ride hailing / ride sharing

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pages: 373 words: 112,822

The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World by Brad Stone

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, collaborative consumption, East Village, fixed income, Google X / Alphabet X, housing crisis, inflight wifi, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Necker cube, obamacare, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

“Patent US6356838—System and Method for Determining an Efficient Transportation Route,” March 12, 2002, http://www.google.com/patents/US6356838. 20. There were other ridesharing companies that preceded Sidecar. Starting in 2010, one San Francisco service, called Homobile, offered transvestite performers and members of the gay community rides and solicited donations as payment. Sunil Paul says he tried the service on a trip to the airport in 2011. 21. “Travis Kalanick of Uber,” This Week in Startups, YouTube video, August 16, 2011, https://youtu.be/550X5OZVk7Y. 22. Tomio Geron, “Ride-Sharing Startups Get California Cease and Desist Letters,” Forbes, October 8, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2012/10/08/ride-sharing-startups-get-california-cease-and-desist-letters/#767d66027e81. 23. Jeff McDonald and Ricky Young, “State Investigator Lays Out Developing Criminal Case Against Former PUC President,” Los Angeles Times, December 29, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-watchdog-peevey-20151230-story.html. 24.

Sfcda.com/CPUC, January 11, 2013, http://sfcda.com/CPUC/Lyft_CPUC_SED_IntAGR.pdf. 25. Brian X. Chen, “Uber to Roll Out Ride Sharing in California,” Bits Blog, New York Times, January 31, 2013, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/31/uber-rideshare/. 26. Travis Kalanick, “@johnzimmer You’ve Got a Lot of Catching Up,” Twitter, March 19, 2013, https://twitter.com/travisk/status/314079323478962176. 27. David Pierson, “Uber Fined $7.6 Million by California Utilities Commission,” Los Angeles Times, January 14, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-tn-uber-puc-20160114-story.html. 28. “Order Instituting Rulemaking on Regulations Relating to Passenger Carriers, Ridesharing, and New Online-Enabled Transportation Services,” Cpuc.ca.gov, September 19, 2013, http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/PublishedDocs/Published/G000/M077/K112/77112285.PDF. 29.

In December, Baidu announced it was making an investment in Uber and that Uber would now run on the more dependable Baidu Maps in China.16 The strategy seemed to work, at first. With Didi and Kuaidi consumed with their merger, Uber started gaining ground on the strength of ridesharing and clawed its way to what it estimated was 30 percent of the Chinese market for on-demand transportation apps. As usual, there was drama. Taxi drivers went on strike in half a dozen cities, including Changchun, Nanjing, and Chengdu.17 The police raided Uber offices in Guangzhou and Chongqing.18 In January 2015, the country’s Ministry of Transport ruled that private car owners were not allowed to use ride-hailing apps for profit. But strangely, Uber and its rivals were allowed to continue to operate. The Chinese government showed little appetite for a total crackdown. It wasn’t going to exterminate a service that promised to address the country’s considerable transportation woes.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

project=innovative-mobility-carsharing-outlook-summer-2015. 187 Totten, Kristy (2015-07-01) "The Quiet Exit of Downtown Car-Sharing Venture Shift." Las Vegas Weekly. http://lasvegasweekly.com/as-we-see-it/2015/jul/01/shift-downtown-car-sharing-venture-exits-zach-ware/#.VaCICA7q0Qc.twitter 188 Some have tried to change the language, since ridesharing implies carpooling, preferring to call them "ride-hailing" or "ride-sourcing" services, we think the misleading term "ridesharing" is here to stay. 189 How does Lyft (or any other Transportation Network Company) work? From the perspective of the user (1 and 2 are one-time) the following is the sequence: 1. Download the App. 2. Enter the required info 3. Open the App and summon a Ride. 4. Get in the Lyft vehicle when it arrives (the driver will usually call to confirm pickup location/time), it has a small mustache in the window. 5.

Figure 8.2 shows trends on carsharing in North America.186 It is not clear where market saturation is, and whether the dip in 2015 is just a data issue or indicative that perhaps ridesharing is stealing some carsharing thunder. Notably carsharing company Shift shuttered in Las Vegas in mid-2015.187  Sharing Rides If carsharing was a warm and fuzzy name for modern car rental services, 'ridesharing' is a warmer and fuzzier name for modern taxi services.188 The terminology for this service is still in flux, sometimes the terms ‘ridehailing' or 'ridesourcing' are used rather than ‘ridesharing' to cool and de-fuzzify it. You might have thought ridesharing was the same as carpooling. And it is, if you think of modern ridesharing drivers as your friends giving you a lift (or in the name of one company a Lyft), not for money, but for a voluntary donation or paying for half the costs, like the carpooling service and app Carma enables.

Re/Code. http://recode.net/2015/07/18/how-didi-kuaidi-plans-to-destroy-uber-in-china/ 193 A longer discussion of our skepticism is here: Levinson (2014-12-01) "It is a Small Market After All" Transportationist blog. http://transportationist.org/2014/12/01/its-a-small-market-after-all-es-gibt-einen-kleinen-markt-uber-alles/ 194 French, Sally (2015-07-01) "An 8-year-old's take on 'Uber for kids'" MarketWatch https://secure.marketwatch.com/story/an-8-year-olds-take-on-uber-for-kids-2015-07-01 195 Zimmerman, Eilene (2016-04-13) "Ride-Hailing Start-Ups Compete in ‘Uber for Children’ Niche” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/14/business/smallbusiness/ride-sharing-start-ups-compete-in-uber-for-children-niche.html 196 Hatmaker, Taylor (2014-09-08) "Taxi service by women for women launching in New York." The Daily Dot. http://www.dailydot.com/business/sherides-shetaxis-uber-women-nyc/ 197 Apparently Based on this NPR story (2013-10-24) In Most Every European Country Bikes are Outselling Cars http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2013/10/24/240493422/in-most-every-european-country-bikes-are-outselling-cars 198 We use the term "bike" to mean the traditional human-powered "bicycle," unless otherwise noted as in e-bike or motor-bike. 199 National Bike Dealers Association (2012) Industry Overview http://nbda.com/articles/industry-overview-2012-pg34.htm 200 ACS numbers are undoubtedly an under-report of bike travel, but the number remains small.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

On the Move with Uber There is one sector of the Sharing Economy that is bigger than ­accommodation, and that’s transit, and specifically ridesharing. Just as Airbnb dominates the accommodation market, so Uber dominates ridesharing, but Uber did not create its market in the way Airbnb did. The story of ridesharing is of a set of companies learning from and competing with each other until one emerged victorious. But before ridesharing came carsharing. Carsharing is people getting time-limited access to a car, while ridesharing is a person being a passenger in a car driven by someone else. Just as “sharing economy” is no longer a realistic description, so ridesharing is not accurate, to the point that the Associated Press stylebook explicitly says not to use it to describe Uber. Some have taken to calling this model “ridesourcing”;1 the AP stylebook suggests ride-hailing or ride-booking services. Nevertheless, the phrase “ridesharing,” inaccurate as it may be, is still more widely used and I will use it, without the scare quotes.

Time, for example, wrote that “Today, millions of people are driving around in cars with empty seats while millions of others lack affordable auto transportation options. Lyft aims to bridge that gap.” 11 Lyft themselves encouraged the conflation of their business model with non-commercial activities like carpooling: when the service was first launched in 2012 journalist Liz Gannes asked John Zimmer about insurance and regulation, and he replied “our understanding is that when it’s ride-sharing, you can use your personal insurance policy. As for regulation, a lot of state laws are supportive of carpooling and ride-sharing and want to make that work.” 12 But of course most Lyft drivers were not giving a lift to people who happened to be going in the same direction, and they were not saving money, they were driving to make money. Things became quickly clearer: in July 2013 the company sold off the original Zimride business to Enterprise Rent-A-Car to focus on Lyft.13 Every now and then passengers would not make the suggested donation, and bad feelings and bitterness would ensue, so in late 2013 Lyft ditched its voluntary donation system and replaced it with a fare system.

Accessed May 22, 2015. http://allthingsd.com/20131116/competition-brings-lyft-sidecar-and-uber-closer-to-cloning-each-other-and-cabs/. ———. “Lyft Sells Zimride Carpool Service to Rental-Car Giant Enterprise.” AllThingsD, July 12, 2013. http://allthingsd.com/20130712/lyft-sells-zimride-carpool-service-to-rental-car-giant-enterprise/. ———. “Zimride Turns Regular Cars Into Taxis With New Ride-Sharing App, Lyft,” May 22, 2012. http://allthingsd.com/20120522/zimride-turns-regular-cars-into-taxis-with-new-ride-sharing-app-lyft/. Gans, Joshua. “Is Uber Really in a Fight to the Death?” Digitopoly, November 25, 2014. http://www.digitopoly.org/2014/11/25/is-uber-really-in-a-fight-to-the-death/. Gansky, Lisa. The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing. Portfolio / Penguin, 2010. Gardner, Sue. “Wikipedia at 10: A Web Pioneer Worth Defending.” The Guardian.


pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

siteedition=uk#axzz3QsbvnchO. 190 “BlaBlaCar drivers don’t make a profit”: Laura Wagner, “What Does French Ride-Sharing Company BlaBlaCar Have That Uber Doesn’t,” Two-Way, September 16, 2015, http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/09/16/440919462/what-has-french-ride-sharing-company-blablacar-got-that-uber-doesnt. 190 the average BlaBlaCar trip is 200 miles: “BlaBlaCar: Something to Chat About,” Economist, October 22, 2015, http://www.economist.com/news/business/21676816-16-billion-french-startup-revs-up-something-chat-about. 191 operating in twenty-one countries: BlaBlaCar, accessed February 5, 2017, https://www.blablacar.com. 191 facilitating over 10 million rides every quarter: Rawn Shah, “Driving Ridesharing Success at BlaBlaCar with Online Community,” Forbes, February 21, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/rawnshah/2016/02/21/driving-ridesharing-success-at-blablacar-with-online-community/#5271e05b79a6. 191 $550 million in investor funding: Yoolim Lee, “Go-Jek Raises Over $550 Million in KKR, Warburg-Led Round,” Bloomberg, last modified August 5, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-08-04/go-jek-said-to-raise-over-550-million-in-kkr-warburg-led-round. 191 $15: Steven Millward, “China’s Top ‘Uber for Laundry’ Startup Cleans Up with $100M Series B Funding,” Tech in Asia, August 7, 2015, https://www.techinasia.com/china-uber-for-laundry-edaixi-100-million-funding. 191 100,000 orders per day: Emma Lee, “Tencent-Backed Laundry App Edaixi Nabs $100M USD from Baidu,” TechNode, August 6, 2015, http://technode.com/2015/08/06/edaixi-series-b. 191 twenty-eight cities with a combined 110 million residents: Edaixi, accessed February 5, 2017, http://www.edaixi.com/home/about.

‡ For a variety of reasons, car quality has improved tremendously since 1970, so it’s not as common to hear the term “lemon” used in this way as it was back then. § The French long-distance ride-sharing company BlaBlaCar incorporates particularly precise ratings. Its name comes from the ability of drivers and passengers to communicate their talking preferences in their profiles: “Bla” if they do not like to talk with the other people in the car, “BlaBla” if they like to talk a little, and “BlaBlaBla” if they’re quite chatty. Rawn Shah, “Driving Ridesharing Success at BlaBlaCar with Online Community,” Forbes, February 21, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/rawnshah/2016/02/21/driving-ridesharing-success-at-blablacar-with-online-community/#73ea3e4679a6. ¶ Benjamin Edelman, Michael Luca, and Dan Svirsky found in an experiment that Airbnb hosts were, on average, 16% less likely to rent to prospective guests whose newly created profiles included a distinctively African American name.

The company has one app for riders, which lets them hail drivers, and a separate app for drivers, which lets them find riders. People who sign up for ride hailing via Uber don’t directly benefit if other people adopt the same app, the way they do when their friends adopt WhatsApp. Instead, what ride hailers care about is the number of drivers who sign up for a different app, the companion app that enables them to find riders. Having more drivers on the rider-finding app increases the likelihood that an available car will be nearby, and therefore makes the service more attractive to people using the ride-hailing app; it shifts out the app’s demand curve. Without such a shift, there really wouldn’t be much demand at all: a ride-hailing app that somehow managed to get millions of users but was connected to zero actual drivers would not be very attractive to these ride hailers.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Unconstrained platforms will have result in more creativity (more of the good kind and more of the junky kind). GoLoco failed because people in the United States were uninterested in ridesharing. It took a while for us to figure that out. Maybe we just had to work smarter. We narrowed our offering and targeted our marketing so that we might be able to force success in a specific niche and expand from that foothold, a strategy I highly recommend to start-ups seeking to build a critical mass. The smaller the niche, the smaller the critical mass needed to prove success. For GoLoco, we focused first on a specific geography (radiating from Boston, and the Boston-New York corridor), then on certain demographic market segments (working closely with universities to be their ridesharing provider; partnering with conferences, concerts, and sports events). Throughout the first year, there were glimmers of encouragement.

See Reviews reCAPTCHA, 27–28, 29 Red Hook initiative, 245–246 Regulations outdated, 151–152, 155–156 overregulation, 150 platform’s process for not adhering, 132 proposals to police websites, 158–159 self-governing, 153–155 taxis vs. Uber, 149–151 through decentralized leader-free “voting,” 216–217 Requests for proposals (RFPs), vs. asking for solutions, 171 Retail model, 237–238 Reviews creating meritocracy, 55 eBay, 103 rideshare companies, 154 Reward system, decentralized, based on digitized data, 214–215 Rickshaws, auto, 239–243 Ridesharing disinterest, 108–109 as inevitability, 188 mechanisms for regulating, 153–154 See also BlaBlaCar; GoLoco; LaZooz Rock cairns, as metaphor for sharing innovation, 224–225 Romero, Carlos, 251–252 Rosetta Stone, 79 SaferCar, 41 Sainsbury’s, 179 St. Paul, Minnesota, 170–171 Sanger, Larry, 110 Schneier, Bruce, 114–115, 126 Searls, Doc, 117 Seikatsu, 203 Shadow IT, defined, 152 Sharing best practices, 128–129 rebranding word, 12 as tapping excess capacity, 16–19 theses, 11 See also Collaborative economy; Openness Sinai, Nick, 42, 172 Skype as excess capacity, 23–24 growth compared to WhatsApp, 112–113 Smartphones excess capacity uses, 25–27, 48–49 as platform for sustainability, 87 Social media growth of monthly users, 113 incentivizing use for LaZooz, 215 transforming political activism, 83–84 See also Facebook; LinkedIn; Meetup; Twitter Software customer-facing, 14–15 open.

Small failures are more appropriately categorized as iterative learning, not failure at all, and are fundamental to earning success. But big failure is not fun; it’s better to learn from other people’s big failures. So here’s my failure at building a successful platform for participation that didn’t get past phase one. I started raising money for GoLoco in 2006, and in April 2007 we launched it with a little over $1 million in investment capital thanks to angel investors who believed in me. GoLoco was going to do for ridesharing (short-distance carpooling and long-distance hitchhiking) what Zipcar had done for sharing cars. We were going to make sharing a car trip easy, fun, and financially rewarding. Technology, great marketing, and branding would make it possible. GoLoco would make use of all those empty car seats available in the 80 percent of cars that are occupied only by the driver. Branding is important to me, so I spent lots of time choosing the right name.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Uber is very much a market economy, as is Getaround (although environmental concerns might lead one to use these as substitutes for auto ownership); BlaBlaCar and Lyft have some gift economy aspects to them, as does Bandwagon, a platform for sharing yellow cabs in New York, and Hitch, a carpooling network acquired by Lyft in 2015. Natalie Foster, the founder of the (then) sharing economy collective action platform Peers.org, quotes a Peers member named Justin, a ride-share driver in Los Angeles, who calls the ride-sharing experience a positive force in his life: “Often times because of how we run so close in our circles, we sometimes shut ourselves off from interactions with new people. Ride sharing has allowed me to interact with people whom I would never have met.”45 The sharing economy is thus diverse not just in its industries, services and business models, but on the market-to-gift spectrum as well. It is neither the exclusive domain of altruistic givers nor full-steam-ahead capitalists.

Co-founded in 2013 by Matan Field, Oren Sokolowsky, and Shay Zluf, La’Zooz is (as of 2015) a decentralized peer-to-peer ridesharing marketplace that takes a novel approach to this problem. (The platform is based in Israel, and the word “lazuz” means “to move” in Hebrew.) Think about a service like Uber. Sure, there’s value in the technology, but eventually, the system is more valuable to passengers when there are more drivers; and the system is valuable to drivers when there are more passengers. So a critical “input” into such a ridesharing system is user participation. Correspondingly, the users who “seed” the system with early participation are likely to be more valuable, at the margin, than those who join later. La’Zooz has created what seems to be a familiar-looking mobile device app for ridesharing, but with a key difference: embedded in each app is a “mining app” as well, designed to encourage early participation.

Do we need a government-provided basic income? Or is there some clever new public-private partnership model that can make benefits portable and stabilize people’s incomes over time? BlaBlaCar—Global Infrastructure Built on Trust Interestingly, Lyft’s original business plan wasn’t about transforming urban and suburban transportation. Rather, it was started by Zimmer and CEO Logan Green as Zimride, a city-to-city ridesharing system, and “pivoted,” as the Silicon Valley folks say when shifting to a new business model, after the original idea didn’t gain traction fast enough in the United States. Meanwhile, the idea of using an app to hitch a ride to another city in a stranger’s car is hugely popular in Europe and other parts of the world. The company that dominates that market—by connecting drivers who have empty seats in their cars with passengers who want to buy them, and moving, as of 2015, more people every day than the US national rail system Amtrak—is France-based BlaBlaCar.


pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

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business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

Charging meaningful parking fees, not raising residential densities, is the key to discouraging car trips and encouraging transit, walking, or bike trips, claims one civil engineer.18 In San Francisco, 95 percent of workers whose employers charged for parking and offered public transit vouchers commuted by public transit.19 Extremely high parking fees have been remarkably effective at the University of California–Davis in persuading commuters to ride bikes instead of drive.20 RIDESHARING AND CARPOOLING A good example of the need for pairing tactics that discourage driver-only trips and encourage travel choice is the finding that financial parking incentives are essential to persuade the maximum number of people to share rides.21 When a firm in California started charging $30 per month for parking, solo driving dropped from 90 percent to 45 percent, while carpooling jumped from 6 percent to 48 percent.22 Although rideshare incentives have a difficult time competing with free parking, a federal study of employer ride-sharing programs found that vehicle trips declined by an average of 20 percent when the program was introduced.23 In the mid 1990s, carpooling was much more common for shopping, recreation, and other purposes than for work; occurred mostly on multi-purpose trips; and was most efficient when destinations were accessible to each other.24 GUARANTEED RIDE HOME Communities that adopt “guaranteed ride home” programs assure employees a motor vehicle will be available should they have a trip need while at work, such as a family emergency, that they cannot make by walking, bicycling, or public transit.

Concentrating jobs downtown has little effect on reducing car dependence, whereas a balanced mix of jobs and housing downtown results in much less car use.16 Some cities now require developers to provide a certain amount of residential housing in conjunction with downtown office development. Apart from urban downtowns, the highest rates of bicycling and walking occur in neighborhood centers with a jobs and housing balance. (Well-designed “neighborhood centers,” which usually occur at major street intersections, are walkable shopping areas mixed with housing.) Adding retail shops to office-oriented areas further promotes walking, bicycling, ridesharing, and use of public transit by those who live near their work and near the commingled retail and service outlets.17 Here are some persuasive statistics: compared to a development in a remote, sprawled location, new in-town development can reduce vehicle miles traveled by up to 52 percent and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide by up to 81 percent and of volatile organic compounds by up to 316 percent.

When planners, citizens, and elected officials understand how these tactical measures can interact with their particular circumstances, we have the best possible chance to see the quality of our community life maintained, even enhanced, despite what sometimes seems like a tidal wave of growth and development.Because car travel is so heavily subsidized, we drive substantially more than we would if we bore the full cost of our driving, much of which the general public pays for in the form of uncompensated air, water, and noise pollution, crashes, sprawl, the decline of downtowns, and so on. Indeed, scholars in the field of transportation research indicate that we would drive one-third to two-thirds less if these “market distortions” or “underpricing” were eliminated and we had to pay our fair share for driving. Among the many tactics being used or considered for shifting these costs back to motorists are parking fees, ridesharing, guaranteed rides home, trip reduction laws, gasoline taxes, congestion fees, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes.1 PARKING: CASH-OUT PROGRAMS, PARKING ALLOWANCES, AND PARKING FEES Excess parking promotes undesirable levels of solo car travel, makes communities less walkable and less safe, is more costly to businesses, promotes urban sprawl, and degrades an area’s appearance. Our major parking problem today is that developers provide too much.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

See also pricing provider incentives, 105 QuickBooks, 18 QR (quick response) codes, 163 RadioShack, 184 rating systems, 143 recruitment business, 124 regulatory environment, 140 reseller platforms, 107–108 restaurant reservation systems, 7–8, 9–14 retail design in, 186–187 ecosystems, 104–105 frictions in, in China, 61–63 future of, 204 omnichannel, 194–196 reinvention of, 193–196 transformation of from multisided platforms, 183–196 waves of disruption in, 187–188 See also shopping malls RetailNext, 183 ride-sharing apps. See BlaBlaCar; Didi Kuaidi; Uber Rochet, Jean-Charles, 14–15, 17, 22, 27, 30 Rohlfs, Jeffrey, 22–23 ROKR, 113 Rosebar nightclub, Buenos Aires, 96 Safaricom, 168, 169, 172 Samsung Pay, 163 Schumpeter, Joseph A., 49 screening devices, 124–125 Sculley, Arthur B., 65 search diversion, 129 search engines, 42, 93–94 matching algorithms in, 127 pricing, 97 shopping and, 185–186 Sears, 184 self-supply, 80 sexual predators, 139–140 sharing economy, 197–198, 203–205 shopping, changing style of, 183–196 shopping malls, 17–18, 129–133 anchor stores in, 80, 130, 131 creative destruction of, 184, 192–193 designing, 121–122 ecosystems for, 103 ignition strategies in, 80 layout of, 132–133 marquee participants in, 125 pricing, 94, 95 search diversion in, 129 store selection for, 131–132 signaling devices, 127 single-sided businesses, 16 coordination problem in, 69, 70 ecosystems for, 104–106 pricing in, 89–91 Sir John Barnard’s Act, 140–142 sixdegrees.com, 28 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 56 smartphones, 19–20, 41, 48–49 apps, 47–48 broadband development and, 42–43 creative destruction and, 204 ecosystems for, 101–102, 110–119 iPhone, 100 mobile payment systems, 58, 149–150 shopping changed by, 183–196 social networking first-mover advantage in, 28 governance of, 135–136, 137–138, 145–148 See also Facebook Soffer, Donald, 121 Soffer, Harry, 121 Solomon, Bob, 68 Sony, 23, 26–27 Southdale Center, 122 standards, technology, 22–23, 41–42, 126–127 Starbucks, 163 stock brokers, 139 stock exchanges, 39–40, 123 governance of, 140–142 streaming technology, 191–192 subsidy side of the platform, 33–34, 93–94, 96 Sun Microsystems, 43 supply, 2 switching, 28–29 Symbian, 111–112, 115, 118 Taobao, 62–63, 64 taxicabs, 51 technology, 2 for Apple Pay, 158, 159, 160–161 chips, 40–41 creative destruction and, 49–51, 197–206 in growth/development of matchmakers, 19–20, 39–61, 202–203 Internet service providers, 45–47 online/offline world and, 48–49 operating systems, 18, 43–44, 47–48 standards adoption and, 22–23, 26–27, 41–42 telegraph, 201–202 telephones, landline, 22–23, 25–26 Telkom Kenya, 168 Templeton, Chuck, 9–14, 21, 79.

All the people who used Uber 140 million times in 2014, and all of those who used it in the more than three hundred and fifty cities in sixty-seven countries where it was available in November 2015, had downloaded the Uber app onto their smartphones.25 Mobile operating systems, particularly iOS and Android, are foundational multisided platforms that power other important platforms. They are critical components of ride-hailing apps such as Uber and its Chinese competitor Didi Kuaidi and important for music apps such as Spotify. Mobile operating systems are also important for “old” Internet-based matchmakers. Google earned 20 percent of its advertising revenue from the use of its apps on smart mobile devices in 2014, and Facebook earned 73 percent of its ad revenue that way in the first quarter of 2015.26 These mobile operating systems, combined with smart mobile devices, have begun to tear down the walls between the online and the offline worlds.

In addition to fire-code regulations that limit crowds, the nightclub needs to make sure people can move around and interact. Platforms can reduce the effects of congestion by making it easier for participants to connect with each other faster.14 It can take a long time for taxicabs and riders to connect in major cities. Some people who call for taxis end up hailing one because of uncertainty about when and whether the driver will show up. Ride-sharing apps, such as Didi Kuaidi, reduce this problem by using technology to enable drivers and riders to connect quickly and confidently. Search engines, to take another example, design their results pages to make it easier for people to find relevant organic and sponsored search results. Showing people too many items on one page makes it harder for people to find things, since each additional item adds congestion.15 Searching and Matching A platform’s design must do more than help get enough of the right participants.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In early 2015, both Uber and Lyft began experimenting with a new ride-sharing service that complements their familiar call-a-taxi business model. The new services, known as UberPool and Lyft Line, allow two or more passengers traveling in the same direction to find one another and share a ride, thereby reducing their cost while increasing the revenues enjoyed by the driver. Lyft cofounder Logan Green says that ride-sharing was always part of the Lyft idea. The initial version of Lyft, he explains, was designed to attract an initial customer base “in every market.” Having achieved that, he continues, “Now we get to play that next card and start matching up people to take rides.”3 Uber isn’t taking the competition lightly. To try to ensure that its ride-sharing service out-competes Lyft’s, Uber has joined the bidding for Here, a digital mapping service owned by Nokia that is the chief alternative to Google Maps.

Matthews, “Uber Passenger Says Driver Struck Him with Hammer After He Told Him He Was Going the Wrong Way,” NBC Bay Area, October 8, 2014, http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Passenger-Hit-with-Hammer-by-Uber-Driver-278596821.html. 47. Airbnb, “Host Protection Insurance,” https://www.airbnb.com/host-protection-insurance, accessed June 15, 2015; A. Cecil, “Uber, Lyft, and Other Rideshare Drivers Now Have Insurance Options,” Policy Genius, https://www.policygenius.com/blog/uber-lyft-and-other-rideshare-drivers-now-have-insurance-options/, accessed June 14, 2015. 48. Huckman, Pisano, and Kind, “Amazon Web Services.” 49. Jillian D’Onfro, “Here’s a Reminder Just How Massive Amazon’s Web Services Business Is,” Business Insider, June 16, 2014, http://www .businessinsider.com/amazon-web-services-market-share-2014-6. 50. Annabelle Gawer and Michael A.

., 245–46 rate of conversion to sale, 197 ratings, 157–58, 265 razors-and-blades strategy, 109–10 Real Audio, 222 real estate market, 9, 12, 62, 124, 237, 277, 282 RealNetworks, 222 real-time processing, 247, 252–53 recipients, 100, 101, 104, 105 recruiters, 50, 51, 119, 218–19 redBus, 73, 95 Reddit, 5, 36, 47, 93, 173 Regulation 2.0, 253–56 regulatory capture, 235–37, 257 RelayRides, 9, 10, 67, 230 research and development (R & D), 14, 33, 275 reservations, 8–9, 90, 95, 101, 137, 142, 194 resources: allocation of, 6, 15, 70–71, 199, 200, 298–99 control of, 208–9, 212, 227 intensive use of, 263–64, 278, 289 model based on, 208–10, 213, 216 restaurants, 36, 37, 76, 90, 91, 95, 101, 113, 120, 142, 170, 194, 259 retail industry, 12, 63, 77, 82–83, 85, 89, 111, 123–24, 141, 145, 157–58, 204–7, 240–49, 251, 264 revenue grabs, 121, 157–58 rewards (incentives), 82, 101, 102, 166, 173–74, 182, 227 R/GA, 76 ride-sharing services, 2, 9, 12, 16–18, 25, 30, 36, 37, 49–50, 60–62, 67, 115, 175, 190, 227, 231, 233, 250–54, 258–59, 264, 278, 287, 297 Ries, Eric, 199, 201–2 Rifkin, Jeremy, 286 Roman military campaigns, 183, 237 Roth, Alvin, 164, 171 royalties, 72, 122 Rudder, Christian, 26–27 Sacks, David, 17, 18 Safaricom, 277–78 safety net, 280–81, 288 Saks Fifth Avenue, 275 sales conversion rate, 191–92 Salesforce, x, 55, 145, 245–46, 267 sales forces, 42–44, 73–74, 91, 125, 145 sales tax, 248–49 same-side effects, 29–32, 34, 298 Samsung, xi, 86, 137, 270–71, 295 San Francisco, 1–2, 18, 61, 233, 278, 281–83 SAP, vii, x, 155, 173–75, 216, 219, 241 scrapers (automated software), 91–92, 107 search engine optimization, 120–21, 145, 191, 297 search engines, 24–25, 40, 120–21, 145, 190, 191, 197–98, 215, 216, 242, 297 Sears, Roebuck, 207 seeding strategy, 18, 92–93, 105 self-driving cars, 62 self-governance, 176–80, 182, 246, 253–56 self-serve advertising, 131, 133–34 semiconductor industry, 225 senders, 100, 101–2, 105 sensor data, 246, 286 service interfaces, 176–78, 221 Shapiro, Carl, 19, 240–41 shared model, 137, 138, 140–41, 154–55 shareholders, 11, 164 sharing economy, 10, 298–99 Shleifer, Andrei, 236–37, 238 shopping malls, 123–24 ShopRunner, 206–7 ShopThis!


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

At the heart of Collaborative Consumption is the reckoning of how we can take this idling capacity and redistribute it elsewhere. Modern technology including online social networks and GPS-enabled handheld devices offers a multitude of ways to solve this problem. The ubiquity of cheap connectivity that surrounds us can maximize the productivity and usage of a product and mop up the surplus created by hyper-consumption without creating costs or inconveniences. Robin Chase, founder of Zipcar and the ride-sharing service GoLoco, and one of the pioneering thinkers on maximizing idling capacity via technology, says, “This was what the Internet was made for, an instant platform sharing excess capacity among many people.” Ilan Bass, an old friend of Rachel’s, started a new job in London. He had never been a fan of the underground in rush hour. Although the distance of his commute was relatively short, it involved two train changes and a bus ride.

‘The question is,’ said Alice, ‘whether you can make words mean so many different things.’ ‘The question is,’ said Humpty Dumpty, ‘which is to be master—that’s all.’ ”15 Meanings of words can change as our cultural acceptance of ideas is reframed.16 Hotels don’t call their business “bed sharing” for good reasons, and as Jonathan Zittrain, a professor of law at Harvard University, says, craigslist does not call its ride-sharing board “hitchhiking.” Collaborative Consumption is not asking people to share nicely in the sandbox. On the contrary, it puts a system in place where people can share resources without forfeiting cherished personal freedoms or sacrificing their lifestyle. A distinguished political scientist who shares this view is seventy-six-year-old Indiana University professor Elinor Ostrom. In October 2009, while we were writing this book, she won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, along with Oliver E.

In his book From Counterculture to Cyberculture Fred Turner envisioned that these citizens desire a world in which “Each individual could act in his or her own self-interest and at the same time produce a unified social sphere, in which we’re ‘all one.’ ”5 Collaborative Consumption Systems Swap trading, time banks, local exchange trading systems (LETS), bartering, social lending, peer-to-peer currencies, tool exchanges, land share, clothing swaps, toy sharing, shared workspaces, cohousing, coworking, CouchSurfing, car sharing, crowdfunding, bike sharing, ride sharing, food co-ops, walking school buses, shared microcrèches, peer-to-peer rental—the list goes on—are all examples of Collaborative Consumption. Some of these may be familiar already, some not, but all are experiencing a significant growth surge. Although these examples vary in scale, maturity, and purpose, they can be organized into three systems—product service systems, redistribution markets, and collaborative lifestyles—which are the subject of the next three chapters.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

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3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Digital companies in particular have the ability to rethink some of these assumptions and rapidly deploy new approaches. For example, as an alternative to investing in the platform monopolies favored by most of today’s venture capitalists, Fred Wilson has invested in Uber competitor Sidecar, which he argues “has built a true open marketplace for ridesharing.”31 Sidecar does not offer the extreme convenience of Uber, but it’s not really geared toward increasing the efficiency of business travelers. It’s more of a peer-to-peer ridesharing app, through which passengers book lifts from drivers usually in advance. The app lets passengers connect with drivers and then gets out of the way, emphasizing those human-to-human connections over the primacy of its own platform. In contrast to Uber’s centralized price-fixing and opportunistic gouging,32 Sidecar asks drivers to set their own prices by negotiating with riders within the application.

In contrast to Uber’s centralized price-fixing and opportunistic gouging,32 Sidecar asks drivers to set their own prices by negotiating with riders within the application. Sidecar facilitates a decentralized free market. The app has been configured to transcend the traditional biases of the corporation against real-world human connection. It’s a more social rideshare program, not a gray-area, unregulated taxi service, so it’s not competing head-to-head against full-time livery drivers. Uber surely wins in an always-on world where agility is the key to success. Sidecar wins in a slightly slower world where riders plan ahead, giving them the added luxury of being choosier about price, driver, and amenities. Think Grandma’s weekly drive to the hairdresser or grocery store. She might even find a driver she likes and book him regularly. The fabric of local connections begins to assert itself.

As blockchain developers are proving, this ability to administrate through protocols instead of platforms can extend from currency transactions to company operations. For instance, imagine a platform-independent Uber, owned by the drivers who use it. There’s no server to maintain, no venture capital to pay back, no new verticals or horizontals in which to expand, no acquisition, and no exit. There are just drivers whose labor and vehicles constitute ownership of the enterprise. One such experiment, La’Zooz, is a blockchain-managed ridesharing app, where the currency (Zooz) is mined through “proof of movement.”97 So instead of supplying and driving cars as underpaid freelancers for Uber or Lyft, drivers are co-owners of a transportation collective organized through distributed protocols. Could such platform cooperatives catch on? The basic behavior of downloading an app in order to work or rent property has already been anchored in users by Airbnb, Uber, TaskRabbit, Mechanical Turk, and countless others.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

“You know, the thing that is illegal when the Mafia does it.”42 As Brad Stone notes, Amazon is becoming “increasingly monolithic in markets like books and electronics,” which is why he believes that antitrust authorities will inevitably come to scrutinize Amazon’s market power.43 Let’s hope that there will be politicians bold enough to take on Bezos before Amazon becomes, quite literally, the Everything Store. No, the Internet is not the answer, especially when it comes to the so-called sharing economy of peer-to-peer networks like Uber and Airbnb. The good news is that, as Wired’s Marcus Wohlsen put it, the “sun is setting on the wild west” of ride- and apartment-sharing networks.44 Tax collectors and municipalities from Cleveland to Hamburg are recognizing that many peer-to-peer rentals and ride-sharing apps are breaking both local and national housing and transportation laws. What the Financial Times calls a “regulatory backlash”45 has pushed Uber to limit surge pricing during emergencies46 and forced Airbnb hosts to install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in their homes.47 “Just because a company has an app instead of a storefront doesn’t mean consumer protection laws don’t apply,” notes the New York State attorney general Eric Schneiderman, who is trying to subpoena Airbnb’s user data in New York City.48 A group of housing activists in San Francisco is even planning a late 2014 ballot measure in the city that would “severely curb” Airbnb’s operations.49 “Airbnb is bringing up the rent despite what the company says,” explains the New York City–based political party Working Families.50 The answer is to use the law and regulation to force the Internet out of its prolonged adolescence.

v=2QrX5jsiico. 23 See invitation to FailChat: culturesfirststeps.eventbrite.com. 24 Stephen E. Siwek, “The True Cost of Sound Recording Piracy,” Institute of Policy Research, August 21, 2007. See executive summary: ipi.org/ipi_issues/detail/the-true-cost-of-sound-recording-piracy-to-the-us-economy. 25 IFPI Digital Music Report, 2011, “Music at the Touch of a Button,” ifpi.org/content/library/dmr2011.pdf, p. 15. 26 Ibid. 27 See, for example, Ellen Huet, “Rideshare Drivers’ Unexpected Perk: Networking,” San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2013. 28 Gideon Lewis-Kraus, No Exit: Struggling to Survive a Modern Gold Rush (Kindle Single, 2014). 29 Jessica Guynn, “San Francisco Split by Silicon Valley’s Wealth,” Los Angeles Times, August 14, 2013. 30 Rebecca Solnit, “Google Invades,” London Review of Books, February 7, 2013. 31 Michael Winter and Alistair Barr, “Protesters Vandalize Google Bus, Block Apple Shuttle,” USA Today, December 20, 2013. 32 Alexei Oreskovic and Sarah McBride, “Latest Perk on Google Buses: Security Guards,” Reuters, January 16, 2014. 33 Tom Perkins, “Progressive Kristallnacht Coming?

,” Nation, July 16, 2014. 39 Ingrid Lunden, “More Woe for Amazon in Germany as Antitrust Watchdog Investigates Its 3rd Party Pricing Practices,” TechCrunch, October 21, 2013. 40 “Amazon Sued by US Regulators over Child In-App Purchases,” BBC Business News, July 10, 2014. 41 Brad Stone, “Amazon May Get Its First Labor Union in the U.S.,” Bloomberg Businessweek, December 17, 2013. 42 David Streitfeld and Melissa Eddy, “As Publishers Fight Amazon, Books Vanish,” New York Times, May 23, 2014. 43 Stone, The Everything Store, p. 340. 44 Marcus Wohlsen, “Why the Sun Is Setting on the Wild West of Ride-Sharing,” Wired, August 2, 2013. 45 April Dembosky and Tim Bradshaw, “Start-ups: Shareholder Societies,” Financial Times, August 7, 2013. 46 Ben Popper, “Uber Agrees to New National Policy That Will Limit Surge Pricing During Emergencies,” Verge, July 8, 2014. 47 Chris Welch, “Airbnb Hosts Must Install Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors by End of 2014,” Verge, February 21, 2014. 48 Eric T. Schneiderman, “Taming the Digital Wild West,” New York Times, April 22, 2014. 49 Carolyn Said, “S.F.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

This is a reason that my firm is working with VIA, a company that solves part of the problem by using a single vehicle to transport up to eight people with eight different origins and destinations efficiently through the use of very complex algorithms. Though I have to admit that another part of the reason I find VIA, Uber, and their ridesharing competitors so fascinating is that so many of the people who are now working on these kinds of complex traffic problems are, like me, lapsed physicists, using sophisticated mathematics to improve the world of transportation. (In fact, my professor brother, forty years after rejecting me as a physics has-been, invited me to a physics PhD candidate’s defense of her thesis, which mathematically described the flow of traffic on highways. Now who’s the scientist?) Actually, although Uber is often described as a ridesharing company, the “sharing” part is a little disingenuous. In fact, the only sharing that applies to most of the trips taken by travelers using Uber or Lyft (though not VIA) comes from the drivers sharing their cars with passengers.

Competitors like Sidecar (launched January of 2012) and Lyft (founded summer of 2012 as an extension of an earlier city-to-city ridesharing service known as Zimride) noticed the potential upside for a business that could extract revenue from travelers without actually investing in anything as expensive as buses, trains, or even cars; all that they needed were software algorithms and marketing. Though the California Public Utilities Commission, under pressure from existing taxi services, shut them all down, it allowed them to reopen the following year as what the state of California now calls “Transportation Network Companies.” Uber, by far the biggest kid on the ridesharing block, expanded to Paris, Toronto, and London in 2012, and hasn’t looked back. By 2015 you could download the Uber app to your smartphone and request an Uber pickup in more than two hundred cities in forty-five countries.e This kind of growth attracts all sorts of attention.

One thing the Internet does unambiguously well is to make information that used to be expensive and scarce now cheap and abundant. You don’t have to spend ten years learning the commuting ropes to know whether the train or bus you’re on is an express or a local, or even when it’s going to show up. You just need a smartphone. Smartphones are also all that’s needed to take advantage of other revolutionary new transportation options: ridesharing services like Via, car-sharing like Zipcar, and—especially—dispatchable taxi services like Uber and Lyft.c However, these and other cool new businesses didn’t create Millennial distaste for driving. They just exploited it. The question remains: why do Millennials find the automobile so much less desirable than their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents did? Woodbridge, Virginia, is a small suburb about twenty miles south of Washington, DC.


pages: 270 words: 79,180

The Middleman Economy: How Brokers, Agents, Dealers, and Everyday Matchmakers Create Value and Profit by Marina Krakovsky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Al Roth, Black Swan, buy low sell high, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, experimental economics, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, Kenneth Arrow, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market microstructure, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Network effects, patent troll, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social graph, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, ultimatum game, Y Combinator

This is exactly what he heard from the founders of Lyft, Logan Green and John Zimmer, who were pretty sure their ride-sharing business was running afoul of current taxi regulations. Maples isn’t one to advocate shady, unethical start-ups, but rather those that challenge laws that, while originally designed to protect consumers, may no longer be in consumers’ best interest. This is similar to the discussion in the chapter on Enforcers of state-of-the-art reputation systems that can sometimes do a better and more efficient job of eliciting good behavior than government institutions. You might say Maples prefers to back what is righteous rather than what is legal. Why does he love pitches in that legal gray area? “Those could be good businesses to fund because a lot of times there are not a lot of competitors,” he explains. (Even though Uber has a competing ride-sharing service, UberX, Maples points out that Lyft started before Uber launched UberX.)

If you haven’t heard of this behemoth from Eden Prairie, Minnesota, it’s only because its customers are other businesses: rather than arranging rides for busy urbanites, as Lyft and Uber do, C. H. Robinson acts as freight broker for companies that need to quickly find truckload capacity to carry freight from one factory, warehouse, or retailer to another. At its core, C. H. Robinson does much the same thing for buyers and sellers as the ridesharing companies do. Like those companies, C. H. Robinson doesn’t actually own a fleet, and instead acts as a middleman between its customers (the shippers) and its suppliers (the carriers). And because of its large network of carriers—43,000 transportation providers in 2013—it’s able to meet customer demand much more quickly than shippers could by tapping a smaller network, let alone trying to contract with carriers directly.

The law of large numbers turns something unpredictable into something that, on average, is quite predictable—so having great scale lets you make better forecasts. That’s why insurance companies are big. “You don’t want to go to an insurance company that has only 100 subscribers—you want 10 million subscribers,” Chopra explains, because pooling across 10 million subscribers produces outcomes that are more predictable. For many types of middlemen, the minimum scale is obviously lower, but a certain scale is always important. A ridesharing service consisting of just ten drivers is less able to cope with unpredictable demand than a service of 100 drivers. A placement agency with just ten contractors can’t fill the sporadic needs of a client firm. “In being a middleman, scale matters,” Chopra says. The other thing that matters is unpredictability, of course, because it’s how a middleman can provide value to people who prefer predictability: there is no risk pool without risks.

The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust

The ISS collaboration was built on the deep personal trust that A W e b o f T r u s tâ•…    153 comes from having meaningful relationships with other team members, but Project X would be based on provisional trust, which emerges only for as long as it’s needed. In both cases, trust leads to the belief that each side will do what they say, provide what they promise, and not take advantage of the other. Provisional trust was not really an option in the early days of the space program, but applications are arising today that make provisional trust possible. Uber, for instance, is a ridesharing platform that pairs drivers of private cars with passengers looking for a ride. Uber can locate a passenger and find the nearest available car. The app also offers information about the driver and details about the car. It certifies that others have ridden in a particular car, that they were safe and comfortable, that they gave the driver a good rating, and that the company has done some level of filtering.

See also Orbital perspective definitions, 1 a shifting, 3–7 two- vs. three-dimensional, 1–2 Pineapple Project, 136–138 Piñera , 106–107 Polk, James D., 105, 107, photo Polyakov, Valeri, 18 Poverty, 81–82. See also Development work Project X, 151–153, 157 Ramon, Ilan, 20 Random Hacks of Kindness (RHoK) hackathon, 127, 141, 143 ReCAPTCHA, 145–146, 154, 160 Reisman, Garrett, 54–56, 60 Relationship building from a distance, 157–160 Relationships. See also Collaboration; Trust establishing real, sincere, 38–40 Rich, Ram, 158 Ridesharing, real-time, 153–154 Roscosmos, 16, 17, 36 Rotational pitch maneuver (RPM), 54 Russian Federal Space Agency. See Roscosmos Russian language, 28–30, 33, 36. See also Languages and language instruction Rwanda, 2–3, 68–69, 109–113, 119, photo. See also L’Esperance orphanage Rwandan Genocide, 68–69 Sagan, Carl, 165 Samokutyayev, Sasha, photo Semenov, Yuri, 16, 30 SERVIR, 139–140 orbital perspective and, 131, 133 science in action, 129–133 worm’s eye view and, 131, 133, 140 Sever, Thomas, 128–129 Shared credit, 88–89 Shekhovtsov, Igor, 23–25 I n d e x      183 Shkaplerov, Anton, photo Short-term thinking, 116 Shuttle-Mir agreement, 16 Shuttle-Mir program, 15, 18–20, 27, 30, 32, 42, 86.

See also Impossible; specific topics TechShop, 134 Thagard, Norm, 19, 23, photo Thomas, Evan, 109–112, 117, photo Thompson, Elizabeth, 163 Three- vs. two-dimensional thinking, 1–2 Titov, Vladimir, 40 TMA-21 spacecraft, photo Trust. See also under International Space Station (ISS) program building a foundation of, 19–22 community-based, 154–155 establishing, 85–87 provisional, 152–154 relationship building from a distance, 157–160 a web of, 149–170 Trust-based communities, 160 Uber (ridesharing service), 153–154 Unity (ISS module), xiv, 160–164, 167 Urzúa, Luis, 106 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 131–132 U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARS), 33–34 184â•…  â•… I n d e x Viktorenko, Aleksandr, 18 Vinta, Kiran, photo Virtual communities, 88, 154 Virtual meetings, 158. See also Relationship building from a distance Vision zero, 74–76 Vision Zero campaign, 75, 172n7 Volkov, Sergey, 55 Von Ahn, Luis, 145, 146 Wales, Jimmy, 157 Wetherbee, Jim, 18 Wheelock, Doug, 107 White, Frank, 63 White Room, 49, photo Wikipedia, 154–157 Windshield Wiper (maneuver), 3–4, 58–59 World Bank, 140 World’s Fair in Montreal.

Emails From an Asshole: Real People Being Stupid by John Lindsay

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

ride hailing / ride sharing

I take the long way, however, since if I get pulled over in Kentucky or Virginia I will probably go to jail. We are going around, through Missouri. Missouri is really nice though! From Kathy to Me: IF I HAD A CAR I WOULDNT NEED A FUCKING RIDE THIS IS RIDICULOUS IM DONE TALKING TO YOU I am glad Kathy didn’t ride with us; she was very ungrateful. I offered to drive her over 800 miles for free, yet she complained about the most insignificant shit. Drunken Rideshare Steven’s original ad: I need a ride from Baltimore to New Orleans next weekend. I will be bringing just two bags. You will be compensated. From Me to Steven: Hey! If you still need a ride, I am headed to New Orleans next Friday and am looking for some company on the way down. I want to leave at 9 AM, and we will split the cost of gas and tolls. Mike From Steven to Me: Hi, I do still need a ride.

We can drink cranberry juice, listen to AM radio, and talk about golf. From Steven to Me: You shouldn’t have a damn car! How you have yet to crash it is anyone’s guess! Stop bothering me with this, it isn’t going to happen! Despite Steven’s decision not to ride with me, I still got hammered and made it to New Orleans. I didn’t exactly remember driving there, but I’m sure it was a safe trip. Hummer Rideshare Chris’s original ad: looking for a ride from wilmington to manhattan next wednesday, any time during the day is good. I will pay for all your gas as compensation. From Me to Chris: Hello, I am driving to NYC for a business meeting around 10 AM on Wednesday and would be able to give you a ride. Let me know if you still need one. Mike From Chris to Me: mike, that sounds great. where do you want to meet to pick me up?


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

http://www.bicing.com Boat Owners Exchange: Provides information about how to share ownership of a boat through timeshares. http://www.boei.net Eileo: Provides the necessary technology for starting a car-sharing service. http://www.eileo.com GoLoco: Ride-sharing system that notifies users when their friends or interest groups are going places they want to go. http://www.goloco.org Greenwheels: German car-sharing company. http://www.greenwheels.de GTFS Data Exchange: Provides open-source information about public transportation. http://www.gtfs-data-exchange.com liftshare: Ride-sharing service that connects passengers and drivers in the U.K. http://www.liftshare.com/uk MyTTC: Provides open access to transit data. http://myttc.ca NuRide: Users track their savings and earn rewards for carpooling, biking, walking, telecommuting, or using public transportation.

Department of Transportation, reveal early signs that the attitudes of youth toward car ownership and driving are shifting dramatically. The percentage of young people in the United States seeking a driver’s license upon turning seventeen has been in rapid decline since 1998, and fell a third in the three decades between 1978 and 2008. Then, having a license was synonymous with adulthood and independence. Today, more young people are opting for car sharing, bike sharing, ride sharing, and mass transit for everyday personal transportation. Sustainable living is also trending up. Status formerly associated with autonomy and excess is now better achieved through civic behavior and community participation. When Brad Pitt helps build state-of-the-art green homes in the ravaged areas of New Orleans and Leonardo DiCaprio stumps for Global Green, they are reflecting the zeitgeist.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Along the way, we might even regain a measure of security, for acknowledging identity as fluid and self-directed would make for a more interesting, and trusting, culture. To reach such a state would require that our actions online go untracked, much less be used against us in ways we don’t expect. Unfortunately, an entire industry has built up around doing just that. They’re becoming increasingly wary that their lives are going to be no longer their own. —John Pezold, Georgia state representative If you’ve ever used Uber, the ride-sharing service and smartphone app, you’re probably familiar with rating drivers. After each trip, a passenger is expected to rate his or her driver on a score from 1 to 5. Too many low scores and the driver’s job is in jeopardy. What many people don’t know is that drivers rate their passengers as well, and these scores are usually kept hidden from passengers. There are only a few ways to get them. You could ask an Uber driver to reveal your score, or you could call up Uber’s corporate office and see if they’ll share it with you.

When a group of Uber drivers assembled outside the company’s headquarters to protest their firing, the company’s general manager said that the drivers weren’t employees and that, when they were fired, it simply amounted to deactivating the drivers’ accounts. The given reason? Low ratings from passengers. This insouciance is built into Uber, which calls itself a software company, or alternatively, a transportation network company, rather than a taxi company. (Sidecar identifies as a peer-to-peer ride-sharing service.) Uber is also known for flouting local laws by setting up business in a new city without speaking to officials responsible for managing the transport sector. There’s a great deal of unacknowledged work involved in the sharing economy. Drivers have to keep their cars clean and insured, with no help from the company nominally employing them. Zipcar customers have to clean the cars after using them.

Or that these moderators spend hours numbly scrolling through grisly photos that people around the world are trying to upload to the network. Uber’s selling point is convenience: press a button on your phone and a car will arrive in minutes, maybe seconds, to take you anywhere you want to go. As long as that’s what happens, what do consumers have to complain about? Now joined by a host of start-up delivery services, ride-sharing companies are in the business of taking whomever or whatever from point A to point B with minimal fuss or waiting time. That this self-indulgent convenience ultimately comes at the expense of others is easily brushed off or shrouded in the magical promise that anything you want can be produced immediately. This is the Amazon ethic—customer first, costs slashed to the bone, goods delivered as soon as possible through cut-rate independent contractors—to the max.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

After two months, the top nine ranked entries—finalists came from Hungary, Canada, Israel, Ireland, the United States, and the Netherlands—went on to the showdown round. Over the ensuing thirty days, each finalist posted slide decks, founder bios, and pitch videos and each participated in an open due diligence call, fielding questions from both experts and the crowd. In the end, the winner was a Seattle-based start-up called iCarpool. iCarpool, a ridesharing platform servicing consumers, corporate clients, and urban infrastructure providers, took home more than 60 percent of the community support. So what did they win? iCarpool’s founders scooped the $50,000 in cash but they also got a trip to ITS World Congress in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition to a supreme networking event, the founders got a chance to demo iCarpool in front of urban planners, government advisers, researchers, and consumers worldwide.

Now imagine a car with a set of open APIs allowing thousands of programmers and niche businesses to create a cloud of applications for your car—from remote personal assistants to navigation and geospatial search applications to on-demand movies and music, and why not throw in mobile Skype for good measure. Optimizing Our Infrastructure with a Ubiquitous Data Grid A rich cloud of in-car services can do more than inform and entertain us; it could help optimize our entire transportation infrastructure. Accompanying your iTunes service, for example, would be an infinite number of applications that enable you to fundamentally change the way you use your car. Some apps could facilitate ridesharing. Others could ease congestion and keep you safe by distributing road traffic more evenly or selecting optimal routes for reducing air pollution on days when concentrations reach dangerous levels. Or, rather than sole ownership, there could be applications to facilitate shared car ownership, with dynamic pricing models that take into account environmental factors like location, time of day, traffic congestion, and seasonal demand patterns.

The other problem is coordination: matching two or more people who are leaving from the same place and going to the same destination at the same time has never been easy. With the emergence of carpooling platforms that make connections and help establish trust between drivers and passengers, these problems are now much easier to address. One of the biggest platforms is called mitfahrgelegenheit.de (rideshare), which operates across Germany and Austria. The popular site has 1 million registered users and facilitates between 20,000 and 30,000 rides every day. With high gas and rail ticket prices in Germany, the service is especially popular with young people. “Our goal is to reduce the traffic on our streets and with that the amount of pollution that is released into the atmosphere,” says Michael Reinicke, one of the site’s founders.


pages: 284 words: 92,688

Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Paige, who got canned after eleven months, had taken only five days of vacation. At a traditional company she would have been owed a week or two of vacation pay, but from HubSpot, she got nothing. Think about how many hundreds of people churn in and out of a place like HubSpot, and you can see how the savings add up. Another way to drive down labor costs is to deny people employee status in the first place. Uber, the ride-sharing company, saves money by categorizing drivers as independent contractors rather than employees. Uber insists drivers prefer this because they enjoy more freedom. Uber and others in the “share economy” are creating a new form of serfdom, an underclass of quasi-employees who receive low pay and no benefits. As former secretary of labor Robert Reich put it in a June 2015 Facebook post: “The ‘share economy’ is bunk; it’s becoming a ‘share the scraps’ economy.”

They’re the ones who were supposed to be keeping an eye on the others. During my time at HubSpot, I was shocked to see how badly managed the company was and how packs of inexperienced twenty-something employees were being turned loose and given huge responsibility with little or no oversight. In the world of start-ups that is now the norm, not the exception. The consequences are just what you would expect. Employees at Uber, the ride-sharing company, have used a “God View” feature to stalk people using the service, including a BuzzFeed journalist. Re/code, a tech blog, claims other companies have done the same, including Lyft, a rival to Uber; Swipe, a photo-sharing app; and Basis, which makes a “health watch” that tracks people’s heart rates, sleep patterns, and other personal information. In the early days at Facebook, the young employees had a master password to gain access to anyone’s account, according to a book by a former Facebook employee.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

The impact of Uber will likely spread far beyond your nightly ride home; it has implications for business models across transport and logistics globally. Today Uber is best known for providing the equivalent of a taxi ride. But if you listen to discussions in the executive suite and with its board of directors, what you’ll hear is a vision to dominate urban logistics. This starts with car rides. Uber is developing a ride-sharing model that aspires to take 1 million cars off the streets of London while creating 100,000 jobs. Even if it comes near a fraction of this goal, it is still all for the good for reducing carbon emissions and for employment. Beyond that, expect Uber to try to take over the big business of same-day and next-day delivery. I imagine opening the Uber app on my phone when I’m looking to send a package.

Summers, “How Uber and the Sharing Economy Can Win Over Regulators,” Harvard Business Review, October 13, 2014, https://hbr.org/2014/10/how-uber-and-the-sharing-economy-can-win-over-regulators/; TX Zhuo, “Airbnb and Uber Are Just the Beginning: What’s Next for the Sharing Economy,” Entrepreneur, March 25, 2015, http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/244192. Founded in 2009 by Travis Kalanick: Cities, Uber, https://www.uber.com/cities. Uber’s first tagline was: Kevin Roose, “Uber Might Be More Valuable Than Facebook Someday. Here’s Why,” New York Magazine, December 6, 2013, http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2013/12/uber-might-be-more-valuable-than-facebook.html. Uber is developing a ride-sharing: “The City of the Future: One Million Fewer Cars on the Road,” Uber Newsroom, October 3, 2014, http://blog.uber.com/city-future. High-profile investors include: Brad Stone, “Invasion of the Taxi Snatchers: Uber Leads an Industry’s Disruption,” Bloomberg Businessweek, February 20, 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-02-20/uber-leads-taxi-industry-disruption-amid-fight-for-riders-drivers.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Each example has been sourced officially or from a major publication. Car movements—Every car since 2006 contains a chip that records your speed, braking, turns, mileage, accidents whenever you start your car. Highway traffic—Cameras on poles and sensors buried in highways record the location of cars by license plates and fast-track badges. Seventy million plates are recorded each month. Ride-share taxis—Uber, Lyft, and other decentralized rides record your trips. Long-distance travel—Your travel itinerary for air flights and trains is recorded. Drone surveillance—Along U.S. borders, Predator drones monitor and record outdoor activities. Postal mail—The exterior of every piece of paper mail you send or receive is scanned and digitized. Utilities—Your power and water usage patterns are kept by utilities.

See also books; ebooks and readers realism, 211–14, 216 real time, 66, 88, 104, 114–17, 131, 145 recommendation engines, 169 Red Dead Redemption, 227–30 Reddit, 136, 140, 143, 149, 264 Red Hat, 69 reference transactions, 285 relationship network analysis, 187 relativity theory, 288 remixing of ideas, 193–210 and economic growth, 193–95 and intellectual property issues, 207–10 legal issues associated with, 207–10 and reduced cost of creating content, 196–97 and rewindability, 204–7 and visual media, 197–203 remixing video, 197–98 renting, 117–18 replication of media, 206–9 Rethink Robotics, 51 revert functions, 270 reviews by users/readers, 21, 72–73, 139, 266 rewindability, 204–7, 247–48, 270 RFID chips, 283 Rheingold, Howard, 148–49 ride-share taxis, 252 ring tones, 250 Ripley’s Believe It or Not, 278 robots ability to think differently, 51–52 Baxter, 51–52 categories of jobs for, 54–59, 60 and digital storage capacity, 265 dolls, 36 emergence of, 49 industrial robots, 52–53 and mass customization, 173 new jobs related to, 57–58 and personal success, 58–59 personal workbots, 58–59 stages of robot replacement, 59–60 training, 52–53 trust in, 54 Romer, Paul, 193, 209 Rosedale, Phil, 219 Rowling, J.


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

., 40 Staton, Michael, 121–22, 128, 130–31, 133–34, 139, 144, 147, 153, 156, 184 Stein, Gertrude, 165–66 Stephens, Dale, 139–41 Stuyvesant High School (New York City), 1 Suffolk County Community College, 164 Suppes, Patrick, 78, 89–94, 99–100, 104, 106, 109, 116, 155, 157–59 Swarthmore College, 53 Teacher in America (Barzun), 32–33 TED (Technology, Education, Design) festival, 148 Teletype, 93, 156 Terman, Frederick, 123 Texas, University of, 204, 216 Texas State University, 55 Thiel Fellowships, 139–41 Thrun, Sebastian, 147–53, 158, 169, 170, 181, 191 TIAA-CREF, 48 Timaeus (Plato), 17 Toyota, 129 Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel, 42–44, 53, 56, 59, 61–63, 65, 66, 197–98 TransUnion, 200 Trilling, Lionel, 32 Trivial Pursuit, 189 Truman, Harry, 51 Tulsa Senior and Junior High Schools, 90 Turner, Lana, 208 Twitter, 129, 217 U.S. Census, 9 U.S. News & World Report, 42, 58–60, 64, 163, 230 Uber ride-sharing service, 121–22, 133 Udacity, 152–54, 158, 170, 223, 231 UnCollege Movement, 139, 141 United Kingdom, Open University of, 231 University of Everywhere, 5–7, 11, 141, 201, 236, 238, 241 cost of, compared to current cost of higher education, 234 course development for, 85, 89, 111–12 credentialing system for, 218 elite university involvement in, 158–59 emergence of, 66–67, 73, 121, 231 hybrid university unbundled and reassembled into, 133 international collaboration in, 247–48 public consciousness of, 182 See also Massive open online courses USEED, 132–33 Uses of the University, The (Kerr), 54 Usher software, 199 Utah, University of, 125 Vatican, 16 Verizon, 146 Vermeer, Jan, 116 Veysey, Laurence, 34, 249, 261n Victoria’s Secret, 187–88 Virginia, University of, 154, 193 Virginia Tech Math Emporium, 108, 113 Volkswagen, 148 Vygotsky, Lev, 84, 227 Wall Street Journal, 128, 154 Walmart, 145 Wang Laboratories, 168 Washington, George, 23 Washington, University, 35, 204 Washington Post, 78 Washington University (St.

., 157 Lewin, Walter, 190–91 Liberal arts, 16, 27–31, 237, 241, 244–45 in accreditation standards, 50 core curriculum for, 49 at elite universities, 179 online courses in, 158, 244 PhDs and, 35 rankings and, 59 teaching mission in, 253 training, research, and, 29, 33, 261n (see also Hybrid universities) Lincoln, Abraham, 25 LinkedIn, 66, 217 Litton Industries, 75 Livy, 25 London, University of, 23 Lue, Robert, 178–81, 211, 231 Lyft ride-sharing service, 122 MacArthur, General Douglas, 51, 90 MacArthur “Genius” awards, 2 MacBooks, 132, 144 Madison, James, 23 Manitoba, University of, 150 Maples, Mike, Jr., 128–30, 132 Marine Corps, U.S., 140 Marx, Karl, 45 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great and General Court of, 22 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 37–38, 59, 116, 132, 148, 153, 167–79, 245 admissions to, 39, 161, 212, 214–15, 245 Brain and Cognitive Sciences Complex, 1–4, 143, 173–74 Bush at, 51–52, 79, 125, 168 computer science sequence offered online by, 231, 233 founding of, 29, 167 General Institute Requirements, 14, 190, 241 graduation rate at, 8 hacks as source of pride at, 168–69 joint online course effort of Harvard and, see edX MITx, 169, 173, 203 OpenCourseWare, 107–8, 150, 169, 185, 191 prestige of brand of, 163, 181 Saylor at, 176–90 Secret of Life (7.00x) online offering of, see Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life (7.00x) tour of campus of, 168, 174 wormhole connecting Stanford and cafeteria at, 174–75, 179, 235 Massive open online courses (MOOCs), 150, 154, 156, 158, 159, 185, 204, 255 global demand for, 225 initial audience for, 214–15 providers of, see names of specific companies and universities Master Plans, 35, 60, 64–65 Master’s degrees, 117, 193, 195–96 Mayo Clinic, 242 Mazur, Eric, 137 “M-Badge” system, 208–9 McGill University, 204 Mellon Institute of Science, 75, 76, 229 Memex, 79, 80 Mendelian genetics, 3, 103–4 Miami-Dade Community College, 64 Microsoft, 128, 139, 145, 146, 188, 204 MicroStrategy, 187–91, 199 Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 50 Minerva Project, 133–38, 141, 215, 235, 236, 243 Minnesota, University of, Rochester (UMR), 242–43 Missouri, University of, 208 Moore’s law, 176 Morrill, Justin Smith, 25–26 Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862), 25, 168 Mosaic software program, 126 Mozilla Foundation, 205–8, 218, 248 MS-DOS, 87 Myanganbayar, Battushig, 214, 215 NASDAQ, 177, 188 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 208 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 96 National Bureau of Economic Research, 10 National Institutes of Health, 52 National Instruments, 216 National Manufacturing Institute, 208 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 208 National Science Foundation, 52 National Survey of Student Engagement, 243 Navy, U.S., 53, 123 Nebraska, University of, 26 Nelson, Ben, 133–35, 139, 181 Netflix, 131, 145 Netscape, 115, 126, 128, 129, 204–5 Newell, Albert, 79, 105 New Jersey, College of, 23 Newman, John Henry, 27–29, 47, 49, 244 Newman Report (1971), 56 Newton, Isaac, 190 New York, State University of, Binghamton, 183–84 New York City public schools, 1, 44 New York Times, 9, 44, 56–57, 107–8, 149, 170 New York University (NYU), 9, 64, 96, 250 Ng, Andrew, 153, 158 Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 17 Nimitz, Admiral Chester W., 90 NLS/Augment, 125 Nobel Prize, 3, 45, 59, 78, 80, 176 Northeastern University, 64 Northern Arizona University, 229–30 Health and Learning Center, 230 Northern Iowa, University of, 55 Norvig, Peter, 149, 170, 227–28, 232 Notre Dame (Paris), cathedral school at, 18 Nurkiewicz, Tomasz, 218 Obama, Barack, 2 Oberlin College, 46 O’Brien, Conan, 166 Oklahoma, University of, 90 Omdurman Islamic University, 88 oNLine system, 125–26 Open Badges, 207 Open source materials and software, 177, 205–6, 215, 223, 232 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 9, 224 Overeducated American, The (Freeman), 56 Oxford University, 19, 21, 23, 24, 92, 135 Packard, David, 123 Parkinson’s disease, 70 Paris, University of, 18–19, 21, 137 Pauli, Wolfgang, 176 Pauling, Linus, 70 Pausch, Randy, 71–72 Peace Corps, 125 Pellar, Ronald (“Doctor Dante”), 208 Pell Grant Program, 56 Penguin Random House, 146 Pennsylvania, University of, 23, 24, 31 Wharton Business School, 155 Pennsylvania State University, 53 People magazine, 57 Pez dispensers, 146 Phaedrus (Socrates), 20, 98 PhDs, 7, 55, 117, 141, 193, 237, 250, 254 adjunct faculty replacing, 252 college rankings based on number of scholars with, 59 regional universities and community colleges and, 60, 64, 253 as requirement for teaching in hybrid universities, 31–33, 35, 50, 60, 224 Silicon Valley attitude toward, 66 Philadelphia, College of, 23 Philip of Macedon, 92 Phoenix, University of, 114 Piaget, Jean, 84, 227 Piazza, 132 Pittsburgh, University of, 73–76 Pixar, 146 Planck, Max, 45 Plato, 16, 17, 21, 31, 44, 250–51 Portman, Natalie, 165 Powell, Walter, 50, 117 Princeton University, 1–2, 23, 112, 134, 161, 245 Principia (Newton), 190 Protestantism, 24 Public universities, 7, 55, 177, 224, 253 Purdue University, 96, 208 Puritans, 22–24 Queens College, 23 Quizlet, 133 Rafter, 131–32 Raphael, 16, 17 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, 87 Reagan, Ronald, 56 Regional universities, 55, 60, 64 Reid, Harry, 42 Renaissance, 19 Rhode Island, College of, 23 Rhodes Scholarships, 2 Rice University, 204 RNA, 3 Rockstar Games, 230 Roksa, Josipa, 9, 36, 85, 244 Romans, ancient, 16 Roosevelt, Theodore, 165 Ruby on Rails Web development framework, 144 Rutgers University, 23 Sample, Steven, 64 Samsung, 146 San Jose State University, 177 Sandel, Michael, 177 SAT scores, 63, 136–37, 171, 195, 213 Saylor, Michael, 186–93, 199, 201 Saylor.org, 191, 223, 231 Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, 45 School of Athens, The (Raphael), 16 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 45 Science: The Endless Frontier (Bush), 51 Scientific American, 92, 155 Scientific Research and Development, U.S.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation by Satyajit Das

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9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Google and blogs divert revenue from newspapers, publishing, and libraries. Digital advertising diverts revenue from newspaper, magazine, and TV advertising. Technological innovation increasingly relies on lowering costs, which is achieved by reducing the quality of the product as well using untrained individuals or personal assets. Airbnb allows people to rent out their own home for accommodation. Uber, a ride-sharing application, allows individuals to use their own cars to provide transport services. Wikipedia and other online media or entertainment services rely on unpaid labor. This kind of innovation also focuses on creating free platforms or services in order to build a sufficiently large user community from which stealth revenues can be extracted, either directly or by selling user data to allow targeted marketing, or worse.

Airbnb, Lyft, and others do not always comply with regulations designed to ensure a minimum level of skill, standard of performance, safety and security, and insurance coverage. Taxi and hire-car drivers have protested about services that undercut their often regulated charges and livelihoods. There have been anecdotes about orgies in Airbnb-rented properties, and accidents or assaults involving ride-sharing drivers. Accountability for these services relies on the parties to a transaction rating each other, ensuring that inadequate performance will preclude future participation. Like all online reviews and rating systems, this is not a substitute for independent evaluation and oversight. Unfair reviews, predicated on ulterior motives or malice, can exclude individuals from future work, “deactivating” them.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Our cities have been designed to separate out the functions of our lives, with residential and commercial zones, consumers and producers clearly demarcated. The sharing economy upends all of that. “Cities are going to have to reconsider and rethink how they view public space,” says Josh Moskowitz, the business development manager for car-sharing service Car2go. The reaction of most cities so far as been to warily size up Airbnb hosts as vacation rental owners, or rideshares as taxicabs. Their real identity is still something legally undefined, requiring new policies that recognize, for instance, the difference between someone recouping the cost of owning a car by giving rides in it, and someone making a hefty profit that way. Bureaucracies have to figure this out because the benefits will be so immense, at both citizen and city scales. The very thing that makes cities so powerful — their ability to agglomerate — will only be enhanced by the sharing economy.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

This system, she added, “amplifies everything that goes through it, so it creates feedback loops used to bully people, and it creates more points of interaction and many more opportunities for people who are homophobic to meet a gay person. And now suddenly so many more people are meeting gay people. If empathy comes about through human interaction, this system creates so many more opportunities for that.” The day I interviewed Gorbis, Bettina Warburg, a researcher at the Institute for the Future, told me this story from her recent commute in the San Francisco area: “I was riding in a Lyft the other morning—where you ride-share with others headed in the same direction. My driver chatted with me and mentioned his last [passenger] was ‘voted out of the car,’ because he was expressing extreme homophobic rhetoric. He said, ‘You won’t get a ride in San Francisco with those values—you are in the wrong city.’ We were a black, a Hispanic, and a woman in the car talking about how intolerance does not jibe with an economy built on platforms that value participation.”

Many of those laws and conventions continue to serve us well today, and over the course of a century, we had plenty of time to adapt our laws to new inventions, such as freeways. Today, however, scientific advances are bringing seismic shifts to the ways in which we use our roads; legislatures and municipalities are scrambling to keep up, tech companies are chafing under outdated and sometimes nonsensical rules, and the public is not sure what to think. Smartphone technology gave rise to Uber, but before the world figures out how to regulate ride-sharing, self-driving cars will have made those regulations obsolete.” This is a real problem. When fast gets really fast, being slower to adapt makes you really slow—and disoriented. It is as if we were all on one of those airport moving sidewalks that was going around five miles an hour and suddenly it sped up to twenty-five miles an hour—even as everything else around it stayed roughly the same.

planetary boundaries PlayStation 3 Pleistocene epoch pluralism Pluralism Project politics: bipartisanship in; compromise in; disruption in; dogmatism in; money in; polarization in; trust and; see also geopolitics politics, innovation in; adaptability and; diversity and; entrepreneurial mindset in; federal-local balance in; Mother Nature as mentor for; need for organization in; ownership in; “races to the top” in; resilience in; specific reforms in pollution Pol Pot polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Popular Science population growth; climate change and; political instability and; poverty and; in weak states Population Institute poverty; advances in connectivity and; chickens and; global flows and; population growth and power of flows power of machines power of many; Mother Nature and; supernova and; see also population growth power of one; ethics and; supernova and Prabhu, Krish prairie, as complex ecosystem Present at the Creation (Acheson) Preston-Werner, Tom Prickett, Glenn privacy, big data and Private Photo Vault Production and Operations Management Society Conference (2014) productivity, supernova and Profil Progressive Policy Institute progressivism; economic growth and Prohibition Project Dreamcatcher Project Syndicate public spaces Putin, Vladimir Putnam, Robert Quad Qualcomm; maintenance workers at Qualcomm pdQ 1900 Quednau, Rachel Queen Rania Teacher Academy Quiz Bowl (TV show) QuoteInvestigator.com (QI) racism rain forests Rain Room ransomware Rattray, Ben ReadWrite.com Reagan, Ronald Real Time Talent Reflections on the Revolution in France (Burke) regulation, technological change and Regulatory Improvement Commission (proposed) Reilly Tar & Chemical Corporation Rejoiner.com relationships, human, connectivity and Republican Party, Republicans: climate change denial by; dogmatism of; implosion of; liberal; polycultural heritage of resilience; in Mother Nature; ownership and; political innovation and retailing: big data and; supernova and Reuters ride-sharing Rifai, Salim al- Ringwald, Alexis Rise and Fall of American Growth, The (Gordon) Rise of the West, The (McNeill) “Rising Menace from Disintegrating Yemen, The” (Henderson) Roberts, Keith robotics “Robots Are Coming, The” (Lanchester) Rockström, Johan Rodríguez, Chi Chi rogue states Rosenstein, Wendi Zelkin Royal Ontario Museum Rugby World Cup (1995) Ruh, Bill Russ, Pam Russell, Richard B.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

A new generation is emerging that considers their phones to be their personal computers. Simultaneously, it is becoming cool to not own a car at all. Ford is not trying to reverse the trend with an expensive marketing campaign, as carmakers would have done in earlier eras. Instead, it is coping with the “democratization of technology,” and following the lead of future customers by investing in Zipcar, an urban ride-sharing service, and TechShop, where urban entrepreneurs can access advanced tech tools to germinate new city-based businesses. A Blind Spot As impressed as we were with the automotive industry’s understanding of contextual technology and its importance to the future of cars, we were disappointed to find that, as of now, none seems to be considering the impact of digital eyewear such as Google Glass.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Some current examples are listed in Table 2-4. There is OpenBazaar (a decentralized Craigslist), LaZooz (a decentralized Uber), Twister (a decentralized Twitter), Bitmessage (decentralized SMS), and Storj (decentralized file storage). Table 2-4. Sample list of Dapps Project name and URL Activity Centralized equivalent OpenBazaar https://openbazaar.org/ Buy/sell items in local physical world Craigslist LaZooz http://lazooz.org/ Ridesharing, including Zooz, a proof-of-movement coin Uber Twister http://twister.net.co/ Social networking, peer-to-peer microblogging 66 Twitter/Facebook Gems http://getgems.org/ Social networking, token-based social messaging Twitter/SMS Bitmessage https://bitmessage.org Secure messaging (individual or broadcast) SMS services Storj http://storj.io/ File storage Dropbox Swarm https://www.swarm.co/ Koinify https://koinify.com/ bitFlyer http://fundflyer.bitflyer.jp/ Cryptocurrency crowdfunding platforms Kickstarter, Indiegogo venture capital funding In a collaborative white paper, another group offers a stronger-form definition of a Dapp.67 In their view, the Dapp must have three features.

The same templated altcoin issuance could extend to groups within these communities, like DeltaChiCoin or NeuroscienceConferenceCoin, to support any specific group’s activities. The Campuscoin issuance template could have specific prepackaged modules. First, there could be a module for buying and selling assets within the local community, an OpenBazaar- or Craigslist-like asset exchange module. Second, there could be a sharing economy module, a decentralized model of Airbnb for dorm rooms, Getaround for transportation including cars and bikes, and LaZooz peer-based ride sharing. Third, there could be a consulting or “advisory services” module for all manner of advice, mentoring, coaching, and tutoring related to classes, departments, majors, and careers. Recent graduates could earn Campuscoin by consulting to job-seeking seniors with specific services like advice and mock interviews; freshmen could provide counsel to high school seniors; and former students in a class could provide advice to current students.


pages: 235 words: 65,885

Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines by Richard Heinberg, James Howard (frw) Kunstler

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anti-communist, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Fractional reserve banking, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, urban planning

The related idea that life can be better without fossil fuels is a core tenet of the Transition Town movement, which started in England in 2005 (I quote its founder, Rob Hopkins, on pages 135-136). Transition Initiatives are grassroots efforts to wean communities off dependence on oil and other carbon fuels by promoting local resilience (through development of things like local food systems and ride-share programs). Transitioners realize that it is probably futile to wait for elected officials to take the lead in planning for the great energy shift, given that very few politicians understand our predicament — and given also that, even if they did, the measures they would likely propose would be deeply unpopular unless the populace were first educated about constraints on fossil-fueled growth. The genius of the movement lies in its engagement of the citizenry first.


pages: 238 words: 68,914

Where Does It Hurt?: An Entrepreneur's Guide to Fixing Health Care by Jonathan Bush, Stephen Baker

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, informal economy, inventory management, job automation, knowledge economy, lifelogging, obamacare, personalized medicine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, web application, women in the workforce, working poor

In an auction in late 2013, medallions for the first time sold for more than $1 million. What would these medallions be worth if anyone with a driver’s license and a car could operate as a taxi? This is starting to happen as citizen-cab services like Uber enter the market. But the standard cabs have paid a lot of money to have the market to themselves. So it was little surprise in 2013 that a new ride-sharing service, Sidecar, got a rough reception in New York. Two of the drivers were detained, and one had her car impounded. The cabdrivers, in a sense, are a protected guild, free of the competition that might benefit the public. Health care is chockablock with artificial barriers like this to protect incumbents from competitors. Endless credentials and licensing requirements ensure steady work for one guild or another, often when a lowlier order could do the job just as well, or even better, at a lower price.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

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Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

The Share Solution When I published The Overspent American in 1998, one sentence generated a reaction akin to outrage—my suggestion that neighbors could share expensive items that are only used periodically, such as riding mowers. Ten years later, it’s not only mowers that are being jointly owned, but tractors and even vehicles. The sharing economy is taking off. The best-known example is car sharing, pioneered in the United States by Zipcar, which makes vehicles available to urban members on a short-term basis. Its founder, Robin Chase, has moved on to create GoLoco, a ride-sharing service. Freecycle.org members are committed to the reciprocity of both giving and getting. IShareStuff.com allows individuals to post items they are willing to share and to contact others who have done the same. These examples are extensions of two important movements that promote global sharing: the information commons and responsible use of common resources of land, water, and atmosphere.


pages: 265 words: 74,807

Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy by David A. Mindell

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Air France Flight 447, autonomous vehicles, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chris Urmson, digital map, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fudge factor, index card, John Markoff, Mars Rover, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, trade route, US Airways Flight 1549, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

Unlike the Google car, however, Mercedes imagines that “passengers are able to interact intuitively with the connected vehicle” in a “symbiosis of the virtual and real world.” Google, on the other hand, has been promoting a vision of complete autonomy. As one Google engineer compares their approach to those of the car companies: “They want to make cars that make drivers better. We want to make cars that are better than drivers.” The ride-sharing giant Uber recently hired a large group of roboticists away from Carnegie Mellon, in an apparent effort to automate their cars. Google has been testing self-driving cars on California roads since 2009, claiming hundreds of thousands of miles of accident-free highway driving. They travel routes mapped with great precision by Google’s human-driven survey cars; the maps serve as virtual railway tracks for the cars (indeed, they are as yet unable to drive on roads without these detailed maps).


pages: 252 words: 73,131

The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

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Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, creative destruction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, helicopter parent, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

There’s a lesson there for modern platforms: greed can plant the seeds of your own undoing. There are plenty of modern-day equivalents to the French king’s shortsighted exploitation of the fair’s merchants. Once you hold a critical position between buyer and seller, market makers suffer from an almost inevitable temptation to profit from it. Uber has been accused of taking a bigger cut of its drivers’ fares after convincing them to invest in new cars and luring them to the ride-sharing platform. And Amazon—a notorious driver of hard bargains—eats the lunch of some of its third-party sellers who happen upon a blockbuster product. That’s what researchers Feng Zhu of Harvard and Qihong Liu of the University of Oklahoma found in their analysis of top-selling products on Amazon, where they showed that, in some fraction of these cases, Amazon started stocking the product itself.


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

An understanding of sampling costs helps in identifying scenarios where social curation works well and those in which it doesn’t. 3.7 TRUST DRIVES INTERACTIONS The 7C Framework For Trust Trust is a critical factor in enabling interactions on platforms. It is especially important in enabling peer-to-peer interactions in hitherto fragmented and unorganized markets. Trust creates an environment that fosters the repeatability and long-term sustainability of interactions. Travelers on a ride-sharing platform like BlaBlaCar must be assured of a safe ride. Peer-to-peer marketplaces for used goods must ensure that buyers are assured of a minimum level of quality in the transactions they engage in. Airbnb hosts must be assured of a solution if their apartments are ransacked. Dating platforms must ensure that everyone feels safe in the interactions that ensue. All these examples demonstrate the challenges of participating in fragmented and unorganized markets.


pages: 221 words: 68,880

Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy (Bicycle) by Elly Blue

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

The next speaker nearly broke down crying as she told of a family that was able to go to the beach together for the first time thanks to a van purchased with a loan from her organization. A grad student then presented her research that suggested that car ownership could play a role in helping people climb out of unemployment (though this and all other factors were dwarfed, she pointed out, by the positive effect of increased literacy on employment). A transit agency representative brought in to discuss an existing rideshare program for the elderly homebound in the city’s suburbs and unincorporated areas was inadvertently the star witness—the costs, as well as the travel times, were huge. Another speaker, the head of a regional business alliance, bragged about his two mile commute, which he undertook daily in his car, alone, and joked that his only problem with giving low income people cars was that they were likely to “end up wrapped around my front bumper.”


pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

After spending a couple of weeks with my co-workers during the commute I noticed that I was always in a better mood when I got to work because I was laughing all the way to work rather than cursing the red lights and traffic that were the bain [sic] of my weekday mornings.”49 Neighbors can also ride together to the mall or the big-box retailers to which many people drive on the weekends. These still-rare examples of ridesharing could work well in some highly social communities where neighbors already spend time with each other. But many people do not know their neighbors and do not wish to know them. When one couple moved into their new suburban home in 2004, they invited everyone on the cul-de-sac to an open house. A guest in her seventies remarked that it was the first time she had been invited to a party on the block, and she was meeting many of her neighbors for the first time.

The fact that many families now include two income earners accounts for an increase in the number of vehicles we feel we need. But the very idea 72 Carjacked of family members finding ways to share a car, carpool, and adapt their schedules to others’ has become unpalatable. A 2006 Pew Research study found that in response to higher gas prices, only 21 percent of Americans said they had started ride sharing or carpooling more often. In this survey, “more often” was not quantified, but might mean sharing a ride to work once a week or more. Since then, the amount of carpooling has risen only slightly. Increasingly, the second or third car is for the teenager in the family, who is seen as needing a car to get to school, activities, or to part-time work, even when walking, school buses, and public transit are possibilities.

See technology. public transportation: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and, 208 availability of, 80–1, 107, 115 in Boston, 105 the carless and, 101–2, 104–5, 115, 125 children and, 26, 219 eco-friendly, 209 the elderly and, 111 fleet, 5 frustrations with, 155 funding for, 5, 10, 94, 126, 133–4, 176, 208, 224–6 health benefits of, 162–5 health hazards and, 161–2 housing values and, 207 inner cities and, 115–6 need for, xiv, 90, 156–9, 219–20, 223 physical exercise and, 162, 165 rail, 224 rapid, 133 school buses, 134–7 sprawl and, 80, 101, 111, 159 teens and, 72, 137, 219 traffic congestion and, 145, 203 travel times and, 220 INDEX Rain Man (film), 14 Reagan, Ronald, 102, 150 Reality Bites (film), 7 Renault, 43 Rent-A-Tire, xiii, 109–10, 120 repossession, xiii, 79, 83–4, 109, 117–9, 124 Resta, Pat, 98 Reynolds, Milton, 113 Rice, Bob, 37 ride sharing. See carpooling road construction, 5–6, 93–6, 127–9, 152, 225 road rage, 151–8 Roche, James M., 121 Rockefeller, Nelson, 9 Rolls-Royce Phantom, 75 Romney, Mitt, 9 Roosevelt, Franklin, 96 rush hour, 130–3, 156, 220, 223 Ryder, Winona, 7 Saab, 62–3 safe driving habits, 221–2 Saturn, 16, 85 Schultz, Howard, 138 Scion, 27 seat belts, 18, 116, 184, 193–7, 203, 221, 228 Selditz, Larry, 197–8 self-expression, 26–30, 53–57, 60, 78 self-reliance, 15, 27 Sloan, Alfred P. 64 Slocum, Tyson, 122 Speed (cable TV channel), 6 speed limits, 18, 153, 180, 193, 196, 221 speeding, ix, xi, 18–9, 23, 31, 196, 221 Speizer, Frank, 168 spinal cord injuries, 183–4, 187, 243n12 sport utility vehicles (SUVs): categorized as trucks, 199 crossovers and, 57 ESC in, 216 hybrid, 66, 88–9 introduction of, 62 marketing of, 199 reasons for buying, 72–3, 164 renting, 73, 142 safety and, xii, 120, 177–81, 194 sales, 3, 5, 73 sprawl, suburban, 80–1, 101, 125, 127–33, 145–6, 150, 159, 225 Stahl, Leslie, 207 Standard Oil, 10 Starbucks effect, 137–40 Stark, Ellen, 86, 98–9 253 Stevens, Ted, 95 sticker price, 65–8, 71, 75, 214–5 Stiglitz, Joseph E., 96 stimulus spending, 10, 95, 208 Stone, Judy, 188 Stone, Oliver, 123 Straith, Clair, 195 Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD), 193, 198 Subaru, 16, 50–1, 57 Suckow, Fred, 43–6 Superbad (film), 18 talk radio, 149–51 tax credits, 235n34 technology: alternative fuels, 36, 89, 226 Americans’ faith in, 34–37 in-car technologies, 74–5, 147–9, 156 See also electric cars teenagers: car crashes and, 23, 52, 136, 181–3, 189, 197–8 cars purchased for, 3, 72 delayed driving for, 219 freedom and, 19–21 marketing to, 2, 51–4, 59 product placing and, 51–3 public transportation and, 137 trips taken by, 82–3, 139 telecommuting, 157, 219–20 Thelma and Louise, 22 Tillerson, Rex, 120 Toronto, Canada, 126 toxins, car-related, 169–71 Toyota, 16, 30, 40, 43–4, 51, 54, 57, 59, 65–9, 73, 88, 141, 157, 178, 206, 215 trade-ins, 70, 78, 86, 212–3 traffic: congestion, 6, 21, 36, 90, 92–5, 98, 127–135, 137–8, 142–148 court, 106 reduction strategies, 133–4, 152 regulation, 17–21, 112–114, Transformers (film), 7 transportation costs by income, 236n6 TREAD Act, 196 Truckers and Citizens United, 121 Turner, Terence, 30 Twitchell, James, 52 United Auto Workers (UAW), 9, 121 Used cars, 5, 8, 37, 72, 85, 99, 106–11, 119, 213–214 254 Carjacked Veblen, Thorstein, 57–8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 167, 169 Volkswagen, 22, 27–8, 45, 47–8, 53, 62, 77, 82, 148 Volvo, 27, 54, 74, 137, 166, 190 Wagoner, Rick, 120–1 Wahl, Wendy, 41–3, 57–8 walkable neighborhoods, 133, 165, 223, 225 Wall Street (film), 123 Wal-Mart, 8, 102–3, 110, 141 Waterworld (film), 34 Whitman, Walt, 15 Wild West, 16–7 Wilkinson, Tom, 87 Zenn, 215 Zipcar, 211–2


pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, working poor, zero-sum game

Some possible examples of participating organizations and businesses: • A food co-op • A community food center, including commercial food-processing, food-preserving, and food-storage facilities available at low cost (or on labor-barter basis) to small-scale local producers15 • A community garden with individual beds available for seasonal rental, as well as communal beds growing produce for soup kitchens • A health center offering free or inexpensive wellness classes in nutrition, cooking, and fitness • A free (and/or barter) health clinic • Counseling and mental health services • A tool library, or an open-source customizable set of industrial machines16 • A work center that connects people who have currently unused skills with needs in the community — work can be compensated monetarily or through barter • A legal clinic • A credit union offering low-interest or even no-interest loans (on the model of the JAK bank in Sweden)17 • A recycling/re-use center that turns waste into resources of various kinds — including compost and scrap — and into re-manufactured or re-usable products • A co-op incubator • A local-currency headquarters and clearinghouse • A local-transport enterprise incubator, possibly including car-share, ride-share, and bicycle co-ops as well as a public transit hub • A shelter clearinghouse connecting available housing with people who need a roof — including rentals and opportunities for legal organized squatting in foreclosed properties, as well as various forms of space sharing • A community education center offering free or low-cost classes in skills useful for getting by in the new economy — including gardening, health maintenance, making do with less, energy conservation, weather-stripping, etc.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

A second will come via micropayments (probably via the block chain). The ability to move infinitesimal transaction amounts will underpin entirely new business models. Autonomous vehicles Implications: In September 2014, California will issue the first license plates for driverless cars. Starting with delivery vehicles and then taxis, predictions call for existing road capacity to increase 8-10 times once a critical mass of AVs is reached. Ridesharing is an intermediate step toward fully automated transportation, which may have a bigger visible impact on society than anything else, including sustainability, urban planning (almost no parking lots) and fewer traffic fatalities. Note that most of these technologies and trends were unknown a decade ago, and all were non-existent thirty years ago. No doubt even more technologies and trends, as yet unknown, will emerge in even the next five years as convergences and intersection points drive an ever-faster pace of change.

By comparison, scarcity of supply or resources tends to keep costs high and stimulates ownership over access. Today, a trend known as Collaborative Consumption leverages the Internet and social networks to create a more efficient utilization of physical assets. The following shows just some of the vertical markets affected by the phenomenon of moving from “possess” to “access”: bartering, bike sharing, boat sharing, carpooling, ride sharing, car sharing, collaborative workspace, co-housing, co-working, crowdfunding, garden sharing, fractional ownership, peer-to-peer renting, product service systtem, seed swaps, taxi shares, time banks, virtual currency (Source: Wikipedia). Note that in traditional industries that can be fully information-enabled, new competition has produced a staggering drop in revenues for old companies. The business models for music, newspapers, and book publishing have all suffered through this transformation, and today look almost nothing like they did ten years ago.


pages: 443 words: 98,113

The Corruption of Capitalism: Why Rentiers Thrive and Work Does Not Pay by Guy Standing

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, first-past-the-post, future of work, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, information retrieval, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mini-job, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, nudge unit, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, openstreetmap, patent troll, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, quantitative easing, remote working, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, structural adjustment programs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the payments system, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Dobbs, Connecting Talent with Opportunity in the Digital Age (New York: McKinsey Global Institute, June 2015). 3 C. Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book That Will Change the Way You Do Business (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1997). 4 C. Christensen, M. Raynor and R. McDonald, ‘What is disruptive innovation?’, Harvard Business Review, 2015. 5 M. Harris, ‘Uber: Why the world’s biggest ride-sharing company has no drivers’, The Guardian, 16 November 2015. 6 S. Jackman, ‘Crowdsourcing may hold key to unlocking Japan’s working potential’, Japan News, 2 January 2015. 7 Cited in S. O’Connor, ‘The human cloud: A new world of work’, Financial Times, 8 October 2015. 8 Associated Press, ‘US companies increasingly turning to temporary workers to fill positions’, Fox News, 8 July 2013. 9 Cited in The Economist, 13 June 2015, p. 57. 10 B.


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

I believe it will be referred to as a revolution, so to speak, when society, faced with great challenges, makes a seismic shift from individual getting and spending toward the rediscovery of collective good.”74 Here are a few examples of the early stages of that seismic shift. Zipcar, a car-sharing service founded in 2000 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, had 670,000 members in 2012. Netflix, founded in 1997, allows its 23 million members to share access to DVDs. Zimride is a social network for ride-sharing at MIT that allows students, employees, and faculty to coordinate shared car rides. At “Powershopping Parties” in Germany, women swap clothes at parties of eight hundred or more. More and more consumers are moving from buying to “using”; Botsman calls this phenomenon collaborative consumption.75 Says Robert Henrich, CEO of Daimler’s Car2go, a car-sharing company that operates in Vancouver, British Columbia; Austin, Texas; Washington, DC; San Diego; Amsterdam; Vienna; Lyons; and Hamburg, Dusseldorf, and Ulm, Germany, “In the beginning, especially young people wanted to try this out.


pages: 355 words: 106,952

Visit Sunny Chernobyl: And Other Adventures in the World's Most Polluted Places by Andrew Blackwell

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carbon footprint, clean water, Google Earth, gravity well, liberation theology, nuclear paranoia, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, place-making, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the scientific method, young professional

The highway north of Fort McMurray is so small, relative to the thousands of workers who need to get to the work sites every day, that traffic can be terrible, especially during shift changes. So the oil sands companies hire buses to ferry workers to and from town. Ubiquitous red and white Diversified Transportation coaches ply the highway in pods. That an industry partly responsible for Canada blowing its emission-reduction goals has a thriving rideshare program is just one of the tidy, spring-loaded ironies that jump out at you here. The Suncor bus tour leaves from in front of the OSDC—I stole in for a quick taste of the Dig and Sniff—and it employs one of those same Diversified buses, re-tasked for our touristic needs. Mindy, our perky young tour guide, popped up in front and asked us to buckle our seat belts. “Safety,” she said, “is one of our number-one priorities.”


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

As of July 2014, Crowdfunder has processed $105.2 million in deals with more than 11,000 companies listed and 62,000 investors registered on the site.11 AngelList is another equity platform that’s getting a lot of attention—and for good reason.12 Started in 2010 by Babak Nivi and Naval Ravikant, AngelList is a platform for startups to meet angel investors, and vice versa. Investors and startups can create profiles, list their investments, and connect to one another. Participants are some of the best in the business. For example, Uber, the ridesharing service discussed earlier, not only raised their first $1.3 million on the site, but also met investor Shervin Pishevar, who later lead a $32 million Series B for Uber at Menlo Ventures (Pishevar has also become one of the biggest investors on AngelList). The best news: you don’t have to invest millions of dollars to get into these deals. In 2012, AngelList partnered with SecondMarket to give smaller accredited investors the chance to invest as little as $1,000 in start-ups alongside top technology investors.13 Yet, despite equity’s enormous potential, the focus in this chapter is going to primarily be on the fourth category: reward-based crowdfunding.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

We have faster supply chains, new approaches to marketing, and peer-to-peer collaborations like Linux and Wikipedia on a massive scale, with many innovative new business models. Blockchain technology will accelerate this process. As the Internet of Things takes hold, these trends will go into hyperdrive. THE FUTURE: FROM UBER TO SUBER We’ve covered a lot of ground in this chapter. Now let’s pull all the strands of innovation together in just one scenario. Consider service aggregators like Uber and Lyft. Uber is an app-based ride-sharing network of drivers who are willing to give other people a lift for a fee. To use Uber, you download the Uber app, create an account, and provide Uber with your credit card information. When you use the app to request a car, it asks you to select the type of car you want and marks your location on a map. The app will keep you posted on the availability and whereabouts of your prospective driver.

Indeed, for Abra CEO Bill Barhydt, the staggering growth in the number of so-called sharing economy companies convinced him this wasn’t an issue. “People are willing to trust each other faster than they’re willing to trust an institution,” he said.47 The smart phone is key to all of this. In the same way the smart phone allows you to rent your apartment to someone else or rent your car to someone else or provide ride sharing to someone else, it can also be used as an ATM. Barhydt said, “It’s amazing what people are willing to do in a shared economy model and they’re just not doing it for money yet, maybe with the exception of peer-to-peer lending.” Moreover, he said, “It’s more important to us that you trust each other rather than Abra. If you trust each other, it’s highly likely that you’re going to get to know Abra, and that you’re going to like it and you’re going to have a good experience,” and ultimately trust the platform.48 Abra is not a remittance app but instead a new global platform for value exchange that combines in equal measure the distributed, trustless blockchain network, the power of smart phone technology, and the very human inclination to want to trust peers in a network.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

They read one another’s haikus. They confess their affairs. Newmark describes the site not as a business but as a public commons. “Connecting people to fix the world over time is the deepest spiritual value you can have,” Newmark has said. After Hurricane Katrina, Craigslist helped stranded families find new homes. During the New York City transit strike of 2005, Craigslist was the go-to place for ride-share listings. “Yet another crisis, and Craigslist commands the community,” wrote one blogger about Craigslist’s role in the strike. “How come Craig organically can touch lives on so many personal levels—and Craig’s users can touch each other’s lives on so many levels?” Here’s one answer: social media has made new forms of leadership possible for scores of people who don’t fit the Harvard Business School mold.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The trap had been set and the deplaning executive walked right into the arms of the faux chauffeur, all because a cardboard “screen” had been hacked. Several executives were kidnapped and others killed using the smart-phone research technique. Whatever the technical innovation, criminals are quick to adapt, either by mimicking legitimate Internet start-ups or by abusing their services. Borrowing a page from Uber, the ride-sharing phone app that connects crowdsourced drivers to passengers, a woman in the U.K. created her own SMS vehicle-on-demand service—for getaway cars. Sensing a market need by criminals without wheels, Nicole Gibson of Londonderry created a real-time “text a getaway driver” service to help robbers make a clean escape with the goods they had stolen from homes and businesses along the Irish border. In San Francisco, drug dealers in Dolores Park began using Square, a small white plastic device that connects to the iPhone and allows anybody to accept credit card payments, enabling hipsters who eschew cash to charge their ecstasy and pot.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Indeed, drivers have heard so many lurid reports they tend to be just as afraid of those with their thumbs out. Hitchhiking on freeways is prohibited. You’ll see more people hitchhiking in rural areas and in Alaska and Hawaii, but these places aren’t safer than anywhere else, and with sparse traffic, you may well get stranded. In and around national parks, hitching to and from trailheads is common, but a safer bet is to check ride-share boards at hostels, park visitor centers and wilderness information stations. Local Transportation Except in large US cities, public transportation is rarely the most convenient option for travelers, and coverage can be sparse to outlying towns and suburbs. However, it is usually cheap, safe and reliable. For details, see the Getting Around sections for the main cities and towns covered in the On the Road chapters.


pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

“The Antikythera”—the earliest known computing device, that mysterious Greek astrolabe whose precise origins scientists have been unable to successfully pin down—“is older, and there are abacuses and counting sticks. But [the volvelle] is certainly an old-school app.” The point is that people have been using tools to simplify and wield data and coordinate solutions for centuries. Take Uber: the ride-hailing app’s major innovation is its ability to efficiently pair a rider with a driver. The app reads the fluid data set of the number of available drivers in an area, taken by their GPS signals, and cross-references it with the number of desiring riders. Where those data sets intersect is where you and the driver meet for your ride. Uber is a GPS-and-Google-Maps-powered, for-profit volvelle. “I think it’s worth remembering that even as we develop new technology, we’ve developed many similar technologies in different forms throughout human history.


pages: 125 words: 28,222

Growth Hacking Techniques, Disruptive Technology - How 40 Companies Made It BIG – Online Growth Hacker Marketing Strategy by Robert Peters

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Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, digital map, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit, turn-by-turn navigation

In September 2013, the company announced that it would focus exclusively on long-duration car rentals since 95% of their revenues were being generated by that source. Customers on both ends of the equation love the option. Renters pay 40% less for a RelayRides vehicle over a traditional rent car and the average vehicle owner makes $250 a month in profit. Some owners are so attracted to the concept, they put from 2-4 cars into service. In studying the transportation/ride share market as part of the new economy of sharing, RelayRides hit on the untapped resource of underutilized vehicles that spend most of their time in the garage or parking lot. As a facilitator of the owner/rental connection, the company takes 25% and in exchange provides $1 million of insurance on the vehicle during the rental period. To assuage safety concerns, background checks are performed on participating owners and vehicle registration is verified.

It is to LivingSocial’s benefit that the company has had a strong growth culture from day one and is prepared to test and redesign key elements of its infrastructure to enhance both the user and customer experience. Although facing stiff competition from Groupon, LivingSocial is still very much in the game and well positioned for even greater growth. Sidecar Defining the prevailing zeitgeist at any moment in time can be a powerful but difficult growth hack, but San Francisco-based Sidecar, a major competitor with Uber in the sector of peer-to-peer ride sharing seems to be a good market fit for the rapidly emerging Sharing Economy. In the months following its January 2012 launch in San Francisco, the company experienced 60% month-over-month growth and secured impressive funding starting with $20 million in seed money. Like Uber, SideCar opted for a “proof is in the pudding” approach to demonstrating its value at the influential SXSW tech conference in Austin, Texas from March 8-17, 2013.

They perfected a city-wide roll out strategy in San Francisco that proved to be so effective they have used and improved it in each successive city they enter. Even in the face of replicable success, however, the focus should remain on delivering the best user / customer experience, even if that means completely changing the direction of the endeavor midstream. RelayRides is a good example of an incredibly successful change in course. They started out believing that their ride sharing concept was best targeted for short-term hourly hires and wound up completely focusing their business on long-term rentals with airport based drop off and pick up. Why? The company introduced its service at San Francisco International Airport where it was so well received, the concept was then implemented in 229 additional airports. In short order, RelayRides was gaining 95% of their revenue from a long-term hiring model and discontinued hourly rentals.


pages: 264 words: 71,821

How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything by Mike Berners-Lee

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air freight, carbon footprint, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, sustainable-tourism, University of East Anglia

If you make the assumption that the journey is many times longer than it would be if there were no traffic, then the time you waste in the line is about equal to the sum of the extra time you make everyone else waste. In other words, the hassle and anguish that you experience is equal to the hassle and anguish that you inflict. So when deciding whether to drive through a busy area at rush hour, picture your own pain and double it. All of this adds to the case for traveling by bike, bus, train, foot, or ride share wherever possible. It’s also a useful reminder that all motorists should treat cyclists with the respect they deserve for helping to cut everybody else’s journey time. Where you must drive in busy conditions, do your best to minimize stops and starts—both your own and everyone else’s. A steady slow stream of traffic is more efficient than a faster but less steady one unless the stops are so long that everyone can turn their engines off.

Many thanks to Jess Moss at Small World for unearthing quirky data and sorting out dozens of references—and for reminding me to get a move on—and to Helen Cammack and Claire Hoolohan for help with the tricky job of revising the book for a North American audience. David Howard, Kim Kaivanto, Andy Scott, and Geraint Johnes from Lancaster University, and Sonny Khan, all helped with the input–output model that I have drawn upon extensively. Thanks also to David Parkinson and Chris Goodall, among others, for answering technical queries. Andrew Meikle let me chatter away during ride shares and has been a frequent sounding board. He read early pages aloud so that I could hear how bad they were. Others who cast a friendly eye include Phil and Jane Latham, Aly Purcell, Rachel Nunn, and Mark Jameson. Mum and Dad, true to form as incredible parents, both picked through the entire draft at a moment’s notice. Thanks to Kim Quazi for helping me thrash out the first ideas years ago in a pub and to Kirsty Pelling, the journalist in the supermarket.


pages: 317 words: 84,400

Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World by Christopher Steiner

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23andMe, Ada Lovelace, airport security, Al Roth, algorithmic trading, backtesting, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, dumpster diving, Flash crash, Gödel, Escher, Bach, High speed trading, Howard Rheingold, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, late fees, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, medical residency, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Sergey Aleynikov, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

Poker bots can’t read faces, at least not yet, so to be effective against good players they must learn how to bluff, how to call others’ bluffs, and when to fold in the face of what’s likely a big hand for an opponent. Sandholm, who speaks with the slightest of accents, was born and raised in Finland and looks the part of Nordic conqueror with his sandy hair, high cheekbones, and cleft chin. In 1990 he built his first commercial algorithm, an automated negotiation platform for ride sharing. Riders could introduce routes for which they sought rides, and drivers could answer with price quotes. Each rider introduced a different route variation to each driver, making for a complex market that could only be tamed by the perfect algorithm. Sandholm’s foray into carpooling ultimately failed as the market didn’t behave how his bot had expected. It turned out that some humans were perfectly happy to make a few bucks to drive others; others, however, demanded far higher—and thus, to the algorithm, irrational—premiums for the disturbance of their solo commute.

., 140, 165 Nobel Prize, 23, 106 North Carolina, 48, 204 Northwestern University, 145, 186 Kellogg School of Management at, 10 Novak, Ben, 77–79, 83, 85, 86 NSA, 137 NuclearPhynance, 124 nuclear power, 139 nuclear weapons, in Iran, 137, 138–39 number theory, 65 numerals: Arabic-Indian, 56 Roman, 56 NYSE composite index, 40, 41 Oakland Athletics, 141 Obama, Barack, 46, 218–19 Occupy Wall Street, 210 O’Connor & Associates, 40, 46 OEX, see S&P 100 index Ohio, 91 oil prices, 54 OkCupid, 144–45 Olivetti home computers, 27 opera, 92, 93, 95 Operation Match, 144 opinions-driven people, 173, 174, 175 OptionMonster, 119 option prices, probability and statistics in, 27 options: Black-Scholes formula and, 23 call, 21–22 commodities, 22 definition of, 21 pricing of, 22 put, 22 options contracts, 30 options trading, 36 algorithms in, 22–23, 24, 114–15 Oregon, University of, 96–97 organ donor networks: algorithms in, 149–51, 152, 214 game theory in, 147–49 oscilloscopes, 32 Outkast, 102 outliers, 63 musical, 102 outputs, algorithmic, 54 Pacific Exchange, 40 Page, Larry, 213 PageRank, 213–14 pairs matching, 148–51 pairs trading, 31 Pakistan, 191 Pandora, 6–7, 83 Papanikolaou, Georgios, 153 Pap tests, 152, 153–54 Parham, Peter, 161 Paris, 56, 59, 121 Paris Stock Exchange, 122 Parse.ly, 201 partial differential equations, 23 Pascal, Blaise, 59, 66–67 pathologists, 153 patient data, real-time, 158–59 patterns, in music, 89, 93, 96 Patterson, Nick, 160–61 PayPal, 188 PCs, Quotron data for, 33, 37, 39 pecking orders, social, 212–14 Pennsylvania, 115, 116 Pennsylvania, University of, 49 pension funds, 202 Pentagon, 168 Perfectmatch.com, 144 Perry, Katy, 89 Persia, 54 Peru, 91 Peterffy, Thomas: ambitions of, 27 on AMEX, 28–38 automated trading by, 41–42, 47–48, 113, 116 background and early career of, 18–20 Correlator algorithm of, 42–45 early handheld computers developed by, 36–39, 41, 44–45 earnings of, 17, 37, 46, 48, 51 fear that algorithms have gone too far by, 51 hackers hired by, 24–27 independence retained by, 46–47 on index funds, 41–46 at Interactive Brokers, 47–48 as market maker, 31, 35–36, 38, 51 at Mocatta, 20–28, 31 Nasdaq and, 11–18, 32, 42, 47–48, 185 new technology innovated by, 15–16 options trading algorithm of, 22–23, 24 as outsider, 31–32 profit guidelines of, 29 as programmer, 12, 15–16, 17, 20–21, 26–27, 38, 48, 62 Quotron hack of, 32–35 stock options algorithm as goal of, 27 Timber Hill trading operation of, see Timber Hill traders eliminated by, 12–18 trading floor methods of, 28–34 trading instincts of, 18, 26 World Trade Center offices of, 11, 39, 42, 43, 44 Petty, Tom, 84 pharmaceutical companies, 146, 155, 186 pharmacists, automation and, 154–56 Philips, 159 philosophy, Leibniz on, 57 phone lines: cross-country, 41 dedicated, 39, 42 phones, cell, 124–25 phosphate levels, 162 Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR), 146 physicists, 62, 157 algorithms and, 6 on Wall Street, 14, 37, 119, 185, 190, 207 pianos, 108–9 Pincus, Mark, 206 Pisa, 56 pitch, 82, 93, 106 Pittsburgh International Airport, security algorithm at, 136 Pittsburgh Pirates, 141 Pius II, Pope, 69 Plimpton, George, 141–42 pneumonia, 158 poetry, composed by algorithm, 100–101 poker, 127–28 algorithms for, 129–35, 147, 150 Poland, 69, 91 Polyphonic HMI, 77–79, 82–83, 85 predictive algorithms, 54, 61, 62–65 prescriptions, mistakes with, 151, 155–56 present value, of future money streams, 57 pressure, thriving under, 169–70 prime numbers, general distribution pattern of, 65 probability theory, 66–68 in option prices, 27 problem solving, cooperative, 145 Procter & Gamble, 3 programmers: Cope as, 92–93 at eLoyalty, 182–83 Peterffy as, 12, 15–16, 17, 20–21, 26–27, 38, 48, 62 on Wall Street, 13, 14, 24, 46, 47, 53, 188, 191, 203, 207 programming, 188 education for, 218–20 learning, 9–10 simple algorithms in, 54 Progress Energy, 48 Project TACT (Technical Automated Compatibility Testing), 144 proprietary code, 190 proprietary trading, algorithmic, 184 Prussia, 69, 121 PSE, 40 pseudocholinesterase deficiency, 160 psychiatry, 163, 171 psychology, 178 Pu, Yihao, 190 Pulitzer Prize, 97 Purdue University, 170, 172 put options, 22, 43–45 Pythagorean algorithm, 64 quadratic equations, 63, 65 quants (quantitative analysts), 6, 46, 124, 133, 198, 200, 202–3, 204, 205 Leibniz as, 60 Wall Street’s monopoly on, 183, 190, 191, 192 Queen’s College, 72 quizzes, and OkCupid’s algorithms, 145 Quotron machine, 32–35, 37 Rachmaninoff, Sergei, 91, 96 Radiohead, 86 radiologists, 154 radio transmitters, in trading, 39, 41 railroad rights-of-way, 115–17 reactions-based people, 173–74, 195 ReadyForZero, 207 real estate, 192 on Redfin, 207 recruitment, of math and engineering students, 24 Redfin, 192, 206–7, 210 reflections-driven people, 173, 174, 182 refraction, indexes of, 15 regression analysis, 62 Relativity Technologies, 189 Renaissance Technologies, 160, 179–80, 207–8 Medallion Fund of, 207–8 retirement, 50, 214 Reuter, Paul Julius, 122 Rhode Island hold ‘em poker, 131 rhythms, 82, 86, 87, 89 Richmond, Va., 95 Richmond Times-Dispatch, 95 rickets, 162 ride sharing, algorithm for, 130 riffs, 86 Riker, William H., 136 Ritchie, Joe, 40, 46 Rochester, N.Y., 154 Rolling Stones, 86 Rondo, Rajon, 143 Ross, Robert, 143–44 Roth, Al, 147–49 Rothschild, Nathan, 121–22 Royal Society, London, 59 RSB40, 143 runners, 39, 122 Russia, 69, 193 intelligence of, 136 Russian debt default of 1998, 64 Rutgers University, 144 Ryan, Lee, 79 Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, 69 Sam Goody, 83 Sandberg, Martin (Max Martin), 88–89 Sandholm, Tuomas: organ donor matching algorithm of, 147–51 poker algorithm of, 128–33, 147, 150 S&P 100 index, 40–41 S&P 500 index, 40–41, 51, 114–15, 218 Santa Cruz, Calif., 90, 95, 99 satellites, 60 Savage Beast, 83 Saverin, Eduardo, 199 Scholes, Myron, 23, 62, 105–6 schools, matching algorithm for, 147–48 Schubert, Franz, 98 Schwartz, Pepper, 144 science, education in, 139–40, 218–20 scientists, on Wall Street, 46, 186 Scott, Riley, 9 scripts, algorithms for writing, 76 Seattle, Wash., 192, 207 securities, 113, 114–15 mortgage-backed, 203 options on, 21 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 185 semiconductors, 60, 186 sentence structure, 62 Sequoia Capital, 158 Seven Bridges of Königsberg, 69, 111 Shannon, Claude, 73–74 Shuruppak, 55 Silicon Valley, 53, 81, 90, 116, 188, 189, 215 hackers in, 8 resurgence of, 198–211, 216 Y Combinator program in, 9, 207 silver, 27 Simons, James, 179–80, 208, 219 Simpson, O.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

a number of other people also deserve credit for their insights (any errors that remain in the book are my own): Gordon Mitchell and andrew Weintraub, whose comments and suggestions made this an eminently better work; Jeff Ferrell and Stephen Duncombe, who gave me additional feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript; and Charles Komanoff, who shared not only his wisdom about bike activism and transportation politics but also valuable research materials and contacts. i am also grateful to the people who were kind enough to send me documents, photocopied articles, and other hard-to-find (print and digital) texts, including ross petty, peter norton, Jacquie phelan, aaron Wilcher, Michael niman, Doug McCabe, and John Dowlin (the unsung godfather of bike zines). in addition, i thank all the folks who sat for interviews, took me for rides, shared their thoughts and stories, responded to e-mail messages, engaged me in conversation (and the occasional argument), granted permission for the use of their artwork or lyrics, and otherwise made invaluable contributions to both this book and my perspectives on bicycling and bike culture in north america (and abroad). i owe sincere gratitude to my wonderful colleagues and former students in the Cultural Studies program at Columbia College Chicago, especially Carmelo Esterrich, ann Gunkel, and Jaafar aksikas. i also appreciate the generous support received from not only the entire faculty and staff in the Department of Humanities, History, and Social Sciences—including Krista rogers, Oscar valdez, iris parker, and my department chair, lisa Brock— but also the following folks outside the department: Kevin Henry, Micki leventhal, ames Hawkins, and Doug powell.

Thus, it is hardly surprising that some of the same people involved in the development and organization of community bike spaces are, or have been, involved with similar political and artistic participatory institutions. For example, in my hometown of pittsburgh (pennsylvania) the community bicycle organization Free ride initially began in a storefront adjacent to the collectively run show space called the Mr. roboto project—an all-ages, Diy punk music venue that operates through membership dues and volunteer labor.24 Free ride shared this space, dubbed the “Multitool,” with The Big idea infoshop and both projects were, at one time, at least partly staffed by the same group of punks and activists who attend (or play) shows next door. in addition, Free ride’s rent costs were kept to a minimum through supplementary income made from bands that rented practice space in the basement of the Multitool. Both the Big idea and Free ride eventually moved into their own spaces, and Free ride now utilizes part of a warehouse owned and operated by Construction Junction, a retailer of surplus and used construction materials. like the Mr. roboto project and The Big idea, Free ride is an institution that provides services to the immediate neighborhood as well as an interconnected activist and arts community; it is also an important social and cultural space for bike riders to congregate, learn from their peers, and share their experiences and perspectives on cycling.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

However, a global bank with no restrictions on borders or transactions would be interesting to users that want to conduct global transactions wherever they are in the world with the same ease as using a credit card. But here’s the sad news: this fictitious global bank will never exist, because local regulatory hurdles are too high and too real. No existing startup or bank has the incentive or desire to become that “ultra” bank. The hurdles that Uber (the ride sharing service) has faced against the global taxi cartels would pale in comparison to the complexities and intricacies of the regulatory, compliance, and legal barriers that are intrinsic to each local financial services system around the world. Do you know why HSBC is not really the world’s leading global bank, despite being in 72 countries? Do you know why Coinbase is not really the “world’s” leading Bitcoin exchange, despite being the largest and only exchange available in 27 countries?


pages: 212 words: 70,224

How to Retire the Cheapskate Way by Jeff Yeager

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asset allocation, car-free, employer provided health coverage, estate planning, financial independence, fixed income, pez dispenser, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Zipcar

As we saw in the profile of Lys and Dan Burden, one of the primary reasons they chose the retirement location they did was that it will allow them to live car-free or at least “car-lite,” saving them an estimated $11,500 per year. Whether or not you’re relocating in retirement, thinking through your options when it comes to transportation is an extremely high priority. Can you downsize from owning two cars to just one? Can you live without a car completely—or at least keep it parked in the garage more often—by relying on public transportation, community-provided transportation for seniors, or car/ride-sharing programs? An excellent book on the topic about how to live car-free or car-lite is, ironically, entitled How to Live Well Without Owning a Car, by Chris Balish. Don’t be put off by the title; in reality, Balish explores all types of creative options to simply reduce your automotive dependency (and costs), even if you decide to hang on to your four wheels once you retire. Cheapskate Retirement Principle #11 Your house should probably be the “source of last resort” in terms of tapping it for cash through a reverse mortgage.


pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

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Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, endogenous growth, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, G4S, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, Philip Mirowski, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Since 2002 the cost of Amgen’s stock repurchases has surpassed the company’s R&D expenditures in every year except 2004, and for the period 1992–2011 was equal to fully 115 per cent of R&D outlays and 113 per cent of net income (Lazonick and Tulum 2011). The fact that top pharma companies are spending a decreasing amount of funds on R&D at the same time that the State is spending more – all while increasing the amount they spend on share buybacks, makes this particular innovation ecosystem much more parasitic than symbiotic. This is not the ‘crowding out’ effect: this is free-riding. Share buyback schemes boost stock prices, benefitting senior executives, managers and investors that hold the majority of company stock. Boosting share prices does not create value (the point of innovation), but facilitates its extraction. Shareholders and executives are thus ‘rewarded’ for riding the innovation wave the State created. In Chapter 9 I look more closely at the problem of value extraction and ask whether and how some of the ‘returns’ from innovation should be returned to the employees and State that are also key contributors and stakeholders in the innovation process.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Or take Plastyc, a start-up that claims to put the “power of a bank in your cell phone” by providing affordable 24-hour access to FDIC-insured virtual bank accounts that can be accessed from any internet-enabled computer or mobile device. These accounts are tied to prepaid Visa cards; consumers cannot go overdrawn and they incur no late fees. Plastyc’s low-fee, no-frills, online banking services are appealing to the nearly 70 million underbanked, or unbanked, Americans who cannot afford to pay large bank fees. And in the sharing economy, firms such as Airbnb (sharing homes), RelayRides (sharing cars) and ParkatmyHouse (sharing parking spaces) are taking advantage of the internet and social media to enable ordinary people to monetise their idle household assets. Many of these disruptive digital ventures are being launched by millennials (popularly known as generation recession), who can raise capital on crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter, KissKissBankBank and MedStartr. Digital disrupters are not all young bootstrap entrepreneurs.


pages: 344 words: 96,020

Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional

Rules have also been established in consumer protection law for sending emails, such as the CAN-SPAM law in the United States. FOGG BEHAVIOR MODEL And finally, for opt-in notifications, a trigger’s impact will vary greatly depending on how many users agree to receive them. The range of opt-in agreement can vary a great deal across products and product categories. For example, for mobile notifications, opt-in rates range from 80 percent at the high end, for services like ride sharing, to 39 percent at the low end for news and media offerings, according to Kahuna, a mobile messaging company.14 IOS PUSH OPT-IN RATES BY APP INDUSTRY One of the biggest mistakes companies make is asking visitors to opt in to receiving triggers such as notifications and emails too soon, often as a necessary first step to setting up or accessing the product. This can scare people off because they have no idea, or only a vague inkling yet, about why they would want these messages.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In 2010 Getaround began providing car owners in the San Francisco area with small Wi-Fi and GPS-enabled units. Owners choose when and where they want to offer their vehicles, and renters find them and book them via an iPhone app. One peer-to-peer user reported that she left her car in San Francisco while she went hiking in Peru—and earned $350 per week in rentals while she was away.* Meanwhile, even ride sharing has gotten smarter. A smartphone application called Avego enables drivers and prospective passengers to link up through their phones. At the end of each journey an automated accounting system pays the driver out of the passenger’s account. In some ways, these peer-to-peer systems work like oxytocin, the trust hormone: they offer an inducement and immediate reward for behaving cooperatively with other people.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Geraci wanted the movement to build “a suite of tools that residents of any city, anywhere, can plug into and use to make their area better.” He had his eye on Washington, DC, where Apps for Democracy, the first city-sponsored apps contest, had run during the preceding autumn. Geraci had concluded that apps contests were an inspired idea but too open-ended and too driven by government data and the programmers’ own desires instead of the problems of citizens. So he devised a series of DIYcity Challenges that started with problems—ride sharing, bus tracking, tracking the spread of communicable diseases. To accelerate the process, and keep the focus on users, not tools, he even dictated key parts of the design solution—for instance, a Twitter bot to crowdsource traffic reports. And rather than inviting competition, Geraci’s approach was for the entire community to collaborate on a single solution. It was the collaborative culture of Red Burns’s Interactive Telecommunications Program reemerging at an opportune moment.


pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

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affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

., & in evening a most elegant collation at Mr. Wm. Livingston’s with Mr. Scott, & Mr Smith, & Hillhouse, & Wickham, & Ketteltas; supped, & settled politics over a generous bottle.”72 In the two brief paragraphs he devoted to his stay in New York, Styles supplied the personal names of ten gentlemen whom he met and mentioned interactions with six other polite people (a dinner enjoyed with “three Philada. ladies”; a ferry ride shared with “three other Dutch gent.”) whom he did not identify by name.73 Styles made no reference to any strangers or crowds he had encountered on the street, in church, or on the ferries. Impolite people and sites were, of course, omnipresent, and Styles’s purposeful and conspicuous omission of nearly all of them from his diary was evidence of his ability to control his feelings and actions and to create a sanctuary for himself and his friends.

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Sloane Ranger, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

It is illegal to hitch on autoroutes but you can stand near an entrance ramp as long as you don’t block traffic. Remote rural areas are a better bet, but once you get off the routes nationales traffic can be light and local. If your itinerary includes a ferry crossing, it’s worth trying to score a ride before the ferry since vehicle tickets sometimes include a number of passengers free of charge. At dusk, give up and think about finding somewhere to stay. Ride Share A number of organisations around France arrange covoiturage (car sharing), ie putting people looking for rides in touch with drivers going to the same destination. You generally pay a per-kilometre fee to the driver as well as a flat administration fee. The best known is Paris-based Allostop ( 01 53 20 42 42; www.allostop.net, in French; 30 rue Pierre Sémard, 9e, Paris), though you might also try www.123envoiture.com, www.covoiturage.com, www.carecole.com, www.carjob.org and www.carvoyage.com.

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

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banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

It is illegal to hitch on autoroutes but you can stand near an entrance ramp as long as you don’t block traf fic. Hitching in remote rural areas is better, but once you get off the routes nationales traffic can be light and local. If your itinerary includes a ferry crossing, it’s worth trying to score a ride before the ferry since vehicle tickets usually include a number of passengers free of charge. At dusk, give up and think about finding somewhere to stay. Ride Share A number of organisations around France arrange covoiturage (car sharing), ie putting people looking for rides in touch with drivers going to the same destination. The best known is Paris-based Allostop (www.allostop.net) , where you pay €3/5/8/10 for a single journey up to 50/100/150/200km. You might also try Covoiturage (www.covoiturage.fr) or, for international journeys, Karzoo (www.karzoo.eu) .