load shedding

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pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Dynamic pricing can dramatically reduce swings in demand for power and increase overall generating efficiency, but load shifting can also be automated and proactive. Smart meters that communicate directly with smart appliances might automatically reschedule a load of wash for later in the day when demand and prices are likely to fall. Even the most sophisticated load-shifting scheme will one day meet its limit. That’s when utilities wield their trump card—load shedding—a kind of targeted blackout. Traditionally, load shedding was a manual process. Utilities would cut deals with large users of electricity like factories and universities to shut down power during peaking crises in return for a discount on their regular rates. Smart meters will allow these miniblackouts to be replaced by sophisticated surgical drawdowns on sacrificial facilities and equipment. A university might agree to have its dormitories or office lighting shut off while service to sensitive laboratory instruments, for instance, is maintained.

While peaking plants can also be highly efficient—most are natural-gas–powered turbines—they are far more costly per unit of power to build and run. If only the peaks could be evened out, fewer peaking plants would be needed and utilities could focus more on ruthlessly fine-tuning base load plants to be as lean and clean as possible.48 Smart grids offer two tricks to even out the peaks: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting, the gentler of the two, tries to spread demand for power away from peak periods of demand through price incentives. In their simplest form, smart meters allow businesses and consumers to see the true cost of generating electricity during periods of high demand. As they fire up those costly peaking plants, utilities simply pass the higher generating cost along to consumers. Dynamic pricing can dramatically reduce swings in demand for power and increase overall generating efficiency, but load shifting can also be automated and proactive.

Even as demand surges, building new power plants only gets harder as NIMBY-led resistance to plant construction spreads in many countries. The wiggle room that once existed in the form of reserve generating capacity is fast disappearing, raising the possibility of regular blackouts in the future. During the 1990s, demand for electricity grew by 35 percent in the United States, but generating capacity increased by only 18 percent.49 According to Siemens, smart grids will help utility engineers sleep at night, since load shedding and load shifting could reduce national electricity needs by up to 10 percent. 50 Environmentalists will cheer because improved demand management removes a key obstacle to greater reliance on renewable generating sources, which are notoriously unreliable base capacity—the sun doesn’t always shine and the wind doesn’t always blow. Even hydropower generated at dams depends on reliable seasonal rains to fill up rivers.

 

pages: 540 words: 103,101

Building Microservices by Sam Newman

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airport security, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, business process, call centre, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, defense in depth, Edward Snowden, fault tolerance, index card, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, job automation, load shedding, loose coupling, platform as a service, premature optimization, pull request, recommendation engine, social graph, software as a service, the built environment, web application, WebSocket, x509 certificate

In many ways, bulkheads are the most important of these three patterns. Timeouts and circuit breakers help you free up resources when they are becoming constrained, but bulkheads can ensure they don’t become constrained in the first place. Hystrix allows you, for example, to implement bulkheads that actually reject requests in certain conditions to ensure that resources don’t become even more saturated; this is known as load shedding. Sometimes rejecting a request is the best way to stop an important system from becoming overwhelmed and being a bottleneck for multiple upstream services. Isolation The more one service depends on another being up, the more the health of one impacts the ability of the other to do its job. If we can use integration techniques that allow a downstream server to be offline, upstream services are less likely to be affected by outages, planned or unplanned.

Index A acceptance testing, Types of Tests access by reference, Access by Reference accountability, People adaptability, Summary Aegisthus project, Backup Data Pump aggregated logs, Logs, Logs, and Yet More Logs… antifragile systems, Microservices, The Antifragile Organization-Isolationbulkheads, Bulkheads circuit breakers, Circuit Breakers examples of, The Antifragile Organization increased use of, Microservices isolation, Isolation load shedding, Bulkheads timeouts, Timeouts AP systemdefinition of term, Sacrificing Consistency vs. CP system, AP or CP? API key-based authentication, API Keys, It’s All About the Keys application containers, Application Containers architects (see systems architects) architectural principlesdevelopment of, Principles Heroku's 12 factors, Principles key microservices principles, Bringing It All Together real-world example, A Real-World Example architectural safety, Architectural Safety, Architectural Safety Measures artifactsimages, Images as Artifacts operating system, Operating System Artifacts platform-specific, Platform-Specific Artifacts asynchronous collaborationcomplexities of, Complexities of Asynchronous Architectures implementing, Implementing Asynchronous Event-Based Collaboration vs. synchronous, Synchronous Versus Asynchronous ATOM specification, Technology Choices authentication/authorization, Authentication and Authorization-The Deputy Problemdefinition of terms, Authentication and Authorization fine-grained, Fine-Grained Authorization service-to-service, Service-to-Service Authentication and Authorization single sign-on (SSO), Common Single Sign-On Implementations single sign-on gateway, Single Sign-On Gateway terminology, Common Single Sign-On Implementations automationbenefits for deployment, Automation case studies on, Two Case Studies on the Power of Automation autonomymicroservices and, Autonomous role of systems architect in, Summary autoscaling, Autoscaling availabilityin CAP theorem, CAP Theorem key microservices principle of, How Much Is Too Much?

JSON web tokens (JWT), HMAC Over HTTP K Karyon, Tailored Service Template key-based authentication, API Keys Kibana, Logs, Logs, and Yet More Logs… L latency, How Much Is Too Much? Latency Monkey, The Antifragile Organization layered architectures, Microservices librariesclient, Client Libraries service metrics, Service Metrics shared, Shared Libraries Linux containers, Linux Containers load balancing, Load Balancing load shedding, Bulkheads local calls, Local Calls Are Not Like Remote Calls logsaggregated, Logs, Logs, and Yet More Logs…(see also monitoring) security issues, Logging standardization of, Standardization logstash, Logs, Logs, and Yet More Logs… loose coupling, Loose Coupling, Orchestration Versus Choreography, Loose and Tightly Coupled Organizations M man-in-the-middle attacks, Allow Everything Inside the Perimeter Marick's quadrant, Types of Tests maturity, Maturity mean time between failures (MTBF), Mean Time to Repair Over Mean Time Between Failures?

 

pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

But I think that India’s growth rates have made us perhaps overly cheerful in the face of some obvious weaknesses. And somebody has to say it.” He is right, of course. There is no escaping our infrastructure problems, even here in India’s capital city—the Delhi newspapers during my visit have been full of headlines on the city’s power outages. A single day that week, as one outraged journalist wrote, had seen “10 periods of ‘load-shedding.’” In fact this particular bit of bureaucratspeak we use, “load-shedding,” reveals how a growing economy has found it difficult to look its crisis in the face.bt Our bad roads and power cuts are a reminder of our prereform years—it is here that we can most clearly see the evidence of India’s old structures, the tattered vestiges of socialism in an emerging free-market economy. As a result India now presents us with a bewildering landscape—of vibrant, private enterprise choking up as it meets crumbling public infrastructure.

bq The richer classes in Bombay’s slums earn as much as Rs 14,000 a month, which means a substantial part of Bombay’s middle class lives here. br It is a different story that this rule has often been violated by state governments. bs Bangalore can lay claim to pioneering bond issues by cities in India—India’s first such bond issue was by the Bangalore Mahanagarapalika in 1997 of Rs 1 billion, with a coupon rate of 13 percent. bt As a technical term, “load-shedding” means power cuts to tackle spikes in excess demand. But what India faces is consistent and severe power shortage. bu This view of roads and railways as an investment toward safety—to move people and goods in and out quickly, and avoid being cornered by enemies—has plenty of precedent. The Romans built Britain’s major road systems when they had occupied the restive island, and many of these still exist.

 

pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

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AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Khan Academy, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra

Smart meters with Internet communication capabilities were the enabling technology for the next wave of technologydriven savings, designed to bring the suppliers into the process. This was 336 Nerds on Wall Str eet done using simple command-and-control load-shedding measures that allowed utilities, with prior agreement of larger customers, to shed loads during periods of peak demand or to remotely adjust airconditioning thermostats upward to reduce demand when needed. The next step, still in its infancy, is to introduce real-time electricity pricing. This will allow consumers to make their own economically motivated load-shedding decisions, and to program their meters to implement those decisions for them. Day Trading for Electrons In the best seller Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—and How It Can Renew America (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2008), New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman calls the use of smart meters to create a market-based system of energy technology (ET), “when IT meets ET—day trading for electrons.”

 

pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond

My Indian heritage has gotten me an invitation to the Indian Bankers’ Association party themed “India Shining,” a shameless sales pitch for investment in India. A minister extols the virtues of India, citing statistics on growth, resource availability, and opportunities. There is no mention of the fact that the vast majority of the Indian population has no access to sanitation, clean water, education, or healthcare. There is no mention of the aging colonial era infrastructure where inadequate electricity supply results in daily load shedding or brownouts interrupting power supplies for several hours most days. An American banker finds India fascinating and full of opportunity. “A billion people, a billion consumers, wow!” He is fascinated that I, an Indian, do not speak Indian but Bengali, one of the hundreds of languages spoken in India. “Wouldn’t it be easier if everybody just spoke, you know, Indian?” Dan Quayle, a former U.S. vice-president, once apologized to Latin Americans that he could not speak Latin.

 

pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

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8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MVC pattern, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

Like the consistent hash ring approach, this range partitioning splits the keyspace into ranges, with each key range being managed by one machine and potentially replicated to others. Unlike the consistent hashing approach, two keys that are next to each other in the key's sort order are likely to appear in the same partition. This reduces the size of the routing metadata, as large ranges are compressed to [start, end] markers. In adding active record-keeping of the range-to-server mapping, the range partitioning approach allows for more fine-grained control of load-shedding from heavily loaded servers. If a specific key range sees higher traffic than other ranges, a load manager can reduce the size of the range on that server, or reduce the number of shards that this server serves. The added freedom to actively manage load comes at the expense of extra architectural components which monitor and route shards. The BigTable Way Google's BigTable paper describes a range-partitioning hierarchical technique for sharding data into tablets.