody of democracy”: Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy (New York: W.

The revolutionaries, Burke explained, had “pulled down to the ground their monarchy; their church; their nobility; their law; their revenue; their army; their navy; their commerce; their arts; and their manufactures” leaving the door open to “an irrational, unprincipled, proscribing, confiscating, plundering, ferocious, bloody and tyrannical democracy.” Institutionalists live in fear of a society without central repositories of authority, one that could collapse into mob rule at any time. The New York Times columnist David Brooks is institutionalism’s most accessible advocate (the Times op-ed page contains multitudes) and in 2009 he laid out its vision. Citing the political scientist Hugh Heclo, who wrote the book On Thinking Institutionally, Brooks writes that “the institutionalist has a deep reverence for those who came before and built up the rules that he has temporarily taken delivery of … Lack of institutional awareness has bred cynicism and undermined habits of behavior.”

What divides the institutionalist from the insurrectionist is a disagreement over whether the greatest threat we face is distrust—a dark and nihilistic tendency that will produce a society bankrupted of norms and order—or whether the greater threat is the actual malfeasance and corruption of the pillar institutions themselves. But even the most ardent institutionalists have to admit that things aren’t working. “My own trust in our political leaders is at a personal low,” David Brooks wrote on the Times’ website in 2010. “And I actually know and like these people. I just think they are trapped in a system that buries their good qualities and brings out the bad.” Ultimately, whether you align yourself with the institutionalist or the insurrectionist side of the debate comes down to just how rotten you think our current pillar institutions and ruling class are. Can they be gently reformed at the margins or must they be radically overhauled, perhaps even destroyed and rebuilt?


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

A higher-education system that once promoted social mobility now serves to solidify class barriers. Desperate parents compromise their principles in order to spare their children rejection. But it is the system itself that must be rejected. True merit cannot be bought—and admission should not be either. —Originally published October 29, 2013 College Is a Promise the Economy Does Not Keep In 2000, New York Times columnist David Brooks published a sociological study of the United States that now reads like science fiction. Bobos in Paradise chronicled how a new upper class of “Bobos”—bourgeois bohemians—struggled to navigate life’s dazzling options in a time of unparalleled prosperity. As presidential candidates Al Gore and George W. Bush debated how to spend the projected $5 trillion government surplus, Brooks took on the micro-crisis: How would baby boomers handle the psychic strain of making money at fulfilling jobs?

But the real problem is that today both groups earn less and sacrifice more—in time, money, and personal freedom. College does not offer a better future, but a less worse one. College is not a cure for economic insecurity, but a symptom of the broader plague of credentialism. In an op-ed for New York magazine, Benjamin Wallace-Wells cites the popularity of French economist Thomas Piketty to claim that the questions David Brooks and others raised “about the culture of the meritocracy, about what kinds of people got ahead in American life” were “obsolete.” America’s new language is economics, he writes—oblivious to the fact that economics is, and always has been, the language of meritocracy. “The Bobo meritocracy will not easily be toppled, even if some group of people were to rise up and conclude that it should be,” Brooks wrote in 2000.

Amplification is tied to prestige, meaning that where you publish—and what privileges you already have—gives your words disproportionate influence. The terms of public debate are rarely set by the public. “Inequality” has risen to the fore in pundit discourse, but mostly in terms of whether it deserves to be debated at all, as recent columns by the Washington Post’s Ezra Klein and The New York Times’ David Brooks demonstrate. For a public well aware of income inequality—since they have to live with its consequences every day—such debates reflect an inequality of their own: a paucity of understanding among our most prominent voices. In the American media, white people debate whether race matters, rich people debate whether poverty matters, and men debate whether gender matters. People for whom these problems must matter—for they structure the limitations of their lives—are locked out of the discussion.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

In late 2011, New York Times columnist David Brooks reported that a Gallup poll showed that in answer to the question “Which of the following will be the biggest threat to the country in the future—big business, big labor, or big government?” close to 65 percent of respondents said the government and 26 percent said corporations.26 Is that an example of the persuasion and manufacturing of consent that you alluded to? If you look a little bit beyond that question and you ask, “What do you want the government to do?” the answer will be, “Stop bailing out the banks. That’s why I hate the government. Don’t bail out the banks. Stop freeing the rich from taxes. I want more taxes on the rich. Increase spending on health and education.” And so on down the line. So yes, the question is framed so that people like David Brooks can draw this conclusion.

David Hume, “Of the First Principles of Government,” in Selected Essays, ed. Stephen Copley and Andrew Edgar (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 24. 24. Edward Bernays, Propaganda (Brooklyn: Ig Publishing, 2005), p. 127. 25. Clinton Rossiter and James Lare, The Essential Lippmann: A Political Philosophy for Liberal Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), p.91. 26. David Brooks, “Midlife Crisis Economics,” New York Times, 26 December 2011. Elizabeth Mendes, “In U.S., Fear of Big Government at Near-Record Level,” Gallup, 12 December 2011. 27. See Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Question Wording,” no date, available at http://www.people-press.org/methodology/questionnaire-design/question-wording/. 28. Eva Bertram, “Democratic Divisions in the 1960s and the Road to Welfare Reform,” Political Science Quarterly 126, no. 4 (Winter 2011–12), pp. 579–610. 29.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

It’s a donut-shaped economy without a middle. Moritz thus describes as “brutal” both the drop between 1968 and 2013 in the US minimum wage (when inflation is accounted for) from $10.70 to $7.25 and the flattening of a median household income that, not even accounting for inflation, has crawled up from $43,868 to $52,762 over the same forty-five-year period.67 According to the New York Times columnist David Brooks, this inequality represents capitalism’s “greatest moral crisis since the Great Depression.”68 It’s a crisis, Brooks says, that can be captured in two statistics: the $19 billion Facebook acquisition of the fifty-five-person instant messaging Internet app WhatsApp in February 2014, which valued each employee at $345 million; and the equally disturbing fact that the slice of the economic pie for the middle 60 percent of earners in the US economy has dropped from 53 percent to 45 percent since 1970.

As the work of prominent American psychologists like Jean Twenge, Keith Campbell, and Elias Aboujaoude indicates, our contemporary obsession with public self-expression has complex cultural, technological, and psychological origins that can’t be exclusively traced to the digital revolution.20 Indeed, Twenge and Campbell’s Narcissism Epidemic was published in 2009, before Systrom even had his “aha” moment on that Mexican beach. As David Brooks notes, our current fashion for vulgar immodesty represents another fundamental break with the Great Society, which, in contrast with today, was represented by a culture of understatement, abnegation, and modesty. “When you look from today back to 1945,” Brooks notes about the “expressive individualism” of our networked age, “you are looking into a different cultural epoch, across a sort of narcissism line.”21 Nor is Instagram alone in crossing this narcissism line.

Nunes, “Big-Bang Disruption,” Harvard Business Review, March 2013, hbr.org/2013/03/big-bang-disruption. 61 Ibid. 62 Larry Downes and Paul Nunes, Big Bang Disruption: Strategy in the Age of Devastating Innovation (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2014), p. 193. 63 Jason Farago, “Our Kodak Moments—and Creativity—Are Gone,” Guardian, August 23, 2013, theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/23/photography-photography. 64 George Packer, “Celebrating Inequality,” New York Times, May 19, 2013. 65 Ibid. 66 “The Onrushing Wave,” Economist, January 18, 2014, p. 25. 67 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap,” TechCrunch, September 9, 2013. 68 David Brooks, “Capitalism for the Masses,” New York Times, February 20, 2014. 69 Ibid. 70 George Packer, “No Death, No Taxes: The Libertarian Futurism of a Silicon Valley Billionaire,” New Yorker, November 28, 2011. 71 Ibid. 72 Ibid. 73 Robert M. Solow, “We’d Better Watch Out,” New York Times Book Review, July 12, 1987. 74 Timothy Noah, The Great Divergence: America’s Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It (New York: Bloomsbury, 2012), p. 7. 75 Eduardo Porter, “Tech Leaps, Job Losses and Rising Inequality,” New York Times, April 15, 2014. 76 Loukas Karabarbounis and Brent Neiman, “The Global Decline of Labor Share,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2014. 77 Thomas B.


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The way we’ve been living is not going to happen again, or we’re out.” Reiss would go on to chair the city’s Regional Transit Authority under Mayor Ray Nagin, taking control of New Orleans’s meager public transit options. Then governor Kathleen Blanco presented the storm as an opportunity to rebuild and do away with the city’s history of poverty, especially in the school system. But most prophetic was David Brooks, the conservative New York Times columnist. In a column that came out just over a week after the storm—when people were still stuck in hotels or waiting for food in the Superdome—Brooks advocated for using the storm to leave the poor sections of New Orleans behind, and encourage rich people to move in in their place: The first rule of the rebuilding effort should be: Nothing Like Before. Most of the ambitious and organized people abandoned the inner-city areas of New Orleans long ago.… If we just put up new buildings and allow the same people to move back into their old neighborhoods, then urban New Orleans will become just as run-down and dysfunctional as before.… In the post-Katrina world, that means we ought to give people who don’t want to move back to New Orleans the means to disperse into middle-class areas nationwide.… The key will be luring middle-class families into the rebuilt city, making it so attractive to them that they will move in, even knowing that their blocks will include a certain number of poor people.

As Ishiwata points out, we didn’t just go back to forgetting that issues of inequality and racism exist; we went back to forgetting that an entire group of disenfranchised people exists. Closing that window explains why it took only days before people seemed to stop caring about the rebuilding of New Orleans, to stop caring that nearly 100,000 African Americans were not able to return after the storm. To many politicians and thought leaders such as David Brooks, the idea that we’d need to get a majority-black, majority-poor city back to its former self seemed unnecessary, even irresponsible. After taking a tour of the Houston Astrodome, where thousands had been bused after Katrina, former first lady Barbara Bush told a radio show that people seemed better off there than in New Orleans. “So many of the people in the arena here, you know, were underprivileged anyway,” she said.

The city is indeed growing at a rapid clip, making its way up the lists featured in business magazines and newspaper travel sections of the top ten places to live or work or fall in love. New Orleans, despite the tens of thousands still missing from it, is “back.” And now, with the benefit of hindsight, despite all that went wrong, and all those the recovery failed, its leaders are confirming that, yes, just like David Brooks said, Katrina was truly a blessing in disguise. This ignorance of the lives of others is what allows gentrification to happen. Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts points out in her book Harlem Is Nowhere that whenever a neighborhood gentrifies, you hear white people and the media using phrases such as “People are starting to move to that neighborhood,” or “No one used to go there, but that’s changing.” The implication is that before these places gentrified, no one lived there, or at least no one of importance.


pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Conversely an overreliance on just one of the triumvirate—a narrow Head utilitarianism devoid of Heart—is one of the abiding weaknesses of modern liberal politics. Politics is an argument about what we value, and public life, just like private lives, can get things out of balance. In recent decades public life has been too dominated by a cognitive class that has been trained to value the cognitively complex and quantifiable, and too often this has led to a narrow rationalism and economism. David Brooks, the New York Times columnist, reports that, according to Google, over the last thirty years there has been a sharp increase in the use of economic words and a decline in the use of moral words: “gratitude” down 49 percent, “humility” down 52 percent, and “kindness” down 56 percent.1 In the summer of 2019, I heard David Miliband, the former British foreign secretary, talking about Brexit, and when asked whether Labour in power (1997–2010) might have contributed to the alienation expressed in that vote, all he could talk about was economic growth and issues of inequality—nothing about identity or immigration, nothing about national sovereignty, nothing about the rapid change that makes many people feel that the past was better than the present.

Chapter Two: The Rise of the Cognitive Class 1 Kirby Swales, “Understanding the Leave Vote,” NatCen, December 2016, http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/understanding-the-leave-vote/. 2 OECD Family Database, http://www.oecd.org/social/family/database.htm. 3 “Populations Past—Atlas of Victorian and Edwardian Population,” University of Cambridge, updated May 29, 2018, https://www.populationspast.org/about/. 4 David Brooks, “The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake,” Atlantic (March 2020). 5 Guy Routh, Occupations of the People of Great Britain 1801–1981 (London: Macmillan, 1987); French Occupational Census of 1911, Monthly Review of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 5, no.1 (July 1917); US Census Bureau, Part II: Comparative Occupation Statistics, 1870–1030: A Comparable Series of Statistics Presenting a Distribution of the Nation’s Labor Force, by Occupation, Sex, and Age; “Employment by occupation—ILO modelled estimates,” International Labor Organization, November 2018. 6 Geoffrey Millerson, The Qualifying Associations: A Study in Professionalism (London: Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1964). 7 Alison Wolf, Does Education Matter?

Pew Global Research Center, April 25, 2018. 6 David Voas and Steve Bruce, Religion, British Social Attitudes 36, Natcen, 2019, https://www.bsa.natcen.ac.uk/media/39293/1_bsa36_religion.pdf. 7 “Being Christian in Western Europe,” Pew Global Research Center, May 29, 2018. 8 Yuval Noah Harari, “Why Technology Favors Tyranny,” Atlantic, October 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/10/yuval-noah-harari-technology-tyranny/568330/. 9 Sir Angus Deaton, “Why Is Democratic Capitalism Failing So Many? And What Should We Do About It?” Keynote Address, Tri-Nuffield Conference, May 16, 2019, https://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/news/why-is-democratic-capitalism-failing-so-many-sir-angus-deatons-keynote-lecture-to-the-tri-nuffield-conference. 10 Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (London: Penguin, 2005). 11 David Brooks, “The Nuclear Family Was a Mistake,” Atlantic, March 2020. 12 Ibid. 13 Harry Benson, Family Stability Improves as Divorce Rates Fall (Marriage Foundation, January 2019) 14 Why Family Matters, Centre for Social Justice, March 2019, 5. 15 Health Survey for England 2016: Well-Being and Mental Health, ONS/NHS Digital, December 13, 2017. 16 Antidepressants Were the Area with Largest Increase in Prescription Items in 2016, NHS Digital, June 29, 2017. 17 Mental Health Bulletin 2017–18 Annual Report, NHS Digital, November 29, 2018. 18 NatCen, University of Leicester, Department of Health, Mental Health and Wellbeing in England: Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2014, NHS Digital, September 2016. 19 Edmund S.


pages: 83 words: 26,097

Payoff: The Hidden Logic That Shapes Our Motivations by Dan Ariely

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, IKEA effect, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, science of happiness, Snapchat, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Dan Ariely’s TED Talks, available online: www.TED.com Meet the authors, watch videos and more: SimonandSchuster.com authors.simonandschuster.com/Dan-Ariely WATCH DAN ARIELY’S TED TALKS Dan Ariely’s TED Talks, available for free at TED.com, are the companion to Payoff. PHOTO: BRET HARTMAN/TED RELATED TALKS ON TED.COM Barry Schwartz The way we think about work is broken What makes work satisfying? Apart from a paycheck, there are intangible values that, Barry Schwartz suggests, our current way of thinking about work simply ignores. It’s time to stop thinking of workers as cogs on a wheel. David Brooks The social animal Columnist David Brooks unpacks new insights into human nature from the cognitive sciences—insights with massive implications for economics and politics as well as our own self-knowledge. In a talk full of humor, he shows how you can’t hope to understand humans as separate individuals making choices based on their conscious awareness. Dan Pink The puzzle of motivation Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don’t: Traditional rewards aren’t always as effective as we think.


pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

They called for regime change not only in the case of "rogue" states like Iraq, North Korea, and Iran, but also for China, which in the period before September 11 constituted their central opponent in the international system. The Kristol-Kagan agenda was driven by a belief that this kind of activist foreign policy was in the best interests of the United States. But it was also driven by a less obvious political calculation. During the Clinton years, when the United States did not seem to be facing any serious external threats, David Brooks, then an editor at the Weekly Standard, began advocating pursuit of a policy of "national greatness," taking the administration of Theodore Roosevelt as a model. 25 National greatness was seen as an antidote to the small- or anti-government liber-tarianism of one important wing of the Republican Party, the wing that had been isolationist up through the Second World War and might turn in that direction again.

Walter Russell Mead, "The Jacksonian Tradition and American Foreign Policy," National Interest 58 (1999): 5-29. Chapter 2: The Neoconservative Legacy 1. Elizabeth Drew, quoted in Joshua Muravchik, "The Neoconservative Cabal," and Howard Dean, quoted in Adam Wolfson, "Conservatives and Neoconservatives," in Irwin Stelzer, ed., The Neocon Reader (New York: Grove Press, 2005), 243, 216; Mary Wakefield, The Daily Telegraph, Jan. 9, 2004. 2. See David Brooks, "The Neocon Cabal and Other Fantasies," and Max Boot, "Myths About Neoconservatism," in Stelzer, Neocon Reader. Notes to Pages 14-20 3. See Irving Kristol, Reflections of a Neoconservative: Looking Back, Looking Ahead (New York: Basic, 1983); Kristol, Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea (New York: Free Press, 1995); and Norman Podhoretz, "Neoconservatism: A Eulogy," in Norman Podhoretz, The Norman Podhoretz Reader (New York: Free Press, 2004). 4.

See Robert Kagan, "America's Crisis of Legitimacy," Foreign Affairs 83, no. 2 (2004): 65-87, and the subsequent debate between him and Robert W Tucker and David C. Hendrickson; Tucker and Hendrick-son, "The Sources of American Legitimacy," Foreign Affairs 83, no. 6 (2004); and Kagan, "A Matter of Record," Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (2005); Kristol and Kagan, Present Dangers, 16-17. Notes to Pages 42-52 25. David Brooks, "A Return to National Greatness," Weekly Standard, Mar. 3, 1997. 26. On neoconservative issues see Francis Fukuyama, "The National Prospect Symposium Contribution," Commentary 100, no. 5 (1995): 55-56. On economics see, for example, Daniel Bell, The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism (New York: Basic, 1976), and Irving Kristol, Two Cheers for Capitalism (New York: Basic, 1978). That neoconservative treatments of economics tended toward orthodoxy was not universally true; for an interesting critique of neoclassical economics from a Straussian point of view, see Steven E.


pages: 291 words: 88,879

Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone by Eric Klinenberg

big-box store, carbon footprint, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Women’s Voices, Women Vote/Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research, “Unmarried Women Change America,” November 2008. 8. See Women’s Voices, Women Vote, “Unmarried Women in the Electorate: Behind the Numbers.” 9. Packaged Facts, “Singles in the U.S.,” p. 16. 10. Euromonitor International, “Single Living.” 11. See David Brooks, “The Sandra Bullock Trade,” New York Times, March 29, 2010. The response on DePaulo’s Psychology Today blog, Living Single, appeared later the same day. See “David Brooks + Sandra Bullock = Matrimonia” at www.psychologytoday.com/blog/living-single/201003/david-brooks-sandra-bullock-matrimania. 12. Available at http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/3/836.short. Chapter 6: Aging Alone 1. See the U.S. Administration on Aging report, “A Profile of Older Americans 2009,” at www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/2009/6.aspx; the European Commission report, “Independent Living for the Ageing Society,” at http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/policy_link/brochures/documents/independent_living.pdf; and the Japan Times report at http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20100514x2.html; on China, see Xin Meng and Chuliang Luo, “What Determines Living Arrangements of the Elderly in Urban China,” 2004, http://people.anu.edu.au/xin.meng/living-arrange.pdf; on South Korea, see Young Jin Park, “The Rise of One-Person Householders and their Recent Characteristics in Korea,” Korea Journal of Population and Development 23 (1994), no. 1: 117–29. 2.

When a politician makes a baseless claim about the hazards of living alone or the benefits of marriage, it’s only a matter of hours before she’s posted a refutation on her blog for Psychology Today. When a scholar or serious journalist does it, she sharpens her razors and attacks. A few days before our conversation, DePaulo took umbrage with a New York Times op-ed about Sandra Bullock’s post-Oscar marital humiliation in which David Brooks mentions a study that claims (in his words) that “being married produces a psychic gain equivalent to more than $100,000 a year.” This infuriated DePaulo, and she immediately fired off a response: “Studies that compare the currently married to everyone else (which is the vast majority of marital status studies) can tell us nothing about the implications of getting married for happiness, health, or anything else.


pages: 476 words: 125,219

Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy by Robert W. McChesney

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, death of newspapers, declining real wages, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of journalism, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, informal economy, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the medium is the message, The Spirit Level, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, yellow journalism

In 2012, The Economist forecast a wave of corporate mergers and increasing consolidation of monopoly market power.50 There are few reasons to think that is a positive development for democratic governance.51 The ideology of any social order eventually accepts and trumpets the existing system; the prevalence of monopoly is no longer possible to ignore, so it is celebrated by the troubadours of the status quo. “The future of the country,” David Brooks concluded in 2012, “will probably be determined by how well Americans can succeed at being monopolists.”52 “Don’t you see?” former U.S. Treasury secretary Robert Rubin answered when asked if the big banks, the most controversial of modern megacorporations, should be broken up. “Too big to fail isn’t a problem with the system. It is the system.”53 Advertising There is one important development for media, communication, and the Internet that is triggered to a significant extent by the growth of monopoly in the economy: advertising.

., working-class young people—could secure full-time employment, and wages are stagnant or falling, with a massive oversupply of labor for available jobs.10 A group of eighteen leading global environmental scientists came together in 2012 to report that humanity faces an “absolutely unprecedented emergency,” and societies have “no choice but to take dramatic action to avert a collapse of civilization.” In effect, the report rejected really existing capitalism in toto and called for a complete redesign of the economic system.11 Many of those in power or sympathetic to those in power understand that a crisis is at hand and new policies are necessary, as the status quo is unsustainable. David Brooks calls for a “structural revolution,” while Edward Luce thoughtfully chronicles a nation in sharp decline, where the system is not working.12 But there is little indication that those in power, unwilling to question the foundations of capitalism, have any idea how to return it to a state of strong growth and rising incomes, let alone address the environmental crisis that envelops the planet. Luce ends despondently, and if one is wedded to really existing capitalism, it is logical that one would tend toward depression, hopelessness, and depoliticization.

Today’s giant corporations pursue two interrelated goals—maximum sales revenue and maximum profitability, which converge over the long run because larger market share provides the basis for higher monopoly profits, and higher profits are used to expand market share. See Peter Kenyon, “Pricing,” in Alfred S. Eichner, ed., A Guide to Post–Keynesian Economics (White Plains, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1979), 37–38. 49. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). 50. “Surf’s Up,” The Economist, May 19, 2012, 83. 51. Luigi Zingales makes this point well. See Zingales, Capitalism for the People, 8–39. 52. David Brooks, “The Creative Monopoly,” New York Times, Apr. 24, 2012, A23. 53. David Rothkopf, Power, Inc.: The Epic Rivalry Between Big Business and Government—and the Reckoning That Lies Ahead (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2012), p. 266. 54. See Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy, “Some Theoretical Implications,” Monthly Review, July–Aug. 2012, 40–41. This is a formerly unpublished essay that had been intended for their 1966 book, Monopoly Capital (Monthly Review Press), but was left out because Paul Baran died before they finished it. 55.


pages: 304 words: 96,930

Starbucked: A Double Tall Tale of Caffeine, Commerce, and Culture by Taylor Clark

Berlin Wall, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deskilling, Edmond Halley, fear of failure, Honoré de Balzac, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, McJob, McMansion, Naomi Klein, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route

In many cities, the only businesses that could legitimately claim to be community gathering places were bars, most of which were smoky, sleazy, and too loud for conversation. Plus, only goods that enhance productivity could curry favor under the new social regime; alcohol and tobacco were increasingly being seen as health-wrecking evils. “Smoking is now considered a worse sin than at least five of the ten commandments,” the New York Times columnist David Brooks explains in his book Bobos in Paradise. “Coffee becomes the beverage of the age because it stimulates mental acuity, while booze is out of favor because it dulls the judgment.” The coffee-house offered an antidote to these social deficiencies: a place to just hang out. As a comfortable and safe community nexus, free of drunks and secondhand smoke, the café eased the problem of disconnection while offering an item that people could come in for every day; it became America’s version of the British pub.

If this happened to the once-mighty Marlboro, the same fate could befall Coke, Nabisco, Levi’s, or any other name brand. (Those companies’ stock prices did indeed dive, along with many others.) Terrified executives saw that they had a simple choice: convince consumers that your brand stands for Something Important — and thus that buying your merchandise is not just crass materialism, but something closer to an artistic statement — or fall into a price-cutting bloodbath with the generics. As David Brooks, the New York Times columnist, once explained it, “The people who thrive in this period are the ones who can turn ideas and emotions into products.” In so many words, Brooks just put Starbucks’s astoundingly successful marketing apparatus in a nutshell. Through unwavering repetition of a basic theme — Starbucks coffee equals romance, relaxation, and luxury — the company made itself synonymous with those concepts, transforming a cheaply produced, age-old commodity into a “sophisticated coffee indulgence.”

My discussion of recent U.S. social trends and the changing American consumer owes much to Michael Silverstein and Neil Fiske, Trading Up: The New American Luxury (New York: Portfolio, 2003); John de Graaf, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005); Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); Juliet B. Schor, The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need (New York: HarperPerennial, 1998); and Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (New York: Marlowe, 1999). Page 75. The Staffan Linder information comes from de Graaf, Wann, and Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic.


pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

In each of these decisions, big and small, they strive to feel informed and legitimate in their belief that they have made the right and reasonable decision based on facts (whether regarding the merit of organic food, breast-feeding, or electric cars). In short, unlike Veblen’s leisure class or David Brooks’s “bobos,” this new elite is not defined by economics. Rather, the aspirational class is formed through a collective consciousness upheld by specific values and acquired knowledge and the rarified social and cultural processes necessary to acquire them. In Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks chronicled the cognitive dissonance of “bobos” (bohemian bourgeois) who grew up in the counterculture 1960s and felt a deep discomfort around their adulthood wealth. This group is also an economically based elite, or what Brooks called “the new upper class.”

Consider that even the wealthiest aspirational class kitchens often decorate with copper pots, rustic Stickley dining tables, and Aga-like stoves that resemble the stoves used in the kitchen of Downton Abbey, rather than the upstairs formal baroque style of English aristocrats. Casualness in all facets of life has become a part of aspirational class habitus. In this respect, the aesthetics of the aspirational class are in line with those of bobos. As David Brooks writes in his book Bobos in Paradise, “Educated elites are expected to spend huge amounts of money on things that used to be cheap … We prefer to buy the same items as the proletariat—it’s just that we buy rarefied versions of these items that members of the working class would consider preposterous. So we will buy chicken legs, just like everyone else, but they’ll likely be free-range … we’ll buy potatoes, but we won’t buy an Idaho spud.

We remain very productive, and this quality defines the aspirational class and how its members got there. But the outward status markers of such productive success lie in accompanying lifestyle and consumption choices.60 Bell’s great contribution in this respect is that society has culturally shifted so that anti-bourgeois lifestyles (even bohemian) have become a signifier of higher economic status. Or as David Brooks remarks, bobos make every effort to turn consumer choices into sacred and moral decisions (water purifiers, private meditation classes, lactation consultants, and slate Zen bathrooms). These choices that seem to be instinctual or a return to a more natural way of living are actually a product of how capital allows us freedom to be this way. “Mindfulness” may seem like a virtuous return to the pre-digital age and suggest anti-capitalist sensibilities, but it takes time and money to learn and practice meditation.


pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

Many new suburbs became political entities during the initial postwar period. Smaller suburban governments allowed households to cluster together in relatively homogeneous political jurisdictions. Racial, ethnic, and class concentrations existed before drivable sub-urbanism appeared on the scene, but not to the extent possible in the late twentieth century, as codified by political boundaries. As David Brooks said in his book, On Paradise Drive, “We all loudly declare our commitment to diversity, but in real life, we make strenuous efforts to find and fit in with people who make us feel comfortable.”10 This seems to work particularly well when political boundaries can be imposed to maintain homogeneity. The jurisdictions in the favored quarter, predominantly including upper- and upper-middle-class households, were better able to maintain excellent schools and keep crime low, increasing the quality of life while enhancing the value of the voters’ largest asset, their houses.

Metropolitan areas were expanding geometrically as farms were converted into subdivisions named after what they replaced—Whispering Woods, Bubbling Brook, Woodmont. Yet a countertrend had certainly started with downtowns reviving and transitand nontransit-served suburban town centers taking off with new development, revitalization, and excitement. Many contemporary observers of the built environment, such as Joel Kotkin, Robert Bruegmann, and David Brooks, feel the rediscovery of walkable urbanisn is at best a small niche, at worst a Yuppie fad that will soon fade. Kotkin disdainfully referred to downtown revitalization as a “Potemkin strategy” producing a “boutique city” for the “so-called creative class.” These critics generally feel that drivable sub-urban development is the continuation of thousands of years of sprawl. Mankind has always wanted more space, they say, and had a desire to be away from other humans, and the car was just the next step in that millennia-old progression.

Homophily in race and ethnicity creates the strongest divides in our personal environments, with age, religion, education, occupation, and gender following in roughly that order. Geographic propinquity, families, organizations, and isomorphic positions in social systems all create contexts in which homophilous relations form.” Miller McPherson, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook, “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks,” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (August 2001): 415–444. 10. David Brooks, On Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (and Always Have) in the Future Tense (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 69. 11. Myron Orfield, Metropolitics: A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press; Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1997). 12. This was in spite of a Presidential Executive Order by Carter, which was later reissued by Clinton, that encouraged agencies to locate downtown.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

“Supply Chain Scenario Modeler: A Holistic Executive Decision Support Solution,” Interfaces (a journal published by INFORMS, a professional society for operations research and management sciences) 44, no. 1 (February 2014): 85–104. In Atlanta: Information for the Emory University Hospital comes mainly from Dr. Timothy Buchman, and interviews with him on Sept. 1 and Oct. 9, 2013. David Brooks, my colleague: David Brooks column, “The Philosophy of Data,” New York Times, Feb. 5, 2013, p. A23. Ninety percent of all of the data: The estimate comes from IBM Research. http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/infographic/storwize-data.html. In 2014, International Data Corporation estimated: This is from yearly report on data conducted by the research firm IDC, and sponsored by the data storage company, EMC. http://www.emc.com/about/news/press/2014/20140409-01.htm.

Indeed, the long view of the technology is that it will become a layer of data-driven artificial intelligence that resides on top of both the digital and the physical realms. Today, we’re seeing the early steps toward that vision. Big-data technology is ushering in a revolution in measurement that promises to be the basis for the next wave of efficiency and innovation across the economy. But more than technology is at work here. Big data is also the vehicle for a point of view, or philosophy, about how decisions will be—and perhaps should be—made in the future. David Brooks, my colleague at the New York Times, has referred to this rising mind-set as “data-ism”—a term I’ve adopted as well because it suggests the breadth of the phenomenon. The tools of innovation matter, as we’ve often seen in the past, not only for economic growth but because they can reshape how we see the world and make decisions about it A bundle of technologies fly under the banner of big data.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

As we have already seen, it was involved in founding Peers through its executive Douglas Atkin. Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers’ What’s Mine Is Yours1 was an important book for the Sharing Economy, setting out a vision that has helped to define the movement. The book opens with the story of Airbnb’s beginnings, and Botsman also looks to Airbnb to set the tone for her TED talk on sharing. When leading public commentators like New York Times columnists David Brooks and Thomas Friedman write about the Sharing Economy, they look to Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky. And Chesky speaks out about the values of sharing; in March 2014 he wrote a photo-heavy manifesto-like short essay called “Shared City,” which started like this: Imagine if you could build a city that is shared. Where people become micro-entrepreneurs, and local mom and pops flourish once again. Imagine a city that fosters community, where space isn’t wasted, but shared with others.

New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman lauds “Airbnb’s real innovation—a platform of ‘trust’—where everyone could not only see everyone else’s identity but also rate them as good, bad or indifferent hosts or guests. This meant everyone using the system would pretty quickly develop a relevant ‘reputation’ visible to everyone else in the system.” 2 Friedman was writing just a couple of weeks after his New York Times stablemate David Brooks described “How Airbnb and Lyft Finally Got Americans to Trust Each Other”: “Companies like Airbnb establish trust through ratings mechanisms . . . People in the Airbnb economy don’t have the option of trusting each other on the basis of institutional affiliations, so they do it on the basis of online signaling and peer evaluations.” 3 Sharing Economy companies are not the first to use ratings and algorithms to guide behavior.

Re/code, May 31, 2014. http://recode.net/2014/05/31/tech-titans-on-income-inequality-and-their-stingy-stingy-industry/. Bradshaw, Tim. “Lunch with the FT: Brian Chesky,” December 26, 2014. http://www .ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/fd685212-8768-11e4-bc7c-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition =intl#axzz3UxDunrnM. Brooks, David. “The Evolution of Trust.” The New York Times, June 30, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/01/opinion/david-brooks-the-evolution-of-trust .html. Bruce, Chris. “Uber Miami Accused of Coaching Drivers to Circumvent Airport Laws.” Autoblog, November 14, 2014. http://www.autoblog.com/2014/11/14/uber-coaching-airport-drivers-violate-rules/. Bulajewski, Mike. “The Cult of Sharing,” August 5, 2014. http://www.mrteacup.org/post/the-cult-of-sharing.html. Burkhardt, Paul, and Chris Waring. “An NSA Big Graph Experiment,” May 20, 2013. http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/SDI/2013/slides/big_graph_nsa_rd_2013_56002v1 .pdf.


pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, business cycle, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

While the counterculture of the '60s had targeted consumerism and capitalism in its quest to liberate America's soul, it was not long before many in the counterculture discovered that capitalism could be a potent ally in creating alternate realities within American life. The New Age movement that began in the 1970s exemplified the merging of market and countercultural values. It was a movement, in fact, that drew much of its strength from an aggressive, proselytizing merchant class. Many other Americans with countercultural sympathies also decided that making money was what could really set them free to realize their individualism. As David Brooks has recounted in Bobos in Paradise, the '60s ultimately paved the way for a permanent cease-fire in the long war between bohemian and bourgeois value systems.14 The "yuppie" phenomenon underscored how easily '60s individualism morphed into '80s materialism. The yuppie officially appeared in March 1983, discovered by Chicago Tribune columnist Bob Greene in an article about Jerry Rubin, the former yippie turned Wall Street networker.

"Work in the past 20 years has grown more insecure," conclude Neil Fligstein and Taek-Jin Shin, two scholars who examined trends between 1976 and 2000. "Job tenure is down for everyone and the possibility that workers will have to take temporary work or work involuntarily has risen.... The changes in the security of work were mirrored by changes in benefits and health and safety at work. Over time, health and pension benefits decreased for all workers."5 None of this means that Americans are ready for a socialist revolution. As David Brooks and a thousand other social critics have pointed out, Americans vote their dreams, not their realities. The middle class and the working class consistently elect politicians who actively work against their economic interests. Perhaps at no time in American history is this more true than today.6 The psychological fallout from people's economic struggles has been significant. People worry intensely about their finances, especially the heavy debt burdens that they often carry.7 Many people are also less happy.

See their discussion of individualism in Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin, The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2002), 93–117. [back] 13. Christopher Lasch, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979). For an overview of the rise of the Christian right, see Steve Bruce, The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right: Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978–1988 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). [back] 14. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000). [back] 15. Poll cited in Hendrik Hertzberg, "The Short Happy Life of the American Yuppie," in Nicolaus Mills, ed., Culture in an Age of Money: The Legacy of the 1980s in America (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1990), 71. [back] 16. Ibid., 82. [back] 17. The survey data in this area across different polls paints a somewhat murky picture.


pages: 343 words: 102,846

Trees on Mars: Our Obsession With the Future by Hal Niedzviecki

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, business intelligence, Colonization of Mars, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Zinn, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, working poor

National Security, according to MIT Report,” April 27, 2015, http://www.salon.com/2015/04/27/lack_of_science_funding_is_seriously_threatening_u_s_na-tional_security_according_to_mit_report/. 20. David Edgerton, The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900 (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 118. 21. Ibid., 169. 22. Ibid. 23. David Brooks, “Goodbye, Organization Man,” The New York Times, September 15, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/16/opinion/david-brooks-goodbye-organization-man.html. 24. Coll, “Citizen Bezos.” 25. “Google Lunar XPRIZE,” Google Lunar XPRIZE, accessed April 16, 2015, http://lunar.xprize.org/. 26. NASA is building the Orion spacecraft which is designed for “deep space destinations such as an asteroid and eventually Mars.” Mark Garcia, “Orion,” Text, NASA, (July 8, 2013), http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/orion/index.html. 27.

Future lay on all our shoulders and was the responsibility of the nation and its institutions. Progress was to still to be found in the collective exercise of the commons, in the decisions of the government as representative of the people’s will. Then the shift: what was once seen as a collective enterprise for the betterment of humanity became something individuals could and should seek to own and control. “A few generations ago,” notes David Brooks in a New York Times column, “people grew up in and were comfortable with big organizations—the army, corporations and agencies. . . . Now nobody wants to be an Organization Man. We like start-ups, disrupters and rebels . . . people assume that big problems can be solved by swarms of small, loosely networked nonprofits and social entrepreneurs.”23 As just one example of this general shift, today we have a whole new conception of space travel.

Jake New, “Incoming Students’ ‘Emotional Health’ at All-Time Low, Survey Says,” Inside Higher Ed, February 5, 2015, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/02/05/incoming-students-emotional-health-all-time-low-survey-says. 5. Walter Hamilton, “Employers Have Negative View of Gen Y Workers, Study Finds,” Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2013, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-mo-employers-negative-gen-y-millennials-20130903-story.html. 6. David Brooks, “The Streamlined Life,” The New York Times, May 5, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/06/opinion/brooks-the-streamlined-life.html. 7. “Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults,” NIMH, accessed April 24, 2015, http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/any-anxiety-disorder-among-adults.shtml. 8. Marcia Angell, “The Epidemic of Mental Illness: Why?,” The New York Review of Books, June 23, 2011, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/jun/23/epidemic-mental-illness-why/. 9.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

Though shopping may bring home the value-corroding material culture against which cultural conservatives rant, these same conservatives remain as wedded to consumerism as liberal secularists and thus remain largely incapable of attacking its foundations in corporate culture. This may explain how President Bush was able to win the vote of Christian conservatives in the 2004 election without surrendering his support (tax breaks and deregulation) for the market firms whose profitability depends on a materialist consumerism that necessarily undermines conservative values. In this spirit, conservative pop-cultural commentator David Brooks has found a way to sacralize shopping, becoming a champion of shopping as a vocation imbued “with sacred intent.” In a witty but at least half-serious tribute to the “transcendent significance” of spending in the modern marketplace, Brooks portrays the way in which spiritual desire becomes physical desire in what he calls a literal “transubstantiation of goods.”10 Thomas Frank skewers this very same ambivalence in his What’s the Matter with Kansas, where he asserts that the right fails to discern “the connection between mass culture, most of which conservatives hate, and laissez-faire capitalism, which they adore without reservation.”

But Weber’s alternative prophecy about modern capitalism as likely to grow into “mechanized petrification, embellished with a sort of convulsive self-importance” seems more accurate.23 Weber’s shortcoming was that he failed to foresee (or thought it presumptuous and unscientific to pretend to be able to foresee) that modern capitalism, in its “convulsive self-importance,” although it initially allowed itself to be stripped of its religious and ethical importance, would in time generate a new ethos. This ethos would be made up in equal parts of an ethic of infantilized consumers and a theology of infantilized true believers. We need only revisit the rash of television entrepreneurs and business-school gurus over the last decade or two to find a tribe of preachers who, far from abandoning the language of ethics, imitate George Gilder and David Brooks and reinvent it. They draw absurdist parodies of self-rationalizing solipsism and turn them into a new capitalist ethic. Ayn Rand’s great libertarian egoist Howard Roark, who in The Fountainhead famously declared “I came here today to say that I do not recognize anyone’s right to one minute of my life…that I am a man who does not exist for others,”24 is a rather mild solipsist compared with the moralizing egotists of the new capitalism.

These identities cross national and ethnic boundaries and so are potentially to be found in Jakarta, Java, and Johannesburg no less than in Munich, Milan, and Muncie. Yuppies are the young urban professionals who gave foreign cars, fancy restaurants, and urban homesteading their cachet. Soccer moms presumably describe multitasking suburban women trying to “do it all” in a society that permits them to be professionals as long as they remain moms, housekeepers, and (most essentially) shoppers. And bobos, the coinage of journalist David Brooks (self-described as a “comic sociologist, but now an editorial page columnist for the New York Times”), fastens onto the “bourgeois bohemians” who manage to blend the hippie counterculture of the 1960s with the hardworking, meritocratic mainstream culture of the 1990s. Bobos are found in all developed commercial societies, from London’s Sloane Square to Paris’s rive gauche American-style malls, mimicking the great Mall of America in the Twin Cities suburb of Bloomington, Minnesota.


pages: 280 words: 75,820

Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

Open tournament despite a severe, painful knee injury, the golfer Tiger Woods’s imperturbable top-down focus on his game brought him near godlike status in our increasingly distractible culture. (According to his father, by the age of six months, little Tiger could settle into his bouncy-chair and focus on watching golf for two hours.) Even the New York Times’s psychologically savvy political columnist David Brooks took a break from election-year commentary to enthuse about the hero’s mental energy: “In a period that has brought us instant messaging, multitasking, wireless distractions and attention deficit disorder, Woods has become the exemplar of mental discipline.” Like all great athletes, he has superb physical skills, but as Brooks points out, “It is his ability to enter the cocoon of concentration that is written about and admired most.”

Boston: Beacon Press, 2006. p.12. The rates of psychological problems: Peter Suedfeld, “Stressful levels of environmental stimulation,” in I. G. Sarason and C. D. Spielberger (eds.), Stress and Anxiety, Halstead, 1979. CHAPTER 1: PAY ATTENTION p.17. Many extraordinary achievers are fueled: David Lykken, “Mental Energy.” Intelligence 33, 2005. p.18. Even the New York Times’s psychologically savvy: David Brooks, “The Neural Buddhists.” New York Times, July 13, 2008. p.19. An amusing experiment on “change blindness”: Daniel J. Simons and Christopher F. Chabris, “Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events.” Perception 28, 1999. p.20. A little knowledge about this neurological “biased competition”: Robert Desimone and John Duncan, “Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention.”

Augustine, Saint awareness Bach, Johann Sebastian ballet Bardeen, John Bartók, Béla bathrooms Beatles beauty bias Beck, Aaron behavioral change behavioral economics behavioral research behavioral therapy Be Here Now (Alpert) Behrmann, Marlene Bell, Joshua Beowulf Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo Bhagavan Das biased competition Bible Big Sort, The (Bishop and Cushing) bird-watching birthdays Bishop, Bill BlackBerries blacks Blake, William body image Bonanno, George bonding boredom Born Fighting (Webb) bottom-up attention magicians and negative emotion and pros and cons of bounded rationality Bradbury, Thomas Bradley, Charles Brahms, Johannes brain ADHD and amygdala of cerebellum of cortex of creativity and Davidson’s views on hemispheric neglect and hippocampus of insula of left hemisphere of LSD and motivation and multitasking and neuroplasticity of Norman’s conceptual model of older vs. younger parietal and frontal cortexes of paying attention and Posner’s model of attentional system of prefrontal cortex of right hemisphere of time-traveling capacity of visual cortex of Brain Fitness program “Break-Up” (radio show episode) Brim, Gilbert Brooks, David Brooks, Rodney Brown, Bill Browning, Elizabeth Barrett brownout Brown University Bryant, Fred Buckley, William F., Jr. Buddha Buddhism bulimics bull’s-eye mode of paying attention Burke, Edmund Burke, Renny Burke, Tracey cafeteria line workers California, well-being in California Milk Processor Board cancer Capote, Truman cardiovascular disease careers, choice of cars Carstensen, Laura Castellanos, Javier cell phones CEOs change blindness character moments Chartrand, Tanya Chicago, University of childbirth children ADHD in, see ADHD attention drugs and creativity and depressed electronic communications gap of executive attention of neurophysiological differences in personality tests for productivity and quality and quantity of family time of socialization and language learning in China, Chinese motivation of Chouinard, Yvon Clement VIII, Pope Clinton, Bill “cocktail party effect” coffee Cog (robot) cognition consciousness and see also thought cognitive appraisal of emotions cognitive illusions cognitive therapy colleges admissions process at selection of Collins, Phil compassion computers attentional training and concentration creativity and interference with machines and Ritalin and time and top-down attention and work and Concerta consciousness cosmic health and consumer goods Consumer Reports contamination, fear of context, Asian focus on control relationships and conversation dinnertime e-mail or voice mail vs.


Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The journalist Mason Currey, who spent half a decade cataloging the habits of famous thinkers and writers (and from whom I learned the previous two examples), summarized this tendency toward systematization as follows: There is a popular notion that artists work from inspiration—that there is some strike or bolt or bubbling up of creative mojo from who knows where… but I hope [my work] makes clear that waiting for inspiration to strike is a terrible, terrible plan. In fact, perhaps the single best piece of advice I can offer to anyone trying to do creative work is to ignore inspiration. In a New York Times column on the topic, David Brooks summarizes this reality more bluntly: “[Great creative minds] think like artists but work like accountants.” This strategy suggests the following: To make the most out of your deep work sessions, build rituals of the same level of strictness and idiosyncrasy as the important thinkers mentioned previously. There’s a good reason for this mimicry. Great minds like Caro and Darwin didn’t deploy rituals to be weird; they did so because success in their work depended on their ability to go deep, again and again—there’s no way to win a Pulitzer Prize or conceive a grand theory without pushing your brain to its limit.

For an individual focused on deep work, the implication is that you should identify a small number of ambitious outcomes to pursue with your deep work hours. The general exhortation to “spend more time working deeply” doesn’t spark a lot of enthusiasm. To instead have a specific goal that would return tangible and substantial professional benefits will generate a steadier stream of enthusiasm. In a 2014 column titled “The Art of Focus,” David Brooks endorsed this approach of letting ambitious goals drive focused behavior, explaining: “If you want to win the war for attention, don’t try to say ‘no’ to the trivial distractions you find on the information smorgasbord; try to say ‘yes’ to the subject that arouses a terrifying longing, and let the terrifying longing crowd out everything else.” For example, when I first began experimenting with 4DX, I set the specific important goal of publishing five high-quality peer-reviewed papers in the upcoming academic year.

“There is a popular notion that artists”: from the following Slate.com article: Currey, Mason. “Daily Rituals.” Slate, May 16, 2013. http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/features/2013/daily_rituals/john_updike_william_faulkner_chuck_close_they_didn_t_wait_for_inspiration.html. “[Great creative minds] think like artists”: from Brooks, David. “The Good Order.” New York Times, September 25, 2014, op-ed. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/26/opinion/david-brooks-routine-creativity-and-president-obamas-un-speech.html?_r=1. “It is only ideas gained from walking that have any worth”: This Nietzsche quote was brought to my attention by the excellent book on walking and philosophy: Gros, Frédérick. A Philosophy of Walking. Trans. John Howe. New York: Verso Books, 2014. Make Grand Gestures “As I was finishing Deathly Hallows there came a day”: from the transcript of Rowling’s 2010 interview with Oprah Winfrey on Harry Potter’s Page: http://www.harrypotterspage.com/2010/10/03/transcript-of-oprah-interview-with-j-k-rowling/.


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, American ideology, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

Despite the elite’s fixation on entrepreneurship and knowledge workers, America is powered by wage-earners who punch the clock, wear uniforms, and don’t remotely have any power to “lean in” to climb the corporate ladder. For decades now we’ve been sold the idea that a growing army of knowledge workers, innovating and ideating in amenity-rich office parks, hold the key to our nation’s prosperity. Column after column written by the likes of Thomas Friedman and David Brooks argue that the future success of our economy rests on cultivating skills such as creative problem-solving and critical thinking, with a special affinity for fields in science, technology, and engineering. What they fail to acknowledge is that those spots in our labor force are minuscule compared to the scads of new jobs being created in home health care, fast food, and retail. This elite blind spot continues to distort our economic thinking and denigrates the majority of work being done in our country.

In Coming Apart, Murray bemoans a white working class that has seemingly lost the hunger to work and is now engaging in all manner of activities similar to those of the “black underclass”: illegitimacy, crime, and drug use. Political scientist Robert Putnam also explored the disparities in familial upbringing between college-educated and non-college-educated households in his most recent book, Our Kids. While Putnam’s book lacks the judgmental bromides of Murray’s, it nonetheless paints a picture of a working class that is mired in drug abuse, teen pregnancy, abusive marriages, and absent parents. David Brooks, the moralizing columnist at the New York Times, devoted one of his columns to the lessons we must take from Putnam’s book. Writing in his typical condescending manner, he asserted, “It’s not only money and better policy that are missing in these circles; it’s norms. The health of society is primarily determined by the habits and virtues of its citizens. In many parts of America there are no minimally agreed upon standards for what it means to be a father.

Matt Bruenig, “The Poverty Capitalism Creates,” Policy Shop Blog, Demos, May 1, 2015, at http://www.​demos.​org/​blog/​5/​1/​15/​poverty-​capitalism-​creates. 18. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action,” Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor, March 1965, at http://www.​dol.​gov/​oasam/​programs/​history/​webid-​meynihan.​htm. 19. Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Revisiting the Moynihan Report, cont.,” The Atlantic, June 18, 2013. 20. David Brooks, “The Cost of Relativism,” New York Times, March 10, 2015. 21. Bryce Covert and Josh Israel, “What 7 States Discovered After Spending More than $1 Million Drug-Testing Welfare Recipients,” Center for American Progress Action Fund, February 26, 2015, at http://think​progress.​org/​economy/​2015/​02/​26/​3624447/​tanf-​drug-​testing-​states/; Jason Stein, “Scott Walker’s Light-on-Details Drug-Testing Plan a Hit on the Stump,” Milwaukee-Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, March 17, 2015, at http://www.​jsonline.​com/​news/​statepolitics/​scott-​walkers-​light-​on-​details-​drug-​testing-​plan-​a-​hit-​on-​the-​stump-​b99461974z1-​296580231.​html. 22.


pages: 281 words: 79,464

Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion by Paul Bloom

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Columbine, David Brooks, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Ferguson, Missouri, impulse control, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Paul Erdős, period drama, Peter Singer: altruism, publication bias, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

Banaji and Anthony G. Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People (New York: Delacorte Press, 2013). 229 John Macnamara pointed out John Theodore Macnamara, A Border Dispute: The Place of Logic in Psychology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986). 231 “are obsessed with intelligence” Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (Penguin Books, 2003), 149. As David Brooks writes David Brooks, The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (New York: Random House, 2012), xi. Malcolm Gladwell . . . argues Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers (Boston: Little, Brown, 2008), 76. 232 IQ is critically important For a good review of the state of the art here, see David Z. Hambrick and Christopher Chabris, “Yes, IQ Really Matters,” Slate, April 14, 2014, http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/04/what_do_sat_and_iq_tests_measure_gen eral_intelligence_predicts_school_and.html. 233 professional moral philosophers Eric Schwitzgebel and Joshua Rust, “The Moral Behavior of Ethics Professors: Relationships Among Self-Reported Behavior, Expressed Normative Attitude, and Directly Observed Behavior,” Philosophical Psychology 27 (2014): 293–327. 234 Walter Mischel investigated For a review, see Walter Mischel, The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-Control (Boston: Little, Brown, 2014).

Some fields are deeply invested in the concept of genius, revering those special individuals like Albert Einstein and Paul Erdős who are of such great intelligence that everything comes easy to them. But when it comes to intelligence, there is a law of diminishing returns. The difference between an IQ of 120 and an IQ of 100 (average) is going to be more important than the difference between 140 and 120. And once you pass a certain minimum, other capacities might be more important than intelligence. As David Brooks writes, social psychology “reminds us of the relative importance of emotion over pure reason, social connections over individual choice, character over IQ.” Malcolm Gladwell, for his part, argues for the irrelevance of a high IQ. “If I had magical powers,” he says, “and offered to raise your IQ by 30 points, you’d say yes—right?” But then he goes on to say that you shouldn’t bother, because after you pass a certain basic threshold, IQ really doesn’t make any difference.


pages: 308 words: 84,713

The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr

Airbnb, Airbus A320, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, Bernard Ziegler, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, computerized trading, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, turn-by-turn navigation, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Langewiesche

As a team of Cornell University researchers put it in a 2008 paper, “With the GPS you no longer need to know where you are and where your destination is, attend to physical landmarks along the way, or get assistance from other people in the car and outside of it.” The automation of wayfinding serves to “inhibit the process of experiencing the physical world by navigation through it.” 4 As is so often the case with gadgets and services that ease our way through life, we’ve celebrated the arrival of inexpensive GPS units. The New York Times writer David Brooks spoke for many when, in a 2007 op-ed titled “The Outsourced Brain,” he raved about the navigation system installed in his new car: “I quickly established a romantic attachment to my GPS. I found comfort in her tranquil and slightly Anglophilic voice. I felt warm and safe following her thin blue line.” His “GPS goddess” had “liberated” him from the age-old “drudgery” of navigation. And yet, he grudgingly confessed, the emancipation delivered by his in-dash muse came at a cost: “After a few weeks, it occurred to me that I could no longer get anywhere without her.

We may grimace when we hear people talk of “finding themselves,” but the figure of speech, however vain and shopworn, acknowledges our deeply held sense that who we are is tangled up in where we are. We can’t extract the self from its surroundings, at least not without leaving something important behind. A GPS device, by allowing us to get from point A to point B with the least possible effort and nuisance, can make our lives easier, perhaps imbuing us, as David Brooks suggests, with a numb sort of bliss. But what it steals from us, when we turn to it too often, is the joy and satisfaction of apprehending the world around us—and of making that world a part of us. Tim Ingold, an anthropologist at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, draws a distinction between two very different modes of travel: wayfaring and transport. Wayfaring, he explains, is “our most fundamental way of being in the world.”

Chapter Six: WORLD AND SCREEN 1.William Edward Parry, Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific (London: John Murray, 1824), 277. 2.Claudio Aporta and Eric Higgs, “Satellite Culture: Global Positioning Systems, Inuit Wayfinding, and the Need for a New Account of Technology,” Current Anthropology 46, no. 5 (2005): 729–753. 3.Interview of Claudio Aporta by author, January 25, 2012. 4.Gilly Leshed et al., “In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM, 2008), 1675–1684. 5.David Brooks, “The Outsourced Brain,” New York Times, October 26, 2007. 6.Julia Frankenstein et al., “Is the Map in Our Head Oriented North?,” Psychological Science 23, no. 2 (2012): 120–125. 7.Julia Frankenstein, “Is GPS All in Our Heads?,” New York Times, February 2, 2012. 8.Gary E. Burnett and Kate Lee, “The Effect of Vehicle Navigation Systems on the Formation of Cognitive Maps,” in Geoffrey Underwood, ed., Traffic and Transport Psychology: Theory and Application (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005), 407–418. 9.Elliot P.


pages: 424 words: 119,679

It's Better Than It Looks: Reasons for Optimism in an Age of Fear by Gregg Easterbrook

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, coronavirus, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Chicago School, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Chapter 8 Former Colorado senator Gary Hart noted of negativism in American annals: James Fallows, “How America Can Rise Again,” The Atlantic, January 2010. The Atlantic’s 1994 cover story: Robert D. Kaplan, “The Coming Anarchy,” The Atlantic, February 1994. In 2012, Barack Obama’s National Intelligence Council produced a report declaring: “Global Trends 2030” (Washington, DC: National Intelligence Council, 2012). David Brooks wrote in 2017: David Brooks, “The Crisis of Western Civ,” New York Times, April 21, 2017. The demographics of the United States and European Union are shifting: “Structure and Aging” (Brussels: European Commission, 2016). refusal to admit Jewish refugees until late in World War II: Recounted in Winik, 1944. George Will’s memorable phrase: George Will, “Colleges Become the Victims of Progressivism,” Washington Post, June 6, 2014.

(China’s economy does rival America’s on purchasing power parity, a measure different from GDP.) And if you want to mess with America’s military in 2030, be my guest. Intellectuals embrace declinism because other views are looked down upon as Pangloss or Pollyanna. In contemporary US academia, the idea that the United States has been a net positive for humanity is close to a forbidden thought. David Brooks wrote in 2017, “Starting decades ago, many people, especially in the universities, lost faith in the Western-civ narrative. Now students are taught that Western civilization is a history of reactionary oppression.” American history is indeed full of acts of violence against minorities. But had Western civilization never occurred, the academics who now condemn it would not have comfortable positions at universities.

But as time passes, in the main the human condition improves—and this can be expected to continue. History has an arrow, and the arrow of history points forever upward. Acknowledgments For the realization of this volume, thanks are due to my friends, colleagues, and editors: Ben Adams, Jon Alter, Maya Aubrey, James Bennet, Sandra Beris, Jenny Blake, Lyndsey Blessing, Frank Bowman, David Bradley, David Brooks, Glenn Brooks, Carol Browner, Cindy Buck, Robin Campbell, Michael Carlisle, Stephen Carter, Diane Chandler, Katharine DeShaw, Eric Dezenhall, Martha Drullard, Thomas Dunne, Darcy Eveleigh, James Fallows, Henry Ferris, Franklin Foer, Lindsay Fradkoff, Timothy Fuller, Paul Glastris, Donald Graham, David Gray, Tedd Habberfield, Carla Hall, Laura Hall, Toby Harshaw, Stephen Hayes, Marjorie Hazen, David Hendrickson, Alexis Hurley, Debbie Ida, Walter Isaacson, Bob Jaffe, Martin Janik, Jan Jones, Jonathan Karp, Bob Kerrey, Michael Kinsley, Arkadiy Klebaner, Barbara Klie, Charles Lane, Jaime Leifer, Nicholas Lemann, David Leonhardt, Toby Lester, Jan Lewis, Thomas Lindblade, Ben Loehnen, James Mallon, Jane Mayer, Deborah McGill, Robert Messenger, John Milner, Toni Monkovic, Rosh Moorjani, Michael Mungiello, Cullen Murphy, Timothy Noah, Joe Nocera, Lynn Olson, Steve Olson, Peter Osnos, Sue Parilla, Don Peck, Beth Peters, Charles Peters, Clive Priddle, Melissa Raymond, Diane Rehm, William Reilly, Clay Risen, Janet Robinson, Tina Rosenberg, Claudia Russell, Isabel Sawhill, Aaron Schatz, Greg Shaw, Eric Schmidt, Hannah Schwartz, Charles Sciandra, Greg Shaw, John Skipper, Anne Stadler, Janet St.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

No longer do you need to work the channels of an existing bureaucracy, or go door to door for signatures; you can build the infrastructure required to promote a cause without much effort at all—even if it vanishes a second later or fails to achieve its goals.24 We’ve been empowered in nearly every aspect of our lives to move past many of the burdens that once prevented us from pursuing our personal interests and concerns. Americans of all stripes have been given the license to abandon the relationships that don’t interest them for those that do; we’ve been given the opportunity to pick and choose the relationships we most want to maintain. And that brings us to the most significant evidence of the Chinatown Bus effect: the transformation of the local neighborhood. In September 2003, New York Times columnist David Brooks published a long piece in The Atlantic magazine exploring an odd disconnect between what Americans said and how they actually behaved. Brooks had noticed that while we paid lip service to the benefits of diversity, Americans were often choosing to make “strenuous efforts to group themselves with people who [were] basically like themselves.” In theory we were drawn to the idea of mixing with other people—but when push came to shove, we frequently demurred.

One recent study has found that nearly a fifth of those who use social networks like Facebook have blocked, “unfriended,” or hidden a contact based on a political disagreement.27 It wasn’t just, as Eli Pariser articulated, that corporations were manipulating what comes up in our news feeds and ad spaces. Empowered with the opportunity to connect with people who reflect our values and outlook, we’ve become more microscopically homogenous amid a sea of diversity. In the mid-1990s, well before David Brooks had begun to note how neighborhoods were becoming monolithic and Bill Bishop had revealed the full extent of the Big Sort, a longtime editor of Governing magazine, Alan Ehrenhalt, published a book on an underappreciated shift in ordinary American life. Tracing changes in three separate neighborhoods of Chicago—one settled predominantly by working-class whites, another situated in the heart of the South Side, and a third in the more affluent suburbs—he noted one crucial similarity.

Even in the depths of the Civil War, President Lincoln committed the federal government to establish both an intercontinental railroad and a national network of land-grant colleges. Amid dilapidated infrastructure and woefully deficient test scores, adherents of this view argue today for a broad new wave of public investment. Unfortunately, members of these two schools all too frequently fall victim to what New York Times columnist David Brooks has termed “the No. 1 political fantasy in America today, which . . . is the fantasy that the other party will not exist. It is the fantasy that you are about win a 1932-style victory that will render your opponents powerless.”14 Even for those not squarely in one camp or the other—those who see merit in proposals made on both sides of the aisle—the temptation is to blame the persistent and self-defeating inability of the nation’s leaders to compromise.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, global pandemic, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

National Trust for Historic Preservation, “HOPE Crew—Hands-On Preservation Experience: Engaging a New Generation of Preservationists,” https://savingplaces.org/hope-crew/#.VjLRoLerTIU. 13. Yale Books Unbound, “Robots in Our Midst: A Conversation with Jerry Kaplan,” Yale University Press blog, July 29, 2015, http://blog.yupnet.org/2015/07/29/robots-in-our-midst-a-conversation-with-jerry-kaplan/. 14. David Brooks, “The Working Nation,” New York Times, October 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/opinion/david-brooks-the-working-nation.html?_r=1. 15. Edward Moore Geist, “Is Artificial Intelligence Really an Existential Threat to Humanity?,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July 30, 2015, http://thebulletin.org/artificial-intelligence-really-existential-threat-humanity8577. 16. Colin Marrs, “Artificial Intelligence Services,” PublicTechnology.net, February 18, 2015, https://www.publictechnology.net/articles/features/artificial-intelligence-services.

University of London professor Guy Standing, who coined the term “precariat” to describe a working class increasingly stressed by precarious work arrangements, says that, even more important than a redistribution of wealth, guarantees of basic income would constitute a “redistribution of security.” Opponents of the idea are much more inclined to think humans are naturally lazy, and that if given the opportunity to do nothing for their income, will do exactly that. While such critics are legion, we would put, for example, New York Times columnist David Brooks in this camp. Brooks has said that, as part of a job creation agenda, the government should “reduce its generosity to people who are not working but increase its support for people who are.”14 To find out who is right, the city of Utrecht, Netherlands, in partnership with researchers from the University of Utrecht, has taken the portion of its residents who are already on welfare, and who are currently obliged to fulfill certain requirements to keep receiving it, and divided them into three groups.


pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, post-work, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, white picket fence, women in the workforce, young professional

During the same period, meanwhile: More than two million people are now employed in education and health services, up from less than 1.5 million in January 2000, according to seasonally adjusted data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In 1967, 97 percent of American men: Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney, “The Problem with Men: A Look at Long-Term Employment Trends,” Brookings Institution, December 3, 2010. http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2010/1203_jobs_greenstone_looney.aspx. New York Times columnist David Brooks: David Brooks, “The Missing Fifth,” The New York Times, May 9, 2011. In 1950, roughly one in twenty men: According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, the employment-population ratio for men between twenty-five and fifty-four was 95.3 percent in 1950 and 81.4 percent in 2011. When asked by The New York Times: Andrew Goldman, “Larry Summers, Un-king of Kumbaya,” The New York Times Magazine, May 12, 2011.

There were good industrial jobs, so you could have a good industrial, blue-collar career. Now those jobs are gone.” Lately economists have begun to focus on this lack of wage opportunities for men as “the single most destructive social force of our era,” says Michael Greenstone, an MIT economist and former chief economist on the White House Council of Economic Advisers for President Barack Obama. New York Times columnist David Brooks memorably defined this problem as “the missing fifth,” referring to the percentage of men—most of them without a college diploma—who are not getting up and going to work. In 1950, roughly one in twenty men of prime working age was not working; today that ratio is about one in five, the highest ever recorded. When asked by The New York Times what keeps him up at night, Larry Summers, Obama’s chief economic adviser, zeroed in on the same phenomenon.


pages: 182 words: 55,234

Rendezvous With Oblivion: Reports From a Sinking Society by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, edge city, Frank Gehry, high net worth, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

The attempted coup at the University of Virginia in 2012 gave us a glimpse of how this conflict can play out. The university’s president at the time was a sociologist, a traditional academic; the university’s Board of Visitors was dominated by wealthy figures from finance and real estate who wanted (of course) to dump the classics department and who thought the university needed to get with the online thing toot sweet because David Brooks had said it was a good idea in his New York Times column. When the board members forced the president to resign, they cloaked the putsch in a stinky fog of management bullshit. At first, the only explanation available for the ouster came in a leaked email from a super-wealthy trustee of the business school—Mr. Jefferson’s university suffered from a troubling paucity of “strategic dynamism,” he moaned.

Yet another commonplace had been magnificently reaffirmed—and this time it was the emptiest D.C. cliché of all. “It’s compromise,” is how Goodwin summarized the film’s message for an interviewer. And the commentariat chimed in unison: Yes! We have learned from this movie, they sang, that politicians must Make Deals. That one must Give Something to Get Something. The film was a study in the “nobility of politics,” declared David Brooks in the New York Times; it teaches that elected officials can do great things, but only if they “are willing to bamboozle, trim, compromise and be slippery and hypocritical.” Michael Gerson of the Washington Post suggested that members of Congress be made to watch the thing in order to acquire “a greater appreciation for flexibility and compromise.”1 According to Al Hunt of Bloomberg News, the film shows our greatest president “doing what politicians are supposed to do, and today too often avoid: compromising, calculating, horse trading, dealing and preventing the perfect from becoming the enemy of a good objective.”


pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, digital map, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

A humble approach to our technologies helps us strive to understand these human-made, messy constructions, yet still yield to our limits. And this humble approach to technology fits quite nicely with biological thinking. While at every moment an incremental approach to knowledge provides additional understanding of a system, this iterative process will always feel incomplete. And that’s okay. New York Times columnist David Brooks has noted, “Wisdom starts with epistemological modesty.” Humility, alongside an interest in the details of complex systems, can do what both fear and worship cannot: help us peer and poke around the backs of our systems, even if we never look them in the face with complete understanding. In many instances, an incomplete muddle of understanding may be the best that we can do. But it’s far better than nothing.

video game designer and writer Ian Bogost: Ian Bogost, “The Cathedral of Computation,” The Atlantic, January 15, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/. a perfect and immaculate process: This is discussed further in Bogost, “Cathedral of Computation.” the “humble programmer”: Edsger Dijkstra, “The Humble Programmer.” Communications of the ACM 15, no. 10 (1972): 859–66. “Wisdom starts with epistemological modesty”: David Brooks, The Road to Character (New York: Random House, 2015), 263. nevertheless see a “glorious mess”: Carl Zimmer, “Is Most of Our DNA Garbage?” The New York Times Magazine, March 5, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/magazine/is-most-of-our-dna-garbage.html. The book includes maxims: These examples are all from Appendix I of John Gall, The Systems Bible: The Beginner’s Guide to Systems Large and Small, 3rd ed.


pages: 176 words: 55,819

The Start-Up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career by Reid Hoffman, Ben Casnocha

Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, late fees, lateral thinking, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs

An alliance is always an exchange, but not a transactional one. A transactional relationship is when your accountant files your tax returns and in exchange you pay him for his time. An alliance is when a coworker needs last-minute help on Sunday night preparing for a Monday morning presentation, and even though you’re busy, you agree to go over to his house and help. These “volleys of communication and cooperation” build trust. Trust, writes David Brooks, is “habitual reciprocity that becomes coated by emotion. It grows when two people … slowly learn they can rely upon each other. Soon members of a trusting relationship become willing to not only cooperate with each other but sacrifice for each other.”9 You cooperate and sacrifice because you want to help a friend in need but also because you figure you’ll be able to call on him in the future when you are the one in a bind.

Neil Rackham and John Carlisle, “The Effective Negotiator, Part I: The Behaviour of Successful Negotiators,” Journal of European Industrial Training 2, no. 6 (1978): 6–11, doi:10.1108/eb002297 8. Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels, The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). 9. David Brooks, The Social Animal (New York: Random House, 2011), 155. 10. How is he defining weak tie? In the study, he uses frequency of contact as a proxy for how strong the relationship is. This is an imperfect measure: you may see your secretary or the doorman every day, but that does not make him a strong tie. Granovetter acknowledged that measuring the strength of a relationship is a broader “combination of the amount of time, emotional intensity, the intimacy (mutual confiding), and the reciprocal services which characterize the tie.”


pages: 416 words: 106,582

This Will Make You Smarter: 150 New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking by John Brockman

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Satyajit Das, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, twin studies, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

This Will Make You Smarter New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking Edited by John Brockman Foreword by David Brooks Contents David Brooks: Foreword John Brockman: Preface: The Edge Question Martin Rees “Deep Time” and the Far Future Far more time lies ahead than has elapsed up until now. Marcelo Gleiser We Are Unique Modern science, traditionally considered guilty of reducing our existence to a pointless accident in an indifferent universe, is actually saying the opposite. P.Z. Myers The Mediocrity Principle Everything that you as a human being consider cosmically important is an accident. Sean Carroll The Pointless Universe Looking at the universe through our anthropocentric eyes, we can’t help but view things in terms of causes, purposes, and natural ways of being.

Ernst Pöppel A Cognitive Toolkit Full of Garbage Because we are a victim of our biological past, and as a consequence a victim of ourselves, we end up with shabby SHAs, having left behind reality. Acknowledgments Index About the Author Books by John Brockman Credits Copyright About the Publisher Footnotes Foreword David Brooks Columnist, New York Times; author, The Social Animal Every era has its intellectual hotspots. We think of the Bloomsbury Group in London during the early twentieth century. We think of the New York intellectuals who wrote for little magazines like Partisan Review in the 1950s. The most influential thinkers in our own era live at the nexus of the cognitive sciences, evolutionary psychology, and information technology.


pages: 229 words: 61,482

The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the Life You Want by Diane Mulcahy

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, deliberate practice, diversification, diversified portfolio, fear of failure, financial independence, future of work, gig economy, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mass immigration, mental accounting, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, passive income, Paul Graham, remote working, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, wage slave, Y Combinator, Zipcar

STEP 2: THE DASH EXERCISE This is a twist on the obituary exercise based on the poem “The Dash” by Linda Ellis.9 The title refers to the dash between the date that you’re born and the date that you die. “For it matters not, how much we own, the cars . . . the house . . . the cash. What matters is how we live and love and how we spend our dash.” Take the challenge of the poem to consider: How do I want to spend my dash? STEP 3: THE VIRTUES EXERCISE David Brooks, in his New York Times article “The Moral Bucket List,” notes that American society spends more time teaching and rewarding us to develop our resume virtues than our eulogy virtues.10 “The resume virtues are the skills you bring to the marketplace. The eulogy virtues are the ones that are talked about at your funeral—whether you were kind, brave, honest or faithful. Were you capable of deep love?”

Ware, Bronnie, “Regrets of the Dying,” Bronnie Ware, November 19, 2009. www.mindful.org/no-regrets/ 8. Savage, Roz, Rowing the Atlantic: Lessons Learned on the Open Ocean (New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2010). 9. Ellis, Linda, “The Dash,” Linda Ellis, 1996. www.linda-ellis.com/the-dash-the-dash-poem-by-linda-ellis-.html 10. Brooks, David, “The Moral Bucket List,” The New York Times, April 11, 2015. www.nytimes.com/2015/04/12/opinion/sunday/david-brooks-the-moral-bucket-list.html 11. Shell, Richard, G., Springboard: Launching Your Personal Search for Success, Penguin Group, August 15, 2013. 12. Gilbert, Daniel Todd, Stumbling on Happiness (New York: A.A. Knopf, 2006). 13. Christakis, Nicholas A., and James H. Fowler, Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives (New York: Little, Brown, 2011). 14. Groth, Aimee, “You’re the Average of the Five People You Spend the Most Time With,” Business Insider, July 24, 2012. www.businessinsider.com/jim-rohn-youre-the-average-of-the-five-people-you-spend-the-most-time-with-2012-7 15.


pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

House majority leader Eric Cantor, who had maneuvered into becoming the point man for the Republican Right and/or who was irked at being cut out of the secret Obama-Boehner talks, had torpedoed the deal. He told Boehner that House Republicans would not accept any tax increases and that Boehner had to back out of talks with Obama. Boehner bowed to that dictum and rejoined the Republican chorus against any tax increase. Republican-friendly columnist David Brooks exploded in exasperation at the adamant refusal of the Tea Party–dominated Republicans to accept what he saw as Obama’s lopsided concessions. In a New York Times column headlined “The Mother of All No-Brainers,” Brooks wrote: “A normal Republican Party would seize the opportunity to put a long-term limit on the growth of government,” but not a Republican Party in the grip of the Tea Party Right.

Seeing no realistic prospect for change, Snowe said bluntly: “I am not prepared to commit myself to an additional six years in the Senate.” Some mainstream Republican senators such as Orrin Hatch of Utah and Richard Lugar of Indiana, like GOP presidential candidates playing to the hard-core Right in the primaries, swerved to adopt hard right positions in their reelection campaigns to ward off Tea Party purging. Hatch survived the initial Tea Party purge, but Lugar was knocked off. Conservative columnist David Brooks likened Republican primaries to “heresy trials” imposing ideological purity, and he sharply chided Hatch and Lugar for bowing to these pressures. “It’s not honorable to kowtow to the extremes so you can preserve your political career,” Brooks commented. “Of course, this is exactly what has been happening in the Republican Party for the past half century. Over the decades, one pattern has been constant: [Right] Wingers fight to take over the party, mainstream Republicans bob and weave to keep their seats.

Realpolitik,” The New York Times, July 11, 2011; “Boehner Says Obama ‘Not Serious’ About Deficit,” CBS News, Face the Nation, May 15, 2011; Kane, “President, Speaker Motivated by ‘Big Deal.’ ” Matt Bai, “The Game Is Called Chicken,” The New York Times Magazine, April 1, 2012. 70 The risk was Kane, “President, Speaker Motivated by ‘Big Deal.’ ” 71 Boehner had to back out Ibid.; David A. Fahrenthold and Paul Kane, “Eric Cantor Emerges a Key Player in Debt Negotiations,” The Washington Post, July 11, 2011. 72 “The Mother of All No-Brainers” David Brooks, “The Mother of All No-Brainers,” The New York Times, July 5, 2011. 73 In this final push, their grand bargain Bai, “The Game Is Called Chicken,” and Peter Wallstein, Lori Montgomery, and Scott Wilson, “He Promised Change in Washington. Then the Debt Deal Collapsed. So Obama Changed Course,” The Washington Post, March 18, 2012. 74 Lowest level in sixty years Senator Daniel K. Inouye, “Domestic Discretionary Spending Flat Since 2001; Not Responsible for Growing Debt,” press release, Senate Committee on Appropriations, June 30, 2011, http://​appropriations.​senate.​gov. 75 Third lowest overall tax rates “U.S.


pages: 233 words: 64,479

The Big Shift: Navigating the New Stage Beyond Midlife by Marc Freedman

airport security, Berlin Wall, David Brooks, follow your passion, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, McMansion, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, transcontinental railway, working poor, working-age population

Today, it is time to take on the social construction project that is the Encore Stage of life, to finish the story of longer life courses, to change the shape of lives from one tailored for a century past to one designed for the years ahead. It is a time to create the “Indian summer” G. Stanley Hall articulated, in place of the long, gray winter so widely assumed today. THE GENERATIVITY REVOLUTION Of all the benefits to be realized through creating a new stage, the biggest prize of all may be a cultural transformation to accompany the talent revolution described above. We could produce what columnist David Brooks calls a Generativity Revolution. Many are concerned today, across the political spectrum, that we are disregarding our future, leaving matters worse for coming generations environmentally, educationally, financially, and in myriad other ways. Bill Clinton made this observation in 2010, contending that we need to once again become a “tomorrow society,” to get back into “the future business.” There is growing worry that we have lost that powerful instinct as a nation, that we have gotten off track, that we face a new kind of deficit, a posterity deficit.

Time, February 29, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171, 1718568,00.html. 41 The writer, Christopher Noxon: Christopher Noxon, Rejuvenile: Kickball, Cartoons, Cupcakes, and the Reinvention of the American Grown-Up (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006). 42 two New York Times columns: Nicholas D. Kristof, “Geezers Doing Good,” New York Times, July 20, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/20/opinion/20kristof.html; David Brooks, “The Geezers’ Crusade,” New York Times, February 1, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/02/opinion/02brooks.html. 43 The late Daniel Boorstin: Betty Friedan, The Fountain of Age (New York: Touchstone, 1993). 47 pick up a copy of the January–February 2010 issue: Jack A. Goldstone, “The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World,” Foreign Affairs, January–February 2010. 48 Economist Laurence Kotlikoff, in his book: Laurence J.


pages: 234 words: 68,798

The Science of Storytelling: Why Stories Make Us Human, and How to Tell Them Better by Will Storr

David Brooks, Gordon Gekko, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Wall-E

Researchers recently tested this idea that clichéd metaphors: Louder than Words, Benjamin K. Bergen (Basic, 2012) p. 206. 1.8 In a classic 1932 experiment, the psychologist Frederic Bartlett: Subliminal, Leonard Mlodinow (Penguin, 2012), p. 68. Estimates vary, but it’s believed the brain processes around 11 million bits: Strangers to Ourselves, Timothy D. Wilson, (Belknap Harvard, 2002), p.24. no more than forty: The Social Animal, David Brooks (Short Books, 2011) p. x. the ‘Cosmic Hunt’ myth: ‘The Evolution of Myths’, Julien d’Huy, Scientific American, December 2016. BANANAS. VOMIT: Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman (Penguin, 2011) p. 50. the early twentieth century by the Soviet filmmakers: Film Technique and Film Acting, Vsevolod Pudovkin (Grove Press, 1954) p. 140. According to some accounts, the third shot was actually an attractive woman reclining on a chaise longue, with the audience projecting lust into the actor.

A similar personality gap is found for neuroticism: Comments from Dr Stuart Ritchie. 2.2 ‘Zaha Hadid’, Lynn Barber, Observer, 9 March 2008. ‘Human personalities are rather like fractals,’: Personality, Daniel Nettle (Oxford University Press, 2009) p. 7. People make ‘identity claims’: Snoop, Sam Gosling (Basic Books, 2008) pp. 12–19. The psychologist Professor Sam Gosling advises: Snoop, Sam Gosling (Basic Books, 2008) p. 19. 2.4 Between the ages of zero and two: The Social Animal, David Brooks (Short Books, 2011) p. 47. It’s the main reason we have such greatly extended childhoods: The Self Illusion, Bruce Hood (Constable and Robinson, 2011) p. 22. Play, including storytelling, is typically overseen: Brain and Culture, Bruce Wexler (MIT Press, 2008) p. 134. See also: C. M. Walker & T. Lombrozo, ‘Explaining the moral of the story’, Cognition, 2017, 167, 266–281. One study into the backgrounds of sociopathic: ‘A History of Children’s Play and Play Environments’, Joe L.


pages: 288 words: 64,771

The Captured Economy: How the Powerful Enrich Themselves, Slow Down Growth, and Increase Inequality by Brink Lindsey

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Build a better mousetrap, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, invisible hand, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, software patent, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Washington Consensus, white picket fence, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

The financial industry regularly claims that thousands of high-paying jobs would be threatened by regulation, which could send trading to other, less-regulated countries. Supporters of intellectual property argue that software and entertainment are important exports, and American jobs depend on protecting them from uncompensated use. An especially vivid example of the value of reputation is seen in a column by David Brooks, which cites the following examples of American greatness: “The Food and Drug Administration is the benchmark for medical standards. The American patent system is the most important in the world.”25 The widespread belief that these forms of industry protection are the jewel in the crown of the American economy, rather than an illegitimate profit grab, is an enormous source of social power, and one that means that those industries need to rely far less on more visible, brute-force sources of influence.

The City of New London and the Limits of Eminent Domain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015). 14.The general phenomenon of the erosion of public interest legislation is discussed in Eric Patashnik, Reforms at Risk (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008). 15.Arthur Wilmarth, “Turning a Blind Eye: Why Washington Keeps Giving In to Wall Street,” University of Cincinnati Law Review 81, no. 4 (2013): 1283-1446. 16.Richard Hall and Alan Deardorff, “Lobbying as Legislative Subsidy,” American Political Science Review 100, no. 1 (February 2006): 69–84; Richard Hall and Frank Wayman, “Buying Time: Moneyed Interests and the Mobilization of Bias,” American Political Science Review 84, no. 3 (September 1990): 797–820. 17.Cass Sunstein, Simpler: The Future of Government (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013), p. 175. 18.Lee Drutman, The Business of America Is Lobbying (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015). 19.Douglas Arnold, The Logic of Congressional Action (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992). 20.Baumgartner and Jones, The Politics of Information (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), ch. 4. 21.Baumgartner and Jones, Agendas and Instability. 22.Charles Geisst, Wall Street: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). 23.James Kwak, “Cultural Capital and the Financial Crisis,” in Preventing Regulatory Capture: Special Interest Influence and How to Limit It, ed. Dan Carpenter and David Moss (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). 24.Anthony Heyes, “Expert Advice and Regulatory Complexity,” Journal of Regulatory Economics 24, no. 2 (September 2003): 119–33, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1024 714610368. 25.David Brooks, “Is Our Country as Good as Our Athletes Are?” New York Times, August 19, 2016. 26.William New, “Confidential USTR Emails Show Close Industry Involvement in TPP Negotiations,” Intellectual Property Watch, May 6, 2015, http://www.ip-watch.org/2015/06/05/confidential-ustr-emails-show-close-industry-involvement-in-tpp-negotiations/. 27.Charles Lindblom, “The Market as Prison,” Journal of Politics 44, no. 2 (May 1982): 324–36 28.James Gimpel and Frances Lee, “The Check Is in the Mail: Interdistrict Funding Flows in Congressional Elections,” American Journal of Political Science 52, no. 2 (April 2008): 373–94. 29.Eleanor Powell, “Legislative Consequences of Fundraising Influence,” http://www.eleanorneffpowell.com/uploads/8/3/9/3/8393347/powell__2015__-_legislative_consequences_of_fundraising_influence.pdf. 30.Adam Bonica, “Professional Networks, Early Fundraising, and Electoral Success,” Scholars Strategy Network Paper, http://www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org/sites/default/files/bonica_professional_networks_early_fundraising_and_electoral_success.pdf. 31.Edward Glaeser, “Preservation Follies,” City Journal, Spring 2010, http://www.city-journal.org/html/preservation-follies-13279.html. 32.Tim Lee, “How a Rogue Appeals Court Wrecked the Patent System,” Ars Technica, September 30, 2012, http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2012/09/how-a-rogue-appeals-court-wrecked-the-patent-system/. 33.Steven Teles, “Kludgeocracy in America,” National Affairs 17 (Fall 2013): 97–114. 34.United States Department of the Treasury, Distribution Tables 2016 005b.


pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

This would suggest that Zuckerberg and his wife are not techno-determinists, as Page and Thiel are, and that they are making a commitment to democracy and all the messiness it implies. Democracy thrives because of competing voices in politics as well as in the media. If Facebook becomes my primary source of news, with the ability to filter what I see, then the civic square will no longer exist. If I “unfriend” Fox News and conservative commentator David Brooks in order for my worldview to be continually affirmed, then a principal aspect of our democracy—the need to remain informed—will die. The 2016 presidential campaign brought Facebook’s political power into focus. The New York Times columnist Farhad Manjoo wrote, “Among techies, there is now widespread concern that Facebook and Twitter have hastened the decline of journalism and the irrelevance of facts.

But within weeks the incredible amount of racist tweets directed at our president became too painful to look at. The anonymity that Twitter provides is a shield that brings out the worst in humans. Plato (Republic 2.359a–2.360d) told a tale of the Ring of Gyges: when put on, it would render the wearer invisible. He asked the question: If we were shielded from the consequences of our actions, how would that change the way we act? We know the answer. As David Brooks says, we have created a “coliseum culture” in which a celebrity gets thrown to the lions on a weekly basis. Punishing strangers ought to be a risky endeavor. They can strike back and therefore threaten our long-term survival. Evolution, as Darwin pictured it, favors narrow self-interest. But the anonymity of the Internet shields the person who punishes the stranger. But also rewards us for exaggerating how we feel—the more outrageous tweet gets noticed.


pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

“I can’t bear to think about the conflagrations to come,” he wrote.4 In that same edition of the Times, Roger Cohen concluded that “the world as we knew it is no more,” even as he reassured himself that the United States was “not Weimar Germany.”5 Yet. On the following day, it was Charles Blow’s turn. “Trump represents a clear and very present danger,” he asserted, while demanding that he be “placed under unrelenting pressure.… That begins today.”6 On November 11, David Brooks recounted the reaction of his family and friends to Trump’s election. “This is victory for white supremacy,” they told him, “for misogyny, nativism and authoritarianism. Fascism is descending.” Brooks would by no means be the last columnist to bring the f-word into the conversation. Yet he consoled himself with the thought that “the guy will probably resign or be impeached within a year.”7 On that same page, Paul Krugman predicted, “A Trump administration will do immense damage to America and the world.”

Maureen Dowd, “Absorbing the Impossible,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 3. Gail Collins, “Ten-Step Program for Adjusting to President-Elect Trump,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 4. Frank Bruni, “Trump’s Shocking Success,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 5. Roger Cohen, “President Donald Trump,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 6. Charles M. Blow, “America Elects a Bigot,” New York Times (November 10, 2016). 7. David Brooks, “The View from Trump Tower,” New York Times (November 11, 2016). 8. Paul Krugman, “Thoughts for the Horrified,” New York Times (November 11, 2016). 9. Ross Douthat, “You Must Serve Trump,” New York Times (November 11, 2016). 10. Charles Blow’s columns for the New York Times are archived at https://www.nytimes.com/column/charles-m-blow, accessed September 12, 2018. 11. Carl Bernstein, “Trump Presidency Is Worse Than Watergate,” RealClear Politics (August 3, 2018). 12.


pages: 202 words: 64,725

Designing Your Life: How to Build a Well-Lived, Joyful Life by Bill Burnett, Dave Evans

David Brooks, fear of failure, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, market design, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social intelligence, Steve Jobs

Klemmer, “Parallel Prototyping Leads to Better Design Results, More Divergence, and Increased Self-Efficacy,” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions 17, no. 4 (Dec. 2010). 2. In addition to Homer and the Greeks, we borrowed the term “odyssey years” from David Brooks, the noted New York Times columnist. In his October 9, 2007, column, Brooks was describing the new realities of twenty-two-to-thirty-five-year-old Americans when he said, “With a little imagination it’s possible even for baby boomers to understand what it’s like to be in the middle of the odyssey years [italics added]. It’s possible to see that this period of improvisation is a sensible response to modern conditions.” David Brooks, “The Odyssey Years,” The Opinion Pages, New York Times, October 9, 2007, http://​www.​nytimes.​com/2007/​10/​09/​opinion/​09brooks.​html?_r=0. Chapter 7 How Not to Get a Job 1.


Bulletproof Problem Solving by Charles Conn, Robert McLean

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, future of work, Hyperloop, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, iterative process, loss aversion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, nudge unit, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, pets.com, prediction markets, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, stem cell, the rule of 72, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, time value of money, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, WikiLeaks

The intersection of nonroutine tasks and cognitive ability is the heartland of complex problem solving. The authors of a recent McKinsey Quarterly article made the point that “more and more positions require employees with deeper expertise, more independent judgment, and better problem solving skills.”4  We are already seeing that many organizations place a premium on analytic skills and problem solving and make it the essential criterion to be hired. Commentator David Brooks of the New York Times takes this conclusion even further when he says, “It doesn't matter if you are working in the cafeteria or the inspection line of a plant, companies will only hire people who can see problems and organize responses.”5 Education Gaps If creative problem solving is the critical twenty‐first century skill, what are schools and universities doing to develop these skills in students?

This quote from Nobel Laureate Herb Simon captures much of what we set out to do in the book: “Solving a problem simply means representing it so as to make the solution transparent.”11 Notes 1  Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan, Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done (Random House, 2008). 2  Josh Sullivan and Angela Zutavern, The Mathematical Corporation: Where Machine Intelligence and Human Ingenuity Achieve the Impossible (Public Affairs, 2017). 3  Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (World Economic Forum, 2016). 4  Boris Ewenstein, Bryan Hancock, and Asmus Komm, “Ahead of the Curve: The Future of Performance Management,” McKinsey Quarterly, May 2016. 5  David Brooks, “Everyone a Changemaker,” New York Times, February 18, 2018. 6  Beno Csapo and Joachim Funke (eds.), The Nature of Problem Solving: Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning. (OECD Publishing, 2017). 7  Douglas Belkin, “Exclusive Test Data: Many Colleges Fail to Improve Critical‐Thinking Skills,” Wall Street Journal, June 5, 2017. 8  Philip Tetlock and Dan Gardner, Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction (Random House, 2015). 9   Tobias Baer, Sven Hellistag, and Hamid Samandari, “The Business Logic in Debiasing,” McKinsey Latest Thinking, May 2017. 10  Planting Healthy Air (The Nature Conservancy, 2016). 11  Herbert Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial (MIT Press, 1968).


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

That means that Republican counties grew by 1 million more people a year than Democratic counties. And projections from the U.S. Census Bureau show that this trend will continue—will even accelerate—in the current century. Birthrates are higher in Republican areas than in Democratic areas. This phenomenon has been described as the "liberal baby bust" by USA Today. In 2004, New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote that the higher birthrates in Republican areas were part of a "natalism" movement. "They are having three, four or more kids," Brooks wrote of America's "natalists." "Their personal identity is defined by parenthood. They are more spiritually, emotionally and physically invested in their homes than in any other sphere of life, having concluded that parenthood is the most enriching and elevating thing they can do.

I would not want to see my grandchildren raised in downtown Minneapolis in an environment that is different from the one out here. I want to split my own wood and be less dependent on government." Randy Penrod, a 285-pound rugby player and Scott County's Republican Party chair, said that Republicans and Democrats have a basic difference: "I have a theory that the farther away you are from another human being, the more likely you are to be a Republican." New York Times columnist David Brooks described the exurbs in his impressionistic 2004 book On Paradise Drive. After these fast-growing counties appeared to have reelected Bush that year, there was a mini-burst of research into what the exurbs were all about. The research was never particularly rewarding because nobody could agree on how an exurb differed from a suburb or a rural community. But anyone who has visited the outskirts of a U.S. city recently has seen these communities clinging to the hull of the city, just outside the older suburbs.

Scott Keeter of the Pew Research Center provided this analysis to the author. In one difference from Bob Cushing's analysis, Keeter slightly changed the dividing line for a strong partisan county. Instead of a io-point difference, Keeter designated "landslide" counties as those with 20-point margins. Just under half the voters in 2004 lived in one of these counties. 6. Phillip Longman, "The Liberal Baby Bust," USA Today, March 14, 2006; David Brooks, "The New Red-Diaper Babies," New York Times, December 7, 2004; Joel Kotkin and William Frey, "Parent Trap," New Repuhlic, December 2, 2004, http://www.joelkotkm.com/Politics/NR%20Parent_Trap.htm. 7. Ronald Brownstein, "As Democrats Look West, Colorado Budges," Los Angeles Times, September 28, 2006. 8. Bob Cushing used county-to-county migration data provided by the IRS to do this analysis. 3.


pages: 404 words: 124,705

The Village Effect: How Face-To-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter by Susan Pinker

assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, old-boy network, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra

The parents of British children—who spend an average of six hours a day in front of such screens—“felt that they had things about right,” summarized Lydia Plowman, the lead British researcher of a long-term study of media use.12 In families where the culture is to leave kids to their own devices (literally), what role do hours of screen time play in a child’s psychological development, school progress, or even happiness? Screens and Social Class Before I even get to the screens, consider how skill gaps are widened by social class. In The Social Animal, David Brooks describes some of the ways that child-rearing styles among lower-class families differ from the engaged, debate- and tutorial-driven parenting of the professional classes. In lower-class homes “there tends to be a much starker boundary between the adult world and the children’s world,” Brooks writes. “Parents tend to think that the cares of adulthood will come soon enough and that children should be left alone to organize their own playtime.”

(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). 16. Elizabeth Vandewater, David Bickham, and June Lee, “Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities,” Pediatrics 117, no. 2 (2006); Mendelsohn et al., “Infant Television and Video Exposure”; Tomopoulous et al., “Infant Media Exposure.” 17. Kevin Hartnett, “The Perils of Parenting Style,” Pennsylvania Gazette, September/October 2011; David Brooks, The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (New York: Random House, 2012). 18. Brooks, The Social Animal. 19. Hartnett, “The Perils of Parenting Style”; Lareau, Unequal Childhoods. 20. De Decker et al., “Influencing Factors of Screen Time.” 21. B. Hart and T. R. Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children (Baltimore: Brookes, 1995); Lareau, Unequal Childhoods; Brooks, The Social Animal. 22.

Barack Obama, The Audacity of Hope (New York: Vintage, 2006). 27. Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff, “The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers.” 28. Nicholas D. Kristof, “How Mrs. Grady Transformed Olly Neal,” New York Times, January 22, 2012. 29. Robert D. Putnam, “Requiem for the American Dream? Unequal Opportunity in America,” lecture presented at the Aspen Ideas Festival, Aspen, CO, June 29, 2012; David Brooks, “The Opportunity Gap,” New York Times, July 9, 2012; Margaret Wente, “The Long Climb from Inequality,” Globe and Mail, July 14, 2012; Sean F. Reardon, “No Rich Child Left Behind,” New York Times, April 28, 2013; Sean F. Riordan, “The Widening Academic Achievement Gap between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations,” in Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality and the Uncertain Life Chances of Low-Income Children, ed.


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

It is increasingly conceived as a federation of subcultures and the society or city itself being thought of as a “community of communities.” Before concluding this discussion of the community culture, it should be pointed out that ethnicity is a predominant base of cultural diversity, but it is not the only source. Lifestyles, social values, and identity politics are other contributors to the cultural diversity of cities and societies. Bohemians, Yuppies, Punks, or, to use David Brooks’s term for the new upper class, Bobos19 are often viewed as distinct cultural communities on the basis of their lifestyles and values. Yet much of the multiculturalism discourse is about ethnic communities and their subcultures. This is how the term community culture will be used in the book. Ethnicity, Identity, and Community Culture Ethnicity is a social boundary that defines who is inside and also, by implication, outside a group.

This concept overlaps with civic culture, though the latter includes formal rules and rights of participating and benefiting from governmental institutions. The Culture of Cities, 11. Claude S. Ficher, “The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A TwentiethCentury Assessment,” American Journal of Sociology 101, no. 3 (1995), 568. Barry Wellman and Barry Leighton, “Networks, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Approaches to the Study of the Community Question,” Urban Affairs Quarterly 14, no. 3 (1979), 363–90. Kymlicka, Multicultural Odysseys, 44. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001). Richard Alba and Victor Nee, Remaking the American Mainstream (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 11. Waldinger and Bozorgmehr, “The Making of a Multicultural Metropolis,” 30. Adapted from Wsevolod Isajiw, Definitions of Ethnicity, Occasional Papers in Ethnic and Immigration Studies (Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1979), 25.

Gerard Bouchard and Charles Taylor, Building the Future, Report of Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles (Quebec, 2008), 19. Banting, Courchene, and Seidle, “Introduction” in Belonging? ed. Banting, Courchene, and Seidle, 1. Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions (Toronto: Penguin, 1994), 113. David Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 3. David Brooks, “The Death of Multiculturalism,” New York Times, 27 April 2006, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E1DC133FF9 34A15757C0A9609C8B63. Lawrence Martin, “Enough of Multiculturalism – Bring on the Melting Pot,” Globe and Mail, 31 March 2009, A17. Jan Rath, “Debating Multiculturalism,” Harvard International Review, 6 January 2011, http://hir.harvard.edu/archives/2773. Arjun Appadurai, The Future as a Cultural Fact (London: Verso, 2013), 179, 182.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Boko Haram Bombetoka Bay Bonde, Bob Bork, Les Boston Consulting Group Boston Globe Bourguiba, Habib Boys & Girls Clubs of America Brainerd, Mary “Brains & Machines” (blog) Braun, Gil Brazil breakers, super-empowered; degrading of; humiliation and; weak states and Brew “Brief History of Jews and African Americans in North Minneapolis, A” (Quednau) Brimeyer, Jim Brin, Sergey broadband Broadgate, Wendy Brock, David Brooks, David Brooks, Mel Brookview golf club Brown, John Seely Brynjolfsson, Erik Bucksbaum, Phil Buffett, Warren building information modeling buildings, energy efficient Burke, Edmund Burke, Tom Burnett, T Bone Burning Glass Technologies business: social responsibility and Business Bridge Business Insider Busteed, Brandon Bustle.com “Caddie Chatter” (Long and Seitz) Cairo calcium carbonate California, University of, at San Diego Cambodia campaign spending Campbell, James R.

In a world of super-empowered individuals we need to redouble our efforts to ensure that in as many ways as possible we are creating moral contexts and weaving healthy interdependencies that embrace the immigrant, the stranger, and the loner, and inspire more people in more places to want to make things rather than break things. There is no restraint stronger than thinking your friends and family will hate or disrespect you for what you do—and that can be generated only by a community. “All over the country there are schools and organizations trying to come up with new ways to cultivate character,” my colleague David Brooks noted in his November 27, 2015, column in The New York Times. “The ones I’ve seen that do it best, so far, are those that cultivate intense, thick community. Most of the time character is not an individual accomplishment. It emerges through joined hearts and souls, and in groups.” One way to reinforce and scale the character-building norms of healthy communities is by showing people the joys and the fruits that can come from joining hearts, souls, and hands—what happens when we don’t just not do unto others but actually do with others in ways that are big and hard and make a difference.

The families of the boys received settlements from the City of Saint Paul and the School District because of the incident at a popular site for fossil hunting under a slope. Some of that money is being used to build a school and an orphanage in East Africa.” Innovation Comes in Small Packages Time and again I saw proof just in little St. Louis Park of Gidi Grinstein’s dictum that social innovation is happening all over the country today at the local level. Nothing new has to be invented—all that exists just needs to be scaled, or as my colleague David Brooks observed in his June 21, 2016, New York Times column: “The social fabric is tearing across this country, but everywhere it seems healers are rising up to repair their small piece of it. They are going into hollow places and creating community, building intimate relationships that change lives one by one.” People in the St. Louis Park community feel so strongly about their public schools that they created a foundation to provide teachers with supplemental support for special projects.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

Some even predict that this trend may soon recede, as housing becomes less affordable for the very groups that powered the gentrification in the first place. Alan Ehrenhalt dubs this “the demographic inversion.”5 One of the many upshots of these two competing movements, according to leading demographers and political sociologists, is a new “sorting” of population by values, culture, and politics. This tension is perhaps best captured by David Brooks’s two iconic American characters, the cappuccino-drinking urban “bourgeois-bohemian” (“bobo” for short) and suburbia’s “patio man.”6 The Means Migration In 2006 I argued in The Atlantic that an even more significant demographic realignment is currently at work: the mass relocation of highly skilled, highly educated, and highly paid people to a relatively small number of metropolitan regions, and a corresponding exodus of traditional lower and middle classes from those same places.

Chapter 6 1 “The World Goes to Town,” The Economist, May 3, 2007. 2 Alfonso Hernandez Marin, “Cultural Changes: From the Rural World to Urban Environment,” United Nations Chronicle, November 4, 2006. 3 Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, Oxford University Press, 1987; Robert Bruegmann, Sprawl: A Compact History, University of Chicago Press, 2005. 4 Joel Garreau, Edge City, Anchor, 1992. 5 Alan Ehrenhalt, “Trading Places: The Demographic Inversion of the American City,” The New Republic, August 13, 2008. 6 David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 2001; Brooks, On Paradise Drive, Simon & Schuster, 2004. 7 Edward Glaeser and Christopher Berry, The Divergence of Human Capital Levels Across Cities, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, August 2005. 8 Richard Florida, “Where the Brains Are,” Atlantic Monthly, October 2006, p. 34. 9 Joseph Gyourko, Christopher Mayer, and Todd Sinai, “Superstar Cities,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 12355, July 2006.


pages: 283 words: 77,272

With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald

Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

What is uncommon is for anyone to pay attention when it happens, let alone object on their behalf, because they typically are not people with powerful connections. Klein’s indignation over Libby’s unfair treatment was echoed by many in the establishment media. The former Time editor in chief Norman Pearlstine wrote a book denouncing Fitzgerald’s investigation, while the New York Times columnist David Brooks condemned the prosecution in multiple venues as a “farce.” But perhaps the most revealing pro-Libby defense came from the Washington Post’s Richard Cohen, who—as we just saw—had gleefully celebrated the pardon bequeathed to his “Safeway buddy” Caspar Weinberger. Cohen’s June 2007 defense of Libby was a true tour de force of apologia, highlighting the function of our Beltway media stars when it comes to elite immunity.

ABC News Abrams, Elliott Abu Ghraib prison Abzug, Bella ACLU Adams, Abigail Adams, John Addington, David Afghanistan war African Americans Alexander, Michelle Algeria al-Qaeda Alter, Jonathan American Civil Liberties Union American Enterprise Institute American International Group (AIG) Andrews, Bruce Answers to Monsieur de Meusnier’s Questions (Jefferson) Anti–Drug Abuse Acts (1986, 1988) antitrust laws Arar, Maher Argentina Armey, Dick Armitage, Richard Ash, Mimi Ashcroft, John Assange, Julian assassination of American citizens AT&T Atlantic Australia Austria auto company bailouts Awlaki, Anwar al- Bagram prison Balko, Radley bank holding company Bank of America bankruptcy laws banks accounting practices and deregulation of financial crisis and foreclosure fraud and Geithner and retroactive immunity and Barclays Capital Barnes, Fred Barofsky, Neil Barr, William Barry, John Bear Stearns Bechtel Corporation Beckett, Katherine BellSouth Berenson, Brad Bethune, Brian Biden, Joe Bill Moyers Journal (TV show) Bill of Rights Black, Bill Black, Charlie BlackRock Blagojevich, Rod Blankfein, Laura Blankfein, Lloyd Bloomberg news Blow, Charles Blue Dogs Democrats Blumenthal, Paul Blumenthal, Sidney Boehner, John Boeing Boland Amendment (1982) Booz Allen Borger, Gloria Boston Phoenix Boumediene ruling Bradbury, Steven Brennan, John Britain British International Criminal Court Act (2001) Broder, David Brooks, David Brown, Roy BSKH & Associates Buffett, Warren Bunch, Will Bureau of Corporations Bureau of Justice Statistics Burger, Warren Burton, Bill Bush, George H. W. Iraqgate and Iran-Contra and Bush, George W. defense of, and shared guilt detainees and DOJ opposition to extra-legal power and financial crisis and foreign rule of law and Iran-Contra and Iraq war and Libby and media and memoirs of Michael McConnell and Obama fails to investigate Plame outing and public opinion on Spain and state secrets and telecom immunity and torture and U.S. attorney firings and warrantless eavesdropping and whistle-blowers and Bush, Jeb BusinessWeek Bybee, Jay torture memo of 2002 Byrne Formula Grant program C2 Group Caddo County, Louisiana California Cambodia campaign contributions financial industry and prison industry and telecoms and Canada “Can You Even Imagine How Bad It Must Have Been?”


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

For updates since then, see Ronald Inglehart, “Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006”, West European Politics Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2, January–March 2008; also, the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Many make sense of the shift to less materialistic values by referring to Abraham Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review Vol. 50, No. 4, 1943. Also, read about a generational shift to post-materialism in David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. Advertising agency research This research was conducted by an advertising agency called Euro RSCG Worldwide, which, in the time it’s taken me to write the book, has become Havas Worldwide. The research paper is called The New Consumer (www.thenewconsumer.com). I calculated the number of people who might have had enough of stuff based on The New Consumer statistics that 67% believe most of us would be better off if we lived more simply, and that there are 63.23 million people in the UK, and 313.9 million in the US.

For a rigorous analysis of the millennials’ housing aspirations, read Nathan Morris, “Why Generation Y is Causing the Great Migration of the 21st Century”, on the website of a design firm called Placemakers (www.placemakers.com), 9 April 2012. “Rather than owning a thing”: millennials not so interested in material objects Various sources, including Tammy Erickson, “Meaning Is the New Money”, HBR Blog Network, 23 March 2011; and David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. The rise of services like Zipcar, Spotify, and Netflix For excellent introductions to how these companies operate, read Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers, “Beyond Zipcar: Collaborative Consumption”, Harvard Business Review, October 2010; and, for the rise of these services, read “All Eyes on the Sharing Economy”, The Economist, 9 Mar 2013.


pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

The United States is gradually reaching the end of a cataclysm, economic rather than military, but a cataclysm nonetheless, and it is impossible not to wonder what ordinary American life will look like in the postrecession future. Some of the most intriguing questions this time are ones of culture, demographics, and the use of physical space. It is perfectly possible to argue, as critics such as Joel Kotkin and David Brooks do, that the rules are not about to change—that the auto-dependent existence, suburban expansion, and the urban decline of the late twentieth century will simply resume. It is also possible to argue, as do critics on the other side, such as Christopher Leinberger and Arthur C. Nelson, that the Great Recession will prove to be a cultural and demographic turning point. Cities and suburbs will cease to play the role that they played in the second half of the twentieth century.

., “Light Rail Packed for Grand Debut,” Arizona Republic, December 28, 2008, p. 1. 17 “Now that it’s up”: Carol Johnson, personal interview, November 2009. 18 “Our presence will be catalytic”: Michael Crow, quoted in Craig Harris, “Trio Frame Future for Downtown,” Arizona Republic, January 4, 2006, p. 1B. 19 “ASU downtown is more than a few nuggets”: Phil Gordon interview. 20 “People weren’t buying to flip”: Eric Brown, personal interview, December 2009. 21 “Life happens under five stories”: Ibid. 22 “The less frequently you use your car”: Grady Gammage interview. 23 “This isn’t an urban city”: Don Keuth interview. 24 “We have all these people”: Carol Johnson interview. 25 “When I think about Chicago”: Alicia Porter, quoted in The Arizona We Want (Phoenix: Center for the Future of Arizona, 2009), p. 32. 26 “There is something genuinely vital”: Grady Gammage interview. 27 “We’re not a global city”: Don Keuth interview. CHAPTER NINE: URBANIZING THE SUBURBS 1 77 percent of Generation Y: John McIlwain, Housing in America: The Next Decade (Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2010), p. 15. 2 “Generation Y’s attitudes toward home ownership”: Ibid. 3 In a poll cited by The New York Times in 2009: David Brooks, “I Dream of Denver,” New York Times op-ed column, February 17, 2009, p. 33. 4 “Once the economy recovers”: McIlwain, Housing in America, p. 26. 5 The demographer Arthur C. Nelson calculated: Arthur C. Nelson, quoted in Ellen Dunham-Jones and June Williamson, Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs (New York: Wiley, 2008), p. 10. 6 “Stapleton was a significant proving ground”: Peter Park, personal interview, July 2010. 7 “People got married at Villa Italia”: Bob Murphy, personal interview, July 2010. 8 “It was a boarded-up mall”: Ibid. 9 “The most important part”: Mark Falcone, personal interview, July 2010. 10 “It didn’t take long”: Bob Murphy interview. 11 “the first project in Colorado”: City of Englewood, Colorado, website, http://englewoodgov.org/Index.aspx?


pages: 340 words: 81,110

How Democracies Die by Steven Levitsky, Daniel Ziblatt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Nate Silver, Norman Mailer, old-boy network, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, universal basic income

We fear that if Trump were to confront a war or terrorist attack, he would exploit this crisis fully—using it to attack political opponents and restrict freedoms Americans take for granted. In our view, this scenario represents the greatest danger facing American democracy today. — Even if President Trump does not directly dismantle democratic institutions, his norm breaking is almost certain to corrode them. President Trump has, as David Brooks has written, “smashed through the behavior standards that once governed public life.” His party rewarded him for it by nominating him for president. In office, his continued norm violation has expanded the zone of acceptable presidential behavior, giving tactics that were once considered aberrant and inadmissible, such as lying, cheating, and bullying, a prominent place in politicians’ tool kits.

President Trump’s foreign policy ineptitude: During the 2016 campaign, fifty Republican foreign policy experts, many of them former Bush administration officials, wrote a letter warning that Trump’s ignorance and recklessness would “put at risk our nation’s national security.” See “50 G.O.P. Officials Warn Donald Trump Would Put Nation’s Security ‘At Risk,’ ” New York Times, August 8, 2016. “smashed through the behavior standards”: David Brooks, “Getting Trump out of My Brain,” New York Times, August 8, 2017. “closed and armored limousine”: James Wieghart and Paul Healy, “Jimmy Carter Breaks Protocol at Inauguration,” New York Daily News, January 21, 1977. “an informal custom”: Christine Hauser, “The Inaugural Parade, and the Presidents Who Walked It,” New York Times, January 19, 2017. William Henry Harrison broke tradition: Paul F.


pages: 310 words: 85,995

The Future of Capitalism: Facing the New Anxieties by Paul Collier

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, bonus culture, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, centre right, Commodity Super-Cycle, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, greed is good, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, negative equity, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, too big to fail, trade liberalization, urban planning, web of trust, zero-sum game

Similarly, the juxtaposition of Utilitarian concern about ‘the poor of the world’ and denial of responsibility for family was less of a moral awakening than the easy pleasure of moral posturing: Dickens skewered such attitudes through the character of Mrs Jellyby, in Bleak House. More fundamentally, the triumph of individual fulfilment through personal achievement over meeting obligations to family is beginning to look psychologically flawed. In a profoundly subversive book, The Road to Character, David Brooks starts from the familiar celebration of fulfilment through achievement only to turn the tables on it, suggesting that the future trend will be towards a restoration of fulfilment through meeting obligations to others.13 The seductive proposition that we find ourselves through focusing on ourselves is opposed by a powerful counter-narrative, which is perhaps best expressed by Dietrich Bonhoeffer in Letters and Papers from Prison, his testimony while awaiting death at the hands of the Nazis: we find ourselves through ‘losing ourselves’ in the struggles of the other people in our daily lives.

For an accessible discussion see The Economist, 21 October 2017. 4.I would like to thank Tim Besley for confirmation and clarification of this point. 5.See Arnott and Stiglitz (1979). 6.See Collier and Venables (2017). 7.Greenstone, Hornbeck and Moretti (2008). 8.Lee (2000). 8. THE CLASS DIVIDE 1.Wolf (2013), p. 240. 2.From the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Fact Sheet: www.fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/publications. 3.See ‘Effects of social disadvantage and genetic sensitivity on children’s telomere length’, Fragile Families Research Brief 50, Princeton, 2015. 4.Philip Larkin, ‘High Windows’ (1974). 5.A proposition brilliantly explored by David Brooks in The Social Animal (2011). 6.Pause has a website. Visit it; join in. The data in the text are taken from http://www.pause.org.uk/pause-in-action/learning-and-evaluation. 7.Wolf (2013), pp. 51–2. 8.Brown and de Cao (2017). 9.Putnam (2016), p. 212. 10.Hanushek (2011). 11.Levitt et al. (2016). 12.If you find this as remarkable as I do, may I encourage you to contribute to Grimm and Co, which is a registered charity.


pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

In general, jobs that require social skills (like public relations), creativity (like fashion design), or precise perception and manipulation (like boilermaking) are the least likely to become automated. Jobs that require physical proximity or high levels of training are also unlikely to be outsourced. Another important consideration regarding earning to give is the risk of losing your values by working in an environment with people who aren’t as altruistically inclined as you are. For example, David Brooks, writing in The New York Times, makes this objection in response to a story of Jason Trigg, who is earning to give by working in finance: You might start down this course seeing finance as a convenient means to realize your deepest commitment: fighting malaria. But the brain is a malleable organ. Every time you do an activity, or have a thought, you are changing a piece of yourself into something slightly different than it was before.

App Academy, a three-month intensive programming school: Marcus Wohlsen, “Tuition at Learn-to-Code Boot Camp is Free—Until You Get a Job,” Wired, March 15, 2013. whether a job will be around in the future: For an in-depth analysis, see Carl B. Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?” Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, September 17, 2013, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf. David Brooks, writing in The New York Times: Brooks, David, “The Way to Produce a Person,” The New York Times, June 3, 2013. GiveDirectly has raised more than $20 million: “Financials,” GiveWell, https://www.givedirectly.org/financials.html. Professor William Nordhaus at Yale University has estimated: William D. Nordhaus, “Schumpeterian Profits in the American Economy: Theory and Measurement,” NBER working paper no. 10,433 (April 2004), 22.


pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, post-work, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

We don’t have any doubt about this.”26 Their approach echoes the work of the sociologist Max Weber, who attributed Europe’s economic success after the renaissance to the moral values imbued by Protestantism; hard work and accumulation became legitimate moral goals. More recently, economists have tried to discover why some Eastern European countries have made a successful transition to capitalism following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, while others have not. After testing a litany of potential explanations, they concluded, in the words of the journalist David Brooks, “Finally, and most important, there is the level of values. A nation’s economy is nestled in its moral ecology. Economic performance is tied to history, culture and psychology.”27 This analysis creates a problem for those who try to describe economics in purely mathematical terms. The issue is not whether the Chinese or the observers of Eastern Europe are right in their conclusions. (We suspect both are oversimplified.)

Galbraith goes on to note, “One of the costs … [of mathematical economics] … was the removal of the subject several steps further from reality” (259). 24. Andrew Scott, professor of economics at London Business School, in his private review and critique of this chapter, October 2014. 25. Smith, Wealth of Nations, bk. 4, Introduction. 26. Quoted in Niall Ferguson, Civilization: The West and the Rest (Penguin 2011), 287. 27. David Brooks, “The Legacy of Fear,” New York Times, November 10, 2014. 28. Andrew Scott, professor of economics at London Business School, in his private review and critique of this chapter, October 2014. 29. He went on, incorrectly, as it would later prove, to say that this propensity is to be “in no other race of animals.” Smith, Wealth of Nations, bk. 1, chap. 2. 30. R. H. Coase, “The Lighthouse in Economics,” in The Firm, the Market, and the Law, chap. 6 (University of Chicago Press, 1988). 31.


pages: 627 words: 89,295

The Politics Industry: How Political Innovation Can Break Partisan Gridlock and Save Our Democracy by Katherine M. Gehl, Michael E. Porter

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, future of work, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, Menlo Park, new economy, obamacare, pension reform, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, zero-sum game

Again, the unique personalities and histories of our fifty states are some of America’s greatest strengths, but this individuality can and will bite back if not respected. Additionally, the broader localism movement is taking root in communities and neighborhoods across the country, a bottom-up movement that’s also the by-product of the self-interested and dysfunctional politics industry. As New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote, “Localism is also thriving these days because many cities have more coherent identities than the nation as a whole. It is thriving because while national politics takes place through the filter of the media circus, local politics by and large does not. It is thriving because we’re in an era of low social trust. People really have faith only in the relationships right around them, the change agents who are right on the ground.”57 How should local leaders organize?

Iowa and Nevada plan to allow early voters to use it, while Hawaii, Alaska, Kansas, and Wyoming plan to allow all voters to use it. “Where Ranked Choice Voting Is Used,” FairVote, https://www.fairvote.org/where_is_ranked_choice_voting_used. 56. See USC Price, “Terminate Gerrymandering: Engineering Victories in Michigan, Colorado, Utah, Missouri and Ohio,” YouTube, January 15, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWUXpMO3-88&t=102s. 57. David Brooks, “The Localist Revolution,” New York Times, July 19, 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/07/19/opinion/national-politics-localism-populism.html. 58. Roger Davidson, “The Advent of the Modern Congress: The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 15, no. 3 (1990): 360. 59. Paul Kane, “Against the Odds, Select Committee Aims to Push Congress into the 21st Century,” The Washington Post, May 25, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/against-the-odds-select-committee-aims-to-push-congress-into-the-21st-century/2019/05/24/3dff17f6-7d97-11e9-8bb7-0fc796cf2ec0_story.html. 60.


pages: 323 words: 89,795

Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, Kickstarter, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment

Lovins, Soft Energy Paths: Toward a Durable Peace (New York: Harper & Row, and Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1979), 38–39. 4. David B. Brooks, John B. Robinson, and Ralph D. Torrie, 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada, vol. 1, National Report of Friends of the Earth Canada to the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and Environment Canada (Ottawa: 1983), italics added. Note to the reader: Robert Bott, David Brooks, and John Robinson, Life After Oil: A Renewable Energy Policy for Canada (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1983) is the most accessible of the several versions of the Canadian soft energy path study. 5. David B. Brooks, Another Path Not Taken: A Methodological Exploration of Water Soft Paths for Canada and Elsewhere, Report to Environment Canada (Ottawa: Friends of the Earth Canada, 2003). 6. Brooks et al., 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada. 7.

Brooks, Another Path Not Taken: A Methodological Exploration of Water Soft Paths for Canada and Elsewhere, Report to Environment Canada (Ottawa: Friends of the Earth Canada, 2003). 6. Brooks et al., 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada. 7. Stobaugh and Yergin, Energy Future. The original study was reported in the Demand and Conservation Panel of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, “U.S. Energy Demand: Some Low Energy Futures,” Science, April 14, 1978. 8. See, for example, Brooks et al., Another Path Not Taken. 9. Ralph Torrie and David Brooks, with Ed Burt, Mario Espejo, Luc Gagnon, and Susan Holtz, 2025: Soft Energy Futures for Canada — 1988 Update (Ottawa: The Canadian Environmental Network, 1988). 10. $30 per barrel in 2000 and $55 per barrel in 2025. 11. Janet Shawin, “Charting a New Energy Future,” State of the World: 2003 (Washington, D.C.: The Worldwatch Institute, 2003). 12. Ralph Torrie, Richard Parfett, and Paul Steenhof, Kyoto and Beyond: The Low Emissions Path to Innovation and Efficiency (Vancouver: The David Suzuki Foundation, and Ottawa: Climate Action Network Canada, 2002). 13.


pages: 298 words: 89,287

Who Are We—And Should It Matter in the 21st Century? by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, David Brooks, equal pay for equal work, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, feminist movement, financial independence, glass ceiling, global village, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, Steven Levy, upwardly mobile, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey

To many, the atypical nature of Obama’s upbringing was the most potent aspect of his appeal. Almost every strand of the American experience is there: the immigrant, the Midwest, the black childhood, the white parents, the Christian educated in a Muslim country, the Ivy League and the working class. “With his multi-ethnic family and his globe-spanning childhood, there is a little piece of everything in Obama,” gushed the conservative New York Times columnist David Brooks. It was as though Obama embodied healing qualities for a divided nation, at war with the world, in his very DNA. To others, his “foreignness” was cause for suspicion or at the very least for encouraging suspicion. Fox News claimed Obama had been educated in an Islamist madrassa in Indonesia (which was untrue). Rumors persisted that he remained a Muslim and had actually been born in Kenya and was therefore ineligible for the presidency.

Index Affirmative action African-Americans and the vote– See also United States: black Americans Aldrich, Liberty Ali, Ayan Hirshi Alienation Alito, Samuel American Anthropological Association (AAA) American Directory of Certified Uncle Toms Amis, Martin Anderson, Benedict Anderson, Viv Angelou, Maya Anti-capitalism Anticolonialism Anti-racism Apartheid transition to democracy Appadurai, Arjun Appiah, Kwame Anthony Arendt, Hannah Arnold, Gary Association of MultiEthnic Americans (AMEA) Authenticity gatekeepers of inauthenticity fears/accusations Baldwin, James Ball, Edmund Banton, Buju Barbados Barber, Benjamin Barrett, Alan Barrier Williams, Fannie Barroso, José Manuel Basque language Bayart, Jean-François Beck, Glenn Belgium Ben-Dahan, Rabbi Eliyahu Ben-Yehuda, Eliezer Berger, John Berlusconi, Silvio Besharov, Douglas Betto, Frei Biko, Steve bin Laden, Osama Black Power Blackwell, Kenneth Blair, Tony Blake, James Bluitgen, Kåre Blunkett, David Boal, Graham Borg, Björn Bositis, David Botha, Pieter Willem Boynatov, Eli Brass, Paul Brazil Britain – blackness in–, class in Jews in Muslims in national identity British National Party (BNP) Brock, David Brooks, David Broyard, Anatole Broyard, Bliss Bruni, Frank Brussels Buchanan, Pat Burke, Edmund Burqas Buruma, Ian Bush, George W. Cable, Daniel Calhoun, Craig Cape Town Capitalism Carlos, John Carr, E. H. Carter, Stephen Casey, Norah Cedarbaum, Miriam Cheney, Dick Childbirth birth rates Chisholm, Shirley Civil rights Civil Rights Act (1968) NAACP Clapham Class Cleary, Marie Clinton, Bill Clinton, Chelsea Clinton, Hillary Clyburn, Jim Colbert, Stephen Colonialism Colored identity Commission for Racial Equality Connolly, Linda Conservative Party (UK) Cooper, Carolyn Coulter, Ann Cox, Adam B.


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business cycle, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

Reform conservatism’s ideas—promoting early childhood education, for example, allowing states to manage their own transportation projects with their own fuel taxes—emphasize the brass tacks realism of traditional conservatism that has always appealed to Middle America. As important, that realism once formed the basis for a lot of bipartisan compromise and effective legislation. It was always the pragmatists on the left and on the right who found ways to work together on big issues, such as tax reform. And while pragmatism has been the first thing to suffer under brand politics in the Impulse Society, there are models for bringing it back. As David Brooks, another conservative voice at The New York Times, points out, conservative politicians of the nineteenth century—Abraham Lincoln, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whigs—built powerful majorities by focusing on basic, nonpartisan issues such as social mobility and economic opportunity and, importantly, by “using the power of government to give marginalized Americans the tools to compete in a capitalist economy.”

Liz Kennedy, “Citizens Actually United: The Bi-Partisan Opposition to Corporate Political Spending and Support for Common Sense Reform,” Demos, Oct. 25, 2012, http://www.demos.org/publication/citizens-actually-united-bi-partisan-opposition-corporate-political-spending-and-support. 23. Chris Myers, “Conservatism and Campaign Finance Reform: The Two Aren’t Mutually Exclusive,” RedState, April 24, 2012, http://www.redstate.com/clmyers/2013/04/24/conservatism-and-campaign-finance-reform/. 24. David Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition,” The New York Times, Jan 30, 2014. 25. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/. 26. In Robert Frank, The Darmn Economy: Liberty, Competition, and Common Good. 27. Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition.” Footnotes Chapter 1 * Traffic fatalities in the 1920s were about seventeen times higher, per mile traveled, than today


pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

,” Policy Analysis, October 20, 2014, http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/war-poverty-turns-50-are-we-winning-yet (accessed May 26, 2015). 53. Ibid. 54. Robert Rector, “How Poor Are America’s Poor? Examining the ‘Plague’ of Poverty in America,” Heritage Foundation, August 27, 2007, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2007/08/how-poor-are-americas-poor-examining-the-plague-of-poverty-in-america (accessed May 26, 2015). 55. David Brooks, “The Nature of Poverty,” New York Times, May 1, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/01/opinion/david-brooks-the-nature-of-poverty.html (accessed May 26, 2015). 56. Charles Murray, Coming Apart (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), pp. 226–27. 57. Lawrence M. Mead, From Prophecy to Charity: How to Help the Poor (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2011), p. 34. 58. Ibid., pp. 30–31; Lawrence M. Mead, The New Politics of Poverty (New York: Basic Books, 1992), p. 50. 59.


pages: 801 words: 229,742

The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by John J. Mearsheimer, Stephen M. Walt

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, David Brooks, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, invisible hand, oil shock, Project for a New American Century, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Neoconservatives occupy influential positions at a variety of organizations and institutions. Prominent neoconservatives include former and present policy makers like Elliott Abrams, Kenneth Adelman, William Bennett, John Bolton, Douglas Feith, the late Jeane Kirkpatrick, I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby, Richard Perle, Paul Wolfowitz, James Woolsey, and David Wurmser; journalists like the late Robert Bartley, David Brooks, Charles Krauthammer, William Kristol, Bret Stephens, and Norman Podhoretz; academics like Fouad Ajami, Eliot Cohen, Aaron Friedberg, Bernard Lewis, and Ruth Wedgwood; and think-tank pundits like Max Boot, David Frum, Reuel Marc Gerecht, Robert Kagan, Michael Ledeen, Joshua Muravchik, Daniel Pipes, Danielle Pletka, Michael Rubin, and Meyrav Wurmser. The leading neocon-servative magazines and newspapers are Commentary, the New York Sun, the Wall Street Journal op-ed page, and the Weekly Standard.

Conversely, Alterman identified only five pundits who consistently criticize Israeli behavior or endorse pro-Arab positions.2 Although some readers subsequently challenged Alterman’s coding of a handful of cases and a few of those he listed are now deceased, the disparity remains overwhelming and the challenges did not undermine his core claim.3 Consider the columnists who have covered the Middle East for the New York Times and the Washington Post in recent years. William Safire and the late A. M. Rosenthal were passionate defenders of Israel (and in Safire’s case, especially favorable toward Ariel Sharon); today, David Brooks consistently defends Israel’s position. Thomas L. Friedman is more moderate; he has been critical of some of Israel’s policies (and occasionally the lobby itself), but he almost never takes the Palestinians’ side or advocates that the United States distance itself from Israel. Nicholas D. Kristof is frequently critical of various aspects of American foreign policy and wrote one controversial column in March 2007 decrying the lack of serious public discussion of U.S. relations with Israel.

Rice was constantly on the phone to Powell, sometimes sounding like she was giving him a “dressing-down.” He believed that her concerns reflected “the views of somebody in the White House.”26 Neoconservatives in the media piled on Powell as well. Robert Kagan and William Kristol wrote in the Weekly Standard on April 11 that Powell had “virtually obliterated the distinction between terrorists and those fighting terrorists.”27 The following day, David Brooks, then working for the Weekly Standard, described Powell’s trip on the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer as “a disaster as opposed to an unmitigated disaster.” He went on to say that Powell “hurt U.S. prestige … shredded U.S. policy in the Middle East … and most importantly, he hurt our moral clarity.”28 Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who was making Israel’s case in the United States at the time, said even before Powell arrived in Israel that his trip “won’t amount to anything.”29 He was right: the balance of power inside the administration shifted against Powell so quickly and completely that his deputy in Washington called the secretary in Israel and told him, “I’m holding back the fucking gates here.


pages: 596 words: 163,682

The Third Pillar: How Markets and the State Leave the Community Behind by Raghuram Rajan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, data acquisition, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial repression, full employment, future of work, global supply chain, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The resulting policies, unfortunately, exacerbate domestic divisions today. Developed country societies became progressively more socially liberal, as the well-educated children of prosperous 1960s middle-class parents became the tolerant vanguard of movements that pressed for the rights of the historically downtrodden, benefiting women, minorities, immigrants, and those in the LGBTQ+ community. In an insightful, satirical book, the New York Times commentator David Brooks labeled this new elite Bobos—bourgeois bohemians—because they had the work ethic of the single-minded Calvinist while retaining the social liberalism that only rebellious youth from a secure upper-middle-class background could have.7 Moderately educated male white workers, on the other hand, experienced the dwindling in decent job opportunities at the middle of the income distribution that we noted in the previous chapter.

As more leave, the mixed community becomes even less attractive for the remaining upper-middle-class parents, even those who harbor a strong sense of community. With the middle class and lower middle class left behind, it is not surprising that the middle class would also start leaving the original community. Soon, the classes sort into different communities, as the data suggest. Commentators like David Brooks, Christopher Lasch, Edward Luce, Charles Murray, and Robert Putnam have all noted such residential sorting in the United States, which greatly weakens less-well-off communities.21 Less central to their narratives are the economic forces that drive the sorting. Sorting does not seem to have occurred because of some breakdown in egalitarianism and growing elite distaste for the company of the rest but more likely because of parental concern for children and their success, an economic consequence of our more meritocratic and capability-demanding economies.

Yann Algan, Sergei Guriev, Elias Papaioannou, and Evgenia Passari, “The European Trust Crisis and the Rise of Populism,” Brookings (September 2017), https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/4_alganetal.pdf. 5. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist papers (1788), available at https://www.congress.gov/resources/display/content/The+Federalist+Papers, especially Federalist 10, “The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” 6. Evidence available from the author based on analysis of World Value Surveys. 7. David Brooks, “Bobos in Paradise,” in The Inequality Reader: Contemporary and Foundational Readings in Race, Class, and Gender, ed. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelényi (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2007). 8. Mitchell Petersen and Raghuram Rajan, “Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending,” Journal of Finance 57, no. 6 (December 2002): 2533–70. 9. Christopher R.


pages: 351 words: 100,791

The World Beyond Your Head: On Becoming an Individual in an Age of Distraction by Matthew B. Crawford

airport security, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, digital Maoism, Google Glasses, hive mind, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, large denomination, new economy, new new economy, Norman Mailer, online collectivism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Stanford marshmallow experiment, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

That kind of full-throated affirmation has always been at odds with the agnosticism that is thought to be part of democratic good manners. In a study conducted in the summer of 2008, the Notre Dame sociologist Christian Smith and his colleagues conducted in-depth interviews with 230 young American adults about their moral lives. What they found is nothing so exciting as depravity, but rather a depressing inarticulacy. Summarizing Smith’s findings, David Brooks wrote, “Many were quick to talk about their moral feelings but hesitant to link these feelings to any broader thinking about a shared moral framework … As one put it, ‘I mean, I guess what makes something right is how I feel about it. But different people feel different ways, so I couldn’t speak on behalf of anyone else as to what’s right and wrong.’”1 It was Thomas Hobbes who first made the privatization of judgment a political principle.

Robert Richardson (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 132, emphasis added. In this popular essay James is giving practical advice that is based on the James-Lange theory of emotions, according to which feeling tends to follow action. 7. I owe this insight to a conversation with Talbot Brewer. 8. Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2011), 177. 9. Ibid., 10. 11. THE FLATTENING 1. David Brooks, “If It Feels Right,” The New York Times, September 12, 2011. 2. This point is made by Talbot Brewer in The Retrieval of Ethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 3. I owe the argument of this paragraph, and some of the language, to conversations and email exchanges with William Hasselberger and Talbot Brewer. They, in turn, report that they have been informed by Cora Diamond, “‘We Are Perpetually Moralists’: Iris Murdoch, Fact, and Value,” in Iris Murdoch and the Search for Human Goodness, ed.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Certainly non-genetic factors play a role, but of great importance is the nature of and extent to which our genes are connected with serotonin, a molecule that conveys messages to and from nerve cells and that affects our behavior. Experiments to determine the role of serotonin indicate that, as the phrase goes, optimists are genetically predisposed to see the world differently from pessimists and skeptics. It would surely be revealing to conduct experiments on avowed utopians or other persistently upbeat persons. Nevertheless, as New York Times columnist David Brooks reminded us in 2008, “Today, if you look at people who study how genetics shape human behavior, you find a collection of anti-Frankensteins. As the research moves along, the scientists grow more modest about what we are close to knowing and achieving,” contrary to earlier proclamations of the “discovery of an aggression gene, a happiness gene, or a depression gene.”49 Moreover, as the New York Times detailed in a 2010 article entitled “Awaiting the Genome Payoff,” in the ten years since the completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Project and the identification of our roughly 22,000 human genes, few drugs have been developed.

See also Henry Petroski, The Essential Engineer: Why Science Alone Will Not Solve Our Global Problems (New York: Knopf, 2010), ch. 11. See, for example, Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 [1977]), ix–xlii. See “Psychology: Sunny Side Up: Optimism, it Seems, is in the Genes,” The Economist, 390 (February 28, 2009), 85; and David Brooks, “The Luxurious Growth: What Our Genes Don’t Tell Us,” New York Times, July 15, 2008, A19. See also the letters in response to Brooks’ column, New York Times, July 17, 2008, A22; and Margaret Wente, “Optimism Is Highly Overrated,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), May 16, 2009, A21. Andrew Pollack, “Awaiting the Genome Payoff,” New York Times, June 15, 2010, B1, B5 (the quotation comes from B5). See also Christopher Westphal, “Biotechnology’s New Frontier,” Boston Globe, June 14, 2010, A11; and Carolyn Johnson, “Born to Age Gracefully: Genes Hold Clues on Who May Live Long and Prosper,” Boston Globe, July 2, 2010, A1, A8.


pages: 412 words: 96,251

Why We're Polarized by Ezra Klein

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climategate, collapse of Lehman Brothers, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Nate Silver, obamacare, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, source of truth

Anyone who has ever found themselves in an angry argument with their political or social circle will know how threatening it feels. For a lot of people, being “right” just isn’t worth picking a bitter fight with the people they care about. That’s particularly true in a place like Washington, where social circles and professional lives are often organized around people’s politics, and the boundaries of what those tribes believe are getting sharper. In an interview I did with David Brooks in 2019, the genially conservative New York Times columnist reflected on the social agony criticizing Trump had caused him. “I had been part of the conservative movement my whole life,” he told me. “The Weekly Standard. The Wall Street Journal National Review Washington Times. Suddenly, I wasn’t the kind of conservative all the other conservatives were, and so my social circles drifted away.”

Kahan, Hank Jenkins-Smith, and Donald Braman, “Cultural Cognition of Scientific Consensus” (February 7, 2010), Journal of Risk Research 14, pp. 147–74 (2011); Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 205, available at SSRN: ssrn.com/abstract=1549444. 21 Christopher Achen and Larry Bartels, “It Feels Like We’re Thinking: The Rationalizing Voter and Electoral Democracy,” Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, 2006. 22 Larry Bartels, “The Irrational Electorate,” The Wilson Quarterly (Fall 2008), https://www.wilsonquarterly.com/quarterly/fall-2008-the-glory-and-the-folly/the-irrational-electorate/ 23 Christopher Achen and Larry Bartels, Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016). 24 Dan M. Kahan, “Making Climate-Science Communication Evidence-Based—All the Way Down” (February 13, 2013), Culture, Politics and Climate Change, ed. M. Boykoff and D. Crow (Milton Park, Abingdon, UK: Routledge Press, 2014), available at SSRN: ssrn.com/abstract=2216469 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2216469. 25 “The Disillusionment of David Brooks,” The Ezra Klein Show (podcast), May 2, 2019, listennotes.com/podcasts/the-ezra-klein-show/the-disillusionment-of-david-OnVcTGXr46D. 26 Qtd. in Klein, “Unpopular Mandate.” 27 Marc A. Thiessen, “Why Are Republicans So Awful at Picking Supreme Court Justices?,” Washington Post, July 2, 2012, washingtonpost.com/opinions/marc-a-thiessen-why-are-republicans-so-awful-at-picking-supreme-court-justices/2012/07/02/gJQAHFJAIW_story.html?


pages: 123 words: 32,382

Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web by Paul Adams

Airbnb, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, information retrieval, invention of the telegraph, planetary scale, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, sentiment analysis, social web, statistical model, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, white flight

by Robin Dunbar. Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler have also studied this in modern groups. See the 2010 Harvard Magazine article “Networks, neolithic to now” for an overview. 5. For a great overview (with data) of Dunbar’s number and online games, see Christopher Allen’s post “The Dunbar number as a limit to group sizes” on his blog Life With Alacrity. 6. For lots of detail about group dynamics, see David Brook’s book The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (Random House, 2011). 7. For more information on Stanley Milgram’s experiments, including challenges to his methods, see the Wikipedia article on Small world experiment. 8. See the 2008 research paper “Planetary-scale views on a large instant-messaging network” by Jure Leskovec and Eric Horvitz (where they analyzed 30 billion conversations among 240 million MSN users). 9.


pages: 104 words: 34,784

The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef

big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Having worked in both sectors, from the factory floor at Hiram Walker to the mall record store (and even my first Toronto job temping at a call centre), I see much in common with the relationship to work (being told what to do) and a wider class sensibility (feeling as if somebody else controls your destiny). As for lifestyle, Florida argues the creative class is not just a blending of bourgeois and bohemian values, as outlined in David Brook’s 2000 book Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There, an early look at what would inform Florida’s creative class, but transcends those two categories completely. ‘Spurred on by the creative ethos, we blend work and lifestyle to construct our identities as creative people,’ writes Florida. ‘Today, the people in my interviews identify themselves through a tangle of connections to a myriad creative activities.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

DUMB DATA As powerful as big data is, there are some things that it does not do well and for which there is little chance of meaningful improvement in the foreseeable future. I don’t see any developments in big data that will change the old truism that machines are adept at things humans find difficult (such as working 24 hours straight or quickly solving a complex math problem) and humans are adept at things that machines find difficult (such as creativity or understanding social and cultural context). New York Times columnist David Brooks has pointed out that data has failed to analyze the social aspects of interaction or to recognize context: “People are really good at telling stories that weave together multiple causes. Data analysis is pretty bad at narrative and emergent thinking, and it cannot match the explanatory suppleness of even a mediocre novel.” It is also the case that while analyzing ever-larger data sets will produce outcomes like near-perfect machine translation, it will also produce a larger number of spurious correlations.

., “Marital Satisfaction and Break-Ups Differ across On-Line and Off-Line Meeting Venues,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 25 (2013), http://www.pnas.org/content/110/25/10135.full. Critics like writer Leon Wieseltier: Leon Wieseltier, “What Big Data Will Never Explain,” New Republic, March 26, 2013. As a response to this: http://openag.io/about-us/principals-use-cases/. Data analysis is pretty bad: David Brooks, “What Data Can’t Do,” New York Times, February 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/opinion/brooks-what-data-cant-do.html?_r=0. When Harvard University’s big data: Kalev Leetaru, “Why Big Data Missed the Early Warning Signs of Ebola,” Foreign Policy, September 26, 2014, http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/09/26/why-big-data-missed-the-early-warning-signs-of-ebola/#trending. Once it was clear that Ebola: “Ebola Cases Could Skyrocket by 2015, Says CDC,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63, Washington Post, http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/page/national/ebola-cases-could-skyrocket-by-2015-says-cdc/1337/.


pages: 461 words: 109,656

On Grand Strategy by John Lewis Gaddis

British Empire, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, invisible hand, joint-stock company, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway

The two-semester Yale course recruits undergraduate, graduate, and professional school students, as well as, each year, an active-duty Army and Marine Corps lieutenant colonel.1 Both courses are collaboratively taught: normally one civilian and one military instructor for each seminar section at Newport, and, at Yale, varying combinations. My colleagues Charles Hill, Paul Kennedy, and I began as a troika, attending all classes, arguing with one another in front of the students, and individually advising them (not always consistently) outside of class. Remarkably, we’re still neighbors and close friends. The 2006 establishment of the Brady-Johnson Program in Grand Strategy allowed us to add practitioners: they’ve included David Brooks, Walter Russell Mead, John Negroponte, Peggy Noonan, Victoria Nuland, Paul Solman, Jake Sullivan, and Evan Wolfson. The course has also attracted other Yale faculty: Scott Boorman (Sociology), Elizabeth Bradley (formerly School of Public Health, director of the Brady-Johnson program in 2016–17, now president of Vassar College), Beverly Gage (History and, from 2017, Brady-Johnson program director), Bryan Garsten (Political Science and Humanities), Nuno Monteiro (Political Science), Kristina Talbert-Slagle (Epidemiology and Public Health), and Adam Tooze (formerly History, now at Columbia University).

The best biography is still Peter Brown’s classic Augustine of Hippo: A Biography, revised edition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000; first published in 1967). 9. Augustine, Confessions, pp. 45–53. 10. For a recent (and controversial) answer, see Robin Lane Fox, Augustine: Conversions to Confessions (New York: Basic Books, 2015), especially pp. 522–39. 11. Augustine, Confessions, p. 36. 12. Brown, Augustine of Hippo, pp. 431–37. 13. Ibid., pp. 131–33. 14. I owe this point to David Brooks, The Road to Character (New York: Random House, 2015), p. 212. 15. I’ve relied chiefly, as a guide, on G. R. Evans’s introduction to St. Augustine, Concerning the City of God Against the Pagans, translated by Henry Bettenson (New York: Penguin, 2003), pp. ix–lvii, but also on notes prepared by Michael Gaddis, shared with me in a valiant effort to explain City. 16. See John Mark Mattox, Saint Augustine and the Theory of Just War (New York: Continuum, 2006), pp. 4–6; also David D.


pages: 331 words: 104,366

Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins by Garry Kasparov

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, computer age, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, Freestyle chess, Gödel, Escher, Bach, job automation, Leonard Kleinrock, low earth orbit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, rolodex, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Following in the grand tradition of nearly every new technology, nobody started to panic about the potential downsides of cognitive outsourcing until kids starting doing it, and doing it in ways that their parents didn’t understand. They type with their thumbs in ugly slang and funny symbols. They have short attention spans. They can’t remember their own phone numbers. They spend more time on social media than they did with their friends irl (that’s “in real life,” my daughter tells me). They are becoming zombies, robbed of ambition and free will! New York Times columnist David Brooks reacted to the Wired article with a droll account of how he was giving in to the outsourced brain. “I had thought that the magic of the information age was that it allowed us to know more, but then I realized the magic of the information age is that it allows us to know less.…” Continuing, “You may wonder if in the process of outsourcing my thinking I am losing my individuality. Not so.… It’s merely my autonomy that I’m losing.”

(New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Cory Doctorow coined the term “outboard brain.” Cory Doctorow, “My Blog, My Outboard Brain,” May 31, 2002, http://archive.oreilly.com/pub/a/javascript/2002/01/01/cory.html. “we’ve outsourced important peripheral brain functions to the silicon.” Clive Thompson, “Your Outboard Brain Knows All,” Wired, September 25, 2007. “It’s merely my autonomy that I’m losing.” David Brooks, “The Outsourced Brain,” New York Times, October 26, 2007. His tone is derisive here, or at least resigned, although Brooks has in the past been an accurate chronicler of American cultural foibles. His book Bobos in Paradise describes the search for fake authenticity by the entitled, and a similar attitude decries the new technology we need for supplanting an obsolete analog past. “Does an overreliance on machine memory shut down other important ways.”


pages: 383 words: 108,266

Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions by Dan Ariely

air freight, Al Roth, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, endowment effect, financial innovation, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, housing crisis, IKEA effect, invisible hand, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, market bubble, Murray Gell-Mann, payday loans, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Thaler, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Upton Sinclair

Worse, our mistakes of judgment can aggregate in the market, sparking a scenario in which, much like an earthquake, no one has any idea what is happening. (Al Roth, an economist at Harvard, and one of the smartest people I know, has summarized this issue by saying, “In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is a great deal of difference.”) A few days after Greenspan’s congressional testimony, the New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote that Greenspan’s confession would “…amount to a coming-out party for behavioral economists and others who are bringing sophisticated psychology to the realm of public policy. At least these folks have plausible explanations for why so many people could have been so gigantically wrong about the risks they were taking.”3 All of a sudden, it looked as if some people were beginning to understand that the study of small-scale mistakes was not just a source for amusing dinner-table anecdotes.

Klaus’s interest in decision making is mostly based on his attempts to make sense of his own deviation from rationality, whether it is his smoking habit or his procrastination in delaying work for the pleasure of watching soccer on television. It was only fitting that we worked together on procrastination. Klaus is currently a professor at INSEAD. Notes 1. James Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte Madrian, “$100 Bills on the Sidewalk: Suboptimal Saving in 401(k) Plans,” Yale University, working paper. 2. Steven Levitt and John List, “Homo economicus Evolves,” Science (2008). 3. David Brooks, “The Behavioral Revolution,” New York Times (October 27, 2008). 4. Jodi Kantor, “Entrees Reach $40,” New York Times (October 21, 2006). 5. Itamar Simonson, “Get Closer to Your Customers by Understanding How They Make Choices,” California Management Review (1993). 6. Louis Uchitelle, “Lure of Great Wealth Affects Career Choices,” New York Times (November 27, 2006). 7. Katie Hafner, “In the Web World, Rich Now Envy the Superrich,” New York Times (November 21, 2006). 8.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Fairfax isn’t officially a city—it doesn’t even have its own zip code—but if its size was measured in mall and office space, it would be the sixth-largest in the country. Fairfax today is wealthier than either Bangkok or New Delhi, and it hasn’t plateaued yet. While America grapples with double-digit unemployment, the Obama administration has added hundreds of thousands of jobs around Washington. What you make of this depends on your politics. Armchair sociologists with a local’s bias and conservative bent—like Joel Garreau or the New York Times columnist David Brooks—see a shining, privately owned and publicly financed city on a hill. A liberal polemicist like Thomas Frank, on the other hand, finds a starched-and-pressed Sodom: When you drive among these wonders, northern Virginia appears as a kind of technicolor vision of prosperity, American-style; a distillation of all that is mighty and righteous about the American imperium: the airport designed by Eero Saarinen; the shopping mall so vast it dwarfs other cities’ downtowns; the finely tuned high-performance cars zooming along an immaculate private highway; the masses of flowers in perfectly edged beds; the gas stations with Colonial Williamsburg cupolas; the street names, even, recalling our cherished American values: Freedom, Market, Democracy, Tradition, and Signature drives; Heritage Lane; Founders Way; Enterprise, Prosperity, and Executive Park avenues; and a Chivalry Road that leads, of course, to Valor Court.

The nascent aerotropolis is making the same, albeit less fatal, mistakes of a Schaumburg or Fairfax at warp speed, spreading across so many cities, counties, and assorted municipal entities that no one is in a position to fill in everyone on the bigger picture, which is how Cal Fulenwider was able to sell his own in the first place. Denver may be squandering its best chance to avoid a repeat of the urban planning (or lack thereof) on the city’s south side. “We don’t even have words to describe these places,” David Brooks wrote. “Over the past few decades, dozens of scholars have studied places like Arapahoe County,” where exurban Cherry Hills, Centennial, and much of Aurora are located. “They’ve coined terms to capture the polymorphous living arrangements found in these fast growing regions: edgeless city, major diversification center, multicentered net, ruraburbia, boomburg, spread city, technoburb, suburban growth corridor, sprinkler cities.”

For an introduction to New Urbanism and the ideas of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, I recommend Suburban Nation. The notion of Denver and the Front Range as a “megapolitan” and one of several “mountain megas” including Phoenix, Las Vegas, and northern New Mexico was advanced by Robert E. Lang and Mark Muro of the Brookings Institution in their 2008 report “Mountain Megas: America’s Newest Metropolitan Places and a Federal Partnership to Help Them Prosper.” David Brooks reflected on the exurban fringe of Arapahoe County in On Paradise Drive. A copy of the Stapleton “Green Book” was given to me by Forest City Stapleton’s Tom Gleason. Gleason, who was once Mayor Federico Peña’s press secretary, also supplied background on Peña’s decision to shutter the airport in the first place. For details on the LEED certification program and all it entails, visit the U.S.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, twin studies, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

See Bruce Niendorf and Kristine Beck, “Good to Great, or Just Good?” Academy of Management Perspectives 22, no. 4 (2008): 13–20. See also Bruce Resnick and Timothy Smunt, “Good to Great to …?” Academy of Management Perspectives 22, no. 4 (2008): 6–12. 25. correlation between extroversion and leadership: Timothy Judge et al., “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 4 (2002): 765–80. See also David Brooks, “In Praise of Dullness,” New York Times, May 18, 2009, citing Steven Kaplan et al., “Which CEO Characteristics and Abilities Matter?” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 14195, July 2008, a study finding that CEO success is more strongly related to “execution skills” than to “team-related skills.” Brooks also cited another study by Murray Barrick, Michael Mount, and Timothy Judge, surveying a century’s worth of research into business leadership and finding that extroversion did not correlate well with CEO success, but that conscientiousness did. 26.

Another study, of sixty-four traders: Mark Fenton O’Creevy et al., Traders: Risks, Decisions, and Management in Financial Markets (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005), 142–43. 26. delaying gratification, a crucial life skill: Jonah Lehrer, “Don’t,” The New Yorker, May 18, 2009. See also Jacob B. Hirsh et al., “Positive Mood Effects on Delay Discounting,” Emotion 10, no. 5 (2010): 717–21. See also David Brooks, The Social Animal (New York: Random House, 2011), 124. 27. scientists gave participants the choice: Samuel McClure et al., “Separate Neural Systems Value Immediate and Delayed Monetary Rewards,” Science 306 (2004): 503–7. 28. A similar study suggests: Hirsch, “Positive Mood Effects on Delay Discounting.” 29. Yet it was just this kind of risk-reward miscalculation: Wall Street’s judgment was clouded by a strange brew of (1) lemming-like behavior, (2) the opportunity to earn large transaction fees, (3) the fear of losing market share to competitors, and (4) the inability to properly balance opportunity against risk. 30.


pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

My objective is only to draw attention to the crucial significance of action patterns at the micro-level compensating for institutional deficiencies during the end-of-capitalism interregnum. 71These include precarious employment, to be celebrated as a positive incentive for competitive self-improvement and the building of an optimized entrepreneurial identity. 72On this see, among many others, David Brooks on the so-called ‘millennials’, under the title of ‘The Self-Reliant Generation’, New York Times, 8 January 2016, nytimes.com last accessed 21 January 2016. Brooks summarizes the results of survey of eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-old Americans. To quote: ‘You see an abstract celebration of creative transformation but a concrete hunger for order, security and stability … Another glaring feature of millennial culture is they have been forced to be self-reliant and to take a loosely networked individualism as the normal order of the universe.

Something is going to change.’ 73‘The most telling polling result from the 2000 election was from a Time magazine survey that asked people if they are in the top 1 percent of earners. Nineteen percent of Americans say they are in the richest 1 percent and a further 20 percent expect to be someday. So right away you have 39 percent of Americans who thought that when Mr. Gore savaged a plan that favored the top 1 percent, he was taking a direct shot at them.’ David Brooks, ‘The Triumph of Hope Over Self-Interest’, New York Times, 12 January 2003, nytimes.com, last accessed 31 December 2015. 74Although underclass drug users are kept desirably apathetic and politically incapacitated by their habit, they are the target of harsh law enforcement measures, and so are their suppliers. The reason may be that performance-replacing drugs, although they effectively disorganize the underclass as a potential political force, could subvert the competitive achievement ethic on which capitalism vitally depends.


pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

By the same token, rundown nineteenth-century houses and small shops are appealing to many people with middle-class cultural tastes because they embody the aesthetic distinction of objects that are, on the one hand, simple, handmade tokens of craftsmanship and, on the other, living history. As Thorstein Veblen said more than a hundred years ago, these quirky marks of distinction are cast into relief by the sameness of mass production. And as the journalist David Brooks says today, the “gentry” don’t want “opulent, luxurious, … magnificent and extravagant,” they want “authentic, natural, warm, … honest, organic, … unique.” To the use-values of longtime residents and the exchange-values of real estate developers, bohemians and gentrifiers add aesthetic values.28 Although gentrification was just beginning in the United States and England when Jacobs wrote Death and Life and still lacked an American name, Herbert Gans had some idea of what the next stage of modernity would bring.

Edmond Jephcott (New York: Urizen, 1978), pp. 22–29; Bourdieu, Distinction, p. 74; Theodor Adorno, The Jargon of Authenticity (1964), trans. Knut Tarnowski and Frederic Will (London: Routledge, 2003). 27. Jerrold Seigel, Bohemian Paris (New York: Viking, 1986); Robert Darnton, “Finding a Lost Prince of Bohemia,” New York Review of Books, April 3, 2008, pp. 44–48. 28. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008); David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000), p. 83, emphasis added. Also see David Ley, “Artists, Aestheticization and the Field of Gentrification,” Urban Studies 40 (2003): 2527–44; Mike Featherstone, “The Aestheticization of Everyday Life,” in Consumer Culture and Postmodernism (London: Sage, 1991), pp. 65–82. 29. Gans, “Urban Vitality,” p. 30; Mark Crinson, ed., Urban Memory: History and Amnesia in the Modern City (London: Routledge, 2005). 30.


pages: 516 words: 1,220

Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq by Thomas E. Ricks

business process, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

"It was very clear to us from Bremer's leadership that he thought it would take the Iraqis a long time before they were going to be able to take over," said a CPA strategist. Bremer's plan had one huge flaw: It lacked essential support both in the United States and in Iraq. "Bremer hadn't cleared the piece with his higher-ups in the Pentagon or the White House, and here he was describing a drawn-out American occupation," columnist David Brooks reported ten months later in the New York Times. "Iraqis would take their time writing a constitution, and would eventually have elections and take control of their country. For some Bush officials, this was the lowest period of the entire Iraq project. They knew they couldn't sustain an occupation for that long, yet they had no other realistic plan for transferring power to Iraqis." There was another even bigger problem looming: Ayatollah Sistani, the most important politicalfigurein Iraq, "declared it unacceptable to have a constitution prepared by unelected actors," recalled Sir Jeremy Greenstock, the British aide to Bremer.

The New York Times' Thomas Friedman, probably the most influential writer on foreign affairs in the United States, and one of the more prominent journalistic supporters of going to war in Iraq, sounded the alarm in early May. "This administration needs to undertake a total overhaul of its Iraq policy," he wrote. "Otherwise, it is courting a total disaster for us all." A week later, his Times colleague David Brooks, who had been even more hawkish back in 2002, when he argued that "Bush has such an incredibly strong case to go in there," sounded even more chagrined. "This has been a crushingly depressing period, especially for people who support the war in Iraq," Brooks wrote. "The predictions people on my side made about the postwar world have not yet come true. The warnings others made about the fractious state of postSaddam society have."

NOTES 453 240 "They shot at us for about an hour": The Stars & Stripes article quoting Iraqi police about being shot by U.S. troops near Fallujah was by Terry Boyd, and was published on September 13,2003. 240 "It was the deadliest friendly-fire incident": Bing West's book No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah (Bantam, 2005). 244 "Then all hell broke loose": Wallen was quoted in an article by the Washington Post's Vernon Loeb, "Combat Heroine: Teresa Broadwell Found Herself in the Army—Under Fire, in Iraq," that ran on November 23, 2003. 249 "We think the insurgency is waning": Hertling was quoted by Ron Jensen in "Iraqi Insurgency Is Waning, General Says," Stars & Stripes (November 9,2003). 253 "the means toward the strategic goal": This T. E. Lawrence quotation isfromhis essay "The Evolution of a Revolt," which appeared in the October 1920 edition of the British Army Quarterly and Defence Journal. This entire book was influenced by Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Dell, 1962). The David Brooks column on Bremer's surprising the White House appeared in the New York Times edition of July 3, 2004. 254 "declared it unacceptable": Greenstock's article appeared in the Economist issue of May 8, 2004. 255 "The decision on 15 November": This Synnott comment is from his article cited in the previous chapter. Costello's observation is from the transcript of his interview posted on the USIP Web site.


pages: 138 words: 43,748

Conscience of a Conservative: A Rejection of Destructive Politics and a Return to Principle by Jeff Flake

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, immigration reform, impulse control, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Potemkin village, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

We’re in far better shape than California or other places in the west because Stan and a generation of rural lawmakers knew how to govern and get along. So at the funeral, here was this man who had spent years as Speaker of the House and as Senate president, but there was little mention of his time in politics. Rather, those eulogizing Stan remembered him, as they did my uncle Jake, for his character, his decency, his humor, and his sense of fair play. The New York Times columnist David Brooks speaks of the desirability of “eulogy virtues” versus “résumé virtues.” I’ve been given wonderful examples of the former all my life. I can only hope to be so remembered. — What is a conservative, exactly? And what is a conservative not? Growing up, I didn’t consider myself to be very political, nor did I expect that I would end up in politics. But my parents had eleven kids to feed—I don’t remember ever going out to eat when I was young—so we spent a lot of time around the dinner table, and politics was often served.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Thiel also advocates an end to death, to be enjoyed by the alpha proprietors of network-based monopolies. The flood of data about biology ought to be churned by cloud-based algorithms into an antidote to mortality in no time at all. That’s the expectation. The culture of power on the ’net is so different from what people everywhere else are used to that I wonder if it’s even possible to convey it. For instance, New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote1 about Thiel’s arguments based on a student’s notes,2 posted online. What he didn’t comment on was the headline on the student’s offering: Your mind is software. Program it. Your body is a shell. Change it. Death is a disease. Cure it. Extinction is approaching. Fight it. What most outsiders have failed to grasp is that the rise to power of ’net-based monopolies coincides with a new sort of religion based on becoming immortal.

The Interface to Reality 1. http://www.firstround.com/our_focus/. 2. http://www.naturalnews.com/036476_smart_meters_hacking_privacy.html. Chapter 29. Creepy 1. See http://www.fellowgeek.com/a-US-security-firm-hacked-by-Anonymous-ix1113.html and http://www.esecurityplanet.com/hackers/panda-security-hacked-lulzsec-is-your-website-safe.html. 2. http://cs-www.cs.yale.edu/homes/freeman/lifestreams.html. 3. See http://totalrecallbook.com/. Seventh Interlude: Limits Are for Mortals 1. David Brooks, “The Creative Monopoly,” New York Times, April 23, 2012. 2. http://blakemasters.tumblr.com/post/21169325300/peter-thiels-cs183-startup-class-4-notes-essay. 3. http://www.dailydot.com/society/facebook-mourning-jenna-ness-death/. 4. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2009/01/night_of_the_living_dad.html. 5. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/21/tupac-hologram-elvis-presley-marilyn-monroe_n_1818715.html. 6.


pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

One of the most interesting and productive areas of inquiry is the field of behavioral economics, which explores how individuals make decisions—sometimes in ways that aren’t as rational as economists have traditionally theorized. We humans underestimate some risks (obesity) and overestimate others (flying); we let emotion cloud our judgment; we overreact to both good news and bad news (rising home prices and then falling home prices). Most of this was obvious to Shakespeare, but it’s relatively new to mainstream economics. As New York Times columnist David Brooks noted, “Economic behavior can be accurately predicted through elegant models. This view explains a lot, but not the current financial crisis—how so many people could be so stupid, incompetent and self-destructive all at once. The crisis has delivered a blow to classical economics and taken a body of psychological work that was at the edge of public policy thought and brought it to front and center.”4 Of course, most of the old ideas are still pretty darn important.

Thomas Friedman, “Senseless in Seattle,” New York Times, December 1, 1999. 2. Claudia Goldin and Cecilia Rouse, “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians,” American Economic Review, September 2000. 3. Charles Himmelberg, Christopher Mayer, and Todd Sinai, “Assessing High House Prices: Bubbles, Fundamentals and Misperceptions,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 19, no. 4 (Fall 2005). 4. David Brooks, “An Economy of Faith and Trust,” New York Times, January 16, 2009. CHAPTER 1. THE POWER OF MARKETS 1. M. Douglas Ivester, Remarks to the Economic Club of Chicago, February 25, 1999. 2. Stephen Moore and Julian Simon, The Greatest Century That Ever Was: 25 Miraculous Trends of the Past 100 Years, Cato Institute Policy Analysis, No. 364 (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, December 15, 1999). 3.


pages: 497 words: 123,778

The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It by Yascha Mounk

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, basic income, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Having imbibed sociological accounts about the pervasive injustices that define modern society and learned to deconstruct the “problematic” values of the Enlightenment, teachers and principals have become much less likely to teach civics in a way that encourages their students to become proud defenders of liberal democracy.34 Many conservative thinkers have suggested a simple remedy to these complex ills. As David Brooks put the point in a recent column, the history of western civilization should be taught in a “confidently progressive” manner: “There were certain great figures, like Socrates, Erasmus, Montesquieu and Rousseau, who helped fitfully propel the nations to higher reaches of the humanistic ideal.”35 Brooks is right to emphasize the importance of civic education. But he is wrong to suggest that the future of civics should consist in quite so hagiographic an account of the past.

See David Randall with Ashley Thorne, “Making Citizens: How American Universities Teach Civics,” National Association of Scholars, January 2017, https://www.nas.org/images/documents/NAS_makingCitizens_fullReport.pdf; as well as the response by Stanley Fish, “Citizen Formation Is Not Our Job,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 17, 2017, http://www.chronicle.com/article/Citizen-Formation-Is-Not-Our/238913. 35. David Brooks, “The Crisis of Western Civ,” New York Times, April 21, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/21/opinion/the-crisis-of-western-civ.html?mcubz=0. Conclusion 1. On Athens, see Sarah B. Pomeroy, Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999); and Robert Waterfield, Athens: A History, From Ancient Ideal to Modern City (New York: Basic Books, 2004).


pages: 394 words: 124,743

Overhaul: An Insider's Account of the Obama Administration's Emergency Rescue of the Auto Industry by Steven Rattner

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, friendly fire, hiring and firing, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, supply-chain management, too big to fail

His op-ed in the Wall Street Journal was headlined "Wagoner Had to Go: We Heard More Realism from the President Yesterday Than We've Heard from Detroit in Years." From my standpoint, the controversy over Obama's decision to offer more assistance, contingent on the automakers' meeting strict deadlines, was more expected. Senator Corker, still smoldering over supplier assistance, called it a "major power grab." The Journal's editorial page started referring to GM snarkily as "Obama Motors" and "Government Motors." David Brooks on the Times op-ed page dismissed the deadlines as empty threats and concluded: "It would have been better to keep a distance from GM and prepare the region for a structured bankruptcy process. Instead, Obama leapt in. His intentions were good, but getting out with honor will require a ruthless tenacity that is beyond any living politician." I suspected Brooks had no clue what a "structured bankruptcy" meant.

My extraordinary friend Mike Bloomberg was on Martha's Vineyard to play golf with the President and invited me to join him beforehand to hit some balls and catch up. When the President arrived at the driving range, he greeted me with a smile so big it seemed to make his prominent ears protrude even more. "I was just telling Mike that I was bragging about you," he said, and described a recent meeting in which he'd gotten New York Times columnist David Brooks to admit that his March 2009 column criticizing Obama's intervention in the auto crisis had been wrong. We exchanged laughs about how Brooks, whose pieces are generally exceptional, had been far off target in this case. After a few more pleasantries, the President stepped into position on the range and began hitting. As I struggled with my shots a few yards away, I felt that a fulfilling coda had just been attached to my government service.


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The Vietnam death toll continues to mount into the present because of the chemical warfare that President Kennedy initiated there—even as he escalated American support for a murderous dictatorship to all-out attack, the worst case of aggression during Obama’s “seven decades.” Another “political persuasion” is imaginable: the outrage Americans adopt when Russia invades Afghanistan or Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait. But the secular religion bars us from seeing ourselves through a similar lens. One mechanism of self-protection is to lament the consequences of our failure to act. Thus NEW YORK TIMES columnist David Brooks, ruminating on the drift of Syria to “Rwanda-like” horror, concludes that the deeper issue is the Sunni-Shiite violence tearing the region asunder. That violence is a testimony to the failure “of the recent American strategy of light-footprint withdrawal” and the loss of what former foreign service officer Gary Grappo calls the “moderating influence of American forces.” Those still deluded by “abuse of reality”—that is, fact—might recall that the Sunni-Shiite violence resulted from the worst crime of aggression of the new millennium, the U.S. invasion of Iraq.


pages: 407 words: 136,138

The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David K. Shipler

always be closing, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, full employment, illegal immigration, late fees, low skilled workers, payday loans, profit motive, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, working poor

Balloting seems driven more by aspiration than complaint. Time magazine found in a 2000 survey that 19 percent of Americans thought they were in the top 1 percent of wage-earners, and another 20 percent expected to be in the future. “So right away you have 39 percent of Americans who thought that when Mr. Gore savaged a plan that favored the top i percent, he was taking a direct shot at them,” wrote David Brooks, a senior editor at The Weekly Standard.3 When self-delusion distorts behavior at the polls, it has damaging consequences for those of low income. Voting is the basic building block of democratic government, and government is the instrument best positioned to make a difference to the working poor. No key sector of this free-enterprise system, whether business or charity, escapes the pervasive influence wielded by government through tax policy, regulation, wage requirements, subsidies, grants, and the like.

Chapter Eleven: Skill and Will 1. “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000,” U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, February 2002, Table B, pp. 6–7. 2. Los Angeles Times, Apr. 7, 2003, p. A20 and New York Times, Apr. 23, 2008, p. Ai. Of the total inmate population, which reached 2.3 million in 2006, nearly 143,000 were non-citizens and over 90,000 were minors. 3. David Brooks, “The Triumph of Hope Over Self-Interest,” New York Times, Jan. 12, 2003, Section 4, p. 15. 4. Liana Fox, “What a New Federal Minimum Wage Means for the States,” Economic Policy Inst., June 1, 2007. 5. The ACORN Living Wage Resource Center, http://www.livingwagecampaign.org/shortwins.php. 6. Robert Pear, “Aid to Poor Faces Tighter Scrutiny,” New York Times, Feb. 5, 2003, p. Ai. 7. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 25, 2008, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nro.htm. 8.


pages: 311 words: 130,761

Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall

Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor

This category comprises semiskilled workers, many of whom are employed in factories or in the service sector (as clerks and sales associates, for instance), where their responsibilities involve routine, mechanized tasks requiring little skill beyond basic literacy and a brief period of on-the-job training.10 Members of the upper-middle class are often thought to have achieved the American Dream; unlike many in the upper class, however, most members of the upper-middle class must work for a living. Early in the twenty-first century, two best-selling books offered new concepts about the upper-middle class. In Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks suggests that many people in the upper-middle class are now “the new upper class,” a well-educated elite 9781442202238.print.indb 165 2/10/11 10:47 AM 166 Chapter 6 that he calls “Bobos” (bourgeois bohemians).11 Based in part on information in the New York Times wedding section about brides, grooms, and their families, Brooks argues that the “white-shoed, Whartonized, Episcopalian establishmentarians with protruding jaws” are long gone from the ranks of the privileged upper class, having been replaced by “mountaineering-booted overachievers with excellent orthodontia and impressive GRE scores.”12 However, Brooks’s description of the future prospects of the so-called Bobos gives them the appearance of being upper-middle class at best: But members of today’s educated class can never be secure about their own future.

“Inside the Middle Class: Bad Times Hit the Good Life,” Pew Social Trends, April 9, 2008, http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/706/middle-class-poll (accessed July 29, 2010). 8. Barbara Ehrenreich, Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class (New York: HarperPerennial, 1990), 13. 9. Gilbert, The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. 10. Gilbert, The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. 11. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000). 12. E. J. Graff, “Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There,” American Prospect, May 22, 2000, 52, quoting Brooks, Bobos in Paradise. 13. Brooks, Bobos in Paradise, 52. 14. “It Would Never Work Out . . .” (cartoon), New Yorker, March 25, 2002, 75. 15. Benjamin DeMott, The Imperial Middle: Why Americans Can’t Think Straight about Class (New York: William Morrow, 1990); Gregory Mantsios, “Media Magic: Making Class Invisible,” in Privilege: A Reader, ed.


pages: 460 words: 131,579

Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

Still, CSR is unlikely to disappear entirely, however loud the critics bay and however deep the economy shrinks. Western companies will continue to find CSR a useful tool in one of their most important “wars,” the war for talent. Many of the most desirable job-seekers, particularly in the millennial generation, are motivated by “meaning” as well as money. They want to make a good living, to be sure, but they also want to help to improve the world. (David Brooks has coined the phrase “bourgeois bohemians” to capture the mixture of capitalist and countercultural values that are common in professional circles.)17 An imaginative CSR program can be a deal-maker for some people. Stony indifference to CSR can be deal-breaker. Emerging-market companies will find CSR a useful tool in an even more vital war: the war against chaos. The emerging world is marked by “institutional voids” (to borrow a phrase from Tarun Khanna, of the Harvard Business School): governments that don’t work properly, markets that are full of holes, chaos that threatens to envelop everything that you do.

Milton Friedman, “The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits,” The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. 13. David Vogel, The Market for Virtue (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2006), p. 135. 14. Darrell Rigby and Barbara Bilinear, Management Tools and Trends, (Bain & Company, 2009). 15. John Browne, Beyond Business (London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2010), pp. 194–96. 16. Ed Crooks, “Man in the News: Tony Hayward,” Financial Times, April 30, 2010. 17. David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000). 18. Daniel Isenberg, “Keggfarms (India): Which came first, the Kuroiler or the KEGG,” Harvard Business School Case Study. 19. Daniel Isenberg, “Lapdesk company: A South African FOPSE,” Harvard Business School case study. 20. Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008). 21.


pages: 455 words: 133,719

Overwhelmed: Work, Love, and Play When No One Has the Time by Brigid Schulte

8-hour work day, affirmative action, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, Burning Man, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deliberate practice, desegregation, DevOps, East Village, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, fear of failure, feminist movement, financial independence, game design, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, profit maximization, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar, éminence grise

“Women CEOs of the Fortune 1000,” Catalyst, July 1, 2013, www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-ceos-fortune-1000. “Women in the U.S. Congress 2013,” Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, November 11, 2012, www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/cong.pdf. 25. Philip N. Cohen, “Fact-Checking David Brooks, Citing Hanna Rosin Edition,” Family Inequality (blog), September 11, 2012, http://familyinequality.wordpress.com/2012/09/11/fact-checking-david-brooks-citing-hanna-rosin-edition/. Cohen, a sociologist who studies gender and income inequality at the University of Maryland, quotes a Bureau of Labor Statistics July 18, 2012, news release on “Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers, Second Quarter 2012.” Cohen also notes that among young adults who have completed college and are working full-time, year-round, women make 80.7 percent of men’s median earnings.


pages: 504 words: 129,087

The Ones We've Been Waiting For: How a New Generation of Leaders Will Transform America by Charlotte Alter

"side hustle", 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Hangouts, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job-hopping, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, passive income, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, white picket fence, working poor, Works Progress Administration

“Individually, boomers might be as selfless and as interested in the future as anybody else,” says Svante Myrick. “As a body politic, they’ve made a series of choices that increase their short-term prosperity and shortchanged us. At every opportunity, they decided instead that they wanted a short-term tax cut.” Even many boomers themselves don’t think they did so great. New York Times columnist David Brooks gives his generation a C minus for its political contributions. “During the years of boomer dominance—from Bill Clinton through Donald Trump—America’s political institutions have become dysfunctional, civic debate has crumbled, debt has soared and few major pieces of legislation have passed,” he wrote. “In the world that boomers will pass along to their children,” wrote boomer Michael Kinsley in The Atlantic, “America is widely held in contempt, prosperity looks to more and more people like a mirage, and things are generally going to hell.”

“America’s reigning political generation”: Peter Beinart, “The Rise of the New New Left,” The Daily Beast, September 12, 2013, updated July 11, 2017, thedailybeast.com/the-rise-of-the-new-new-left. is still hard at work: Bruce Cannon Gibney, A Generation of Sociopaths (New York: Hachette, 2017), 130. doubled since the 1970s: “Federal Debt: Total Public Debt as Percent of Gross Domestic Product,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, fred.stlouisfed.org/series/GFDEGDQ188S. “During the years of boomer dominance”: David Brooks, “Your Baby Boomer Report Card,” The New York Times, August, 8, 2019, nytimes.com/2019/08/08/opinion/baby-boomers-report-card.html. “In the world that boomers”: Michael Kinsley, “The Least We Can Do,” The Atlantic, October 15, 2010, theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/10/the-least-we-can-do/308228/. at any time in history: “Record Share of New Mothers Are College Educated,” Pew Research Center, May 10, 2013, pewsocialtrends.org/2013/05/10/record-share-of-new-mothers-are-college-educated/.


pages: 428 words: 134,832

Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

New York’s five boroughs are of course far more intensely settled, but the average density of the tri-state metropolitan region is actually 25 percent lower than the density of Greater Los Angeles—a landscape whose every nook and canyon is packed with houses, mostly on small lots, giving it densities high enough for rapid transit. 3. The Highway to Hell Phoenix, Arizona This nation has achieved a paradoxical and inexplicable condition: suburban greatness. — David Brooks, The Atlantic, 2002 I’ve changed my view of suburbia. In my last book, I was pretty pro-urban/suburban sprawl. Now I’m much more skeptical. Now I believe, the more contact with other people, the better. — David Brooks, New York, 2010 The future, as envisioned by America’s greatest architect, was supposed to look so much better than this. By this point in the twenty-first century, we were meant to be living in flat-roofed houses distributed over the countryside, each with its own carport and acre of cultivated land.


pages: 518 words: 143,914

God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Brooks, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

John Rawls, Harvard’s leading political philosopher, argued that people should set aside their religious views before they could participate in the public square.2 Religion was even out of favor in schools of religion: a report by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1976 found that fewer than half of the graduates of the country’s top five divinity schools—Harvard, Yale, Chicago, Vanderbilt and New York’s Union Theological Seminary—went on to work for the church or engage in further study of religion, down from four-fifths a couple of decades earlier.3 In 1988, fresh from his triumph with The Bonfire of the Vanities, Tom Wolfe told students at Harvard, not entirely happily, that they lived in an era of “freedom from religion.”4 Now God is returning to intellectual life. The revival was supercharged by September 11. After the terrorist attacks large numbers of what David Brooks of The New York Times has diagnosed as “recovering secularists”5 went back to church, and religious courses in universities swelled dramatically. Al Qaeda inevitably focused intellectual inquiry on both Islam and religion in general. But even before the twin towers fell there were growing signs that faith was reviving as a force for the mind as well as the soul. Religious-minded thinkers formed associations such as the Society of Christian Philosophers (in 1978) and founded journals such as First Things (1990).

., Perspectives on American Religion and Culture, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), 222 . 14 “Church of the Mighty Dollar,” BusinessWeek, May 23, 2005. 15 “The 25 Most Influential Evangelicals in America,” Time, February 7, 2005 . CHAPTER SEVEN: EMPIRES OF THE MIND 1 Robert Nisbet, Conservatism: Dream and Reality, 107. 2 John Rawls, Political Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 1. 3 Amy Sullivan, The Party Faithful, 40-1. 4 Dorothy McInnis Scura, Conversations with Tom Wolfe (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1990), 284 . 5 David Brooks, “Kicking the Secularist Habit,” Atlantic Monthly, March 2003 . 6 Mike Davis, “Planet of Slums,” New Left Review, March-April 2004 . 7 Stanley Fish, “One University Under God,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 7, 2005 . 8 Irving Kristol, “Christianity, Judaism and Socialism,” in Neoconservatism: Selected Essays: The Autobiography of an Idea (New York: Ivan Dee, 1999). 9 Mark Gerson, The Neoconservative Vision (Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1997), 154 . 10 Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, 14 . 11 Richard John Neuhaus, The Naked Public Square: Religion and Democracy in America (Grand Rapids: Wm.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Both had a vast supply of echo chamber at their disposal back then. Now imagine they time-travel to the present. It is far easier now for each of them to stumble across divergent views—the Manhattan leftie can accidentally follow a link to National Review Online or surf past Sean Hannity on the way to Keith Olbermann, and the midwesterner can come across Ellen DeGeneres talking about her wedding plans, or follow a link to Andrew Sullivan’s blog. As David Brooks described it, “This study suggests that Internet users are a bunch of ideological Jack Kerouacs. They’re not burrowing down into comforting nests. They’re cruising far and wide, looking for adventure, information, combat and arousal.” — Like any historic disruption, the transition in journalism—from big media institutions and quasi-monopolies to a more diverse and interconnected peer network—will inevitably be painful to those of us who have, understandably, come to cherish and rely upon the old institutions.


pages: 190 words: 53,409

Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy by Robert H. Frank

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, attribution theory, availability heuristic, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, experimental subject, framing effect, full employment, hindsight bias, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, Paul Samuelson, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Thaler, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, selection bias, side project, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, ultimatum game, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, winner-take-all economy

And it may be a good thing, since those who take delight in being good at something, whether earned or not, are more likely to find arenas in which they can compete successfully. Laboratory studies by psychologists support the popular wisdom that liberals are more likely than conservatives to embrace the importance of luck in life.25 But there are numerous exceptions to this pattern, and the differences between opposing views are often far more nuanced than popular accounts suggest. David Brooks, the right-of-center op-ed columnist at the New York Times, captured the middle ground nicely in a piece published during the 2012 presidential campaign. He began by quoting from a letter he said he’d received from an Ohio businessman: Dear Mr. Opinion Guy, Over the past few years, I’ve built a successful business. I’ve worked hard, and I’m proud of what I’ve done. But now President Obama tells me that social and political forces helped build that.


pages: 538 words: 147,612

All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the new new thing, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, wealth creators, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

The new rich know they’re doing well, but they also want to feel like they’re doing good…and they desperately want to raise their children with the values that helped them get where they are.” In that vein, Beverly Hills psychologist Lee Hausner notes that one of the main worries afflicting the new rich is that they will fail to pass on middle-class values to their children. Not for them the over-the-top spending of Larry Ellison or of Bill Koch, who built his son a two-acre playground complete with a dozen jungle gyms. Writer and New York Times columnist David Brooks christened this new affluent class—children of the 1960s who have melded capitalist success virtues with countercultural values—bourgeois bohemians, or Bobos for short. According to Brooks, in his tongue-in-cheek sociological study Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There, while these new billionaires have no problem spending their hard-earned dollars on beautiful homes and yachts, woe betide anyone who flaunts his riches egregiously.

Likewise, the recluse Richard Wendt: Elisa Williams, “Work Speaks for Itself,” Forbes, Oct. 9, 2000. 83. Wynn, who suffers from a rare disease: Nick Poumgarten, “The $40-million Elbow,” The New Yorker, Oct. 23, 2006. 84. In the late 1990s: Michaels, “The Mass-Market Rich.” 85. “Theirs is not old wealth”: Dinesh D’Souza, “A Century of Wealth: The Billionaire Next Door,” Forbes, Oct. 11, 1999. 86. “Earlier this century”: David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), p. 47. 10. Heirs Sources interviewed for this chapter: Nelson W. Aldrich Jr., author, Old Money: The Mythology of Wealth in America (1988); Natalie A. Black; Peter Buffett; Susie Buffett; Sara Hamilton of Family Office Exchange; Dr. Lee Hausner, of the family-wealth consulting firm IFF Advisors; Andrew Keyt, executive director of the Chicago Family Business Center at Loyola University; Herbert V.


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

William Gibson, “The Art of Fiction No. 211,” interviewed by David Wallace-Wells, Paris Review, Summer 2011, http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/6089/the-art-of-fiction-no-211-william-gibson. 30. See Carolyn Kellogg, “Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, by Seth Grahame-Smith,” LA Times, April 4, 2009, http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/la-et-zombies4-2009apr04-story.html. 31. In July 2015 New York Times columnist David Brooks wrote what many readers took to be a condescending review addressed to Ta-Nehisi Coates for his recent nonfiction book Between the World and Me (2015). Brooks had unselfconsciously arrogated the device of the open letter that Coates had used to frame his own work, and this may have exacerbated online reaction. Parody texts quickly emerged, with bloggers copying and pasting Brooks’s column and then thematically modifying the prose while retaining its key signposting language.

Parody texts quickly emerged, with bloggers copying and pasting Brooks’s column and then thematically modifying the prose while retaining its key signposting language. One of the best-known of the parodies has Brooks writing a review of a Thai restaurant on Yelp: “Maybe the right white response is just silence for a change. In any case, Pad Basil has filled my belly unforgettably. Three stars,” it concludes, bitingly. See http://avidly.lareviewofbooks.org/2015/07/17/david-brooks-writes-a-yelp-review-of-the-new-thai-restaurant/. The point, once again, is that the facility with which the underlying textual operations can be conducted—copying and pasting from an electronic source, then modifying the prose locally throughout by working directly from the original base text—encourages distinct forms of textual expression, in this case in the service of parody and critique. The Thai restaurant review and its sibling texts were instantly recognizable as Brooks’s column, even as their particulars amused with their seemingly arbitrary implausibility.


pages: 535 words: 158,863

Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making by David Rothkopf

airport security, anti-communist, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, carried interest, clean water, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, William Langewiesche

Historically, the people who had done so much to shape America’s character in the world—the Tafts, the Luces, the Stimsons, the Harrimans, the Buckleys, the Bundys and the Bushes, among others—had their character shaped in the Tomb of Skull and Bones.” Conspiracy theories about Bones have blamed them for funding Adolf Hitler, infiltrating the CIA, controlling American media (including, notably, owning publishing house Farrar, Straus and Giroux), choreographing the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Kennedy assassination, and generally running the United States. David Brooks, a conservative columnist for The New York Times, has a slightly different take on the intrinsic power of the group: My view of secret societies is they’re like the first-class cabin in airplanes. They’re really impressive until you get into them, and then once you’re there they’re a little dull. So you hear all these conspiracy theories about Skull and Bones. And to me, to be in one of these organizations, you have to have an incredibly high tolerance for tedium ’cause you’re sittin’ around talking, talking, and talking.

., Knight of Eulogia,” Atlantic, May 2000. 260 George W. is in fact Ibid. 260 It began admitting women in 1992 Andrew Cedotal, “Rattling Those Dry Bones,” Yale Daily News, April 18, 2006. 261 when George W. Bush was presented Alexandra Robbins, Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power (Boston: Little, Brown, 2002), 126. 261 “Skull and Bones is not some ordinary” Ron Rosenbaum, “Skull and Bones, Denying Its Rite, Suckers AOL-TW,” New York Observer, July 14, 2002. 261 David Brooks, a conservative columnist “Skull and Bones: Secret Yale Society Includes America’s Power Elite,” 60 Minutes, June 13, 2004. 261 the Carlyle group, which manages more than $56 billion Company profile, www.carlyle.com. 262 its roster of prominent employees Melanie Warner, “Down the Rabbit Hole,” Fortune, March 18, 2002. 262 Even the younger Bush had a stint Jamie Doward, “Ex-Presidents Club Gets Fat on Conflict,” Guardian, March 23, 2003. 262 “Conspiracy theorists that obsess” Dan Briody, The Iron Triangle: Inside the Secret World of the Carlyle Group (Hoboken: John Wiley, 2003), 158. 263 newspaper articles and business magazine cover stories For example, a Carlyle feature by Emily Thornton et al., “Carlyle Changes Its Stripes,” made the cover of BusinessWeek, February 12, 2007. 263 in 1990 Carlyle started buying up defense-related assets Doward, “Ex-Presidents’ Club.” 263 took the company public Mark Fineman, “Arms Buildup Is a Boon to Firm Run by Big Guns,” Los Angeles Times, January 10, 2002. 263 Its $73 million purchase Terence O’Hara, “Carlyle Shows It’s Still Tops in Defense,” Washington Post, February 13, 2006. 263 He purportedly made a phone call Warner, “Down the Rabbit Hole.” 263 “The problem comes when” Oliver Burkeman and Julian Borger, “The Ex-Presidents’ Club,” Guardian, October 13, 2001. 263 One of Carlyle’s cofounders told The Nation Tim Shorrock, “Crony Capitalism Goes Global,” Nation, April 1, 2002. 263 “Since 9/11, USIS’s acquisition” Briody, Iron Triangle, 152. 264 Shafig bin Laden, one of Osama’s numerous brothers Warner, “Down the Rabbit Hole.” 264 As one top-level Carlyle employee Ibid. 266 One antiglobalist website, NewsWithViews Available at www.newswithviews.com. 266 “Business leaders go to Davos” Available at www.foe.co.uk. 266 “Davos is … the most visible symbol” Jeff Faux, “The Party of Davos,” Nation, February 13, 2006. 266 now generating more than $85 million a year World Economic Forum, “Annual Report 2005/06,” www.weforum.org. 267 The facts about the meeting are well known “About Us,” WEF website, www.weforum.org. 267 As Henri Schwamm, former vice president Jean-Christophe Graz, “How Powerful Are Transnational Elite Clubs?


On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Stephen Hawking

The ultra-Right, the right-wing extremists, who are kind of off the international spectrum, they’re opposing it, though not for reasons I like. They’re opposing it because “Why should we dedicate ourselves to solving other people’s problems and waste our own resources?” They’re literally asking, “Who’s going to defend us when we’re attacked, because we’re devoting ourselves to helping people overseas?” That’s the ultra-Right. If you look at the “moderate” Right, people like, say, David Brooks of the New York Times, considered an intellectual commentator on the right. His view is that the US effort to withdraw its forces from the region is not having a “moderating effect.” According to Brooks, when US forces are in the region, that has a moderating effect; it improves the situation, as you can see in Iraq, for example. But if we’re withdrawing our forces, then we’re no longer able to moderate the situation and make it better.


pages: 207 words: 63,071

My Start-Up Life: What A by Ben Casnocha, Marc Benioff

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, call centre, coherent worldview, creative destruction, David Brooks, don't be evil, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index fund, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Lao Tzu, Menlo Park, Paul Graham, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, superconnector, technology bubble, traffic fines, Year of Magical Thinking

O’Rourke River Town, by Peter Hessler Novels I Am Charlotte Simmons, by Tom Wolfe Reading in the Dark, by Seamus Deane Dubliners, by James Joyce The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne The Plot Against America, by Philip Roth Ender’s Game, by Orson Scott Card Disgrace, by J. M. Coetze Indecision, by Benjamin Kunkel The Secret Life of Bees, by Sue Monk Kidd The Bonfire of the Vanities, by Tom Wolfe Saturday, by Ian McEwan Random On Paradise Drive, by David Brooks How to Be Alone, by Jonathan Franzen A Hope in the Unseen, by Ron Suskind Dress Your Family in Corduroy and Denim, by David Sedaris Clinton & Me, by Mark Katz What Does It Mean to Be Well Educated? by Alfie Kohn Consider the Lobster, by David Foster Wallace A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again, by David Foster Wallace 181 Acknowledgments I am lucky on many levels, and it’s most evident if I think about the people who have entered my life.


pages: 215 words: 61,435

Why Liberalism Failed by Patrick J. Deneen

David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, mortgage debt, Nicholas Carr, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, Steven Levy, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Wilson Carey McWilliams, “Democracy and the Citizen: Community, Dignity, and the Crisis of Contemporary Politics in America,” in Redeeming Democracy in America, ed. Patrick J. Deneen and Susan J. McWilliams (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011), 27. INTRODUCTION 1. Adrian Vermuele, Law’s Abnegation: From Law’s Empire to the Administrative State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016). 2. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor, 2000), 7. 3. From a response essay to David Brooks “Organization Kid,” by a member of Notre Dame class of 2018, in my course Political Philosophy and Education, August 29, 2016. Paper in author’s possession. 4. Wendell Berry, “Agriculture from the Roots Up,” in The Way of Ignorance and Other Essays (Emeryville, CA: Shoemaker and Hoard, 2005), 107–8. 5. Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2010). 6.


pages: 589 words: 167,680

The Red and the Blue: The 1990s and the Birth of Political Tribalism by Steve Kornacki

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, computer age, David Brooks, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, mass immigration, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

“When I was young and irresponsible,” he said, “I was young and irresponsible.” It didn’t bother his party a lick. The endorsements kept rolling in, and so did the cash. Maybe it was a consequence of Clinton’s scandals, which had tested the bounds of behavior Americans would accept from their leaders. Or maybe it was just Bush’s charm, or his poll numbers against Gore. The stampede only accelerated. In Newsweek, columnist David Brooks wrote: “Right now, the GOP is so scared of total meltdown that it’s going to do whatever it takes to win. Even if it means imitating Bill Clinton.” At the start of July, the Bush team told reporters to gather around. The candidate had news he wanted to deliver himself. The second quarter of the year had just ended, and campaign finance reports from the campaigns were due. Bush now announced his total: thirty-six million dollars.

Berke, “Bush Tests Presidential Run with a Flourish,” New York Times, March 8, 1999. In his column: George F. Will, “Government as Therapist,” Washington Post, February 7, 1999. “We wouldn’t have”: Richard L. Berke, “California, Here Bush Comes, a Moderate on Immigration and Racial Quotas,” New York Times, June 30, 1999. “When I was young”: Jim Yardley, “Bush, Irked at Being Asked, Brushes Off Drug Question,” New York Times, August 19, 1999. In Newsweek: David Brooks, “Clintonizing the GOP,” Newsweek, February 8, 1999. “I am humbled”: Dick Polman, “Bush Reports a Record Haul, $36 Million, in Just 6 Months,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 1, 1999. “George Bush’s term”: Tribune News Services, “Kasich Gives Up Race, Endorses Bush,” Chicago Tribune, July 15, 1999. “Too often”: “Bush Hits GOP for Negative Rhetoric,” New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 6, 1999.


A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America in the 19th Century by Witold Rybczynski

California gold rush, City Beautiful movement, clean water, David Brooks, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, New Urbanism, place-making, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban renewal

His next career choice was less dramatic than going to sea, and less ambitious than making his way in the hurly-burly of New York. He thought he might try farming. This time, he proceeded cautiously. Was he really wiser, or was he encouraged to be prudent? I can imagine his father advising him: “I’ll help you, Frederick, but this time don’t rush into it. Spend a few months on a farm. See how you like it. Then decide.” There was no shortage of relatives who were farmers. His mother’s sister Linda had married David Brooks, whose farm, in nearby Cheshire, Frederick and John had walked to as children. He decided to start by working on his uncle’s farm. He spent the fall and winter of 1844—almost five months—in Cheshire. Once the harvest was in, he had plenty of free time and resumed his social life. Undoubtedly, the Cheshire girls were even more susceptible to the charms of the young “sailor.” There was gossip—unfounded, he assured his father—of an engagement to one of Judge Basset’s daughters.

Olmsted spent only six months at Fairmount, but it was an important part of his education. Geddes’s interests were as broad as Olmsted’s; he enjoyed conversation and debate. He was relatively young—thirty-seven. His father had been a prominent engineer who had surveyed the course of the Erie Canal. Although George had studied law, he, too, had been engaged in civil engineering: railroad construction, coal mining, and land drainage. Olmsted had never met anyone like him. David Brooks and Joseph Welton had been accomplished farmers, but Geddes was a true gentleman farmer. That is, he combined scientific farming with a gentlemanly way of life. The latter involved maintaining genteel standards at home—tea was served each afternoon, and “silver forks every day,” Olmsted boasted to his father. Being a gentleman also meant a responsibility to the common good. While Olmsted was with him, Geddes was overseeing the construction of the first plank road (a wooden precursor of paving) in the United States.


pages: 558 words: 168,179

Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right by Jane Mayer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor

Many other nonprofit advocacy groups, like Public Notice, the 60 Plus Association, the Independent Women’s Forum, and American Commitment, also chimed in for the drastic spending cuts. The clamor seemed multitudinous, but beneath the surface each of these groups shared a common aquifer—the pool of cash contributed by the Koch donor network. A number of opinion writers also embraced Ryan as oracular. David Brooks, a moderately conservative New York Times columnist whose opinion Obama valued, declared Ryan’s plan “the most courageous budget reform proposal any of us have seen in our lifetimes…His proposal will set the standard of seriousness for anybody who wants to play in this discussion. It will become the 2012 Republican platform, no matter who is the nominee.” The broader news media also echoed Ryan’s claim that the federal deficit was the most pressing economic issue facing the country.

“right-wing lunacy”: Noam Scheiber, The Escape Artists: How Obama’s Team Fumbled the Recovery (Simon & Schuster, 2011). According to a New York Times analysis: These projections of the fallout from cuts in Ryan’s budget refer to its 2012 iteration and appeared in Jonathan Weisman, “In Control, Republican Lawmakers See Budget as Way to Push Agenda,” New York Times, Nov. 13, 2014. “Robin Hood in reverse”: See Jonathan Chait, “The Legendary Paul Ryan,” New York, April 29, 2012. “the most courageous”: David Brooks, “Moment of Truth,” New York Times, April 5, 2011. “The right had succeeded”: See Freeland, Plutocrats, 265. She writes, “In April and May of 2011, when unemployment was 9 percent,…the five largest papers in the country published 201 stories about the budget deficit and only sixty-three about joblessness.” “We made a mistake”: Bob Woodward, The Price of Politics (Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2013), 107.


pages: 228 words: 68,880

Revolting!: How the Establishment Are Undermining Democracy and What They're Afraid Of by Mick Hume

anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, colonial rule, David Brooks, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Slavoj Žižek, the scientific method, We are the 99%, World Values Survey

Look at leading Western responses to events elsewhere, in the developing world. The self-proclaimed democrats who run our states will suddenly become fans of a ‘pro-democracy’ military coup if it overthrows an elected government they don’t like, as happened in Egypt in 2013. That overthrow of democracy was backed by Western governments and given legitimacy by Western intellectuals such as New York Times columnist David Brooks, who opined that Islamists ‘lack the mental equipment to govern’ themselves. ‘Incompetence,’ declared Brooks, ‘is built into the intellectual DNA of radical Islam’, rendering radical Islamists ‘incapable of running a modern government’.21 The political problem of democracy is thus reduced to the failing ‘mental equipment’ and damaged ‘intellectual DNA’ of the Islamist government – and, by extension, of the voters who elected them.


pages: 224 words: 71,060

A Time to Build: From Family and Community to Congress and the Campus, How Recommitting to Our Institutions Can Revive the American Dream by Yuval Levin

affirmative action, Airbnb, assortative mating, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demand response, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, Jane Jacobs, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method

His own examinations of the challenges of institutional decay and reformation—in his writing and in his podcast, The Long Game—have constituted some of the most important and creative journalistic work in Washington over the past several years. April Lawson was an invaluable sounding board for me from the very beginning of this work, and she devoted an enormous amount of time and effort to reading the manuscript at an early stage and providing wise comments and suggestions that proved very helpful. Pete Wehner and David Brooks also read the lectures from which this book began and offered characteristically valuable insights and advice. Pete also read the final manuscript and gave me very helpful comments, as did Adam Keiper, Nicole Penn, Emily MacLean, Devorah Goldman, and Daniel Wiser. Along the way, I benefitted immensely from conversations about the themes of this book with Reihan Salam, Jonah Goldberg, Michael Gerson, Ben O’Dell, Ramesh Ponnuru, Ross Douthat, J.


pages: 225 words: 70,180

Humankind: Solidarity With Nonhuman People by Timothy Morton

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, David Brooks, Georg Cantor, gravity well, invisible hand, means of production, megacity, microbiome, phenotype, planetary scale, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, Turing test, wage slave, zero-sum game

Thank you, Kevin, for everything. Nicolas Shumway, Dean of Humanities at Rice, deserves a special mention for his untiring belief in what I do. I’m forever in his debt. So many people shared thoughts and suggestions, kindness and support. Among them were Blaise Agüera y Arcas, Heitham Al-Sayed, Ian Balfour, Andrew Battaglia, Anna Bernagozzi, Daniel Birnbaum, Ian Bogost, Tanya Bonakdar, Marcus Boon, Dominic Boyer, David Brooks, Alex Cecchetti, Stephen Cairns, Eric Cazdyn, Ian Cheng, Kari Conte, Carolyn Deby, Nigel Clark, Juliana Cope, Laura Copelin, Annie Culver, Sarah Ellenzweig, Olafur Eliasson, Anna Engberg, Jane Farver, Dirk Felleman, João Florêncio, Mark Foster Gage, Peter Gershon, Hazel Gibson, Jóga Jóhannsdóttir, Jón Gnarr, Kathelin Gray, Sofie Grettve, Lizzy Grindy, Björk Guðmundsdóttir, Zora Hamsa, Graham Harman, Rosemary Hennessy, Erich Hörl, Emily Houlik-Ritchey, Cymene Howe, Edouard Isar, Luke Jones, Toby Kamps, Greg Lindquist, Annie Lowe, Ingrid Luquet-Gad, Karsten Lund, Boyan Manchev, Kenric McDowell, Tracy Moore, Rick Muller, Jean-Luc Nancy, Judy Natal, Patricia Noxolo, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Genesis P-Orridge, Solveig Øvstebø, Andrea Pagnes, Albert Pope, Asad Raza, Alexander Regier, Ben Rivers, Judith Roof, David Ruy, Mark Schmanko, Sabrina Scott, Nicolas Shumway, Solveig Sigurðardóttir, Emilija Škarnulytė, Gayatri Spivak, Haim Steinbach, Verena Stenke, Samuel Stoeltje, Susan Sutton, Jeff VanderMeer, Lucas van der Velden, Teodora Vikstrom, Jennifer Walshe, Sarah Whiting, Clint Wilson, Tom Wiscombe, Susanne Witzgall, Cary Wolfe, Annette Wolfsberger, Hyesoo Woo, Martyn Woodward, Els Woudstra and Jonas Žukauskas.


pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

affirmative action, British Empire, coherent worldview, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

Blumin, The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760–1900 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 1–16, 285–90; Schulman, The Seventies, 68–72; and Joseph F. Kett, Merit: The History of a Founding Ideal from the American Revolution to the Twenty-First Century (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2013), 1–14. 32. In Bobos in Paradise, David Brooks portrays the formation of a new upper class of highly educated professionals who, he says, have a hybrid culture because they have “one foot in the bohemian world of creativity and another foot in the bourgeois realm of ambition and worldly success.” David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 11. Although I also employ the term “hybrid” to describe a comparable elite group, I am concerned about a different matter than Brooks is, namely, elites’ ability to move seamlessly between upper- and middle-class worlds that remain discrete and the uses to which they put that capability. 33.


pages: 283 words: 73,093

Social Democratic America by Lane Kenworthy

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, basic income, business cycle, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school choice, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, zero day

If it eventually does happen, it will prompt a move back toward the center, some key defections from the party, or a more frequent occurrence of Democrats holding the presidency, the House, and a filibuster-proof majority in the Senate. FIGURE 5.9 Number of laws passed by Congress The line is a loess curve. Data source: Tobin Grant, personal communication. Another push toward Republican moderation could come from the growing importance of working-class whites as a constituency for the party. Some thoughtful and prominent voices on America’s right—David Brooks, Ross Douthat, David Frum, Charles Murray, Ramesh Ponnuru, Reihan Salam—have noted that this group is struggling economically and could benefit from government help.55 Finally, clear thinkers on the right will eventually realize that the key question isn’t how much government should intervene but how it should do so. As I pointed out in chapter 4, an expansion of public social programs doesn’t necessarily mean more government interference in markets and weaker competition.


pages: 254 words: 72,929

The Age of the Infovore: Succeeding in the Information Economy by Tyler Cowen

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Flynn Effect, framing effect, Google Earth, impulse control, informal economy, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, neurotypical, new economy, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, selection bias, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind

On the complex question of which early traits predict successful and unsuccessful autistic outcomes, such as intelligence or later achievement, see Patricia Howlin, “Outcomes in Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (cited above), 201–22. See also P. Szatmari, G. Bartolucci, R. Brenner, S. Bond, and S. Rich, “A Follow-Up Study of High-Functioning Autistic Children,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 19, no. 2 (1989), 213–25. This issue remains unresolved. On The New York Times, see for instance Liesl Schillinger, “Who Do You Love?” July 13, 2008, and also David Brooks, “The Rank-Link Imbalance,” March 14, 2008. I nonetheless remain very much a fan of both of these excellent writers. The Ganz essay is in Steven O. Moldin and John L. R. Rubenstein, eds., Understanding Autism: From Basic Neuroscience to Treatment (New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006). The Bainbridge book is Beyond the Zonules of Zinn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008); see p. 283.


pages: 246 words: 74,341

Financial Fiasco: How America's Infatuation With Homeownership and Easy Money Created the Economic Crisis by Johan Norberg

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, price stability, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail

The political, media, and business establishments raged at populist politicians who would risk a depression rather than disappoint their voters. This gave vent to a feeling that the Paulson Plan was the obviously right way to go and that anyone who failed to accept it right away was on the verge of imbecility. Dana Milbank of the Washington Post labeled its opponents "wing nuts," and conservative columnist David Brooks called them "nihilists." A science article in the New York Times tried to pin down the evolutionary bug that had caused the population to resist Paulson's bailout plan.54 But the "nihilists" were soon annihilated. Once the Senate had voted through a revised version of the Troubled Assets Relief Program on that Wednesday, the House got a second chance on Friday, October 3. Democrat Brad Sherman described a sense of panic among members, with increasingly absurd horror scenes being conjured up, for instance, that the stock exchange would collapse and a state of emergency would be proclaimed across the country if they voted no again."


pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

These include magazines, blogs, and the “What’s News” column in the Wall Street Journal, among other sources. While informational index funds can help, reading omnivorously is still important, and we have already been given some help with this. The Atlantic has begun running a series called Media Diet, which asks influential thinkers what they read and how they get their facts and news. These influential people, from Gay Talese and the newspapers he carefully reads to David Brooks and the blogs he frequents, give their informational diets to help guide others. But when it comes to being aware of facts, there’s actually an even better solution: Stop memorizing things and just give up. That sounds terrible, but it’s not. Our individual memories can be outsourced to the cloud. Specifically, rather than relying on memorizing often out-of-date facts, and still usually only half-remembering them, embrace the idea that we have the Internet at our disposal, with search engines at our fingertips that enable us to search for any fact we need anytime.


pages: 253 words: 75,772

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald

airport security, anti-communist, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, Ted Kaczynski, WikiLeaks

Today show host Matt Lauer called several times to make his pitch; 60 Minutes was so relentless in their requests that I stopped taking their calls; Brian Williams dispatched several different representatives to make his case. Snowden could have spent all day and night on the most influential television shows, with the world watching him, had he wanted to do that. But he was unmovable. I conveyed the requests and he declined them, to avoid taking attention away from the revelations. Strange behavior for a fame-seeking narcissist. Other denunciations of Snowden’s personality followed. New York Times columnist David Brooks mocked him on the grounds that “he could not successfully work his way through community college.” Snowden is, Brooks decreed, “the ultimate unmediated man,” symbolic of “the rising tide of distrust, the corrosive spread of cynicism, the fraying of the social fabric and the rise of people who are so individualistic in their outlook that they have no real understanding of how to knit others together and look after the common good.”


pages: 230 words: 79,229

Respectable: The Experience of Class by Lynsey Hanley

Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Etonian, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent

I colluded in perpetuating my own ignorance by denying the value of any aspect of culture from which I felt distanced. To embark on the Sisyphean task of educating oneself into the dominant, posh, culture – of which this book inevitably forms a part – not only requires you to know that it’s there in the first place, but also to not feel terror and shame when confronted with its power. The American writer David Brooks describes highly educated ‘bourgeois bohemians’, most often working in journalism, academia and the creative industries, as forming part of a new industrialized-world elite.21 This, he says, is because the accumulation and application of knowledge have become valued over almost all other economic activity: knowledge is a hoardable commodity, like gold or oil, and can be withheld from others who need it but who both lack the means to accumulate it at the same rate and constantly find that they apply it in the ‘wrong’ way to satisfy this new ruling class.


The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum by Temple Grandin, Richard Panek

Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, double helix, ghettoisation, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, impulse control, Khan Academy, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, neurotypical, pattern recognition, phenotype, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, twin studies

We’ve come a long way from the days of doctors telling the parents of autistic children that the situation was hopeless and that the only humane option was a life sentence in an institution. We have a lot farther to go, of course. Ignorance and misunderstanding are always difficult to overcome when they’ve become part of a society’s belief system. For instance, when the movie The Social Network came out, in 2010, the New York Times op-ed columnist David Brooks wrote this assessment of the onscreen character of Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook: “It’s not that he’s a bad person. He’s just never been house-trained.” The “training” of the fictional character, however, would have had to somehow accommodate a brain that can’t process facial and gestural cues that most people easily assimilate and that finds its greatest fulfillment not in the fizzy buzz of forming a personal relationship but in the click-clack logic of writing code.


pages: 691 words: 203,236

Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional

One index of rising bohemianism was the explosion in the number of artists in New York, from a few thousand in the 1960s to 100,000 by the early 1970s.28 Meanwhile, the share of single households in Manhattan had surged to a third of the city’s population by 1980. In the 1980s, upwardly mobile professionals, or ‘yuppies’, came to adopt aspects of bohemianism, combining economic self-interest with social liberalism. This is nicely explored by David Brooks’s sardonic social commentary on the bohemian affectations of the American bourgeoisie, Bobos in Paradise (2013). One ‘bobo’ hotbed was the emerging tech hub of Silicon Valley, where countercultural values fused with venture capitalism and big science to form a new social ecosystem. Techies, hippies, hipsters and yuppies represent different facets of the fragmentation of identity among young, well-educated modernist whites.

They tended towards left-wing politics, though the relationship became strained when socialists insisted on doctrinaire art forms such as the Soviet ‘proletcult’ of the 1930s. Importantly, the left-modernist form of positive liberalism has come through the major crises of the twentieth century with shining colours, meshing extremely well with global capitalism. The term ‘work hard, play hard’ encapsulates Bell’s ‘cultural contradictions of capitalism’, combining a bourgeois puritanism at work with a bohemian consumerism at play. David Brooks’s Rise of the BoBos, published in 2001, echoes Bell’s bohemian-bourgeois synthesis, which underpins modern capitalism.25 The rise of an adversary culture is one of the most distinctive aspects of the modern West. This self-critique is an asset which has unlocked cultural creativity and advanced the struggle for freedom and equality. But problems arise when there are no checks and balances to limit its domination of the high culture.


pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

See finance sector “Barbadosed” Bayh, Birch Bayh, Evan Beame, Abe Beck, Glenn Beecher, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Begala Berman, Ari Beyond the Melting Pot (Moynihan, Glazer) Biden, Joe “big government” Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart, The (Bishop) “birthers” Bishop, Bill Bishop, Tim Black Power movement Blaming the Victim (Ryan) Blitzer, Wolf “Blue Dog” Democrats Boehner, John Boss Tweed corruption scandal Bowers, Chris Bradlee, Ben Branch, Taylor Brazile, Donna Breaux, John Breitbart, Andrew Brennan, Peter Broder, David “Brooks Brothers riot” Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Brown, Edmund G. Brown, Pat Brown, Willie Buchanan, Pat communism and on New Haven fire department case in Nixon administration in Reagan administration Suicide of a Superpower: Will America Survive until 2025? on Tea Party 2000 election and Buchanan, William Buckley, William F., Jr. building trades, unions and Burlingame, Anson Bush, George H.


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

The availability of online information may also have fostered discussions, in some instances, that were more opinionated than informed. Information in the Internet age is newly accessible, we conclude, but is also politicized in unfamiliar ways.” 33 Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro, “Ideological Segregation Online and Offline,” National Bureau of Economic Research (April 2010), http://www.nber.org/papers/w15916. NBER Working Paper No. 15916. See also David Brooks, “Riders on the Storm.” New York Times, April 19, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/opinion/20brooks.html. 34 Gentzkow and Shapiro, “Ideological Segregation Online and Offline,” p. 4. 35 Ethan Zuckerman, in his blog: “The Partisan Internet and the Wider World,” May 24, 2010, http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2010/05/24/the-partisan-internet-and-the-wider-world/. 36 Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (W.


pages: 291 words: 81,703

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

The Richard Florida quotation is from Richard Florida, “The Conservative States of America,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2011. Acknowledgments For useful discussions and comments I wish to thank Nelson Hernandez, Anson Williams, Kenneth Regan, Jason Fichtner, Erik Brynolfsson, Andrew McGee, Don Peck, Derek Thompson, Michelle Dawson, Peter Snow, Veronique de Rugy, Garett Jones, Robin Hanson, Bryan Caplan, Alex Tabarrok, Natasha Cowen, Garry Kasparov, Vasik Rajlich, Stephen Morrow, David Brooks, Peter Thiel, Michael Mandel, and Larry Kaufman, with apologies to anyone I may have left out. Index The page numbers in this index refer to the printed version of this book. To find the corresponding locations in the text of this digital version, please use the “search” function on your e-reader. Note that not all terms may be searchable. accountability, 128–30 accreditation of schools, 182, 191 “acqhired” workers, 26 Adams, Michael, 69 advertising, 24 age of workers, 41–42, 51–52, 62–63 aggression, 106 Akst, Daniel, 202 Alger, Horatio, 230 alien intelligence, 158 altruism, 235–36 Amazon.com, 16, 17, 221 ambiguity, 126 American Medical Association (AMA), 88 Anand, Vishy, 110, 156 Anson Williams Freestyle team, 86 anti-intellectualism, 258 Aplia website, 195 Apple, 17, 28 applied sciences, 208, 210 Arab Spring, 251 Are You Smart Enough to Work at Google?


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Although inarguably elitist, the parties (and the old-boy systems that comprised them) made sure candidates for major office deserved to be leaders—that they possessed some essential mettle or fitness for office. Bad apples aside, most of party rank and file evinced a strong sense of morality and social responsibility born of a class-based mentality—quite a shift from what we see today. As the New York Times columnist David Brooks has observed: Today’s elite lacks the self-conscious leadership ethos that the racist, sexist and anti-Semitic old boys’ network did possess. If you went to Groton a century ago, you knew you were privileged. You were taught how morally precarious privilege was and how much responsibility it entailed. You were housed in a spartan 6-foot-by-9-foot cubicle to prepare you for the rigors of leadership. … The best of the WASP elites had a stewardship mentality, that they were temporary caretakers of institutions that would span generations.5 Before the age of radio and television, it was pretty hard to see candidates up close, so the political parties and their grand political conventions functioned as a process that delivered trustworthy leaders and policies to America.


pages: 297 words: 84,009

Big Business: A Love Letter to an American Anti-Hero by Tyler Cowen

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, experimental economics, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, ultimatum game, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Bernstein, Elizabeth best sellers See also publishing Bezos, Jeff See also Amazon Big Brother See privacy Big Data Big Pharma Big Tech disappearance of competition impact on intelligence innovation and loss of privacy and overview Bing Bird, Larry Bitcoin Black, Leon BlackBerry Blackstone blockchain Bloxham, Eleanor Blue Cross/Blue Shield brand loyalty Brexit Brin, David Brooks, Nathan bubbles, financial sector Bullshit Jobs: A Theory (Graeber) Burger King cable TV cable companies cable news Capital One capitalism “creative destruction” and Friedman on logic of market churn and media and public’s view of short-termism venture capitalists workers and young people and See also crony capitalism Capitalism for the People, A (Zingales) Carr, Nicholas Carrier CEOs deaths of increases in salary overview pay for creating value short-termism and skill set China American manufacturing and Apple and facial recognition technology financial innovations financial institutions multinational corporations and productivity retail and tech companies and See also Alibaba Cialdini, Robert Cisco Citibank Citizens United decision See also Supreme Court Civil War Clark, Andrew E.


pages: 286 words: 79,601

Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics by Glenn Greenwald

affirmative action, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, national security letter, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Rasmussen Reports monthly surveys have shown a sharp decline in the number of Americans considering themselves Republicans over the past eight months. A New York Times/CBS poll released in mid-December 2007, as the primary presidential season intensified, revealed that Americans have an overwhelmingly unfavorable opinion of the Republican Party (33–59 percent), while their opinion of Democrats is favorable (48–44 percent)—a bulging 15-point advantage for Democrats. In early 2008, this mountain of anti-GOP polling data led conservative David Brooks, in the New York Times, to conclude: “The Republican Party is more unpopular than at any point in the past 40 years.*1 Democrats have a 50 to 36 party identification advantage, the widest in a generation. The general public prefers Democratic approaches on health care, corruption, the economy, and Iraq by double-digit margins.” Worse still for Republicans, they are burdened with the record and reputation of one of the most widely despised presidents in American history and by the country’s most disastrous war.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

For the one-in-three-Internet-users figure, see Patrick Thibodeau, “Amazon Cloud Accessed Daily by a Third of All ’Net Users,” Computerworld.com, April 18, 2012, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9226349/Amazon_cloud_accessed_daily_by_a_third_of_all_Net_users. On Apple’s valuation see Susanna Kim, “Apple Is World’s Most Valuable Company Again,” ABCNews.com, January 25, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/business/2012/01/apple-is-worlds-most-valuable-company-again/. 30. David Brooks, “The Creative Monopoly,” New York Times, April 24, 2012, A23; and Ryan Mac, “Ten Lessons from Peter Thiel’s Class on Startups,” Forbes.com, June 7, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2012/06/07/ten-lessons-from-peter-thiels-class-on-startups/. 31. Slavoj Zizek describes this issue succinctly in his essay “Corporate Rule of Cyberspace,” InsideHigherEd.com, May 2, 2011, http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2011/05/02/slavoj_zizek_essay_on_cloud_computing_and_privacy. 32.


pages: 305 words: 79,303

The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, young professional

That’s a lot of work, and it dents profits. In the case I’m most familiar with, the New York Times, I saw that editors not only wanted to get the news right; they tried to achieve a balance in the stories they edited. If there was a bunch of news that seemed to appeal to the left—say, Dreamers being deported or big chunks of Antarctica breaking off and melting—they’d try to get some conservative balance, maybe a David Brooks column attacking Obamacare. Now people can argue forever about whether the shrinking ranks of responsible media actually achieve balance and get it “right.” Still, they try. When the editors are debating which stories to feature, they at least consider their mission to inform. Not everything is clicks and dollars. But for Facebook, it is. Sure, the company tries to hide this greed behind an enlightened attitude.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

—William Gibson “If we continue to develop our technology without wisdom or prudence, our servant may prove to be our executioner.”—Omar N. Bradley ✸ What is the worst advice you see or hear given in your trade or area of expertise? “If you have nothing to hide, then you don’t have to worry about privacy, and that we must sacrifice our privacy in order to have security.” ✸ Three people or sources you’ve learned from—or followed closely—in the last year? David Brooks, “The Moral Bucket List.” Nir Eyal, Hooked. Anything by Kevin Kelly, most recently The Inevitable. Spirit animal: Honey badger * * * Samy Kamkar Samy Kamkar (TW: @samykamkar, samy.pl) is one of the most innovative computer hackers in the United States. He is best known for creating the fastest-spreading virus of all time, a MySpace worm named “Samy,” for which he was raided by the United States Secret Service.

(Budd Schulberg), The Artist’s Way Morning Pages Journal (Julia Cameron), The War of Art (Steven Pressfield) Libin, Phil: The Clock of the Long Now (Stewart Brand), The Alliance (Reid Hoffman), The Selfish Gene (Richard Dawkins), A Guide to the Good Life (William Irvine) MacAskill, Will: Reasons and Persons (Derek Parfit), Mindfulness: An Eight-Week Plan for Finding Peace in a Frantic World (Mark Williams and Danny Penman), The Power of Persuasion (Robert Levine), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Nick Bostrom) MacKenzie, Brian: Tao Te Ching (Lao Tzu), Way of the Peaceful Warrior (Dan Millman) McCarthy, Nicholas: The Life and Loves of a He Devil: A Memoir (Graham Norton), I Put a Spell on You: The Autobiography of Nina Simone (Nina Simone) McChrystal, Stanley: Once an Eagle (Anton Myrer), The Road to Character (David Brooks) McCullough, Michael: The Start-up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career (Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha), Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity (David Allen), The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change (Stephen R. Covey), The Checklist Manifesto (Atul Gawande) McGonigal, Jane: Finite and Infinite Games (James Carse), Suffering Is Optional (Cheri Huber), The Willpower Instinct (Kelly McGonigal), The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia (Bernard Suits) Miller, BJ: Any picture book of Mark Rothko art.


pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, different worldview, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional

A review by Michiko Kakutani of a book about assimilation, among other topics, by the late Harvard political scientist Samuel Huntington was condescendingly headlined “An Identity Crisis for Norman Rockwell America.” The rejection of assimilation comes down to earth in reporting on the customs and values, attitudes and practices of various immigrant communities. While celebrating cultural difference, the Times does not scrutinize the implications of those differences for immigrants or for Americans generally. David Brooks, one of the paper’s two house conservatives, has written about “cultural geography,” a term used by sociologists to explain “why some groups’ values make them embrace technology and prosper and others don’t,” which, Brooks adds, is “a line of inquiry” that P.C. piety makes it “impolite to pursue.” It is certainly a line of inquiry that has been rigorously ignored by his own paper. If immigrants leave home with problematic cultural baggage, the Times believes it is dropped on the tarmac when they land on U.S. soil or left behind when they scoot across the Mexican border.


pages: 304 words: 87,702

The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

Box 15728, Rio Rancho, NM 87174, 800-281-9176 or 505-896-0734, www.passportintime.com. WILDERNESS VOLUNTEERS protect america’s wild places WILDLANDS ACROSS THE COUNTRY It feels great to get out and do some good honest physical labor. You work in beautiful places, meet interesting people, get relief from the hustle-bustle of daily life—and fresh perspective on what’s really important. —David Brooks, Wilderness Volunteers team leader 38 | If you have a thing about America’s wild places, like to backpack, and could pass a Marine physical (well, almost), consider a volunteer vacation with Wilderness Volunteers. This organization sends vigorous volunteers (mainly in their 20s to 40s) into America’s national and state parks to repair the damage done by heedless visitors. They restore hiking trails, clean up debris, plant strategically located trees and remove not-so-strategically located ones, and take inventory of plant and wildlife species.


Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America by Matt Taibbi

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

And what I missed in the meta narrative, of course, is that Goldman Sachs, while perhaps corrupt, and too closely tied to government, and the recipient of far too much taxpayer support, was nonetheless not an appropriate target for anger because we just need them so badly to keep our ship afloat. Once this argument was out there it was only a matter of time before it was institutionalized in the New York Times in a column by the archpriest of American conventional wisdom, David Brooks. Brooks argued that the problem with critiques like mine was that while the financial crisis had many causes (including, he insisted with a straight face, the economic rise of China), we were just taking the easy way out—“with the populist narrative, you can just blame Goldman Sachs.” Again, Brooks never at any time took issue with any of the facts in the case against Goldman Sachs. In fact, he conceded them and insisted that this was actually the point, that it’s precisely despite the ugly facts that we must indulge the Goldmans of the world.


pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

A July 2014 New Republic article by William Deresiewicz, “Don’t Send Your Kids to an Ivy League College,” summarizes his excellently titled book Excellent Sheep and shows the level of violent disagreement that the topic of education’s purpose can spark. The author argues that the main purpose of college should be to help students in “building a soul.” This article generated over two million online hits and more readers, comments, and controversy than any article in the New Republic’s one-hundred-year history. New York Times columnist David Brooks was compelled to weigh in on the debate, offering the view that moral education is “largely abandoned ground” as universities focus on career and cognitive issues. Brooks’s column received six hundred reader comments, reflecting a level of emotion more often associated with debates on gun control than education. One fact that often remains unstated in these debates is that many schools seem to be hopelessly lost when it comes to their overarching goal.


pages: 323 words: 95,492

The Rise of the Outsiders: How Mainstream Politics Lost Its Way by Steve Richards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, call centre, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, David Brooks, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, full employment, housing crisis, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, obamacare, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley

The outsider had won and yet was powerless to impose his travel ban, retain his security adviser and change Obama’s health policy, which many Republicans in Washington had passionately opposed for years. Trump was discovering that politics is more complicated on the inside. Parties are often divided and must somehow or other be bound together. In addition, proclaiming an aspiration is much easier than putting together a detailed policy that will work, when implemented. Democratic politics is demanding. As The New York Times columnist David Brooks noted in the aftermath of Trump’s failure to secure support from Congress for scrapping Obamacare: ‘The new elite is worse than the old elite – and certainly more vapid.’1 Brooks was not a supporter of Obamacare, but in suggesting that Trump and his entourage were part of the Washington ‘elite’, he has wounded Obama’s successor with a near-fatal blow. Trump the outsider is condemned as being part of an elite that he views with an anti-politics disdain.


pages: 354 words: 93,882

How to Be Idle by Tom Hodgkinson

Albert Einstein, Alexander Shulgin, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deskilling, financial independence, full employment, Gordon Gekko, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, moral panic, New Urbanism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, spinning jenny, Torches of Freedom, trade route, wage slave

Also, in no particular order, all the people who have helped more or less directly, in conversation, writing or ideas: Penny Rimbaud, Matt ffytche, Matthew De Abaitua, Damien and Maia, Billy Childish, James Parker, Marcel Theroux, my mum, my dad, Neil Boorman, John Moore, Bill Drummond, Mark Manning, Louis Theroux, Fiona Russell Powell, Chris Yates, John Cooper Clarke, Pete Loveday, John Hull, Jason Skeet, lain Aitch, David Brook, Simon Jameson, Will Hogan, Tom Shone, Josh Glenn, Greg Rowland, Will Self, John Michell, Charles Handy, Nick Lezard, Tony White, Arthur Smith, Keith Allen, Alan Porter, Sally Agarwal, Jock Scot, the readers of the Idler . . . there are many, many others. At the Idler I am always, constantly, grateful to my partner and friend Gavin Pretor-Pinney, and to co-workers Dan Kieran and Clare Pollard, and at home thanks to Claire Jordan and, last and most, Victoria Hull.


pages: 340 words: 94,464

Randomistas: How Radical Researchers Changed Our World by Andrew Leigh

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, Atul Gawande, basic income, Black Swan, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Indoor air pollution, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Netflix Prize, nudge unit, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, price mechanism, publication bias, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, statistical model, Steven Pinker, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty

See also Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seeing it Clearly: Improving Observer Training for Better Feedback and Better Teaching, Washington DC: Gates Foundation, 2015, p. 11. 46Maya Escueta, Vincent Quan, Andre Joshua Nickow & Philip Oreopoulos, ‘Education technology: An evidence-based review’, NBER Working Paper No. 23744, Cambridge, MA: NBER, 2017. 47Escueta, ‘Education Technology’. 48The share of pupils completing their matriculation exams rose from 18 per cent in control schools to 25 per cent in treatment schools: Joshua Angrist & Victor Lavy, ‘The effects of high stakes high school achievement awards: Evidence from a randomized trial’, American Economic Review, vol. 99, no. 4, 2009, pp. 1384–414. 49Simon Burgess, Raj Chande & Todd Rogers, ‘Texting parents’, Working Paper, Education Endowment Foundation, London, 2016, available at www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk 50Todd Rogers & Avi Feller, ‘Intervening through influential third parties: Reducing student absences at scale’, working paper, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Kennedy School, 2017. 51Paul Tough, 2008, Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey Canada’s Quest to Change Harlem and America, New York: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 21–9 52Will Dobbie & Roland G. Fryer Jr., ‘Are high-quality schools enough to increase achievement among the poor? Evidence from the Harlem Children’s Zone’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, vol. 3, no. 3, 2011, pp .158–87; Will Dobbie & Roland G. Fryer Jr., ‘The medium-term impacts of high-achieving charter schools’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 123, no. 5, 2015, pp. 985–1037. 53Quoted in David Brooks, ‘The Harlem Miracle’, New York Times, 7 May 2009, p. A31 54Betty Hart and Todd Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children, Paul Brookes: Baltimore, MD, 1995. Among the limitations of the study was that it only focused on 42 families, each of whom were observed for an hour per month over a 30-month period. The 30 million word estimate assumes that the children in the sample were representative of their respective socio-economic groups, and that the observed word counts can be linearly extrapolated.


Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution by Wendy Brown

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Food sovereignty, haute couture, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, late capitalism, means of production, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, Philip Mirowski, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, shareholder value, sharing economy, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, young professional, zero-sum game

Consider Adam Smith’s concern with cultivating what he termed “the moral sentiments,” Tocqueville’s notion of “self-interest, properly understood” as the antidote to a capitalist ethic run amok, and John Stuart Mill’s insistence that individual liberty requires cultivation by education and mores if it is not to reduce to individual debauchery and civil ruin. 22. Quoted in Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall, Fiat Lux: The University of California (New York: McGraw-Hill 1967), p. 192. 23. See, for example, Verlyn Klinkenborg, “The Decline and Fall of the English Major,” op-ed, New York Times, June 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2013/06/23/opinion/sunday/the-decline-and-fall-of-the-english-major.html; and David Brooks, “The Humanist Vocation,” op-ed New York Times, June 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/opinion/brooks-the-humanistvocation.html. 24. Newfield, Unmaking the Public University, pp. 191, 193, 273. 25. See Plato, Crito, in Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, trans. F. J. Church (New York, 1956). 26. See Aristotle, Politics, trans. E. Barker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946), book 1. 264 notes 27.


pages: 264 words: 90,379

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell

affirmative action, airport security, Albert Einstein, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, haute couture, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, new economy, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, young professional

—Mark Athitakis, Chicago Sun-Times “Gladwell brilliantly illuminates an aspect of our mental lives that we utterly rely on yet rarely analyze, namely our ability to make snap decisions or quick judgments....Enlightening, provocative, and great fun to read.” —Donna Seaman, Booklist “Blink moves quickly through a series of delightful stories....He’s always dazzling us with fascinating information and phenomena....If you want to trust my snap judgment, buy this book: you’ll be delighted.” —David Brooks, New York Times Book Review “Compelling....Blink satisfies and gratifies....It features the fascinating case studies, skilled interweavings of psychological experiments and explanations, and unexpected connections among disparate phenomena that are Gladwell’s impressive trademark.” —Howard Gardner, Washington Post “What Stephen Hawking did for theoretical physics Malcolm Gladwell is doing for social science....Gladwell uses a series of fascinating examples to support his views, weaving scientific data into page-turning prose.”


pages: 407 words: 90,238

Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work by Steven Kotler, Jamie Wheal

3D printing, Alexander Shulgin, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, high batting average, hive mind, Hyperloop, impulse control, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, music of the spheres, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning

Hundreds of ingredients: what to eat, what to wear, whom to marry, how to act, what to believe, and, of course, what kind of spiritual practices to perform. But out of that entire list, there’s only a fraction of “active ingredients” that reliably impact brain function and alter consciousness. Neurotheology lets us validate which ingredients actually make a difference. “In unexpected ways,” writes David Brooks in the New York Times, “science and mysticism are joining hands and reinforcing each other. That’s bound to lead to new movements that emphasize self-transcendence but put little stock in divine law or revelation. Orthodox believers are going to have to defend particular doctrines and particular biblical teachings. . . . We’re in the middle of a scientific revolution. It’s going to have big cultural effects.”


pages: 299 words: 92,782

The Success Equation: Untangling Skill and Luck in Business, Sports, and Investing by Michael J. Mauboussin

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Atul Gawande, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, commoditize, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Emanuel Derman, fundamental attribution error, Gini coefficient, hindsight bias, hiring and firing, income inequality, Innovator's Dilemma, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Menlo Park, mental accounting, moral hazard, Network effects, prisoner's dilemma, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk-adjusted returns, shareholder value, Simon Singh, six sigma, Steven Pinker, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipf's Law

Meinz, “Limits on the Predictive Power of Domain-Specific Experience and Knowledge in Skilled Performance,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 20, no. 5 (October 2011): 275–279; and David Z. Hambrick and Randall W. Engle, “Effects of Domain Knowledge, Working Memory Capacity, and Age on Cognitive Performance: An Investigation of the Knowledge-Is-Power Hypothesis,” Cognitive Psychology 44, no. 4 (June 2002): 339–387. 16. See David Brooks, The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (New York: Random House, 2011), 165; and Gladwell, Outliers, 78–79. 17. Kimberly Ferriman Robertson, Stijn Smeets, David Lubinski, and Camillia P. Benbow, “Beyond the Threshold Hypothesis: Even Among the Gifted and Top Math/Science Graduate Students, Cognitive Abilities, Vocational Interests, and Lifestyle Preferences Matter for Career Choice, Performance, and Persistence,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 19, no. 6 (December 2010): 346–351. 18.


pages: 976 words: 235,576

The Meritocracy Trap: How America's Foundational Myth Feeds Inequality, Dismantles the Middle Class, and Devours the Elite by Daniel Markovits

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Anton Chekhov, asset-backed security, assortative mating, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Emanuel Derman, equity premium, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, high net worth, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, medical residency, minimum wage unemployment, Myron Scholes, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, stakhanovite, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, traveling salesman, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

These include Giacomo Corneo, Felix Koch, Bertram Lomfeld, Christoph Möllers, Frauke Peter, Friedbert Rueb, and Jürgen Schupp at the Freie Universität Berlin; Oriana Bandiera, Lucy Barnes, Thorsten Bell, Richard Blundell (who suggested the book’s title), Jeff King, Julian LeGrand, George Letsas, Philippa Malmgren, Claire Maxell, Avia Pasternak, Prince Saprai, and Paul Segal at University College London; Bruce Ackerman, David Brooks, Michael Graetz, Anthony Kronman, Rick Levin, Meira Levinson, Alec MacGillis, Jennifer Nedelsky, Alan Schwartz, John Witt, Portia Wu, and Gideon Yaffee at Yale Law School; and Emily Bazelon, Nicholas Dawidoff, Jacob Hacker, and Annie Murphy Paul at the New Haven reading group on inequality. The Yale Law Library and its unmatched staff—including in particular Julian Aiken and Michelle Hudson—provided astonishing research support.

This dissolves the contrast that Johnson relied on and erects the contrast Ryan evokes. accords to the industrious: Conservatives especially disdain progressive intellectuals—including writers and professors—whose incomes do not match their educations and who moralize loudly but enviously against the wealth of a commercial class that they (clinging to the wreckage of aristocratic values) regard as inferior. See, e.g., David Brooks, “Bitter at the Top,” New York Times, June 15, 2004, accessed November 18, 2018, www.nytimes.com/2004/06/15/opinion/bitter-at-the-top.html. Edward Conrad, a former venture capitalist and conservative writer, calls the type “art-history majors,” which he uses as a “derisive term for pretty much anyone who was lucky enough to be born with the talent and opportunity to join the risk-taking, innovation-hunting mechanism but who chose instead a less competitive life.”


pages: 377 words: 97,144

Singularity Rising: Surviving and Thriving in a Smarter, Richer, and More Dangerous World by James D. Miller

23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, barriers to entry, brain emulation, cloud computing, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Netflix Prize, neurotypical, Norman Macrae, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, phenotype, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, twin studies, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture

“The Relationships Between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults.” Intelligence 38 (6): 605—10. Sahakian, Barbara, and Sharon Morein-Zamir. 2007. “Professor’s Little Helper.” Nature 450 (7173): 1157—59. Salamon, Anna. 2009. “How Much It Matters to Know What Matters: A Back-of-the-Envelope Calculation.” Talk given at the Singularity Summit. Sanandaji, Tino. April 1, 2011. “David Brooks and Malcolm [Glad