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23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize
See Alan Segal, Life After Death: A History of the Afterlife in Western Religion (New York: Doubleday Religion, 2004). 2 Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973). 3 Daniel Schorn, “The Quest For Immortality,” 60 Minutes, January 1, 2006, www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/12/28/60minutes/main1168852.shtml. 4 “How to Live Forever: Abolishing Ageing,” The Economist, January 3, 2008, www.economist.com/node/10423439. 5 Rabbi Elliot N. Dorff, “Becoming Yet More Like God: A Jewish Perspective on Radical Life Extension,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Derek F. Maher and Calvin Mercer (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 69. 6 Sherry E. Fohr, “Karma, Austerity, and Time Cycles: Jainism and Radical Life Extension,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Maher and Mercer, 82. Jainism is an Indian religion that teaches nonviolence and austerity. 7 Ronald Cole-Turner, “Extreme Longevity Research: A Progressive Protestant Perspective,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Maher and Mercer, 59. 8 Ibid., 60. 9 Phone interview with Lawrence Iannaccone, April 1, 2010. 10 Peter Berger, “Epistemological Modesty: An Interview with Peter Berger,” Christian Century, October 29, 1997, 972–978. 11 Carl Sagan, The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God, ed.
Ayus karma is “life” karma, which determines life span. 54 Ibid. 55 Dorff, “Becoming Yet More Like God,” 72. 56 Ibid. 57 Nigel M. de S. Cameron and Amy Michelle DeBaets, “Be Careful What You Wish For? Radical Life Extension Coram De: A Reformed Protestant Perspective,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Maher and Mercer, 44. 58 Ghulam Ahmed Parvez, cited in Aisha Y. Musa, “A Thousand Years, Less Fifty: Toward a Quranic View of Extreme Longevity,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Maher and Mercer, 127–128. 59 Musa, “A Thousand Years, Less Fifty,” 128. 60 Livia Kohn, “Told You So: Extreme Longevity and Daoist Realization,” in Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension, ed. Maher and Mercer, 87. 61 Ibid., 95. 62 Ibid., 96. 63 Ibid. 64 Lawrence R. Iannaccone, “Why Strict Churches Are Strong,” American Journal of Sociology 99, no. 5 (March 1994): 1180. 65 Ibid., 1183. 66 Gary Laderman, Sacred Matters: Celebrity Worship, Sexual Ecstasies, the Living Dead, and Other Signs of Religious Life in the United States (New York: New Press, 2009), xiv. 67 Ibid., xiv. 68 Ibid., xv. 69 Ibid., 79. 70 Ibid. 71 Gary Laderman, “Sacred and Profane: The ‘Cult’ of Oprah Inflames Religious Right,” Religion Dispatches blog, April 27, 2008, www.religiondispatches.org/archive/mediaculture/200/sacred%26profane:_the_“cult”_of_oprah_inflames_religious_right .
“This is the group we are working to engage, and their latent/unharnessed energy is probably 100 times greater than the life-extension community at present.”37 Spoken like a true connector. It is worth noting that connectors are not always attached to one maven; in fact, they usually aren’t because they tend to know many mavens. Christine Peterson is another connector spreading the longevity meme. She cofounded the Foresight Institute for Nanotechnology, which works to promote the upsides, and help avoid the dangers, of nanotechnology and similar life-changing developments.38 Nanotechnology will play a big role in life-extension efforts in multiple ways, including drug development and biosensors. And even though Peterson is still the president of the Foresight Institute, she also organizes many successful conferences, including one called the Personalized Life Extension Conference: Anti-Aging Strategies for a Long Healthy Life.39 If that sounds like a fringe conference, think again.
The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More
23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce
Hurlbut has also made a statement that encapsulates the bioconservative fallacy as I see it. He asserts that he is “not convinced” that life extension would be good for us – and leaves it at that. He thus insinuates, without quite saying, that we should adopt the precautionary principle with regard to life extension and avoid developing it because we are uncertain whether it will benefit mankind. But this is utterly without justification. In what other context would we regard an action (or inaction) that hastens someone’s death as the safer option? Even in the tragic case of Terry Schiavo a commentator not generally noted for his progressive views – President Bush – stated that it is best to “err on the side of life.” Yet those who doubt the benefits of life extension argue that condemning 100,000 people every day to an unnecessarily (as it will eventually be) early death on the basis of their age is a policy that needs no more justification than an uncertainty regarding whether life extension will be good for us.
Yet those who doubt the benefits of life extension argue that condemning 100,000 people every day to an unnecessarily (as it will eventually be) early death on the basis of their age is a policy that needs no more justification than an uncertainty regarding whether life extension will be good for us. In responding to the suggestion that Kass’s “wisdom of repugnance” actually constitutes a strong argument for life extension, Hurlbut has noted that “Young children love their grandparents. They don’t find them repulsive. They see in them the beauty of the generative spirit, of the nurturing mind.” But this fails to address the actual question: Would those children be happier or sadder if their grandparents were not only wise and loving but also youthful? Hurlbut’s reluctance to confront the true issues is also revealed in his attitude to the question whether he is against extended lives per se or only against an abrupt extension of life expectancy. He has responded by saying that he regards extreme life extension as “biologically unlikely.”
Transhumanism as we know it today finally began to take form in the latter part of the twentieth century. Champions of life extension played a central and persistent part in this development. Not all advocates of extending the maximum human lifespan had well-developed ideas beyond that single goal, but many had at least some sense that the same technological advances that could deliver longer, healthier lives could also enable us to change ourselves in other ways. The “father of cryonics,” Robert Ettinger, was one of the latter. After explaining in his first book, The Prospect of Immortality (1964), that we could have another chance at life by preserving ourselves at ultra-low temperatures at the point of clinical death, his 1972 Man into Superman explored other transformative possibilities, and explicitly used the term “transhuman.” Another enduring supporter of life extension and cryonics, Saul Kent, not only wrote practically and speculatively about extending the human lifespan, but also about other possibilities in his 1974 book, Future Sex.
After all, it would be pointless to live until you were 150 if you spend those last 50 years in a wheelchair, with just a faint pulse signaling to loved-ones that you are indeed still alive. When people think of anti-aging, they think of oxidative stress, antioxidants, expensive face creams and the like. However this is far too narrow a definition for anti-aging as I see it. I prefer to use the term life-extension, which is more descriptive of what it is I am looking to achieve with this book. Oh, and in the interests of disclosure, this book contains no secret tips on how to keep your skin looking its best – there are more than enough books on that already. Life extension is not just about eating broccoli and lathering Crème de la Mer on your face each night. It’s also about playing the odds. Each poor decision you make regarding your health accumulates. For example, imagine that you smoke a pack a day of cigarettes ever each, drink a six pack of beer each night, drink a liter of Coca Cola each day while you work, take cocaine on weekends with your buddies, ride a high-powered motorbike everywhere (sometimes without a helmet), go skydiving each weekend, surf in an area notorious for great white sharks, have a high-stress job, rarely eat fruit or vegetables and eat a diet based primarily around junk food.
Aging is a complicated process that includes a range of parameters health, cognitive function, and level of physical mobility. Who is actually older – the 80 year old who can run a marathon and write a novel or a 30 year old with type-2 diabetes that sits on the couch all day because of a bad back and muscle soreness? As part of this thinking we need to broaden our definition of anti-aging far beyond the concept of life-extension. I think a better target would be “life-extension + life-optimization”. Despite this, some researchers believe that by targeting one, you naturally target the other. The latest issue of the Public Policy & Aging Report (PP&AR), titled The Longevity Dividend: Geroscience Meets Geropolitics, states that the best way to achieve improved longevity and quality of life is by targeting the slowing down of the process of biological aging rather than targeting the individual diseases separately.
For example, imagine that you smoke a pack a day of cigarettes ever each, drink a six pack of beer each night, drink a liter of Coca Cola each day while you work, take cocaine on weekends with your buddies, ride a high-powered motorbike everywhere (sometimes without a helmet), go skydiving each weekend, surf in an area notorious for great white sharks, have a high-stress job, rarely eat fruit or vegetables and eat a diet based primarily around junk food. How long do you think you will live? Each of your poor diet and lifestyle choices is like playing a game of Russian roulette. One day there will be a bullet in the chamber. So life extension is about a holistic plan that incrementally decreases your odds of dying by misadventure or developing a preventable disease. This is all about reducing risk, not about guaranteeing anything. Sometimes people can become fatalistic when they hear of the health fanatic that dropped dead at 40 with a heart attack. If it can happen to that guy, why bother? There are always going to be exceptions and people with certain genetic issues that may predispose them to particular problems.
Clock of the Long Now by Stewart Brand
Albert Einstein, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Eratosthenes, Extropian, fault tolerance, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, nuclear winter, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
Never in history have so many generations been alive at the same time. Living long enough to know your great-grandchildren has become the norm, even with delayed childbearing. Among the things that the new elders are doing with their power—and their accumulated wealth—is directing ever more sophisticated research toward life extension. I have heard biotech scientists seriously ask one another, off the record, “What if we cure death?” Whether or not effective immortality actually comes, its prospect is now in sight, and that itself begins to change things. The best science fiction on life extension is Bruce Sterling’s Holy Fire (01996). In its deliberately stable world dominated by the “medical-industrial complex,” one character explains, “When you live a really long time, it changes everything. The whole structure of the world, politics, money, religion, culture, everything that used to be human.
People complain about overwhelming masses of information on the Web, but one of its inventors, Tim Berners-Lee, comments, “To be overloaded by the existence of so much on the Web is like being overloaded by the mass of a beautiful countryside. You don’t have to visit it, but it’s nice to know it’s there. Especially the variety and freedom.” The Internet may be showing the way to live with an infinite amount of past in infinite detail, and still encourage freedom to innovate without the need of violent revolution. Add in drastic life extension, due soon, and you get quite a different world, one that might say about our world: “Can you imagine what it was like when people and programs had to die, whether they wanted to or not? No wonder it took so long for culture to get anywhere. Everything and everyone was starting over all the time—the same dumb mistakes over and over again. People were either pastless or trapped in the past. Their lives were as beautiful and tragic and stupid as waves breaking on the beach.”
To be sure none can be solved in a year, but all can yield to decades of focused work if we understand that the health of civilization is at stake. The toughest problem will be building software that will forgive us our trespasses and trespass not against us. There is no real glimmer yet how to approach the question but also no reason to give up on it. As for computer professionals routinely thinking and acting with long-term responsibility, that may come gradually as a by-product of the Year 2000 comeuppance, of life extension, of environmental lessons, and of globalization (island Earth). At issue here is how to address the management of digital continuity over time, how to shorten the digital dark age. Pure information can have astonishing longevity. In 1090 C.E. the Chinese genius Su Sung built a monumental water-driven mechanical clock for his emperor. It was dazzling, two centuries ahead of anything like it in Europe.
Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test
The SIR2 gene represses genes that generate ribosomal wastes that build up in yeast cells and lead to their eventual death; low-calorie diets restrict reproduction but are helpful to the functioning of the SIR2 gene. This may provide a molecular explanation for why laboratory rats fed a low-calorie diet live up to 40 percent longer than other rats.7 Biologists such as Guarente have suggested that there might someday be a relatively simple genetic route to life extension in humans: while it is not practical to feed people such restricted diets, there may be other ways of enhancing the functioning of the SIR genes. Other gerontologists, such as Tom Kirkwood, assert flatly that aging is the result of a complex series of processes at the level of cells, organs, and the body as a whole, and that there is therefore no single, simple mechanism that controls aging and death.8 If a genetic shortcut to immortality exists, the race is already on within the biotech industry to find it.
But past a certain age, the correlation between age and ability begins to go in the opposite direction. With life expectancies only in the 40s or 50s for most of human history, societies could rely on normal generational succession to take care of this problem. Mandatory retirement ages came into vogue only in the late nineteenth century, when increasing numbers of people began to survive into old age.d Life extension will wreak havoc with most existing age-graded hierarchies. Such hierarchies traditionally assume a pyramidal structure because death winnows the pool of competitors for the top ranks, abetted by artificial constraints such as the widely held belief that everyone has the “right” to retire at age 65. With people routinely living and working into their 60s, 70s, 80s, and even 90s, however, these pyramids will increasingly resemble squat trapezoids or even rectangles.
Older people will have to move down the social hierarchy not just to retrain but to make room for new entrants coming up from the bottom. If they don’t, generational warfare will join class and ethnic conflict as a major dividing line in society. Getting older people out of the way of younger ones will become a significant struggle, and societies may have to resort to impersonal, institutionalized forms of ageism in a future world of expanded life expectancies. Other social effects of life extension will depend heavily on the exact way that the geriatric revolution plays itself out—that is, whether people will remain physically and mentally vigorous throughout these lengthening life spans, or whether society will increasingly come to resemble a giant nursing home. The medical profession is dedicated to the proposition that anything that can defeat disease and prolong life is unequivocally a good thing.
The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil
additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra
For the problems that we do encounter, the key challenge is to express them precisely in words (and sometimes in equations). Having done that, we have the ability to find the ideas to confront and resolve each such problem . ·We can apply the enormous leverage provided by the acceleration of technology. A notable example is achieving radical life extension through "a bridge to a bridge to a bridge" (applying today's knowledge as a bridge to biotechnology, which in turn will bridge us to the era of nanotechnology).4 This offers a way to live indefinitely now, even though we don't yet have all the knowledge necessary for radical life extension. In other words we don't have to solve every problem today. We can anticipate the capability of technologies that are coming—in five years or ten years or twenty—and work these into our plans. That is how I design my own technology projects, and we can do the same with the large problems facing society and with our own lives.
We have seen comparable mistakes during earlier paradigm shifts—for example, during the early railroad era (1830s), when the equivalent of the Internet boom and bust led to a frenzy of railroad expansion. Another error that prognosticators make is to consider the transformations that will result from a single trend in to day's world as if nothing else will change. A good example is the concern that radical life extension will result in overpopulation and the exhaustion of limited material resources to sustain human life, which ignores comparably radical wealth creation from nanotechnology and strong AI. For example, nanotechnology-based manufacturing devices in the 2020s will be capable of creating almost any physical product from inexpensive raw materials and information. I emphasize the exponential-versus-linear perspective because it's the most important failure that prognosticators make in considering future trends.
—SAMUEL BUTLER, 1863 LETTER, "DARWIN AMONG THE MACHINES"1 T he first half of the twenty-first century will be characterized by three overlapping revolutions—in Genetics, Nanotechnology, and Robotics. These will usher in what I referred to earlier as Epoch Five, the beginning of the Singularity. We are in the early stages of the "G" revolution today. By understanding the information processes underlying life, we are starting to learn to reprogram our biology to achieve the virtual elimination of disease, dramatic expansion of human potential, and radical life extension. Hans Moravec points out, however, that no matter how successfully we fine-tune our DNA-based biology, humans will remain "second-class robots," meaning that biology will never be able to match what we will be able to engineer once we fully understand biology's principles of operation.2 The "N" revolution will enable us to redesign and rebuild—molecule by molecule—our bodies and brains and the world with which we interact, going far beyond the limitations of biology.
Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra
The most chilling example of this scenario is seen in Fred Saberhagen’s Berserker series of novels, where self-replicating doomsday machines are out there watching, ready to destroy life on a planet just as it begins to acquire advanced technology. Another variant of the singularity takes current efforts to fight disease and projects them into radical life extension, where technology helps us overcome all our mental and physical limitations. Ray Kurzweil has been the most eloquent proponent of this future. He’s a founder of the Singularity University, where the tech world’s movers and shakers pay tens of thousands of dollars for short courses on the cutting edge in AI and nanotechnology. Critics have mocked the idea of the singularity as the “rapture of the nerds,” and they’ve noted that only the wealthy will benefit from radical-life-extension technology. The goal of researchers like Kurzweil is simple: immortality. He thinks that medical nanotechnology will conquer disease, aging, and death.
In 1857, he was born into an impoverished family of Polish immigrants in a small Russian town, the fifth of eighteen children. At the age of ten, he developed scarlet fever, leaving him deaf and isolated. By the age of fourteen, his mother had died and he had given up formal schooling. A reclusive teenager, he moved to Moscow so he could spend long hours at a local library, where he studied physics and astronomy. At the library he was influenced by Nikolai Fyodorov, a futurist who advocated radical life extension and immortality and who thought that the future of humanity lay in space. He also stumbled on the works of Jules Verne and became inspired by Verne’s tales of space travel. Tsiolkovsky’s family recognized his talent but worried that he was studying obsessively and forgetting to eat. When he was nineteen, his father brought him back home and helped him get a teaching credential so he could earn a living.
Once they learn how to miniaturize them, biohackers will implant themselves with medical sensors that can talk to a smartphone and a device that will let fingers “see” by echolocation.31 This goes beyond sensory extension to the creation of entirely new senses. The philosophical movement that forms an umbrella for cybernetics and cyborgs is called transhumanism. Transhumanism is a worldwide cultural and intellectual movement that seeks to use technology to improve the human condition. Radical life extension is one aspect, as is the enhancement of physical and mental capabilities. Two prominent transhumanists are Nick Bostrom, a University of Oxford philosopher who has assessed various risks to the long-term survival of humanity, and Ray Kurzweil, the engineer and inventor who popularized the idea of the singularity, a time in the not-too-distant future when technology will enable us to transcend our physical limitations.
Between the Strokes of Night by Charles Sheffield
The pattern in every one is the same: discovery of S-space; exploitation of S-space, as a means of subjective life extension and interstellar space travel; and then, after a shorter or longer period, the realization that S-space existence, sufficiently continued, brings with it physical decline and finally death. As a means of seeking immortality, S-space is a blind alley.” “Immortality!” It was not clear how many people said the word, but it lingered as a murmur around the chamber. “Let us say, potential immortality. No one knows the maximum attainable life-span of an intelligence, but this we do know: maximal life extension is impossible for an embodied form that uses S-space, T-state, or any of their variations. Ultimately, time consumes flesh. Maximal life extension requires conversion to immaterial form.” “Pure spirit,” Emil Garville said softly.
Sy wore an expression that Peron and Elissa would have found unfamiliar. He seemed uneasy, and lacking in confidence. “I read it wrong. I thought the reason for being here in Gulf City was safety from outside interference, and control of S-space. The whole advantage of being an ‘Immortal’ was presented to us as increased subjective life span — but now I wonder about that.” “You are right to do so. We have life-extension methods available, ones that came out of S-space research and allow increased life span in normal space. And probably they will let the subject enjoy life more keenly, too. But you can’t solve the problem thrown at us by the Kermel Objects unless you can work on it for a long time. That means Gulf City, and it means S-space.” She stood up. “Will you work on this? And will you help me to persuade your friends to do the same?”
“The beings who met us at Urstar said not. You yourself just quoted what they did say: Time consumes flesh.” “True. But I’ll also quote something else they said: they don’t know everything, and the universe contains many unsolved mysteries. The aliens at Urstar know more than humans — at least, they know more than humans did at the time we left Gulf City. Suppose there are other states, and other forms of life extension, possible for our species but not for theirs? Also, exploration of human physical potentials is just one form of research. Some of the free-space colonies may be devoted to social experiments, or pure physics research, or fields of science totally new to us.” Charlene had never seen Sy so talkative. She asked, “So some humans have returned to the planets, and are living in normal space. And others have established free-space colonies, to explore we don’t know what.
23andMe, airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, game design, Gary Taubes, index card, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, microbiome, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, placebo effect, Productivity paradox, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, wage slave, William of Occam
As Edgar notes in King Lear, “Ripeness is all.” You don’t get to ripeness by eating apple peel for breakfast.… When life extension supplants life quality as a goal, you get the desolation of Canto the monkey. Living to 120 holds zero appeal for me. Canto looks like he’s itching to be put out of his misery.… We don’t understand what the mind secretes. The process of aging remains full of enigma. But I’d bet on jovial Owen outliving wretched Canto.… Laughter extends life. There’s little of it in the low-cal world and little doubt pudgy Owen will have the last laugh. 1 If your goal is to live as long as possible, there is a long list, an endless list, of things to avoid. The good news is that life-extension need not be complicated. For the gents, it may be as simple as blocking a few websites and curbing a little maleness.
It’s impossible to say, which is why I’ll use resveratrol short-term at higher doses for endurance while tracking blood markers, but I won’t use it indefinitely for life-extension. Telomerase activators like TA-65, another example, are purported to extend our chromosomal countdown clocks called “telomeres.” TA-65 can cost up to $15,000 per year. Is it possible that, by amplifying cell replication, you increase the likelihood of dangerous cancerous growth? Perhaps. It’s simply beyond our technology to guarantee one outcome or another, so I’m avoiding TA-65 as well. But if not in global therapies, where is the promised land? Until we can go to Walmart and get a RoboCop makeover with regenerative medicine, there are a few alternatives in a second short list. These are the protocols I am currently using. All of them are low-cost, low-tech, and low-risk. Most of them also provide athletic or body composition benefits, even if their life-extension effects are later debunked: 1.
To experience this effect for yourself, do a single session of pre-hab testing from the “Pre-Hab” chapter. TAKE A COLD BATH ONE HOUR PRIOR TO BED. The Japanese have longer average lifespans than most other nationalities, including Americans, whom they beat by more than four years. One explanation researchers have proposed is that the regular ofuro, or hot bath at bedtime, increases melatonin release and is related to mechanisms for life extension. Paradoxically, according to one of the Stanford professors who taught the sleep biology class I took circa 2002, cold is a more effective signaler (aka zeitgeber, or “time giver”) for sleep onset. Perhaps the ofuro effect was related to the subsequent rapid cooling? Not eager to kill my swimmies with hot baths, I opted for direct cold. I tested the effect of combining shorter-than-usual 10-minute ice baths with low-dose melatonin (1.5–3 milligrams) one hour prior to sleep.
The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett
3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
Today there are around 6,000 members from more than 100 countries – an eclectic mix of self-confessed technology geeks, scientists, libertarians, academics and activists like Zoltan (who describes himself as a writer, activist and campaigner all-in-one). Together they work on a dazzling array of cutting-edge technology. Everything from life extension, anti-ageing, robotics, artificial intelligence (Marvin Minsky, considered one of the inventors of artificial intelligence, is a prominent transhumanist), cybernetics, space colonisation, virtual reality and cryonics. But most transhumanist technology focuses on life extension, and technological upgrades to the brain and body. It’s the possibility of a tech-powered ‘great leap forward’ that excites transhumanists like Zoltan, who believes the possible benefits of near- and medium-term technology are too important to ignore. In addition to the personal goal of immortality, he believes synthetic biology could solve food shortages, genetic medicine may help cure diseases, bionic limbs already do transform the lives of disabled people.
Transhumanists might be small in number, but they are, for the most part, extremely committed to the cause. Zoltan tells me he is planning a number of publicity stunts in the next couple of years to bring the movement to a wider audience. This includes marching with a group of robots and a large coffin to Union Square in San Francisco to protest against what he sees as a lack of government investment in life-extension science. Many transhumanists are ‘biohackers’ – who, like Anders, experiment with introducing new technology into their own body directly. In 2013, transhumanist Richard Lee became the first person to have implanted a headphone in his ear. In 2012, in Essen, Germany, Tim Cannon, a tranhumanist biohacker, implanted a small computer and wireless battery inside his arm. A number of American transhumanists have recently collaborated to crowdfund a ‘seastead’, a floating community located in international waters, outside of legal jurisdiction (in 2013, they became one of the first charities to accept Bitcoin donations).
Whether it was anarchist Bitcoin programmers, trolls, extremists, pornographers or enthusiastic self-harmers, all were more welcoming and pleasant, more interesting and multifaceted, than I’d imagined. Ultimately, the dark net is nothing more than a mirror of society. Distorted, magnified and mutated by the strange and unnatural conditions of life online – but still recognisably us. * * * fn1 Anders will be frozen at the Alcor Life Extension Foundation in Arizona, which charges a total of $200,000 ($215,000 for UK residents) for Whole Body Cryopreservation. fn2 I cannot say that Zerzan was unwilling to engage with the transhumanists. When he learned that I’d been communicating with Zoltan, he sent him the following, unsolicited message: I understand that you are in contact with Jamie Bartlett regarding his book project, dealing with the internet and technology more generally.
Tomorrowland: Our Journey From Science Fiction to Science Fact by Steven Kotler
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, epigenetics, gravity well, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Louis Pasteur, North Sea oil, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, theory of mind, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
ISBN-13: 9781477827949 ISBN-10: 1477827943 Cover design by Dave Stanton / Faceout Studio Author photograph by Ryan Heffernan For my mother and father Contents Start Reading The Future Is Here: AN INTRODUCTION PART ONE: THE FUTURE IN HERE Bionic Man: THE WORLD’S FIRST BIONIC MAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Genius Who Sticks Around Forever: THE SCIENCE OF MIND UPLOADING 1 2 3 4 Extreme States: THE BIOLOGY OF SPIRITUALITY 1 2 3 4 5 Evolution’s Next Stage: THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION 1 2 3 4 5 Vision Quest: THE WORLD’S FIRST ARTIFICIAL VISION IMPLANT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PART TWO: THE FUTURE OUT THERE Reengineering the Everglades: THE WORLD’S FIRST TERRAFORMING PROJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Buckaroo Banzai: THE ARRIVAL OF FLYING CARS 1 2 3 4 Meltdown or Mother Lode: THE POSSIBILITIES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY 1 2 3 4 5 6 Space Diving: THE FUTURE OF SPORT 1 Building a Better Mosquito: THE WORLD’S FIRST GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CREATURE 1 2 3 4 The Great Galactic Gold Rush: THE BIRTH OF THE ASTEROID MINING INDUSTRY 1 2 3 PART THREE: THE FUTURE UNCERTAIN The Psychedelic Renaissance: THE RADICAL WORLD OF PSYCHEDELIC MEDICINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sympathy for the Devil: THE TROUBLED SCIENCE OF LIFE EXTENSION 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Final Frontier: THE POLITICS OF STEM CELLS 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hacking the President’s DNA: THE CONSEQUENCES OF PLAYING GOD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The God of Sperm: THE CONTROVERSIAL FUTURE OF BIRTH 1 2 3 4 5 6 Acknowledgments About the Author Index Sure this is magic, but not necessarily fantasy. —Thomas Pynchon The Future Is Here AN INTRODUCTION It was early spring of 1997, about five years into my career as a journalist, a day of dark skies and cold rain.
Yet I left that diner absolutely certain that sometime in the next decade, the far frontier would open for business. I also left the diner a little gobsmacked. In less time than it took to drink a cup of coffee, a paradigm had shattered — science fiction had become science fact. On the way home, I started to wonder about other paradigms. After all, if private spaceships were possible, what about all the other sci-fi mainstays? What about bionics? Robotics? Flying cars? Artificial life? Life extension? Asteroid mining? What about those more ephemeral topics: the future of human evolution, the possibilities of downloadable consciousness? I made a long list — and that list defined large parts of the next two decades of my career. Tomorrowland is the result of that journey. The pieces in this book come from an assortment of major publications — the New York Times, Wired, Atlantic Monthly, to name a few — and all were penned between 2000 and 2014.
The second section — The Future Out There — is about the ways science and technology are radically reshaping our world. Here we’ll cover everything from on-world paradigm shifts, like the birth of the world’s first genetically engineered insect, to off-world paradigm shifts, like the birth of the asteroid mining industry. Finally, in The Future Uncertain, we’ll examine the gray areas, those explosive collisions between science and culture — for example, the use of steroids for life extension or the use of synthetic biology for the creation of bioweapons — where lines are being crossed and controversy reigns, and no one is certain what tomorrow brings. This last bit is no small thing. All of the technologies described in this book are disruptive technologies, though not as we traditionally define the word. Typically, disruptive technologies are those that displace an existing technology and disrupt an existing market, but the breakthroughs described herein do more than dismantle value chains — they destroy longstanding beliefs.
The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz
airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog
The reference is to the famous characterization of capitalism as "gales of creative destruction" in Schumpeter 1942. 19. McNeill 2000, pp. 193-194. 20. "Engineering and aging," IEEE Spectrum 41 (2004), no. 9: 10, 31-35. For much more on this controversial possibility, see de Grey 204 Notes to Chapters 4 and 5 2004. Aubrey D. N. J. de Grey is a well-known and controversial advocate of what might be called the "radical human life extension" school. Whether life extension is possible, and if so when it will be available, and how long lives will eventually be, remain highly contentious within the relevant research communities. Interestingly, other science and policy communities, such as those associated with sustainability, are generally not attending to these possibilities, despite their obviously challenging implications. Chapter 5 1. Similar dynamics arise in law, especially in arbitration and litigation, as one of us experienced in many years of legal practice; what is perceived by the Enlightenment rationalist as inefficient communication is, in fact, the complex process of muddling through complex legal, emotional, and factual tangles to workable solutions that arise from the fuzziness of the discussion, not from any failure to perceive the "rational" more quickly.
The net result is that it becomes necessary to design toward better military productivity, with productivity measured as mission accomplishment per soldier lost. This is one reason why the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is a major funder of research on how to keep soldiers in peak physical condition longer (which is dual-use research insofar as it also provides the scientific and technical basis for radical life-extension technologies). The substitution of military robots for people is an exact parallel to the substitution of capital for labor early in the Industrial Revolution. Robots, in other words, are another expression of the search for efficiency. So yes, LARs will accomplish the Level I function of saving soldiers' lives. But they will also be counted on to fulfill a Level II, if not a Level III function: projecting power when cultural and demographic trends militate against casualties.
The Menopause Thyroid Solution by Mary J. Shomon
Experts suggest that you use only synthetic melatonin, which carries no risk of transmitting animal brain diseases. I personally prefer a formulation that Dr. Pierpaoli himself created. (He wanted to make sure there was a pharmaceutical-grade melatonin available without prescription, and his formulation, known as TI-MElatonin, is a 3 mg tablet that also includes zinc, to help potentiate the melatonin, and selenium, for the immune system.) The Life Extension Foundation has also created a good-quality time-released melatonin in 300 mcg (0.3 mg) capsules. These might be helpful for those who find half a 3 mg tablet too high a dose. You’ll sometimes hear that melatonin is not recommended for people with autoimmune disease. For those women who have thyroid problems due to autoimmune Hashimoto’s or Graves’ disease, this may seem problematic. But it’s important to note that the concern was reportedly based on an isolated case where melatonin was linked to autoimmune hepatitis.
Practitioners WEB SITE http://www.menopause.org/cliniciansus.pdf Compounding Pharmacies Belmar Pharmacy 12860 West Cedar Drive, Suite 210, Lakewood, CO 80228 TELEPHONE 800–525–9473/303–763–5533 FAX 866–415–2923/303–763–9712 WEB SITE http://www.belmarpharmacy.com Knowles Apothecary/Brookville Pharmacy 10400 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 100, Kensington, MD 20895 TELEPHONE 301–942–7979 FAX 301–942–5544 WEB SITE http://www.brookvillepharmacy.com Women’s International Pharmacy 12012 North 111th Avenue, Youngtown, AZ 85363; 2 Marsh Court Madison, WI 53718 TELEPHONE 800–279-5708 FAX 800–279-8011 WEB SITE http://www.womensinternational.com Herbs, Supplements, and Vitamins Iherb.com (online only) WEB SITE http://www.iherb.com Life Extension Foundation WEB SITE http://www.lef.org Royal Maca/Whole World Botanicals: P.O. Box 322074, Fort Washington Station, New York NY 10032 TELEPHONE 888–757-6026/212–781-6026 WEB SITE http://www.wholeworldbotanicals.com Willner (catalog, phone, in person) 100 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017; 253 Broadway, New York, NY 10007; 2900 Peachtree Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30305 TELEPHONE 800–633-1106/212–682-2817 WEB SITE http://www.willner.com Melatonin International Anti-Aging Systems A U.K.
., 113, 342 Klonopin, 292, 303 Knowles Apothecary/Brookville Pharmacy, 350 Kornfield, Jack, 287, 353 Kwiatkowski, Scott, 212, 273, 281–82, 284–85, 356 KY Long Lasting Vaginal Moisturizer, 314 Ky Personal Lubricant, 314 Kyrie, Edna, 341 Langer, Stephen, 312, 341 Lannett Pharmaceuticals, 110, 343 Laparoscopy, 141 L-arginine, 314 LaserMax, 213 Latina women, 71, 204 Laugh Your Way through Menopause with “Minnie Pauz” (Adams), 343 Laughter, 287–88 L-dopa inhibitors, 35–36 Lee, John R., 344 Le Guin, Ursula, 289 Leptin, 17, 74 Levonorgestrel, 145 Levothroid, 21, 110, 343 Levothyroxine, 21, 103, 109–11, 114–15, 118, 119, 121–23, 312 Levoxyl, 21, 110, 114, 121, 342 Libido, 180, 229 low, 42, 77, 186, 204, 207, 307 (see also Sexual dysfunction) Lid lag, 48, 86 Life energy, redirecting and rebalancing, 276–78 Life Extension Foundation, 192, 350 Lightheadedness, 50, 82 Lighthearted Medicine, 354 Lignans, 194 Limbitrol, 292 Linoleic acid, 129 Linolenic acid, 129, 179 Liotrix, 110 Lithium, 34, 123, 295 Liver disease, 38, 158, 203 Living Well with Autoimmune Disease (Shomon), 339–40 Living Well with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia (Shomon), 340 Living Well with Graves’ Disease and Hyperthyroidism (Shomon), 339 Living Well with Hypothyroidism (Shomon), 338 Living Well with Menopause (Clark), 344 Loratidine, 306 Lorazepam, 292, 303 Low Dog, Tieraona, 8, 174–75, 197, 202–4, 209, 270–72, 276–77, 280–81, 290, 336, 356 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 150 Low-glycemic diet, 296–97 L-theanine, 206 Lugol’s solution, 131 Luminal, 306 Lupus, 27 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 16, 53, 54, 60, 185, 188, 208 blood tests for, 139–41 Luvox, 292 Lymphatic function, 230–31, 237 Lymph nodes, 87, 107 Lyothyronine, 111 Lysine, 314 Maca, 179–84, 308, 310 Magnesium, 128, 179, 291 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 95, 141, 286 Malabsorption syndrome, 38 Mammograms, 154, 158 Maprotiline, 123 Marsh mallow, 310 Massage, family, 282 Medical history, 26 Meditation, 279, 286–87, 326, 352–53 Meditation for Beginners (Kornfield), 287, 353 Meditation in a New York Minute (Thornton), 287, 353 Medroxyprogesterone, 144, 147, 156 Megace, 144 Megestrol acetate, 144 Melasma, 155 Melatonin, 15, 184–93, 291, 351 Melatonin Miracle, The (Pierpaoli), 186, 351 Memory problems, 1, 3, 11, 46–47, 72, 73, 81–82 Menest, 150, 171 Menopausal transition, see Perimenopause Menopause, see Perimenopause/menopause Menopause (journal), 189 Menopause Guidebook (North American Menopause Society), 344 Menopause Practice (North American Menopause Society), 344 Menorrhagia, 39, 308–10 Menostar, 151, 164, 347 Menstrual cycle, 17, 52–57, 271 irregularities of, 2, 3, 10, 11, 39, 143, 145–46, 308–11 during perimenopause, 60–62, 67, 68–70, 135–36 supplements and, 180, 184, 186, 188–89, 200, 209 Mercury, 31, 132, 215 Metabolic syndrome, 38 Metabolism, 3, 11, 13, 14, 18, 214, 284 diet and, 301 exercise and, 230, 233, 235, 236, 300 in perimenopause/menopause, 74, 230 supplements and, 128–30 in thyroid dysfunction, 40, 42–44, 47, 294 Metamucil, 45 Metesto, 149 Metformin, 296 Methimazone, 21, 105, 113 Methitest, 149 Methylcobalamin, 125–26 Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), 314 Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), 32 Methyltestosterone, 149 Metoclorpramide, 36 Metrorrhagia, 39 Micronor, 144, 145 Midler, Bette, 1 Migraines, 47, 82, 147, 155, 158, 165 Milaria bumps, 86 Mind-body medicine, 14, 269–70 Mindful Movement for Menopause Management (DVD), 238 Minerals, 127–28, 214–15 Mineral water, 223, 226 Minnie Pauz, 70, 287–88, 335, 345 Minoxidil, 313 Miracle of Natural Hormones, The (Brownstein), 343 Mirena intrauterine device, 145, 309, 347 Mirtazapine, 292, 303 Miscarriage, 28, 39, 69, 70 Mitral valve prolapse, 38, 86 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 303 Monoclonal antibody, 35 Monodeiodination, 18 Monoiodotyronine (T1), 16, 112 Mononucleosis, 37 Mood changes, 2, 41–42, 72, 74–76, 209, 217–72, 274 as hormone therapy side effect, 142, 143, 147 Mood-stabilizing drugs, 295 Moore, Elaine, 341, 342 Moore, Lisa, 341 Mouth, dryness of, 45–46, 80–81 Mulders, Martin, 116, 217, 356 Muller, Viana, 179–83, 357 Multiple sclerosis, 27, 35 Multivitamins, 125–26 Muscle relaxants, 292 Myasthenia gravis, 39 Myeth Pharmaceuticals, 152 Mylanta, 120 MyMedLab, 104, 141, 346 Mysloine, 306 Nails, 50, 82, 86 Naparstek, Belleruth, 273 Nardil, 303 Nasal radium therapy, 32–33 National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB), 89 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 158, 202 National Library of Medicine PubMed service, 334 National Osteoporosis Foundation, 79 National Sleep Foundation, 289 Native American healers, 201 Natural dessicated thyroid, 112–13, 115–16, 118 Natural Gourmet (Colbin), 353 Natural Gourmet Institute, 219 Natural Hormone Balance for Women (Reiss and Zucker), 344 Natural Superwoman, The (Reiss and Gendell), 144, 344 Nature-Thyroid, 21, 112–13, 115, 343 Naturopathy, 112, 178, 179, 228, 231, 326, 328 Neck, 48–49 self-check for thyroid problems, 83–84 trauma to, 36 Nefazodone, 303 NeoMercazole, 113 Nettles, 310, 314 Neuroendocrinology, 269–70 Neurontin, 317 Neuropeptide Y, 17 Nevada Nuclear Test Site, 33 New York Times, 329, 334 Niacin, 125 Nicholas Piramal India Ltd., 113 Nicholson, Jan, 277, 279, 280, 283 Nicotine patch, 311 Night sweats, 2, 6, 61, 70–73, 75, 135, 136, 153, 272, 274, 316–18, 329 alcohol and, 224 exercise and, 229 natural treatments for, 182, 184, 201, 202, 206 sleep problems and, 291 Nodules, thyroid, 20–22, 84, 95, 98, 107, 108 Nora-BE, 145 Noradrenaline, 16 Norepinephrine, 16, 304 Norethindrone, 144, 156 Norgestrel, 144 Norplant, 145 Norpramin, 121, 303, 292 Nor-QD, 144, 145 North American Menopause Society (NAMS), 74, 81, 153, 161, 169, 171, 199, 202, 270, 278, 291, 334 Credentialed practitioners of, 328, 350 Web site of, 345 Novartis Pharmceuticals Corporation, 347 Nortriptyline, 292 Novo Nordisk Inc., 348 Nuclear exposure, 33 Nuclear scans, 94–95 Nutrasweet, 37 Nutritional supplements, see Supplements Nystagmus, 48 Oak Ridge (Tennessee) nuclear facility, 33 Oleic acid, 179 Oligomenorrhea, 39 Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, 129–30, 195, 297–98 Onycholysis, 50, 87 Oophorectomy, 65 Ophthalmopathy, 48 Oreton Methyl, 149 Organ donation, 35 Organic foods, 221–22, 324 Ornish, Dean, 287, 352 Orthocept, 156 Ortho-Est, 150 Ortho Novum, 156 Ortho Tricyclen, 156 Osteopathy, 112, 211–12, 273, 281 Osteoporosis, 44, 79, 103, 119, 153, 327 drugs for, 35, 152 Ovaries, 5, 16, 17, 52–54, 59, 60, 76, 137, 180, 189, 214 at birth, 52, 60 cancer of, 154, 199 polycistic, 26, 38, 65, 327 premature decline or failure of, 26, 64 surgical removal of, 61, 65 Overactive thyroid, see Hyperthyroidism Overcoming Thyroid Disorders (Blanchard), 340 Ovrette, 144 Ovulation, 54, 55, 69 Oxcarbazepine, 35, 36 Oxybutynin, 316 Oxycise, 283 Oxytocin, 270 Oxytrol, 316 Pacewalk, 234 Pain during intercourse, 76 muscle and joint, 21, 44–45, 80, 147 Palmitic acid, 179 Palpitations, 11, 23, 38, 42, 46, 72, 81, 86, 142, 143, 188 Pamelor, 292 Pancreas, 16, 180 Pancreatic polypeptide, 16 Panic attacks, 39, 42 Para-aminosalicylic acid, 35, 36 Parathyroid gland, 16 Parathyroid hormone (PH), 16 Park, Steven, 294, 354 Parker, Dorothy, 83 Parker-Pope, Tara, 160, 162–63, 167, 329, 331–34 344 Parkinson’s disease, 189 Parnate, 303 Paroxetine, 121, 292, 303, 317 Partner, communicating with, 282–83 Passion flower, 205–6, 304 Paxil, 121, 178, 292, 296, 303, 306, 317 Pelvic inflammatory disease, 137 Perchlorate, 31–32, 132 Percutaneous ethanol injections, 107 Perimenopause/menopause, 2–9, 12, 13, 60–82, 103, 324 adrenal function and, 213–14 age at, 62, 64 blood tests for, 138–41 body aches during, 80 bone loss during, 79 breast changes in, 81 clinical examination for, 137–38 clinical test for, 62 cholesterol and, 79 complementary medicine for, 209–12 concentration and memory problems during, 81–82 decreasing fertility and infertility during, 70 depression and anxiety during, 302–5 diagnosing, 141–42 diet and, 216–18, 297 digestive disorders during, 80 early, risk factors for, 64–66 exercise and, 228–30, 234, 238 eye dryness during, 80 fatigue during, 79–80 finding right practitioner for, 326–33 hair loss during, 78, 311–14 heart-related problems during, 81 headaches and migraines during, 82 hormone therapy for, see Hormone therapy imaging and diagnostic tests for, 141 menstrual irregularities and, 39, 68–70, 143, 146, 308–11 mind-body connection in, 269–88 mineral imbalances and, 214–15 mood changes during, 74–75 mouth dryness during, 80–81 natural supplements for, 177–209 process of, 60–62 self-checks for, 135–36 sexual dysfunction during, 77, 305–8 skin changes during, 78 sleep problems during, 73, 289–94 smoking and, 322 terminology of, 66–67 thyroid dosage requirements and, 134 urinary problems during, 76–77, 315–16 vaginal dryness during, 75–76, 314–15 vasomotor symptoms of, see Hot flashes; Night sweats weight gain during, 73–74, 294–302 Pernicious anemia, 39 Pesticides, 32 Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 348 PharmaDerm, 347 Phenelzine, 303 Phenobarbital, 306 Phenytoin, 123 Phobias, 39 Photosensitivity, 48 Phytoestrogens, 133, 182, 193–201, 227, 316 PhytoPharmica/Enzymatic Therapies, 205 Pierpaoli, Walter, 186–92, 351, 357 Pilates, 235–37 Pineal gland, 15, 180, 184–85, 187–89, 311 Pituitary gland, 15–17, 19–20, 53, 60, 126, 180, 211, 311 failure of, 38 tumors of, 26, 138 Placenta, 17 Plantar fasciitis, 37, 43 Plummer’s nails, 50, 86 Polycistic ovary syndrome, 26, 38, 65, 327 Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, 38 Polymenorrhea, 39 Portion size, reducing, 218–19, 324 Positive attitude, benefits of, 270–72 Power-Surge, 175, 334, 335, 345 Pranayama, 283 Precursor hormones, see specific hormones Prednisone, 34, 36, 295 Prefest, 156 Pregnancy, 55, 60, 64 during perimenopause, 69, 70, 137 thyroid problems and, 27–28 Pregnenolone, 6, 59, 142, 182 Premarin, 3, 8, 150, 152, 164, 165, 168, 171, 217, 329, 346 Premenopause, see Perimenopause Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 55, 61, 68, 179, 206, 271 Premphase, 8, 156, 163, 346 Prempro, 3, 8, 147, 152, 156, 158, 163, 164, 168, 169, 171, 329, 346 Pretibial myxedema, 43–44, 86 Prevention magazine, 273, 334 Prior, Jerilynn, 61–62, 72–73, 308–9, 318, 357 Probiotics, 126–27 Processed foods, 220–21, 324 Prochieve, 145, 347 ProGest Cream, 146 Progesterone, 4–6, 14, 16, 59, 182, 185, 302 blood tests for, 139–41 in menstrual cycle, 54, 55 in perimenopause/menopause, 60–62, 75, 77, 80 therapy, 144–48, 152, 156–61, 165, 173, 295, 309, 312 Prolactin, 16 Prolapse, 76, 137 Promensil, 195, 197 Prometrium, 8, 145, 148, 164, 169, 348 Propecia, 313 Propranolol, 34, 36, 105, 303 Propylthiouracil (PTU), 21, 105, 113, 205 ProSom, 293 Protein, 297 low-fat sources of, 220, 296 Provera, 144, 165, 217, 348 Prozac, 121, 292, 295, 296, 303, 306, 317 Psoriasis, 27, 43 Psychotherapy, 304, 307 Puberty, 53, 60, 175, 271 Puffiness, 50 Pulmonary embolism, 154, 158 Pycnogenol, 207 Pygeum, 314 Pyridoxine, 125 Quazepam, 293 Questran, 122 Radiation therapy, 32, 65, 67, 107 Radioactive iodine (RAI), 21, 22, 25, 65, 105–8, 132, 227 Radioactive iodine uptake (RAI-U) scan, 94–95, 97, 98 Radium therapy, 32–33 Raloxifene, 35, 36, 153, 306 Ranitidine, 35, 306 Raynaud’s disease, 27 Red clover, 181–82, 194, 195 Red Hot Mamas, 305, 345 Red raspberry leaf tea, 310 Reflexes, 21, 85 Regelson, Walter, 351 Reglan, 36 Reiss, Uzzi, 144, 147, 172, 174, 178, 190, 344, 357 Religious beliefs, 286, 326 Remeron, 292, 303 Remifemin, 202, 203 Replens, 315 Reproductive hormone pathway, 58–60 Resmethrin, 32 Restoril, 293 Reversal of Aging (Pierpaoli), 351 Reverse T3 test, 92 Rheumatoid arthritis, 27 Riboflavin, 125 Rifampin, 123 Robert, Teri, 82, 357 Roberts, Bruce, 354 Roberts, Molly, 166, 190, 191, 198, 224, 277, 278, 280, 320–21, 354, 357 Rogaine, 313 Rotsaert, Stefanie, 272, 334–35 Royal Maca, 180–84, 308, 310, 351 Safe, 206 St.
An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize
But, of course, you could equally well argue that, with human-altering technologies, it might be just as reasonable to reduce men’s proclivity to violence, extend their life spans and give them wombs. Sparrow cites the ‘gap’ some men feel by not being able to bear children (I’m not one of them) and wonders, if there is a demand for male pregnancy, should it be an option freely available if the technology can be made safe? I suddenly realise that for these assembled academics, the prospect of fundamental alterations of our biology (including radical life extension and human enhancement) is a given. They’re not talking about what happens if it becomes possible, they’re discussing what we might do when it’s an option. And this worries many transhumanist critics. Sparrow later tells me, ‘The implications of taking transhumanism seriously are so radical and implausible that I think we should be much less inclined to do so.’ The seminar ends, and as the attendees dissipate (several I notice lighting cigarettes as they leave the building), I introduce myself to my host.
He is, after all, the joint founder of the World Transhumanist Association, which ‘advocates the ethical use of technology to expand human capacities’ supporting ‘the development of and access to new technologies that enable everyone to enjoy better minds, better bodies and better lives.’ I’m keen to understand where his optimism about transhumanist outcomes comes from, when so many people I mention the idea to visibly recoil. What drives him to bang the transhumanist drum in a world generally hostile to the idea? Throughout our talk, I pose this question in various guises, and Bostrom always answers in the same spirit – that, in his view, human life extension and enhancement will allow us not simply to live longer, but to enjoy living much more. When I ask, ‘What inspires and motivates you?’ he cites his reading, his colleagues, but also states ‘I guess through feeling and experiencing something in this life and thinking “why can’t it always be as good as that?”’ This is the emotional driver at the core of the transhumanist dream. ‘It’s hard for a lot of people to see the problem – that life isn’t always as wonderful as it could be – and part of the reason for that is our biology.
To overcome this, the transhumanist project is developing technologies that can enable us to become all that we are in potential, by changing not just the world around us but human biology as well.’ Well, it’s certainly more ambitious than getting a new kitchen. For him and many other transhumanists it’s not just ‘better than human,’ it’s also ‘have a better time than humans.’ And if you’re going to have a better time, why stop at seventy or eighty years? ‘Life extension is very central to me,’ he states. ‘First because for all the ordinary reasons we prefer to be alive rather than dead and, second, because if you think that the future might hold additional possibilities of radical enhancements of human capacity, the only way to get to experience that is to remain alive long enough, until those technologies have been developed.’ Remember, when transhumanists talk of enhancement, they’re going way beyond the capacity to switch on that fleeting ‘two pints in: brilliant at pool’ ability at will.
50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson
23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional
the condensed idea Genetic prophesy timeline 1997 Release of the movie Gattaca about genetic enhancement 2008 Knome offers genome sequencing to individuals for $350,000 2009 Knome drops its price to $99,500 2012 23andMe offers gene sequencing for $299 2018 Cost falls to $49 via Walmart 2020 Hospitals and insurers offer free genome profiling 2030 Google dating based upon ideal DNA profiles 2050 DNA database creates human underclass 22 Regenerative medicine Is it possible to prevent or reverse the aging process, perhaps by fiddling with tired tissues and cells, or even growing new organs inside a laboratory? Some people regard this as a pipe dream. Others see it instead as increasingly inevitable. Physician, heal thyself. What if you are an aging surgeon and parts of your body are worn out? Options may include stem-cell therapy, the transplant of an artificial organ (a kidney grown in vitro), the printing of replacement teeth or bones using a fabricator, general life extension, some more hair, or perhaps some new fingers? This last idea may seem a little far-fetched, but if newts can repair themselves why not human beings? One way to do so might be to persuade cells to return to a younger state—in other words, trick the body into believing that it’s a young child once again. This sounds incredible, but there’s a serious possibility that by the end of this century, and possibly a lot sooner, human beings will be able to regrow lost limbs.
the condensed idea We prefer our robots cuddly timeline 1950 I, Robot short stories by Isaac Asimov 1999 Sony’s Aibo dog 2000 Hasbro’s FurReal robotic pets 2004 WowWee’s Robosapien 2005 Cornell’s first self-replicating robot 2006 Amazing Allysen interactive doll 2016 Widespread use of agricultural robots 2030 98 percent of Korean homes contain a robot 35 Transhumanism Could emerging technologies enable individuals to radically extend life spans or even transcend the very idea of aging itself? As you might expect, transhumanism has annexed various philosophical ideas, especially in California, to become a kind of quasi religion or a quest for immortality. At one level transhumanism intersects with some fairly practical theories regarding life extension. For example, the adoption of a very low-calorie diet has been shown in some studies to significantly extend the life of mice and some say that the idea can be applied to people too. Developments in regenerative medicine (see Chapter 22) tap into some of these urges and impulses too, although beyond this, things can get a little weird. Some people, for example, believe that it’s possible to use cryonics (i.e. low-temperature preservation techniques) to keep dead people in a state of suspended animation until future medical technologies allow them to be brought back to life—although it’s much more likely that they’ll just be defrosted into a kind of slush.
The Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen
Asian financial crisis, Bernie Madoff, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, income inequality, indoor plumbing, life extension, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, school choice, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban renewal
• Some of the major technological marvels of today’s world are not doing so much to create new jobs. They’ll bring big gains but without putting too many people back to work, IT specialists of the right kind excluded. The internet is wonderful, but it’s not saving the revenue-generating sector of the economy. The forward march of technology has indeed continued, but it’s giving us Twitter and better painkillers and some life extension when we are old and sick. And I love Twitter and I’ll probably value those painkillers, too, once I need them. We’re living the age-old wish of getting away from money, money, money and finding some of our biggest innovative successes in sectors that are good for us but not revenue intensive. We’re getting away from materialism, at least in some critical regards. We may still lust after the fancy car, but I see a lot of people looking inward.
agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize
But Eos, in her haste, forgot to ask for eternal youth for him. So Tithonus became immortal, but his body aged. Unable to die, he became more and more decrepit and decayed, living an eternity with pain and suffering. So that is the challenge facing the science of the twenty-first century. Scientists are now reading the book of life, which includes the complete human genome, and which promises us miraculous advances in understanding aging. But life extension without health and vigor can be an eternal punishment, as Tithonus tragically found out. By the end of this century, we too shall have much of this mythical power over life and death. And this power won’t be limited to healing the sick but will be used to enhance the human body and even create new life-forms. It won’t be through prayers and incantations, however, but through the miracle of biotechnology.
More likely, it will be a combination of several methods: 1. growing new organs as they wear out or become diseased, via tissue engineering and stem cells 2. ingesting a cocktail of proteins and enzymes that are designed to increase cell repair mechanisms, regulate metabolism, reset the biological clock, and reduce oxidation 3. using gene therapy to alter genes that may slow down the aging process 4. maintaining a healthy lifestyle (exercise and a good diet) 5. using nanosensors to detect diseases like cancer years before they become a problem POPULATION, FOOD, AND POLLUTION But one nagging question is: If life expectancy can be increased, then will we suffer from overpopulation? No one knows. Delaying the aging process brings up a host of social implications. If we live longer, won’t we overpopulate the earth? But some point out that the bulk of life extension has already happened, with life expectancy exploding from forty-five to seventy to eighty in just one century. Instead of creating a population explosion, it has arguably done the reverse. As people are living longer, they are pursuing careers and delaying childbearing. In fact, the native European population is actually decreasing dramatically. So if people live longer and richer lives, they might space out their children accordingly, and have fewer of them.
See Longevity Life-forms, artificial creation of Life in space, search for, 6.1, 8.1 Life in 2100 dating, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 global warming and godlike power for humans, itr.1, itr.2 home life longevity questions, 9.1, 9.2 marriage and family life medical care, 9.1, 9.2 remodeling shopping, 9.1, 9.2 sports and games vacations work life Life on Mars, artificial establishment of Life’s origins Lilienthal, David LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) Lloyd, Seth Locomotive technology Longevity aging process caloric restriction and entropy and evolutionary perspective on genetics of, 3.1, 3.2 metabolism and methods for life extension popular interest in population expansion and resveratrol and telomeres of a cell and in 2100, 9.1, 9.2 youth preservation and Luria, A. R. Luttwak, Edward Lutz, Robert Maes, Pattie Maglev trains and cars, 5.1, 9.1 Magnetic energy, 5.1, 9.1 Magnetic field to create nuclear fusion Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as mind-reading technology, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 replicators and reverse engineering the brain and Mallouk, Thomas Malthus, Thomas Mammoth resurrection Markram, Henry Marquess, Ron Marriage and family life in 2100 Mars landing/colonization Martel, Sylvain Martian moon landing Matrix movies, 2.1, 7.1 Maxwell, James Clerk McGinnis, Dave McRae, Hamish, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Medicine/biotechnology augmented reality and brain injury treatments cancer screening cancer therapies, 1.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 9.1 Cave Man Principle and cloning, 3.1, 3.2 computers and creating new life-forms curing all diseases, 3.1, 8.1 depression treatments designer children, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 far future (2070), 3.1, 9.1, 9.2 gene therapy, 3.1, 3.2 genetic enhancements genomic medicine germ warfare memory enhancement, 3.1, 3.2 midcentury (2030) Moore’s law and muscle disorder treatments nanotechnology and near future (present to 2030) nightmare scenarios quantum theory and resurrecting extinct life-forms robotics and, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 side effects of biotech revolution spinal cord injury treatments stem cell technology surgery three stages of tissue engineering (organ replacement), 3.1, 3.2 virtual reality and See also Longevity Memory enhancement, 3.1, 3.2 Men in Black (movie) “Merger of Flesh and Machine, The” (Brooks) Merrill Lynch company Methane gas, 5.1, 6.1 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 4.1, 4.2 Middle class, planetary Miesenböck, Gero Miller, Webb Mind-body problem Mind reading EEG and MRI technology for ethics of Kaku’s brain scan mini-MRI machines photographing of dreams Mining operations on other worlds Minsky, Marvin, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Mischel, Walter Modha, Dharmendra Modular robots, 2.1, 4.1 Mohamad, Mahathir Moon landing/colonization, 6.1, 6.2 Moore, Gordon, 1.1, 4.1 Moore’s law computers and, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 4.1 medicine and nanotechnology and, 4.1, 4.2 Moravec, Hans, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 More, Sir Thomas Morfoot, Linda Morphing Moses, Edward MRI-MOUSE Muscle disorder treatments Musical robots Music industry Myrabo, Leik Najmabadi, Farrokh, 5.1, 5.2 Nanobots, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Nanocars Nanoparticles, 4.1, 4.2 Nanorods Nanostarships Nanotechnology carbon nanotubes, 4.1, 6.1 commercial applications today computers and DNA chips energy for molecular machines far future (2070) manipulation of individual atoms medicine and midcentury (2030) Moore’s law and, 4.1, 4.2 nanomachines in our bodies near future (present to 2030) potential of quantum theory and shape-shifting technology space travel and, 6.1, 6.2 See also Replicators National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neanderthal resurrection Neecke, Nikolas Neumann, John von, 2.1, 2.2 Neural networks News broadcasting Newspaper industry Newton, Isaac, itr.1, 6.1, 7.1 New York Times Nicolelis, Miguel A.
The Speed of Dark by Elizabeth Moon
Ransome says, looking up. “We can’t possibly do them at the same time.” He glances at me. “Lou was right. Even if you get a life extension treatment later, it can’t be done at the same time.” Linda shrugs and looks down. Her shoulders are tense; her hands are fisted in her lap. I think she will not take the treatment without the promise of longer life. If I do it and she does not, we may not see each other again. I feel strange about that; she was in this unit before I was. I have seen her every working day for years. “I will talk to the board about this,” Mr. Arakeen says, more calmly. “We’ll have to get more legal and medical advice. But if I understand you, some of you are demanding life extension treatment as part of Page 196 the package, at some time in the future, as a condition of participation, is that right?”
I put the coins in my pocket, tuck the packet of detergent in the light basket, and set the light basket on top of the dark one. Light should go on top of dark. That balances. I can just see over them to walk down the hall. I fix the Chopin prelude in my mind and head for the laundry room. As usual on Friday nights, only Miss Kimberly is there. She is old, with fuzzy gray hair, but not as old as Miss Watson. I wonder if she thinks about the life extension treatments or if she is too old. Miss Kimberly is wearing light-green knit slacks and a flowered top. She usually wears this on Fridays when it is warm. I think about what she wears instead of the smell in the laundry room. It is a harsh, sharp smell that I do not like. “Good evening, Lou,” she says now. She has already done her wash and is putting her things into the left-hand dryer. She always uses the left-hand dryer.
Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier
3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
One of the keenest reasons to want a middle-class distribution of wealth is to avoid a situation in which a small number of wealthy individuals live very long lives while no one else can afford the same life extensions. In my breakfast conversations about artificial hearts with Marvin Minsky, so long ago, he proposed that life extension could become so cheap that it would be universal. What we’ve seen, though, is that when some things become very cheap, other things become very expensive. Printers are incredibly cheap, and yet ink for them is incredibly expensive. Phones are cheap and yet connectivity for them is insanely expensive. Wal-Mart is cheap, and yet jobs go away. Software is “free” and yet the Internet is not creating as many jobs as it destroys. The talking seagull from the first chapter is probably more realistic than universal life extension for all in a world where clout and wealth flow to Siren Servers. A great showdown will occur when lives are extended significantly for the first time.
The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight
He wasn’t looking for industry experience but for people he knew, people who were incredibly smart, people who were like him, Stanford friends like Reid Hoffman, Stanford Review alums like David Sacks and Keith Rabois, and Confinity’s cramped, spartan offices above a bike shop soon filled with carelessly dressed, badly groomed men in their twenties (Thiel was one of the oldest at thirty-two), chess players, math whizzes, libertarians, without distracting obligations like wives and children or time-wasting hobbies like sports and TV (one applicant was turned down because he admitted to enjoying shooting hoops). Some employees lived on junk food at their desks, others were on life-extension calorie-restricted diets. The company took out an ad in The Stanford Daily: “Think kick-ass stock options in a cool start-up are worth dropping out of college? We are hiring right now!” It became the first company in the history of the world to offer cryogenics as part of its employee benefits package. Thiel was trying to build a successful business that would make him rich, but he also wanted to disrupt the world—in particular, the ancient technology of paper money and the oppressive system of monetary policy.
In spite of oscillating on the seatbelt question, Thiel had never lost the three-year-old’s primordial dismay at the news of death. He refused to submit to what he called “the ideology of the inevitability of the death of every individual.” He saw it as a problem to be solved, and the sooner the better. With the current state of medical research, he expected to live to be 120—a sorry compromise, given the grand possibilities of life extension. But 150 was becoming thinkable, and immortality wasn’t out of the question. In his last years, Steve Jobs had given speeches about how motivated he was by the prospect of death, but Thiel didn’t agree. Death was very demotivating. It ended up having a depressing effect, it gave a desperate tone to things and imposed constraints on what people tried to achieve. It would be healthier to live every day as though life were going to go on forever.
On the other hand, he shied away from investing in the area that would provide the most immediate help to struggling Americans—food and energy. Those were too regulated, too political. If there was something inegalitarian about his investments, every technological advance had an unequal component—you were doing the new thing, and the new thing could seldom be instantaneously transmitted to everybody. The starkest example was life extension: the most extreme form of inequality was between people who were alive and people who were dead. It was hard to get more unequal than that. The first people to live to be 150 would probably be rich—but Thiel believed that every technological breakthrough eventually improved the lives of most people, and anyway, none of it would happen if it were left to a popular vote. * * * The scientists at Halcyon Molecular were refugees from research universities, disenchanted with academic science, convinced that the best way to change the world was to start a company—ideal finds for Thiel, who believed that the latest bubble in the U.S. economy was education.
Albert Einstein, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, life extension, mouse model, phenotype, stem cell, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
That’s partly because many major advances targeted early childhood deaths. Vaccination against serious diseases such as polio, for example, has hugely improved both childhood mortality figures (fewer children dying) and morbidity in terms of quality of life for survivors (fewer children permanently disabled as a result of polio). There is a growing debate around the issue sometimes known as human life extension, which deals with extending the far end of life, old age. Human life extension refers to the concept that we can use interventions so that individuals will live to a greater age. But this takes us into difficult territory, both socially and scientifically. To understand why, it’s important to establish what ageing really is, and why it is so much more than just being alive for a long time. One useful definition of ageing is ‘the progressive functional decline of tissue function that eventually results in mortality’2.
Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator
“How about an innovation incubator?” “Boring too.” So Teller thought for a while and finally asked, “So, are we taking moonshots?” “That’s it,” answered Page, “that’s exactly what we’re doing.” And that is exactly what they’re doing. Over the past few years, Google has repeatedly made headlines with the audacity of their moonshots, dedicating their skunk works to everything from space exploration and life extension to AI and robotics. In other words, as of right now, there is perhaps no other company in the world playing the skunk game at such an elevated level. Over the next few pages, we’re going to examine exactly how Google takes moonshots, giving you an inside look at their skunk methodology and paying attention to which of Kelly Johnson’s initial ideas they’ve kept, which they’ve changed, and—from a psychological perspective—why.
(HLI), 65–66 Hyatt Hotels Corporation, 20 IBM, 56, 57, 59, 76 ImageNet Competition (2012), 55 image recognition, 55, 58 Immelt, Jeff, 225 incentive competitions, xiii, 22, 139, 148, 152–54, 159, 160, 237, 240, 242, 243–73 addressing market failures with, 264–65, 269, 272 back-end business models in, 249, 265, 268 benefits of, 258–61 case studies of, 250–58 collaborative spirit in, 255, 260–61 crowdsourcing in designing of, 257–58 factors influencing success of, 245–47 false wins in, 268, 269, 271 “flash prizes” in, 250 global participation in, 267 innovation driven by, 245, 247, 248, 249, 252, 258–59, 260, 261 intellectual property (IP) in, 262, 267–68, 271 intrinsic rewards in, 254, 255 judging in, 273 key parameters for designing of, 263–68 launching of new industries with, 260, 268, 272 Master Team Agreements in, 273 media exposure in, 265, 266, 272, 273 MTP and passion as important in, 248, 249, 255, 263, 265, 270 operating costs of, 271, 272–73 principal motivators in, 254, 262–63 purses in, 265, 266, 270, 273 reasons for effectiveness of, 247–49 risk taking in, 247, 248–49, 261, 270 setting rules in, 263, 268, 269, 271, 273 small teams as ideal in, 262 step-by-step guide to, 269–73 telegenic finishes in, 266, 272, 273 time limits in, 249, 267, 271–72 XPRIZE, see XPRIZE competitions Indian Motorcycle company, 222 Indian Space Research Organization, 102 Indiegogo, 145, 173, 175, 178, 179, 184, 185–86, 187, 190, 199, 205, 206, 257 infinite computing, 21, 24, 41, 48–52, 61, 66 entrepreneurial opportunities and, 50–52 information: crowdsourcing platforms in gathering of, 145–46, 154–56, 157, 159–60, 220–21, 228 in data-driven crowdfunding campaigns, 207–10, 213 networks and sensors in garnering of, 42–43, 44, 47, 48, 256 science, 64 see also data mining Inman, Matthew, 178, 192, 193, 200 innovation, 8, 30, 56, 137, 256 companies resistant to, xi, 9–10, 12, 15, 23, 76 crowdsourcing and, see crowdsourcing as disruptive technology, 9–10 feedback loops in fostering of, 28, 77, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90–91, 92, 120, 176 Google’s eight principles of, 84–85 incentive competitions in driving of, 245, 247, 248, 249, 252, 258–59, 260, 261 infinite computing as new approach to, 51 power of constraints and, 248–49, 259 rate of, in online communities, 216, 219, 224, 225, 228, 233, 237 setting big goals for, 74–75, 78, 79, 80, 82–83, 84, 85, 87, 89–90, 92, 93, 103 skunk methodology in fostering of, 71–87, 88; see also skunk methodology inPulse, 176, 200 Instagram, 15–16, 16 insurance companies, 47 Intel, 7 intellectual property (IP), 262, 267–68, 271 INTELSAT, 102 Intel Science and Engineering Fair, 65 International Manufacturing Technology Show, 33 International Space Station (ISS), 35–36, 37, 97, 119 International Space University (ISU), 96, 100–104, 107–8 Founding Conference of, 102, 103 Internet, 8, 14, 39, 41, 45, 49, 50, 117, 118, 119, 132, 136, 143, 144, 153, 154, 163, 177, 207, 208, 209, 212, 216, 217, 228 building communities on, see communities, online crowd tools on, see crowdfunding, crowdfunding campaigns; crowdsourcing development of, 27 explosion of connectivity to, 42, 46, 46, 146, 147, 245 mainstreaming of, 27, 32, 33 reputation economics and, 217–19, 230, 232, 236–37 Internet-of-Things (IoT), 46, 47, 53 intrinsic rewards, 79, 254, 255 Invisalign, 34–35 iPads, 42, 57, 167 iPhones, 12, 42, 62, 176 iPod, 17, 18, 178 iRobot, 60 Iron Man, 52–53, 117 Ismail, Salim, xiv, 15, 77, 92 isolation, innovation and, 72, 76, 78, 79, 81–82, 257 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 97 JARVIS (fictional AI system), 52–53, 58, 59, 146 Jeopardy, 56, 57 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), 99 Jobs, Steve, xiv, 23, 66–67, 72, 89, 111, 123 Johnson, Carolyn, 227 Johnson, Clarence “Kelly,” 71, 74, 75 skunk work rules of, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 84, 247 Joy, Bill, 216, 256 Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act (2012), 171, 173 Kaggle, 160, 161 Kahneman, Daniel, 78, 121 Kaku, Michio, 49 Kauffman, Stuart, 276 Kaufman, Ben, 17–20 Kay, Alan, 114n Kemmer, Aaron, 35, 36, 37 Kickstarter, 145, 171, 173, 175, 176, 179–80, 182, 184, 190, 191, 193, 195, 197, 200, 205, 206 Kindle, 132 Kiva.org, 144–45, 172 Klein, Candace, 19–20, 171 Klein, Joshua, 217–18, 221 Klout, 218 Kodak Corporation, 4–8, 9–10, 11, 12, 20 Apparatus Division of, 4 bankruptcy of, 10, 16 digital camera developed by, 4–5, 5, 9 as innovation resistant, 9–10, 12, 15, 76 market dominance of, 5–6, 13–14 Kotler, Steven, xi, xiii, xv, 87, 279 Krieger, Mike, 15 Kubrick, Stanley, 52 Kurzweil, Ray, 53, 54, 58, 59 language translators, 137–38 crowdsourcing projects of, 145, 155–56 Latham, Gary, 74–75, 103 Law of Niches, 221, 223, 228, 231 leadership: importance of vision in, 23–24 moral, 274–76 Lean In (Sandberg), 217 Lean In circles, 217, 237 LEAP airplane, 34 LendingClub, 172 LeNet 5, 54, 55 Let’s Build a Goddamn Tesla Museum, see Tesla Museum campaign Levy, Steven, 138 Lewicki, Chris, 99, 179, 202, 203–4 Lichtenberg, Byron K., 102, 114n Licklider, J. C. R., 27 LIDAR, 43–44, 44 life-extension projects, 66, 81 Li’l Abner (comic strip), 71 Lincoln, Abraham, 109, 194 Lindbergh, Charles, 112, 244, 245, 259–60 linear growth, 7, 9 linear industries, 38, 116 exponential technologies in disrupting of, 17, 18–22 linear organizations, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 76, 85, 116 LinkedIn, 77, 213, 231 Lintott, Chris, 220 Linux, 11, 163 Littler Workplace Policy Institute, 60 live-streaming, in crowdsourcing campaigns, 207 Lloyd, Gareth, 4 Local Motors, 33, 217, 223–25, 231, 238, 240, 241 Locke, Edwin, 23, 74, 75, 103 Lockheed, 71–72, 75 Lockheed Martin, 249 Longitude Prize, 245, 247, 267 long-term thinking, 116, 128, 130–31, 132–33, 138 Los Angeles, Calif., 258 loss aversion, 121 Louis Pasteur Université, 104 Lovins, Amory, 222 MacCready, Paul, 263 McDowell, Mike, 291n machine learning, 54–55, 58, 66, 85, 137, 167, 216 see also artificial intelligence (AI) Macintosh computer, 72 McKinsey & Company, 245 McLucas, John, 102 Macondo Prospect, 250 macrotasks, crowdsourcing of, 156, 157–58 Made in Space, 36–37 Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die (Heath and Heath), 248 MakerBot printers, 39 Makers (Doctorow), 38 MakieLabs, 39 manufacturing, 33, 41 biological, 63–64 digital, 33 in DIY communities, 223–25 robotics in, 62 subtractive vs. additive, 29–30, 31 3–D printing’s impact on, 30, 31, 34–35 Marines, US, 222 Markoff, John, 56 Mars missions, 99, 118–19, 128 Mars Oasis project, 118 Maryland, University of, 74 Maryniak, Gregg, 244 Mashable, 238 massively transformative purpose (MTP), 215, 221, 230, 231, 233, 240, 242, 274 in incentive competitions, 249, 255, 263, 265, 270 mastery, 79, 80, 85, 87, 92 materials, in crowdfunding campaigns, 195 Maven Research, 145 Maxwell, John, 114n Mead, Margaret, 247 Mechanical Turk, 157 meet-ups, 237 Menlo Ventures, 174 message boards, 164 Mexican entrepreneurs, 257–58 Michigan, University of, 135, 136 microfactories, 224, 225 microlending, 172 microprocessors, 49, 49 Microsoft, 47, 50, 99 Microsoft Windows, 27 Microsoft Word, 11 microtasks, crowdsourcing of, 156–57, 166 Mightybell, 217, 233 Migicovsky, Eric, 175–78, 186, 191, 193, 198, 199, 200, 206, 209 Millington, Richard, 233 Mims, Christopher, 290n MIT, 27, 60, 100, 101, 103, 291n mobile devices, 14, 42, 42, 46, 46, 47, 49, 124, 125, 135, 146, 163, 176 see also smartphones Modernizing Medicine, 57 monetization: in incentive competitions, 263 of online communities, 241–42 Montessori education, 89 moonshot goals, 81–83, 93, 98, 103, 104, 110, 245, 248 Moore, Gordon, 7 Moore’s Law, 6–7, 9, 12, 31, 64 Mophie, 18 moral leadership, 274–76 Morgan Stanley, 122, 132 Mosaic, 27, 32, 33, 57 motivation, science of, 78–80, 85, 87, 92, 103 incentive competitions and, 148, 254, 255, 262–63 Murphy’s Law, 107–8 Museum of Flight (Seattle), 205 music industry, 11, 20, 124, 125, 127, 161 Musk, Elon, xiii, 73, 97, 111, 115, 117–23, 128, 134, 138, 139, 167, 223 thinking-at-scale strategies of, 119–23, 127 Mycoskie, Blake, 80 Mycroft, Frank, 180 MySQL, 163 Napoléon I, Emperor of France, 245 Napster, 11 Narrative Science, 56 narrow framing, 121 NASA, 96, 97, 100, 102, 110, 123, 221, 228, 244 Ames Research Center of, 58 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of, 99 Mars missions of, 99, 118 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), 226 National Institutes of Health, 64, 227 National Press Club, 251 navigation, in online communities, 232 Navteq, 47 Navy Department, US, 72 NEAR Shoemaker mission, 97 Netflix, 254, 255 Netflix Prize, 254–56 Netscape, 117, 143 networks and sensors, x, 14, 21, 24, 41–48, 42, 45, 46, 66, 275 information garnered by, 42–43, 44, 47, 256 in robotics, 60, 61 newcomer rituals, 234 Newman, Tom, 268 New York Times, xii, 56, 108, 133, 145, 150, 155, 220 Nickell, Jake, 143, 144 99designs, 145, 158, 166, 195 Nivi, Babak, 174 Nokia, 47 Nordstrom, 72 Nye, Bill, 180, 200, 207 “Oatmeal, the” (web comic), 178, 179, 193, 196, 200 Oculus Rift, 182 O’Dell, Jolie, 238–39 oil-cleanup projects, 247, 250–53, 262, 263, 264 Olguin, Carlos, 65 1Qbit, 59 operational assets, crowdsourcing of, 158–60 Orteig Prize, 244, 245, 259, 260, 263 Oxford Martin School, 62 Page, Carl, 135 Page, Gloria, 135 Page, Larry, xiii, 53, 74, 81, 84, 99, 100, 115, 126, 128, 134–39, 146 thinking-at-scale strategies of, 136–38 PageRank algorithm, 135 parabolic flights, 110–12, 123 Paramount Pictures, 151 Parliament, British, 245 passion, importance of, 106–7, 113, 116, 119–20, 122, 125, 134, 174, 180, 183, 184, 248, 249 in online communities, 224, 225, 228, 231, 258 PayPal, 97, 117–18, 167, 201 PC Tools, 150 Pebble Watch campaign, 174, 175–78, 179, 182, 186, 187, 191, 200, 206, 208, 209, 210 pitch video in, 177, 198, 199 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 172 Pelton, Joseph, 102 personal computers (PCs), 26, 76 Peter’s Laws, 108–14 PHD Comics, 200 philanthropic prizes, 267 photography, 3–6, 10, 15 demonetization of, 12, 15 see also digital cameras; Kodak Corporation Pink, Daniel, 79 Pishevar, Shervin, 174 pitch videos, 177, 180, 192, 193, 195, 198–99, 203, 212 Pivot Power, 19 Pixar, 89, 111 Planetary Resources, Inc., 34, 95, 96, 99, 109, 172, 175, 179, 180, 186, 189–90, 193, 195, 201–3, 221, 228, 230 Planetary Society, 190, 200 Planetary Vanguards, 180, 201–3, 212, 230 PlanetLabs, 286n +Pool, 171 Polaroid, 5 Polymath Project, 145 Potter, Gavin, 255–56 premium memberships, 242 PricewaterhouseCoopers, 146 Prime Movers, The (Locke), 23 Princeton University, 128–29, 222 Prius, 221 probabilistic thinking, 116, 121–22, 129 process optimization, 48 Project Cyborg, 65 psychological tools, of entrepreneurs, 67, 115, 274 goal setting in, 74–75, 78, 79, 80, 82–83, 84, 85, 87, 89–90, 92, 93, 103–4, 112, 137, 185–87 importance of, 73 line of super-credibility and, 96, 98–99, 98, 100, 101–2, 107, 190, 203, 266, 272 passion as important in, 106–7, 113, 116, 119–20, 122, 125, 134, 174, 249, 258 Peter’s Laws in, 108–14 and power of constraints, 248–49 rapid iteration and, 76, 77, 78, 79–80, 83–84, 85, 86, 120, 126, 133–34, 236 risk management and, see risk management science of motivation and, 78–80, 85, 87, 92, 103, 254, 255 in skunk methodology, 71–87, 88; see also skunk methodology staging of bold ideas and, 103–4, 107 for thinking at scale, see scale, thinking at triggering flow and, 85–94, 109 public relations managers, in crowdfunding campaigns, 193–94 purpose, 79, 85, 87, 116, 119–20 in DIY communities, see massively transformative purpose (MTP) Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE, 253 Quirky, 18–20, 21, 66, 161 Rackspace, 50, 257 Rally Fighter, 224, 225 rapid iteration, 76, 77, 78, 79–80, 83–84, 85, 86, 236 feedback loops in, 77, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90–91, 92, 120 in thinking at scale, 116, 126, 133–34 rating systems, 226, 232, 236–37, 240 rationally optimistic thinking, 116, 136–37 Ravikant, Naval, 174 Raytheon, 72 re:Invent 2012, 76–77 reCAPTCHA, 154–55, 156, 157 registration, in online communities, 232 Reichental, Avi, 30–32, 35 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 4 reputation economics, 217–19, 230, 232, 236–37 Ressi, Adeo, 118 ReverbNation, 161 reward-based crowdfunding, 173, 174–80, 183, 185, 186–87, 195, 205, 207 case studies in, 174–80 designing right incentives for affiliates in, 200 early donor engagement in, 203–5 fundraising targets in, 186–87, 191 setting of incentives in, 189–91, 189 telling meaningful story in, 196–98 trend surfing in, 208 upselling in, 207, 208–9 see also crowdfunding, crowdfunding campaigns rewards, extrinsic vs. intrinsic, 78–79 Rhodin, Michael, 56 Richards, Bob, 100, 101–2, 103, 104 Ridley, Matt, 137 risk management, 76–77, 82, 83, 84, 86, 103, 109, 116, 121 Branson’s strategies for, 126–27 flow and, 87, 88, 92, 93 incentive competitions and, 247, 248–49, 261, 270 in thinking at scale, 116, 121–22, 126–27, 137 Robinson, Mark, 144 Robot Garden, 62 robotics, x, 22, 24, 35, 41, 59–62, 63, 66, 81, 135, 139 entrepreneurial opportunities in, 60, 61, 62 user interfaces in, 60–61 Robot Launchpad, 62 RocketHub, 173, 175, 184 Rogers, John “Jay,” 33, 38, 222–25, 231, 238, 240 Roomba, 60, 66 Rose, Geordie, 58 Rose, Kevin, 120 Rosedale, Philip, 144 Russian Federal Space Agency, 102 Rutan, Burt, 76, 96, 112, 127, 269 San Antonio Mix Challenge, 257–58 Sandberg, Sheryl, 217, 237 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 3 Sasson, Steven, 4–5, 5, 6, 9 satellite technology, 14, 36–37, 44, 100, 127, 275, 286n scale, thinking at, xiii, 20–21, 116, 119, 125–28, 148, 225, 228, 243, 257 Bezos’s strategies for, 128, 129, 130–33 Branson’s strategies for, 125–27 in building online communities, 232–33 customer-centric approach in, 116, 126, 128, 130, 131–32, 133 first principles in, 116, 120–21, 122, 126, 138 long-term thinking and, 116, 128, 130–31, 132–33, 138 Musk’s strategies for, 119–23, 127 Page’s strategies for, 136–38 passion and purpose in, 116, 119–20, 122, 125, 134 probabilistic thinking and, 116, 121–22, 129 rapid iteration in, 116, 126, 133–34 rationally optimistic thinking and, 116, 136–37 risk management in, 116, 121–22, 126–27, 137 Scaled Composites, 262 Schawinski, Kevin, 219–21 Schmidt, Eric, 99, 128, 251 Schmidt, Wendy, 251, 253 Schmidt Family Foundation, 251 science of motivation, 78–80, 85, 87, 92, 103 incentive competitions and, 148, 254, 255, 262–63 Screw It, Let’s Do It (Branson), 125 Scriptlance, 149 Sealed Air Corporation, 30–31 Second Life, 144 SecondMarket, 174 “secrets of skunk,” see skunk methodology Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), US, 172 security-related sensors, 43 sensors, see networks and sensors Shapeways.com, 38 Shingles, Marcus, 159, 245, 274–75 Shirky, Clay, 215 ShotSpotter, 43 Simply Music, 258 Singh, Narinder, 228 Singularity University (SU), xi, xii, xiv, 15, 35, 37, 53, 61, 73, 81, 85, 136, 169, 278, 279 Six Ds of Exponentials, 7–15, 8, 17, 20, 25 deception phase in, 8, 9, 10, 24, 25–26, 29, 30, 31, 41, 59, 60 dematerialization in, 8, 10, 11–13, 14, 15, 20–21, 66 democratization in, 8, 10, 13–15, 21, 33, 51–52, 59, 64–65, 276 demonetization in, 8, 10–11, 14, 15, 52, 64–65, 138, 163, 167, 223 digitalization in, 8–9, 10 disruption phase in, 8, 9–10, 20, 24, 25, 29, 32, 33–35, 37, 38, 39, 256; see also disruption, exponential Skonk Works, 71, 72 skunk methodology, 71–87, 88 goal setting in, 74–75, 78, 79, 80, 82–83, 84, 85, 87, 103 Google’s use of, 81–84 isolation in, 72, 76, 78, 79, 81–82, 257 “Kelly’s rules” in, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 84, 247 rapid iteration approach in, 76, 77, 78, 79–80, 83–84, 85, 86 risk management in, 76–77, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88 science of motivation and, 78–80, 85, 87, 92 triggering flow with, 86, 87 Skunk Works, 72, 75 Skybox, 286n Skype, 11, 13, 167 Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 219–20 Small Business Association, US, 169 smartphones, x, 7, 12, 14, 15, 42, 135, 283n apps for, 13, 13, 15, 16, 28, 47, 176 information gathering with, 47 SmartThings, 48 smartwatches, 176–77, 178, 191, 208 software development, 77, 144, 158, 159, 161, 236 in exponential communities, 225–28 SolarCity, 111, 117, 119, 120, 122 Space Adventures Limited, 96, 291n space exploration, 81, 96, 97–100, 115, 118, 119, 122, 123, 134, 139, 230, 244 asteroid mining in, 95–96, 97–99, 107, 109, 179, 221, 276 classifying of galaxies and, 219–21, 228 commercial tourism projects in, 96–97, 109, 115, 119, 125, 127, 244, 246, 261, 268 crowdfunding campaigns for, see ARKYD Space Telescope campaign incentive competitions in, 76, 96, 109, 112, 115, 127, 134, 139, 246, 248–49, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269 International Space University and, 96, 100–104, 107–8 Mars missions in, 99, 118–19, 128 see also aerospace industry Space Fair, 291n “space selfie,” 180, 189–90, 196, 208 SpaceShipOne, 96, 97, 127, 269 SpaceShipTwo, 96–97 SpaceX, 34, 111, 117, 119, 122, 123 Speed Stick, 152, 154 Spiner, Brent, 180, 200, 207 Spirit of St.
The Tylenol Mafia by Scott Bartz
The five-year shelf life of the Tylenol involved in the 1982 Tylenol murders was well outside the shelf life of any Tylenol product - with the notable exception of the Tylenol that Johnson & Johnson sold to the United States Department of Defense (DOD). In 1973, the DOD sought to defer drug replacement costs for date sensitive stockpiles of prescription and OTC drugs by extending their useful life beyond the manufacturer’s original expiration date. Subsequently, the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office completed studies to determine the feasibility of a “shelf life extension program.” These agencies found that the shelf life of OTC drugs, generally two to three years, could safely be extended to five years under properly controlled storage conditions. On July 1, 1975, the FDA and the Veterans Administration (VA) entered into a “Memo of Understanding” implementing a program to extend the expiration dates of the prescription and non-prescription drugs that the VA purchased.
Throughout the 1980s, the DOD contracted with the McNeil Consumer Products Company to buy Tylenol from all three of the Johnson & Johnson facilities that distributed Tylenol. The DOD purchased Tylenol in bulk containers for use in Military treatment facilities and VA hospitals and clinics. The DOD also purchased Tylenol for sale in the retail class of trade through its military commissaries. Because of the shelf-life extension program, all of the Tylenol sold to the DOD was given a shelf life of five years. This required separate bottling production runs so that the labels on the Tylenol bottles being sold to the DOD reflected the 5-year shelf life rather than the typical 3-year shelf life of the Tylenol bottled at the McNeil manufacturing plants. The 5-year shelf life of the Tylenol involved in the 1982 Tylenol murders indicates that it may have been intended for the DOD.
The three–year shelf life of Tylenol was mentioned in February 1986: Inquirer Wire Service (with contribution from Michael B. Coakley). “Cyanide in Tylenol; Woman Dead.” Inquirer, February 11, 1986. In October of 1982, Dean Mickelson, a pharmacist at the Revco drugstore: “Pharmacies pull drug,” The Taos News: Oct 7, 1982. An FOIA request was filed with the FDA: Konigstein, David. Response to FOIA Request, File 2011-4678, July 26, 2011. In 1973, the DOD: “SLEP - The DoD/FDA Shelf Life Extension Program.” Accessed July 10, 2011. https://slep.dmsbfda.army.mil/portal/page/portal/SLEP_PAGE_GRP/SLEP_HOME_NEW On July 1, 1975, the FDA: “MOU 224-76-8049: Memorandum of Understanding Between The Veterans Administration and The Food and Drug Administration.” June 12, 1975. Throughout the 1980s, the DOD: DOD Contract with McNeil Consumer Products Company, Round Rock, Texas, Contract number LA12082 C0776, May 1982. – DOD (Air force) Contract with McNeil Consumer Products Co., Glendale, California, Contract number SA13H 77 50158, Fiscal year 1980.
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological principle, discovery of DNA, false memory syndrome, Gary Taubes, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
Another futuristic possibility is cloning, the exact duplication of an organism from a body cell (which is diploid, or has a full set of genes, as opposed to a sex cell, which is haploid, or has only a half set of genes). Cloning lower organisms has been accomplished but the barriers to cloning humans are both scientific and ethical. If these barriers go down, cloning may play a significant role in life extension. One of the major problems with organ transplantation is the rejection of foreign tissue. This issue would not exist with duplicate organs from a clone—just raise your clone in a sterile environment to keep the organs healthy, and then replace your own aging parts with the clone's younger, healthier organs. The ethical questions associated with this scenario are challenging, to say the least.
On the Origin of Species by Means ofNatural Selection: Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. A Facsimile of the First Edition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964. ......... 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. 2 vols. London: J. Murray. ......... . In Box 106, Darwin archives, Cambridge University Library. Darwin, M., and B. Wowk. 1989. Cryonics: Beyond Tomorrow. Riverside, Calif.: Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Davies, P. 1991. The Mind of God. New York: Simon & Schuster. Dawkins, R. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ......... 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: Norton. ......... 1995. Darwin's Dangerous Disciple: An Interview with Richard Dawkins. Skeptic 3, no. 4:80-85. ......... 1996. Climbing Mount Improbable. New York: Norton. Dean, J. 1998. Aliens in America: Conspiracy Cultures from Outerspace to Cyberspace.
Kiln People by David Brin
With what you learn today, we can narrow down our suspicions and follow up by slapping specific datapoenas on Universal Kilns, under the tech-disclosure laws. The beauty of it is that they'll never have a reason to ever link you to our lawsuit." It makes sense. That is, assuming I don't choose to tell Aeneas Kaolin all about this, just as soon as I pass inside Universal Kilns! Sure, I'd forfeit my bond and lose most of Albert's hard-won credibility points, but there'd be compensations. Maybe he would make me a subject of his ditto life-extension experiments. I could have more than another twelve hours, maybe lots more! Huh. Now where did that thought come from? It was almost ... well, frankie ... confusing the more important "I" with the trivial i that's thinking these thoughts. How bizarre! Anyway, why daydream about doing things that I'll never do. Or cheap posterities that I'll never win? "And after the bus station?" Vic Collins prompts.
Pairs of giant antennas, facing each other across a cavernous chamber? Hyperconducting terahertz cables, thick as a tree trunk, linking a human original to the distant lump of clay she plans to animate? Or might UK executives already have perfected the technology? Could they be using it right now, in secret, to "beam" copies of themselves all over the planet? How about the other breakthroughs that Wammaker and Irene and Collins suspect? Ditto life extension? Ditto-to-ditto copying? Modern wish-fantasies, but what if they're about to come true? My employers want me to seek evidence, but the other half of my job is just as urgent ... do nothing illegal. Whatever I happen to glimpse by wandering around can be blamed on poor UK security. But I won't pick any locks for Gineen and her friends. I could lose my license. Damn. Something's been bugging me all afternoon.
Iron Sunrise by Stross, Charles
blood diamonds, dumpster diving, gravity well, hiring and firing, industrial robot, life extension, loose coupling, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, RFID, side project, speech recognition, technological singularity, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl
He raised an eyebrow at Eloise. “Is there a panic button under the bar, or were you just masturbating furiously?” “Panic button, putz.” She paused. “Say, nobody told me about any ersatz juvies. How do I tell if they come in my bar?” “Go by the room tag manifest for their ages. Don’t assume kids are as young as they look. Or old folks, for that matter. You come from somewhere that restricts life extension rights, don’t you?” Svengali shrugged. “At least most of the Lolitas have a handle on how to behave in public, unlike dumb-as-a-plank there. Damn good thing, that, it can be really embarrassing when the eight-year-old you’re trying to distract with a string of brightly dyed handkerchiefs turns out to have designed the weaving machine that made them. Anyway, who are those people?” “One minute.”
Slowing even more, Elspeth continued thoughtfully: “There was a whole gallery explaining the sequence of conquests that enabled the Eastern Empire to defeat their enemies in the south and get a stranglehold on the remaining independent cornucopia-owning fabwerks. Fascinating stuff.” “Nothing on the mass graves, I take it,” Rachel observed. “No.” Elspeth shook her head. “Nor the blank spots on the map of North Transylvania.” “Ah.” Rachel nodded. “They haven’t gotten around to talking about it yet?” “Life extension, amnesia extension. It takes longer to admit to the crimes when the criminals are still taking an active role in government.” Elspeth drained her glass, then looked away. “Why were you there?” she murmured. “War crimes commission. I’d rather not talk about it, thanks.” Rachel finished her drink. “I’d better get back to the embassy to start preparations.” She noticed Elspeth’s expression. “I’m sorry, but we’ve got to get under way as soon as possible.
4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks
A big, athletic guy who loved to ski in the California mountains, he had none of the social awkwardness common among Cal Tech students. This active spirit carried over into his intellectual pursuits. When he read the novels of Larry Niven, which discussed the possibility of cryogenically freezing humans and later bringing them back to life, Hal didn’t just ponder the potential in his dorm room. He located a foundation dedicated to making this process a reality and signed up to receive the Alcor Life Extension Foundation’s magazine. Eventually he would pay to have his and his family’s bodies put into Alcor’s frozen vaults near Los Angeles. The advent of the Internet had been a boon for Hal, allowing him to connect with other people in far-flung places who were thinking about similarly obscure but radical ideas. Even before the invention of the first web browser, Hal joined some of the earliest online communities, with names like the Cypherpunks and Extropians, where he jumped into debates about how new technology could be harnessed to shape the future they all were dreaming up.
For instance, his post on “Bit Gold Markets” says that it was written on December 27, 2008, but the URL is http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2008/04/bit-gold-markets .html#links. 339“repeated use of ‘of course’ without isolating commas”: Skye Grey, “Satoshi Nakamoto Is (Probably) Nick Szabo,” LikeinaMirror, December 1, 2013, https://likeinamirror.wordpress.com/2013/12/01/satoshi-nakamoto-is-probably-nick-szabo/. 348a hacker demanding ransom was targeting Hal: Robert McMillan, “An Extortionist Has Been Making Life Hell for Bitcoin’s Earliest Adopters,” Wired, December 29, 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/12/finney-swat/. 353The United States Marshals Service had auctioned off the 29,655: Tim Draper’s announcement is available at https://medium.com/mirror-blog/tim-draper-wins-govt-auction-partners-with-vaurum-to-provide-bit coin-liquidity-in-emerging-markets-88f04a1d8598. 353Wences officially announced the $20 million: The Xapo announcement is available at https://blog.xapo.com/xapo-raises-20-million-investment-led-by-greylock-partne/. 354Gates had initially bet against the open Internet and built a closed network: Kathy Rebello, “Inside Microsoft: The Untold Story of How the Internet Forced Bill Gates to Reverse Course,” BusinessWeek, July 15, 1996. INDEX “The pagination of this electronic edition does not match the edition from which it was created. To locate a specific passage, please use your e-book reader’s search tools.” Abedier, Osama, 101 Alcor Life Extension Foundation, 7 Alibaba (Chinese Internet company), 261 Alice (hypothetical user), 9, 11, 21–23, 358–359 Alipay (Chinese payment processor), 260–261 Allen & Co., 181, 292, 349, 353 altoid (screen name), 69, 248. See also Ulbricht, Ross Andreessen Horowitz, 186, 192, 329 Andreessen, Marc, 181, 186–187, 293–295, 303, 335 Andresen, Gavin beginnings with Bitcoin, 44–47, 49–50, 323 as Bitcoin central figure, 59–62 Bitcoin mining, 53, 192–197, 329 Bitcoin promotion, 75–76, 101–106 creation of Bitcoin Foundation, 138, 141–142 dealing with scandals, 99 relationship with Satoshi, 55–56, 80–86 responding to Mt.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
In short, this is an industry in which such far-fetched thinking is de rigueur. Some of these people actually believe they will live forever. Peter Thiel, a PayPal cofounder and major early investor in Facebook (and another Rand disciple), has derided the inevitability of death as an “ideology” while plowing millions into companies that might, as he said, “cure aging.” Google’s own forays into life-extension research, through a biotech subsidiary called Calico, reflects its belief that it can solve death—at least for a paying few. So how does social media fit into these dreams of emancipatory digital technology? Social media is a means to the cyber-libertarian end. That it’s only the latest hyped product to come down the pipe—that the inventors of the telegraph and the telephone and the Internet itself shared similar naïve fantasies—doesn’t seem to matter.
, 149–50 Jezebel blog, 169 Jobs, Steve, 3 Johnson, Benny, 116 journalism and conflicting reports, 108–9 false stories leading to contact with targets, 107–8 feedback loop on social media, 97 immediacy of report vs. facts, 108–10, 113–14 outrage and grievance applied to, 120–21 and tenor of the viral Web, 102–3 See also news organizations journalists overview, ix, 102–3 climate change writer, 333–35, 336–37, 340–41, 343, 346, 347 information overwhelm, 334–36, 340 and social media, 108, 148 and social news, 127 and unconfirmed reports, 110 and virality, 102–3, 105 junk mail with “Daughter Killed in a Car Crash” in address, 279–80 Jurgenson, Nathan, 61 Just Mugshots, 208 Kalanick, Travis, 235 Kardashian, Kim, 67 Karim, Jawed, 15 Karp, David, 27, 29–30 Keller, Jared, 84, 144 Kelly, Kevin, 280–81, 282 Kelly, Ray, 287 Kickstarter Web site, 84 Kirn, Walter, 142–43 Klein, Ezra, 124 Klout, 194–96, 200 Know More Web site (Washington Post:Wonkblog), 123–24 Kunkel, Benjamin, 274 Kurzweil, Ray, 5 labor markets overview, 226, 234–35, 247 Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 90, 226, 228, 229–30 exploitative nature of, 228–30, 243–44 Gigwalk, 232 social media compared to, 227 TaskRabbit, 222–26, 236–37, 242, 245 workers trapped by, 231–33 See also employment; fractional work Landy, Andy, 187–88 Lanier, Jaron, 138–39, 328 Lasch, Christopher, 23, 45, 319, 342, 343, 345 Law, Rachel, 357–58 Lazewatsky, Miriam, 79–80 Leibovitz, Liel, 348–49 Lenddo, 309 Lenticular printing, 299–300 Leonard, Franklin, 182–83 Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 167–68 libel lawsuit, 113 libertarianism, 1–3, 19. See also cyber-libertarianism life-extension beliefs and research, 5 lifelogging, 136–40 Like, +1, or heart buttons and BuzzFeed listicles, 118–19 as commercial endorsement, 31–33, 34–35 data from, 8, 10, 294, 300 as de facto legal agreement, 26–27 and human nature, 24–26 as limp pat on the back, 52 as people rating system, 190–92 scoreboard function, 48 See also retweets and reblogs like economy, 35 liking studies, 24 linkbait, 104, 125, 125n LinkedIn, 35, 165, 181, 199, 323 Lippmann, Walter, 249 listicles, 114–15, 116–17, 118–19, 123, 261 ListiClock, 118 Lithium Technologies, 196 log-ins, 160, 165–66, 182 London, England, 306 Losse, Katherine, 6, 8, 12, 48, 129, 323, 327 Luddism and Luddites, x, 48 lurkers, 49 Lyft, 235 Lyon, David, 129, 316 MAC (media access control) address, 99 MAC address identifications, 306 Madrigal, Alexis, 25 Maimonides, 179–80 manipulation to obtain free labor, 260–63, 264–65 pricing based on purchaser’s ability to pay, 318 Manjoo, Farhad, 65, 262 Marconi, Guglielmo, 2, 3 market inefficiencies, 234, 235, 240, 243, 245 marketing boosting likes with prizes, 32 celebrity-driven campaigns, 89, 93–94 consumers joining companies in marketing process, 32–33, 34–35, 58–60 Facebook slogan, 12 follower services, 85–87, 88–89 liking studies, 24 marketing as journalism, 27–28 telemarketing, 43 tradition of deception, 92–94 and viral media, 68–69 See also advertising market intelligence, 35–36, 216–17 MarketPsy Capital, 37 Mastering the Internet project, Britain, 314 Master Switch, The (Wu), 67 Matlin, Chadwick, 119 McCoy, Terrence, 68 McDonaldization of Society, The (Ritzer), 270 McGillvary, Caleb “Kai,” 70 Mechanical Turk, 90, 226, 228, 229–30 Medbase2000, 318–19 MediaBrix, 304 media recommendations, 202 Mediated (Zengotita), 120 memes advertisers appropriation of, 60 amplifiers for, 88–89 false stories, 107–8, 109, 111, 113 of Hilton and Kardashian, 67 inflationary rhetoric for, 102–3 and informational appetite, 322 from local newscasts, 69–72 Old Spice guy as, 93 as one greedy industry meeting another, 84–85 poverty and urban crime, 72–73 reworking and corrections, 105, 106–7 unemployed college graduate’s story, 220–26 Memoto Mini Camera, 137–38 messaging apps, 156, 259 Messenger smartphone app, 177 metadata, 131 Metal Rabbit Media, 213 metrics advertising, 97–99 audience, 95–96, 101–2, 103 biometric tools, 305–6 Facebook, 152, 358–59 followers, 53 hits at a Web site, 102 influence scores, 194, 197–98 page views, 98, 102 as reminder of how well others are doing, 152–53 Twitter, 87, 96–97, 348–49 unique visitors, 96, 102 for Upworthy, 102 See also page views micro-fame, 149–50, 152, 196–97, 206 Microsoft, 195, 296, 311–12 micro-targeting listicles, 118–19 micro-work.
Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, declining real wages, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, knowledge economy, life extension, lump of labour, new economy, Nick Leeson, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trade route, very high income, working poor
A Medical Dilemma Back in the early 1980s, before the Internet had even been born, science-fiction writers like Bruce Sterling invented a genre that came to be known as “cyberpunk.” Cyberpunk’s protagonists were usually outlaw computer hackers, battling sinister multinational corporations for control of cyberspace (a term coined by another sci-fi novelist, William Gibson). But in his 1996 novel Holy Fire, Sterling imagines a rather different future: a world ruled by an all-powerful gerontocracy, which appropriates most of the world’s wealth to pay for ever more costly life-extension techniques. And his heroine is, believe it or not, a ninety-four-year-old medical economist. When the novel first came out, it seemed that Sterling was behind the curve. Public concern over medical costs peaked in 1993, then dropped off sharply. Not only did the Clinton health care plan crash and burn, the long-term upward trend in private medical costs also flattened, as corporations shifted many of their employees into cost-conscious HMOs.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar
They are pushing the current thresholds of lifespan, health, cognition and capabilities in ways that were previously the preserve of science fiction. As knowledge and discoveries in these fields progress, our focus and commitment to having ongoing moral and ethical discussions is critical. As human beings and as social animals, we will have to think individually and collectively about how we respond to issues such as life extension, designer babies, memory extraction and many more. At the same time, we must also realize that these incredible discoveries could also be manipulated to serve special interests – and not necessarily those of the public at large. As theoretical physicist and author Stephen Hawking and fellow scientists Stuart Russell, Max Tegmark and Frank Wilczek wrote in the newspaper The Independent when considering the implications of artificial intelligence: “Whereas the short-term impact of AI depends on who controls it, the long-term impact depends on whether it can be controlled at all…All of us should ask ourselves what we can do now to improve the chances of reaping the benefits and avoiding the risks”.60 One interesting development in this area is OpenAI, a non-profit AI research company announced in December 2015 with the goal to “advance digital intelligence in the way that is most likely to benefit humanity as a whole, unconstrained by a need to generate financial return”.61 The initiative – chaired by Sam Altman, President of Y Combinator, and Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla Motors - has secured $1 billion in committed funding.
3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E
If you ask someone who has never taken the idea of immortality seriously whether they would like to live forever, they are very likely to produce three objections: life as a very old person would be uncomfortable, they would get bored, and the planet would become overcrowded. They might add the notion that death gives meaning to our lives by making them more poignant. It is extraordinary how few people immediately perceive extended life as a straightforward benefit. Aubrey de Grey, a well-known researcher of radical life extension technologies, thinks we employ a psychological strategy called a “pro-aging trance” to cope with the horror of age and death: we fool ourselves into thinking that death is inevitable and even beneficial. The first point to make is that we are not talking about extended lives in which we become increasingly decrepit. The technology which would enable us to make death optional would enable us to live at pretty much any physical age we chose – say, our mid-twenties.
Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, anti-communist, dematerialisation, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Nikolai Kondratiev, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, the scientific method
Not only nuclear weapons but also chemical and biological weapons are steadily becoming cheaper and more easily usable, while genetic engineering is sure to be used to develop methods of genocide that destroy human life selectively on a large scale. In a time when the spread of knowledge makes these technologies ever more accessible death rates could be very high, even among those whose longevity has been artificially enhanced. Moreover, those who have benefited from life-extension techniques could find themselves in an environment that is increasingly inhospitable to human life. During the present century climate change may alter the conditions in which humans live radically and irreversibly. The survivors could find themselves in a world different from any in which humans have ever lived. A side-effect of the growth of knowledge, global warming cannot be halted by further scientific advance.
Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor
Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar
., historical profitability of value as measure in world, growth of see also environmental economics ecovillages education efficiency Egypt Ehrlich, Paul electric industry electric vehicles electronics, consumer imports of material flow and multifunctionality and storage and disposal of see also specific products Elpel, Renee Elpel, Tom Empire of Fashion (Lipovetsky) employee-owned companies employment, see labor; unemployment end of life (EOL) energy: housing and price of rebound effect from efficient use of systems dynamics and taxes and use of see also specific energy sources energy economics environment ecological footprint in, see ecological footprint ecological optimism and economic activity and feedback loops and full-cost pricing and integrated assessment models and mainstream economics and planetary boundaries and restoration of UN assessment of (2005) water footprint and see also climate change environmental economics cost-benefit analysis and customization and household production and production possibilities curve and reciprocity and resale and reuse and sharing and trade-off view of -4n working less and see also economy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) -3n Europe: cohousing in ecological footprint in health care in historical carbon emissions of materials consumption in passive solar building in population decline in product life extension policies in European Society for Ecological Economics EV1 electric car extensive growth extinctions extra-market diversification ExxonMobil fabrication laboratories (fab labs) cost of Factor e Farm Farm, The (Tenn.) farmers’ markets fashion fast-moving consumer goods (FMCGs) Fathy, Hassan Featherstone, Mike feedback loops financialization Finland, ecological footprint in Finlayson, Ian fish Fleisher, Eric flexible production flex time floods food price of self-provisioning and forests Forrester, Jay fossil fuels -93n unaccounted costs of see also specific fuels Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC) France: ecological footprint in hours worked in Freakonomics (Levitt and Dubner) Freecycle.org Friedman, Milton Friedman, Thomas L.
The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation
Polio still exists in developing countries, and due to our globalized world, it still has the potential of spreading to developed countries where it has been eliminated. 53 while aluminum used to be the most valuable: Kotler, Steven, and Peter H. Diamandis. Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think. New York: Free Press, 2012. 53 have added about 0.4 years: Wolfram|Alpha. “Life Expectancy, United States”; http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=life+expectancy+United+States, 2011. 53 actuarial escape velocity: Grey, Aubrey D. N. J. de. “Escape Velocity: Why the Prospect of Extreme Human Life Extension Matters Now.” PLoS Biol 2, no. 6 (June 15, 2004): e187. Further reading: Finch, Caleb E., and Eileen M. Crimmins. “Inflammatory Exposure and Historical Changes in Human Life-Spans.” Science 305, no. 5691 (September 17, 2004): 1736–39. 55 The physicist Tom Murphy has shown: Murphy, Tom. “Galactic-Scale Energy.” Do the Math, 2011. http://physics.ucsd.edu/do-the-math/2011/07/galactic-scale-energy. 55 self-fulfilling propositions: Kelly.
The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin
airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, ultimatum game
Here’s an additional piece of information that may bring the decision into sharp focus: The surgery extends one’s life, on average, by only six weeks. This number is derived from the average of the forty-seven people whose lives were not extended at all (some were even shortened by complications from the surgery) and the one person whose life was saved by the surgery and has gained five and a half years. The six-week life extension in this case exactly equals the six-week recovery period! The decision, then, can be framed in this way: Do you want to spend those six weeks now, while you’re younger and healthier, lying in bed recovering from a surgery you probably didn’t need? Or would you rather take the six weeks off the end of your life when you’re old and less active? Many surgical procedures and medication regimens pose just this trade-off: The amount of time in recovery can equal or exceed the amount of life you’re saving.
Two objections to this line of thinking are often posed. The first is that talking about averages in a life-or-death decision like this doesn’t make sense because no actual prostate surgery patient has their life extended by the average quoted above of six weeks. One person has his life extended by five and a half years, and forty-seven have their lives extended by nothing at all. This “average” life extension of six weeks is simply a statistical fiction, like the parking example. It is true, no one person gains by this amount; the average is often a number that doesn’t match a single person. But that doesn’t invalidate the reasoning behind it. Which leads to the second objection: “You can’t evaluate this decision the way you evaluate coin tosses and card games, based on probabilities. Probabilities and expected values are only meaningful when you are looking at many, many trials and many outcomes.”
Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
If you mix it with the Amino Matrix, which is very tart, it buffers the alkalinity of the KetoForce and it ends up tasting quite good.” TF: A tablespoon of lemon juice (in the water you use to dilute KetoForce) will also work for buffering. If KetoForce is too odd for your stomach, try the powdered KetoCaNa, also developed by Patrick, which I often use before aerobic exercise. Metformin for Life Extension Both Patrick Arnold and his frequent collaborator, Dominic D’Agostino, PhD (page 21), are interested in metformin, which is not their creation. Dom considers it the most promising of the anti-aging drugs from a scientific standpoint, and I would estimate that a dozen of the people in this book use it. In type 2 diabetics (to whom it’s prescribed), metformin decreases the liver’s ability to make and deposit glucose into the bloodstream.
He is the founder of OS Fund and Braintree, the latter of which was bought by eBay in 2013 for $800 million in cash. Bryan launched OS Fund in 2014 with $100 million of his personal capital to support inventors and scientists who aim to benefit humanity by rewriting the operating systems of life. In other words: He fuels real-world mad scientists tackling things like asteroid mining, artificial intelligence, life extension, and more. He is currently the founder and CEO of Kernel, which is developing the world’s first neuroprosthesis [brain-implantable computer] to mimic, repair, and improve cognition. Behind the Scenes To inspire his kids, Bryan commissioned a graffiti artist to paint Gandalf the Grey and Harry Potter on one of his walls at home. They are pointing their wands skyward and above it all is the word “dream.”
The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee
Barry Marshall: ulcers, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, iterative process, life extension, Louis Pasteur, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, scientific mainstream, Silicon Valley, social web, statistical model, stem cell, women in the workforce, éminence grise
The measurement of illness, Breslow was arguing, is an inherently subjective activity: it inevitably ends up being a measure of ourselves. Objective decisions come to rest on normative ones. Cairns or Bailar could tell us how many absolute lives were being saved or lost by cancer therapeutics. But to decide whether the investment in cancer research was “worth it,” one needed to start by questioning the notion of “worth” itself: was the life extension of a five-year-old “worth” more than the life extension of a sixty-year-old? Even Bailar and Smith’s “most fundamental measure of clinical outcome”—death—was far from fundamental. Death (or at least the social meaning of death) could be counted and recounted with other gauges, often resulting in vastly different conclusions. The appraisal of diseases depends, Breslow argued, on our self-appraisal. Society and illness often encounter each other in parallel mirrors, each holding up a Rorschach test for the other.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, disintermediation, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, high net worth, housing crisis, invisible hand, life extension, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, obamacare, price mechanism, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, too big to fail, transaction costs, yield curve
For example, free markets might have driven a greater amount of investment in agricultural technology that would improve the quality of food and lower the cost. By having to spend less money on food, individuals might have had more time for leisure activity or more time to exercise, which would have improved their quality of life. A high percentage of medical cost has been the result of artificial incentives, through government policy, to invest in short-term life extension. If you ask me whether I would rather live better now and until I am 85 or live an extra 6 months, I will take now. Furthermore, government bureaucrats do not have the right to make that choice for me. 4. Government regulations must be radically reduced. According to an annual study, the total cost of U.S. federal government regulations in 2008 was $1.75 trillion, which was 12 percent of GDP, 46 percent of total federal spending, and 120 percent of pretax corporate profits, and the cost has been rising by 10 to 15 percent per year in the past decade.7 One way to control the indirect cost of government is to require every government agency to reduce its regulatory rules by 50 percent in 18 months.
Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases by Paul A. Offit
MMR and Autism: What Parents Need to Know. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. Galambos, Louis, and Jane Eliot Sewell. Networks of Innovation: Vaccine Development at Merck, Sharpe & Dohme, and Mulford, 1895–1995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Geison, Gerald. The Private Science of Louis Pasteur. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 240 Hall, Stephen. Merchants of Immortality: Chasing the Dream of Human Life Extension. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Hayflick, Leonard. How and Why We Age. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. Hilts, Philip. Protecting America's Health: The FDA, Business, and One Hundred Years of Regulation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003. Hilts, Philip. Rx for Survival: Why We Must Rise to the Global Health Challenge. New York: Penguin Press, 2005. Holton, Gerald, ed. The Twentieth Century Sciences: Studies in the Biography of Ideas.
3D printing, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day
In one of my car’s dozen or so computer chips, the algorithm that translates my foot pressure into an effective braking cadence (antilock braking system, or ABS) is far better at avoiding skidding than I am. Google Search has become my virtual assistant, and probably yours too. Life seems better where AI assists. And it could soon be much more. Imagine teams of a hundred Ph.D.-equivalent computers working 24/7 on important issues like cancer, pharmaceutical research and development, life extension, synthetic fuels, and climate change. Imagine the revolution in robotics, as intelligent, adaptive machines take on dangerous jobs like mining, firefighting, soldiering, and exploring sea and space. For the moment, forget the perils of self-improving superintelligence. AGI would be mankind’s most important and beneficial invention. But what exactly are we talking about when we talk about the magical quality of these inventions, their human-level intelligence?
Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator
Salim’s recommendation was no; he believed it would only evoke the same immune system response he’d experienced at Yahoo. Page’s response was cryptic: “What would a Brickhouse for atoms look like?” he asked. We now know what he meant. In launching the Google[X] lab, Google has taken the classic skunkworks approach to new product development further than anyone ever imagined. Google[X] offers two fascinating new extensions to the traditional approach. First, it aims for moonshot-quality ideas (e.g., life extension, autonomous vehicles, Google Glass, smart contact lenses, Project Loon, etc.). Second, unlike traditional corporate labs that focus on existing markets, Google[X] combines breakthrough technologies with Google’s core information competencies to create entirely new markets. We strongly recommend that every big company attempt something similar by creating a lab that is a playground for breakthrough technologies.
Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Clayton Christensen, data acquisition, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Google Earth, haute couture, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, life extension, Maui Hawaii, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Walter Mischel, X Prize
See also Red Bull sports (traditional) action and adventure sports versus, xiv, 99, 103 flow experiences in, 68, 99 Squaw Valley Palisades, 75–76 Primal Crew, 140–43 Sacrifice, 87–89 Stikine, 94–97, 103–4, 106–8 Stratos Project, 187–91 strength, in flow, 50–51 stress response, 70–72, 120 Strug, Kerri, 3–4 struggle stage, in flow cycle, 120 stunts, movie, 60–62, 65, 69–73 success, ix Super Terminal, 60 surfing Bonzai Pipeline, 25 death by, xx–xxi evolution of, 24–25, 38–39 by Hamilton, Laird, 23–27, 29–30 Jaws, 37–39, 123–26 Maverick’s, xviii–xxi Millennium Wave, 26–27, 29–30 Teahupoo, 23–27, 29–30 tow-in, 24 Waimea Bay, 24 by Walsh, Ian, 123–26 survival instinct, 101, 117 Swanson, Mike, 59, 61–62, 65, 69–73 Switzerland, Santis peak in, 8, 9 Tahiti, Teahupoo of, 23–27, 29–30 Talent Project, 79–80 Tart, Charles, 29 Teahupoo, 23–27, 29–30 technology advancement in, 170, 177, 179–82 bionic, 181–82 disruptive, 164 flow triggered by, 98–99 video recording, 137–39 temporal awareness. See time Teton Gravity Research (TGR), 154, 156–57 theta brain waves, 33, 40 time bionic life extension, 182 dilation, 9–10, 30, 53–54, 98 flow blocks and, 98, 100, 113 future versus present, 82–87 practice and, 80–81, 84, 86–87 present moment, 113–14 training advancement in, 170, 177 for deep embodiment, 106 for flow, 62, 69, 72, 106 need for, 127 weaknesses, 124 See also mastery Transformers: Dark of the Moon, 60 trust, 68–69 truth, 97 “Twenty-First Century” skills, vii, 200 ultimate human performance, xvii, 22 unconscious decision making and, 34 intuition and, 44 unity.
Time Travelers Never Die by Jack McDevitt
He rode one of the walkways, enjoying the warm air, his coat folded over one arm, and wandered into another hotel, the Shamrock. He stopped by the convenience store but saw no magazines or books. He would have liked to buy a chocolate bar, which were on plentiful display, but nobody seemed to be using paper money. He wondered about himself. He’d be ninety-one now. There was a lot of talk about life extension during the first two decades of the century, but as of 2019 nothing much had happened. It was possible he was still charging around out there, playing tennis, living the good life. If that were true, the Shelborne of 2079 would remember that his younger self had visited Rittenhouse Square on this day. And he’d be here, somewhere, to say hello. Wouldn’t be able to resist that. It was 11:03 A.M., May 12.
Korea by Simon Winchester
Not many people beyond the Orient know exactly what it is; there is the vaguely terrifying (but not wholly wrong) assumption that it has something to do with the curious activities of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon (a figure of quasi-religious bizarrerie, well known in the West, who is either despised or unknown in Korea). Few people can be precisely certain if ginseng will do them good or harm, if it is an aphrodisiac, a life-extension drug, a sleeping draught, a Menace to Society, or some cunning fungus through whose use the sinister East will subtly extend its dominance over a bewildered and drug-fuddled West. But whatever, it is the symbol of Korea, without a doubt, and it is all made, processed and packed in Puyo, behind the high white walls and guard towers of Number 200, Naeri Street. It was once all made in Kaesong and exported in huge quantities to a China that had been fascinated with yin-yang restoratives (in which field ginseng claims pre-eminence) since the third millennium BC The Koryo kings were forced to pay levies to the Yuan Dynasty’s Mongol emperors: gold and silver; cloth and grain; falcons, eunuchs, young women—and ginseng, always ginseng.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, impulse control, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, life extension, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, Stewart Brand, too big to fail, uranium enrichment
.: National Academies Press, 2012). the first “green” nuclear weapon: A 2007 report claimed that the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) would be “much more than ‘just green.’” The new weapon would reduce “potential harm to the environment and … improve worker safety.” Despite those lofty aims, President Obama eliminated funding for the RRW in 2009. See “Nuclear Warheads: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program and the Life Extension Program,” Jonathan Medalia, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, December 3, 2007, p. 20. “a money grab”: Peurifoy interview. a study by JASON scientists: See “Pit Lifetime,” JSR-06-335, MITRE Corporation, January 11, 2007. “nonsense”: Agnew interview. The Drell panel expressed concern about these warheads: “The safety issue,” it said, “is whether an accident during handling of an operational missile … might detonate the propellant which in turn could cause the [high explosives] in the warhead to detonate leading to dispersal of plutonium, or even the initiation of a nuclear yield beyond the four-pound criterion.”
“Nuclear Hardness and Base Escape,” Rayford P. Patrick, USAF, Engineering Report No. 5-112, Directorate of Aircraft Maintenance, Headquarters, Strategic Air Command, March 31, 1981. “The Nuclear Safety Problem,” T. D. Brumleve, Advanced System Research Department 5510, Sandia Corporation, Livermore Laboratory, SCL-DR-67, 1967 (SECRET/RESTRICTED DATA/declassified). “Nuclear Warheads: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program and the Life Extension Program,” Jonathan Medalia, CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, December 3, 2007. “Nuclear Weapon Safety,” Sandia Corporation with the Cooperation of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, SC-4630(WD), October 1961 (SECRET/RESTRICTED DATA/declassified). “Nuclear Weapon Specialist, Volume 4: Bomb Maintenance,” CDC 46350, Extension Course Institute, Air Training Command, July 1980 (FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY).
Legacy by Greg Bear
She wanted to live a life among friends and peers, live with and love a decent man, raise children to be human beings in a known and familiar place. I loathed any part of me I had seen reflected in Lenk or Brion. Their smallnesses and failures could easily be my own. Even Brion’s grief for Caitla seemed cheapened by his arrogance, his presumption that people of such a high standing could not die, that some magic must keep them alive. How did that differ from me? On Thistledown I would undoubtedly opt for juvenation — life extension and even body replacement. Caitla and Brion had acted on their beliefs, however skewed or inadequate, and so far, I had done nothing — used none of my expertise, exercised none of my (admittedly few) options, managed to always find myself in positions where aloofness was the best choice. Lenk’s activism had brought his people here and subjected them to immense suffering. Brion’s brash militancy and drive had led to war and murder and had culminated in the madness of the spreading green.
Eternity by Greg Bear
If the powers behind Mirsky had saved her husband, or given him some alternate existence beyond death, then perhaps all things would turn out right after all; perhaps her life, however trivial in the march of millennia and on a scale of light-centuries, would have some use, be worth continuing. Though not forever. Garry, whatever his final doubts, had left her this: that age and death and change were natural, even necessary, if not for citizens of the Hexamon, then for those humans who had not seen the slow evolution of life-extension across the centuries. Someday, she would allow herself to age and die. She smiled, thinking what Ram Kikura might say. Something rose in the northeast, at the beginning of the violet plume; a bright, twinkling thing that looked less like Thistledown than some distant, continuous fireworks display. Suddenly, it became as brilliant as a sun, and cast Melbourne into the light of full summer noon.
What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
That’s why technology tends to tip the scales slightly toward the good, even though it produces so many problems. Let’s say we invent a hypothetical new technology that can give immortality to 100 people, but at the cost of killing 1 other person prematurely. We could argue about what the real numbers would have to be to “balance out” (maybe it is 1,000 who never die, or a million, for one who does) but this bookkeeping ignores a critical fact: Because this life-extension technology now exists, there is a new choice between 1 dead and 100 immortal that did not exist before. This additional possibility or freedom or choice—between immortality and death—is good in itself. So even if the result of this particular moral choice (100 immortal = 1 dead) is deemed a wash, the choice itself tips the balance a few percentage points to the good side. Multiply this tiny lean toward good by each of the million, 10 million, or 100 million inventions birthed in technology each year, and you can see why the technium tends to amplify the good slightly more than the evil.
Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population
The average dependency ratio for developed countries at the beginning of the century was about 49, while by the middle of the century, it will have grown to 71 (see figure 7.10). Rising dependency ratios actually underestimate the relative cost of population aging because they do not take into account the rising costs of health care in many countries, and particularly the higher costs incurred by the elderly. While progress in medicine is likely to continue to lead to life extension, there is less optimism about arresting neurodegeneration. As a result of living longer, the share of people living with Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and dementia is likely to increase dramatically, compounding the costs and need for elderly care. The growing burden placed on a shrinking workforce of a rapidly aging population is almost without historical precedent. It presents several difficult policy problems for governments.
AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information retrieval, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, yield management
. • Psychological needs – people have certain needs, such as to sleep, eat, and drink in this category. So, we see advertisements for food, drink, sleep aids, medicine, and so forth that address these psychological desires. Potpourri: In the book, CA$HVERTISING, Drew Eric Whitman  outlines eight Life Forces that are human’s biologically programmed desires. 1. Survival enjoyment of life … life extension 2. Enjoyment of food and beverages 3. Freedom from fear, pain, and danger 4. Sexual companionship 5. Comfortable living conditions 6. To be superior … winning … keeping up with the Joneses 7. Care and protection of loved ones 8. Social approval Whitman  also outlines nine Secondary Wants, which are as follows: 1. To be informed 2. Curiosity 3. Cleanliness of body and surroundings 4.
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Y2K
id=D8LN0P6G1&show article=1. The worldwide obesity numbers come from http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/obesity/en/index.html. A very helpful article here was Jane E. Brody, “As America Gets Bigger, the World Does, Too,” New York Times, April 19, 2005. Mexican data come from “Obesity on the Rise in Mexico,” The Economist, December 18, 2004. Starving for Life The Cornell and subsequent research on life extension through calorie restriction, as well as the effects of such diets, are summarized in Michael Mason, “One for the Ages: A Prescription That May Extend Life,” New York Times, October 31, 2006; and David Schardt, “Eat Less Live Longer?,” Nutrition Action Healthletter, Center for Science in the Public Interest, September 1, 2003. The Biosphere story is told in Julian Dibbell, “Super Skinny Me,” The Observer (London), December 3, 2006.
A Pattern Language, Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
When it rolls out, sometime in the late 2020s, an artificial intelligence’s passing of the Turing Test will be a mere footnote to this singularity’s impact—which will be, he says, to generate a “radical transformation of the reality of human experience” by the 2040s. Utopian? Not really. Kurzweil is careful to lay out the downsides of his vision. Apocalpytic? Who knows—the Singularity’s consequences are, by definition, inconceivable to us pre-Singularitarians. Big? You bet. It’s easy to make fun of the wackier dimension of Kurzweil’s digital eschatology. His personal program of life extension via a diet of 220 pills per day—to pickle his fifty-something wetware until post-Singularity medical breakthroughs open the door to full immortality—sounds more like something out of a late-night commercial pitch than a serious scientist’s choice. Yet Kurzweil’s record of technological future-gazing has so far proven reliable; his voice is a serious one. And when he argues that “in the short term we always underestimate how hard things are, but in the long term we underestimate how big changes are,” he has history on his side.
clean water, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, Donald Trump, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, land reform, life extension, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, telemarketer
Rajinder Sohal, world leaders in studies of low-calorie diets, wrote about the Okinawans in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1997, they pointed to the low (by American standards) caloric intake of the elder Okinawans as a key factor in their outstanding health and life expectancy.26 Similarly, Professor Yasuo Kagawa of Jichi Medical School, who has studied the Okinawans, attributes their longevity and health primarily to the relatively low amount of overall calories they consume.27 These researchers have good reason for thinking this way. One of the most remarkable findings of modern scientific research is that no intervention, including the elimination of smoking, has been found to be as important in overall life extension as cutting back on calories while maximizing dietary nutrients. Many researchers have contributed to the development of this understanding, but few more than Roy Walford, M.D., who has long been recognized internationally as one of the top experts in the field of gerontology. His research at UCLA was funded for more than thirty-five years by the National Institutes of Health, and he published more than 350 articles on aging and health in medical journals.
Singularity Sky by Stross, Charles
anthropic principle, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, Doomsday Clock, Extropian, gravity well, Kuiper Belt, life extension, means of production, new economy, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, skinny streets, technological singularity, uranium enrichment
Most of the time it will amount to little more than making note of certain things and telling us about them —but occasionally, if there is a serious threat, you may be asked to act. Usually in subtle, undetectable ways, but always at your peril. But there are compensations." "Describe them." Martin put his unfinished drink down at that point. "My sponsor is prepared to pay you very well indeed. And part of the pay—we can smooth the path if you apply for prolongation and continued residency." Life-extension technology, allowing effectively unlimited life expectancy beyond 160 years, was eminently practical, and available on most developed worlds. It was also as tightly controlled as any medical procedure could be. The controls and licensing were a relic of the Overshoot, the brief period in the twenty-first century when Earth's population blipped over the ten-billion mark (before the Singularity, when the Eschaton bootstrapped its way past merely human intelligence and promptly rewrote the rule book).
Chickenhawk by Robert Mason
I have a grandson, also named Jack, who visits me on weekends, and who is the best grandson in the world. My plans keep me busy. That frustrated engineer inside me is getting out more often. I’m writing, too. Upcoming is a book about the invention of vertical flight, a screen-play about Bill Reeder’s survival as a POW in Vietnam, a third Solo novel, and a movie I want to write and produce myself. Where do I file for a life extension? Robert Mason High Springs, Florida October 10, 2004 FORTHE BEST IN PAPERBACKS, LOOK FOR THE In every corner of the world, on every subject under the sun, Penguin represents quality and variety—the very best in publishing today For complete information about books available from Penguin—including Penguin Classics, Penguin Compass, and Puffins—and how to order them, write to us at the appropriate address below.
The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat by Tim Spector
biofilm, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Steve Jobs
., J Epidemiol Infect (May 2011); 139(5): 688–99. A 17-year review of food-borne outbreaks: describing the continuing decline in England and Wales (1992–2008). 2 Lyon, R.C., J Pharm Sci (2006); 95: 1549–60. Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labelled expiration dates. 3 Khan, S.R., J Pharm Sci (May 2014); 103(5): 1331–6. United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise. Conclusion: The Checkout 1 http://www.britishgut.org and http://www.americangut.org 2 Youngster, I., JAMA (5 Nov 2014); 312(17): 1772–8. Oral, capsulized, frozen, fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. 3 http://www.openbiome.org/practitioner-map/ 4 Alang, N., OFID.2015.http://ofid.oxfordjournals.org/content/2/1/ofv004.full.pdf+html.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
Rajan, Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010). 12. See Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: Norton, 2014). 13. Robert H. Frank and Philip J. Cook, The Winner-Take-All Society (New York: Free Press, 1995). 14. See Fukuyama, Origins of Political Order, pp. 460–68. 15. I discuss the social and political consequences of life extension in Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002), pp. 57–71. 16. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation (New York: Rinehart, 1944). 31: POLITICAL DECAY 1. Robert H. Nelson, A Burning Issue: A Case for Abolishing the U.S. Forest Service (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000). 2. Eliza Wing Yee Lee, “Political Science, Public Administration, and the Rise of the American Administrative State,” Public Administration Review 55, no. 6 (1995): 538–46; Knott and Miller, Reforming Bureaucracy, pp. 38–39. 3.
Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor
bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra
The earliest known actuarial report of smokers dying, on average, earlier than nonsmokers appears in the Proceedings of the Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors (New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1912), pp. 473–75, where Edwin Wells Dwight, chairman of the Medical Directors’ Association, presented data from 180,000 New England Mutual policyholders showing that “tobacco abstainers” had a 43 percent lower mortality than expected from American Experience Tables. Ten years later, a Life Extension Institute study of Dartmouth College graduates (class of 1868) showed smokers dying about seven years earlier than non-smokers; see Cassandra Tate, Cigarette Wars: The Triumph of the Little White Slaver (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 143. 62. Maurine B. Neuberger, Smoke Screen: Tobacco and the Public Welfare (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963), p. 6. Earl T. Opstad, assistant medical director at Northwestern National Life Insurance Co., in 1963 published a calculation of how many people must be dying prematurely as a result of smoking.
Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives by Dean D. Metcalfe
Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, epigenetics, impulse control, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, statistical model, stem cell
References 19 Reddy BS, Furuya K, Hanson D, et al. Effect of dietary butylated hydroxyanisole on methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced toxicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 1982;20:853–9. 1 Lecos C. Food preservatives: a fresh report. FDA Consumer 1984;4:23–5. 2 Jukes TH. Food additives. N Engl J Med 1977;297:427–30. 3 Babich H. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review. Environ Res 1982;29:1–29. 4 Llaurado JP. The saga of BHT and BHA in life extension myths. J Amer Coll Nutr 1985;4:481–4. 5 Lauer BH, Kirkpatrick DC. Antioxidants: the Canadian perspective. Toxicol Ind Health 1993;9:373–82. 6 Klein PJ, Van Vleet TR, Hall JO, Coulombe Jr RA. Dietary butylated hydroxytoluene protects against aflatoxicosis in turkeys. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002;182:11–19. 7 Klein PJ, Van Vleet TR, Hall JO, Coulombe Jr RA. Effects of dietary butylated hydroxytoluene on aflatoxin B1-relevant metabolic enzymes in turkeys.