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Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game
To govern a population numbering hundreds of millions, the Indian Civil Service had a maximum strength of little more than 1,000. Chapter Four asks how it was possible for such a tiny bureaucracy to govern so huge an empire, and explores the symbiotic but ultimately unsustainable collaboration between British rulers and indigenous elites, both traditional and new. Chapter Five deals primarily with the role of military force in the period of the ‘Scramble for Africa’, exploring the interaction between financial globalization and the armaments race between the European powers. Though they had been anticipated before, this was the era when three critical modern phenomena were born: the truly global bond market, the military-industrial complex and the mass media. Their influence was crucial in pushing the Empire towards its zenith. The press, above all, led the Empire into the temptation the Greeks called hubris: the pride that precedes a fall.
Within twenty short years after 1880, however, ten thousand African tribal kingdoms were transformed into just forty states, of which thirty-six were under direct European control. Never in human history had there been such drastic redrawing of the map of a continent. By 1914, apart from Abyssinia and Liberia (the latter an American quasi-colony), the entire continent was under some form of European rule. Roughly a third of it was British. This was what came to be known as ‘the Scramble for Africa’ – though the Scramble of Africa might be nearer the mark. The key to the Empire’s phenomenal expansion in the late Victorian period was the combination of financial power and firepower. It was a combination supremely personified by Cecil Rhodes. The son of a clergyman in Bishop’s Stortford, Rhodes had emigrated to South Africa at the age of seventeen because – so he later said – he ‘could no longer stand cold mutton’.
It was a similar story in East Africa, where Frederick Lugard had established British primacy in Buganda while in the employ of the Imperial British East Africa Company.* So impressed was Goldie by Lugard’s performance that he hired him to work for his Niger Company. When Northern Nigeria was made a British protectorate in 1900, Lugard was appointed its first High Commissioner; twelve years later he became Governor-General of a united Nigeria. That transformation from trading monopoly to protectorate was typical of the way the Scramble for Africa proceeded. The politicians let the businessmen make the running, but sooner rather than later they stepped in to create some kind of formal colonial government. Although the new African companies resembled the East India Company in their original design, they governed Africa for far shorter periods than their Indian precursor had governed India. On the other hand, even when British rule became ‘official’ it remained skeletal in its structure.
The Plundered Planet: Why We Must--And How We Can--Manage Nature for Global Prosperity by Paul Collier
agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, business climate, Doha Development Round, energy security, food miles, G4S, information asymmetry, Kenneth Arrow, megacity, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stewart Brand
The system that I have sketched—by which natural assets would accrue to citizens by means of revenues flowing into the government budget— looked as though it would gradually be adopted over the ensuing decade. Instead, there followed an unprecedented global commodity boom and what might be called the Scramble for Africa Mark II. The Scramble for Africa Mark I, otherwise known as colonialism, had been between the various European imperial powers over the continent’s natural assets. The Scramble for Africa Mark II was over those same assets, but predominantly between Asia and North America. In this second Scramble China avoided head-to-head competition by offering a new type of deal: it would build infrastructure in return for extraction rights. In fact, such deals were not entirely new: in the 1970s European governments had sometimes negotiated such deals.
Natural order—the responsible management of nature—can deliver prosperity, but prosperity alone cannot deliver natural order. The tension between prosperity and plunder is now apparent. The world’s voracious demand for raw materials has driven up the prices of natural resources and food to unprecedented levels; it took a global financial crisis to puncture them. In turn, the price hike has triggered a new scramble for Africa, pumping revenues into the continent. China, the giant of the emerging market economies, comes without the baggage of colonialism; indeed, many of the countries of the bottom billion have long regarded it as an ally. But from the perspective of the rich countries, the Chinese arrival in Africa is not just unwelcome competition. It threatens to undermine international efforts to reform the governance of the extractive industries, after decades of corruption and exploitation.
Prior to being part of Ethiopia, Eritrea had been a colony of Italy. During the Ethiopian period the explanation for the lack of trees was that the Italians had plundered them. As with the current government, blaming the previous colonizer had obvious advantages. Nor is that the end of the blame chain. Although Eritrea has a complicated colonial history, it was a relatively brief one. Italy was late on the scene in the scramble for Africa and Eritrea was the last place left to grab. As those first Italian colonizers scanned the terrain around the turn of the twentieth century one disappointing feature was the near absence of trees. Although the Italians could scarcely mistake the fact that they were unwelcome, the lack of trees provided an ethical fig-leaf of justification for colonization: indeed a whole fig-forest. The reason there were no trees must be that the inhabitants had plundered them.
Empires of the Weak: The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order by Jason Sharman
British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, European colonialism, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land tenure, offshore financial centre, passive investing, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, profit maximization, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs
Not only does this view provide an alternative model to explain war and institutional change in the abstract, it also has particular relevance to the transformative geopolitics of the “new imperialism” in the nineteenth century, and the equally fundamental process of European contraction and collapse that followed. Winning in the End: Motives and Means in the New Imperialism Perhaps the starkest example of the changed military balance between Europeans and non-Europeans is the “Scramble for Africa” in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. From a position of controlling less than 10 percent of Africa in 1876,4 European empires came to span 95 percent of the continent by World War I.5 Not since the time of Cortes and Pizaro 350 years earlier had Europeans achieved such out-sized military results. The image of repeating rifles and machine guns against African spears and bows is one of the enduring tropes of a technology-based account of Western triumphs.
In the early 1880s, however, new land grabs by the French and German governments, and a quixotic bid by the Belgian king for a vast personal fiefdom, set up a dynamic that culminated in the Berlin conference of 1884–1885 and the subsequent division of Africa among the European powers over the next couple of decades.6 This huge change, the conquest of a continent, raises the questions of first why Europeans embarked on the “Scramble for Africa,” and then how they were able to succeed. The first was often a matter of following cultural prompts on the markers of great power prestige, while the “how” of European conquest was at least as much a matter of politics and logistics as battlefield technology. The Motives of the New Imperialism Taking the “why” question first, one of the most relevant books on the subject observes: Historians have by now abandoned the search for the philosopher’s stone that will reveal the identity of the universal motivation that underlay European imperialism.
Globalization and War. Langham MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Barkawi, Tarak. 2017. Soldiers of Empire: India and British Armies in World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barkey, Karen. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barnhart, Joslyn. 2016. “Status Competition and Territorial Aggression: Evidence from the Scramble for Africa.” Security Studies 25 (3): 385–419. Bayly, C. A. 1998. “The First Age of Global Imperialism, c.1760–1830.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 26 (2) 28–47. Bayly, C. A. 2004. The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914. Oxford: Blackwell. Behrend, Heike. 1999. Alice Lakwena and the Holy Spirits: War in Northern Uganda 1986–97. Athens: Ohio University Press. Bethencourt, Francisco, and Diogo Ramada Curto (Eds). 2007.
Think Like a Freak by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner
Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Barry Marshall: ulcers, call centre, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, Everything should be made as simple as possible, food miles, Gary Taubes, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, medical residency, Metcalfe’s law, microbiome, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise
The brain is the critical organ . . . How to ignore artificial barriers . . . Can you do 20 push-ups? 4. Like a Bad Dye Job, the Truth Is in the Roots A bucket of cash will not cure poverty and a planeload of food will not cure famine . . . How to find the root cause of a problem . . . Revisiting the abortion-crime link . . . What does Martin Luther have to do with the German economy? . . . How the “Scramble for Africa” created lasting strife . . . Why did slave traders lick the skin of the slaves they bought? . . . Medicine vs. folklore . . . Consider the ulcer . . . The first blockbuster drugs . . . Why did the young doctor swallow a batch of dangerous bacteria? . . . Talk about gastric upset! . . . The universe that lives in our gut . . . The power of poop. 5. Think Like a Child How to have good ideas . . .
Because, as some researchers argue, during the Middle Ages these towns were free city-states rather than areas ruled by Norman overlords. Such an independent history apparently fosters a lasting trust in civic institutions. In Africa, some countries that regained independence from their colonial rulers have experienced brutal wars and rampant corruption; others haven’t. Why? One pair of scholars found an answer that goes back many years. When the European powers began their mad “Scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century, they carved up existing territories by looking at maps from afar. When creating new borders, they considered two essential criteria: land mass and water. The actual Africans who lived in these territories were not a major concern for the colonialists, since to them one African looked pretty much like the next one. This method might make sense if you are cutting a cherry pie.
. : See Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, “Long-Term Persistence,” July 2013 working paper; see also earlier versions by same authors: “Long-Term Cultural Persistence,” September 2012 working paper; and “Long-Term Persistence,” European University Institute working paper 2008. Hat tip to Hans-Joachim Voth and Nico Voigtländer, “Hatred Transformed: How Germans Changed Their Minds About Jews, 1890–2006,” Vox, May 1, 2012. 74 ETHNIC STRIFE IN AFRICA: See Stelios Michalopoulos and Elias Papaioannou, “The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa,” NBER working paper, November 2011; and Elliott Green, “On the Size and Shape of African States,” International Studies Quarterly 56, no. 2 (June 2012). 74 THE SCARS OF COLONIALISM STILL HAUNT SOUTH AMERICA AS WELL: See Melissa Dell, “The Persistent Effects of Peru’s Mining Mita,” MIT working paper, January 2010; and Daron Acemoglu, Camilo Garcia-Jimeno, and James A. Robinson, “Finding Eldorado: Slavery and Long-Run Development in Colombia,” NBER working paper, June 2012. 75 THE SALT-SENSITIVITY THEORY OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN HYPERTENSION: This section is based on author interview with Roland Fryer as reflected in Stephen J.
A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins
addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War
The atrocities have been funded, at least indirectly, by some of the biggest Western corporations. They see the country as only a source of cheap coltan—vital to making semiconductors—and other minerals. Kathleen Kern explores the direct relationship between the suffering of the Congolese people and the low prices Westerners pay for cell phones and laptops. 6 Mercenaries on the Front Lines in the New Scramble for Africa Andrew Rowell and James Marriott Some 30 percent of America’s oil will come from Africa by 2015, and multinational oil companies are increasingly resorting to private armies to protect their operations there. Communities in the Niger Delta have been campaigning for a share of the oil wealth pumped from under their land. In 2006, Nigel Watson-Clark was working as a Shell security officer in Nigeria, protecting offshore oil rigs—a frontline soldier in the web of oil exploitation.
In “The Human Cost of Cheap Cell Phones,” Kathleen Kern provides an eyewitness account of the high price the Congolese have paid to bring cheap electronics to First World consumers. • Some 30 percent of America’s supply of oil is expected to come from Africa in the next ten years, but U.S. and UK oil companies will be competing with China for access to these reserves. Local communities have been campaigning to gain a share of this new wealth and to prevent environmental destruction of their region. In “Mercenaries on the Front Lines in the New Scramble for Africa,” Andrew Rowell and James Marriott tell how a British expat security officer found himself in the middle of this struggle for oil and power. • According to most estimates Iraq has the world’s second largest oil reserves—and access to Iraq’s oil has been one of the essential elements of U.S. foreign policy. The occupation regime is planning to sign oil production sharing agreements with U.S. and UK companies that will cost the Iraqi people $200 billion that they need to rebuild their country.
GWYNNE Selling Money— and Dependency JOHN CHRISTENSEN Dirty Money: Offshore Banking LUCY KOMISAR BCCI: Banking on America, Banking on Jihad 2. DEBT-LED DEVELOPMENT STEVE BERKMAN The $100 Billion Question ELLEN AUGUSTINE The World Bank and the Philippines BRUCE RICH Exporting Destruction 3. INTERVENTION AND DOMINATION: ACCESS TO RESOURCES KATHLEEN KERN The Human Cost of Cheap Cell Phones ANDREW ROWELL/JAMES MARRIOTT Oil, Mercenaries, and the New Scramble for Africa GREG MUTTITT Hijacking Iraq’s Oil: EHMs at Work 4. THE DEBT TRAP JAMES S. HENRY The Mirage of Debt Relief GLOBAL SOUTH THE UNDERDEVELOPED WORLD We must put an end to this. You and I must do the right thing. We must understand that our children will not inherit a stable, safe, and sustainable world unless we change the terrible conditions that have been created by EHMs. All of us must look deep into our hearts and souls and decide what it is we can best do.
China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg
barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Yet, significant divergences from colonialism as it was experienced in Africa—such as China’s fundamental respect for the sovereignty of African states; its active nurturing of relations with African states in international fora; and its interest in African people as consumers rather than laborers—suggest that China and Africa are engaging in postcolonial relations of interdependency, however economically imbalanced these relations may be. A Chinese “Scramble for Africa?” Geopolitical and Macroeconomic Factors Referring to China’s investments and involvement in Africa from 1996 to 2006 as China’s “Scramble for Africa,” critical observers draw a clear comparison between China and European colonial powers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.3 Several macroeconomic and geopolitical factors that propelled the European “scramble” for Africa also appear to be at work in China’s recent engagement on the continent. During the European colonial era, as during the past decade of Chinese activity, the objective of external powers in Africa was to gain economic and 04-7561-4 ch4.qxd 9/16/08 4:11 PM Page 67 Engaging Postcolonial Interdependencies 67 political advantage for the interventionist power.4 This overriding reality offers preliminary evidence that China’s current engagement with Africa is (neo)colonial: in this basic analysis, China uses its power to influence relatively weaker African economic and political systems in its own interest.
“Chinese Defense Minister Chi Haotian Meets Nigerian Counterpart,” Xinhua (16 July 2001); “Chi Haotian Meets Nigerian Counterpart,” Xinhua (23 April 2002); “Cooperation between China and Nigeria Fruitful, Defense Minister,” Xinhua (25 June 2004); “Luo Zheng, “Cao Gangchuan Holds Talks with Nigerian Defense Minister,” Jiefangjun Bao (8 April 2007). 52. “Chinese Firm May Manage Nigeria’s Defense Industries Group,” Panafrican News Agency (19 September 2004). See also Michael Klare and Daniel Volman, “America, China and the Scramble for Africa’s Oil,” Review of African Political Economy, XXXIII (2006), 305. 53. “Nigeria to Buy Military Equipment Worth $251 Million from China,” Radio Nigeria-Abuja (29 September 2005); “Nigeria: China Donates $3 Million Equipment to Nigerian Armed Forces,” Rhythm FM (28 October 2005); Hagelin, Bromley, and Wezeman, “International Arms Transfers,” 531; Alden, China in Africa, 26; Donovan C. Chau, Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S.
While the AU experts appreciated that Chinese investment gave Africa new leverage, they noted criticisms that China was making “no serious effort” to “transfer skills and knowledge to Africa” and urged China to relocate some of its industries to Africa “as a reflection of a true spirit of partnership.”39 In April 2007, the Nigerian government convened a meeting of African foreign policy scholars and diplomats in Abuja on the theme “The New Scramble for Africa”; speakers at the conference expressed fears of Africa being caught up in a new Cold War between China and the West, with African resources as the bone of contention. There are also critical voices among Africa’s rulers. South African President Thabo Mbeki and former Nigerian President Obasanjo both criticized Chinese companies for violating labor and safety standards. Mbeki has warned against a new Chinese colonialism in Africa.
Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher
airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Live Aid, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
What it cannot show, though, is the racing surge in my heartbeat. I had just read something about the Congo that was going to change my life. Recently appointed as Africa Correspondent for The Daily Telegraph, I was doing what every new foreign correspondent must: cramming. My reading list was long. After Africa's early tribal history came the period of exploitation by outsiders, starting with centuries of slavery and moving on to the Scramble for Africa, when the white man staked the black man's continent in a few hectic years at the end of the nineteenth century to launch the colonial era. Then came independence in the late 1950s and 1960s when the Winds of Change swept away regimes that some white leaders had boasted would stand for ever. And it finished with the post-independence age of economic decay, war, coup and crisis, with African leaders manipulated, and occasionally murdered, by foreign powers, and dictatorships clinging to power in a continent teeming with rebels, loyalists and insurgents.
Desperate for a colony that would mark Belgium's arrival as a world power, Leopold saw rich potential in Stanley's story. The explorer had found a river that was navigable across much of central Africa and Leopold envisaged it as the main artery of a huge Belgian colony, shipping European manufactured goods upstream and valuable African raw materials downstream. Stanley's Congo expedition fired the starting gun for the Scramble for Africa. Before his trip, white outsiders had spent hundreds of years nibbling at Africa's edges, claiming land around the coastline, but rarely venturing inland. Disease, hostile tribes and the lack of any clear commercial potential in Africa meant that hundreds of years after white explorers first circumnavigated its coastline, it was still referred to in mysterious terms as the Dark Continent, a source of slaves, ivory and other goods, but not a place white men thought worthy of colonisation.
As I approached the Congo River I found myself on the same track that the two Belgian cotton agents had used when they tried to flee that first rebellion in 1964. I thought of their graves back in the overgrown cemetery in Kasongo and shuddered. There is something about the violence of Congo's post-independence period that is seared into the minds of those whites who call themselves African - second- and third-generation colonials whose ancestors took part in the Scramble for Africa that Stanley's Congo trip precipitated. They remember dark fragments of what happened in the Congo after independence in 1960 - killing, rape. anarchy. The two cotton traders of Kasongo were just a small part of a much larger number of victims whose deaths still cast a sinister shadow through the older white tribes of Africa. I tried to imagine the panic of their flight that day. How they felt as the worst nightmare of living deep in the African bush became a reality; the rumours in town of the rebel advance; the terrible understanding that nobody was coming to the rescue; the desperate hope that if they made it from Kasongo to the Congo River they might find a boat to safety; venturing out of the ordered precincts of the town only to be swallowed up by the vengeful rage of Congolese tribesmen settling decades-old scores. 7.
Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route
IN THE PACIFIC: Sailing safe in the American ocean, Part Three THE IMPERIAL OBSESSION: 1870–1897 19. A FIXED PURPOSE: The ideology of Empire. 20. ASHANTI: Into black Africa. 21. BY THE SWORD: Armies, fleets and British belligerence. 22. SOUTH OF THE ZAMBESI : A failure of logic, with battle scenes. 23. THE END OF THE TASMANIANS: The obliteration of a subject race. 24. THE REBEL PRINCE:: Charles Stewart Parnell. 25. THE MARTYR OF EMPIRE: Charles George Gordon. 26. SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA: Coarsening the imperial idea. 27. AN IMPERIAL FULFILMENT: Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, triumphant Britain and a suggestion of the Last Day. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INDEX About the Author Copyright PART ONE The Sentiment of Empire 1837–1850 CHAPTER ONE A Charming Invention IN October 1837 the Honourable Emily Eden, a witty and accomplished Englishwoman in her forty-first year, was accompanying her brother Lord Auckland, Governor-General of India, on an official progress up-country from Calcutta.
So he knew that the Lualaba was not the Nile but the Congo, and that it was taking them not northward to the Mediterranean, but westward to the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, though it was to be another seven months before Stanley’s exhausted expedition arrived at the estuary of the Congo on the Atlantic shore, that day the Nile was settled. 7 Speke was right, Burton was wrong: but before we leave this, the central saga of exploration in the imperial age, and the beginning of the ‘scramble for Africa’ which was to give a new style to imperialism, let us go back to Bath again, in 1864, and take our leave of the original antagonists. Burton and his wife had characteristically put up at a hotel near the railway station, but Speke stayed no less typically with his cousin, George Fuller, at his agreeable country house Neston Park about ten miles from Bath. They saw each other for the first time since 1859 at a preliminary meeting in the Mineral Water Hospital on September 15, the day before the scheduled debate.
Until Sudanese independence in 1956 a camel-back statue of the hero stood in the main cross-roads of the capital (it is now at the Gordon Boys’ School near Woking in Surrey). A favourite Anglo-Sudanese anecdote concerned the English boy taken by his father every Sunday after morning service to pay homage at this shrine. After several weeks of reverent pilgrimage he ventured to ask his father a question. ‘Who is the man,’ he inquired, ‘on Gordon’s back?’ CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX Scramble for Africa IN the last week of December, 1895, a curious military force was assembled at a place called Pitsani, in the Bechuanaland Protectorate just across the frontier from the Transvaal Republic—where President Paul Kruger now ruled the destinies of a State transformed by the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand. Pitsani stood on the Missionary Road, the old highway into central Africa from the south, and was now on the route of the railway line being built northwards from Cape Colony.
Imperial Legacies by Jeremy Black;
affirmative action, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
Whether in functional terms or with reference to values, or both, there could be a contrast between empires operating in a highly competitive context, and, on the other hand, those empires that did not face, or acknowledge, comparable imperial powers. The former was the position with Spain and the Ottomans in the Mediterranean in the sixteenth century, or with the Europeans in the late nineteenth century during the “Scramble for Africa.” The second was the Chinese position until repeated defeat in the nineteenth century, first by Britain. That contrast between empires is a realist one, to employ the vocabulary of international relations theory, and this point underlines the extent to which values as the driver of imperialism stemmed, in part, from practicalities, and were, in part, expressed in terms of them. These might be strategic competition, but also commercial issues, notably the frequently competitive drives, for resources and markets.
PRO. 30/22/106 fol. 119. 23 Caroline Keen, Princely India and the British: Political Development and the Operation of Empire (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012). 24 David Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire (London: Oxford University Press, 1997). 25 Kevin Grant, A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926 (New York: Routledge, 2005); Stuart Laing, Tippu Tip: Ivory, Slavery and Discovery in the Scramble for Africa (London: Medina Publishing, 2018). 26 Dan Jones, Tea and Justice: British Tea Companies and the Tea Workers of Bangladesh (London: Bangladesh International Action Group, 1986); Sarthak Sengupta, The Tea Labourers of North East India: An Anthropo-Historical Perspective (New Delhi: Mittal Publications, 2009); Rana Behal, “Tea and Money versus Human Life: the Rise and Fall of the Indenture System in the Assam Tea Plantations 1840–1908,” Journal of Peasants Studies 19, no. 3 (1992): 142–72.
Please use the search function on your eReading device to search for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below. 1765 Stamp Act 1925 Geneva Gas Protocol 1966 Defence White Paper Abolitionism Aborigines abroad, term Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in Restraint of Appeals Acton, John Aden Afghan war Africa; North Africa; out of Africa, debate; Scramble for Africa; South Africa; West Africa ahistoricism air policing alien, word Amelioration American Civil War Amin, Idi amnesia; enforced; historical; imperial; postimperial; term Amritsar Massacre Ancient Roman Empire and the British Empire in India, The Anglo-Chinese Opium Wars Anglo-Irish Treaty Anglosphere apartheid apologist Appeasement Arminius Arrow Asian Civilisations Museum assimilation Atlantic slavery Attlee, Clement Atwal, Jaspal Australia Australasia Ayers Rock National Park Baden-Powell, Robert banal imperialism Bashford, Alison Bathos Battle of Koregaon Bavaria Bean, Richard Beckles, Hilary Bengal famine Benn, Tony Wedgwood Bevin, Ernest Biggar, Nigel BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) Black Armband view Black Hole of Calcutta Blair, Tony Blighty UK Café Boer War Bolshevism Bose, Subhas Chandra Boston Tea Party Boudicca Braveheart (film) Bringing Them Home, report Britain’s Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt British Empire; placing, question of British Empire Exhibition bubble, term Bulwer-Lytton, Edward Burma.
Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman
British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
Even the way the so-called Mother Country played cricket spoke of a new mood in which the old imperial links meant less and less, with the 1932 England touring team shamelessly attempting to intimidate Australian batsmen with ‘bodyline’ bowling: the Australian reaction was so furious that the tour was very nearly cancelled midway through.* How had what had recently seemed eternal verities withered so quickly? The motive force of empire – the impulse to go out and plant the flag – had gone: the ‘Scramble for Africa’ was long over and the business of the British Empire was increasingly administrative. As that great anti-imperialist George Orwell had noticed, technology had changed everything. ‘The middle-class families celebrated by Kipling, the prolific lowbrow families whose sons officered the army and navy and swarmed over all the waste places of the earth from the Yukon to the Irrawaddy’, had been in decline for years, he wrote.
Chapter Six 114 ‘introductions by a’: Smith, Through Unknown African Continents, pp. 363–4. 114 ‘It is religion’: Smith, ‘Christian Missions, Especially in the British Empire’, p. 542. 114 12,000 British missionaries: Missionary societies spent £2 million per year: see Dr Robert Carr, ‘The Evangelical Empire: Christianity’s Contribution to Victorian Colonial Expansion’, www.britishempire.co.uk. 114 ‘Confound all these’: Quoted in Pakenham, Out in the Noonday Sun, p. 102. 114 ‘They spread the’: Oliver, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa, p. 182. 114 ‘First the missionary’: Quoted in Pakenham, Out in the Noonday Sun, p. 94. 116 ‘by victories of’: Ogilvie, Our Empire’s Debt to Missions, p. 5. 116 ‘when excited, a’: George Seaver, David Livingstone: His Life and Letters, quoted in Dictionary of National Biography entry. 117 ‘Dr L is out’: Ibid. 117 ‘I am terribly’: ‘David Livingstone’s last letters deciphered’, Guardian, 20 July 2010. 118 ‘his death has’: British Quarterly Review 61 (1875) p. 397. 118 ‘the flag which’: E.
., Our Empire’s Debt to Missions: The Duff Missionary Lecture, 1923 (London, 1924) O’Gorman, Francis, Late Ruskin: New Contexts (Aldershot, 2001) O’Hegarty, Patrick S., A History of Ireland under the Union, 1801–1922 (London, 1952) Oldfield, J. R., Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery: The Mobilisation of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade, 1787–1807 (Manchester, 1995) Oliver, Roland, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa (London, 1957) Orwell, George, Burmese Days: A Novel (London, 1935) ____, Coming up for Air (London, 2000; orig. pub. 1939) ____, The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius (London, 1941) ____, The Orwell Reader: Fiction, Essays and Reportage (New York, 1961) ____, The Road to Wigan Pier (London, 1937) Padmore, George, The Gold Coast Revolution: The Struggle of an African People from Slavery to Freedom (London, 1953) Pagden, Anthony, Peoples and Empires: Europeans and the Rest of the World, from Antiquity to the Present (London, 2001) Paice, Edward, World War I: The African Front (New York, 2010) Paine, Thomas, The Political and Miscellaneous Works of Thomas Paine, 2 vols.
Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said
Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, traveling salesman
This is by no means a simple matter, since—I believe—it has been the essence of experience in the West at least since the late eighteenth century not only to acquire distant domination and reinforce hegemony, but also to divide the realms of culture and experience into apparently separate spheres. Entities such as races and nations, essences such as Englishness or Orientalism, modes of production such as the Asiatic or Occidental, all of these in my opinion testify to an ideology whose cultural correlatives well precede the actual accumulation of imperial territories world-wide. Most historians of empire speak of the “age of empire” as formally beginning around 1878, with “the scramble for Africa.” A closer look at the cultural actuality reveals a much earlier, more deeply and stubbornly held view about overseas European hegemony; we can locate a coherent, fully mobilized system of ideas near the end of the eighteenth century, and there follows the set of integral developments such as the first great systematic conquests under Napoleon, the rise of nationalism and the European nation-state, the advent of large-scale industrialization, and the consolidation of power in the bourgeoisie.
Then there is the hierarchy of spaces by which the metropolitan center and, gradually, the metropolitan economy are seen as dependent upon an overseas system of territorial control, economic exploitation, and a socio-cultural vision; without these stability and prosperity at home—“home” being a word with extremely potent resonances—would not be possible. The perfect example of what I mean is to be found in Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park, in which Thomas Bertram’s slave plantation in Antigua is mysteriously necessary to the poise and the beauty of Mansfield Park, a place described in moral and aesthetic terms well before the scramble for Africa, or before the age of empire officially began. As John Stuart Mill puts it in the Principles of Political Economy: These [outlying possessions of ours] are hardly to be looked upon as countries,… but more properly as outlying agricultural or manufacturing estates belonging to a larger community. Our West Indian colonies, for example, cannot be regarded as countries with a productive capital of their own … [but are rather] the place where England finds it convenient to carry on the production of sugar, coffee and a few other tropical commodities.51 Read this extraordinary passage together with Jane Austen, and a much less benign picture stands forth than the usual one of cultural formations in the pre-imperialist age.
Robinson Crusoe is virtually unthinkable without the colonizing mission that permits him to create a new world of his own in the distant reaches of the African, Pacific, and Atlantic wilderness. But most of the great nineteenth-century realistic novelists are less assertive about colonial rule and possessions than either Defoe or late writers like Conrad and Kipling, during whose time great electoral reform and mass participation in politics meant that imperial competition became a more intrusive domestic topic. In the closing year of the nineteenth century, with the scramble for Africa, the consolidation of the French imperial Union, the American annexation of the Philippines, and British rule in the Indian subcontinent at its height, empire was a universal concern. What I should like to note is that these colonial and imperial realities are overlooked in criticism that has otherwise been extraordinarily thorough and resourceful in finding themes to discuss. The relatively few writers and critics who discuss the relationship between culture and empire—among them Martin Green, Molly Mahood, John McClure, and, in particular, Patrick Brantlinger—have made excellent contributions, but their mode is essentially narrative and descriptive—pointing out the presence of themes, the importance of certain historical conjunctures, the influence or persistence of ideas about imperialism—and they cover huge amounts of material.5 In almost all cases they write critically of imperialism, of that way of life that William Appleman Williams describes as being compatible with all sorts of other ideological persuasions, even antinomian ones, so that during the nineteenth century “imperial outreach made it necessary to develop an appropriate ideology” in alliance with military, economic, and political methods.
Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa by Martin Meredith
Lauded by the press, the Rhodes phenomenon caught the public imagination. With the Scramble for Africa reaching a climax, empire-builders in Africa were regarded as popular heroes. Rhodes was seen as upholding the tradition set by David Livingstone, General Gordon and, more recently, the Welsh-born journalist-explorer Henry Morton Stanley, blazing a trail that would bring civilisation to a benighted continent. Stanley’s account of one of his epic journeys through the jungles of the Congo - In Darkest Africa - had just been published to widespread acclaim. Rhodes’ plans to build railways and telegraphs into the interior and to develop mineral and agricultural resources were held up as examples of what needed to follow. The Scramble for Africa added a sense of urgency, justifying the kind of decisive action that Rhodes was willing to take.
His drive to the north was facilitated by Hercules Robinson, a Cape imperialist who shared similar aims; it was Robinson’s decisiveness that led to the Moffat Treaty, incorporating Matabeleland within Britain’s sphere of interest. His triumph in winning the support of the British establishment for a chartered company was due as much to the work of Gifford and Cawston in London as to Rhodes’ own efforts. Finally, he managed to obtain a royal charter for his company only because it suited the interests of Lord Salisbury; preoccupied with the need to keep Britain ahead in the Scramble for Africa among European powers, Salisbury saw a means to extend British influence on the cheap, at no cost to the public exchequer. In harnessing allies to his cause, Rhodes displayed remarkable powers of persuasion. But what was equally influential was the power of his money. Many hitched themselves to Rhodes’ band-wagon lured by the prospect of making their own fortunes. When he encountered resistance or scepticism, Rhodes was adept at providing incentives, bribes, share options, directorships and other positions, convinced that every man had his price.
Milner’s Young Men: The ‘Kindergarten’ in Edwardian Imperial Affairs. London: 1970 O’Brien, Terence H. Milner: Viscount Milner of St James’s and Cape Town, 1854-1925. London: 1979 O’Connor, Damian. The Life of Sir Bartle Frere. London: 2002 Odendaal, André. Vukani Bantu! The Beginnings of Black Protest Politics in South Africa to 1912. Cape Town: 1984 Oliver, Roland. Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa. London: 1957 Omer-Cooper, John D. The Zulu Aftermath: A Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Bantu Africa. London: 1966 Orpen, Joseph Millerd. Reminiscences of Life in South Africa from 1846 to the Present Day. Cape Town: 1964 Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. London: 1979 Palmer, Robin. Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia. London: 1977 Palmer, Robin and Neil Parsons (eds.). The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Bachman, adapted for ebook Cover design: Pete Garceau Cover illustration: Michael Markieta/Moment/Getty Images v4.1_r1 a CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright Prologue A Note About Maps PART ONE: CONNECTIVITY AS DESTINY CHAPTER 1 FROM BORDERS TO BRIDGES A Journey Around the World Bridges to Everywhere Seeing Is Believing From Political to Functional Geography Supply Chain World Balancing Flow and Friction CHAPTER 2 NEW MAPS FOR A NEW WORLD From Globalization to Hyper-Globalization The Measure of Things A New Map Legend BOX: From Diplomacy to “Diplomacity” PART TWO: DEVOLUTION AS DESTINY CHAPTER 3 THE GREAT DEVOLUTION Let the Tribes Win Growing Apart to Stay Together From Nations to Federations CHAPTER 4 FROM DEVOLUTION TO AGGREGATION Geopolitical Dialectics The New Grand Trunk Road to Pax Indica From Sphere of Influence to Pax Aseana From “Scramble for Africa” to Pax Africana From Sykes-Picot to Pax Arabia BOX: The Israeli Exception? CHAPTER 5 THE NEW MANIFEST DESTINY United States or Tragedy of the Commons? The Devolution Within Pacific Flows Oil and Water Across the World’s Longest Border The North American Union BOX: A South American Union PART THREE: COMPETITIVE CONNECTIVITY CHAPTER 6 WORLD WAR III—OR TUG-OF-WAR? An Ancient Metaphor for Postmodern Times Was Orwell Right?
Demographic shifts guarantee that Asia’s blending will continue: The erstwhile “Asian Tigers” such as Singapore and Taiwan—to say nothing of much larger China and Japan—are aging, while Indonesia and the Philippines are full of youthful labor. Over 250,000 Burmese live in Thailand alone, without which the micro-economy would grind to a halt just as many American cities and towns would without Mexicans. As in Europe, a generation of post-national Southeast Asians is being born. FROM “SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA” TO PAX AFRICANA Unscrambling Africa Everyone seems to have a one-word answer to the plight of African nations today: “democracy,” “secession,” “micro-credit,” “literacy,” “vaccines.” But African states won’t survive at all without basic physical infrastructure. What will make the difference between celebrating independence and achieving success in Africa is not just political nation building but physical state building—both within and across borders.
Many of Africa’s interstate boundaries are visible only if one overlays the geometric grid of latitude and longitude, which European colonialists used rather than any sensible respect for cultural geography to draw the continent’s many straight-line borders. Colonial powers only haphazardly cobbled together African states; they didn’t knit together cohesive societies. The considerations that should guide the design of administrative space—natural geography, demographic commonality, and economic viability—were mostly ignored in Europe’s nineteenth-century “Scramble for Africa.” As a result of divide-and-rule colonialism, its 850 partitioned ethnic groups suffer a far higher incidence of civil wars and conflict spillover than unified national groups.2 The Masai, for example, are two-thirds in Kenya and one-third in Tanzania; the Anyi are 60 percent in Ghana and 40 percent in the Ivory Coast; the Chewa are split across Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe; the Hausa across Nigeria and Niger.
The scramble for Africa, 1876-1912 by Thomas Pakenham
active measures, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, God and Mammon, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade
Contents Praise for The Scramble for Africa About the Author By the same author: Copyright List of Illustrations Cartoons and engravings List of Maps Dedication Introduction Prologue The Crowning Achievement Ilala, Central Africa 21 April–May 1873 and after PART I: THE OPEN PATH 1 Leopold’s Crusade Brussels 7 January-15 September 1876 2 Three Flags Across Africa Central Africa and Europe 14 September 1876–June 1878 3 Two Steps Forward Transvaal, Cape Town, Natal 12 April 1877–12 January 1879 4 The Crouching Lion London, Zululand, London November 1878–2, 2 January 1879 5 Ismael’s Dream of Empire Egypt and the Sudan 18 February 1879–June 1880 6 One Step Backward South Africa and London 16 December 1880–3 August 1881 7 Saving the Bey Paris and Tunis 23 March–November 1881 8 Saving the Khedive London and Egypt 31 December 1881–October 1882 PART II: THE RACE BEGINS 9 The Race for the Pool Europe and Central Africa 30 May 1882–April 1883 and before 10 Head in the Clouds The Upper Niger and France 1 February–July 1883 11 Hewett Shows the Flag London and West Africa January 1883–19 July 1884 and before 12 Why Bismarck Changed his Mind Germany, Africa and London 19 May 1884–November 1884 13 Too Late?
German East Africa July 1905 and after 35 Redeeming the French Congo French Congo and Paris 29 April 1905 and after 36 Restoring Britain’s ‘Old Ideals’ Britain, the Transvaal, Natal and British East Africa December 1905 and after 37 Leopold’s Last Throw Brussels, Washington, London and South Africa 3 June 1906 and after Epilogue Scrambling Out Zimbabwe, Africa and Europe 18 April 1980, before and after Illustrations Chronology Sources Select Bibliography Notes Index Praise for The Scramble for Africa ‘Vast, scholarly and delightful’ Spectator ‘Pakenham tells the story with pace and compulsive readability … no historian could hope for a more wonderful subject, and Pakenham has done it proud … conceived on a grand scale with all the colour and control of a master artist’ Evening Standard ‘Once again Pakenham shows a dazzling, almost filmic ability to tell a good story, cutting from colony to metropolis and back to keep the action flowing’ Independent on Sunday ‘Masterly, full of pace and character’ TLS Livingstone approaching Chitambo’s village, April 1873 from Livingstone’s Last Journals, edited by Horace Walle Sinking a shaft for a goldmine at De Kaap.
Punch, 28 November 1906) Maps Map 1 Central Africa, 1857–74: British explorers’ routes Map 2 Africa before the Scramble: indigenous and alien powers in 1876 Map 3 Stanley’s and Brazza’s routes in Central Africa, 1874–7 Map 4 South Africa, 1877–81 Map 5 Battle of Isandlwana, 22 January 1879 Map 6 Egypt and the Egyptian empire, 1880 Map 7 Battle of Majuba, 27 February 1881 Map 8 The race for West Africa and the Congo, 1879–84 Map 9 Khartoum under siege, 1884–5 Map 10 Africa in 1886: the Scramble half-complete Map 11 East Africa sliced up by Germany and Britain, November 1886 Map 12 Stanley’s route to rescue Emin, 1887–9 Map 13 The pioneers’ push into Mashonaland, June–September 1890 Map 14 The Congo Free State: the Arab war and the French Congo, 1892–1893 Map 15 Battle of Adowa, 1 March 1896 Map 16 Battle of Omdurman, 2 September 1898 Map 17 South Africa: the Boer War, 1899–1902 Map 18 German South-West Africa: the Herero and Nama rebellions, 1904–5 Map 19 German East Africa: the Maji-Maji rebellion, 1905–6 Map 20 Africa after the Scramble, 1912 Map 21 Africa after independence, 1991 For Val and in grateful memory of Gervase Mathew and Asserate Kassa who together introduced me to Africa ‘All I can add in my solitude, is, may heaven’s rich blessing come down on every one, American, English or Turk, who will help to heal this open sore of the world.’ David Livingstone’s last words inlaid in brass on his tomb in Westminster Abbey Introduction The Scramble for Africa bewildered everyone, from the humblest African peasant to the master statesmen of the age, Lord Salisbury and Prince Bismarck. Ever since Roman times, Europe had been nibbling at the mysterious continent to the south. By the mid-1870s, much was still mysterious. It was known that Africa straddled the equator with uncanny precision. But no explorer had penetrated far along the dangerous latitude of zero towards the interior.
Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew
agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade
The myth facilitated “the rape of the [African] continent” during the slave trade and subsequent “exploitation under the advanced forms of colonialism and imperialism.”41 For George From Pr inciple to R ight [ 81 ] Padmore, economic exploitation of black labor linked slavery and colonialism. He argued that while emancipation in the Americas was thought to have ended “the slave status of the African,” imperial expansion in Africa “forced the Natives into wage-slavery.”42 The through-line linking New World slavery and the scramble for Africa was a racialized structure of domination and exploitation. This account of slavery transcended the limited definitions of slavery that dominated the League of Nations’ abolitionist efforts. As the previous chapter illustrated, the 1926 Convention on Slavery reduced slavery to the ownership and sale of persons, ignoring broader practices of colonial forced labor. Moreover, the league’s narrow definition of slavery was mobilized to call into question and curtail black sovereignty in Liberia and Ethiopia.
As Du Bois’s formulation of the global color line suggested, imperial enslavement was organized at an international level through a collaborative pan-European process by which European states collectively exercised a right of ownership and expropriation over the rest of the world.64 More than any other event, the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 that divided the African continent between European states exemplified this collaborative spirit. Conceived as unequal members of international society, African territories could be parceled out between European powers in order to stem intra-European conflicts and competition. Central to this scramble for Africa was a growing sense of racial superiority. According to Du Bois, the distribution of the African continent among European states occurred because once “color became in the world’s thought synonymous with inferiority, ‘Negro’ lost its capitalization and Africa was another name for bestiality and barbarism.”65 International hierarchy not only constituted the terms of colonial slavery but also structured the nature of rivalry, competition, and conflict between states.
He urged the General Assembly to impress on the secretary general and the peacekeeping forces that preserving law and order required “supporting, safeguarding and maintaining the legal and existing parliamentary framework of the State.”140 A central part of Nkrumah’s analysis of the Congo crisis as laid out in his book-length Challenge of the Congo emphasized the ways in which the weakness of new postcolonial states combined with persistent international hierarchies to once again constitute Africa as a site of imperial rivalry, competition, and war. Returning to the anticolonial critique of international hierarchy’s causal role in the two world wars, he saw in the international talk of the “strategic importance of the Congo” a new scramble for Africa that threatened to cascade into a broader conflict. Moreover, as journalists and other commentators began to portray the Congo as confirmation of the African state’s artificiality and invoked African incapacity for self-rule to return once again to models of trusteeship, Nkrumah saw evidence of the “unchanging attitudes of western thought” with respect to Africa—“racial contempt,” “economic greed,” and “the complete absence of any thought for the well-being of the [people].”141 The persistence of racial hierarchy and the threats it posed to self- determination informed the efforts of postcolonial states to re-entrench the principle of nonintervention.
Chasing the Devil: On Foot Through Africa's Killing Fields by Tim Butcher
For Graham Greene, still only thirty years old and travelling for the first time in Africa, pushing through the throng of onlookers at the station was like going through a door into a world of new experiences. He writes that from that moment ‘everything was strange’. The building of the railway in the 1890s had been a major moment in the development of Sierra Leone. For almost a hundred years the colony had consisted only of the Freetown peninsula but, during the Scramble for Africa at the end of the nineteenth century, Britain moved to stake a much larger piece of territory, declaring the Sierra Leone hinterland a British protectorate in 1896. Central to its development was the rail network, as it allowed troops to be deployed swiftly to disputed border regions, deterring territorial claims from the neighbouring French colony of Guinea. Over time it also allowed the dispersal of district commissioners, administrators, missionaries, traders, prospectors and all other camp followers of Empire.
We loaded our gear into his old Mercedes and set off on the 40-mile journey to Kenema, passing a large construction site on the edge of Bo with a perimeter wall bearing a sign written in large, red Chinese characters. The English translation gave the name of a corporation, owned by the Chinese government, announcing a project to build a football stadium and rehabilitate part of the main highway. This was proof of China’s twenty-first-century Scramble for Africa and how it impacted even on relatively small countries such as Sierra Leone. The surging Chinese economy meant Beijing had begun investing heavily in bilateral projects all across Africa as a way to persuade local governments to grant favourable terms for the purchase of raw materials, which were then shipped to mainland China. Sierra Leone’s iron ore deposits, rich in geological terms but expensive to get at because of a dilapidated infrastructure, were enough to generate interest from China.
To distinguish them from native Africans these ex-slaves’ descendants became known as ‘Americo-Liberians’, although the natives later came to call all black outsiders ‘Congos’, an echo from the huge number of Africans taken into slavery from homelands around the mouth of the Congo River. In turn, native Liberians would be referred to pejoratively as ‘country people’. The image of Liberia projected around the world was one of a democratic nation run by Africans for Africans. For years the country was known as The Black Republic, even The Negro Republic, precisely because it was not run by whites, a stark exception following the colonial land-grab of the Scramble for Africa. But the reality was that tension simmered for decades between Americo-Liberians and country people, erupting first in the 1890s when fighters from southern, coastal tribes, such as the Kru and Grebo, rose against the Liberian government, and then in an almost endless cycle of clashes upcountry when administrators sent from Monrovia arrived to levy taxes. For the first time the government raised an army, known as the Frontier Force, comprising tribal soldiers from the ‘developed’ coastal towns led by officers drawn exclusively from the Americo-Liberian community.
Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men
Many observers of the economic and political disasters that have overtaken sub-Saharan Africa (which we’ll turn to in the next chapter) have commented on the weakness of national identities and sentiment in many African countries. Just think about something as simple as the name of the Central African Republic. Does that sound like something people chose for themselves to express their sense of nationhood, or one imposed by a French colonial bureaucrat? Most of the forty-odd African countries south of the Sahara were stitched together during the European “Scramble for Africa” in the 1880s with no attention to language, ethnicity, or history. Given the resulting lack of patriotism in these new and artificial 101 CH A PTER F O U R states, perhaps it should not surprise anyone that African corruption levels—the plundering of states by their own officials—are arguably the worst in the world. The role sentiments play in the parking decisions of U.N. diplomats offers a microcosm of this same phenomenon.
., 32, 73–74, 174, 217n4 Busia (Kenya), 193–95, 232n9 Canada: corruption in, 95; United States and, 94–95 Capone, Al, 5–7 Chad, 17–18; corruption and, 156; economic decline of, 111–12; I N DEX Chad (continued) global warming and, 131; Lake Chad, 111–12; paperwork delays in, 66–67; petroleum deposits in, 155–58; political turmoil in, 112–13; rainfall and, 114; violence in, 175; World Bank and, 156–58 cheap talk, 18–20; violence and, 118b–19b Cheney, Dick, 29, 51–52 China: 1998 anticorruption campaign and, 70–73; global warming and, 127–29; smuggling and, 55–57; tariffs and, 60–64, 221n4, 221n6 China National Petroleum Company (CNPC), 185b Clodfelter, Michael, 160–61 coffee, 117–18, 149–50 Collier, Paul, 215n9, 228n20, 230n13 Colombia, 76–78, 102–3, 142 commodity prices, 117–18, 149–50, 227n15 conflict traps, Chad and, 113–14 containerization, 56–57 corruption: bottom line on, 102–3; cheap talk and, 18–20; culture and, 80–81, 87, 102–3; definition of, 18, 83, 216n12; economic growth and, 41–46; income level and, 91–92; mea sur ing, stock markets and, 24–29; national pride and, 100–102; outsiders and, 41–43; poverty and, 15–17; “Scramble for Africa” and, 101–2; stock markets and, 24–27; wages and, 189, 230n3. See also specific countries; under culture costs versus benefits, 54–55, 56–57, 78 crime, organization and, 43b–46b culture: corruption and, 78–80, 87, 102; violence and, 137. See also specific countries Darfur, 115; rainfall and, 135b, 225n22; underground lake in, 134b–35b data, war and, 118b–20b Davis, Don, 162 Deby, Idriss, 157–58 Democratic Republic of Congo, 115–16 deworming, 193–95 diamond mining, Angola, 181b–85b diplomatic immunity, 82–84, 222n4 Duflo, Esther, 231n6 Easterly, Bill, 12–15; White Man’s Burden, 13–14 economic development: corruption and, 41–43; fighting for, 1–3 economic gangsters, 5–8, 215n6.
Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
In the nineteenth century, the situation was different. The scramble for Africa occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species and the rise of a doctrine of “scientific racism” asserting that the existing hierarchy among the world’s races was the result of the inherent biological superiority of white Europeans over everyone else. These views emerged despite the steady spread of democracy and representative government in Europe and North America, and they legitimated the use of force against nonwhite people. As a result, settler populations were granted an expanding set of political rights completely denied to Africans, setting up a sharp dichotomy between citizens on the one hand and subjects on the other.17 Once the scramble for Africa got under way, it unfolded with extraordinary rapidity.
The complex reasons for different development paths can be seen most vividly in the contrast between sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, the worst- and best-performing regions of the world with respect to economic development over the past half century. Sub-Saharan Africa never developed strong indigenous state-level institutions prior to its contact with the West. When the European colonial powers began the “scramble for Africa” in the late nineteenth century, they soon discovered that their new colonies were barely paying for the cost of their own administration. Britain in response adopted a policy of indirect rule, which justified minimal investment on its part in the creation of state institutions. The terrible colonial legacy was thus more an act of omission than of commission. In contrast to areas of heavier political investment like India and Singapore, the colonial powers did not pass on strong institutions, least of all “absolutist” ones capable of penetrating and controlling their populations.
Africa was intensively colonized only in the period after 1882, in what David Abernethy labeled the third phase of European colonialism. Phase one had begun with the Spanish and Portuguese conquests in the New World, and phase two was a period of contraction from the revolt of the North American colonies to the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. Phase three began with the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824 and culminated in the “scramble for Africa” that began in the last decades of the century.14 There were a number of important differences between the earlier and later phases of expansion. By the nineteenth century, the technological lead of Europe over the non-Western world was even greater than it had been when the Spanish encountered the New World. Europe was industrializing; inventions like the steamboat and the Maxim gun gave small groups of European conquerors huge advantages over their adversaries.
Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future – Lessons From the World’s Limits by Richard Davies
agricultural Revolution, air freight, Anton Chekhov, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, clean water, complexity theory, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, large denomination, Livingstone, I presume, Malacca Straits, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, school choice, school vouchers, Scramble for Africa, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, the payments system, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uranium enrichment, urban planning, wealth creators, white picket fence, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
Tim Butcher retraced the expedition in the 2000s and discusses Stanley’s life and trip in his memoir – Butcher (2008). For a modern biography, which includes discussion of both Stanley’s brutality and his opposition to slavery, see Jeal (2007) and the op-ed Jeal (2011); see also Bierman (1990). For a Congolese perspective, see Mbu-Mputu and Kasereka (2012). The Berlin Conference and the scramble for Africa The defining event of the ‘scramble for Africa’ was the Berlin Conference of 1884. Fourteen countries attended and signed the resulting treaty. France and Britain ended up with the largest claims, followed by Germany and Portugal – see Pakenham (1991). King Leopold II; humanitarian disaster in the Congo Free State For a modern account of Leopold’s rule, see Hochschild (1999) and more recently van Reybrouck (2015).
B. (1964), ‘Conflict, Crisis and the Congo’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 8 (1), 86–92. Nkuku, A. M., and Titeca, K. (2018a), ‘Market Governance in Kinshasa: The Competition for Informal Revenue Through “Connections” (Branchement)’, Working Paper, Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp. ———— (2018b), ‘How Kinshasa’s Markets Are Captured by Powerful Private Interests’, The Conversation, 11 March. Pakenham, T. (1991), The Scramble for Africa (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson). Peterson, M. (ed.) (2015), The Prisoner’s Dilemma (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Poundstone, W. (1992), Prisoner’s Dilemma (New York: Doubleday). Putzel, J., Lindemann, S., and Schouten, C. (2008), ‘Drivers of Change in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The Rise and Decline of the State and Challenges for Reconstruction’, Working Paper No. 26, Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics, January.
Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici
Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
As Jutta Berninghausen and Birgit Kerstan have written in their study of the activities of the Javanese NGOs, the latter have a stabilizing/defensive function rather than an emancipatory one and, in the best of cases, try to recuperate at the micro level of individual or community relations what has been destroyed at the macro level of economic politics (Forging New Paths: Feminist Social Methodology and Rural Women in Java [London: Zed Books, 1992], 253). War, Globalization, and Reproduction 1. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent From 1876 to 1912 (New York: Avon Books, 1991), 126. 2. By a recent count there were seventy-five countries experiencing some form of war in 1999 (Effe: La Rivista delle Librerie Feltrinelli 13 (1999); thirty-three of them are to be found in Africa’s forty-three continental nations. This is the “Fourth World War” against the world’s poor that Subcomandante Marcos often writes about. 3.
Long-Term Care for Older People. Paris: OECD Publications, 2005. Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Outram, Quentin. “‘It’s Terminal Either Way’: An Analysis of Armed Conflict in Liberia, 1989-1996.” Review of African Political Economy 24, no. 73 (September 1997): 355-72. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912. New York: Avon Books, 1991. Papadopoulos, Dimitris, Niamh Stephenson, and Vassilis Tsianos. Escape Routes: Control and Subversion in the 21st Century. London: Pluto Press, 2008. Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002. Patel, Raj.
Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game
In the days of the British Empire, controlling South Africa meant controlling the Cape of Good Hope and thus the sea-lanes between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Modern navies can venture much farther out from the southern African coastline if they wish to pass by, but the cape is still a commanding piece of real estate on the world map and South Africa is a commanding presence in the whole of the bottom third of the continent. There is a new scramble for Africa in this century, but this time it is two-pronged. There are the well-publicized outside interests, and meddling, in the competition for resources, but there is also the “scramble within” and South Africa intends to scramble fastest and farthest. It dominates the fifteen-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC) and has managed to gain a permanent place at the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, of which it is not even a member.
The hunger for energy suggests the race is inevitable in what some Arctic specialists have called the New Great Game. There are going to be a lot more ships in the High North, a lot more oil rigs and gas platforms—in fact, a lot more of everything. The Russians not only have their nuclear-powered icebreakers, but are even considering building a floating nuclear power plant capable of withstanding the crushing weight of ten feet of ice. However, there are differences between this situation and the “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century or the machinations of the great powers in the Middle East, India, and Afghanistan in the original Great Game. This race has rules, a formula, and a forum for decision making. The Arctic Council is composed of mature countries, most of them democratic to a greater or lesser degree. The international laws regulating territorial disputes, environmental pollution, laws of the sea, and treatment of minority peoples are in place.
Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
After the introduction of compulsory vaccination in 1904, smallpox was significantly reduced in Senegal. In only four years between 1925 and 1958 did the number of cases exceed 400 a year.65 Malaria was also curbed by the systematic destruction of the mosquitoes’ swampy breeding grounds and by the isolation of victims, as well as by the distribution of free quinine.66 Yellow-fever epidemics, too, became less frequent in Senegal after the introduction of an effective vaccine. The Scramble for Africa has become a byword for the ruthless carve-up of an entire continent by rapacious Europeans. Its bizarre climax was the Fashoda incident, when rival French and British expeditions converged on the Eastern Sudanese town of Fashoda (today Kodok) in the province of Bahr-el-Ghazal. The French, led by Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand, dreamt of a line from Dakar to Djibouti (then French Somaliland), linking the Niger to the Nile and creating an unbroken chain of French control from Senegal to the Red Sea coast.
The British, led by Sir Herbert (later Lord) Kitchener, saw control of Sudan as the key to a comparable British line stretching north to south from Cairo to the Cape. The showdown came on 18 September 1898 at the point where these two lines intersected. Though the numbers of men were absurdly small – Marchand was accompanied by twelve French officers and 150 tirailleurs – and the bone of contention an utterly desolate quagmire of reeds, mud and dead fish, Fashoda brought Britain and France to the brink of war.67 Yet the Scramble for Africa was also a scramble for scientific knowledge, which was as collaborative as it was competitive, and which had undoubted benefits for natives as well as for Europeans. The bacteriologist, often risking his life to find cures for lethal afflictions, was another kind of imperial hero, as brave in his way as the soldier-explorer. Now every European power with serious imperial ambitions had to have a tropical medicine institute: the Pasteur Institute in Paris, founded in 1887, was later matched by the London and Liverpool schools of tropical medicine (1899) and by the Hamburg-based Institute for Shipping and Tropical Illnesses (1901).
Lurking within the real science was a pseudo-science, which asserted that mankind was not a single more or less homogeneous species but was subdivided and ranked from an Aryan ‘master race’ down to a black race unworthy of the designation Homo sapiens. And where better to test these theories than in Germany’s newly acquired African colonies? Africa was about to become another kind of laboratory – this time for racial biology. Each European power had its own distinctive way of scrambling for Africa. The French, as we have seen, favoured railways and health centres. The British did more than just dig for gold and hunt for happy valleys; they also built mission schools. The Belgians turned the Congo into a vast slave state. The Portuguese did as little as possible. The Germans were the latecomers to the party. For them, colonizing Africa was a giant experiment to test, among other things, a racial theory.
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
I avoided the continent until I began writing this book and realized one of the pillars of the global tourism industry is the African safari, with cameras or rifles, in search of those animals I saw in the zoo. “Safari” is an Arabic word meaning “journey.” It found its way into the Swahili language and was adopted by British colonialists to mean a specifically African journey or adventure. Beneath the surface, the idea of a safari is loaded with the baggage of European colonization begun in the late-nineteenth-century “scramble for Africa” that didn’t fully end until the 1960s and beyond. The Europeans conquered some 10 million square miles of territory, tore apart traditional African nations and tribes, reassembling the land into thirty colonies ruled by white foreigners: British, French, German, Belgium, Portuguese and Italian. They extracted great wealth and treasure and subjugated the natives in a rivalry for empire. The Europeans also treated the immense continent as their private hunting ground, killing Africa’s magnificent animals for trophies and sport at such a rate that some Europeans began to worry.
“We have seen what has been going on”: Author interview with Graham Evans and Anthony Kirkham, August 23, 2011. Environmentalists say this is a disaster in the making: Caroline Shearing, “Dubai Golf Drive Upsets Greens: Plans to Open 11 New Golf Courses in Dubai Have Hit Environmental Opposition,” The Telegraph, April 25, 2008. Abu Dhabi Policy Agency: Dubai: Gilded Cage, p. 181. Seven: Safari The Europeans conquered some 10 million square miles: Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (London: Abacus, 1993). Nearly 50 million visitors: UNWTO, Tourism Highlights, 2011 Edition, Africa, http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11enlr.pdf. the $76 billion in revenue: WTTC: Travel and Tourism, Economic Impact, 2011, Africa, http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/africa2.pdf. “It has a stable and functioning government”: Author interview with Ambassador Mark Storella, May 21, 2011.
Onge, Alain, 174 Salas, Isabel, 247, 249, 251 Sanders, Daniel, 60 Sanders, Véronique, 60–61 Sands Macao, 369 San Giorgio Maggiore (Venice), 82 San Miguel, Mexico, 129 Santiago de Compostela, pilgrimages to, 182, 185–86 Sarajevo, Bosnia, 106 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 48, 71 Sata, Michael, 238 Saudi Arabia, 167 and commercial development in Mecca, 184–85 Hajj pilgrimage controlled by, 182–83 Save the Rhino Trust, 218 Scat (Hiaasen), 384 Schweitzer Mountain, 384 Scott, Ridley, 73–74 “scramble for Africa,” 208 Sea Lion (ship), 245, 246, 248, 255–57, 262 Selling the Sea (Dickinson and Vladimir), 137 Semeleer, Jane, 150 Senegal, 242 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: aircraft grounding after, 354 impact on U.S. tourism of, 347–48, 353–59, 361–62, 365, 366 serendipity, disappearance of, 18 Sex and the City 2 (film), 180 sex slavery, 115, 117, 190–91 sex tourism, 20, 30, 114–21, 190–91 in Cambodia, 92, 93, 104–5, 111, 114–21 exploitation of children in, 114–15, 116–17, 119 rape and torture in, 117 Seychelles Tourism Board, 174 Shaanxi, China, 336 Shaanxi Grand Opera House, 334 Shanghai, 319, 322–23, 364 Art Deco buildings in, 324, 325–26 Bund in, 324, 325 Disneyland in, 323–24 historic preservation vs. development in, 326–27 2010 World Expo in, 322–23 Shanghai Literary Festival, 326 Sharma, Rashmi, 311 Shenandoah National Park, 384–85 Sheridan, Virginia, 32 shipping industry, see maritime transport industry Shoumatoff, Alex, 235 Sichuan Province, China: panda reserves in, 335 2008 earthquake in, 320, 335–36 Siegel, Bugsy, 368 Siem Reap, Cambodia, 92–93, 103–4, 105 poverty in, 99–100 unrestricted tourism in, 98 water infrastructure in, 98–99 Siem Reap River, 93 pollution in, 98 Sierra-Caro, Lyan, 145 Sihanouk, Norodom, 90 Sihanoukville, Cambodia, 111, 119 Singapore, 113, 369 Sinhalese, 279–80 Sir Bani Yas Island wildlife preserve, 198 Ski Dubai, 176–77 slave trade, heritage of, 242–43 Sleeping Buddha Temple, Beijing, 298 Smith, Richard F., 199–200 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 248 Society of American Travel Writers, 31 Sofitel Angkor resort, 103–4 Sok Nguon, 88, 92 solar energy, 195 Soubert, Son, 98 Sound of Music, The (film), 180 South Africa, 208, 209, 210, 222, 233, 240, 375 South Korea, Cambodian tourism industry and, 98–99 South Luangwa National Park, 211–17, 218, 224–29 infrastructure of, 224–26 Norwegian investment in, 224–25 Soutif, Dominique, 95–96, 97, 100 Soviet Union, 13, 54 Spark, Muriel, 28 Spelling, Aaron, 137 Spence, Jonathan D., 317 sports, tourism industry and, 273 Sri Lanka, 19 biodiversity of, 283–84 civil war in, 278–80, 282, 286 degraded infrastructure of, 286 human rights issues in, 282 national parks of, 284 Sri Lanka, tourism in, 36 during civil war, 280, 286 economic share of, 281 effects of civil war on, 278–79, 282 guest houses in, 284, 285 high-end travelers in, 283, 284 postwar land grab in, 280–81 sustainable development in, 287 Sri Lanka Tourism, 282 Stadhams, Dianne, 45 Stahl, Ralf, 200 Stark, Freya, 25 Starwood Hotels, 314 State Department, U.S., 191 Bureau of Consular Affairs, 358 improved visa process of, 363–64, 366 Stettinius, Edward, 139 Steves, Rick, 32 stewardship principles, 267 Stones of Venice (Ruskin), 82 Storella, Mark C., 210 Sud Ouest, 62 Summers, Lawrence, 360 Sunday Times (London), 355 Sun House, 284 Suraphon Svetasreni, 194 Svalbard Archipelago, 162 Sweeting, James, 154, 157, 159, 161, 163 Switzerland, 10 Sylor, Lin, 118 Syria, 193 Taine, Hippolyte, 49 Taj Mahal, overcrowding of, 30 Taliban, 169 Tamils, 279–80 Tamil Tigers, 280 Tang Dynasty, 330–31 Tang Paradise Hotel, 330 Tanzania, 208, 235 Taylor, Matthew, 74 Tazara Railway, 236 technological revolution, tourism and, 14 Tedjini, Patrice, 8, 34, 303 Terra-Cotta Army (Xian), 328–29, 331–32 Terzani, Tiziano, 298 Thailand, 112, 181 civil unrest in, 194, 281 sex tourism in, 114, 116, 117 tourism industry in, 19, 194 Thai Tourism Industry Association, 194 theme parks, tourism and, 382–84, 385 Thong Khon, 103–5 Tiananmen Square massacre, 305, 330 Tibet: Chinese invasion of, 302 Chinese tourism industry and, 302, 321 political protests in, 321 Tilarán Mountains, 253 Tilton, Glenn, 359 Timbers, Becky, 255 Tisch, Jonathan M., 361 Tollman, Brett, 116 Tonlé Sap River, 98 Torrey Canyon oil spill, 158 Tottle, Brian, 83–84 Toujours Provence (Mayle), 72 tourism, tourism industry, 7–39 academic degrees in, 379–80 as consumer engine, 45 cultural degradation from, 20–21, 30, 202–3 “dark,” 37, 92, 105–8 definition and categorization of, 16 as development strategy, 89–90, 99, 376 diplomatic role of, 358, 364 environmental degradation and, 20, 30, 35, 38, 195–96, 199–200, 271, 272 future of, 389 governmental role in, 33–34, 66, 69, 347, 349 Great Recession (2008) and, 271, 273–274, 360 growth of, 10, 13–14, 15, 19, 29, 57, 173, 355 history of, 9–17 homogenization of, 67 as ignored by governmental and economic leadership, 17, 272 low-volume, high-value, 21 motivation for, 10 paucity of debate on, 22, 390 poverty reduction and, 19–20, 35, 230, 376, 390 size of, 7, 10, 14–17, 45, 66–67, 194, 270, 351, 389 see also ecotourism; geotourism; green tourism Tourism for Tomorrow Awards, 270, 276 Tourism Ministry, Cambodia, 105, 108–10, 119 Tourism New Zealand, 307–8 Tourism Policy Council, U.S., 352 Tourism Satellite Account system, 16–17, 45, 270 tourism villages, 154 Tourtellot, Jonathan, 154–55, 266–68, 341 Toynbee, Arnold, 297 Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV), 56–57, 59 transportation, tourism and, 56–57, 67 Transportation Security Administration, U.S., 354 travel agents, 381–82 Travel and Tourism Administration, U.S., 349, 365 Travel Business Roundtable, 359 travel guides, 11–13, 23–24, 26 travel philanthropy, 101–2, 103 Travel Promotion Act (2010), 362, 372 “Travel to America?
Dictatorland: The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, falling living standards, friendly fire, land reform, mandatory minimum, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, Yom Kippur War
The British colonial secretary, Lord Kimberley, arrived to celebrate, and instructed his underlings to anglicize the local place names so he could feel more at home. The young men of the Colonial Office knew how to get ahead. The mine, if Lord Kimberley would be so gracious, was to be called Kimberley, and the town was to be named Kimberley too. Even the diamond-bearing volcanic rock was given the colonial stamp. It was named kimberlite, and has been known as such ever since. The scramble for Africa began in earnest shortly afterwards, culminating in the famous Berlin Conference of 1884–5, when European powers formally divided the continent among themselves. In its aftermath came a series of diamond discoveries: in Congo Free State – owned at the time by Leopold, king of the Belgians – Portuguese Angola, and British-run Sierra Leone. Several diamond mines were dug by Cecil Rhodes’s British South Africa Company in his privately run colonies of Matabeleland and Mashonaland, two territories that would later be fused together to form Southern Rhodesia.
Not only did it possess near-unparalleled mineral wealth, it shared borders with nine other African nations. Plant your stake in its turf, and there was the possibility of spreading out across the whole region. Congo was a strategic prize without equal. For Russia it would be a first foothold in African soil, a prospect that was scaring the living daylights out of the cold warriors in Washington. The decolonization of the continent was the beginning of a second ‘scramble for Africa’, and the American objective was simple: keep the Russians out. Lumumba had put himself very much on the wrong side of the wire as far as the US was concerned. Not only had he alienated himself from the West, but his high-handed and capricious manner meant that he had burned his bridges with Kasavubu too, a relationship whose demise was helped along by the interference of Western intelligence agencies.
Four thousand Eritreans were killed or wounded in the conflict, and several hundred were taken as Ethiopian prisoners of war, during which time they were mutilated either by castration, or by having their right hands and left legs amputated. The next Italian territorial offensive came in 1911 when they conscripted 60,000 Eritrean ascari for the conquest of what is now Libya. However, Italy’s designs on Ethiopia were far from over. Ethiopia was one of only two nations that had remained independent during the scramble for Africa, the other being Liberia. Italy’s fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini, in much need of a popular triumph, viewed the territory as the missing piece of a jigsaw – once joined to Eritrea and Italian Somaliland it would give him a sweep of territory in the Horn of Africa that would represent an unrivalled power base in the Red Sea area and much influence in the Middle East. The question was, how to acquire it?
Crossing the Heart of Africa: An Odyssey of Love and Adventure by Julian Smith
On one trip out of Beira, they walked sixty miles in nineteen hours. On another, Grogan dove into a crocodile-infested stream toavoid a wounded buffalo that finally dropped three yards from Sharp’s feet. The activity helped toughen the explorers to the ordeals ahead, but it also helped conceal the true nature of their mission. As the age of exploration morphed into the era of colonization, the “Scramble for Africa” was in full gear. Europe had salivated at the thought of controlling Africa’s vast expanses, manpower, and natural riches since Roman times. For more than a century before Grogan arrived, foreign powers had been slicing up the continent into colonies and protectorates like a pie at a murderous family gathering. By the turn of the nineteenth century, European governments were still fighting over poorly defined colonial borders and wiping out native groups who stood in their way.
O’Brien, Brian. “All for the Love of a Lady.” Field & Stream, January 1968. Page, Melvin E. “The Manyema Hordes of Tippu Tip: A Case Study in Social Stratification and the Slave Trade in Eastern Africa.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 7, no. 1 (1974): 69–84. Paice, Edward. Lost Lion of Empire: The Life of Cape-to-Cairo Grogan. London: HarperCollins, 2001. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa, 1876–1912. New York: Random House, 1991. “People of Africa’s Past: Ewart Grogan.” Travel Africa, no. 11 (Spring 2000). Pettitt, Clare. Dr. Livingstone, I presume?: Missionaries, Journalists, Explorers, and Empire. London: Profile, 2007. Roberts, Chalmers. “A Wonderful Feat of Adventure.” World’s Work, January 1901. Rocco, Fiametta. The Miraculous Fever-tree: Malaria, Medicine and the Cure That Changed the World.
More From Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources – and What Happens Next by Andrew McAfee
back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, humanitarian revolution, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Landlord’s Game, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, World Values Survey
The Industrial Era’s great appetite for resources was part of the reason that many European countries spread out around the world and claimed ownership, or at least control, over territories that already had inhabitants, societies, and governments. The United States and most Central and South American countries had gained their independence by the mid-1800s, but other nations lost theirs over the nineteenth century. Much of South and Southeast Asia became colonized, as did many islands in the South Pacific. Europeans also engaged in a “Scramble for Africa”: by the early twentieth century more than 90 percent of the continent had been claimed by France, Britain, Spain, Portugal, Germany, and Italy. King Leopold II of Belgium didn’t even go through the motions of using his country’s government as the instrument of colonization. He instead established himself as the “proprietor” of the Congo Free State, a huge amount of land in the middle of the continent corresponding roughly to the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Dillon, 61 Robinson, James, 159, 160, 161 Rockefeller Foundation, 262–63 Rogers, Paul, 66–67 Rohrbaugh, Ron, 261 rolling stock, 105–06 Romer, Paul, 231–32, 233, 234, 249, 261 rorquals, 47 Rosen, William, 16 Roser, Max, 174, 177, 179 Rosling, Hans, 179 Roundup, 155 Rowland, F. Sherwood, 149 Rowntree, B. Seebohm, 24 Royal Crown Cola, 101 Russia, 185 Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), 66 Salemi, Jason, 216 Salesforce, 256–57 Samasource, 255–56 sanitation, 22–23, 194 Saudi Arabia, 104 Save the Elephants, 154 Schmidt, Christian, 148 Schnakenberg, Keith, 175 Schumpeter, Joseph, 122 Scientific American, 59–60 Scotland, 38 Scramble for Africa, 39 sea otters, 43, 96, 152 Second Enlightenment, 123, 141, 238–39, 265 Second Machine Age, 112–13, 114–15, 122–23, 141, 162, 168, 177, 200, 206, 213, 231 Second Machine Age, The (Brynjolfsson), 112 self-employment, 138–39 self-healing cities, 21–23 self-interest, 127 Sen, Amartya, 68–69, 94 service industry, 88, 200–201 Shapiro, David, 190 Shell Oil, 103, 104–05 Shellenberger, Michael, 251 Sherman, Brad, 107 Sheskin, Mark, 210 Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (las Casas), 39–40 Sidgwick, Henry, 142n silver, 120 Simon, Julian, 69–70, 71–72, 75, 151, 179, 244–45 Singapore, 148 Singh, Manmohan, 171–72 Skeptical Environmentalist (Lomborg), 179, 181 slash-and-burn agriculture, 148 slavery, 35, 36, 37–38, 181 Sloman, Steven, 226 smartphones, 102, 111, 113, 168–69, 205, 235, 236 Smil, Vaclav, 31, 101 Smith, Adam, 125–39, 128–29 Smith, Noah, 191 smog, 42, 55, 186 Snow, John, 22–23 social capital, 212–13, 216–17, 228–29, 247, 254, 255, 270 social democracy, 133–34 social development, 24–25, 26 social development index, 60n social safety nets, 131–32 socialism, 132–38, 192 sodium nitrate, 17 solar power, 111, 240, 250, 269 Song, Jian, 93 Sørlle, Petter, 47 Soros, George, 132 South Korea, 117–18, 174 Soviet Union, 133, 163–64, 170–71 “Spaceship Earth”, 64–65 Staggers Act (1980), 109 Starmans, Christina, 210 steam engine, 16, 17, 27, 30, 36, 44, 48–49, 205, 206, 237 steamships, 17–18, 26 steel, 80 Steller, Georg Wilhelm, 273 Steller’s sea cow, 273 Stenner, Karen, 217 Sterba, Jim, 43–44 Stigler, George, 126 Strangers in Their Own Land (Hochschild), 221 Suicide (Durkheim), 215–16, 219 sulfur dioxide, 54–55, 95, 186, 249 Sullivan, Andrew, 219 Summers, Larry, 254 sustainability, 64 taxation, 5, 130, 250 tech progress, 2–3, 4, 36, 67, 99–123, 113, 141, 151, 158–59, 167–68, 169–70 defining of, 114–15 Tesla, Nikola, 27 Texas, Hill Country of, 29, 205 Thatcher, Margaret, 132, 138 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 129 Thomas, Chris, 182–83 3-D printing, 239 tin, 72 tin cans, 101 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 89–90, 212–13 Toxic Substances Control Act (1976), 66 tragedy of the commons, 183 transportation, 241–42 Trump, Donald, 158, 201 trust, 212, 213, 217 Truth About Soviet Whaling, The (Berzin), 164 Ulam, Stanislaw, 19n Ultimate Resource, The (Simon), 69, 179 unfairness, 210, 220–24 Union Oil, 54 United Airlines, 257 United Kingdom, 76, 85 United Nations, 40, 58, 199 United States, 117–18 agriculture in, 81–82, 100 coal consumption in, 102–03 cropland acreage in, 201–02 dematerialization in, 76–85 industrial production in, 88–89 mortality rates in, 213–14 slavery in, 37–38 suicide rate in, 214–16 water pollution in, 189–90 urbanization, 91–92, 199–200 Utopia or Oblivion (Fuller), 70 vaccination, 227 Van Reenen, John, 203, 204, 207 Varian, Hal, 236 Veblen goods, 152–53 Veblen, Thorstein, 152 Venezuela, 118, 134–38, 172 voluntary exchange, 117 wages, 20–21 Waggoner, Paul, 76 Wagner, Stephan, 148 Wald, George, 61 water, drinking, 194 water pollution, 189–90 Watt, James, 15–16, 20, 121, 206, 237 Watt, Kenneth, 58 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 127, 131 Weeks-McLean Law Act (1913), 96 Welzel, Christian, 176, 177 Wernick, Iddo, 76 whales, 44, 46–47, 163–65 wheat, 31–32 Wheelwright, William, 17–18 Whole Earth Catalog, 68 Why Nations Fail (Acemoglu and Robinson), 159 Wilson, James, 19n wind power, 111, 240, 250 Winship, Scott, 215 Wolff, Edward, 206 Woodbury, N.J., 65 wooly mammoth, 180 World Bank, 118, 168, 169, 192 World Values Survey, 176 Yao Ming, 154, 161 Yellowstone National Park, 46, 153 YouTube, 236 Zoorob, Michael, 216 First published in the United States by Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2019 First published in Great Britain by Simon & Schuster UK, Ltd, 2019 A CBS COMPANY Copyright © 2019 by Andrew McAfee The right of Andrew McAfee to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.
The Challenge for Africa by Wangari Maathai
Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, deliberate practice, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus
Notes One THE FARMER OF YAOUNDé 1 Arthur Bright, “South Africa's Anti-Immigrant Violence Spreads to Cape Town,” Christian Science Monitor, May 23, 2008. 2 “Poverty Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa Steadily Declining Over Last Ten Years: Report,” Ethiopian News Agency, August 28, 2008. 3 “The State of Africa's Children, 2008,” UNICEF, May 28, 2008. 4 Cathy Maj tenyi, “Women Have Strong Voice in Rwandan Parliament,” Voice of America, July 16, 2007. Two A LEGACY OF WOES 1 See Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa. 2 See Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost. 3 “Zambia: Rise of African Nationalism (1945-1964),” EISA, www.eisa.org.za. 4 See Meredith, The Fate of Africa, p. 176. 5 For the history of Africa in precolonial times, see Wikipedia entries for “Ashanti,” “Benin,” “Dahomey,” “Great Zimbabwe,” “Kongo,” “Mali,” “Songhai,” “Sankore,” “Zulu” (accessed on September 2, 2008). Three PILLARS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE 1 See Meredith, The Fate of Africa, p. 142. 2 Elsa Artadi and Xavier Sala-i-Martin, “The Economic Tragedy of the XXth Century: Growth in Africa,” NBER Working Paper #9865, July 2003. 3 Table 6:1, “Africa's Growth Tragedy: An Institutional Perspective,” Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform, World Bank, 2005 p. 275. 4 See, for instance, “Timeline: Democratic Republic of Congo,” BBC News, April 30, 2008. 5 See Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work, p. 11. 6 See “War Against Women: The Use of Rape as a Weapon in Congo's Civil War,” CBS News, January 13, 2008; and “IRC Study Shows Congo's Neglected Crisis Leaves 5.4 Million Dead,” International Rescue Committee, January 22, 2008, www.theirc.org. 7 See Theo Mushi, “IMF Optimistic About Africa Development Prospects,” IPP Media, February 19, 2008. 8 Martin Ravallion and Shaohua Chen, “The Developing World Is Poorer Than We Thought but No Less Successful in the Fight Against Poverty,” World Bank, August 26, 2008. 9 “Sub-Saharan Africa Spring 2008 Regional Economic Outlook: Growth Expected to Remain Robust but Global Developments Cloud Prospects,” International Monetary Fund press release, April 12, 2008. 10 Economic Report on Africa, 2008, Economic Commission on Africa, p. 62. 11 See AVERT, www.avert.org/aidsbotswana.htm (accessed on September 2, 2008). 12 UN Human Development Report 2007 /2008, pp. 229-30. 13 “Reducing the Global Incidence of Civil War: A Discussion of the Available Policy Instruments,” Inwent—Capacity Building International, Germany, October 8, 2004, www.inwent.org/ef-texte/military/collier.htm (accessed September 2, 2008).
New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. Kapuscinski, Ryszard. The Shadow of the Sun. Trans. Klara Glowczewska. New York: Vintage, 2002. Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence. New York: Public Affairs, 2005. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o. Wizard of the Crow. New York: Anchor, 2007. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa. London: Abacus, 1992. Sachs, Jeffrey D. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Penguin, 2005. Stiglitz, Joseph E. Making Globalization Work. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007. United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. United Nations Environment Programme (2008).
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
Other writers look at mentalities, such as the romantic imagination, with its dream-like disposition for future pleasure, or at practices, such as cooking or home improvement. Global power is conspicuous by its absence from all these approaches. Conversely, the classic theorists of imperialism had little to say about the desire, appropriation and use of things. For J. A. Hobson, Heinrich Friedjung and Joseph Schumpeter, all writing in the immediate aftermath of the European scramble for Africa in the late nineteenth century, imperialism was driven by finance capitalism, aggressive nationalism, or an ‘atavistic’ aristocracy that was clinging on to feudal power and glory. Consumers featured, if at all, as victims of a jingoist conspiracy that enriched the few at the expense of the many. This lack of interest is curious, since, as we have already seen in the case of cocoa, coffee, tea and sugar, empires long played a critical role in channelling new goods, tastes and lifestyles.
In the age of empire, they were intensely associated with superior European technology, science and gunboats. The rising tide of goods brought mixed fortunes to all sides. For indigenous societies, European shirts, sofas and umbrellas upset existing hierarchies. For imperial masters, goods were signs of power, too, but ones to mark the distance between ruler and ruled. Consumption amongst colonial subjects had to be controlled. By the 1880s, when the scramble for Africa got under way, the internal contradictions of liberal empire were in plain view. Global levels of trade and consumption were rising fast, but so was the pace of conquest and annexation. Here was the paradox of this phase of globalization. Economically, the world was more open in the 1870s and 1880s than a century or two earlier, but in terms of political and cultural power it was becoming more rigid and closed.
Some were imitation pearls and crystal from Venice and Bohemia.9 The slave trade was part of this expanding world of goods, enriching local rulers and their followers. The King of Dahomey, for example, made £250,000 from the sale of slaves in 1750. It is impossible to do justice here to the rich literature about different regions, but three general points can be made. First, consumption was on a long, upward curve before the scramble for Africa got under way in the 1880s. The abolition of the slave trade in 1807 accelerated this process, as West African communities started to trade ever greater amounts of palm oil, gum and other export crops. But it did not originate it. A taste revolution was already creating distinct regional styles. In other words, Africans did not need imperial masters to teach them how to become consumers. Communities had their own vocabulary of material desire.
Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson
"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, working poor
In this scenario, changes that would have created better economic institutions in society would have made the king and aristocracy political as well as economic losers. The interaction of economic and political institutions five hundred years ago is still relevant for understanding why the modern state of Congo is still miserably poor today. The advent of European rule in this area, and deeper into the basin of the River Congo at the time of the “scramble for Africa” in the late nineteenth century, led to an insecurity of human and property rights even more egregious than that which characterized the precolonial Kongo. In addition, it reproduced the pattern of extractive institutions and political absolutism that empowered and enriched a few at the expense of the masses, though the few now were Belgian colonialists, most notably King Leopold II. When Congo became independent in 1960, the same pattern of economic institutions, incentives, and performance reproduced itself.
All the same, Tewodros’s reconstructed government did manage to pull off one of the great anticolonial triumphs of the nineteenth century, against the Italians. In 1889 the throne went to Menelik II, who was immediately faced with the interest of Italy in establishing a colony there. In 1885 the German chancellor Bismarck had convened a conference in Berlin where the European powers hatched the “Scramble for Africa”—that is, they decided how to divide up Africa into different spheres of interest. At the conference, Italy secured its rights to colonies in Eritrea, along the coast of Ethiopia, and Somalia. Ethiopia, though not represented at the conference, somehow managed to survive intact. But the Italians still kept designs, and in 1896 they marched an army south from Eritrea. Menelik’s response was similar to that of a European medieval king; he formed an army by getting the nobility to call up their armed men.
Though accurate figures are hard to come by, a number of existing accounts written by travelers and merchants during this time suggest that in the West African kingdoms of Asante and Dahomey and in the Yoruba city-states well over half of the population were slaves. More accurate data exist from early French colonial records for the western Sudan, a large swath of western Africa, stretching from Senegal, via Mali and Burkina Faso, to Niger and Chad. In this region 30 percent of the population was enslaved in 1900. Just as with the emergence of legitimate commerce, the advent of formal colonization after the Scramble for Africa failed to destroy slavery in Africa. Though much of European penetration into Africa was justified on the grounds that slavery had to be combated and abolished, the reality was different. In most parts of colonial Africa, slavery continued well into the twentieth century. In Sierra Leone, for example, it was only in 1928 that slavery was finally abolished, even though the capital city of Freetown was originally established in the late eighteenth century as a haven for slaves repatriated from the Americas.
The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler
barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile
An association with past injustice can create feelings of deep resentment for a lingua-franca, and such baleful associations can stick. Completing this triptych on its western side, we turn to eastern Africa.11 In the British colonial states here, there has been, as almost everywhere else in the continent, a profound mismatch between linguistic boundaries and national frontiers. This is because the nation-states derive ultimately from competing European land grabs in the nineteenth century “scramble for Africa,” irrespective of social alliances that might have arisen among African tribes. With far more languages than states, attempting to pick out one majority language within a country and declaring it the national language is dangerously divisive. Some kind of lingua-franca—with sufficient development of its vocabulary to serve all the needs of a modern state— has been needed, and the natural choice by default in a former British colony was English.
Africa, denied the ability to control its own politics in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, has also seen new settling languages disappear even faster than they have arrived. In a number of cases the incipient lingua-franca spread of some of these languages has faced insuperable obstacles, particularly through deliberate Relegation. German, for example, had been introduced as a command language of empire to many territories in Africa. From the Berlin Congress of 1884–85, which attempted to regulate the “scramble for Africa,” Germany claimed Togoland (modern Togo and the Volta region of Ghana) and Cameroon in the west, Southwest Africa (modern Namibia) in the south, German East Africa (Tanganyika, with Rwanda and Burundi) in the east, all of which it held until World War I. This amounted to 10 million subjects in Africa, comparable with 33 million then at home in Europe (and the 93 million estimated for Africa as a whole).1 German colonies were distinctive in these thirty years for their dedication to education, with not only primary but also secondary and vocational courses being established; a widespread network of mission schools was also set up independently of the government.
Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson
Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
After the slave trade, western powers sought to tie down territories. The British explorer David Livingstone described Britain’s supposedly noble intentions (guided by the “three C’s”: commerce, Christianity, and civilization) a bit like how some Americans today believe they should spread freedom and democracy overseas. The French had something similar, described in Thomas Pakenham’s classic The Scramble for Africa: Overseas empire would soothe the amour-propre of the French army, humiliated by its collapse in the Franco-Prussian war.4 . . . A whiff of colonial fever, a panicky fear the door was closing (what the Germans called Torschlusspanik), had infected the French public.5 . . . To redeem France’s humiliations in Europe by acquiring a great overseas empire, to develop new overseas markets for France, were the aims common to all French colonialists.6 . . .
See, for example, “Natural Resources and Violent Conflict,” paper by Ian Bannon and Paul Collier, World Bank, 2003, or Bottom of the Barrel: Africa’s Oil Boom and the Poor, by Catholic Relief Services, June 2003. In François-Xavier Verschave, L’envers de la dette (Paris: Agone, 2002). As revealed in, and widely reported from, the Elf trials. See, for example, Karl Laske, “La pompe Afrique: Tours de passe-passe,” Libération, January 13, 2003. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa, (London: Abacus, 1992) page xxiv. Ibid., page 358. Ibid., page 359. Ibid., page 154. From a BBC chronology, February 27, 2004. From Adam Hochschild’s classic King Leopold’s Ghost (London: Papermac, 2000). Douglas A. Yates, The Rentier State in Africa: Oil Rent Dependency and Neocolonialism in the Republic of Gabon (Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1996), page 90. Centre des Archives d’Outre-Mer, Aix-en-Provence, France.
The Levelling: What’s Next After Globalization by Michael O’sullivan
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, cloud computing, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, global value chain, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, liberal world order, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, private military company, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, tulip mania, Valery Gerasimov, Washington Consensus
Will it, for example, take a more active role in international politics with respect to Africa with its emphasis on “Chinese solutions”? In its rhetoric, and increasingly in policy, there is a growing tendency on the part of Chinese foreign-policy leaders to assert that the US-based international system and way of doing things are no longer working.26 China’s deepening commercial involvement in African countries, such as the Congo, calls to mind the book The Scramble for Africa by Thomas Pakenham (an Anglo-Irish historian, formally known as Lord Longford) in which he details the partition and despoiling of Africa in the nineteenth century by European powers such as England, Italy, France, and Belgium.27 A subtle variant on Chinese promotion of its prestige internationally is apparent in Chinese cinema, which is already forging ahead here with films like Operation Red Sea (2018) and Wolf Warrior 2 (2017) depicting the bravery of Chinese overseas interventions.
The influential Fu Ying, chairperson of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National People’s Congress, has stated that “the old way is not working.” Fu Ying, “Quo Vadis,” Valdai Club, October 25, 2016. She has made similar remarks in the Western press, notably in “The US World Order Is a Suit That No Longer Fits,” op-ed, Financial Times, January 6, 2016, https://www.ft.com/content/c09cbcb6-b3cb-11e5-b147-e5e5bba42e51. 27. T. Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: The White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912 (Random House, 1990). 28. “Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries,” http://www.china-ceec.org/eng/. 29. On the place of religion in China, see Johnson, The Souls of China. 30. E. Feng, “Security Spending Ramped Up in China’s Restive Xinjiang Region,” Financial Times, March 12, 2016. 31. World Bank Data Catalog, “Population Estimates and Projections,” https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/population-estimates-and-projections??
Sacred Economics: Money, Gift, and Society in the Age of Transition by Charles Eisenstein
Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate raider, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, disintermediation, diversification, fiat currency, financial independence, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global supply chain, God and Mammon, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, land value tax, Lao Tzu, liquidity trap, McMansion, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, special drawing rights, spinning jenny, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail
Instead of attempting to guilt ourselves and others into it (and generating resistance to our sanctimony), we can offer opportunities and encouragement to give, and we can be generous with our appreciation and celebration of the gifts of others. We can see others not as selfish, greedy, ignorant, or lazy people who just “don’t get it,” but rather as divine beings who desire to give to the world; we can see that and speak to that and know it so strongly that our knowing serves as an invitation to ourselves and others to step into that truth. 1. See, e.g., Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa, 497–98. 2. A slight caveat: in theory, if the interest rate is no higher than the default risk premium, then there will be no necessity for economic growth and the monetization of the commons. The relevant components of the real interest rate, however, are the liquidity premium and the market rate for money, determined by supply, demand, and government monetary policy. These represent profit from the mere ownership of money, which is indefensible based on the arguments of Chapters 4 and 5. 3.
The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Translated by W. D. Halls. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. Mankiw, N. Gregory. “It May Be Time for the Fed to Go Negative.” New York Times, April 18, 2009. Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1934. Nemat-Nejat, Karen Rhea. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa. London: Abacus, 1991. Paine, Thomas. Agrarian Justice. 1797. Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. New York: Penguin, 2005. Piff, P. K., M. W. Kraus, B. H. Cheng, and D. Keltner. “Having Less, Giving More: The Influence of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, July 12, 2010. doi:10.1037/a0020092. Reasons, Eric. “Innovative Deflation.”
Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry by Peter Warren Singer
barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market friction, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, risk/return, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
Martin's Press, 1998), p. 181. 7. William Thorn, "Africa's Security Issues through 2010," Military Review (Department of the Army Professional Bulletin 100-99-5/6. vol. 80. no. 4 (July-August 2000). http:// u-ww.cgsc.army.mil/milrev/ Fnglish/JuIAugoo/thorn.htm 8. William Reno. Warlord Politics and African States (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1998), p. l. 9. Jeremy M. Weinstein, ".Africa's 'Scramble for .Africa'": Lessons of a Continental Wan" World Policy Journal 17, no. 2 (Summer 2000). 10. Duffield, Internal Conflict. 1 1. Michael Renner, "The Global Divide: Socioeconomic Disparities and International Security." in World Security: Challenges for a Xeio Century, ed. Michael Klare andYogesh Chandrani (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998), p. 275. 12. P. W. Singer, "Caution: Children at War," Parameters 31. no. 4 (Winter 2001). 13.
"Subcontracting as a Solution, Not a Problem in Outsourc- ing." Acquisition Review Quarterly (Winter 1997): 79—8(3. Watson, Francis. Wallenstein: Soldinunder Saturn. London, Appleton-Century, 1938, Weber, Max. Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A. M. Henderson, New York: Free Press, 1964. Weiner, Myron, ed. International Migration and Security. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993. \Veinstein,Jeremy M, "Africa's 'Scramble for .Africa': Lessons of a Continental War." World Policy Journal 17, no. 2 (Summer 2000). Wendt, Alexander. Social Theory of International Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press 1999. Wendt, Alexander, and Michael Barnett, '"Dependent State Formation and Third World Militarization." Review of International Studies 19, no. 4 (August 1993): Westwood, Chris. "Military Information Operations in a Conventional Warfare Environment,'* Air Power Studies Centre Paper, Number 47, 1995- www.defense .gov.au/apsc/publish/paper47. htm Whitelaw, Kevin.
More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
In the 1850s, the island of Java contributed more than a third of the budget of the Dutch state.19 While profit may have been an aim of imperial policy, it was not the only one. Prestige and FOMO (fear of missing out) were just as important motives. Benjamin Disraeli, the British prime minister from 1874 to 1880, saw imperialism as a way of attracting voter support; that’s why he made Queen Victoria Empress of India in 1876. In the 1880s, Bismarck was sniffy about the “scramble for Africa”, fearing that colonial disputes would only damage relations with other European powers. He succumbed to the temptation to seize territory at the Congress of Berlin in 1885, in part because he saw empire-building as politically popular at home. But by 1889, he was trying to give away German south-west Africa, arguing that it was “a burden and an expense”. Bismarck’s reluctance points to a problem with the standard critique of colonialism, as advanced by Lenin and others.
The cost of defending these colonies was high and the authors suggest that “in the absence of empire, the burdens on the British taxpayer could have been reduced and resources diverted to more productive activities”.20 Other academics point out, however, that the empire added considerably to British military might, as the First World War was to show, and that the late Victorian empire “does not appear to have been a waste of money”.21 The two most successful economies of the late 19th century were Germany and the US. The former had a few colonies in Africa, such as Togoland and Namibia; the latter had the Philippines and Hawaii. In neither case did these seem to be hugely profitable. The scramble for Africa was a mistake, and not just for the Africans. Precisely because the African economies were underdeveloped they were unlikely to be a huge source of demand for European goods. France seems to have lost money in its tropical African colonies while making money from Algeria and Indochina.22 An alternative argument for colonial expansion is that the Europeans were not interested in exports but in controlling access to raw materials.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
Rosanne Curriaro, “The Politics of ‘More’: The Labor Question and the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America,” Journal of American History, 93 ( 2006): 22–27. CHAPTER 8. RULERS AS CAPITALISTS 1. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912 (New York, 1991), 18–74; Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (New York, 1999), 26–33. 2. Tim Jeal, Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer (New Haven, 2007), 230. 3. Pakenham, Scramble for Africa, 15, 22. 4. Ibid., 71–87. 5. Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 2nd ed. (Armonk, NY, 2006), 108–09. 6. Debora Silverman, “‘The Congo, I Presume’”: Tepid Revisionism in the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, 1910/2005,” Paper given at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, January 2–6, 2009. 7.
Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng
Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War
The dispute had been the outcome of the ‘German intrigues which have given the Company so much trouble during the past few years’. The Germans, Goldie believed, had poisoned the ‘minds of the native rulers, especially as rumours pass rapidly in Central Africa from district to district and acquire strength by repetition’. In the wake of the international Conference of Berlin in 1885, which precipitated the controversial ‘Scramble for Africa’, the Germans, the French and the British were all vying for trade and dominance in West Africa. Goldie complained to his political masters in the Foreign Office in London that the Germans had claimed that ‘wherever the English went they subjugated and oppressed the populations, that the native laws and customs would be overthrown, and that the power of the Chiefs would be abolished’.20 The company, as far as Goldie was concerned, had no ‘desire to interfere more than is absolutely necessary with the internal arrangements of the Chiefs of Central Africa’.
Towards the end of the 1890s, as the Charter was not renewed, Lord Salisbury thanked the Royal Niger Company for its work, expressing his high esteem for the ‘adventurers and patriots to whose efforts the preparation of this territory’ was due. Goldie came back to England, but never held another post linked to the empire. When he died in 1925, aged seventy-nine, he remained unshaken in his belief that there ‘was no God and no life to come’.27 The country over which Goldie had presided as the unofficial leading statesman was not really a country at all. The mad scramble for Africa had been notoriously careless of ethnic boundaries and tribal distinctions. As Lord Salisbury himself described it, the partition of Africa was haphazard and disorganized. After an agreement with the French in 1892, Salisbury wrote that ‘we have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod; we have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers and lakes were’.28 In the eyes of the British the country which we would later know as Nigeria was, like Julius Caesar’s Gaul, split into three parts.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
., 27, pp. 1 – 9 Fynn, J.K., 1971, ‘Ghana-Asante (Ashanti)’, in Crowder (ed.), 1971, pp. 19 – 52 Galbraith, John K., 1992, ‘The challenge to the South: seven basic principles’, South Letter (The South Centre, Geneva and Dar es Salaam), no. 14, pp. 12 – 13 Galbraith, J.S., 1963, Reluctant Empire, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press Galbraith, John S., 1971, ‘Gordon, MacKinnon, and Leopold: the scramble for Africa 1876 – 84’, Vict. Stud., vol. 14, pp. 369 – 88 Galenson, David W., 1986, Traders, Planters, and Slaves. Market Behaviour in Early English America, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Gamble, C.S., and Soffer, O., 1990, The World at 18 000 BP, vol. 2: Low Latitudes, London, Unwin Hyman Gann, L.H., 1975, ‘Economic development in Germany's African Empire, 1884 – 1914’, in Duigan and Gann, (eds.), 1975, pp. 213 – 55 Gann, L.H., and Duigan, P.
.), 1887, 1890, The Voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas, and Brazil, London Grébénart, D., 1988, Les Premiers Métallurgistes en Afrique Occidentale, Paris/Abidjan, Editions Errance/Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines Greenberg, Joseph H., 1966, The Languages of Africa, The Hague, Mouton Gregory, J. W., Cordell, D.D., and Gervais, R., (eds.), 1984, African Historical Demography, Edinburgh, African Studies Centre, University of Edinburgh Griffiths, Ieuan, 1986, ‘The scramble for Africa: inherited political boundaries’, Geogr. J., vol. 152, pp. 204 – 16 Grigson, C., 1989, ‘Size and sex: evidence for domestication of cattle in the Near East’, in Milles, Williams, and Gardner, pp. 77 – 109 Grove, A.T., 1984, ‘The environmental setting’, in Grove, A.T. (ed.), 1984 Grove, A.T., 1993, ‘Africa's climate in the Holocene’, in Shaw et al., pp. 34 – 5 Grove, A.T. (ed.), 1984, The Niger and Its Neighbours: Environmental History and Hydrobiology, Human Use and Health Hazards of the Major West African Rivers, Rotterdam, Balkema Grove, A.T., and Sutton, J.E.
F. van, 1898, Paul Kruger en de opkomst van de Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, Amsterdam/Cape Town Oslisly, Richard, 1996, ‘The middle Ogooué valley [Gabon]: cultural changes and palaeoclimatic implications of the last four millennia’, in Sutton (ed.), 1996, pp. 324 – 31 Oswell, W. Edward, 1900, William Cotton Oswell: Hunter and Explorer, 2 vols., London, Heinemann Pacheco Pereira, Duarte, 1506, Esmeraldo de situ orbis, trans. and ed. George H.T. Kimble, 1937, Cambridge, Hakluyt Society (Ser. II, vol. 79) Page, Melvin E., (ed.), 1987, Africa and the First World War, London, Macmillan Pakenham, Thomas, 1991, The Scramble for Africa, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson Park, Mungo, 1813, Travels to the Interior of Africa, London Parker, I.S. C., and Graham, A.D., 1989, ‘Elephant decline: downward trends in African elephant distribution and numbers’, 2 pts, Int. J. Environ. Stud., vol. 34, pp. 287 – 305, and vol. 35, pp. 13 – 26 Partridge, Tim C., 1994, ‘Between two oceans’, Johannesburg, pp. 1 – 2 (unpub. draft MS.) Paulssen, F., 1913, ‘Rechtsanschauung der Eingeboren auf Ukara’, Baessler Archiv, 4(I) Peires, J.B., 1989, ‘The British and the Cape’, in Elphick and Giliomee, pp. 472 – 518 Perham, M., 1956, Lugard, vol. 1: The Years of Adventure 1886 – 1898, London Philipps, Thomas, 1960, Philipps, 1820 Settler (ed.
Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence
Ethiopia’s current flag proudly flies the red, gold and green of long tradition, but since 1996 has also featured a blue circle in the centre with a yellow star and five rays. The rays stand for the various peoples of the country, the star representing their equality and unity. It is also variously considered to be the Star of King Solomon and the Star of David, as the first Emperor Menelik was claimed to be the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Italy was late to the ‘Scramble for Africa’. By the early 1890s the British, French, Germans and Belgians had seized the majority of what was considered the most valuable territory and Italy was left with what is now Eritrea; it used its colony there as a launch pad to invade what was then Abyssinia – now Ethiopia. In 1895 heavy fighting broke out, and, to their surprise, the following year the Italians were driven back to Eritrea, having suffered the loss of at least 7,000 men.
Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning
We are now well into the twenty-first century and Africa stands at a point which, with hindsight, was always coming: it needs to balance the rediscovery of its pre-colonial senses of nationhood with the realities of the current functioning nation states. That’s a fine line, fraught with danger, but to ignore or deny the divisions that occur the length and breadth of this vast space will not make them go away. Once there was the ‘scramble for Africa’; now there is a race to bring about a degree of prosperity so that people may be persuaded to live peacefully together, while working on solutions where they wish to live apart. CHAPTER 7 EUROPE ‘Today, no walls can separate humanitarian or human rights crises in one part of the world from national security crises in another. What begins with the failure to uphold the dignity of one life all too often ends with a calamity for entire nations
When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques
Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game
The economic chasm that opened up between Europe and nearly everywhere else greatly enhanced its ability to dominate the world.52 The colonial era had started in the seventeenth century, but from the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, with the progressive acquisition of India, it rapidly expanded. In the name of Christianity, civilization and racial superiority, and possessed of armies and navies without peer, the European nations, led by Britain and France, subjugated large swathes of the world, culminating in the scramble for Africa in the decades immediately prior to 1914.53 Savage wars took place between whites and non-whites as Chinese, Indians and native peoples in North America, Australasia and southern Africa made their last stand against European assaults on their religions, rulers, land and resources.54 Niall Ferguson writes: Western hegemony was one of the great asymmetries of world history. Taken together, the metropoles of all the Western empires - the American, Belgian, British, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish - accounted for 7% of the world’s land surface and just 18% of its population.
There is a widely held view, especially in the West, that China’s refusal to require any conditionality in terms of governance means that it is prone to turn a blind eye to human rights abuses, such as those in Darfur.53 That has certainly been the case, but the Chinese have recently shown growing sensitivity towards Western criticism, as well as that from within the continent, and as a result have helped to pressure the Sudanese government into accepting the presence of a joint United Nations/ African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur.54 There is little evidence, however, that China’s record in Africa is any worse - and in fact is almost certainly far better - than the West’s own miserable catalogue of support for corrupt and dictatorial regimes on the continent, not to mention its colonial legacy.55 Finally, in a rather different vein, the Chinese have become the target of terrorist groups, for example in the Niger Delta and Ethiopia, a phenomenon which is surely set to grow as the Chinese presence and influence expands and they assume the role, visibility and responsibilities of a global power not only in Africa but elsewhere too.56 The significance of China’s African mission is enormous. Its rapidly growing influence suggests that in due course it will probably become the dominant player on the continent, and serves as a bold statement of China’s wider global intentions. The speed of China’s involvement in Africa, and its success in wooing the African elites, has put the West on the defensive in a continent where it has a poor historical record.57 Unlike the ‘scramble for Africa’ in the late nineteenth century, which generated bitter intra-European rivalry, China’s involvement has not as yet produced significant tensions with the US, Britain or France, though that could change. The recent establishment of the United States Africa Command to coordinate its military relations and activities on the continent suggests that it is concerned about China’s growing influence; as of late 2008, however, the US had failed to find an African location for its headquarters, stating that it would be based in Stutt gart for the foreseeable future.
After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin
agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade
The solitary consolation will be, that the changes have been inevitable.8 AFRICA AND THE GEOPOLITICS OF PARTITION The scaling-up of the Europeans’ intrusive power after 1880 was a worldwide phenomenon. But nowhere else was their imperial expansion so dizzyingly swift or so astonishingly complete as in sub-Saharan Africa – the ‘dark continent’, whose interior Europeans had been noticeably slowto claim. This is why the African case has so fascinated historians. More than a century later, the ‘scramble’ for Africa in the 1880s and the continent’s ‘partition’ and ‘conquest’ evoke strong emotions and uneasy debate. This is partly because they offend contemporary notions of racial justice, and partly because Africa’s postcolonial condition has made its colonial past seem more painfully real than has been the case in more fortunate regions. The drama and violence of Europe’s takeover of Africa has also encouraged the idea that it was the ‘classic’ case of European imperialism.
So, while the Europeans had fought wars to divide the Americas, and periodically threatened to do so over the Middle East, they shared out Africa with surprising bonhomie. This had two crucial results. It reduced the scope for African leaders to exploit European differences and so prolong their freedom. And it meant that, once they were demarcated, colonial borders could be left undefended (until the First World War) against any European foe. The scramble for Africa was the most obvious case of Europe’s growing appetite for global supremacy, and the irresistible strength it could bring to the task. But it was also a paradox. Firstly, European governments showed little enthusiasm for extending their control over the African interior. They responded grudgingly to the clamour of lobbies. Secondly, once their sphere was marked out, they were content with little more than a nominal control over the peoples and places on their treaty maps.
The Idea of Decline in Western History by Arthur Herman
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, David Attenborough, European colonialism, George Santayana, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, Joan Didion, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
The second was the coming of the First World War, which shook to the core Europe’s position of preeminence in the world. From 1914 to 1918, four years of grisly conflict and slaughter left 8.5 million Europeans dead. Characteristically, Du Bois viewed matters from his own black nationalist perspective. On the eve of America’s entry into the war, he wrote in The Crisis that the true origin of the Great War lay in the imperialist scramble for Africa, “the jealous and avaricious struggle for the largest share in exploiting darker races.” With the coming of the armistice in 1918 and the Versailles settlement, in which Germany was forced to surrender its colonial possessions, Du Bois forsaw a new opportunity for nonwhite nationalisms of all types. He even organized the first Pan-Africanist Congress in Paris in 1919, to coincide with the peace conference’s deliberations on the question of self-determination for all peoples, white and nonwhite.
For a brief period, from 1900 to 1910, Du Bois had evoked the image of a talented tenth of Negro intellectuals and politicians, who would assert a sense of racial pride by building a record of cultural achievements without “bow[ing] a knee to Baal.”71 Then he had turned to Pan-African nationalism and then to black separatism, according to which American blacks would build their own independent economy parallel to that of whites, again with no invidious profit motive. Finally, in the thirties, he turned to Marx and Communism. He had learned a good deal about Marx during his stay in Germany in 1892 to ’94 and visited the Soviet Union in 1924. His own analysis of imperialism had anticipated V.I. Lenin’s Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, which argued (wrongly) that the scramble for Africa was due to surplus capital, and that late capitalism could only derive its profits from an expanding colonial empire.* For a time after World War II, Du Bois even worried that the capitalist world, in its final death agonies, would crush out the cause of liberation of nonwhite people.72 Then the British granted independence to India, the United States forced the Dutch to leave Indonesia, and the European powers began to shed their colonies—and prospered.
Happy Valley: The Story of the English in Kenya by Nicholas Best
His plan for subduing the Masai and securing the Nile for Britain had been turned down by a Government ruled by Little Englanders for whom any colonial involvement was a sin. Whether the Government liked it or not, though, Germany was already on the march. Behind the Germans would come the French and the Italians. There was really no way now that the British could avoid becoming involved in the scramble for Africa. CHAPTER TWO The lunatic express The first Britons to reach East Africa had been sailors stocking up with food and water for the long voyage across the ocean to India. They followed the route taken by Vasco da Gama, whose arrival at the port of Mombasa in 1498 had touched off more than two centuries of intermittent Portuguese colonisation along the coast. The Portuguese never succeeded in taking root however.
A Swamp Full of Dollars: Pipelines and Paramilitaries at Nigeria's Oil Frontier by Michael Peel
banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, energy security, informal economy, Kickstarter, megacity, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, trade route, UNCLOS, wage slave
All have been slow to materialize, raising the question of whether they will be stymied by the international financial crisis and recession. In December 2008, the Financial Times reported that Dangote Group, a sprawling Nigerian 154 A SWAMP FULL OF DOLLARS conglomerate, had postponed plans to buy $3.3bn of cement plant building and materials from Sinoma International Engineering, a Chinese contractor. The idea of a new international scramble for Africa – and in particular for its energy reserves – is hardly original. But what’s striking up close is how intense and amoral the process is. Both the USA and China are wooing countries in the region, including Nigeria, that have poor records on holding credible elections and respecting human rights. In the most egregious cases, the powers of both East and West are snug with nations that, in any principled approach to foreign affairs, would surely be international pariahs to match Robert Mugabe’s Zimbabwe.
The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah
affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game
You’re going to have to make a nation: you will take a population most of whom wish, for some reason, to live under a shared government, and then, after wresting them from whatever states they currently live in, you will need to build in them the shared sentiments that will make it possible for them to live productively together. MOVING BOUNDARIES Deciding which nation is yours is further complicated when political boundaries keep shifting. Schmitz’s life epitomizes, in a somewhat exaggerated form, the experience of millions of people in the twentieth century: he was a citizen of one country who became a citizen of another without leaving home. The turn of the twentieth century was an age of empires. In the Scramble for Africa, between the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 and the First World War, almost all of Africa was colonized by European states. Asante, where I grew up, became a British protectorate in 1902. In 1900 most of Central and Eastern Europe was part of the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, or Ottoman empires. Then, after the First World War, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania were freed from imperial rule; independent nation-states were ushered blinking into the light.
Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel
air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income
In order to generate profits for growth, capital seeks to appropriate nature as cheaply as possible – and ideally for free.40 The elites’ seizure of Europe’s commons after 1500 can be seen as a massive, uncompensated appropriation of nature. So too with colonisation, when Europeans grabbed huge swathes of the global South; vastly more land and resources than Europe itself contained. Silver and gold from South America, land for cotton and sugar in the Caribbean, Indian forests for fuel and shipbuilding, and – during the scramble for Africa that got under way after 1885 – diamonds, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and countless other commodities. All of this was appropriated virtually for free. By ‘free’ here I mean not just in the sense that they didn’t pay for it, but also in the sense that they gave nothing back. There was no gesture of reciprocity with the land. It was pure extraction; pure theft. In a system where nature is ‘external’, the costs of plundering it can be externalised.
Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
Closer linkages were intended only for the ‘civilized nations’ – the cosy club of Western colonial powers.5 ‘Barbaric nations’ – which included south-eastern European states and principalities that only won their independence from the Ottoman Empire towards the end of the nineteenth century – were to be treated as second-tier societies and, where necessary, forcibly occupied to allow the great powers to pursue their individual and collective interests. ‘Savage nations’ were to be colonized, most obviously reflected in the late nineteenth-century ‘Scramble for Africa’, a race that, more than anything, revealed that Europeans themselves were capable of immense savagery in the name of civilization.6 There were rules and procedures aplenty but their interpretation varied enormously. Cobden’s civilized belief in free trade, for example, was too often expropriated by others in a bid to gain commercial advantage in parts of the world that had no desire to open up their societies to avaricious Europeans.
Trade Wars Are Class Wars: How Rising Inequality Distorts the Global Economy and Threatens International Peace by Matthew C. Klein
Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, intangible asset, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, passive income, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, Wolfgang Streeck
The French moved into North Africa and Southeast Asia. Japan seized the Ryukyu Islands. The Russians aggressively expanded their land borders south and west, which frightened the British into additional conquests—Afghanistan, Burma, much of East Africa, and most of southern Africa—ostensibly meant to secure the defense of India. Britain would also fight in Central Asia, Persia, and Tibet because of its fear of losing India. The scramble for Africa became so intense that an international conference (known as the West Africa Conference) was held in Berlin in 1884–85 to prevent military clashes between the European powers. Fig. 1.1 World trade did not surpass its 1873 peak until the 1970s (total exports as a share of world output). Source: Bank for International Settlements By the eve of World War I, all of Africa except for Ethiopia and Liberia had been brought under European control.
The Internationalists: How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World by Oona A. Hathaway, Scott J. Shapiro
9 dash line, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, bank run, Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, humanitarian revolution, index card, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game
It divides the total amount of conquered territory per year, as defined above, into four categories: (1) Transfers recognized by a majority of other states that were “sticky”—that is, not later reversed (we count a transfer as having reversed if the same or nearly the same territory returned to the state that lost it).17 (2) Transfers that were recognized by a majority of other states but where the territory later transferred back (sometimes decades later). (3) Transfers not recognized by a majority of other states but that were nonetheless sticky. (4) Transfers that were not recognized by a majority of other states and later reversed. In the early 1800s, the amount of territory seized ranged between 810,000 and 1.77 million square kilometers a decade. After a brief slowdown in the 1850s and 1860s, that number shot up to between 5.9 million and 8.8 million square kilometers a decade for the rest of the century—a good deal of it caused by the European scramble for Africa. Figure 1: Territory Conquered Per Decade (in Square Kilometers) The pace of conquest slowed in the early 1900s, but only relative to the acquisitiveness of the late 1800s. Military seizure of land remained both common and legally sanctioned. This was true during the continuing colonization of Africa by the United Kingdom and France. It was true when an emergent Japan launched aggressions against Korea and Russia.
In the Old World Order, if a colony managed to gain independence from its imperial overlord, it exposed itself to takeover by another power. Some vulnerable territories acquiesced in the establishment of protectorates that would permit them some measure of self-governance for this reason. In a world where conquest was common, a colonial “protectorate” offered the subjugated state security against would-be conquerors. During the scramble for Africa, for instance, local leaders frequently agreed to the creation of protectorates as a defensive move to prevent more aggressive assertions of authority. With the outlawry of war, however, colonies no longer had to worry that they would be reconquered if they became independent. In a world where aggressive war was illegal, protectorates offered little that an independent state could not obtain on its own.
America in the World by Robert B. Zoellick
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Corn Laws, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hypertext link, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty
“Whoever understands that mighty empire… has a key to world politics for the next five centuries.”10 Although Hay knew Europe well, his name will forever be associated with a problem arising from U.S. diplomacy in East Asia: He assumed office as China’s last dynasty was crumbling and foreign powers were threatening to carve China into “concessions” and colonies. Hay called it “the great game of spoliation.”11 The European powers were just completing their “scramble for Africa,” during which they had divided some ten million square miles and 110 million Africans into thirty new colonies and protectorates.12 The big powers grasped for pieces of China next. The starting gun for the scramble for China had been sounded, however, by Japan and Russia, not the Western Europeans. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, the fast-rising and modernizing Japanese had easily overwhelmed Chinese fleets and troops in a dispute over the Korean peninsula.
Tong, “China’s Conditions at the Peace Conference,” Millard’s Review of the Far East 4, no. 9 (April 27, 1918), 305. Variations of this statement are widely cited. See, among others, Parker Thomas Moon, Imperialism and World Politics (New York: Macmillan Company, 1926), 321. 11. Quoted in Zimmermann, First Great Triumph, 446. For the original, see Hay to Paul Dana, March 16, 1899, in Life and Letters of John Hay, vol. 2, 241. 12. See Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: 1876–1912 (New York: Random House, 1991). 13. S. C. M. Paine, The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 2. 14. On Japan’s acquisitions, see Merry, McKinley, 415. 15. For data on China in the nineteenth century, see Merry, McKinley, 414–15. For two superb accounts of the Qing dynasty’s last century, including the Taiping Civil War, see Stephen R.
Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
Privately, Harris was serious about his representation of slave culture, and paid tribute to the rich tradition of speech and narrative he was trying to preserve: ‘If the language of Uncle Remus fails to give vivid hints of the really poetic imagination of the Negro’, Harris wrote, then he would have failed to capture its essence. 6 The half-century between the American Civil War and the First World War saw two contrasting, but equally humiliating, sets of experience for black people in the English-speaking world. In Africa, Britain became engaged on an imperial competition, the ‘scramble for Africa’, with rival European powers that saw the whole continent subjugated to colonial rule. In America, meanwhile, the slaves, finally liberated in December 1865, found themselves catapulted from servitude to legal equality and then reduced to a state almost as degrading as slavery. Four million African-Americans were freed at the end of the Civil War, and an old English legal phrase, ‘civil rights’, entered the American lexicon for the first time.
Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
After the Congress of Berlin, Great Britain came away with a string of territories stretching in an almost unbroken chain from the Cape to Cairo (including present-day Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, as well as Nigeria and Ghana); Germany staked its claim in East Africa (Namibia and Tanzania); while France consolidated control over much of western Africa (Chad, Mauritania, and French Equatorial Africa). Up until then, the European powers had confined themselves largely to the African coast. But now they hoped to penetrate the interior, superimposing new territorial boundaries that bore little relation to the existing cultural boundaries under which the indigenous African population had lived for generations. The great European Scramble for Africa, as it has come to be known, would set in motion a series of geopolitical conflicts that would reverberate for decades to come—not just in Africa, but all over the world. Belgium also took part in the Congress of Berlin. King Leopold’s son, King Leopold II, had ascended the throne in 1865, bringing with him a zeal for colonial expansion. “Belgium doesn’t exploit the world,” he once said to an adviser.
The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher
Official figures showed that in the first few months alone 5,198 men from the invading Austro-Hungarian force were killed or wounded. In keeping with its history of resistance, Herzegovina was one of the last regions to fall to the new occupiers. The Austro-Hungarians claimed their occupation of Bosnia was a philanthropic act of civilisation, a ‘cultural mission’, as they put it rather prosaically. Like so much colonialism of the era – the Scramble for Africa was taking place at the same time – outsiders routinely presented themselves as being committed to upliftment, promising to modernise, reform and advance the local population. But, just as in Africa, the philanthropy turned out to be largely a sham. Furthermore, the Ottoman legacy in Bosnia brought out many Western prejudices against Islam, the implicit message being that a Christian nation would necessarily make good the cruel, corrupt, conservative incompetence of Muslim rule.
A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey
Germany and Sweden were the best examples of this ‘new protectionism’ – famously called the ‘marriage of iron and rye’ in Germany. When the unequal treaties they had signed upon independence expired in the 1870s and the 1880s, the Latin American countries introduced rather high protective tariffs (30–40 per cent). However, elsewhere in the ‘periphery’, the forced free trade we talked about earlier spread much further. European powers competed for parts of the African continent in the ‘scramble for Africa’, while many Asian countries were also taken as colonies (Malaysia, Singapore and Myanmar by Britain; Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos by France). The British Empire expanded enormously, backed up by its industrial might, leading to the famous saying: ‘The sun never sets on the British Empire.’ Countries like Germany, Belgium, the US and Japan, which had not so far engaged in much colonialism, also joined in.13 Not for nothing is this period also known as the ‘Age of Imperialism’.
The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel
Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration
To prevent such conflict escalating, European statesmen agreed to adopt a common policy on Africa that would minimise misunderstandings. In 1884 they gathered for a series of meetings known as the Berlin Conference, during which they drew borders across the continent, set guidelines about which powers could lay claim to which regions, and established rules for what counted as effective occupation of a territory. The Berlin Conference added considerable impetus to the scramble for Africa. In 1870, only 10 per cent of Africa was under the control of Europeans; by 1914 they had extended their reach across 90 per cent of the continent. Britain controlled a huge swathe of land stretching all the way from the Cape to Cairo, plus Nigeria and a few outposts along the north-west coast. France controlled most of West Africa, Madagascar and part of the equatorial region. Germany took Namibia, Tanzania and Cameroon, while the Portuguese laid claim to Angola and Mozambique, and Belgium ended up with the Congo.
21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari
1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game
.), Christians and Jews in Angevin England: The York Massacre of 1190, Narrative and Contexts (York: York Medieval Press, 2013), 297. 7 Though the quote is often ascribed to Goebbels, it is only fitting that neither I nor my devoted research assistant could verify that Goebbels ever wrote or said it. 8 Hilmar Hoffman, The Triumph of Propaganda: Film and National Socialism, 1933–1945 (Providence: Berghahn Books, 1997), 140. 9 Lee Hockstader, ‘From A Ruler’s Embrace To A Life In Disgrace’, Washington Post, 10 March 1995. 10 Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1991), 616–17. 18. Science Fiction 1 Aldous Huxley, Brave New World (London: Vintage, 2007), ch. 17. 19. Education 1 Wayne A. Wiegand and Donald G. Davis (eds.), Encyclopedia of Library History (New York, London: Garland Publishing, 1994), 432–3. 2 Verity Smith (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature (London, New York: Routledge, 2013), 142, 180. 3 Cathy N.
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
“UK: Ill-Trained, Dangerous and Unaccountable, Amnesty Calls for Complete Overhaul of Enforced Removals by Private Security Companies,” Amnesty International, press release, July 7, 2011. 63Robert Verkaik and Chris Green, “Failed Asylum Seekers Are Abused by Private Security Companies, Says Report,” Independent, July 14, 2008. 64Amelia Gentleman, “Rising Unemployment Puts Cameron’s Work Program in the Spotlight,” Guardian, February 1, 2012. 65Ibid. 66Patrick Butler, “Benefits Sanctions: They’re Absurd and Don’t Work Very Well, Experts Tell MPs,” Guardian, January 9, 2015. 67John Grayson, “Enquiry into Asylum,” House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee report, June 17, 2013. 68Oliver Wright, “Record Number of Prison Deaths ‘Due to Cuts and Overcrowding,’” Independent, October 31, 2014. 69“Child Detained for Two Months ‘By Mistake’ at Mitie Center,” Corporate Watch, February 3, 2015, at corporatewatch.org. 70Miriam Ross, “UK ‘Aid’ Is Financing a Corporate Scramble for Africa,” Ecologist, April 3, 2014. 71Paul Mason, “The Best of Capitalism Is Over for Rich Countries—and for the Poor Ones It Will Be Over by 2060,” Guardian, July 8, 2014. 72Russell Brand, “New Era 4 All,” December 22, 2014, at russellbrand.com. 7Australia 1When I visited Christmas Island, the local publication The Islander published a front-page feature on how to navigate around the animals: “A broom or grass rake is ideal for moving crabs from in front of the vehicle.”
From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional
The harsh lessons of the international system could no longer be kept at bay, not after neighbouring Japan, which most Chinese saw as inferior, trounced China in battle in 1895. At the Chinese port city of Weihaiwei, the Japanese, creeping up overland from the rear, turned China’s own guns on the Chinese fleet in the bay. As Japan secured the choicest spoils of war in the subsequent Treaty of Shimonoseki with China, imperialists elsewhere were further emboldened. The Western scramble for Africa and South-east Asia was already under way. Qing China seemed an even easier picking. Britain forced China to lease it Weihaiwei and the New Territories north of the island of Hong Kong. France established a base on Hainan Island and mining rights across China’s southern provinces. Germany occupied part of Shandong province. Even Italy, a latecomer to Chinese affairs and expansionism in general, demanded territory (although it was successfully rebuffed).
To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland's Global Diaspora, 1750-2010 by T M Devine
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, deindustrialization, deskilling, full employment, ghettoisation, housing crisis, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land tenure, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, railway mania, Red Clydeside, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce
Until his explorations it was commonly believed that the African interior was parched desert inhabited by bloodthirsty savages. Instead, Livingstone presented it as a land suitable for cultivation, settlement and economic development, the whole penetrated by the great Zambesi River along which an immense trade might one day flow.46 Not surprisingly, not only British but leading imperialist politicians throughout Europe seized on this seductive vision. It helped to drive the so-called ‘Scramble for Africa’ between 1885 and 1895, when European states divided the continent up into their own colonial possessions and statesmen often legitimized their predatory behaviour as their response to Livingstone’s famous appeal to intervene in order to rid Africa of the obscenities of the slave trade. Even King Leopold of the Belgians, creator of the Congo Free State which was to become synonymous with appalling abuse and cruelty, invoked Livingstone.47 Yet, though some might describe him as such, Livingstone was no crude imperial propagandist.
The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly
airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
One of the latter in Dahomey established his own court, in which he took bribes to reach a decision before presenting it to the colonial administrator, claiming “the white man will believe anything he says.” In Buganda, the chiefly allies of the British exploited the 1900 agreement to distribute the kingdom’s land among themselves.20 Like today’s donors and postmodern imperialists, the colonizers were outside Planners who could never know the reality on the ground. Like their modern-day counterparts, colonizers often unwittingly destabilized the balance of internal power. Before the scramble for Africa, there had been educated Africans who had some power in colonial regimes. Missionaries founded a university in Sierra Leone, the Fourah Bay College, in 1827. West Africans sent their children there, as well as to London law schools. Many of these graduates held positions in the colonial administrations, including legislative posts in the Gold Coast and Lagos as early as the 1850s. Educated Africans made up nearly half of the senior posts in the 1890s in these two colonies.
The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War
The ultimate irony—and hypocrisy—of labeling China a neocolonial power is that China’s investments in cross-border infrastructures such as the East African Railway, spanning a half-dozen countries, are actually enabling Africans to overcome the artificial and restrictive boundaries they inherited from European colonialism. The fact that Asians are scrambling around Africa does not mean that Europe’s nineteenth-century “scramble for Africa” is being restaged. Asians are racing to connect Africa, not to divide it, building modern infrastructures that both Western multilateral agencies and African governments have been neglecting for decades. Afro-Asian linkages date back many centuries but have never been stronger. Aggressive courting of developing countries by major powers is often assumed to be a “race to the bottom,” but as African countries’ economies grow and their leaders become more pragmatic, shrewd diplomacy among various suitors can drive a race to the top where the winners accrue the most benefits from foreign interests.
Destined for War: America, China, and Thucydides's Trap by Graham Allison
9 dash line, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, game design, George Santayana, Haber-Bosch Process, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, long peace, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, one-China policy, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, UNCLOS, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Zimdahl, Six Chemicals That Changed Agriculture (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015), 60. [back] 43. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 194–96; MacMillan, The War That Ended Peace, 54–55. [back] 44. If Germany was late to the table, it was in large part because Bismarck himself was reticent about colonial adventurism, describing Germany as a “saturated” power with other priorities. In the midst of the “scramble for Africa” in the 1880s, he pointed to a map of Europe and told an explorer, “My map of Africa lies here in Europe. Here lies Russia, and here lies France, and we are right in the middle; this is my map of Africa.” MacMillan, The War That Ended Peace, 80–82; Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 211–13. For an example of resentment at being denied the global status commensurate with its national power, see General Friedrich von Bernhardi’s bestseller Germany and the Next War (New York: Longmans, Green, 1912).
The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World by Oliver Morton
Albert Einstein, Asilomar, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Elon Musk, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, late capitalism, Louis Pasteur, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, renewable energy transition, Scramble for Africa, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus
Canals cut through continents; quarries ate through hillsides; mines hollowed out mountains. And at the century’s close there was a sense of weary, uncomfortable completion. The unknown was exhausted, the known triumphant, and the world felt jaded as much as gilded; fin de siècle had arrived. The frontier that defined America’s challenge and potential, the demographer and historian Frederick Turner told his compatriots, had closed. The scramble for Africa, Europe’s last great theft, was almost over. The British Empire on which the sun never set lacked for that very reason a sunset beyond which to sail. Riches continued to accumulate, quarries to be quarried, mines to be mined. But the age was now one of intensification not extension, one constrained by unaccustomed limits. It was thus in keeping with the times for Sir William Crookes, perhaps Britain’s leading chemist, to draw attention to a limit of planetwide importance.
Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor
If you invade a continent that had previously been largely or entirely left alone, such as Australia or the Americas, you fundamentally disrupt societies every bit as much as if they had been invaded by aliens landing from outer space with unbelievable weapons, incredibly lethal attitudes, and the deadliest of previously unencountered germs. At first there is rapid population decline in the territories that are invaded. The decline is so great that overall worldwide human population slowdown occurs. Look carefully at the decade prior to 1850 to see proof of this. The “scramble for Africa” took place long after the rise of the European slave trade, which was established to populate the Americas with free labor (free in terms of not wage-paid). The transatlantic slave trade devastated Africa. After the initial shock and destruction, the social structures and norms that had developed over centuries across the continent (and everywhere else in the world that was invaded and colonized), norms that had before produced relatively stable populations, broke down.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
140 Ibid. 141 Lutz Kleveman, "The New Great Game’, Guardian, 20 October 2003. 142 Amidon, America’s Strategic Imperative, 72. 143 Michel Chossudovsky points out that ‘In March 1999, the US Congress adopted the Silk Road Strategy Act, which defined America’s broad economic and strategic interests in a region extending from the Eastern Mediterranean to Central Asia. The Silk Road Strategy (SRS) outlines a framework for the development of America’s business empire along an extensive geographical corridor.’ See Michel Chossudovsky, America’s ‘War on Terrorism, Pincourt, Québec: Center for Research on Globalization, 2005. 144 Michael Watts, ‘Empire of Oil: Capitalist Dispossession and the Scramble for Africa’, Monthly Review 58: 4, 2006. 145 Michael Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’, Tom Dispatch, 12 June 2008. 146 See Michael Klare’s books, Blood and Oil, London: Penguin, 2004; and Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy, New York: Metropolitan Books, 2008. 147 Klare, ‘America Out of Gas’. 148 Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’. 149 Ann Wright, An “Enduring” Relationship for Security and Enduring an Occupation for Oil’, truthout.org, 5 December 2007. 150 See stratfor.com; cited in Boal, Clark, Matthews, and Watts, Afflicted Powers, 47. 151 Klare, ‘The Pentagon as Energy Insecurity Inc.’. 152 Dave Webb, ‘Thinking the Worst: The Pentagon Report’, in David Cromwell and Mark Levene, eds, Surviving Climate Change: The Struggle to Avert Global Catastrophe, London: Pluto Press, 2007. 153 Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, ‘An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security’, report to the Pentagon, October 2003, available at www.gbn.com. 154 Ibid. 155 Ibid., 18. 156 Mark Lynas, ‘Food Crisis: How the Rich Starved the World’, RedOrbit.Com, 22 April 2008. 157 As Mark Lynas points out in ‘Food Crisis’, in the 2007–8 period, the world population was growing by 78 million a year. 158 George Monbiot, ‘Credit Crunch?
Profiting Without Producing: How Finance Exploits Us All by Costas Lapavitsas
"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, full employment, global value chain, global village, High speed trading, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, open economy, pensions crisis, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Simon Kuznets, special drawing rights, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, union organizing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
The classical Marxist debates on imperialism were concerned with the sudden surge of European imperial expansion during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, rather than with imperialism as a general historical phenomenon. It should be stressed that this is a merit, in view especially of mainstream theories that have often defined themselves in opposition to the Marxist approach.43 By and large, classical Marxist theories avoided bland historical generalizations and related imperialism to well-defined economic processes of their era. They typically sought to account for phenomena such as the ‘scramble for Africa’ and the rise of militarism among European powers at the end of the nineteenth century. These events had a shocking novelty for societies that had not known a major European war since 1815 and were pervaded by the ideological belief that capitalism meant rational progress in human affairs. It is also worth mentioning that classical Marxist explanations of imperialism shared common ground with the theory advanced by the liberal Hobson in Imperialism, for whom imperialism resulted from underconsumption at home that created the need to send capital abroad.
Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri
Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning
Among the academic disciplines involved in this cultural pro- duction ofalterity, anthropology was perhaps the most important rubric under which the native other was imported to and exported from Europe.22 From the real differences of non-European peoples, nineteenth-century anthropologists constructed an other being of a different nature; differential cultural and physical traits were con- strued as the essence ofthe African, the Arab, the Aboriginal, and 126 P A S S A G E S O F S O V E R E I G N T Y so forth. When colonial expansion was at its peak and European powers were engaged in the scramble for Africa, anthropology and the study ofnon-European peoples became not only a scholarly endeavor but also a broad field for public instruction. The other was imported to Europe—in natural history museums, public exhi- bitions ofprimitive peoples, and so forth—and thus made increas- ingly available for the popular imaginary. In both its scholarly and its popular forms, nineteenth-century anthropology presented non- European subjects and cultures as undeveloped versions ofEurope- ans and their civilization: they were signs ofprimitiveness that represented stages on the road to European civilization.
A Line in the Sand: Britain, France and the Struggle for the Mastery of the Middle East by James Barr
‘I think I carried the day,’ an exhilarated Sykes wrote afterwards to a colleague; ‘you will observe I did not soar beyond very practical politics.’¹⁹ The fact that Britain and France had almost come to blows over a similar territorial dispute less than twenty years before was what made Asquith and his colleagues so anxious to resolve the question of what would happen to the Ottoman Empire, assuming that they won the war. During the closing stages of the scramble for Africa in the 1890s it had been the ownership of the headwaters of the river Nile that was at stake. As a junior minister at that time, the current foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, had warned the French in 1895 that the British government would interpret any move to claim the river’s source as ‘an unfriendly act’.²⁰ The French had mistakenly thought this threat was empty, because the British had lost control of the Sudan to the Mahdi²¹ a decade earlier.
Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, European colonialism, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, very high income, War on Poverty
The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 is estimated to have taken more lives than the contemporary First World War, the most devastating and lethal war in all of history at that point. Diseases have also affected the course of history. Europeans knew of the existence of Africa thousands of years before they learned of the existence of the Western Hemisphere. Yet European empires were established in the Western Hemisphere hundreds of years before the “scramble for Africa” began in the late nineteenth century and led to European colonial empires that extended throughout the continent. Diseases had much to do with the differing fates of these different regions of the world. Microorganisms that most of the humans involved knew nothing about at the time were, in effect, on the side of the Europeans during their conquests in the Western Hemisphere. But microorganisms were on the side of the indigenous peoples in tropical Africa.
When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
In 1498 Vasco da Gama called at Mombasa en route for India, but it was not until 1574 that the Portuguese founded the city of Luanda in Angola. Dutch settlers founded the colony of Cape Town in South Africa in 1652. The slave trade flourished between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, as mentioned earlier in this chapter, largely from a West African base. In the late nineteenth century the discovery of mineral wealth on the continent led to the SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 565 “scramble for Africa,” and the whole of the continent (except for Liberia and Ethiopia) was under foreign domination by 1900. The European powers met in Berlin in 1884 and agreed on boundaries and spheres of influence. The British claimed West African colonies such as Ghana and Nigeria, East African ones such as Kenya, and Botswana in the south, as well as South Africa itself. The French took central African regions such as Chad, Gabon and Brazzaville Congo, and the Belgians acquired the Congo River Basin.
The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf
agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl
Map 4 The Phoenician Mediterranean At one time archaeologists wrote this story in a different way, looking back from what they felt was the densely urbanized classical Mediterranean in the fifth century. That urbanized world had its roots, they believed, in the sowing of colonies by Phoenicians and especially Greeks, and the eighth and seventh centuries were presented as something like the nineteenth-century scramble for Africa when Great Powers in Europe competed to claim different parts of the continent. The creation of new cities in the west was described in terms of colonization, while the century or so before was described as an epoch of proto-colonization or precolonization, or with the phrase “trade before the flag,” another allusion to modern European imperial expansion. Antiquity was not like that. Not only was the ancient Mediterranean never densely urbanized, but there was no great plan to claim different portions for Greeks or Phoenicians.30 Only a few Greek communities ever explored the west.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
See Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 19 Meek, Land Law and Custom, pp. 13–14. 20 Colson, “Impact of the Colonial Period,” p. 202. 21 Thomas J. Bassett and Donald E. Crummey, Land in African Agrarian Systems (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 9–10. 22 Colson, “Impact of the Colonial Period,” pp. 196–97; Meek, Land Law and Custom, p. 12. 23 During the scramble for Africa that began in the 1870s, European powers sought to build administrative systems on the cheap by using networks of local leaders to enforce rules, conscript corvée labor, and collect capitation taxes. See Mahmood Mamdani, Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). 24 Vinogradoff, Historical Jurisprudence, p. 351. 25 Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer, pp. 150–51. 26 These examples are ibid., pp. 150–69. 27 Bruce L.
Empire of Guns by Priya Satia
banking crisis, British Empire, business intelligence, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game
British diplomats opposed British sales in the Balkans and South America, but the British dominated the naval arms trade all over, remaining the most powerful force in the global arms market. The most valuable part of the British arms trade gravitated toward the Indian Ocean, including East Africa. Ottoman tensions spilled into East Africa, where Ethiopia clashed with Ottoman Egypt. Britain futilely opposed French and Italian arms sales in the region; the ensuing scramble for Africa exacerbated Great Power rivalries. British complaints about arms sales met with unanswerable French reminders that Britain had only recently led arms sales to the Continent. Rebels in British territories had French rifles. After the Ottoman Empire’s failure to pay caused collapse of American rifle firms, arms companies obtained banking partners that gave loans to client states. Cartels formed as business alliances emerged to divide up world markets.
Gnomon by Nick Harkaway
Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Burning Man, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, fault tolerance, fear of failure, gravity well, high net worth, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, lifelogging, neurotypical, pattern recognition, place-making, post-industrial society, Potemkin village, Richard Feynman, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, the market place, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl
My friend Tamirat had designed this sideroglyph and was the toast of our little circle for his wit – and, to be fair, for his execution, because it isn’t easy to convey ‘mmm’ so clearly with just a single impression of a mouth, but he had. My city was making its way in the world, becoming for the first time in hundreds of years a de rigueur stop on the travels of the powerful and the scholarly. This was the nation that had fought off the Scramble for Africa; that had its roots in the line of Solomon and now saw its modernity rushing outwards to a time of space ships and orbital colonies: the upwelling, rising, dawning Ethiopia of Haile Selassie. Our very existence, obtruding upon the consciousness of the US of A, was changing the vexed discussion of race in that country, and if our footballers had not delivered in the Cup of Nations for a decade, well, we had promising youngsters, and their coach was the sublime Mengistu Worku.
Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power by Steve Coll
addicted to oil, anti-communist, Atul Gawande, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Google Earth, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, kremlinology, market fundamentalism, McMansion, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart meter, statistical model, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks
London: Zed Books, 2008. Friedman, Thomas L. Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—And How It Can Renew America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008. Gallagher, Kelly Sims. Acting in Time on Energy Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2009. Gellman, Barton. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. New York: Penguin Press, 2008. Ghazvinian, John. Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil. New York: Harcourt, 2007. Goldman, Marshall I. Petrostate: Putin, Power, and the New Russia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992. Hale, William E., Robert H. Davis, and Mike Long. One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years of History: ExxonMobil. Irving, TX: ExxonMobil Corp., 2007. Halperin, Mark, and John F.
Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World by Margaret Macmillan; Richard Holbrooke; Casey Hampton
Albert Einstein, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, facts on the ground, financial independence, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Scramble for Africa, trade route, traveling salesman, union organizing
Britain and France had already made their deal on the Middle East with the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916. The unexpected collapse of the Ottoman empire, however, stirred up old dreams and old rivalries. The bickering, which dragged on through 1919, was about more than territory. It was about Joan of Arc and William the Conqueror, the Heights of Abraham and Plassy, about the Crusades, about Napoleon in Egypt and Nelson’s destruction of his fleet at the Battle of the Nile, about the scramble for Africa, which had so nearly led to war over Fashoda, Sudan, in 1898, and about the competition for influence between French and Anglo-Saxon civilization. Lloyd George, a Liberal turned land-grabber, made it worse. Like Napoleon, he was intoxicated by the possibilities of the Middle East: a restored Hellenic world in Asia Minor; a new Jewish civilization in Palestine; Suez and all the links to India safe from threat; loyal and obedient Arab states along the Fertile Crescent and the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates; protection for British oil supplies from Persia and the possibility of new sources under direct British control; the Americans obligingly taking mandates here and there; the French doing what they were told.
Arabs: A 3,000 Year History of Peoples, Tribes and Empires by Tim Mackintosh-Smith
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, invention of movable type, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, New Urbanism, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scramble for Africa, trade route
Logically, the fact that he and Bashshar al-Asad are Arabs killing Arabs whereas the hanging judge of Dinshaway was a Brit killing Arabs shouldn’t come into the calculation of relative wickedness. But it does. Where civil liberties do not exist, the void where they should be is often occupied by national pride. And wounds to national pride – wounds inflicted by outsiders – can be made to hurt out of all proportion to the deaths they cause. KINGS AND CARPET-BAGGERS Following their successes in the earlier scramble for Africa, Britain and France had now emerged as joint winners in the scrummage for the Near East. This did not mean the end of Arab nationalism; on the contrary, it energized the movement. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s protests and revolts fizzed and rumbled against the imperial occupiers, at times violently. In Morocco, where Spain also claimed protectorates over areas of the northern coast and south-western desert regions (the latter called ‘Spanish Sahara’), a bloody war was waged between 1921 and 1926 by the Berbers of the northern Rif Mountains against both the Spanish and the French colonialists; it failed, however, to ignite the rest of the population, and was put down by the two European powers working in tandem.
Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey
Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra
But then Diamond confuses enrichment of ordinary people based on trade-tested betterment after 1800 with the merely financial “betterment” from conquest after 1492, based on (primitive) guns, (non-intentionally spread) germs, and (a little bit of expensive) steel, including horses and a loony Christian conviction of superiority, inflicted by an aristocratic Spain on a New World ill-prepared on all counts. The persistent macho and deadly notion that power will cause plenty is popular among historians. But the truth is the other way around: plenty can budget for repeating rifles and ironclad ships, which lead to dominion over palm and pine. Yet such dominion, like war itself, makes for scarcity, not plenty. As the British Foreign Office kept warning during the scramble for Africa, guns are expensive in housing and education forgone. The “domination” on which Ferguson, Diamond, David Landes, Charles Kindleberger, Samuel Huntington, Ian Morris, and Paul Kennedy focus confounds empire with enrichment, violence with mutual benefit—the privilege of insulting the southern subalterns confused with high incomes for the Europeans back home. Mixing up political domination with economic enrichment has been an analytic mistake from the Hobson-Luxemburg left around 1900 to the Landes-Ferguson right around 2000.
Wealth and Poverty of Nations by David S. Landes
"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, business cycle, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, computer age, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, land tenure, lateral thinking, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game
The Middle East: 2,000 Tears of History from the Rise of Christianity to the Present Day. L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d & N i c o l s o n . Lewis, C o l i n M . 1 9 8 5 . "Railways a n d Industrialization: A r g e n t i n a a n d Brazil, 1 8 7 0 - 1 9 2 9 , " in A b e l a n d L e w i s , e d s . , Latin America, pp. 199-230. L e w i s , D a v i d L e v e r i n g . 1 9 8 7 . The Race to Fashoda: European Colonialism and African Resistance in the Scramble for Africa. N e w York: W e i d e n f e l d & N i c o l s o n . L e w i s , G w y n n e . 1 9 9 4 . " P r o t o - i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n in F r a n c e , " Econ. Hist. Rev., 4 7 , 1: 150-64. L e w i s , P a u l H . 1 9 9 0 . The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. C h a p e l Hill: Univ. o f N o r t h Carolina Press. L e w i s , W. A r t h u r . [ 1 9 6 9 ] . Aspects of Tropical Trade 1883-1965.
Europe: A History by Norman Davies
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl
But the source of the Nile, which watered the land of the Pharaohs, was not properly identified until 1888. Missionary explorers such as David Livingstone could still be lost in the 1870s for years on end. Contrary to European belief, Africa was devoid neither of organized government nor of ordered religion; and a huge variety of languages and cultures belied the idea that all Africans were Stone Age savages. However, the ‘scramble for Africa’ took place on the assumption that the land and the peoples were there for the taking. Such was the discrepancy in military technology that even the venerable kingdoms of West Africa could offer no more resistance than the Aztecs and Incas. Abyssinia was the only native empire to maintain its independence, perhaps because it adhered to Coptic Christianity. China, which possessed the most ancient civilization in the world, also possessed an Emperor whom the European governments recognized.