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agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, business climate, Doha Development Round, energy security, food miles, megacity, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stewart Brand
The system that I have sketched—by which natural assets would accrue to citizens by means of revenues flowing into the government budget— looked as though it would gradually be adopted over the ensuing decade. Instead, there followed an unprecedented global commodity boom and what might be called the Scramble for Africa Mark II. The Scramble for Africa Mark I, otherwise known as colonialism, had been between the various European imperial powers over the continent’s natural assets. The Scramble for Africa Mark II was over those same assets, but predominantly between Asia and North America. In this second Scramble China avoided head-to-head competition by offering a new type of deal: it would build infrastructure in return for extraction rights. In fact, such deals were not entirely new: in the 1970s European governments had sometimes negotiated such deals.
Natural order—the responsible management of nature—can deliver prosperity, but prosperity alone cannot deliver natural order. The tension between prosperity and plunder is now apparent. The world’s voracious demand for raw materials has driven up the prices of natural resources and food to unprecedented levels; it took a global financial crisis to puncture them. In turn, the price hike has triggered a new scramble for Africa, pumping revenues into the continent. China, the giant of the emerging market economies, comes without the baggage of colonialism; indeed, many of the countries of the bottom billion have long regarded it as an ally. But from the perspective of the rich countries, the Chinese arrival in Africa is not just unwelcome competition. It threatens to undermine international efforts to reform the governance of the extractive industries, after decades of corruption and exploitation.
Prior to being part of Ethiopia, Eritrea had been a colony of Italy. During the Ethiopian period the explanation for the lack of trees was that the Italians had plundered them. As with the current government, blaming the previous colonizer had obvious advantages. Nor is that the end of the blame chain. Although Eritrea has a complicated colonial history, it was a relatively brief one. Italy was late on the scene in the scramble for Africa and Eritrea was the last place left to grab. As those first Italian colonizers scanned the terrain around the turn of the twentieth century one disappointing feature was the near absence of trees. Although the Italians could scarcely mistake the fact that they were unwelcome, the lack of trees provided an ethical fig-leaf of justification for colonization: indeed a whole fig-forest. The reason there were no trees must be that the inhabitants had plundered them.
Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing
To govern a population numbering hundreds of millions, the Indian Civil Service had a maximum strength of little more than 1,000. Chapter Four asks how it was possible for such a tiny bureaucracy to govern so huge an empire, and explores the symbiotic but ultimately unsustainable collaboration between British rulers and indigenous elites, both traditional and new. Chapter Five deals primarily with the role of military force in the period of the ‘Scramble for Africa’, exploring the interaction between financial globalization and the armaments race between the European powers. Though they had been anticipated before, this was the era when three critical modern phenomena were born: the truly global bond market, the military-industrial complex and the mass media. Their influence was crucial in pushing the Empire towards its zenith. The press, above all, led the Empire into the temptation the Greeks called hubris: the pride that precedes a fall.
Within twenty short years after 1880, however, ten thousand African tribal kingdoms were transformed into just forty states, of which thirty-six were under direct European control. Never in human history had there been such drastic redrawing of the map of a continent. By 1914, apart from Abyssinia and Liberia (the latter an American quasi-colony), the entire continent was under some form of European rule. Roughly a third of it was British. This was what came to be known as ‘the Scramble for Africa’ – though the Scramble of Africa might be nearer the mark. The key to the Empire’s phenomenal expansion in the late Victorian period was the combination of financial power and firepower. It was a combination supremely personified by Cecil Rhodes. The son of a clergyman in Bishop’s Stortford, Rhodes had emigrated to South Africa at the age of seventeen because – so he later said – he ‘could no longer stand cold mutton’.
It was a similar story in East Africa, where Frederick Lugard had established British primacy in Buganda while in the employ of the Imperial British East Africa Company.* So impressed was Goldie by Lugard’s performance that he hired him to work for his Niger Company. When Northern Nigeria was made a British protectorate in 1900, Lugard was appointed its first High Commissioner; twelve years later he became Governor-General of a united Nigeria. That transformation from trading monopoly to protectorate was typical of the way the Scramble for Africa proceeded. The politicians let the businessmen make the running, but sooner rather than later they stepped in to create some kind of formal colonial government. Although the new African companies resembled the East India Company in their original design, they governed Africa for far shorter periods than their Indian precursor had governed India. On the other hand, even when British rule became ‘official’ it remained skeletal in its structure.
Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher
airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade
What it cannot show, though, is the racing surge in my heartbeat. I had just read something about the Congo that was going to change my life. Recently appointed as Africa Correspondent for The Daily Telegraph, I was doing what every new foreign correspondent must: cramming. My reading list was long. After Africa's early tribal history came the period of exploitation by outsiders, starting with centuries of slavery and moving on to the Scramble for Africa, when the white man staked the black man's continent in a few hectic years at the end of the nineteenth century to launch the colonial era. Then came independence in the late 1950s and 1960s when the Winds of Change swept away regimes that some white leaders had boasted would stand for ever. And it finished with the post-independence age of economic decay, war, coup and crisis, with African leaders manipulated, and occasionally murdered, by foreign powers, and dictatorships clinging to power in a continent teeming with rebels, loyalists and insurgents.
Desperate for a colony that would mark Belgium's arrival as a world power, Leopold saw rich potential in Stanley's story. The explorer had found a river that was navigable across much of central Africa and Leopold envisaged it as the main artery of a huge Belgian colony, shipping European manufactured goods upstream and valuable African raw materials downstream. Stanley's Congo expedition fired the starting gun for the Scramble for Africa. Before his trip, white outsiders had spent hundreds of years nibbling at Africa's edges, claiming land around the coastline, but rarely venturing inland. Disease, hostile tribes and the lack of any clear commercial potential in Africa meant that hundreds of years after white explorers first circumnavigated its coastline, it was still referred to in mysterious terms as the Dark Continent, a source of slaves, ivory and other goods, but not a place white men thought worthy of colonisation.
As I approached the Congo River I found myself on the same track that the two Belgian cotton agents had used when they tried to flee that first rebellion in 1964. I thought of their graves back in the overgrown cemetery in Kasongo and shuddered. There is something about the violence of Congo's post-independence period that is seared into the minds of those whites who call themselves African - second- and third-generation colonials whose ancestors took part in the Scramble for Africa that Stanley's Congo trip precipitated. They remember dark fragments of what happened in the Congo after independence in 1960 - killing, rape. anarchy. The two cotton traders of Kasongo were just a small part of a much larger number of victims whose deaths still cast a sinister shadow through the older white tribes of Africa. I tried to imagine the panic of their flight that day. How they felt as the worst nightmare of living deep in the African bush became a reality; the rumours in town of the rebel advance; the terrible understanding that nobody was coming to the rescue; the desperate hope that if they made it from Kasongo to the Congo River they might find a boat to safety; venturing out of the ordered precincts of the town only to be swallowed up by the vengeful rage of Congolese tribesmen settling decades-old scores. 7.
Think Like a Freak by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner
Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Barry Marshall: ulcers, call centre, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Gary Taubes, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, medical residency, microbiome, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise
The brain is the critical organ . . . How to ignore artificial barriers . . . Can you do 20 push-ups? 4. Like a Bad Dye Job, the Truth Is in the Roots A bucket of cash will not cure poverty and a planeload of food will not cure famine . . . How to find the root cause of a problem . . . Revisiting the abortion-crime link . . . What does Martin Luther have to do with the German economy? . . . How the “Scramble for Africa” created lasting strife . . . Why did slave traders lick the skin of the slaves they bought? . . . Medicine vs. folklore . . . Consider the ulcer . . . The first blockbuster drugs . . . Why did the young doctor swallow a batch of dangerous bacteria? . . . Talk about gastric upset! . . . The universe that lives in our gut . . . The power of poop. 5. Think Like a Child How to have good ideas . . .
Because, as some researchers argue, during the Middle Ages these towns were free city-states rather than areas ruled by Norman overlords. Such an independent history apparently fosters a lasting trust in civic institutions. In Africa, some countries that regained independence from their colonial rulers have experienced brutal wars and rampant corruption; others haven’t. Why? One pair of scholars found an answer that goes back many years. When the European powers began their mad “Scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century, they carved up existing territories by looking at maps from afar. When creating new borders, they considered two essential criteria: land mass and water. The actual Africans who lived in these territories were not a major concern for the colonialists, since to them one African looked pretty much like the next one. This method might make sense if you are cutting a cherry pie.
. : See Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, “Long-Term Persistence,” July 2013 working paper; see also earlier versions by same authors: “Long-Term Cultural Persistence,” September 2012 working paper; and “Long-Term Persistence,” European University Institute working paper 2008. Hat tip to Hans-Joachim Voth and Nico Voigtländer, “Hatred Transformed: How Germans Changed Their Minds About Jews, 1890–2006,” Vox, May 1, 2012. 74 ETHNIC STRIFE IN AFRICA: See Stelios Michalopoulos and Elias Papaioannou, “The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa,” NBER working paper, November 2011; and Elliott Green, “On the Size and Shape of African States,” International Studies Quarterly 56, no. 2 (June 2012). 74 THE SCARS OF COLONIALISM STILL HAUNT SOUTH AMERICA AS WELL: See Melissa Dell, “The Persistent Effects of Peru’s Mining Mita,” MIT working paper, January 2010; and Daron Acemoglu, Camilo Garcia-Jimeno, and James A. Robinson, “Finding Eldorado: Slavery and Long-Run Development in Colombia,” NBER working paper, June 2012. 75 THE SALT-SENSITIVITY THEORY OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN HYPERTENSION: This section is based on author interview with Roland Fryer as reflected in Stephen J.
China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg
barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, labour market flexibility, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, out of africa, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus
Yet, significant divergences from colonialism as it was experienced in Africa—such as China’s fundamental respect for the sovereignty of African states; its active nurturing of relations with African states in international fora; and its interest in African people as consumers rather than laborers—suggest that China and Africa are engaging in postcolonial relations of interdependency, however economically imbalanced these relations may be. A Chinese “Scramble for Africa?” Geopolitical and Macroeconomic Factors Referring to China’s investments and involvement in Africa from 1996 to 2006 as China’s “Scramble for Africa,” critical observers draw a clear comparison between China and European colonial powers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.3 Several macroeconomic and geopolitical factors that propelled the European “scramble” for Africa also appear to be at work in China’s recent engagement on the continent. During the European colonial era, as during the past decade of Chinese activity, the objective of external powers in Africa was to gain economic and 04-7561-4 ch4.qxd 9/16/08 4:11 PM Page 67 Engaging Postcolonial Interdependencies 67 political advantage for the interventionist power.4 This overriding reality offers preliminary evidence that China’s current engagement with Africa is (neo)colonial: in this basic analysis, China uses its power to influence relatively weaker African economic and political systems in its own interest.
“Chinese Defense Minister Chi Haotian Meets Nigerian Counterpart,” Xinhua (16 July 2001); “Chi Haotian Meets Nigerian Counterpart,” Xinhua (23 April 2002); “Cooperation between China and Nigeria Fruitful, Defense Minister,” Xinhua (25 June 2004); “Luo Zheng, “Cao Gangchuan Holds Talks with Nigerian Defense Minister,” Jiefangjun Bao (8 April 2007). 52. “Chinese Firm May Manage Nigeria’s Defense Industries Group,” Panafrican News Agency (19 September 2004). See also Michael Klare and Daniel Volman, “America, China and the Scramble for Africa’s Oil,” Review of African Political Economy, XXXIII (2006), 305. 53. “Nigeria to Buy Military Equipment Worth $251 Million from China,” Radio Nigeria-Abuja (29 September 2005); “Nigeria: China Donates $3 Million Equipment to Nigerian Armed Forces,” Rhythm FM (28 October 2005); Hagelin, Bromley, and Wezeman, “International Arms Transfers,” 531; Alden, China in Africa, 26; Donovan C. Chau, Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S.
While the AU experts appreciated that Chinese investment gave Africa new leverage, they noted criticisms that China was making “no serious effort” to “transfer skills and knowledge to Africa” and urged China to relocate some of its industries to Africa “as a reflection of a true spirit of partnership.”39 In April 2007, the Nigerian government convened a meeting of African foreign policy scholars and diplomats in Abuja on the theme “The New Scramble for Africa”; speakers at the conference expressed fears of Africa being caught up in a new Cold War between China and the West, with African resources as the bone of contention. There are also critical voices among Africa’s rulers. South African President Thabo Mbeki and former Nigerian President Obasanjo both criticized Chinese companies for violating labor and safety standards. Mbeki has warned against a new Chinese colonialism in Africa.
A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins
airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War
The atrocities have been funded, at least indirectly, by some of the biggest Western corporations. They see the country as only a source of cheap coltan—vital to making semiconductors—and other minerals. Kathleen Kern explores the direct relationship between the suffering of the Congolese people and the low prices Westerners pay for cell phones and laptops. 6 Mercenaries on the Front Lines in the New Scramble for Africa Andrew Rowell and James Marriott Some 30 percent of America’s oil will come from Africa by 2015, and multinational oil companies are increasingly resorting to private armies to protect their operations there. Communities in the Niger Delta have been campaigning for a share of the oil wealth pumped from under their land. In 2006, Nigel Watson-Clark was working as a Shell security officer in Nigeria, protecting offshore oil rigs—a frontline soldier in the web of oil exploitation.
In “The Human Cost of Cheap Cell Phones,” Kathleen Kern provides an eyewitness account of the high price the Congolese have paid to bring cheap electronics to First World consumers. • Some 30 percent of America’s supply of oil is expected to come from Africa in the next ten years, but U.S. and UK oil companies will be competing with China for access to these reserves. Local communities have been campaigning to gain a share of this new wealth and to prevent environmental destruction of their region. In “Mercenaries on the Front Lines in the New Scramble for Africa,” Andrew Rowell and James Marriott tell how a British expat security officer found himself in the middle of this struggle for oil and power. • According to most estimates Iraq has the world’s second largest oil reserves—and access to Iraq’s oil has been one of the essential elements of U.S. foreign policy. The occupation regime is planning to sign oil production sharing agreements with U.S. and UK companies that will cost the Iraqi people $200 billion that they need to rebuild their country.
GWYNNE Selling Money— and Dependency JOHN CHRISTENSEN Dirty Money: Offshore Banking LUCY KOMISAR BCCI: Banking on America, Banking on Jihad 2. DEBT-LED DEVELOPMENT STEVE BERKMAN The $100 Billion Question ELLEN AUGUSTINE The World Bank and the Philippines BRUCE RICH Exporting Destruction 3. INTERVENTION AND DOMINATION: ACCESS TO RESOURCES KATHLEEN KERN The Human Cost of Cheap Cell Phones ANDREW ROWELL/JAMES MARRIOTT Oil, Mercenaries, and the New Scramble for Africa GREG MUTTITT Hijacking Iraq’s Oil: EHMs at Work 4. THE DEBT TRAP JAMES S. HENRY The Mirage of Debt Relief GLOBAL SOUTH THE UNDERDEVELOPED WORLD We must put an end to this. You and I must do the right thing. We must understand that our children will not inherit a stable, safe, and sustainable world unless we change the terrible conditions that have been created by EHMs. All of us must look deep into our hearts and souls and decide what it is we can best do.
Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici
Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
WAR, GLOBALIZATION, AND REPRODUCTION (2000) First came the foreign bankers eager to lend at extortionate rates; then the financial controllers to see that the interest was paid; then the thousands of foreign advisors taking their cut. Finally, when the country was bankrupt and helpless, it was time for the foreign troops to “rescue” the ruler from his “rebellious” people. One last gulp and the country had gone. —Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa1 You who hunger, who shall feed you? Come to us, we too are starving. Only hungry ones can feed you. —Bertolt Brecht, “All or Nothing” As the proliferation of conflicts in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and the zest of the United States for military intervention through the 1980s and 1990s demonstrate, war is on the global agenda.2 This is because the new phase of capitalist expansionism that we are witnessing requires the destruction of any economic activity not subordinated to the logic of accumulation, and this is necessarily a violent process.
As Jutta Berninghausen and Birgit Kerstan have written in their study of the activities of the Javanese NGOs, the latter have a stabilizing/defensive function rather than an emancipatory one and, in the best of cases, try to recuperate at the micro level of individual or community relations what has been destroyed at the macro level of economic politics (Forging New Paths: Feminist Social Methodology and Rural Women in Java [London: Zed Books, 1992], 253). War, Globalization, and Reproduction 1. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent From 1876 to 1912 (New York: Avon Books, 1991), 126. 2. By a recent count there were seventy-five countries experiencing some form of war in 1999 (Effe: La Rivista delle Librerie Feltrinelli 13 (1999); thirty-three of them are to be found in Africa’s forty-three continental nations. This is the “Fourth World War” against the world’s poor that Subcomandante Marcos often writes about. 3.
Long-Term Care for Older People. Paris: OECD Publications, 2005. Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Outram, Quentin. “‘It’s Terminal Either Way’: An Analysis of Armed Conflict in Liberia, 1989-1996.” Review of African Political Economy 24, no. 73 (September 1997): 355-72. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912. New York: Avon Books, 1991. Papadopoulos, Dimitris, Niamh Stephenson, and Vassilis Tsianos. Escape Routes: Control and Subversion in the 21st Century. London: Pluto Press, 2008. Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002. Patel, Raj.
Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scramble for Africa, trade route
IN THE PACIFIC: Sailing safe in the American ocean, Part Three THE IMPERIAL OBSESSION: 1870–1897 19. A FIXED PURPOSE: The ideology of Empire. 20. ASHANTI: Into black Africa. 21. BY THE SWORD: Armies, fleets and British belligerence. 22. SOUTH OF THE ZAMBESI : A failure of logic, with battle scenes. 23. THE END OF THE TASMANIANS: The obliteration of a subject race. 24. THE REBEL PRINCE:: Charles Stewart Parnell. 25. THE MARTYR OF EMPIRE: Charles George Gordon. 26. SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA: Coarsening the imperial idea. 27. AN IMPERIAL FULFILMENT: Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, triumphant Britain and a suggestion of the Last Day. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INDEX About the Author Copyright PART ONE The Sentiment of Empire 1837–1850 CHAPTER ONE A Charming Invention IN October 1837 the Honourable Emily Eden, a witty and accomplished Englishwoman in her forty-first year, was accompanying her brother Lord Auckland, Governor-General of India, on an official progress up-country from Calcutta.
So he knew that the Lualaba was not the Nile but the Congo, and that it was taking them not northward to the Mediterranean, but westward to the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, though it was to be another seven months before Stanley’s exhausted expedition arrived at the estuary of the Congo on the Atlantic shore, that day the Nile was settled. 7 Speke was right, Burton was wrong: but before we leave this, the central saga of exploration in the imperial age, and the beginning of the ‘scramble for Africa’ which was to give a new style to imperialism, let us go back to Bath again, in 1864, and take our leave of the original antagonists. Burton and his wife had characteristically put up at a hotel near the railway station, but Speke stayed no less typically with his cousin, George Fuller, at his agreeable country house Neston Park about ten miles from Bath. They saw each other for the first time since 1859 at a preliminary meeting in the Mineral Water Hospital on September 15, the day before the scheduled debate.
Until Sudanese independence in 1956 a camel-back statue of the hero stood in the main cross-roads of the capital (it is now at the Gordon Boys’ School near Woking in Surrey). A favourite Anglo-Sudanese anecdote concerned the English boy taken by his father every Sunday after morning service to pay homage at this shrine. After several weeks of reverent pilgrimage he ventured to ask his father a question. ‘Who is the man,’ he inquired, ‘on Gordon’s back?’ CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX Scramble for Africa IN the last week of December, 1895, a curious military force was assembled at a place called Pitsani, in the Bechuanaland Protectorate just across the frontier from the Transvaal Republic—where President Paul Kruger now ruled the destinies of a State transformed by the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand. Pitsani stood on the Missionary Road, the old highway into central Africa from the south, and was now on the route of the railway line being built northwards from Cape Colony.
Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman
British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
Even the way the so-called Mother Country played cricket spoke of a new mood in which the old imperial links meant less and less, with the 1932 England touring team shamelessly attempting to intimidate Australian batsmen with ‘bodyline’ bowling: the Australian reaction was so furious that the tour was very nearly cancelled midway through.* How had what had recently seemed eternal verities withered so quickly? The motive force of empire – the impulse to go out and plant the flag – had gone: the ‘Scramble for Africa’ was long over and the business of the British Empire was increasingly administrative. As that great anti-imperialist George Orwell had noticed, technology had changed everything. ‘The middle-class families celebrated by Kipling, the prolific lowbrow families whose sons officered the army and navy and swarmed over all the waste places of the earth from the Yukon to the Irrawaddy’, had been in decline for years, he wrote.
Chapter Six 114 ‘introductions by a’: Smith, Through Unknown African Continents, pp. 363–4. 114 ‘It is religion’: Smith, ‘Christian Missions, Especially in the British Empire’, p. 542. 114 12,000 British missionaries: Missionary societies spent £2 million per year: see Dr Robert Carr, ‘The Evangelical Empire: Christianity’s Contribution to Victorian Colonial Expansion’, www.britishempire.co.uk. 114 ‘Confound all these’: Quoted in Pakenham, Out in the Noonday Sun, p. 102. 114 ‘They spread the’: Oliver, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa, p. 182. 114 ‘First the missionary’: Quoted in Pakenham, Out in the Noonday Sun, p. 94. 116 ‘by victories of’: Ogilvie, Our Empire’s Debt to Missions, p. 5. 116 ‘when excited, a’: George Seaver, David Livingstone: His Life and Letters, quoted in Dictionary of National Biography entry. 117 ‘Dr L is out’: Ibid. 117 ‘I am terribly’: ‘David Livingstone’s last letters deciphered’, Guardian, 20 July 2010. 118 ‘his death has’: British Quarterly Review 61 (1875) p. 397. 118 ‘the flag which’: E.
., Our Empire’s Debt to Missions: The Duff Missionary Lecture, 1923 (London, 1924) O’Gorman, Francis, Late Ruskin: New Contexts (Aldershot, 2001) O’Hegarty, Patrick S., A History of Ireland under the Union, 1801–1922 (London, 1952) Oldfield, J. R., Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery: The Mobilisation of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade, 1787–1807 (Manchester, 1995) Oliver, Roland, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa (London, 1957) Orwell, George, Burmese Days: A Novel (London, 1935) ____, Coming up for Air (London, 2000; orig. pub. 1939) ____, The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius (London, 1941) ____, The Orwell Reader: Fiction, Essays and Reportage (New York, 1961) ____, The Road to Wigan Pier (London, 1937) Padmore, George, The Gold Coast Revolution: The Struggle of an African People from Slavery to Freedom (London, 1953) Pagden, Anthony, Peoples and Empires: Europeans and the Rest of the World, from Antiquity to the Present (London, 2001) Paice, Edward, World War I: The African Front (New York, 2010) Paine, Thomas, The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Paine, 2 vols.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Bachman, adapted for ebook Cover design: Pete Garceau Cover illustration: Michael Markieta/Moment/Getty Images v4.1_r1 a CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright Prologue A Note About Maps PART ONE: CONNECTIVITY AS DESTINY CHAPTER 1 FROM BORDERS TO BRIDGES A Journey Around the World Bridges to Everywhere Seeing Is Believing From Political to Functional Geography Supply Chain World Balancing Flow and Friction CHAPTER 2 NEW MAPS FOR A NEW WORLD From Globalization to Hyper-Globalization The Measure of Things A New Map Legend BOX: From Diplomacy to “Diplomacity” PART TWO: DEVOLUTION AS DESTINY CHAPTER 3 THE GREAT DEVOLUTION Let the Tribes Win Growing Apart to Stay Together From Nations to Federations CHAPTER 4 FROM DEVOLUTION TO AGGREGATION Geopolitical Dialectics The New Grand Trunk Road to Pax Indica From Sphere of Influence to Pax Aseana From “Scramble for Africa” to Pax Africana From Sykes-Picot to Pax Arabia BOX: The Israeli Exception? CHAPTER 5 THE NEW MANIFEST DESTINY United States or Tragedy of the Commons? The Devolution Within Pacific Flows Oil and Water Across the World’s Longest Border The North American Union BOX: A South American Union PART THREE: COMPETITIVE CONNECTIVITY CHAPTER 6 WORLD WAR III—OR TUG-OF-WAR? An Ancient Metaphor for Postmodern Times Was Orwell Right?
Demographic shifts guarantee that Asia’s blending will continue: The erstwhile “Asian Tigers” such as Singapore and Taiwan—to say nothing of much larger China and Japan—are aging, while Indonesia and the Philippines are full of youthful labor. Over 250,000 Burmese live in Thailand alone, without which the micro-economy would grind to a halt just as many American cities and towns would without Mexicans. As in Europe, a generation of post-national Southeast Asians is being born. FROM “SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA” TO PAX AFRICANA Unscrambling Africa Everyone seems to have a one-word answer to the plight of African nations today: “democracy,” “secession,” “micro-credit,” “literacy,” “vaccines.” But African states won’t survive at all without basic physical infrastructure. What will make the difference between celebrating independence and achieving success in Africa is not just political nation building but physical state building—both within and across borders.
Many of Africa’s interstate boundaries are visible only if one overlays the geometric grid of latitude and longitude, which European colonialists used rather than any sensible respect for cultural geography to draw the continent’s many straight-line borders. Colonial powers only haphazardly cobbled together African states; they didn’t knit together cohesive societies. The considerations that should guide the design of administrative space—natural geography, demographic commonality, and economic viability—were mostly ignored in Europe’s nineteenth-century “Scramble for Africa.” As a result of divide-and-rule colonialism, its 850 partitioned ethnic groups suffer a far higher incidence of civil wars and conflict spillover than unified national groups.2 The Masai, for example, are two-thirds in Kenya and one-third in Tanzania; the Anyi are 60 percent in Ghana and 40 percent in the Ivory Coast; the Chewa are split across Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe; the Hausa across Nigeria and Niger.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
In the nineteenth century, the situation was different. The scramble for Africa occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species and the rise of a doctrine of “scientific racism” asserting that the existing hierarchy among the world’s races was the result of the inherent biological superiority of white Europeans over everyone else. These views emerged despite the steady spread of democracy and representative government in Europe and North America, and they legitimated the use of force against nonwhite people. As a result, settler populations were granted an expanding set of political rights completely denied to Africans, setting up a sharp dichotomy between citizens on the one hand and subjects on the other.17 Once the scramble for Africa got under way, it unfolded with extraordinary rapidity.
The complex reasons for different development paths can be seen most vividly in the contrast between sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, the worst- and best-performing regions of the world with respect to economic development over the past half century. Sub-Saharan Africa never developed strong indigenous state-level institutions prior to its contact with the West. When the European colonial powers began the “scramble for Africa” in the late nineteenth century, they soon discovered that their new colonies were barely paying for the cost of their own administration. Britain in response adopted a policy of indirect rule, which justified minimal investment on its part in the creation of state institutions. The terrible colonial legacy was thus more an act of omission than of commission. In contrast to areas of heavier political investment like India and Singapore, the colonial powers did not pass on strong institutions, least of all “absolutist” ones capable of penetrating and controlling their populations.
Africa was intensively colonized only in the period after 1882, in what David Abernethy labeled the third phase of European colonialism. Phase one had begun with the Spanish and Portuguese conquests in the New World, and phase two was a period of contraction from the revolt of the North American colonies to the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. Phase three began with the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824 and culminated in the “scramble for Africa” that began in the last decades of the century.14 There were a number of important differences between the earlier and later phases of expansion. By the nineteenth century, the technological lead of Europe over the non-Western world was even greater than it had been when the Spanish encountered the New World. Europe was industrializing; inventions like the steamboat and the Maxim gun gave small groups of European conquerors huge advantages over their adversaries.
Lauded by the press, the Rhodes phenomenon caught the public imagination. With the Scramble for Africa reaching a climax, empire-builders in Africa were regarded as popular heroes. Rhodes was seen as upholding the tradition set by David Livingstone, General Gordon and, more recently, the Welsh-born journalist-explorer Henry Morton Stanley, blazing a trail that would bring civilisation to a benighted continent. Stanley’s account of one of his epic journeys through the jungles of the Congo - In Darkest Africa - had just been published to widespread acclaim. Rhodes’ plans to build railways and telegraphs into the interior and to develop mineral and agricultural resources were held up as examples of what needed to follow. The Scramble for Africa added a sense of urgency, justifying the kind of decisive action that Rhodes was willing to take.
His drive to the north was facilitated by Hercules Robinson, a Cape imperialist who shared similar aims; it was Robinson’s decisiveness that led to the Moffat Treaty, incorporating Matabeleland within Britain’s sphere of interest. His triumph in winning the support of the British establishment for a chartered company was due as much to the work of Gifford and Cawston in London as to Rhodes’ own efforts. Finally, he managed to obtain a royal charter for his company only because it suited the interests of Lord Salisbury; preoccupied with the need to keep Britain ahead in the Scramble for Africa among European powers, Salisbury saw a means to extend British influence on the cheap, at no cost to the public exchequer. In harnessing allies to his cause, Rhodes displayed remarkable powers of persuasion. But what was equally influential was the power of his money. Many hitched themselves to Rhodes’ band-wagon lured by the prospect of making their own fortunes. When he encountered resistance or scepticism, Rhodes was adept at providing incentives, bribes, share options, directorships and other positions, convinced that every man had his price.
Milner’s Young Men: The ‘Kindergarten’ in Edwardian Imperial Affairs. London: 1970 O’Brien, Terence H. Milner: Viscount Milner of St James’s and Cape Town, 1854-1925. London: 1979 O’Connor, Damian. The Life of Sir Bartle Frere. London: 2002 Odendaal, André. Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town: 1984 Oliver, Roland. Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa. London: 1957 Omer-Cooper, John D. The Zulu Aftermath: A Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Bantu Africa. London: 1966 Orpen, Joseph Millerd. Reminiscences of Life in South Africa from 1846 to the Present Day. Cape Town: 1964 Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. London: 1979 Palmer, Robin. Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia. London: 1977 Palmer, Robin and Neil Parsons (eds.). The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa.
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS
In the days of the British Empire, controlling South Africa meant controlling the Cape of Good Hope and thus the sea-lanes between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Modern navies can venture much farther out from the southern African coastline if they wish to pass by, but the cape is still a commanding piece of real estate on the world map and South Africa is a commanding presence in the whole of the bottom third of the continent. There is a new scramble for Africa in this century, but this time it is two-pronged. There are the well-publicized outside interests, and meddling, in the competition for resources, but there is also the “scramble within” and South Africa intends to scramble fastest and farthest. It dominates the fifteen-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC) and has managed to gain a permanent place at the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, of which it is not even a member.
The hunger for energy suggests the race is inevitable in what some Arctic specialists have called the New Great Game. There are going to be a lot more ships in the High North, a lot more oil rigs and gas platforms—in fact, a lot more of everything. The Russians not only have their nuclear-powered icebreakers, but are even considering building a floating nuclear power plant capable of withstanding the crushing weight of ten feet of ice. However, there are differences between this situation and the “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century or the machinations of the great powers in the Middle East, India, and Afghanistan in the original Great Game. This race has rules, a formula, and a forum for decision making. The Arctic Council is composed of mature countries, most of them democratic to a greater or lesser degree. The international laws regulating territorial disputes, environmental pollution, laws of the sea, and treatment of minority peoples are in place.
Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men
Many observers of the economic and political disasters that have overtaken sub-Saharan Africa (which we’ll turn to in the next chapter) have commented on the weakness of national identities and sentiment in many African countries. Just think about something as simple as the name of the Central African Republic. Does that sound like something people chose for themselves to express their sense of nationhood, or one imposed by a French colonial bureaucrat? Most of the forty-odd African countries south of the Sahara were stitched together during the European “Scramble for Africa” in the 1880s with no attention to language, ethnicity, or history. Given the resulting lack of patriotism in these new and artificial 101 CH A PTER F O U R states, perhaps it should not surprise anyone that African corruption levels—the plundering of states by their own officials—are arguably the worst in the world. The role sentiments play in the parking decisions of U.N. diplomats offers a microcosm of this same phenomenon.
., 32, 73–74, 174, 217n4 Busia (Kenya), 193–95, 232n9 Canada: corruption in, 95; United States and, 94–95 Capone, Al, 5–7 Chad, 17–18; corruption and, 156; economic decline of, 111–12; I N DEX Chad (continued) global warming and, 131; Lake Chad, 111–12; paperwork delays in, 66–67; petroleum deposits in, 155–58; political turmoil in, 112–13; rainfall and, 114; violence in, 175; World Bank and, 156–58 cheap talk, 18–20; violence and, 118b–19b Cheney, Dick, 29, 51–52 China: 1998 anticorruption campaign and, 70–73; global warming and, 127–29; smuggling and, 55–57; tariffs and, 60–64, 221n4, 221n6 China National Petroleum Company (CNPC), 185b Clodfelter, Michael, 160–61 coffee, 117–18, 149–50 Collier, Paul, 215n9, 228n20, 230n13 Colombia, 76–78, 102–3, 142 commodity prices, 117–18, 149–50, 227n15 conflict traps, Chad and, 113–14 containerization, 56–57 corruption: bottom line on, 102–3; cheap talk and, 18–20; culture and, 80–81, 87, 102–3; definition of, 18, 83, 216n12; economic growth and, 41–46; income level and, 91–92; mea sur ing, stock markets and, 24–29; national pride and, 100–102; outsiders and, 41–43; poverty and, 15–17; “Scramble for Africa” and, 101–2; stock markets and, 24–27; wages and, 189, 230n3. See also specific countries; under culture costs versus benefits, 54–55, 56–57, 78 crime, organization and, 43b–46b culture: corruption and, 78–80, 87, 102; violence and, 137. See also specific countries Darfur, 115; rainfall and, 135b, 225n22; underground lake in, 134b–35b data, war and, 118b–20b Davis, Don, 162 Deby, Idriss, 157–58 Democratic Republic of Congo, 115–16 deworming, 193–95 diamond mining, Angola, 181b–85b diplomatic immunity, 82–84, 222n4 Duflo, Esther, 231n6 Easterly, Bill, 12–15; White Man’s Burden, 13–14 economic development: corruption and, 41–43; fighting for, 1–3 economic gangsters, 5–8, 215n6.
Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
After the introduction of compulsory vaccination in 1904, smallpox was significantly reduced in Senegal. In only four years between 1925 and 1958 did the number of cases exceed 400 a year.65 Malaria was also curbed by the systematic destruction of the mosquitoes’ swampy breeding grounds and by the isolation of victims, as well as by the distribution of free quinine.66 Yellow-fever epidemics, too, became less frequent in Senegal after the introduction of an effective vaccine. The Scramble for Africa has become a byword for the ruthless carve-up of an entire continent by rapacious Europeans. Its bizarre climax was the Fashoda incident, when rival French and British expeditions converged on the Eastern Sudanese town of Fashoda (today Kodok) in the province of Bahr-el-Ghazal. The French, led by Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand, dreamt of a line from Dakar to Djibouti (then French Somaliland), linking the Niger to the Nile and creating an unbroken chain of French control from Senegal to the Red Sea coast.
The British, led by Sir Herbert (later Lord) Kitchener, saw control of Sudan as the key to a comparable British line stretching north to south from Cairo to the Cape. The showdown came on 18 September 1898 at the point where these two lines intersected. Though the numbers of men were absurdly small – Marchand was accompanied by twelve French officers and 150 tirailleurs – and the bone of contention an utterly desolate quagmire of reeds, mud and dead fish, Fashoda brought Britain and France to the brink of war.67 Yet the Scramble for Africa was also a scramble for scientific knowledge, which was as collaborative as it was competitive, and which had undoubted benefits for natives as well as for Europeans. The bacteriologist, often risking his life to find cures for lethal afflictions, was another kind of imperial hero, as brave in his way as the soldier-explorer. Now every European power with serious imperial ambitions had to have a tropical medicine institute: the Pasteur Institute in Paris, founded in 1887, was later matched by the London and Liverpool schools of tropical medicine (1899) and by the Hamburg-based Institute for Shipping and Tropical Illnesses (1901).
Lurking within the real science was a pseudo-science, which asserted that mankind was not a single more or less homogeneous species but was subdivided and ranked from an Aryan ‘master race’ down to a black race unworthy of the designation Homo sapiens. And where better to test these theories than in Germany’s newly acquired African colonies? Africa was about to become another kind of laboratory – this time for racial biology. Each European power had its own distinctive way of scrambling for Africa. The French, as we have seen, favoured railways and health centres. The British did more than just dig for gold and hunt for happy valleys; they also built mission schools. The Belgians turned the Congo into a vast slave state. The Portuguese did as little as possible. The Germans were the latecomers to the party. For them, colonizing Africa was a giant experiment to test, among other things, a racial theory.
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
I avoided the continent until I began writing this book and realized one of the pillars of the global tourism industry is the African safari, with cameras or rifles, in search of those animals I saw in the zoo. “Safari” is an Arabic word meaning “journey.” It found its way into the Swahili language and was adopted by British colonialists to mean a specifically African journey or adventure. Beneath the surface, the idea of a safari is loaded with the baggage of European colonization begun in the late-nineteenth-century “scramble for Africa” that didn’t fully end until the 1960s and beyond. The Europeans conquered some 10 million square miles of territory, tore apart traditional African nations and tribes, reassembling the land into thirty colonies ruled by white foreigners: British, French, German, Belgium, Portuguese and Italian. They extracted great wealth and treasure and subjugated the natives in a rivalry for empire. The Europeans also treated the immense continent as their private hunting ground, killing Africa’s magnificent animals for trophies and sport at such a rate that some Europeans began to worry.
“We have seen what has been going on”: Author interview with Graham Evans and Anthony Kirkham, August 23, 2011. Environmentalists say this is a disaster in the making: Caroline Shearing, “Dubai Golf Drive Upsets Greens: Plans to Open 11 New Golf Courses in Dubai Have Hit Environmental Opposition,” The Telegraph, April 25, 2008. Abu Dhabi Policy Agency: Dubai: Gilded Cage, p. 181. Seven: Safari The Europeans conquered some 10 million square miles: Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (London: Abacus, 1993). Nearly 50 million visitors: UNWTO, Tourism Highlights, 2011 Edition, Africa, http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11enlr.pdf. the $76 billion in revenue: WTTC: Travel and Tourism, Economic Impact, 2011, Africa, http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/africa2.pdf. “It has a stable and functioning government”: Author interview with Ambassador Mark Storella, May 21, 2011.
Onge, Alain, 174 Salas, Isabel, 247, 249, 251 Sanders, Daniel, 60 Sanders, Véronique, 60–61 Sands Macao, 369 San Giorgio Maggiore (Venice), 82 San Miguel, Mexico, 129 Santiago de Compostela, pilgrimages to, 182, 185–86 Sarajevo, Bosnia, 106 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 48, 71 Sata, Michael, 238 Saudi Arabia, 167 and commercial development in Mecca, 184–85 Hajj pilgrimage controlled by, 182–83 Save the Rhino Trust, 218 Scat (Hiaasen), 384 Schweitzer Mountain, 384 Scott, Ridley, 73–74 “scramble for Africa,” 208 Sea Lion (ship), 245, 246, 248, 255–57, 262 Selling the Sea (Dickinson and Vladimir), 137 Semeleer, Jane, 150 Senegal, 242 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: aircraft grounding after, 354 impact on U.S. tourism of, 347–48, 353–59, 361–62, 365, 366 serendipity, disappearance of, 18 Sex and the City 2 (film), 180 sex slavery, 115, 117, 190–91 sex tourism, 20, 30, 114–21, 190–91 in Cambodia, 92, 93, 104–5, 111, 114–21 exploitation of children in, 114–15, 116–17, 119 rape and torture in, 117 Seychelles Tourism Board, 174 Shaanxi, China, 336 Shaanxi Grand Opera House, 334 Shanghai, 319, 322–23, 364 Art Deco buildings in, 324, 325–26 Bund in, 324, 325 Disneyland in, 323–24 historic preservation vs. development in, 326–27 2010 World Expo in, 322–23 Shanghai Literary Festival, 326 Sharma, Rashmi, 311 Shenandoah National Park, 384–85 Sheridan, Virginia, 32 shipping industry, see maritime transport industry Shoumatoff, Alex, 235 Sichuan Province, China: panda reserves in, 335 2008 earthquake in, 320, 335–36 Siegel, Bugsy, 368 Siem Reap, Cambodia, 92–93, 103–4, 105 poverty in, 99–100 unrestricted tourism in, 98 water infrastructure in, 98–99 Siem Reap River, 93 pollution in, 98 Sierra-Caro, Lyan, 145 Sihanouk, Norodom, 90 Sihanoukville, Cambodia, 111, 119 Singapore, 113, 369 Sinhalese, 279–80 Sir Bani Yas Island wildlife preserve, 198 Ski Dubai, 176–77 slave trade, heritage of, 242–43 Sleeping Buddha Temple, Beijing, 298 Smith, Richard F., 199–200 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 248 Society of American Travel Writers, 31 Sofitel Angkor resort, 103–4 Sok Nguon, 88, 92 solar energy, 195 Soubert, Son, 98 Sound of Music, The (film), 180 South Africa, 208, 209, 210, 222, 233, 240, 375 South Korea, Cambodian tourism industry and, 98–99 South Luangwa National Park, 211–17, 218, 224–29 infrastructure of, 224–26 Norwegian investment in, 224–25 Soutif, Dominique, 95–96, 97, 100 Soviet Union, 13, 54 Spark, Muriel, 28 Spelling, Aaron, 137 Spence, Jonathan D., 317 sports, tourism industry and, 273 Sri Lanka, 19 biodiversity of, 283–84 civil war in, 278–80, 282, 286 degraded infrastructure of, 286 human rights issues in, 282 national parks of, 284 Sri Lanka, tourism in, 36 during civil war, 280, 286 economic share of, 281 effects of civil war on, 278–79, 282 guest houses in, 284, 285 high-end travelers in, 283, 284 postwar land grab in, 280–81 sustainable development in, 287 Sri Lanka Tourism, 282 Stadhams, Dianne, 45 Stahl, Ralf, 200 Stark, Freya, 25 Starwood Hotels, 314 State Department, U.S., 191 Bureau of Consular Affairs, 358 improved visa process of, 363–64, 366 Stettinius, Edward, 139 Steves, Rick, 32 stewardship principles, 267 Stones of Venice (Ruskin), 82 Storella, Mark C., 210 Sud Ouest, 62 Summers, Lawrence, 360 Sunday Times (London), 355 Sun House, 284 Suraphon Svetasreni, 194 Svalbard Archipelago, 162 Sweeting, James, 154, 157, 159, 161, 163 Switzerland, 10 Sylor, Lin, 118 Syria, 193 Taine, Hippolyte, 49 Taj Mahal, overcrowding of, 30 Taliban, 169 Tamils, 279–80 Tamil Tigers, 280 Tang Dynasty, 330–31 Tang Paradise Hotel, 330 Tanzania, 208, 235 Taylor, Matthew, 74 Tazara Railway, 236 technological revolution, tourism and, 14 Tedjini, Patrice, 8, 34, 303 Terra-Cotta Army (Xian), 328–29, 331–32 Terzani, Tiziano, 298 Thailand, 112, 181 civil unrest in, 194, 281 sex tourism in, 114, 116, 117 tourism industry in, 19, 194 Thai Tourism Industry Association, 194 theme parks, tourism and, 382–84, 385 Thong Khon, 103–5 Tiananmen Square massacre, 305, 330 Tibet: Chinese invasion of, 302 Chinese tourism industry and, 302, 321 political protests in, 321 Tilarán Mountains, 253 Tilton, Glenn, 359 Timbers, Becky, 255 Tisch, Jonathan M., 361 Tollman, Brett, 116 Tonlé Sap River, 98 Torrey Canyon oil spill, 158 Tottle, Brian, 83–84 Toujours Provence (Mayle), 72 tourism, tourism industry, 7–39 academic degrees in, 379–80 as consumer engine, 45 cultural degradation from, 20–21, 30, 202–3 “dark,” 37, 92, 105–8 definition and categorization of, 16 as development strategy, 89–90, 99, 376 diplomatic role of, 358, 364 environmental degradation and, 20, 30, 35, 38, 195–96, 199–200, 271, 272 future of, 389 governmental role in, 33–34, 66, 69, 347, 349 Great Recession (2008) and, 271, 273–274, 360 growth of, 10, 13–14, 15, 19, 29, 57, 173, 355 history of, 9–17 homogenization of, 67 as ignored by governmental and economic leadership, 17, 272 low-volume, high-value, 21 motivation for, 10 paucity of debate on, 22, 390 poverty reduction and, 19–20, 35, 230, 376, 390 size of, 7, 10, 14–17, 45, 66–67, 194, 270, 351, 389 see also ecotourism; geotourism; green tourism Tourism for Tomorrow Awards, 270, 276 Tourism Ministry, Cambodia, 105, 108–10, 119 Tourism New Zealand, 307–8 Tourism Policy Council, U.S., 352 Tourism Satellite Account system, 16–17, 45, 270 tourism villages, 154 Tourtellot, Jonathan, 154–55, 266–68, 341 Toynbee, Arnold, 297 Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV), 56–57, 59 transportation, tourism and, 56–57, 67 Transportation Security Administration, U.S., 354 travel agents, 381–82 Travel and Tourism Administration, U.S., 349, 365 Travel Business Roundtable, 359 travel guides, 11–13, 23–24, 26 travel philanthropy, 101–2, 103 Travel Promotion Act (2010), 362, 372 “Travel to America?
Crossing the Heart of Africa: An Odyssey of Love and Adventure by Julian Smith
On one trip out of Beira, they walked sixty miles in nineteen hours. On another, Grogan dove into a crocodile-infested stream toavoid a wounded buffalo that finally dropped three yards from Sharp’s feet. The activity helped toughen the explorers to the ordeals ahead, but it also helped conceal the true nature of their mission. As the age of exploration morphed into the era of colonization, the “Scramble for Africa” was in full gear. Europe had salivated at the thought of controlling Africa’s vast expanses, manpower, and natural riches since Roman times. For more than a century before Grogan arrived, foreign powers had been slicing up the continent into colonies and protectorates like a pie at a murderous family gathering. By the turn of the nineteenth century, European governments were still fighting over poorly defined colonial borders and wiping out native groups who stood in their way.
O’Brien, Brian. “All for the Love of a Lady.” Field & Stream, January 1968. Page, Melvin E. “The Manyema Hordes of Tippu Tip: A Case Study in Social Stratification and the Slave Trade in Eastern Africa.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 7, no. 1 (1974): 69–84. Paice, Edward. Lost Lion of Empire: The Life of Cape-to-Cairo Grogan. London: HarperCollins, 2001. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa, 1876–1912. New York: Random House, 1991. “People of Africa’s Past: Ewart Grogan.” Travel Africa, no. 11 (Spring 2000). Pettitt, Clare. Dr. Livingstone, I presume?: Missionaries, Journalists, Explorers, and Empire. London: Profile, 2007. Roberts, Chalmers. “A Wonderful Feat of Adventure.” World’s Work, January 1901. Rocco, Fiametta. The Miraculous Fever-tree: Malaria, Medicine and the Cure That Changed the World.
The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler
barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile
An association with past injustice can create feelings of deep resentment for a lingua-franca, and such baleful associations can stick. Completing this triptych on its western side, we turn to eastern Africa.11 In the British colonial states here, there has been, as almost everywhere else in the continent, a profound mismatch between linguistic boundaries and national frontiers. This is because the nation-states derive ultimately from competing European land grabs in the nineteenth century “scramble for Africa,” irrespective of social alliances that might have arisen among African tribes. With far more languages than states, attempting to pick out one majority language within a country and declaring it the national language is dangerously divisive. Some kind of lingua-franca—with sufficient development of its vocabulary to serve all the needs of a modern state— has been needed, and the natural choice by default in a former British colony was English.
Africa, denied the ability to control its own politics in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, has also seen new settling languages disappear even faster than they have arrived. In a number of cases the incipient lingua-franca spread of some of these languages has faced insuperable obstacles, particularly through deliberate Relegation. German, for example, had been introduced as a command language of empire to many territories in Africa. From the Berlin Congress of 1884–85, which attempted to regulate the “scramble for Africa,” Germany claimed Togoland (modern Togo and the Volta region of Ghana) and Cameroon in the west, Southwest Africa (modern Namibia) in the south, German East Africa (Tanganyika, with Rwanda and Burundi) in the east, all of which it held until World War I. This amounted to 10 million subjects in Africa, comparable with 33 million then at home in Europe (and the 93 million estimated for Africa as a whole).1 German colonies were distinctive in these thirty years for their dedication to education, with not only primary but also secondary and vocational courses being established; a widespread network of mission schools was also set up independently of the government.
Sacred Economics: Money, Gift, and Society in the Age of Transition by Charles Eisenstein
Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, disintermediation, diversification, fiat currency, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liquidity trap, lump of labour, McMansion, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, special drawing rights, spinning jenny, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail
Instead of attempting to guilt ourselves and others into it (and generating resistance to our sanctimony), we can offer opportunities and encouragement to give, and we can be generous with our appreciation and celebration of the gifts of others. We can see others not as selfish, greedy, ignorant, or lazy people who just “don’t get it,” but rather as divine beings who desire to give to the world; we can see that and speak to that and know it so strongly that our knowing serves as an invitation to ourselves and others to step into that truth. 1. See, e.g., Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa, 497–98. 2. A slight caveat: in theory, if the interest rate is no higher than the default risk premium, then there will be no necessity for economic growth and the monetization of the commons. The relevant components of the real interest rate, however, are the liquidity premium and the market rate for money, determined by supply, demand, and government monetary policy. These represent profit from the mere ownership of money, which is indefensible based on the arguments of Chapters 4 and 5. 3.
The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Translated by W. D. Halls. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. Mankiw, N. Gregory. “It May Be Time for the Fed to Go Negative.” New York Times, April 18, 2009. Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1934. Nemat-Nejat, Karen Rhea. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa. London: Abacus, 1991. Paine, Thomas. Agrarian Justice. 1797. Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. New York: Penguin, 2005. Piff, P. K., M. W. Kraus, B. H. Cheng, and D. Keltner. “Having Less, Giving More: The Influence of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, July 12, 2010. doi:10.1037/a0020092. Reasons, Eric. “Innovative Deflation.”
Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
In October, 1904, for example, General Lothar von Trotha issued a Vernichtungbefehl, an extermination order, an early German experiment in racial cleansing preparing for the greater experiment of the early 1940s: “Within German boundaries, every Herero [northern Namibian people], whether found armed or unarmed, . . . will be shot.”16 But there was no economic point to the Herero holocaust, three-quarters killed or starved in two years, because there was anyway no economic gain to Germany in the first place from having German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia), “whose assets comprised wealth of rock and sand, and whose liabilities [even before the war] cost the German taxpayers a subsidy of £425,000.”17 So it proved for almost all the scrambles for Africa — or those for Asia or Polynesia or even the New World. At the last the Spanish and Portuguese empires left Spain and Portugal among the poorest countries in Europe. Even when the colonized people were reduced to a form of slavery, as in the concessionary system invented by King Leopold for his Congolese subjects and imitated by the French in their own Congo, only a few people gained from the severed hands and depopulated districts.
Owen, Stephen. 1996. An Anthology of Chinese Literature, Beginnings to 1911. New York: Norton. Özmucur, Süleyman, and ?evket Pamuk. 2007. “Did European Commodity Prices Converge during 1500-1800?” Pp. 59-85 in T. J. Hatton, K. O’Rourke, and A. M. Taylor, eds., The New Comparative Economic History: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey G. Williamson. Cambridge: MIT Press. Pakenham, Thomas. 1991. The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent, 1876-1912. New York: Random House. Paton, Alan. 1948. Cry, the Beloved Country. London: Jonathan Cape. Parktown, South Africa, 1987. Peake, Harold, and Herbert Fleure. 1928. The Steppe and the Sown, New Haven: Yale University Press. 400 Pearson, Karl, and Margaret Moul. 1925. “The Problem of Alien Immigration into Great Britain, Illustrated by an Examination of Russian and Polish Jewish Children.”
Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson
Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Martin Wolf, mobile money, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War
After the slave trade, western powers sought to tie down territories. The British explorer David Livingstone described Britain’s supposedly noble intentions (guided by the “three C’s”: commerce, Christianity, and civilization) a bit like how some Americans today believe they should spread freedom and democracy overseas. The French had something similar, described in Thomas Pakenham’s classic The Scramble for Africa: Overseas empire would soothe the amour-propre of the French army, humiliated by its collapse in the Franco-Prussian war.4 . . . A whiff of colonial fever, a panicky fear the door was closing (what the Germans called Torschlusspanik), had infected the French public.5 . . . To redeem France’s humiliations in Europe by acquiring a great overseas empire, to develop new overseas markets for France, were the aims common to all French colonialists.6 . . .
See, for example, “Natural Resources and Violent Conflict,” paper by Ian Bannon and Paul Collier, World Bank, 2003, or Bottom of the Barrel: Africa’s Oil Boom and the Poor, by Catholic Relief Services, June 2003. In François-Xavier Verschave, L’envers de la dette (Paris: Agone, 2002). As revealed in, and widely reported from, the Elf trials. See, for example, Karl Laske, “La pompe Afrique: Tours de passe-passe,” Libération, January 13, 2003. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa, (London: Abacus, 1992) page xxiv. Ibid., page 358. Ibid., page 359. Ibid., page 154. From a BBC chronology, February 27, 2004. From Adam Hochschild’s classic King Leopold’s Ghost (London: Papermac, 2000). Douglas A. Yates, The Rentier State in Africa: Oil Rent Dependency and Neocolonialism in the Republic of Gabon (Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1996), page 90. Centre des Archives d’Outre-Mer, Aix-en-Provence, France.
banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, energy security, informal economy, megacity, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, trade route, UNCLOS, wage slave
All have been slow to materialize, raising the question of whether they will be stymied by the international financial crisis and recession. In December 2008, the Financial Times reported that Dangote Group, a sprawling Nigerian 154 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS conglomerate, had postponed plans to buy $3.3bn of cement plant building and materials from Sinoma International Engineering, a Chinese contractor. The idea of a new international scramble for Africa – and in particular for its energy reserves – is hardly original. But what’s striking up close is how intense and amoral the process is. Both the USA and China are wooing countries in the region, including Nigeria, that have poor records on holding credible elections and respecting human rights. In the most egregious cases, the powers of both East and West are snug with nations that, in any principled approach to foreign affairs, would surely be international pariahs to match Robert Mugabe’s Zimbabwe.
Happy Valley: The Story of the English in Kenya by Nicholas Best
His plan for subduing the Masai and securing the Nile for Britain had been turned down by a Government ruled by Little Englanders for whom any colonial involvement was a sin. Whether the Government liked it or not, though, Germany was already on the march. Behind the Germans would come the French and the Italians. There was really no way now that the British could avoid becoming involved in the scramble for Africa. CHAPTER TWO The lunatic express The first Britons to reach East Africa had been sailors stocking up with food and water for the long voyage across the ocean to India. They followed the route taken by Vasco da Gama, whose arrival at the port of Mombasa in 1498 had touched off more than two centuries of intermittent Portuguese colonisation along the coast. The Portuguese never succeeded in taking root however.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
., 27, pp. 1 – 9 Fynn, J.K., 1971, ‘Ghana-Asante (Ashanti)’, in Crowder (ed.), 1971, pp. 19 – 52 Galbraith, John K., 1992, ‘The challenge to the South: seven basic principles’, South Letter (The South Centre, Geneva and Dar es Salaam), no. 14, pp. 12 – 13 Galbraith, J.S., 1963, Reluctant Empire, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press Galbraith, John S., 1971, ‘Gordon, MacKinnon, and Leopold: the scramble for Africa 1876 – 84’, Vict. Stud., vol. 14, pp. 369 – 88 Galenson, David W., 1986, Traders, Planters, and Slaves. Market Behaviour in Early English America, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Gamble, C.S., and Soffer, O., 1990, The World at 18 000 BP, vol. 2: Low Latitudes, London, Unwin Hyman Gann, L.H., 1975, ‘Economic development in Germany's African Empire, 1884 – 1914’, in Duigan and Gann, (eds.), 1975, pp. 213 – 55 Gann, L.H., and Duigan, P.
.), 1887, 1890, The Voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas, and Brazil, London Grébénart, D., 1988, Les Premiers Métallurgistes en Afrique Occidentale, Paris/Abidjan, Editions Errance/Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines Greenberg, Joseph H., 1966, The Languages of Africa, The Hague, Mouton Gregory, J. W., Cordell, D.D., and Gervais, R., (eds.), 1984, African Historical Demography, Edinburgh, African Studies Centre, University of Edinburgh Griffiths, Ieuan, 1986, ‘The scramble for Africa: inherited political boundaries’, Geogr. J., vol. 152, pp. 204 – 16 Grigson, C., 1989, ‘Size and sex: evidence for domestication of cattle in the Near East’, in Milles, Williams, and Gardner, pp. 77 – 109 Grove, A.T., 1984, ‘The environmental setting’, in Grove, A.T. (ed.), 1984 Grove, A.T., 1993, ‘Africa's climate in the Holocene’, in Shaw et al., pp. 34 – 5 Grove, A.T. (ed.), 1984, The Niger and Its Neighbours: Environmental History and Hydrobiology, Human Use and Health Hazards of the Major West African Rivers, Rotterdam, Balkema Grove, A.T., and Sutton, J.E.
F. van, 1898, Paul Kruger en de opkomst van de Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, Amsterdam/Cape Town Oslisly, Richard, 1996, ‘The middle Ogooué valley [Gabon]: cultural changes and palaeoclimatic implications of the last four millennia’, in Sutton (ed.), 1996, pp. 324 – 31 Oswell, W. Edward, 1900, William Cotton Oswell: Hunter and Explorer, 2 vols., London, Heinemann Pacheco Pereira, Duarte, 1506, Esmeraldo de situ orbis, trans. and ed. George H.T. Kimble, 1937, Cambridge, Hakluyt Society (Ser. II, vol. 79) Page, Melvin E., (ed.), 1987, Africa and the First World War, London, Macmillan Pakenham, Thomas, 1991, The Scramble for Africa, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson Park, Mungo, 1813, Travels to the Interior of Africa, London Parker, I.S. C., and Graham, A.D., 1989, ‘Elephant decline: downward trends in African elephant distribution and numbers’, 2 pts, Int. J. Environ. Stud., vol. 34, pp. 287 – 305, and vol. 35, pp. 13 – 26 Partridge, Tim C., 1994, ‘Between two oceans’, Johannesburg, pp. 1 – 2 (unpub. draft MS.) Paulssen, F., 1913, ‘Rechtsanschauung der Eingeboren auf Ukara’, Baessler Archiv, 4(I) Peires, J.B., 1989, ‘The British and the Cape’, in Elphick and Giliomee, pp. 472 – 518 Perham, M., 1956, Lugard, vol. 1: The Years of Adventure 1886 – 1898, London Philipps, Thomas, 1960, Philipps, 1820 Settler (ed.
Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
The economic chasm that opened up between Europe and nearly everywhere else greatly enhanced its ability to dominate the world.52 The colonial era had started in the seventeenth century, but from the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, with the progressive acquisition of India, it rapidly expanded. In the name of Christianity, civilization and racial superiority, and possessed of armies and navies without peer, the European nations, led by Britain and France, subjugated large swathes of the world, culminating in the scramble for Africa in the decades immediately prior to 1914.53 Savage wars took place between whites and non-whites as Chinese, Indians and native peoples in North America, Australasia and southern Africa made their last stand against European assaults on their religions, rulers, land and resources.54 Niall Ferguson writes: Western hegemony was one of the great asymmetries of world history. Taken together, the metropoles of all the Western empires - the American, Belgian, British, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish - accounted for 7% of the world’s land surface and just 18% of its population.
There is a widely held view, especially in the West, that China’s refusal to require any conditionality in terms of governance means that it is prone to turn a blind eye to human rights abuses, such as those in Darfur.53 That has certainly been the case, but the Chinese have recently shown growing sensitivity towards Western criticism, as well as that from within the continent, and as a result have helped to pressure the Sudanese government into accepting the presence of a joint United Nations/ African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur.54 There is little evidence, however, that China’s record in Africa is any worse - and in fact is almost certainly far better - than the West’s own miserable catalogue of support for corrupt and dictatorial regimes on the continent, not to mention its colonial legacy.55 Finally, in a rather different vein, the Chinese have become the target of terrorist groups, for example in the Niger Delta and Ethiopia, a phenomenon which is surely set to grow as the Chinese presence and influence expands and they assume the role, visibility and responsibilities of a global power not only in Africa but elsewhere too.56 The significance of China’s African mission is enormous. Its rapidly growing influence suggests that in due course it will probably become the dominant player on the continent, and serves as a bold statement of China’s wider global intentions. The speed of China’s involvement in Africa, and its success in wooing the African elites, has put the West on the defensive in a continent where it has a poor historical record.57 Unlike the ‘scramble for Africa’ in the late nineteenth century, which generated bitter intra-European rivalry, China’s involvement has not as yet produced significant tensions with the US, Britain or France, though that could change. The recent establishment of the United States Africa Command to coordinate its military relations and activities on the continent suggests that it is concerned about China’s growing influence; as of late 2008, however, the US had failed to find an African location for its headquarters, stating that it would be based in Stutt gart for the foreseeable future.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
Rosanne Curriaro, “The Politics of ‘More’: The Labor Question and the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America,” Journal of American History, 93 ( 2006): 22–27. CHAPTER 8. RULERS AS CAPITALISTS 1. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912 (New York, 1991), 18–74; Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (New York, 1999), 26–33. 2. Tim Jeal, Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer (New Haven, 2007), 230. 3. Pakenham, Scramble for Africa, 15, 22. 4. Ibid., 71–87. 5. Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 2nd ed. (Armonk, NY, 2006), 108–09. 6. Debora Silverman, “‘The Congo, I Presume’”: Tepid Revisionism in the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, 1910/2005,” Paper given at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, January 2–6, 2009. 7.
After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin
agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade
The solitary consolation will be, that the changes have been inevitable.8 AFRICA AND THE GEOPOLITICS OF PARTITION The scaling-up of the Europeans’ intrusive power after 1880 was a worldwide phenomenon. But nowhere else was their imperial expansion so dizzyingly swift or so astonishingly complete as in sub-Saharan Africa – the ‘dark continent’, whose interior Europeans had been noticeably slowto claim. This is why the African case has so fascinated historians. More than a century later, the ‘scramble’ for Africa in the 1880s and the continent’s ‘partition’ and ‘conquest’ evoke strong emotions and uneasy debate. This is partly because they offend contemporary notions of racial justice, and partly because Africa’s postcolonial condition has made its colonial past seem more painfully real than has been the case in more fortunate regions. The drama and violence of Europe’s takeover of Africa has also encouraged the idea that it was the ‘classic’ case of European imperialism.
So, while the Europeans had fought wars to divide the Americas, and periodically threatened to do so over the Middle East, they shared out Africa with surprising bonhomie. This had two crucial results. It reduced the scope for African leaders to exploit European differences and so prolong their freedom. And it meant that, once they were demarcated, colonial borders could be left undefended (until the First World War) against any European foe. The scramble for Africa was the most obvious case of Europe’s growing appetite for global supremacy, and the irresistible strength it could bring to the task. But it was also a paradox. Firstly, European governments showed little enthusiasm for extending their control over the African interior. They responded grudgingly to the clamour of lobbies. Secondly, once their sphere was marked out, they were content with little more than a nominal control over the peoples and places on their treaty maps.
Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng
Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War
The dispute had been the outcome of the ‘German intrigues which have given the Company so much trouble during the past few years’. The Germans, Goldie believed, had poisoned the ‘minds of the native rulers, especially as rumours pass rapidly in Central Africa from district to district and acquire strength by repetition’. In the wake of the international Conference of Berlin in 1885, which precipitated the controversial ‘Scramble for Africa’, the Germans, the French and the British were all vying for trade and dominance in West Africa. Goldie complained to his political masters in the Foreign Office in London that the Germans had claimed that ‘wherever the English went they subjugated and oppressed the populations, that the native laws and customs would be overthrown, and that the power of the Chiefs would be abolished’.20 The company, as far as Goldie was concerned, had no ‘desire to interfere more than is absolutely necessary with the internal arrangements of the Chiefs of Central Africa’.
Towards the end of the 1890s, as the Charter was not renewed, Lord Salisbury thanked the Royal Niger Company for its work, expressing his high esteem for the ‘adventurers and patriots to whose efforts the preparation of this territory’ was due. Goldie came back to England, but never held another post linked to the empire. When he died in 1925, aged seventy-nine, he remained unshaken in his belief that there ‘was no God and no life to come’.27 The country over which Goldie had presided as the unofficial leading statesman was not really a country at all. The mad scramble for Africa had been notoriously careless of ethnic boundaries and tribal distinctions. As Lord Salisbury himself described it, the partition of Africa was haphazard and disorganized. After an agreement with the French in 1892, Salisbury wrote that ‘we have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod; we have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers and lakes were’.28 In the eyes of the British the country which we would later know as Nigeria was, like Julius Caesar’s Gaul, split into three parts.
Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
Privately, Harris was serious about his representation of slave culture, and paid tribute to the rich tradition of speech and narrative he was trying to preserve: ‘If the language of Uncle Remus fails to give vivid hints of the really poetic imagination of the Negro’, Harris wrote, then he would have failed to capture its essence. 6 The half-century between the American Civil War and the First World War saw two contrasting, but equally humiliating, sets of experience for black people in the English-speaking world. In Africa, Britain became engaged on an imperial competition, the ‘scramble for Africa’, with rival European powers that saw the whole continent subjugated to colonial rule. In America, meanwhile, the slaves, finally liberated in December 1865, found themselves catapulted from servitude to legal equality and then reduced to a state almost as degrading as slavery. Four million African-Americans were freed at the end of the Civil War, and an old English legal phrase, ‘civil rights’, entered the American lexicon for the first time.
A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey
Germany and Sweden were the best examples of this ‘new protectionism’ – famously called the ‘marriage of iron and rye’ in Germany. When the unequal treaties they had signed upon independence expired in the 1870s and the 1880s, the Latin American countries introduced rather high protective tariffs (30–40 per cent). However, elsewhere in the ‘periphery’, the forced free trade we talked about earlier spread much further. European powers competed for parts of the African continent in the ‘scramble for Africa’, while many Asian countries were also taken as colonies (Malaysia, Singapore and Myanmar by Britain; Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos by France). The British Empire expanded enormously, backed up by its industrial might, leading to the famous saying: ‘The sun never sets on the British Empire.’ Countries like Germany, Belgium, the US and Japan, which had not so far engaged in much colonialism, also joined in.13 Not for nothing is this period also known as the ‘Age of Imperialism’.
Official figures showed that in the first few months alone 5,198 men from the invading Austro-Hungarian force were killed or wounded. In keeping with its history of resistance, Herzegovina was one of the last regions to fall to the new occupiers. The Austro-Hungarians claimed their occupation of Bosnia was a philanthropic act of civilisation, a ‘cultural mission’, as they put it rather prosaically. Like so much colonialism of the era – the Scramble for Africa was taking place at the same time – outsiders routinely presented themselves as being committed to upliftment, promising to modernise, reform and advance the local population. But, just as in Africa, the philanthropy turned out to be largely a sham. Furthermore, the Ottoman legacy in Bosnia brought out many Western prejudices against Islam, the implicit message being that a Christian nation would necessarily make good the cruel, corrupt, conservative incompetence of Muslim rule.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
140 Ibid. 141 Lutz Kleveman, "The New Great Game’, Guardian, 20 October 2003. 142 Amidon, America’s Strategic Imperative, 72. 143 Michel Chossudovsky points out that ‘In March 1999, the US Congress adopted the Silk Road Strategy Act, which defined America’s broad economic and strategic interests in a region extending from the Eastern Mediterranean to Central Asia. The Silk Road Strategy (SRS) outlines a framework for the development of America’s business empire along an extensive geographical corridor.’ See Michel Chossudovsky, America’s ‘War on Terrorism, Pincourt, Québec: Center for Research on Globalization, 2005. 144 Michael Watts, ‘Empire of Oil: Capitalist Dispossession and the Scramble for Africa’, Monthly Review 58: 4, 2006. 145 Michael Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’, Tom Dispatch, 12 June 2008. 146 See Michael Klare’s books, Blood and Oil, London: Penguin, 2004; and Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy, New York: Metropolitan Books, 2008. 147 Klare, ‘America Out of Gas’. 148 Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’. 149 Ann Wright, An “Enduring” Relationship for Security and Enduring an Occupation for Oil’, truthout.org, 5 December 2007. 150 See stratfor.com; cited in Boal, Clark, Matthews, and Watts, Afflicted Powers, 47. 151 Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’. 152 Dave Webb, ‘Thinking the Worst: The Pentagon Report’, in David Cromwell and Mark Levene, eds, Surviving Climate Change: The Struggle to Avert Global Catastrophe, London: Pluto Press, 2007. 153 Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, ‘An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security’, report to the Pentagon, October 2003, available at www.gbn.com. 154 Ibid. 155 Ibid., 18. 156 Mark Lynas, ‘Food Crisis: How the Rich Starved the World’, RedOrbit.Com, 22 April 2008. 157 As Mark Lynas points out in ‘Food Crisis’, in the 2007–8 period, the world population was growing by 78 million a year. 158 George Monbiot, ‘Credit Crunch?
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
“UK: Ill-Trained, Dangerous and Unaccountable, Amnesty Calls for Complete Overhaul of Enforced Removals by Private Security Companies,” Amnesty International, press release, July 7, 2011. 63Robert Verkaik and Chris Green, “Failed Asylum Seekers Are Abused by Private Security Companies, Says Report,” Independent, July 14, 2008. 64Amelia Gentleman, “Rising Unemployment Puts Cameron’s Work Program in the Spotlight,” Guardian, February 1, 2012. 65Ibid. 66Patrick Butler, “Benefits Sanctions: They’re Absurd and Don’t Work Very Well, Experts Tell MPs,” Guardian, January 9, 2015. 67John Grayson, “Enquiry into Asylum,” House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee report, June 17, 2013. 68Oliver Wright, “Record Number of Prison Deaths ‘Due to Cuts and Overcrowding,’” Independent, October 31, 2014. 69“Child Detained for Two Months ‘By Mistake’ at Mitie Center,” Corporate Watch, February 3, 2015, at corporatewatch.org. 70Miriam Ross, “UK ‘Aid’ Is Financing a Corporate Scramble for Africa,” Ecologist, April 3, 2014. 71Paul Mason, “The Best of Capitalism Is Over for Rich Countries—and for the Poor Ones It Will Be Over by 2060,” Guardian, July 8, 2014. 72Russell Brand, “New Era 4 All,” December 22, 2014, at russellbrand.com. 7Australia 1When I visited Christmas Island, the local publication The Islander published a front-page feature on how to navigate around the animals: “A broom or grass rake is ideal for moving crabs from in front of the vehicle.”
airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
One of the latter in Dahomey established his own court, in which he took bribes to reach a decision before presenting it to the colonial administrator, claiming “the white man will believe anything he says.” In Buganda, the chiefly allies of the British exploited the 1900 agreement to distribute the kingdom’s land among themselves.20 Like today’s donors and postmodern imperialists, the colonizers were outside Planners who could never know the reality on the ground. Like their modern-day counterparts, colonizers often unwittingly destabilized the balance of internal power. Before the scramble for Africa, there had been educated Africans who had some power in colonial regimes. Missionaries founded a university in Sierra Leone, the Fourah Bay College, in 1827. West Africans sent their children there, as well as to London law schools. Many of these graduates held positions in the colonial administrations, including legislative posts in the Gold Coast and Lagos as early as the 1850s. Educated Africans made up nearly half of the senior posts in the 1890s in these two colonies.
Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri
Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam
Among the academic disciplines involved in this cultural production of alterity, anthropology was perhaps the most important rubric under which the native other was imported to and exported from Europe.22 From the real differences of non-European peoples, nineteenth-century anthropologists constructed an other being of a different nature; differential cultural and physical traits were construed as the essence of the African, the Arab, the Aboriginal, and 125 126 PASSAGES OF SOVEREIGNTY so forth. When colonial expansion was at its peak and European powers were engaged in the scramble for Africa, anthropology and the study of non-European peoples became not only a scholarly endeavor but also a broad ﬁeld for public instruction. The other was imported to Europe—in natural history museums, public exhibitions of primitive peoples, and so forth—and thus made increasingly available for the popular imaginary. In both its scholarly and its popular forms, nineteenth-century anthropology presented nonEuropean subjects and cultures as undeveloped versions of Europeans and their civilization: they were signs of primitiveness that represented stages on the road to European civilization.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus
See Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 19 Meek, Land Law and Custom, pp. 13–14. 20 Colson, “Impact of the Colonial Period,” p. 202. 21 Thomas J. Bassett and Donald E. Crummey, Land in African Agrarian Systems (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 9–10. 22 Colson, “Impact of the Colonial Period,” pp. 196–97; Meek, Land Law and Custom, p. 12. 23 During the scramble for Africa that began in the 1870s, European powers sought to build administrative systems on the cheap by using networks of local leaders to enforce rules, conscript corvée labor, and collect capitation taxes. See Mahmood Mamdani, Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). 24 Vinogradoff, Historical Jurisprudence, p. 351. 25 Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer, pp. 150–51. 26 These examples are ibid., pp. 150–69. 27 Bruce L.
When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
In 1498 Vasco da Gama called at Mombasa en route for India, but it was not until 1574 that the Portuguese founded the city of Luanda in Angola. Dutch settlers founded the colony of Cape Town in South Africa in 1652. The slave trade flourished between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, as mentioned earlier in this chapter, largely from a West African base. In the late nineteenth century the discovery of mineral wealth on the continent led to the SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 565 “scramble for Africa,” and the whole of the continent (except for Liberia and Ethiopia) was under foreign domination by 1900. The European powers met in Berlin in 1884 and agreed on boundaries and spheres of influence. The British claimed West African colonies such as Ghana and Nigeria, East African ones such as Kenya, and Botswana in the south, as well as South Africa itself. The French took central African regions such as Chad, Gabon and Brazzaville Congo, and the Belgians acquired the Congo River Basin.