telepresence

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Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

The applications and secondary tools plugging into the network—tomorrow or twenty years from now—would make Songdo distinctive, but they would only be as useful as the supporting network was reliable. Nonetheless, Cisco brought game-changing technology to the table. A key component of Songdo’s connectivity would be Cisco’s TelePresence. Initially marketed to corporations that could afford its heavy price tag, this multicamera, state-of-the-art transmission unit creates facsimiles of people that can fool the eye and ear. Marketed as an ideal means to reduce travel costs, NSIC and Cisco took the considerable risk of outfitting all homes in the IBD with a telepresence (TP) screen. Rather than just another appliance (although as ubiquitous as microwave ovens), the TP units hopefully would play a key role in reducing traffic in Songdo. Consultations with medical professionals, government employees, and educators could be anchored in the home, removing the need to travel for office visits and meetings, much as TP did for employees and consultants in private enterprise.

Imagine a world where citizens don’t have to drive laps around a city to find a parking space and instead can monitor the available spots in their neighborhood with a mobile app. Or streetlights that only come on when a person is in the vicinity, saving electricity and costs while also keeping our cities safe. What if there were ways in which citizens could connect with communities around the world via video telepresence equipment, and students could be tutored on Spanish from a teacher based in Spain. This is not the future. This is today. Young cities that have implemented digital capabilities in their master plans serve as the laboratories from which we can glean the challenges and possibilities presented by our technological advances. Cities with centuries of infrastructure are discovering ways to reinvent entire districts through digital transformation.

PRACTICALLY SPEAKING: THE SMART CITY OF THE MID-2010S IoE technology has helped to create services already used by millions. If your physician has enabled a patient portal through which you can access your records, submit prescription requests, and create appointments, you have benefited, to a small but appreciable effect, from the Internet’s incursion into the medical field. The technology exists to take this process many steps beyond. Doctors can, via telepresence, engage with patients remotely, removing the need for many routine office visits, but also saving small amounts of the patient’s energy, resources, and time. Multiplied by the population of a city, suddenly we are talking about data points that represent huge reductions in energy and congestion. Stronger databases and retrieval networks can expedite a traveler’s passage through an airport or train station; multiply by the daily load of passengers at a hub such as Atlanta or Dubai, and the lines at security checkpoints are shortened dramatically.


pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

Believe it or not, the Heider-Simmel experiment tells us something about why telepresence robots are catching on fast. Many hospitals and some companies use telepresence robots already, and their use is growing rapidly since the impact on team interactions is palpable. The sense of being face-to-face is much stronger when the face moves, so to speak. In particular, doctors find that their words carry more authority with patients when they are talking via a telepresence robot instead of normal video Skype, or over the phone. While telepresence robots are useful for many interactions, a static form of telepresence technology is transforming the ease of holding meetings over long distances. Fixed Telepresence Systems Telepresence systems—a static version of EmBot, if you will—are already widely used by big banks, consultancies, law firms, and governments.

Fixed Telepresence Systems Telepresence systems—a static version of EmBot, if you will—are already widely used by big banks, consultancies, law firms, and governments. The high-end systems are still expensive. Telepresence rooms can run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. But as the digital laws advance and construction moves into mass production, telepresence will get much cheaper and more mobile. It will accelerate the trend toward telemigration. Think of standard telepresence as extremely good Skype—but so much better that it becomes a new experience. Telepresence makes it almost seem like people are in the same place even when they are not. I used it in spring 2017 to present my book, The Great Convergence, to the Norwegian sovereign wealth fund, Norges Bank Investment Management (NBIM). I was in London with a couple of analysts and connected via telepresence with another group of NBIM economists located in New York City and with yet a third group in Oslo.

As it turns out, digitech has created a marvelous substitute to actually being physically in the same room as other workers—it is called a telepresence robot. One company that is using it today is the online media site, Wired.com. TELEPRESENCE ROBOTS Emily Dreyfus writes for the San Francisco company Wired.com but lives in Boston. She used to participate remotely in staff meetings and bilaterals with her editor in the usual twentieth-century way—by phone, messages, and video conferences. But this wasn’t good enough for the spontaneous, creativity-enhancing brainstorming sessions that Wired was hoping for. Being a northern Californian sort of company, they decided to throw some digital technology at the problem. The tech took the form of a “telepresence robot” made by Double Robotics. The movements of the telepresence robot, which you can think of as Skype on wheels, are controlled by the writer in Boston, so the robot (in San Francisco) can wander around the office, attend meetings, hold one-on-one meetings, and so on.


Robot Futures by Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, commoditize, computer vision, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, phenotype, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, stealth mode startup, strong AI, telepresence, telepresence robot, Therac-25, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

Stories of technological utopia decades or centuries in the future do not solve the problems we face today, nor do they help us guide the development of technology in the near term for the best possible human good. The near future of telepresence, robotics, and communications technologies threatens to distract us, dehumanize our interactions, and erode our personal freedom and choice. The true challenge we face is in charting a new course that instead celebrates and nourishes individual well-being, accountability, and societal equity. To chart such a course we should become more deliberate and considered as we imagine and design technologies that carry us forward. 6 Which Robot Future? A Way Forward Robotic technologies will confer new powers to us. We will observe on a massive scale and automatically respond; we will interact remotely, explore dangerous or distant spaces, invent new toy species, and even be telepresent in many places at once. Perhaps one day we will be able to assume novel physical shapes and construct experimental identities through which we explore and engage with the world.

Another essential factor for responsibility lies with government: playing post hoc legal catch-up to the results of emerging technology fails to provide thought leadership on issues of accountability, identity, life-cycle analysis, human rights, and well-being. Every new telepresence and autonomous robot system will challenge the interpretation of our existing body of laws. Cars that drive themselves will crash in unexpected ways; robots caring for a child or the elderly at home will sometimes fail to notice the obvious; telepresent systems will be abused and cause mental distress to distant victims; all manners of robots will be used for crime and malicious acts in as yet undiscovered ways. Instead of reacting case by case to new loopholes in law discovered by ever more ingenious machines, our system of jurisprudence must proactively gather the expertise and wherewithal to predict our robot future, debate the most critical issues of safety, accountability, equity, and quality of life, and create a viable legal framework for this century.

More of our personal accessories will have personal initiative, acting on our desires or high-level instructions like a good concierge: working to find and book the right restaurant reservation, rearranging our day, even screening our phone calls based on observations of what we are doing. Perhaps the word “robot” will become confusing since cell phones will behave more robotically, and robots will often be sophisticated telepresence communication devices, enabling us to tuck in a child or visit a work colleague when we are away. Come what may, what we think of today as robotic technology will be far more sophisticated and clever, thanks to ongoing advances in multiple electronically intimate industries. Primer 4: Software Software development in robotics revolves around a storied history of attempts at creating a standardized framework for 38 Chapter 2 programming that would, in theory, gradually raise the capabilities of all robots in a shared and open way.


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

For example, experienced German technicians could fix German-made capital equipment in China by controlling sophisticated robots placed in Chinese factories. Telepresence could do the same for brain workers living in developing nations. When telepresence meeting facilities are cheap and portable, and holographic telepresence is widespread, the need for face-to-face meetings will be greatly reduced, even if the need is not eliminated. This will make it much easier to coordinate the provision of brain power at great distances. Given the vast North-South salary differences that exist for engineers, designers, accountants, lawyers, publishers (and let us not forget professors of economics), the ability to fractionalize the production of business services could lead to a great deal of “virtual offshoring.” That is to say, telepresence would make it possible for developing nation professionals to work inside G7 offices and universities without actually being there.

Consequences Relaxation of the face-to-face constraint via telepresence and telerobotics would make it much easier to separate the physical application of labor services from the physical presence of laborers. This is likely to produce two monumental changes. The first would stem from developed nation workers and managers applying their talents inside a wider range of developing nations without actually traveling to the nations. The miracle of GVC industrialization has, so far, occurred only in a handful of developing nations—most of which are geographically close to Japan, Germany, and the United States. Yet the North-South imbalance in knowledge-per-worker is still quite extreme. Opportunities for arbitraging this imbalance are abundant. As wages rise in the nations that have benefited the most so far (above all China), and telepresence and telerobotics get better, firms with advanced know-how may increasingly leverage their knowledge with low-cost labor in, say, Africa or South America.

Globalization’s Next Big Thing: Globalization’s Third Unbundling The three-cascading-constraints narrative—which is summarized graphically in Figure 3—plainly admits the possibility of a third unbundling, if face-to-face costs plunge in the way coordination costs have since the 1990s. Two technological developments might provoke such a plunge. Really good substitutes for people crossing borders to share “brain services” is the first. Such technologies, known as “telepresence,” are not science fiction. They exist today but they are expensive. The second would be the development of really good substitutes for people traveling to provide manual services. This is called “telerobotics” and it involves people in one place operating robots that perform tasks in another place. Telerobotics exists, but it is still expensive and the robots are not very flexible. FIGURE 3: Summary of the “three cascading constraints” view of globalization.


pages: 183 words: 51,514

Mission to Mars: My Vision for Space Exploration by Buzz Aldrin, Leonard David

Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, Elon Musk, gravity well, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Ronald Reagan, telepresence, telerobotics, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, X Prize

(Illustration Credit 6.3) My close friends Robert Ballard and James Cameron can attest to telepresence-enabled undersea exploration, operating vehicles outfitted with high-definition video cameras, sensors, and manipulator arms—run from a mission control. Teleoperation of underwater equipment is also a routine task performed by those maintaining deep-sea oil rigs. The counterpart in space, albeit showcasing low-quality telepresence, was used decades ago by controllers in the Soviet Union. They wheeled about their automated Lunokhods on the moon. More recently, recall the plucky Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers run by NASA, precursors to the now-on-Mars Curiosity mega-robot. Telepresence, low-latency telerobotics, and human spaceflight are leading to redefining what constitutes an “explorer.” A leading champion of exploration telepresence is Dan Lester of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas in Austin.

Lester tackles the serious concern about how this strategy meshes with our historical concept of “exploration.” Telepresence may be effective, and it may be cheap, but if it’s not seen as “out there” exploration, it’s not going to take hold. Lester’s perspective, however, is that putting human cognition in faraway places—if not human flesh, boots on the ground—is a key new capability. Lester has observed that decades ago when Neil Armstrong and I reached the moon’s surface, the only way to put human cognition there was to dig our boots into the ground. That’s what we did. But it’s no longer the only option. A piloted craft designed for deep-sea exploration faces challenges similar to those of crafts designed for outer space. (Illustration Credit 6.4) High-quality telepresence from an Earth-moon Lagrangian point allows a high degree of human cognition and dexterity to be expressed via lunar surface telerobotic surrogates.

(Illustration Credit 6.4) High-quality telepresence from an Earth-moon Lagrangian point allows a high degree of human cognition and dexterity to be expressed via lunar surface telerobotic surrogates. Lester sees even more significant advantages at Mars, due to the vastly longer two-way latency between Earth and the red planet. Putting humans close enough to an exploration site to ensure cognition—that is, in many respects, what human spaceflight is for. What is more, telepresence/on-orbit telerobotics is not destination specific. We’ll first need to earn our telepresence stripes at the moon and on Mars, using these technologies to explore, scout out mining opportunities, and pre-position habitats without need of on-site, space-suited astronauts. That first Mars base built before human occupancy should not offer sparse living conditions. It should be regal, well thought out, fail-safe; and it should be assembled with care, thanks to distantly operated telerobotics.


pages: 335 words: 82,528

A Theory of the Drone by Gregoire Chamayou

drone strike, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, moral hazard, Necker cube, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, private military company, RAND corporation, telepresence, Yom Kippur War

What matters in this analogy with a tele-operator’s experience is not the idea of an interpretative indecidability so much as that of a variation of the objective configuration of the phenomenon as regards the mental focalizing of the subject. The associated thesis is not so much that the feeling of tele-presence is or must be illusory if it is to exist, but rather the following: it is a matter of how the operator’s attention is focused, of how a number of choices are separated out or of a differential prioritization of what is to count as the foreground or the background within a single perceptual field. How can we explain this experience of a shifting point of view? What phenomenological operations underpin it? Loomis provides a convincing explanation of this phenomenon. He thinks that tele-operators “often report a compelling impression of ‘tele-presence’ or ‘remote presence’ ” (Jack M. Loomis, “Distal Attribution and Presence,” Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1, no. 1 [1992]: 113).

That momentary forgetfulness of the instrumental mediation is a state that one needs to succeed in attaining. It is not an epistemic failure but, on the contrary, a pragmatic success. In order to be able to experience a strong sense of telepresence, the subject has to be successful in effectively subsidiarizing not only his consciousness of the instrumental mediation but also that of his own local presence and all the stimuli that affect him in his immediate environment (the chair that is hurting his back, the sounds all around him, and so on). As Loomis writes, “When the stimulation is insufficient to support ‘telepresence’ (the awareness of being somewhere else), the observer experiences ‘subsidiary awareness’ of the actual environment and a ‘focal awareness’ of the remote or simulated environment. . . . Speaking with someone on the telephone is an example, for we have both subsidiary awareness of being in one location communicating through a device and focal awareness of the person at the other end.”

For the operators, the problem is not that, faced with some kind of perfect illusion of tele-presence, they would not know anymore where they are, what is real and what might not be. On the contrary, faced with mixed and overlapping experiences of presence that are both local and distant, their problem is to cope, in a coherent fashion, with the horizons of this experience of a mixed reality. They do not take the one reality for the other but take the one together with and within the other. There is not so much a confusion, but rather an embedding, a partial superimpression or a problematic interarticulation between the two. Their experience is not of being captured in a particular presence, but rather of having two presences, the one on top of the other. On ontological and phenomenological debates on tele-presence, see also Luciano Floridi, “The Philosophy of Presence: From Epistemic Failure to Successful Observation,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14, no. 6 (2005): 546–57. 24.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

In the June 1980 issue of Omni magazine, Marvin Minsky wrote a long manifesto calling for the development of telepresence technologies—mobile robots outfitted with video cameras, displays, microphones, and speakers that allow their operator to be “present” from a remote location anywhere in the connected world. Minsky used his manifesto to rail against the shortcomings of the world of robotics: Three Mile Island really needed telepresence. I am appalled by the nuclear industry’s inability to deal with the unexpected. We all saw the absurd inflexibility of present day technology in handling the damage and making repairs to that reactor. Technicians are still waiting to conduct a thorough inspection of the damaged plant—and to absorb a year’s allowable dose of radiation in just a few minutes. The cost of repair and the energy losses will be $1 billion; telepresence might have cut this expense to a few million dollars.

The cost of repair and the energy losses will be $1 billion; telepresence might have cut this expense to a few million dollars. The big problem today is that nuclear plants are not designed for telepresence. Why? The technology is still too primitive. Furthermore, the plants aren’t even designed to accommodate the installation of advanced telepresence when it becomes available. A vicious circle!6 The absence of wireless networking connectivity was the central barrier to the development of remote-controlled robots at the time. But Minsky also focused on the failure of the robotics community to build robots with the basic human capabilities to grasp, manipulate, and maneuver. He belittled the state of the art of robotic manipulators used by nuclear facility operators, calling them “little better than pliers” and noted that they were not a match for human hands. “If people had a bit more engineering courage and tried to make these hands more like human hands, modeled on the physiology of the palm and fingers, we could make nuclear reactor plants and other hazardous facilities much safer.”7 It was an easy criticism to make, yet when the article was reprinted three decades later in IEEE Spectrum in 2010, the field had made surprisingly little progress.

It will be a world in which computers “disappear” and everyday objects acquire “magical” powers. This presents a host of new and interesting ways for humans to interact with robots. The iPod and the iPhone were the first examples of this transition as a reimagining of the phonograph and the telephone. Augmented reality would also make the idea of telepresence far more compelling. Two people separated by great distance could gain the illusion of sharing the same space. This would be a radical improvement on today’s videoconferencing and awkward telepresence robots like Scott Hassan’s Beam, which place a human face on a mobile robot. Gary Bradski left the world of robots to join Abovitz’s effort to build what will potentially become the most intimate and powerful augmentation technology. Now he spends his days refining computer vision technologies to fundamentally remake computing in a human-centered way.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Robinson 1995 covers the long-term future of human habitation. All are published by Random House (New York). 10: Remote Sensing 1. “Why Oculus Rift Is the Future of Gaming,” online at http://www.gizmoworld.org/why-oculus-rift-is-the-future-in-gaming/. 2. Intriguingly, telepresence doesn’t have to convey the remote scene with perfect fidelity, because the brain has a tendency to “fill in the blanks” and “smooth out the rough edges” of any representation that is familiar. See “Another Look at ‘Being There’ Experiences in Digital Media: Exploring Connections of Telepresence with Mental Imagery” by I. Rodriguez-Ardura and F. J. Martinez-Lopez 2014. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 30, pp. 508–18. 3. Brother Assassin by F. Saberhagen 1997. New York: Tor Books. 4. See http://www.ted.com/talks/edward_snowden_here_s_how_we_take_back_the_internet. 5.

“Multi-Objective Compliance Control of Redundant Manipulators: Hierarchy, Control, and Stability” by A. Dietrich, C. Ott, and A. Albu-Schaffer 2013. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, pp. 3043–50. 6. Human Haptic Perception, ed. by M. Grunwald 2008. Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlag. 7. “Telepresence” by M. Minsky 1980, Omni magazine. The magazine is defunct, but the paper can be found online at http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/papers/Telepresence.html. 8. Feynman delivered his lecture at the American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. A transcript of the talk is online at http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html. He concluded his talk by posing two challenges and offering a prize of $1,000 for each one. His challenge to fabricate a tiny motor was won a year later by William McLellan.

If we think of how far video games came in twenty years, from the primitive graphics of Pac-Man to the cartoonish but quasi-realistic 3-D graphics of The Sims, imagine what another twenty years will bring. A hint of that came in 2014 with the release of the Oculus Rift, a gaming helmet that immerses a player in 3-D virtual reality.1 The best sense of the experience is the dramatic opening sequence of the 3-D movie Gravity. The future of Solar System exploration may lie in telepresence, a set of technologies that allow a person to feel that he or she is in a remote location. Videoconferencing is one familiar and simple form of this technology. The market for projecting images and sound to connect meeting participants from around the world is growing 20 percent a year and is worth nearly $5 billion. Skype video calls now account for a third of all international calls, a staggering 200 billion minutes a year.


pages: 265 words: 74,807

Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy by David A. Mindell

Air France Flight 447, autonomous vehicles, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Charles Lindbergh, Chris Urmson, digital map, disruptive innovation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fudge factor, index card, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, trade route, US Airways Flight 1549, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

I returned to the Carolyn Chouest feeling serene but excited about our successful hunting, only to find my shipboard colleagues green, a little seasick, and tired from a rough couple of days. We had indeed been in a different world, less than a mile away but straight down. What came next was a natural experiment comparing the emotional power of embodied experience to the cognitive power of remote presence. For I was not a native submariner but a robotics engineer. The amount of time I spent physically on the seafloor was dwarfed by the amount of time I spent remotely there, telepresent through the medium of remote robots and fiber-optic cables. My home technology was the remote robot Jason, built and run by the Deep Submergence Laboratory of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The Volkswagen-sized Jason waited out the rough weather lashed to the deck of the Carolyn Chouest. As soon as the weather cleared and NR-1 got out of the way, we quickly tasked Jason to carry out an intense, computer-controlled survey of the wreck site.

Most of the pieces of his robotic systems had been tried in other places. But Ballard had intimate experience with the deep seafloor, developed a vision of remote robotics for that environment, built a laboratory and a team to implement that vision, and led that team on key projects that proved the technological systems. Only now, looking back on his mentorship, do I realize how much his vision of telepresence shaped my own thinking. Ballard originally came to Woods Hole from California in 1966 as a naval officer during the Vietnam era. His father was an engineer who had worked on inertial guidance systems. Ballard’s early jobs were at North American Aviation, studying early submersibles, though he was more interested in the science than the technical details. He began graduate studies in oceanography but was soon called to active duty with the navy.

After Ballard and his crew disembarked from the ship, WHOI held a press conference at a nearby auditorium, packed with reporters from all over the world. Here, at his moment of greatest triumph, a moment that would transform his life and career, Ballard used the opportunity to press his vision of remote presence. He maintained that Argo and its cousins under development at Woods Hole represented “a complete revolution” in underwater exploration. “It’s the beginning of telepresence, of being able to project your spirit to the bottom, your eyes, your mind, and being able to leave your body behind. . . . We’ve entered a new era in undersea exploration.” That Titanic was discovered by remote presence, and not by physical human bodies on the seafloor, however, would long be a source of tension within the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. • • • That tension would become a literal tug across the seafloor when Woods Hole returned to the Titanic the following year, this time to enter the wreck and explore inside.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Such drag on costs and operations is simply not acceptable in an Exponential Organization—or, indeed, for any company trying to compete in the 21st century. Telepresence has been around for many years in the form of videoconferencing. Although videoconferencing was quite a hassle in the past, an organization can now leverage services such as Skype and Google Hangout, which are fast, easy to use and available on every device. Telepresence enables employees to work proactively from any location and interact on a global scale, reducing travel costs and improving well-being. Even greater improvement comes from Telepresence robots such as Beam, from Suitable Technologies, and Double Robotics, which leverage the user’s tablet. These robots even allow the user to be on multiple locations at once, which can greatly impact how to conduct business. While Telepresence lets people interact in a real environment, virtual reality allows interaction, collaboration, coordination and even prototyping in a virtual world.

Rangaswami, chief scientist at Salesforce, views social technology as having three key objectives: Reduce the distance between obtaining (and processing) information and decision-making. Migrate from having to look up information to having it flow through your perception. Leverage community to build out ideas. From our perspective, Social Technologies are comprised of seven key elements: Social objects, Activity streams, Task management, File sharing, Telepresence, Virtual worlds and Emotional sensing. When implemented, these elements create transparency and connectedness and, most importantly, lower an organization’s information latency. The ultimate objective is what the Gartner Group calls a zero latency enterprise—that is, a company in which the time between idea, acceptance and implementation all but disappears—and implementing one can provide significant return on investment.

Autonomy: Implement lite version of Holacracy. Start with the General Company Circle as a first step; then move onto governance meetings. Implement the GitHub technical and organizational model with radical openness, transparency and permission. Social Technologies: Implement file sharing, cloud-based document management. Collaboration and activity streams both internally and within your community. Make a plan to test and implement telepresence, virtual worlds and emotional sensing. The table below shows our assessment of leading ExOs and the attributes they’ve most leveraged, showing a good distribution and usage of both SCALE and IDEAS elements. Step 10: Establish the Culture Perhaps the most critical step in building an ExO involves establishing its culture. Think again about PayPal’s culture of close friendship rather than formal work relationships.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

Doctors, for example, use telemedicine to consult with their patients, employing traditional methods but from a distance; while religious leaders use online platforms to preach and proselytize without meeting their congregants and possible converts in person. In Chapter 2 there are many other illustrations. Future systems, using ‘telepresence’ techniques (for example, high definition desktop-to-desktop video-conferencing), will provide an experience for both provider and recipient that is greatly superior to current video-conferencing systems. We think of telepresence as ‘Skype on steroids’. Notice, however, that teleprofessionalism is not a fundamental departure from traditional ways of working. The interaction is still real-time and face-to-face (just about). Of course, teleprofessionalism may not work when, for example, a physical examination is required, as might happen in medicine; and it may not be suitable when matters of great emotional or commercial sensitivity are concerned.

The Medtronic Carelink Network, for example, allows cardiac patients to send data reports from their heart devices to their doctor, each report equivalent to an in-person visit. The US Department of Veterans Affairs has a dedicated Office of Telehealth, and used the technology to provide healthcare to over 690,000 veterans in 2014—a particularly disparate group, 55 per cent of whom live in rural areas with limited access to traditional health services.24 In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service in Airedale, West Yorkshire, uses telepresence to provide several hundred care-homes with nurse support and, in a trial, to avoid hospital admissions for 50 per cent of prison inmates.25 Sometimes the devices take an unexpected form—Google, for example, has joined forces with the European drug-maker Novartis to develop a ‘smart contact lens’ to monitor blood-sugar levels, rather than pricking a finger for blood (the traditional way to test for, and manage, diabetes).26 There is a growing ‘mobile health’, or ‘mHealth’, market of tens of thousands of devices, systems, and apps that build on existing mobile technology—basic phones, smartphones, and mobile networks.

The first is that ‘professional services involve a high degree of customization’ by human beings, and the second is that ‘most professional services have a strong component of face-to-face interaction with the client’.1 Maister takes these characteristics to be axiomatic; and they certainly appeared to be so a decade ago. Today, however, with the emergence of a very different kind of customization, ‘mass customization’ (where there is no need for human beings, see section 3.7), and of ‘telepresence’ (where there is no need to meet in person, see section 3.3), neither can now be taken for granted. We choose these two examples to highlight a larger point—that the changes sweeping through the professions should urge us to rethink the nature and relevance of this group of occupations whose stability we have long taken for granted. 3.1. An early challenge Before discussing the patterns and trends that are emerging, we should confront one important initial objection to the narrative that is unfolding.


pages: 513 words: 128,075

The Peripheral by William Gibson

business process, McMansion, pattern recognition, telepresence

“Fine,” he said, getting up. He walked to the vertically concave corner window. It depolarized. He looked down on the intersection, its wholly predictable absence of movement. Free of crusted salt, drama, atonal windsong. Across Bloomsbury Street, a meter-long mantis in shiny British racing green, with yellow decals, clung to a Queen Anne façade, performing minor maintenance. Some hobbyist was operating it telepresently, he assumed. Something better done by an invisible swarm of assemblers. “She seriously proposed to do this naked,” Rainey said, “and covered in tattoos.” “Hardly covered. You’ve seen the miniatures of her previous skins. That’s covered.” “I’ve managed not to, thank you.” He double-tapped the roof of his mouth, causing the feeds, left and right, from their respective corners of the square, to show him the boss patcher and his cohort of eleven, looking up, unmoving.

It occurred to Netherton that that went quite well with Rainey’s peripheral’s outfit. “Please allow me to join you.” The Michikoid, Netherton saw, was bringing a chair. “Miss Rainey,” said Lowbeer, “I am Inspector Ainsley Lowbeer, of the Metropolitan Police. You do understand that you are present here, legally, under the Android Avatar Act?” “I do,” said the rental, unenthusiastically. “Canadian law makes certain distinctions, around physically manifested telepresence, which we do not.” Lowbeer took her seat. “Still water,” she said, to the Michikoid. “Best we keep the curtain open,” she said to Netherton, glancing out into the lower level of the market. “Why?” asked Netherton. “Someone may wish you harm, Mr. Netherton.” The rental raised its eyebrows. “Who?” asked Netherton, wishing he’d ordered a treble. “We’ve no idea,” said Lowbeer. “Our attention has been drawn to the recent rental of a peripheral, one with potential as a weapon.

That was also good because nobody at Fabbit had any idea what it was they were printing.” “What skin-conduction stuff?” “Across your forehead. First design we roughed out, we would’ve had to shave a two-inch band clear around the back of your head.” “Fuck that.” “Figured you’d feel that way. Got this Japanese stuff instead. Just needs the forehead, use a dab of saline for good measure.” “You said it was a game controller.” “Telepresent interface, no hands.” “You try it?” “Can’t. Nothing to try it on. Your friends have something they want you to operate, but they didn’t want us trying it first. You lie down for it. Otherwise, you might drool.” “What’s that mean?” “If this works, and it should, you’ll be controlling their unit full-body, full range of motion, but your body won’t move as you do it. Interesting, how it does that.”


pages: 626 words: 181,434

I Am a Strange Loop by Douglas R. Hofstadter

Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Conway, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, place-making, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, publish or perish, random walk, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, Turing machine

This scenario is rather bizarre, but I think you can easily see that you will soon start to feel as if you are more in the Indiana kennel, where you are free to move about, than in some Californian ski resort, where you are basically stuck to your seat (because you have your goggles on, hence you can’t see where you’re going, hence you don’t dare venture anywhere). We’ll refer to this sensation of feeling that you are somewhere far from both your body and your brain, thanks to the ultrarapid transmission of data, as “telepresence” (a term invented by Pat Gunkel and popularized by Marvin Minsky around 1980). Telepresence versus “Real” Presence Perhaps my most vivid experience of telepresence occurred when I was typesetting my book Gödel, Escher, Bach. This was back in the late 1970’s, when for an author to do any such thing was unheard of, but I had the good fortune of having access to one of the only two computer typesetting systems in the world at that time, both of which, by coincidence, were located at Stanford.

Since I had just spent numberless hours right there, I was easily able to see in my mind’s eye everything that Scott relayed to me, and I remember how disoriented I would feel when, every so often, I remembered that my body was still in Bloomington, for I felt for all the world as if I were in Stanford, working directly at the Imlac terminal. And mind you, this powerful visual sense of telepresence was taking place solely through the sonic modality of a telephone. It was as if my eyes, though in Bloomington, were looking at an Imlac screen in California, thanks to Scott’s eyes and the clarity of his words on the phone. You can call my feeling an “illusion” if you wish, but before you do so, consider how primitive this now-ancient implementation of telepresence was. Today, one can easily imagine turning up all the technological knobs by orders of magnitude. There could be a mobile robot out in California whose movements were under my instantaneous and precise control (the joystick idea again), and whose multimedia “sensory organs” instantly transmitted whatever they picked up to me in Indiana.

T tackiness, as familiar but blurry pattern tactile illusion: as hint of wrongness of one-self view; of marble in envelope box, see Epi, marble tail wagging dog tall tale tallness vs. souledness Taoism; see also Zen Tarski, Alfred Tarzan and Jane Tati, Jacques “teetering bulb of dread and dream” (Edson) Teleclones Mark IV and Mark V teleological language: irresistible slide towards, in opaque systems; as shorthand telephone menu tree, droning voices in telephonic telepresence teleportation; goggles giving impression of; to Mars; of thought experiment; to Venus telepresence; via nose-mounted TV cameras; via novel-reading Teletransporters (Parfit) television salesperson temperature: as cause; as emergent tennis-playing Tesler, Larry “the present work”, “the present chapter” theorems: as bottom lines of formal derivations; first, second (etc.) generations of; as meaningful patterns; as meaningless patterns; mirrored by prim numbers theory of computation theory of sets theory of types; self-referentiality of chapter introducing therapy sessions for bereaved spouses thermodynamics vs. statistical mechanics thermostats thinking: ; with another’s brain; essence of; as synonym of consciousness thinkodynamics vs. statistical mentalics thirst: as collective pattern of many beer cans; as one beer can popping up “This formula is not provable” “This formula is provable” “this sentence”, avoidance of indexical phrase “This sentence is false” “thit sentence” Thomas, Dylan “thou” addressed to married couple thought: basic unit of; as dance of simmballs; as dance of symbols; as mere set of habits; as prime mover in brain thought experiments: parameters tweaked in; teleported across Atlantic thoughtmill churned by simms “three three threes” threshold of complexity: for computational universality; for representational universality throwaway analogies, random examples of: between Buzzaround Betty and Hopalong Cassidy; between Cagey and Qéé Dzhii; between car buyers and heart surgeons; between consciousness and a power moonroof; between deconstructing the “I” and deconstructing Santa Claus; between Doug/Carol and a school of fish; between etymology and an X-ray; between exploration of video feedback and sea voyage; between form–content interplay and tail wagging dog; between John Searle and Dylan Thomas; between lack of imagery and lack of oxygen; between people and grasshoppers; between Principia Mathematica and Newton’s Principia; between reading Euclid’s proof and tasting chocolate; between reading “accessible” version of proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem and ordering “Indian hot”; between reverberant barking and a chain reaction; between Roger Sperry and Hopalong Cassidy; between Russell and God; between strange loop of “I”-ness and pearl necklace; between this book and a salad; between tired muscles and soft recruits; between top and bottom of Shell sign; between TV screen and leaf pile; between Twinwirld and Twinnwirrld; between will’s constancy and a gyroscope throwing-away of information time-lapse photography Tinkertoys as substrate for thinking Titanic baby found floating in life raft titles of sections in Reasons and Persons chapter toilet paper and pebbles as substrate for thinking toilets, awareness level of tomatoes as soulless Tomonaga, Sin-Itiro “too marbelous for words” tornado cell, opposing caged-bird metaphor tower of increasingly abstract definitions toy guns, attempted banishment of traffic jam, global explanation for trains: identity of; who vs. that transplanting: a novel to another soil; a soul to another soil transportability, differential, of layers of a self triggering of symbols in brain Treisman, Anne Trenet, Charles Trento, Italy Trojan horse, Gödel’s true statements: Gödel numbers of; logicians’ favorite examples trustability of sources of information Truth and Denotation (Martin) truth: as inexpressible notion using PM notation; preservation of, via rules of inference; presumed to be equivalent to provability in PM; and unprovability perversely entailing each other tu (second-person singular pronoun) addressed to married couple Turing, Alan Mathison Turing machines turkey as “which”, not “who” TV camera: bolted to TV; on long leash; meltdown of; on short leash; universally worn on nose TV screen as meaningless pixel pattern “Twe” (first-pairson pronoun in Twinwirld); tweaking of twildren in Twinwirld Twinwirld; beings in; plausibility of; souls in; twiddling parameters of Twinnwirrld twisty formulas of Principia Mathematica two bodies but one self two twos typeface vs. tale types, rigid hierarchy of typographical patterns mirrorable in number patterns typographical rules of inference; mirrored by computational rules U “Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme (I)” (Gödel, 1931) “umbrella girl” of Morton Salt umlaut in “Gödel” Unbridgeable You–Me Chasm unfathomability of ourselves as good uninteresting integers universal beings; thirst for tastes of alien interiorities universal: machines; music boxes universality of computers; as missed by early computer engineers universality of integers; as missed by early computer engineers; as missed by Whitehead and Russell universality of PM universality, representational, of humans; empathy as by-product of; threshold for Universe Q vs.


pages: 480 words: 123,979

Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier

4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

“Virtual environments” was a term associated with the “big science” places like NASA, so a lot of the formal literature from the period uses that term. It might have been coined by NASA’s Scott Fisher. “Telepresence” used to mean being connected with a robot in such a way that you felt as though you were the robot, or at least that you were in the robot’s location. The community that studied telepresence had started way back in the analog era, well before Ivan Sutherland, or even Alan Turing. Lately it has a broader usage, including Skype-like interactions in VR or mixed reality. “Tele-existence” was coined by the wonderful pioneering Japanese VR researcher Susumu Tachi to include both telepresence and VR. I wish I could remember the precise moment when I started using the term “virtual reality.” It was in the 1970s, before I came to Silicon Valley, and it served as both my North Star and my fledgling calling card.

* * * Second VR Definition: A simulated new frontier that can evoke a grandiosity recalling the Age of Exploration or the Wild West.6 * * * This book conveys my personal perspective; it doesn’t attempt a comprehensive history or survey of ideas. Even so, I’ll try to be fair. In the case of the earliest display headsets that resemble the ones used in VR, Philco indeed built devices a few years earlier for telepresence (meaning advanced remote control robots), and the wonderful Mort Heilig7 made devices for stereo film viewing—not to mention a number of radical artists who had put TVs in helmets in the fifties as ironic comments on how society was perhaps getting a little too absorbed in the emerging pop culture of TV. All of this preceded Ivan’s work, but none of it involved synthesizing an interactive alternate world of unlimited variations that compensated for head motion (to create the illusion that it was stationary, outside of the person), so for me, Ivan built the first headset that counts as a VR device.

I used to predict that the intensity of spatial video capture would create peace on earth. Amplify empathy. People would really see the awfulness of violence, of war, and would not be able to stomach it. Peace would ensue. We shall see. The more intense a communication technology is, the more intensely it can be used to lie. Anyway, Graham has devoted the decades of his life since VPL to easing the lives of children confined to hospitals through the use of telepresence. He found an unambiguous way to use technology to make the world better. AudioSphere Scott Foster engineered VPL’s 3-D sound technology. Since VPL was situated on a marina, it wasn’t unusual for engineers to live on boats and occasionally commute by sail, but Scott is the only one I can remember who commuted by small plane. He’d fly in from an airstrip up by Yosemite to a field right next to the marina.


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Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Robot nurses, phlebotomists, surgical assistants, anaesthesiologists and pharmacists are all being developed and are essential to handling the healthcare needs of our ever ageing population. Telemedicine robots are also making a huge impact on the future of medicine in hospitals and at home. The first telepresence robot that received FDA approval is being rolled out, literally, in hospitals around the country. The RP-VITA telepresence robot is a joint venture from InTouch Health Systems and iRobot. The ability for healthcare professionals to be able to move around in chaotic environments like hospitals and visit patients regardless of geography is creating efficiencies that will lead to that nostalgic nirvana of doctor house calls. Combine self-driving cars and these types of telepresence robots, and a new paradigm in health care is born as doctorbots can just call an Uber to make 20 to 30 house calls a day. Figure 4.9: RP-VITA teleoperated Robot (Credit: iRobot) Robots in Eldercare Someone turns 50 every 8 seconds.

In this mode, the personal robot will be able to carry on conversations, answer basic questions and help the patient get assistance or entertainment. Cameras and sensors in the robot will be able to read the patient’s blood pressure, wakefulness, heart rate, emotional state, etc. At any time, Maria can extend her telepresence into the robot and thereby see through the eyes of the robot and make use of the data from the robot’s sensors. Maria-in-the-robot is now able to check out both qualitative and quantitative data (including a temperature spike, blood pressure drop, an Alzheimer’s episode, etc.) or just do an hourly check-in. Maria can alert a local nurse or have a doctor take over or join her in the telepresence session. Maria can also bring in a family member to the session or update them on their loved one’s condition. Maria can now live at home with her family and will still make an excellent wage. Currently, a nurse in the Philippines is paid approximately US$500 per month.

., can all be detected and a nurse, doctor or family member alerted, and medical attention given immediately. Each year, nearly a million people in Europe suffer from a cardiac arrest. A mere 8 per cent survives due to the slow response times of emergency services. An ambulance drone, which flies at 100 kilometres per hour, could be available within minutes to treat such emergencies. Alternatively, a carebot could have heart attack treatment functionality downloaded, or serve as a telepresence unit for a remote on-call doctor. These options could dramatically decrease deaths due to heart attacks, and will probably make heart disease fall below cancer as a source of death by 2018. Figure 4.12: TU Delft’s Ambulance Drone delivering a defibrillator (Credit: TU systems) Companies like Hanson are developing robots that can mimic anyone by scanning your face and getting a 3D print of your face produced.


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50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

Jobs that don’t yet exist Sensory Internet engineer Virtual currency financial planner Personal avatar designer Generational conflict counselor Human organ farmer Digital information curator Hacker relationship manager Waste data expert Space travel agent Personal reputation consultant Chief privacy officer Vertical farmer Climate reversal consultant Wealth dispersal consultant Retirement travel agent Austerity adviser Intellectual property developer Head of corporate ethics Robot relationship counselor the condensed idea Work will change timeline 2015 Workers bid online for salaries, with jobs going to lowest bidders 2025 Holographic telepresence widely used in meetings 2030 Part-time work redefined as 1,000- or 2,000-hour jobs rather than 40-hour weeks 2035 Onsite childcare and eldercare become commonplace in offices 2040 Organizations start to offer scholarships to children as young as five 2045 Phasing out of formal retirement age for all men and women 2050 Most people work for themselves 30 The pursuit of happiness Politics and economics have historically been dominated by the idea of income and consumption being linked to happiness, especially in the West.

Up to a point, although I get more use from my ballpoint pen that translates handwritten text into digital files and can make audio and video recordings of important meetings. What do we really know? On another level, future possibilities include living in a world where almost any manmade device can be accessed, questioned or controlled by thought alone and where communication between individuals, even those geographically distant, is facilitated by a form of mental telepresence or psychic sixth-sense technology. Once again, this probably sounds fanciful. But it’s not impossible. Furthermore, if and when we do enter this realm, a number of questions emerge. The first is how will we know that we really exist in the way that we think we do? Perhaps we’ve always been living inside a computer simulation? If the simulation was sophisticated enough and determined the exact inputs fed to our brains, how could we tell the difference?

But why limit this to human beings? If you can predict what people are looking for, why not build avatars that can emotionally bond with people? Impossible? Certainty not. Recording conference calls and virtual meetings is already a practical proposition. And consider this: in 2012 a hologram allowed the dead rapper Tupac Shakur to perform “live” in front of fans with another musician. So using holographic telepresence to be somewhere else, or be in more than one place at once, is a real possibility. Quite where all this will leave human relationships is anyone’s guess. Perhaps we’ll become incapable of directly relating to other human beings unless the relationship is mediated via an avatar or electronic device. Some might say this is happening already. the condensed idea Imaginary friends timeline 1974 Maze War 1979 MUD 1987 Max Headroom 1993 Doom 1999 Everquest 2000 Ananova 2002 The Sims Online 2003 Second Life 2004 World of Warcraft 2011 Apple Siri 2012 Evi iPhone and Android app available as a 69p download 2032 70 percent of adults use intelligent avatar personal assistants 34 Uncanny Valley “Uncanny resemblance” is a term often used to describe something or, more usually, someone, who looks strangely or spookily familiar.


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Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

While this might help explain why customers could on occasion have to wait hours (or days) to get their cars fixed, it does little to ease their frustrations. So, what’s the best way to train mechanics, and is there a better way to deploy expert technicians to remote dealerships to minimize customer wait times? Audi found the answer through co-creation in the missing middle. The company deployed a fleet of telepresence robots called Audi Robotic Telepresence (ART) that not only helps train technicians in diagnostics and repair, but also speeds up the time it takes to make repairs in the first place. It’s an example of employee amplification along with AI-enabled training, combined into a whole new process. With ART, the expert technician doesn’t need to travel; instead, his or her voice and face are beamed across miles and emitted from ART’s speakers and high-resolution display.

., 7, 19, 106, 207 integration of, 3 modifying outcomes of, 172–174 potential and impact of, 3–4 in production, supply chain, and distribution, 19–39 in R&D, 67–83 responses to, 131–132 scientific method and, 69–77 skills of, 20–21, 105–106 symbiotic partnerships with, 7–8 third wave of, 4–6 training, 100, 114–122 “winters” of, 25, 41 Akshaya Patra, 37 Alexa, 11, 56, 86, 92, 94, 118, 146 Capital One and, 204–205 empathy training for, 117–118 Alexander, Rob, 204–205 algorithm aversion, 167 algorithm forensics analysts, 124–125 Alice, 146 Allgood, Brandon, 81 Almax, 89, 90 Amazon Alexa, 11, 56, 86, 92, 94–95, 118, 146 Echo, 92, 94–95, 164–165 fulfillment at, 31, 150 Go, 160–165 Mechanical Turk, 169 recommendation engine, 92 Amelia, 55–56, 139, 164, 201, 202 amplification, 7, 107, 138–139, 141–143, 176–177 jobs with, 141–143 See also augmentation; missing middle anthropomorphism, brand, 93–94 Antigena, 58 anti-money-laundering (AML) detection, 45–46, 51 Apple, 11, 96–97, 118, 146 Apprenticeship Levy, 202 apprenticing, reciprocal, 12, 201–202 Arizona State University, 49 “Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and the Economy,” 211 Asimov, Isaac, 69, 128–129 assembly lines, 1–2, 4 flexible teams vs., 13–14 AT&T, 188 Audi, 158–160, 190 audio and signal processing, 64 Audi Robotic Telepresence (ART), 159–160 augmentation, 5, 7 customer-aware shops and, 87–90 embodiment and, 147–149 fostering positive experiences with, 166 generative design and, 135–137 of observation, 157–158 types of, 138–140 workforce implications of, 137–138 augmented reality, 143 Autodesk, 3, 136–137, 141 automakers, 116–117, 140 autonomous cars and, 67–68, 166–167, 189, 190 BMW, 1, 4, 10, 149–150 customization among, 147–149 Mercedes-Benz, 4, 10 process reimagination at, 158–160 automation, 5, 19 intelligent, 65 automation ethicists, 130–131 Ayasdi, 178 back-office operations, 10 banking digital lending, 86 fraud detection in, 42 money laundering and, 45–46, 51 virtual assistants in, 55–56 Beiersdorf, 176–177 Benetton, 89 Benioff, Marc, 196 Berg Health, 82 Bezos, Jeff, 161, 164 BHP Billiton Ltd., 28 biases, 121–122, 129–130, 174, 179 biometrics, 65 BlackRock, 122 blockchain, 37 Bloomberg Beta, 195 BMW, 1, 4, 10, 148, 209 Boeing, 28, 143 Boli.io, 196 bot-based empowerment, 12, 186, 195–196 boundaries, 168–169 BQ Zosi, 146 Braga, Leda, 167 brands, 87, 92–94 anthropomorphism of, 93–94 disintermediated, 94–95 personalization and, 96–97 as two-way relationships, 119 Brooks, Rodney, 22, 24 burnout, 187–188 Burns, Ed, 76 business models, 152 business processes.

See marketing and sales Salesforce, 85–86, 196 Samsung, 96–97 Samuel, Arthur, 41, 60 scale, 160 Schaefer, Markus, 148 scheduling agents, 196 Schnur, Steve, 194 scientific method, 69–77 hypotheses in, 72–74 observation in, 69–72 testing in, 74–77 SEB, 55–56, 59, 143–145, 160 second wave of business transformation, 5, 19, 47 security, IT, 56–58 semi-supervised learning, 62 Sensabot, 192 sensors in agriculture, 35–37 product development and, 29 retail shopping, 160–165 in robotic arms, 24–26 sentiment tracking, 176 SEW-Eurodrive, 149 Shah, Julie, 120 Shah, Uman, 98 Shannon, Claude, 40 Siemens, 23, 210 Sight Machine, 27 SigOpt, 77 Siri, 11, 96–97, 118, 146 6sense, 92 skills amplification of, 7 developing, 15–16 fusion, 12, 15–16, 181, 183–206 human vs. machine, 20–21, 105–106, 151 in manufacturing, 38 in marketing and sales, 100 in R&D, 83 Slack, 196 smart glasses, 143 smart mirrors, 87–88, 100 social media, 98, 176 software design, AI-enabled, 3 generative design, 135–137, 139, 141 Sophie, 119 SparkCognition, 58 speech recognition, 66 speech to text, 64 Spiegel, Eric, 210 Standup Bot, 196 State Farm, 99 Steele, Billy, 76 Stitch Fix, 110–111, 152, 204 Store No. 8, 162 Summer Olympics, 98 supervised learning, 60 supply chains, 19–39 data, 12, 15 sustaining, 107, 114–115, 179 jobs in, 126–132 See also missing middle S Voice, 96–97 Swedberg, Claire, 31 symbiosis, 7–8 symbol-based systems, 24, 41 Symbotic, 32–33 symmetry, 130 Systematica, 167 task performance training, 116 Tatsu, 196 Tay, 168–169 Taylor, Harriet, 91 telepresence robots, 159 Tempo, 176 Tesla, 67–68, 83, 190 testing, 74–77 Texas Medical Center, 178 Textio, 196 text recognition, 66 third wave transformation, 4–6 adaptive processes in, 19–21 time, rehumanizing, 12, 186–189 time-and-motion analyses, 4 Toyota Research Institute, 166 training/retraining, 15, 107, 114–115, 208 augmentation in, 143 auto technicians, 158–160 crowdsourcing/outsourcing, 120–121 curriculum development for, 178–179 data for, 121–122 education for AI, 132–133 empathy, 117–118 employee willingness toward, 185 feedback loops in, 174 for fusion skills, 211–213 holistic melding and, 200–201 human expertise and, 194–195 interaction modeling, 120 jobs in training AI systems, 100, 114–122 personality, 118–119 reciprocal apprenticing and, 12, 201–202 worldview and localization, 119–120 See also missing middle transparency, 213 transparency analysts, 125 trust of machines vs. humans, 166–168, 172–173 moral crumple zones and, 169–172 Twitter, 168–169 Uber, 44, 95, 169 uncanny valley, 116 Unilever, 51–52 Universal Robotics, 23 University of Ottawa, 70 University of Pennsylvania, 167 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), 188 unmanned vehicles, 28 unsupervised learning, 61–62 US Department of Justice, 45 user interfaces, 140 user needs, discovering, 156 V8, 98 Vallaeys, Frederick, 99 Vectra, 58 vehicle design anthropologists, 113–114 vehicles, autonomous, 67–68, 166–167, 189, 190 Vertesi, Janet, 201 vertical farms, 36 video recognition, 66 Virgin Trains, 47–48, 50, 59 vision.


pages: 365 words: 94,464

Virtual Light by William Gibson

edge city, Jaron Lanier, telepresence

"You could, many no doubt have," said Karen Mendelsohn, "and if you put it in your wallet and sit down, it shatters." "Then what's the point of it?" "You're supposed to take very good care of it. You won't get another." Rydell never actually did meet Wellington Ma, at least not 'til quite a while later, but Karen would bring in a little briefcase with a pair of eyephones on a wire and Rydell could talk with him iii his office in LA. It was the sharpest tele-presence rig Rydell had ever used, and it really did look just like he was right there. He could see out the window to where there was this lopsided pyramid the color of a Noxzema jar. He asked Wellington Ma what that was and Ma said it was the old Design Center, but currently it was a discount mall, and Rydell could go there when he came to L.A., which was going to be soon. Turvey's girlfriend, Jenni-Rae Cline, was bringing an intricately interlocking set of separate actions against Rydell, the Department, the City of Knoxville, and the company in Singapore that owned her apartment building.

When she came back out in that underwear, he got to learn where Milan was. And while it was true he wouldn't have known the thing was there, he did know it was there, but pretty soon he forgot about it, almost. They chartered a tilt-rotor to Memphis the next morning and got on Air Magellan to LAX. Business-class mostly meant better gizmos in the seatback in front of you, and Rydell's immediate favorite was a telepresence set you could tune to servo- mounted mollies on the outside of the plane. Karen hated to use the little VirtuFax she carried around in her purse, so she'd gotten on to her office in L.A. and had them download her morning's mail into her seatback display. She got down to that fast, talking on the phone, sending faxes, and leaving Rydell to ooh and ah at the views from the mollies. The seats were bigger than when he used to fly down to Florida to see his father, the food was better, and the drinks were free.

Dreams of commerce, their locations generally corresponding with the decks that had once carried vehicular traffic; while above them, rising to the very peaks of the cable towers, lifted the intricately suspended barrio, with its unnumbered population and its zones of more private fantasy. He'd first seen it by night, three weeks before. He'd stood in fog, amid sellers of fruit and vegetables, their goods spread out on blankets. He'd stared back into the cavern-mouth, heart pounding. Steam was rising from the pots of soup-vendors, beneath a jagged arc of scavenged neon. Everything ran together, blurring, melting in the fog. Telepresence had only hinted at the magic and singularity of the thing, and he'd walked slowly forward, into the neon maw and all that patchwork carnival of scavenged surfaces, in perfect awe. Fairyland. Rain-silvered plywood, broken marble from the walls of forgotten banks, corrugated plastic, polished brass, sequins, painted canvas, mirrors, chrome gone dull and peeling in the salt air. So many things, too much for his reeling eye, and he'd known that his journey had not been in vain.


pages: 360 words: 100,991

Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

See transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technium, 23 technological evolution “AI-human symbiote,” 264 emotional empathy and, 265–266 and “ end of the world” scenarios, 261–262 and the future, 266–273 intention, 260–261 Matrix scenario, 262–263 peaceful coexistence, 263 technological singularity, 239 technophobia, 29–30 TEDWomen, 175–176 Tega, 118–119 Tegmark, Max, 132 teledildonic devices, 188–189 telepresence, 201 telepresence robots, 151 Terminator scenarios, 242, 262 Terror Management Theory (TMT), 99 Terrorist Surveillance Act (2006), 145 Texas A&M, 127 theory of mind (ToM), 83–84, 131 therapeutic companion robots, 148–150 “Three Laws of Robotics,” 165, 230–233, 262 3D printing, 211 Tilbury, Nancy, 57 TMS. See transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Tobii, 73 ToM. See theory of mind (ToM) Toshiba, 87 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 128–130 transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 128–130, 217–218 transcription factors, DNA, 15 transhumanists, 105, 212, 223 TruCompanion, 184 True Link, 157 Turing, Alan, 36–37, 236–237 Turing test, 36–37, 236–238 Turkle, Sherry, 90, 196, 199 21st Century Robot project, 168 2001 (Clarke/Kubrick), 232 Tzezana, Roey, 166 U UAVs.

In early 2015 METI published their new five-year government plan, “New Strategy for Robots,” which allocated nearly 5.3 billion yen to the use of robots in the nursing and medicine sector.4 Caretaker robots fall into one of a number of categories: • Rehabilitation robots used for physical therapy purposes, including robo-prosthetics for people with muscular motor issues, such as the loss of muscle control that can occur following a stroke. • Telepresence robots that aid in distance communications, monitoring, and promoting social interaction. • Service robots capable of providing direct care. Some of these robots may carry heavy items or even the patients themselves. Others can act as a form of external memory, helping users remember important items or engage them in exercises that help promote better memory. In short, they’re capable of supplementing, replacing, or helping recover lost physical or mental capacities

Already there are a number of companies, such as Vibease and Kiiroo, manufacturing remote haptic vibrators and male masturbators. Adding emotional awareness to these devices and thereby conveying instant information about a lover’s feelings could actually facilitate better connections between partners who have to be apart for extended periods due to circumstances such as a new job or military deployment. Similarly, telepresence will be enhanced by adding a channel for emotional communication. This feature may not appear first for sexual purposes but will almost certainly be quickly appropriated. Already lovers and strangers use phones, Skype, and Facetime for verbal and visual sex play. Adding transmitted feelings in real time will only enhance the experience. Of course, this may not be to everyone’s liking, in which case the emotional channel could be disabled.


pages: 153 words: 45,871

Distrust That Particular Flavor by William Gibson

AltaVista, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, edge city, informal economy, Joi Ito, means of production, megastructure, pattern recognition, proxy bid, telepresence, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

I suspect that medicine and the military will both find reasons for attempting such a thing, at least in the short run, and that medicine’s reasons may at least serve to counter someone’s acquired or inherited disability. If I were to lose my eyes, I would quite eagerly submit to some sort of surgery promising a video link to the optic nerves (and once there, why not insist on full-channel cable and a Web browser?). The military’s reasons for insertion would likely have something to do with what I suspect is the increasingly archaic job description of “fighter pilot,” or with some other aspect of telepresent combat, in which weapons in the field are remotely controlled by distant operators. At least there’s still a certain macho frisson to be had in the idea of deliberately embedding a tactical shard of glass in one’s head, and surely crazier things have been done in the name of king and country. But if we do do it, I doubt we’ll be doing it for very long, as various models of biological and nanomolecular computing are looming rapidly into view.

I just knew that they were the scariest thing I’d ever seen, and I could barely stand to watch them menace the hero or his girlfriend. I wonder now what I knew about robots. That they were called “robots,” and were “mechanical men.” That these particular robots were the servants of Dr. Satan. Did I believe that they were autonomous, or that Dr. Satan controlled them? Probably the latter, as menacing-robot scenes in serials of this sort often involved a sort of telepresence, and the suggestion of remote control. Cut from robot, menacing, to evil scientist in his lab, watching robot menace on television screen. Evil scientist closes giant knife-switch, which causes robot to menace even harder. Given that I was watching this material in the early Fifties, I would shortly become familiar with the expression “electronic brain,” which like “rocket ship” was there as a marker of something anticipated but not yet here.

That in fact you get far less work done, far less bang for your buck, if you do. My idea of an efficient robot today would be an American Predator drone with Hellfire missiles, or one of the fly-sized equivalents allegedly on Pentagon CAD-CAM screens, if not already in the field. Though actually those are both cyborgs, or borg-aspects, as they are capable both of autonomous actions and actions via telepresent control. When the human operator uplinks, operator and Predator constitute a cyborg. A friend of mine wrote a short story, a decade ago, in which the protagonists were Soviet equivalents of Predator drones, but literal cyborgs: small fighter aircraft controlled by brain-in-bottle onboard pilots, with very little left in the way of bodies. But why, today, bother building those? (Unless of course to provide the thrill of piloting to someone who might otherwise not experience it, which would be a worthy goal in my view.)


pages: 257 words: 80,100

Time Travel: A History by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, Doomsday Book, index card, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, wikimedia commons

Credit 14.1 Card produced c. 1900 by Hildebrands chocolate company If we lack space travel, we do have telepresence. “Present” in this context pertains to space, not to time. Telepresence was born in the 1980s, when remotely controlled cameras and microphones came into their own. Deep sea explorers and bomb squads can project themselves elsewhere—project their souls, their eyes and ears, while the body remains behind. We send robots beyond the planets and inhabit them. In the same decade the word virtual, already by then a computer term, began to refer to remote simulations—virtual office, virtual town halls, virtual sex. And, of course, virtual reality. Another way to look at telepresence is that people virtualize themselves. A women finds herself piloting a quadcopter in a slightly creepy “beta of some game”—like a first-person shooter with “nothing to shoot”—and because she is a character in a novel by William Gibson (The Peripheral, 2014) we must already wonder what is virtual and what is real.

Back to the future once more, though, in Gibson’s eleventh novel, The Peripheral. A near future interacts with a far future. Cyberspace gave him a way in. New rules of time travel: matter cannot escape its time but information can. The future discovers that it can email the past. Then it phones the past. The information flows both ways. Instructions are sent for 3-D fabbing: helmets, goggles, joysticks. It is a marriage of time shifting and telepresence. To the people of the future, the denizens of the past can be employed as “polts” (from poltergeist—“ghosts that move things, I suppose”). Money can be sent or created (win lotteries, manipulate the stock market). Finance has become virtual, after all. Corporations are shells, built of documents and bank accounts. It’s outsourcing in a new dimension. Does the manipulation of people across time create headaches?


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

By “2015, the gigabyte equivalent of all movies ever made will cross global IP networks every 5 minutes,” the company predicted.62 But instead of quenching the fire, Cisco was throwing on fuel. Its multiscreen, high-definition TelePresence videoconferencing systems were selling very well, for hundreds of thousands dollars per unit. Beginning in 2006, it began to experiment on itself to build a business case for the technology, deploying over 250 units in 123 cities worldwide. In 2008 the company announced it had saved $90 million by eliminating travel for nearly 17,500 face-to-face meetings.63 In 2010, it acquired Norway-based Tandberg, a manufacturer of desktop videophones, and cut a deal to install the units in apartments throughout Songdo’s residential quarter. Just as it was ramping up production of TelePresence, Cisco was putting its own spin on Songdo’s significance for a rapidly urbanizing China. “Of course I can see you!

If this future catches on, hooking up cities for mass video communications could power Cisco’s profits for years to come. It’s a well-worn cliché that the only people who get rich in a gold rush are the ones selling picks and shovels. But beyond just peddling tools and equipment, if Cisco’s network becomes a true “fourth utility,” all bets are off. Hints of the potential are emerging in Songdo, where the company will install ten thousand TelePresence screens in homes, offices, and schools by 2018. The screens come included with new apartments, and unlimited video calls will cost just $10 per month. But Songdo U.Life—a new joint venture between Cisco, the developer Gale International, and Korean tech giant LG—will also launch a kind of app store, where residents can subscribe to a whole host of new interactive video. As Eliza Strickland reported in IEEE Spectrum, “a resident could start her day with a live yoga class; later her child could get one-on-one English lessons from a teacher across the world.”67 Much like Apple’s App Store, U.Life and Cisco will exact a healthy vigorish from service providers who want to plug in to its hi-def grid.

articleid=4395. 61“Smart + Connected Communities: Changing a Community, a Country a World,” Cisco Systems, June 2010, 3, http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/scc/ 09CS2326_SCC_BrochureForWest _r3_112409.pdf. 62“Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011–2016,” Cisco Systems, last modified February 14, 2012, http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/ white_paper_c11-520862.html. 63“How Virtual Meetings Provide Substantial Business Value and User Benefits,” Cisco Systems, n.d., accessed September 25, 2012, http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ciscoitatwork/downloads/ciscoitatwork/pdf/ Cisco_IT_Case_Study_TelePresence_Benefits.pdf. 64Daniel Brook, “The Rise and Fall and Rise of New Shanghai,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2013, last modified August 13, 2012, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/08/13/ the_rise_and_fall_and_rise_of_new_shanghai. 65“Smart + Connected Life Video,” Cisco Systems, n.d., http://www.cisco.com/web/CN/expo/en/pavilion.html. 66“Smart + Connected Life Video.” 67Eliza Strickland, “Cisco Bets on South Korean Smart City,” IEEE Spectrum, last modified November 29, 2011, http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/internet/cisco-bets-on-south-korean-smart-city. 68Alex Soojung-Kim Pang, “Mobility, Convergence, and the End of Cyberspace,” in Kristof Nyiri, ed., Towards a Philosophy of Telecommunications Convergence (Vienna: Passagen Verlag, 2008), 55–62. 69Matt Novak, “The World’s First Carphone,” Paleofuture, blog, Smithsonian Magazine, last modified January 25, 2012, http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/paleofuture/2012/01/the-worlds-first-carphone/. 70Novak, “The World’s First Carphone.” 71“First FM Portable Two-Way Radio,” Motorola Solutions, accessed September 25, 2012, http://www.motorolasolutions.com/US-EN/About/Company+Overview/History/Explore+Motorola+Heritage/First+FM+Portable+Two-Way+Radio. 72“Milestones: One-Way Police Radio Communication, 1928,” IEEE Global History Network, n.d., http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones: One-Way_Police_Radio_Communication,_1928. 73“Milestones: Two-Way Police Radio Communication, 1933,” IEEE Global History Network, n.d., http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones: Two-Way_Police_Radio_Communication,_1933. 74“1946: First Mobile Telephone Call,” AT&T, n.d., http://www.corp.att.com/attlabs/reputation/timeline/46mobile.html. 75“1946: First Mobile Telephone Call.” 76George Calhoun, Digital Cellular Radio (Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1988), 39. 77“Cisco Visual Networking Index.” 78Anton Troianovski, “Video Speed Trap Lurks in New iPad,” Wall Street Journal, last modified March 22, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB10001424052702303812904577293882009811556.html. 79“Mobile data traffic growth doubled over one year,” October 12, 2011, http://www.ericsson.com/news/111012_mobile_data_traffic_244188808_c. 80“Mobile Network Operators Face Seven Fold Increases in Data Delivery Costs, Rising to $370 bn by 2016, Juniper Research Reports,” Juniper Research, Hampshire, United Kingdom, press release, August 2, 2011, http://www.juniperresearch.com/viewpressrelease.php?


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Wim Elfrink is Cisco’s chief globalization officer, charged with unearthing new markets and new customers from his campus in Bangalore. The Dutchman conducts most of his meetings at home via his company’s own telepresence screens. One of his maxims is “Don’t commute to compute.” And yet there he was on the outskirts of Seoul, in town to meet and greet for a week. What happened to telepresence killing the business trip? “The volume of travel won’t decrease,” he conceded cheerfully, “but it will become more efficient. My weekly meetings to go over numbers and projects are conducted via telepresence—why should I fly my folks in for that? But if we’re having a strategy meeting, we have to have dinner, go for walks, take breaks, and be creative. People say that telepresence is killing travel, but it’s not killing it. It adds and it replaces.” The software business is just one example of what the urban planner Melvin Webber called “community without propinquity,” or one without a sense of place.

Kasarda’s Law and Marchetti’s Constant It wasn’t supposed to be this way. Technology was going to ground us by linking and shrinking the world, and in doing so set us free. The world would flatten. Road warriors would beat their platinum medallions into plowshares. It hasn’t happened. For twenty years, we’ve heard how e-mail and videoconferencing— relabeled “telepresence”—would eliminate the need for cross-country meetings. AT&T once promised us we could attend them from the beach. “You Will,” it assured us. We don’t. More recently, Cisco has run ads depicting telepresence as a looking glass with China waving to us from the other side. It’s a seductive vision, especially with travel budgets slashed and expense accounts frozen. But new technologies are part of the problem, not the solution. There’s a paradox at the heart of our enduring need to connect. Call it Kasarda’s Law of Connectivity: every technology meant to circumvent distances electronically, starting with the telegraph—the original “nervous system of commerce”—will only stoke our desire to traverse it ourselves.

Its flag bearer, Facebook, added 500 million friends in just five years—one-third of everyone on the Internet—who collectively spend twenty-three billion minutes a day on the site (that’s about forty-four thousand years). When you add up the Wall posts, status updates, and news bulletins exchanged daily, the number of connections quickly spirals into the trillions. Only a few years ago these weak ties didn’t exist, or at least you couldn’t tug on them. Facebook is the first (and possibly last) tool for keeping tabs on practically everyone you’ve ever met. As far as free-and-easy telepresence goes, it’s unsurpassed. And yet our wanderlust has deepened. The number of air passengers worldwide has risen 83 percent during the Internet years, leveling off only briefly in the face of terror and again under the threat of global financial ruin. Since the invention of the Web, another billion people have taken to the skies each year. This isn’t a coincidence, but a correlation. Technology is only a starting point for long-distance re-lationships; it piques our curiosity but doesn’t satisfy it.


pages: 993 words: 318,161

Fall; Or, Dodge in Hell by Neal Stephenson

Ada Lovelace, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, bitcoin, blockchain, cloud computing, coherent worldview, computer vision, crossover SUV, cryptocurrency, defense in depth, demographic transition, distributed ledger, drone strike, easy for humans, difficult for computers, game design, index fund, Jaron Lanier, life extension, microbiome, Network effects, off grid, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, planetary scale, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, short selling, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

She ought to have built it up gradually and figured out a way to connect input/output systems to it at each step. Halfway through the talk, though, the robot stepped forward and walked up the length of the hall to a position where it could get a clearer view. El’s boys woke up and took notice. No one really knew for certain, but it was generally assumed that the robot—a telepresence device meant to serve as the sensorium of a person not physically in attendance—was being controlled from Europe by Elmo Shepherd. Early telepresence robots had just stood there stolidly when not moving, like statues; this one was more elegant. Even when it wasn’t going anywhere it never stopped making minute shifts in its attitude, transferring its weight from foot to foot and turning its head toward sound and movement. Its head was a prolate spheroid, matte gray and featureless except for a few tiny holes for cameras and microphones.

A younger and more bubbly staff member would then prattle on about the spa and the indoor tennis courts while the ancient mariner would, one presumed, totter off to a dark corner of the bar to drink straight whiskey while gazing out over the chilly and violent waters of the strait and ponder death. The only visitor who managed to avoid this introductory session was El Shepherd. As always, he stayed home in Zelrijk-Aalberg and shipped a telepresence robot to the site. It arrived a day early, hoisted out of the hold of a supply boat along with the resort’s usual supply of beer, broccoli, and laundry detergent. It was in a fetal position with a shipping label stuck to its back, blazoned with the name METATRON. For, having found these devices useful, El had executed a roll-up, purchasing a few companies that had been competing in the telepresence space, merging them into one, and giving them a snappy new brand name. The staff wheeled the Metatron up to the main lodge on a dolly and set it down. It emitted a warning tone, suggested that everyone stand clear, and then stood up.

Or conversely whether the office itself should be shut down, since most people worked from home now, and meetings happened in a crazy-quilt pseudo-space of real bodies in a room, videoconference, telepresence robots, and augmented reality. But Zula and Corvallis continued to go there almost every day, as if daring each other to be the first to give up on it. The younger Zula’s friends were, the more nervous they were about her way of life. She understood why, of course: they wanted to make sure they got a good scan of her brain when she died, so that she could live forever. This was how people thought nowadays. It wasn’t only cops, soldiers, and firemen who did everything through telepresence. It had been obvious for a long time that certain activities, such as going to the grocery store for a quart of milk, weren’t worth the effort of leaving the house, parking the car, and waiting in the checkout lane.


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

What if you could hire a live musician for a party, even if that musician was at a distance? The performance might feel “present” in your house if you had immersive, “holographic” projectors in your living room. Imagine telepresent actors, orators, puppeteers, and dancers delivering real-time interactive shows that include special effects and production values surpassing those of today’s most expensive movies. For instance, a puppeteer for a child’s birthday party might take children on a magical journey through a unique immersive fantasy world designed by the performer. This design would provide performers with an offering that could be delivered reasonably because they wouldn’t have to travel. Telepresent performance would also provide a value to customers that file sharing could not offer. It would be immune to the problems of online commerce that have shriveled the music labels.

It’s the people who make the forum, not the software. Without the software, the experience would not exist at all, so I celebrate that software, as flawed as it is. But it’s not as if the forum would really get much better if the software improved. Focusing too much on the software might even make things worse by shifting the focus from the people. There is huge room for improvement in digital technologies overall. I would love to have telepresence sessions with distant oudists, for instance. But once you have the basics of a given technological leap in place, it’s always important to step back and focus on the people for a while. * The Bible can serve as a prototypical example. Like Wikipedia, the Bible’s authorship was shared, largely anonymous, and cumulative, and the obscurity of the individual authors served to create an oracle-like ambience for the document as “the literal word of God.”


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

Yet, military pilots located in the western United States routinely operate drone aircraft in Afghanistan. By the same token, it is easy to envision remote-controlled machinery being operated by offshore workers who provide the visual perception and dexterity that, for the time being, continues to elude autonomous robots. A need for face-to-face interaction is another factor that is assumed to anchor a job locally. However, telepresence robots are pushing the frontier in this area and have already been used to offshore English language instruction from Korean schools to the Philippines. In the not too distant future, advanced virtual reality environments will likewise make it even easier for workers to move seamlessly across national borders and engage directly with customers or clients. As offshoring accelerates, college graduates in the United States and other advanced countries may face daunting competition based not just on wages but also on cognitive capability.

The suits lease for just under $2,000 per year and are already in use at over three hundred Japanese hospitals and nursing homes.21 Other near-term developments will probably include robotic walkers to assist in mobility and inexpensive robots capable of bringing medicine, providing a glass of water, or retrieving commonly misplaced items like eyeglasses. (This would likely be done by attaching RFID tags to the items.) Robots that can help track and monitor people with dementia are also appearing. Telepresence robots that allow doctors or caretakers to interact with patients remotely are already in use in some hospitals and care facilities. Devices of this type are relatively easy to develop because they skirt around the challenge of dexterity. The near-term nursing-care robotics story is primarily going to be about machines that assist, monitor, or enable communication. Affordable robots that can independently perform genuinely useful tasks will be slower to arrive.

See radio-frequency identification (RFID) Riegel v. Medtronic, Inc., 150n risk, Peltzman effect and, 267–268 RoboBusiness conference/tradeshow, 7 Robot & Frank (film), 155 robotics, 6–8 cloud, 20–23 See also automation; robots robotic walkers, 157 robots in agriculture, 23–26 box-moving, 1–2, 5–6 consumer, 197n educational, 7 elder-care, 155–158 hospital and pharmacy, 153–155 industrial, 1–5, 10–11 personal, 7 telepresence, 119–120, 157 Rolling Stone (magazine), 56 Romney, Mitt, 272 Roosevelt, Franklin, 279 Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 160, 163 Rosenwald, Michael, 107 ROS (Robot Operating System), 6, 7 Russell, Stuart, 229 Rutter, Brad, 101 Sachs, Jeffrey, 60 Saez, Emmanuel, 46 safety, autonomous cars and, 184–185, 187 Salesforce.com, 134 Samsung Electronics, 70n Samuelson, Paul, x Sand, Benjamin M., 127 San Jose State University, 134 Sankai, Yoshiyuki, 156–157 Santelli, Rick, 170 savings, China’s high rate of, 224–225 SBTC.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

He is one of the true pioneers in computing and it would be almost impossible to overstate the importance of his contributions to progress in this industry, whether it was through his role building the first minicomputers at DEC 1960s and 1970s; his involvement as head of the National Science Foundation’s information-superhighway initiative; or the work he has done at Microsoft since 1995 on telepresence and telecomputing. He is also one of the industry’s most important original thinkers, not only about how to advance the state of the art of digital technology, but also about the role that technology plays in society and in people’s lives. I have so much admiration and respect for the depth of Gordon’s thinking and the quality of his work. I think I’ve known Gordon for about twenty-five years.

Aerial imagery of the world was brought to the Internet by the BARC Terra Server, which led to the Microsoft Live Maps site and predated Google maps by five years. Later, Jim would turn the view up to the heavens, and work on the Sky Server project. His broad agenda got him involved in such far-flung projects as the “land speed record” for network transmission and fail-safe databases. Meanwhile, Gemmell and I were working on telepresence: putting a conference on the Web, playing with altering someone’s gaze direction in video, and shipping new network protocols in Microsoft operating systems. Later, of course, we got into MyLifeBits. A memorable event was in May 1997, when Jim gave an on-stage demo with Bill Gates, using more than a hundred PCs to achieve one billion transactions per day. I also recall Jim’s glee on April Fool’s Day 2005, when he had just finished measuring a half-billion transactions per day using his relatively old laptop.

The top division is between active and archive items. 1. My Documents holding active content a. Administrative and Systems b. CyberAll aka MyLifeBits Research i) Papers, patents ii) Presentations iii) Project plans iv) Hardware (eBook, SenseCam, et cetera) v) Conferences and other papers vi) Classification, facets, metadata vii) Database viii) This book c. Media-in-the-home research d. Telepresence research e. Systems of all kinds, chips to supers f. Other active company and organizational (companies, government, schools) g. GB in process books and papers h. GB family financial and legal i) CYxx or FYxx: Yearly bank, brokerage, expense, receipt, detailed tax, statements ii) Investments iii) Money and historical transactions iv) Property 1. Real estate (folder per property) 2.


pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, social intelligence, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The visible universe, with 1011 galaxies, would then have room for 1051 cities – except that by the time intelligence has expanded that far, more ­efficient ways of using spacetime and encoding data would surely have been discovered, ­increasing the number much further. Mind without Body? Start with the concepts of telepresence and virtual reality. You wear a harness that, with optical, acoustical, mechanical and chemical devices, controls all that you sense, and measures all of your actions. Its machinery presents pictures to your eyes, sounds to your ears, pressures and temperatures to your skin, forces to your muscles, and even smells and tastes for the remaining senses. Telepresence results when the inputs and outputs of this harness connect to a distant machine that looks like a humanoid robot. The images from the robot’s two camera eyes appear on your “eyeglass” viewscreens, and you hear through its ears, feel through its skin, and smell through its chemical sensors.

If the computer has access to data from the outside world, the simulation may contain some “real” items, for instance representations of other people connected via their own ­harnesses, or even views of the outside world, perhaps through simulated windows. One might imagine a hybrid system where a virtual “central station” is surrounded by portals that open on to views of multiplereal locations. While in the station one inhabits a simulated body, but when one steps through a portal, the harness link is seamlessly switched from the simulation to a telepresence robot waiting at that location. The technical challenges limit the availability, “fidelity,” and affordability of telepresence and virtual reality systems today – in fact, they exist only in a few highly experimental demonstrations. But progress is being made, and it’s possible to anticipate a time, a few decades hence, when people spend more time in remote and virtual realities than in their immediate ­surroundings, just as today most of us spend more time in artificial indoor surroundings than in the great outdoors.

After 12 hours in a sensory ­deprivation tank (where one floats in a body-temperature saline solution that produces almost no skin sensation, in total darkness and silence, with taste and smell and the sensations of breathing minimized) a subject will begin to hallucinate, as the mind, somewhat like a television tuned to a nonexistent channel, turns up the amplification, desperately looking for a signal, becoming ever less discriminating in the theories it offers to make sense of the random sensory hiss it receives. Even the most extreme telepresence and virtual reality scenarios we have presented avoid complete bodylessness by always providing the mind with a consistent sensory (and motor) image, obtained from an actual remote robot body, or from a computer simulation. In those scenarios, a person may sometimes exist without a physical body, but never without the illusion of having one. But in our computers there are already many entities that resemble truly bodiless minds.


pages: 297 words: 35,674

Slide:ology: the art and science of creating great presentations by Nancy Duarte

fear of failure, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, telepresence, web application

The first brainstorm is always about context: What is the setting of the presentation? Who are the members of the audience? What messages do they need to hear from Cisco’s executive team? What’s the call to action? Once the context is determined, the team works to develop a storyline and message. Justice’s story development team works in a presentation command center decked out with all the latest technology, including Cisco’s TelePresence, a digital whiteboard and multiple screens for the many collaborators using laptops. His gutsy approach centers on trying innovative new ideas and employing technologies that communicate his message in a way that resonates with the audience. “In most cases,” says Justice, “I’ve got a few thousand people in the audience and just one chance to capture their imaginations by showing them something they’ve never seen before while ensuring the content is relevant and inspiring to them.”

See animations in effective slides, 88 time-based scenes, 180–181 Mozilla, 37, 164 multidirectional flow in diagrams, 47 N natural movement in animations, 189 270 nature, design guidelines from, 109–110 neutral colors, 136 Newton, Isaac, 128–129 noise in slides, 88 O open space in backgrounds, 118–119 order, space proximity for, 104 ordering information, 96–97 Ortberg, John, 242–243 overlapping clusters in diagrams, 50 overlays, hand-drawn, 167 owning images, 165 P paintbrush line texture, 166 palettes assembling, 136–137 choosing, 132–133 harmonious, 128–129 industry, 134–135 limiting, 138–139 power of, 130–131 panoramas, 190–191 paper and pencil, 26–27 paper handouts, 240 paragraph spacing, 148 parallel structure for bullets, 151 parent-child relationship, 99 pastels, 133 path-based animation, 189 pauses in presentations, 230 Pecha Kucha, 226, 228–229 pen line texture, 166 pencil and paper, 26–27 people proximity, 105 percentages on pie charts, 71 personas of audience, 16–17 perspective for backgrounds, 121 for information flow, 96 photographs, 79 families of images, 160 focus in, 162–163 healthcare, 174–175 rule of thirds, 161 taking, 164–165 pictorial concepts in diagrams, 54–55 pie charts guidelines, 77 uses, 71 Pink, Dan, 238–239 placement of elements, 92–93 case study, 108–109 contrast, 94–95 flow, 96–97 grids, 100–103 hierarchy, 98–99 natural guidelines, 109–110 proximity, 104–105 unity, 100–101 whitespace, 106–107 point size, 142 points, radiation from, 52 Post, Dan, 175–176 Post-It notes, 28–29 power points in images, 161 Powerful Presenter, 151 PowerPoint color wheel, 128, 132 default templates, 144 push transitions, 190 PowerPoint Phluff, 74 presence, creating, 19 Presentation Survival Skills Guide, 10 Presentation Zen, 89, 108–109, 219 Presenting to Win, 96 process concept in pictorials, 54 Procter & Gamble, 82 Proehl, Andy, 228–229 profiles of audience, 16–17 projection, deciding on, 240–241 projectors color contrast for, 135 constraining, 230–231 props, 241 proximity contrast in, 94 for hierarchy, 99 meaning from, 104–105 public speaking, fear of, 232 push transitions, 22, 190, 192–193 Q quantity, slides, 234-239 quick cuts, 183 R radiate concept in diagrams, 52–53 rag, 149 Rand, Paul, 95 Rare organization, 198–199 readability size for, 240 text, 143 reading patterns, 96–97 realistic concepts in diagrams display data, 56–57 271 pictorial, 54–55 Really Bad PowerPoint, 6 record, 221 reducing slide content, 221 text, 224–225 references, 262–263 reflections for backgrounds, 124–125 relationships with audience, 14–15, 248–249 color, 128–129 cultivating, 261 hierarchy of elements, 98–99 movement for, 185 repetition, 221 reveal concept pictorials, 54 text, 145–146 Reynolds, Garr, 6, 89, 108–109, 219, 238–239 Roman Room method, 222–223 rule of thirds, 161 S safe water presentation, 245 sans serif fonts, 143 scaling animations, 189 images, 172 scenes in animations, 190–193 school district presentation, 162–163 screenwriters, 186 sense of space in backgrounds, 118, 122–123 sequence, movement for, 185 serif fonts, 142–143 shades color wheel, 128–129 272 contrast in, 94 shadows in backgrounds, 120–121, 124–125 shape, contrast in, 94 Sharpie pens, 28 Silk Road, 229 simplicity for cross-culture communication, 37 in data slides, 74–75 and sticky notes, 28 size contrast in, 94 fonts, 152–153, 234 for hierarchy, 98–99 for information flow, 96 text, 95 sketchbooks, 44 sketching complete ideas, 40–41 diagrams, 38–39 live, 30–31 slide sorter view, 152 SlideShare.net site, 238–239 slideuments, 6–7, 144 slow moving animation, 183 small devices, 244–245 SmartAccess product, 196–197 social networks, 241 soft returns, 148 soft shadows, 125 space proximity, 104 spacing kerning and letterspacing, 147 paragraph, 148 splash animations, 154–155 split complementary color, 131 spreading ideas, 255 information across slides, 107 stage, actors on, 105 starting points in information flow, 96 statistics, illustrating, 79 stick figure drawings, 32–33 sticky notes, 28–29 storyboarding for animations, 182 sketching, 32–33 straight lines, 166 stroke presentation, 246–247 structure in diagrams, 48–49 unity in, 100–103 stylizing illustrations and diagrams, 172–173 sub-bullets, 148, 151 surfaces, backgrounds as, 116, 118–119 synchronizing animations, 183 system diagrams, 58 system images, 160 T Tahoma font, 143 Target, 82 teachers, presentation for, 162–163 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) TED conference, 244–247 videos online, 226 TelePresence system, 19 teleprompters, slides as, 7 templates for branding, 208–209 for collaboration, 214–215 design decisions, 206–207 experimenting with, 210–211 Google Docs, 214-215 guidelines, 212–213 PowerPoint, 144 for workforce, 204–205 Templeton, Mark, 8–9 tetradic color scheme, 131 text bullets, 150–151 constraining, 220–221 contrast, 95 font size, 152–153 fonts, 142–143 hierarchy, 98 isolating, 79 overview, 140–141 reducing, 224–225 revealing, 145–146 typesetting, 146–149 word counts on slides, 144–145 texture of illustration lines, 166 theatre, actor proximity in, 105 thinking like designers, 83 third dimension in animations, 189 three-column grid patterns, 101 three R's of letting go, 221 time-based scenes, 180–181 time requirements for presentation development, 12–13 Times New Roman font, 143 tints in color wheel, 128–129 titles in templates, 207 text, 98 title case, 151 two-line, 144 tracking, 147 transitions 273 color-coded slides, 163 fade, 195 push, 22, 190, 192–193 trees in diagrams, 48 trends in display data, 56 triadic color, 131 truth in data slides, 66–67 Tufte, Edward, 67, 74, 95 Twain, Mark, 190 two-line titles, 144 typesetting, 140–141 blocks, 148–149 overview, 146–147 U unity space proximity for, 104 in structure, 100–101 V Van Sijll, Jennifer, 186–187 Vanderbilt University, 30 vanishing points in backgrounds, 120–123 venture capitalists, 234 venue size, color for, 132 verbs, revelations through, 84–85 vertical bar charts, 77 vertical organization of data charts, 97 video format, 240 video slides, 175–176 visual breathing room, 106–107 visual elements animation.


pages: 355 words: 81,788

Monolith to Microservices: Evolutionary Patterns to Transform Your Monolith by Sam Newman

Airbnb, business process, continuous integration, database schema, DevOps, fault tolerance, ghettoisation, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Kubernetes, loose coupling, microservices, MVC pattern, price anchoring, pull request, single page application, software as a service, source of truth, telepresence

However, with that comes associated challenges of needing connectivity (which can be a problem for remote workers or frequent travelers), potentially having slower feedback cycles with the need to deploy software remotely before you can see it working, and a potential explosion in resources (and associated costs) needed for developer environments. Telepresence is an example of a tool that is aiming to make a hybrid local/remote developer workflow easier for Kubernetes users. You can develop your service locally, but Telepresence can proxy calls to other services to a remote cluster, allowing you (hopefully) the best of both worlds. Azure’s cloud functions can be run locally too, but connected to remote cloud resources, allowing you to create services made out of functions with a fast local developer workflow, while still having them run against a potentially extensive cloud environment.

organization of, three-tiered architecture reflecting, Modeled Around a Business Domain qualitative measures of transition success, Qualitative Measures reorganizing for transition to microservices, Reorganizing Teams-Changing Skillschanging skills, Changing Skills deciding where to start, Making a Change no one-size-fits-all, It’s Not One Size Fits All shifting structures, Shifting Structures scaling number of developers, Scale the Number of Developers technical-oriented services, switch to modeling around business functionality, Shifting Structures technologychanging to better handle load, How else could you do this? deciding when to change technology when using microservices, Technology embracing new technology using microservices, Embrace New Technology embracing new technology without using microservices, How else could you do this? Telepresence, Potential Solutions temporal coupling, Temporal coupling testingend-to-end testing of microservices, End-to-End Testing-Continually refine your quality feedback cycles in production, Test in production integration of test teams into other teams, Shifting Structures third-party monoliths, Third-Party Black-Box Systems time to market, improvingusing microservices, Reduce Time to Market without adopting microservices, How else could you do this?


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

As a final example of recent robotic progress, consider the Double, which is about as different from the BigDog as possible. Instead of trotting through rough enemy terrain, the Double rolls over cubicle carpets and hospital hallways carrying an iPad. It’s essentially an upside-down pendulum with motorized wheels at the bottom and a tablet at the top of a four- to five-foot stick. The Double provides telepresence—it lets the operator ‘walk around’ a distant building and see and hear what’s going on. The camera, microphone, and screen of the iPad serve as the eyes, ears, and face of the operator, who sees and hears what the iPad sees and hears. The Double itself acts as the legs, transporting the whole assembly around in response to commands from the operator. Double Robotics calls it “the simplest, most elegant way to be somewhere else in the world without flying there.”

Double Robotics calls it “the simplest, most elegant way to be somewhere else in the world without flying there.” The first batch of Doubles, priced at $2,499, sold out soon after the technology was announced in the fall of 2012.32 The next round of robotic innovation might put the biggest dent in Moravec’s paradox ever. In 2012 DARPA announced another Grand Challenge; instead of autonomous cars, this one was about automatons. The DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) combined tool use, mobility, sensing, telepresence, and many other long-standing challenges in the field. According to the website of the agency’s Tactical Technology Office, The primary technical goal of the DRC is to develop ground robots capable of executing complex tasks in dangerous, degraded, human-engineered environments. Competitors in the DRC are expected to focus on robots that can use standard tools and equipment commonly available in human environments, ranging from hand tools to vehicles, with an emphasis on adaptability to tools with diverse specifications.33 With the DRC, DARPA is asking the robotics community to build and demonstrate high-functioning humanoid robots by the end of 2014.

Demographic and Health Surveys Dershowitz, Alan developing world: effect of automation on productivity improvement in technology in Diamond, Peter digitization: beneficial effects of of books bounty created by challenges of competitive effects of constraints in economic consequences of; see also bounty; goods, digital, economics of; spread economic data made available by economic properties of in education executive pay linked to as general purpose technology innovation debate about labor complements to labor market effects of; see also “winner-take-all” markets logarithmic scaling of market domination due to; see also “winner-take-all” markets metrics of network effects in niche services created by physical goods’ improvement and and Pigovian taxes rapid progress in; see also technological progress recombinant innovation and scientific benefits of ubiquity of wealth associated with; see also superstars see also global digital network; second machine age Doerr, John Donner, Jan Hein Dorn, David Double, telepresence provided by Double Robotics Drive (Pink) driving: digitization of see also Google driverless car Dropbox Dyer, Jeffrey Dyson, Freeman Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Eastman, George Eastman Kodak economic growth: acceleration of debates concerning effects of employment linked to government role in limitations on recombinant innovation and and tax rates see also gross domestic product (GDP); productivity economic rents economics, common ground in Economics: An Introductory Analysis (Samuelson) Economist Edison, Thomas education college feedback in inequality and teacher salaries and accountability in technology in Einstein, Albert Eisenhower, Dwight electrical power Electronics El-Ouazzane, Remi e-mail empires employment: benefits of of college graduates and entrepreneurship globalization and historical data on productivity decoupled from searching for technological implications for see also labor Encyclopaedia Britannica energy: demand elasticity for falling prices in Engadget engineering entrepreneurship Europe, productivity improvement in European Union exponential growth eyes: digital see also vision, computer-aided Facebook factor price equalization Fairlie, Robert FDA fiber-optic cable Field, Alexander Final Jeopardy!


pages: 302 words: 90,215

Experience on Demand: What Virtual Reality Is, How It Works, and What It Can Do by Jeremy Bailenson

Apple II, augmented reality, computer vision, deliberate practice, experimental subject, game design, Google Glasses, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, Jaron Lanier, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nuclear winter, Oculus Rift, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, telepresence, too big to fail

Physical contact is a major part of how he communicates, and his job depends on successfully delivering a message of trustworthiness and competence. Business executives like Bagai will take a lot of convincing before they abandon face-to-face meetings for virtual reality telepresence. He may be able to convey his impressive medical knowledge, keen ability to present scientific data, and forward-thinking vision over a monitor, but charisma and trustworthiness are still best shared in person, over a dinner or drink. If virtual travel and telepresence is going to replace physical travel, it will have to devise a system that allows a virtual version of Shaun Bagai to be just as warm and charismatic as his physical self. To do that the people who are creating avatars and virtual worlds, and are designing the systems that will allow users to interact with each other, will need to understand and to some degree replicate in virtual bodies the complex choreography of body language, eye movement, facial expressions, hand gestures, and physical touch that occur—often unconsciously—in real life social interactions.

See also VR storytelling emotional, 213 teaching and, 238 “storyworlding,” 225 Stott, Nicole, 110 STRIVR, 18, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 101, 236 Stromberg, Robert, 218–19, 223 “There,” 219 Super Outbreak, 121–22 Supreme Court, 65, 259 “Surgeon Simulator,” 63 surgeries, 153 Sutherland, Ivan, 226 “The Ultimate Display,” 245 “synchrony score,” 184 Syrian crisis, 76–77 Taco Bell, 9 tai chi, 26–27 teachers, VR education and, 242–44 teaching, storytelling and, 238 technology, filmmaking and, 215–16 teleconferencing, 179, 183, 198–99 “Teleport” method, 256–57 telepresence, 176–80 television, 206 children’s programming, 228–32 3D television, 64–65, 212 terrorism in Israel, 144 terrorist attacks of 9/11, 136–44, 147 therapy. See VR therapy; specific kinds of therapy 3D IMAX, 226 3D models, 196 3D television, 64–65, 212 360 video, 8–9, 31–32, 34, 147, 211, 221, 234 Tilt Brush, 70–71 tracking, 21–22 tracking technology, 8, 26, 29, 56, 61–62, 68, 165–66, 183–84, 188, 193, 196–97, 241 training.


pages: 371 words: 93,570

Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans

"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

And it’s what girls share when they discover Purple Moon adventures. Which is why Purple Moon is just for girls. PURPLE MOON In 1992, Brenda got a job at Interval Research, a Palo Alto think tank funded by Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen. Interval was all R and very little D: researchers wandered into the weeds studying technologies that were still far from being commonplace, like telepresence and interactive video. Brenda had just come in from the weeds herself. She’d founded a virtual reality company, Telepresence Research, that had folded within a year. She often calls herself a member of the “Crash Test Dummy Club,” those breakneck dreamers who try to make things before they’re economically feasible. It’s an “uncomfortable but fine, wild ride,” she says. Painful as the consequences may be for them, crash test dummies always see what’s coming up ahead.

., 150 Smithsonian Institution, 62 Snyder, Elizabeth “Betty,” see Holberton, Elizabeth “Betty” social media, 97, 137, 139–41, 148, 149, 151, 152, 201, 207, 210, 241, 242 Facebook, 139, 141, 148, 149, 151, 210 Reddit, 149 Twitter, 149, 150, 151 Social Services Referral Directory, 105–7, 215 Sodoeka, Yoshi, 193 software, 56, 74, 88, 94, 132, 163 crisis in, 76–78 distinction between hardware and, 33 women and, 51–52 see also programming software engineering, use of term, 77–78, 93 Somerville, Mary, 16, 21 Space Task Force, 24 spanning-tree protocol, 126–28 Speiser, Jane, 99–100 Stahl, Mary, 114, 118, 120, 122 Stanford University, 110, 153, 154 Augmentation Research Center at, 111–12, 116 Starrs, Josephine, 237 Stevenson, Adlai, 60 stock market crash, 198–200, 201 Stone, Allucquére Rosanne, 143 subroutines, 37 Suck.com, 194, 201–2 Sun Link Service, 162 Sun Microsystems, 161, 162, 210 Sutton, Jo, 239 Switchboards, 97–98, 100, 101, 105 Symbolics, 161, 162 Symbolics Document Examiner, 162 system administrators (sysops), 130, 131 Talmud, 154 Tandy, 225 Tannenbaum, Rob, 137 telephone companies, 24 Telepresence Research, 227 Teletype machines, 101, 105, 106 Telluride InfoZone, 131 telnet, 151–52 Terminal, 151–52 textile looms, 11–13, 20 Tierney, Gertrude, 73 Time, 233 Tomb Raider, 236 TransAmerica Leasing Corporation, 98, 99 trans experience, 143–44 Embraceable Ewe and, 142, 144 Turkle, Sherry, 223, 229 Twitter, 149, 150, 151 United States Naval Observatory, 9–10 United Way, 106 UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer), 57–63, 65, 66, 67, 73 C-10 code for, 58–59 University of California, Berkeley, 97, 110 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 110 University of Michigan, 157 University of Pennsylvania, 69–70 Moore School of Electrical Engineering, 37–42, 47, 48, 50, 54–56 University of Southampton, 157–59, 160 Web Science Institute, 171, 173 Unix, 135–36, 152 URLs, 215 Utopian Entrepreneur (Laurel), 235 Van Meter, Jonathan, 188, 189 Viacom, 186, 192 VIBE, 188 video games, see computer games VIKI, 166, 170 Village Voice, 136, 183, 184 Virtual Community, The: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Rheingold), 148–49 virtual reality, 227–28 VNS Matrix, 237–40, 242 Volkart, Yvonne, 240 von Neumann, John, 36 Walcott, James, 137 Walker, Janet, 162 Wall Street Journal, 220, 221 Watson, Patty Jo, 91–92 Watson, Richard, 88 Watson, Thomas, Jr., 60 Web: use of word, 153 see also World Wide Web Web sites and pages, 131, 135, 153, 154, 184, 186 life spans of, 170 for women, see women’s Web see also World Wide Web WELL, The, 132–35, 140, 149, 153, 179–80, 205–6, 209 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 16 Wescoff, Marlyn, 39, 43, 48, 49 Westheimer, Ellen, 114 WHOIS, 119–20 Whole Earth Catalog, 100, 132 Whole Earth Review, 132, 183 Wilcox, Patricia (Pat Crowther), 84–94, 110 William the Conqueror, 155 Wired, 138, 194, 206 women, 4–5 computers as viewed by, 229 men posing as, 143–44, 179 and software vs. hardware, 51–52 women, working, 23–24 black, 24 wage discrimination and, 23, 77, 78 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women in Telecommunications (WIT), 141–42, 144, 205 Women’s Internet History Project, 143 Women’space, 239 women’s Web, 131, 216, 221, 223, 233 advertising and, 214–16, 218, 219, 221 iVillage, 214, 216–21 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Woods, Don, 90 Word, 188–95, 201–3, 205, 214, 215 Works Progress Administration, 25 World War I, 24 World War II, 24, 25, 28–29, 31, 32, 34–37, 40, 45, 47, 50, 51, 53–55 atomic bomb in, 36 Pearl Harbor attack, 27–29, 32 World Wide Web, 102, 131, 152, 154, 159, 165, 168–72, 177, 203, 204, 222 browsers for, see browsers commercialization of, 204–5, 217, 241; see also advertising conferences on, 170, 173 early true believers and, 187–88, 196, 197, 202 hypertext and, 168–70, 201 links on, 168–70, 201 Microcosm viewer for, 172–73 number of women on, 214 search engines for, 115, 154 Semantic Web and, 174 see also Internet; Web sites and pages Xerox, 161 Xerox PARC, 162–66, 210 Y2K, 71, 194 Yankelovich, Nicole, 162 Zapata Corporation, 194, 201 Zeroes + Ones (Plant), 238 About the Author CLAIRE L.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

One of the fastest-growing types of elder-care bots are telepresence robots—machines that allow people to “move virtually through a distant building by remotely controlling a wheeled robot equipped with a camera, microphone, loudspeaker and screen displaying live video” of the person’s face controlling the bot over the Internet. Robots such as the MantaroBot and the EU’s GiraffPlus allow children to “beam in” from thousands of miles away and remotely drive a wheeled bot with an iPad-type face in order to interact with aging parents. Relatives can check on their elderly loved ones, eat meals with them via Skype-like video conversations, and even ensure that they have awoken and not fallen in their own homes. It’s not just worried adults who are using telepresence bots to check in on their parents; increasingly, they are becoming mainstays in hospitals as well. iRobot’s RP-VITA (Remote Presence Virtual + Independent Telemedicine Assistant) is allowing doctors, particularly specialists, to appear at their patients’ bedsides and diagnose them without having to be physically in the same room.

With the push of a button on an iPad, a doctor across town or around the world can direct the robot to the patient’s bedside, zoom in on his pupils, and even have a nurse place a stethoscope on his chest to remotely hear his heartbeat. Whether robots have better bedside manner is yet to be determined. Businesses too are starting to realize the value of having telepresence robots in the office, allowing employees to abstract their physical presence through remotely controlled devices. Companies such as Suitable Technologies and Double Robotics have models that cost around $3,000 and allow employees to work from home while their robotic alter egos wander the hallways at the office, walk up to colleagues at their desks, or catch up on all the latest gossip in the lunchroom. Even the famed NSA leaker Edward Snowden used a telepresence bot to give a presentation to an audience of thousands at TED 2014 in Vancouver, all without the bother of leaving the safety of his undisclosed location in Russia.

Researchers described security in these devices as “merely an afterthought.” But as robots become more prevalent in society, moving about our world, they will join the billions of other objects connected to the IoT. As we saw previously, tens of thousands of videoconferencing systems used at law firms, pharmaceutical companies, and medical centers are deeply insecure and have been successfully hacked, even inside the Goldman Sachs boardroom. Why would telepresence bots—moving videoconference devices—be any different? These robots could follow you around, listening in, or sit there silently during meetings observing everything, excellent tools for industrial espionage. When your factory closes and the lights go out, hackers halfway around the world could commandeer the bots to case the joint. Though you might have a security guard to keep criminals out, a robotic one may already be in the building.


pages: 625 words: 167,097

Kiln People by David Brin

Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, index card, jitney, life extension, pattern recognition, phenotype, price anchoring, prisoner's dilemma, Schrödinger's Cat, telepresence, Vernor Vinge, your tax dollars at work

How much better if you could just transmit your standing wave over a photonic cable, imprint a blank that's already on the scene, look around a bit, then zip the altered wave right back again!" "It sounds like teleportation. You could go anywhere -- even the Moon -- almost instantly ... assuming you shipped some blanks there in advance. But is this really needed? We already have robotic telepresence over the Net -- " Queen Irene laughs. "Telepresence! Using goggles to peer through a faraway set of tin-eyes? Manipulating a clanking machine to walk around for you? Even with full retinal and tactile feedback, that hardly qualifies as hands-on. And speed-of-light delays are frightful." This "queen" and her sarcasm are starting to bug me. "Is that it? Has Universal Kilns achieved long-range imprinting? The airlines will hate it.

Only a dozen look active, with contents ready to bake and release. Yup, I thought, turning to resume my climb. Damn that distraction, wasting time by staring at the maestra! I'm running late. "Who does want to die?" asked the platinum copy of Aeneas Kaolin. "We all fight to live, at all costs." "Not all costs." "Okay. But what's your point? That I seal myself away as an organic hermit, interacting with the world by telepresence and ditto? Are you comparing a fastidious lifestyle -- which hurts no one -- to Yosil's willingness to sacrifice millions for some mystical transcendence?" I shook my head. "No comparison. You're more pragmatic and subtle. Though your plans suffered recent setbacks, they aren't dashed. If your former allies proved erratic, you'll replace them with others, less brilliant but more easily controlled."

Across a hilly field, Pal and realAlbert maneuvered their gold and red kite, playing the exquisite toy against rolling white clouds. A pretty distraction. My real concern? The little spy-golem we sent climbing the mansion wall was late checking in! This could all turn into a big bluff. "Why are there so few of you?" I asked our host. "There used to be dozens of these platinums running around. But now, UK employees see you mostly by telepresence, if at all. What happened to hands-on management?" ditKaolin's tremor permeated to his voice, stammering angrily. "Enough! I've been forbearing with you t-two ... but this impudent g-grilling has gone too -- " He sputtered to a halt as beams of light shot up from a nearby table. Rays swirled, resolving into the figure of an elegant gray-haired man in his hale seventies, wearing a loose white robe.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

In other words, wealthy nations like the United States, France, Germany, and the UK have witnessed a large drop in their share of world income. The combination of low wages and information technologies that radically lowered the cost of moving ideas has meant that places like China and India have significantly gained in the share of world income while rich nations are now back to 1914 levels, igniting anti-globalization feelings in some quarters. Baldwin predicts a third wave of globalization will come when telepresence and telerobotics (like HoloLens)—really good substitutes for people crossing borders to provide services—become affordable. As this book was going to press, Nobel economist Angus Deaton and his wife, Anne Case, also a distinguished economist at Princeton, published a paper that found whites in the U.S. who have less than a college degree, experience cumulative disadvantages over the course of their lives that can negatively impact their mortality, health, and economic well-being.

See also specific products Tait, Richard, 7, 29 talent development, 117–18 TCI company, 28 teachers, 104, 106, 198, 226 teams and team building, 1, 39, 56, 107, 117–18 technology boom of 1990s, 24 democratizing and personalizing, 69 diffusion of, 216–17, 219 disruption and, 12 empathy and, 42–43 future of, 140–44 human performance augmented by, 142–43, 201 intensity of use, 217, 219, 221, 224–26 soul and, 68–69 transformation and, 11–12 TED talks, 180 telecommunications, 225 teleconferencing, shared-screen, 142 telegraph, 186 telepresence, 236 telerobotics, 236 tensor-processing unit (TPU), 161 Teper, Jeff, 29 terrorism, 172, 177–79 TextIt, 216 theoretical physicists, 162–64 think weeks, 64 32-bit operating systems, 29 Thiruvengadam, Arun, 187 Thompson, John, 14–15 3D printing, 228 three C s, 122–23, 141 Three Laws of Robotics, 202 ThyssenKrupp, 59–60 Tiger Server project, 30 time management model, 138 Tirupati, India, 19 topological quantum computing (TQC), 166 Toyota, 127 Tractica, 198 trade, 229–31, 236 training, 92, 227 transfer learning, 151, 153, 155 transformation, 11–12, 57, 67, 90 cloud and, 42, 55–56, 71 cultural (see culture, transforming) Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 230–31 transparency, 135, 174–75, 191–92, 202, 204–6 Trump, Donald, 212, 230 trust, 56, 88, 107, 135, 169–94, 205, 236 Turing, Alan, 26 Turner, Kevin, 3 TV white space, 99, 225 Twilight Zone, The (TV show), 159 Twitter, 174 2001 (film), 201 two-in-one computers, 129 two-sided markets, 50 Uber, 44, 126, 153 uncertainty, 38, 111, 157 United Kingdom, 215, 236 United Nations, 44 U.S.


pages: 361 words: 83,886

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt

carbon-based life, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

Another way to compensate for the limitations of computer technology is to create robots that are not totally independent, but hybrids between man and machine, to create something similar to the low-tech Iron Man No. 28, rather than the free-flying Mighty Atom. Led by Susumu Tachi, chief of robotics at the government's Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (MEL), a sophisticated form of remote control known variously as "teleoperation," "telepresence," and (in Japan) "tele-existence" has become the core technology behind all three of the project robots. Tele-existence involves an autonomous robot operating under its own power, capable of performing specialized tasks (such as simple navigating inside the reactor or tightening bolts), and a decision-making human operator who can intervene for complicated tasks while "driving" and operating the robot with joy sticks from a remote location.

See also artificial intelligence Sony, 28 Sorayama, Hajime, 24 static stability, 230 subcontractors, 20,100,123; changes in relationships, 165-66 suicides, 160, 227 Suzumo Machinery Industries, 170-72 Sweden, 16,149,153 synalysis, 204 Tachi, Susumu, 43, 215, 216 Takahashi, Ryosuke, 88 Takara, 98,100-101,103 Takeda, Omi, 59-60, 63 Tamaya, Shobe-e, 62-64 Tanaka, Hisashige: 68-72; inventions of, 69-71; Satow's description of, 68; significance of, 72 Tanku Tankuro, 73, 74 Tatsukawa, Shoji, 60-62, 66, 71 tea-carrying doll: construction of, 60; description of, 55-57; price of, 62, 64; recreation of, 61-62; significance of, 66 technology: effect of media on, 23; effect of World War II on attitudes toward, 76-78; religion and, 202; traditional Japan's fear of, 65; traditional Japan's level of, 57, 66-67 technopolis, 123, 227 "technostress", 163 telechirs, 49 tele-existence, 215 teleoperation, 49, 215 telepresence, 215 Tezuka, Osamu, 75-79; Principles of Robot Law, 77 Thatcher, Margaret, 134,184 Three Laws of Robotics, 76-77, 157. See also Asimov, Isaac time system, early Japanese, 58-59 tin toy robots, 91-95; improvements in quality, 93-95; poor quality of, 92 Tokugawa, 58, 61, 67 Tokyo Electric Power Company, 20, 116, 185 Tokyo Technical Center, 124 Tomino, Yoshiyuki, 43, 86-89 Tomy, 27, 93-94,103-6,108 Toriyama, Akira, 81 Toshiba, 72, 151, 154, 222-23, 226, 228-29 Toyota, 172, 226 toy robots: first generation, 91-95; problems manufacturing, 93, 98-103; second generation, 55-103; third generation, 103-8 trade friction: industrial robot, 14,145; toy robot, 105 transformation, 84-85, 87, 96-98 Transformers, 98,101,108 "Treatise on Pneumatics," 55-56 Tsuda, Tsukezaiemon, 63 Tsukuba, 22, 224, 227 Twenty-first century, 13, 23,174,191, 204 Umetani, Yoji, 219-20, 227 "Uncanny Valley", Masahiro Mori's theory of, 208-9 Unimate, 113, 116-17,128-30,161; description of first model, 34 Unimation Inc., 34,111-13, 126-28, 130 unions, 151-52,155-56,158-60,167; All Japan Federation of Electric Machine Workers Union, 156; All Nissan Motor Workers Union, 155; Federation of Japan Automobile Workers' Unions, 158 United States President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, 169 United States Robots, 127 universities, research environment, 218-22 "unmanned factories", 45-46,159,188 Unno, Juza, 75 Urata, Kenji, 164 US. robot manufacturers' dependence on Japan, 127-28,145 VAL, 161 Vaucanson, Jacques de, 56, 65 Versatran, 111-12,114 vision, 36, 47-48, 51,119,129,149,177, 216, 222 Wabot, 203, 206.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Or, via your contact lens, you can see the images of all your loved ones as if they were really there, even though they are thousands of miles away. (Some commentators have remarked that the Internet was originally conceived as a “male” device by the Pentagon, that is, it was concerned with dominating an enemy in wartime. But now the Internet is mainly “female,” in that it’s about reaching out and touching someone.) Teleconferencing will be replaced by telepresence—the complete 3‑D images and sounds of a person will appear in your glasses or contact lens. At a meeting, for example, everyone will sit around a table, except some of the participants will appear only in your lens. Without your lens, you would see that some of the chairs around the table are empty. With your lens, you will see the image of everyone sitting in their chairs as if they were there.

For example, if you are an actor, musician, or performer who has to memorize large amounts of material, in the future you will see all the lines or music in your lens. You won’t need teleprompters, cue cards, sheet music, or notes to remind you. You will not need to memorize anything anymore. Other examples include: • If you are a student and missed a lecture, you will be able to download lectures given by virtual professors on any subject and watch them. Via telepresence, an image of a real professor could appear in front of you and answer any questions you may have. You will also be able to see demonstrations of experiments, videos, etc., via your lens. • If you are a soldier in the field, your goggles or headset may give you all the latest information, maps, enemy locations, direction of enemy fire, instructions from superiors, etc. In a firefight with the enemy, when bullets are whizzing by from all directions, you will be able to see through obstacles and hills and locate the enemy, since drones flying overhead can identify their positions

Schwabl, Mike Schwartz, Peter Schwarzenegger, Arnold Second Life (Website) Self-­assembly Self-­awareness Self-replicating robots, 2.­1, 8.­1, 8.­2 Sen, Ayusman SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) Shakespeare, William Shape-­shifting technology Shaw, George Bernard Shen, Weimin Shopping in 2100, 9.­1, 9.­2 Shostak, Seth Silicon chips, limitations of, 1.­1, 1.­2, 4.­1 Silva, Alcino Simon, Herbert Simon, Julian Simonyi, Charles Sinclair, David, 3.­1, 3.­2, 3.­3 Singapore Singularity Sirtuins SixthSense project 6th Day, The (movie) Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (Condorcet) Slingatron Smalley, Richard, 4.­1, 4.­2, 4.­3 Smart dust Smith, Adam Smith, Gerald Social robotics Solar power Solar sail propulsion system Sonograms Sonoluminescence Space elevator SpaceShip spacecraft, 6.­1, 6.­2, 6.­3 Space solar power (SSP) Space travel, itr.­1, 6.­1 asteroid landing big bang research booster-­rocket technologies cost of Europa exploration far future (2070) genetic engineering of humans for human-­robot merger and life in space, search for, 6.­1, 8.­1 Mars landing/­colonization Martian moon landing midcentury (2030) moon landing/colonization, 6.­1, 6.­2 nanotechnology and, 6.­1, 6.­2 near future (present to 2030) planets outside the solar system, search for private initiatives robotics and, 2.­1, 6.­1, 6.­2, 6.­3, 6.­4 space elevator tourism water in space, search for, 6.­1, 6.­2 weightlessness problem See also Starships Spinal cord injury treatments Sports and games, 8.­1, 9.­1 STAIR (Stanford artificial intelligence robot), 2.­1, 2.­2 Starships antimatter rocket propulsion system nanoships nuclear rocket propulsion system ramjet fusion propulsion system solar sail propulsion system Star Trek series, itr.­1, 1.­1, 1.­2, 1.­3, 1.­4, 1.­5, 2.­1, 2.­2, 3.­1, 4.­1, 8.­1, 8.­2 Star Wars saga, 1.­1, 1.­2, 1.­3, 1.­4, 2.­1, 8.­1 Steam power Steffens, John Stem cell technology Stewart, Potter Stock, Greg, 2.­1, 3.­1, 3.­2 Stormer, Horst Stratton, Mike Sullivan, Mark Superconductors telekinesis and Surgery Surrogates Surrogates (movie), 1.­1, 2.­1, 2.­2 Sussman, Gerald Swarming behavior, 6.­1, 6.­2 Tachi, Susumu Taleyarkhan, Rusi Taylor, Doris, 3.­1, 3.­2 Taylor, Theodore Technologies as utilities Technology, four stages of Telekinesis Telepresence Telomeres of a cell Terminator movies, 1.­1, 2.­1, 2.­2, 4.­1 Terraforming of Mars Terrestrial Planet Finder Terrorism, 3.­1, 8.­1 Tesla Roadster Test tube babies Things to Come (movie) 3-­D technology Three Mile Island nuclear accident Thurow, Lester, 7.­1, 7.­2, 7.­3, 7.­4 Tidman, Derek Time Machine, The (Wells) Tissue engineering, 3.­1, 3.­2 Toffler, Alvin and Heidi Total Recall (movie) Tour, James Tourism industry Tourism in space Trains, maglev Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen (movie) Transistors, 1.­1, 4.­1 Tsien, Joseph Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Tundra, melting of Turing, Alan Twister (movie) 2001 (movie) Type 0-IV civilizations.


pages: 311 words: 94,732

The Rapture of the Nerds by Cory Doctorow, Charles Stross

3D printing, Ayatollah Khomeini, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, Drosophila, epigenetics, Extropian, gravity well, greed is good, haute couture, hive mind, margin call, negative equity, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, union organizing

At least this tramp floater with its cargo of Christmas trees and chameleon paint is going to give Huw and his fellow passengers a shortcut around the Mediterranean, even if the common room smells of stale marijuana smoke and the other passengers are all dubious cheapskate hitchers and netburn cases who want to ship their meatbodies around instead of doing the decent (and sanitary) thing and using telepresence instead. Huw isn’t dubious; he’s just on jury service, which requires your physical in-the-flesh presence to prevent identity spoofing by imported weakly godlike AIs and suchlike. But judging from the way the other passengers are avoiding him, he looks dubious: it’s probably the biohazard burka and the many layers of anti-nanophage underwear he’s trussed up in inside it. There has got to be a better way of fighting runaway technology, he tells himself on the second morning as he prepares to go get some breakfast.

“This meatsuit allows Us to bring the Word to Our scattered temples without having to transport Our physical person through the uncertain world. One day, all of us will be liberated by these meatsuits, free to explore our flesh in many bodies all at once.” “You’re uploaded?” Huw says, taking his hand away quickly and shuffling back on his knees. The Bishop snorts a laugh with its rightmost face. “No, child, no. Merely telepresent. Uploading is the mortification of the flesh—this is its celebration.” “Your Grace,” Bonnie says, peering up at it through her fringe with her eyes seductively wide. “It has been an honor and privilege to serve you in my time here in Glory City. I’ve found my counseling duties to be very rewarding—the gender-reassignees here face unique challenges, and it’s wonderful to be able to help them.”


Moon Rush: The New Space Race by Leonard David

agricultural Revolution, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, multiplanetary species, out of africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics

These tests represented the first fully interactive, remote operation of a planetary rover by astronauts in space. Low-latency telerobotics will enhance and extend human reach, enabling astronauts to be present on planetary surfaces without enduring the hardships of actually surviving on those planets. The lessons learned from these lunar operations will feed forward to future low-latency telepresence missions on Mars. It’s a logical flow: The road to Mars is paved with local trial-and-error training through cislunar space and on the Moon. * * * THE U.S.-LED GATEWAY is not the only back-to-the-Moon initiative under way today. There has been mounting interest in Europe to prioritize the Moon as humanity’s next deep-space destination. The Moon, European space planners say, can be a springboard to push human exploration out into the solar system, with Mars as the big distant goal on the horizon.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Automated voice software is supplanting humans. India is thus being forced to upgrade. Its next generation of offshore jobs will be devoted to far more complex tasks, such as providing medical diagnoses, writing legal briefs, remotely supervising factories and plants, and doing consumer data analysis. In fact, it is already happening. The speed with which virtual presence and holographic telepresence are improving is opening up whole areas. So too are rapid leaps in language-translation software (India should beware: China’s relative lack of English will no longer be such a disadvantage). In the West we spend half our time fretting about low-skilled immigrants. We should be worrying at least as much about high-skilled offshoring. Some types of medical surgeon and architect will be as vulnerable to remote intelligence as plant engineers or call-centre operators.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Behavioural: Aviation growth will continue, albeit at an increasingly slower rate, and a general “greening” of attitudes and behaviour will gradually smooth out growth rates in the latter half of the projection. Improvements in other transport modes will see people substituting air with rail travel, for example, when travelling from the UK to continental Europe. Businesses will replace physical travel with virtual meetings due to improved telecommunication. High speed internet will see video-conferencing and tele-presence systems commonplace in offices. The MI foresees a cultural-change in organisations towards travel through de-incentivising foreign travel and a stronger sense of corporate social responsibility. Constraining capacity: The BAU Scenario was based on DfT forecasts that included additional capacity at Stansted Airport and a third runway at Heathrow Airport. In the MI Scenario, we assume that the policy that sanctioned these additional runways would be reversed (as subsequently occurred under the 2010 Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government with respect to the third runway at Heathrow airport).


pages: 301 words: 74,571

Idoru by William Gibson

experimental subject, Kowloon Walled City, means of production, pattern recognition, place-making, telepresence

Her costume raises the question: does it merely reflect the theme of this club, or does it represent some deeper response to trauma of earthquake and subsequent reconstruction?" 9 2.Lo Rez Skyline They met in a jungle clearing. Kelsey had done the vegetation: big bright Rousseau leaves, car-won orchids flecked with her idea of tropical colors (which reminded Chia of that mall chain that sold "organic" cosmetic products in shades utterly unknown to nature). Zona, the only one telepresent who'd ever seen anything like a real jungle, had done the audio, providing birdcalis, invisible but realistically dopplering bugs, and the odd vegetational rustle artfully suggesting not snakes but some shy furry thing, soft-pawed and curious. The light, such as there was, filtered down through high, green canopies, entirely too Disneyesque for Chia-though there was no real need for "light" in a place that consisted of nothing else.


pages: 237 words: 74,109

Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener

autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Despite the robust amenities and club culture, the office was rarely full. Meetings were held over videoconferencing software, and people dialed in from wherever they happened to be: public transportation, pool loungers, unmade beds, living rooms with partners napping in the background. An engineer attended his daily stand-up meeting from an indoor climbing wall, gripping a plastic rock and wearing a harness. A telepresence robot rolled around the first-floor event space, lanky and conspicuous, a bridge between worlds. People came and went, operating on individualized schedules. I never knew whom I would run into at HQ, or whether I would be working alone. On every floor were mounted television screens displaying heat maps, and lists of employee avatars indicating who was in the building and where. The heat maps felt like a violation—I didn’t know how to opt out.


pages: 341 words: 84,752

All Tomorrow's Parties by William Gibson

Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, telepresence

It is a moment in which everything and nothing will change. I am seeking an outcome in which I will retain viability. I am seeking an outcome in which Harwood Levine will not have become four meaningless syllables. If the world is to be reborn, I wish to be reborn in it, as something akin to what I am today." Thinking of the possible number and variety of crosshairs that must be trained on him now, hidden telepresent weapons platforms. He is fairly certain, nonetheless, that he could kill Harwood, if the moment required, though he also knows that he would almost certainly predecease him, if only by some fraction of a second. "I think you have become more complicated, since we last met." "Complex," Harwood says, and smiles. 175 I 176 42.RED GHOSTS OF EUROPEAN TIME FONTAINE makes himself a cup of instant miso on the hotplate.


pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid

business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, George Santayana, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

Page 4 The answer often turns out to be that the new alternatives have underestimated their targets. Paradoxically, tunnel design often takes aim at the surface of life. There it undoubtedly scores lots of worthwhile hits. But such successes can make designers blind to the difficulty of more serious challengesprimarily, to the resourcefulness that helps embed certain ways of doing things deep in our lives. Generations of confident videophones, conferencing tools, and technologies for tele-presence are still far from capturing the essence of a firm handshake or a straight look in the eye. To say this is not to plead for a return to the buggy cart, the steam engine, or the vinyl record. It is to plead for attentionattention to stubbornness, to what will not budge, to the things that people fight for. So it's to plead for design that takes into account resources that people care about.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

Back in Mountain View, I had spied the SU campus from the trail near Google’s headquarters. Tuition for the intensive ten-week summer program there was far beyond my means—$30,000. But SU also staged two-day traveling seminars called Singularity Summits. The next summit was to be held in Amsterdam. The promotional materials promised fantastical revelations to all who attended. Sessions on the “revolution in robotics and artificial intelligence” would cover the latest in drones, “telepresence,” and something called “deep learning.” Other speakers would explore the possibilities of bodily implants, exoskeletons, 3-D-printed organs, and nanomedicine. There would be sessions on “organizing society for accelerating change,” which was to tack government and the relationship of technology to “unemployment and inequality.” Finally, for those looking to cash in on this sneak peek at the future, the summit would feature sessions on startups and entrepreneurship in the era of “exponential technology”—a shorthand phrase describing, per Kurzweil’s theories, how the pace of invention has allegedly accelerated through history, bringing us to this moment on the cusp of the Singularity.


pages: 337 words: 93,245

Diaspora by Greg Egan

conceptual framework, cosmic abundance, cosmic microwave background, Fermat's Last Theorem, gravity well, Jacquard loom, stem cell, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing machine

Moving about in public 5-scapes still made Orlando intensely self-conscious, less out of any fear of falling flat on his face than from a strong sense that he could take no credit for the fact that he didn't. His 5-body came equipped with numerous invaluable reflexes, as any real macrospherean body almost certainly would, but relying on these alien instincts made him feel like he was operating a telepresence robot programmed with so many autonomous responses that any instructions he gave it would be superfluous. He glanced down at the bottom of the window. The most trivial details in a 5-scape could still be hypnotic; the tesseract of the window met the tesseract of the floor along, not a line, but a roughly cubical volume. That he could see this entire volume all at once almost made sense when he thought of it as the bottom hyperface of the transparent window, but when he realized that every point was shared by the front hyperface of the opaque floor, any lingering delusions of normality evaporated.


pages: 294 words: 96,661

The Fourth Age: Smart Robots, Conscious Computers, and the Future of Humanity by Byron Reese

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cognitive bias, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, estate planning, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, full employment, Hans Rosling, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mary Lou Jepsen, Moravec's paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Radio waves are being used in Europe to effectively treat high blood pressure. Artificial limbs have been developed that are controlled by the brain. We will soon 3-D print new veins and arteries, and within a decade, replacement organs, such as the liver. Rehab robotic limbs allow someone to gradually regain the use of her or her arms and legs by gradually dialing down how much assistance they provide. Telepresence robots that allow doctors to virtually diagnose someone anywhere in the world are already a thing. Computer-controlled lasers are doing surgeries no human hand could perform. A company in the Netherlands has developed a pill that can travel to a certain part of the body to deliver its medicinal payload. The list of breakthroughs is unending. The days of disease are almost certainly numbered.


pages: 372 words: 94,153

More From Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources – and What Happens Next by Andrew McAfee

back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, humanitarian revolution, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Landlord’s Game, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, World Values Survey

“Service industry” is a category so broad as to be almost meaningless: it includes everything from investment banking to software programming to dry cleaning to dog walking. Most service industries do have two important things in common: many of their jobs have been harder to automate (no dog-walking robot is commercially available yet, as far as I know), and they rely heavily on in-person interactions. You can’t get your dry cleaning done via telepresence, and investment bankers like being around other investment bankers. The in-person nature of service jobs matters for concentration. Because cities are where the people are, they’re also where the service jobs are. Because people are aware of where the jobs are, they move to cities. Responsive governments contribute to urbanization by building public transportation and other infrastructure, helping to clear a path for dense housing, and fighting crime and promoting public safety.


pages: 356 words: 102,224

Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space by Carl Sagan

Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, cosmological principle, dark matter, Dava Sobel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, germ theory of disease, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Kuiper Belt, linked data, low earth orbit, nuclear winter, planetary scale, profit motive, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, telepresence

And the mission design depends on such matters as the size of the crew; the extent to which you take mitigating steps against solar and cosmic radiation hazards, or zero gravity; and what other risks you are willing to accept with the lives of the men and women on board. If every crew member has one essential specialty, what happens if one of them falls ill? The larger the crew, the more reliable the backups. You would almost certainly not send a full-time oral surgeon, but what happens if you need root canal work and you're a hundred million miles from the nearest dentist? Or could it be done by an endodontist on Earth, using telepresence? Wernher von Braun was the Nazi-American engineer who, more than anyone else, actually took us into space. His 1952 book Das Marsprojekt envisioned a first mission with 10 interplanetary spacecraft, 70 crew members, and 3 "landing boats." Redundancy was uppermost in his mind. The logistical requirements, he wrote, "are no greater than those for a minor military operation extending over a limited theater of war."


Scratch Monkey by Stross, Charles

carbon-based life, defense in depth, fault tolerance, gravity well, Kuiper Belt, packet switching, phenotype, telepresence

As soon as we can isolate a control interface to plug the fat pipe into --" "Understood." But we're eight light-seconds from Pascal. And how long will it take us to figure out an interface protocol? There's no rule to say that the control space or architecture of an Ultrabright expansion processor will resemble anything we know about. I hop channels, looking for more trouble. I can't feel my body; I'm a ghost in the telepresence wires, unable to localise myself. After a few false tries I find something interesting: Mik. Mikhail scans a full circle around his sensor turret. Ahead of him the passage he's in diverges into three prongs, two of them descending towards the core of the alien ship. Veins and ropes of blue light flutter just under the skin, which pulses gently in time with it. As if he's in a tunnel under a reservoir of luminance, and a thin puncture in the wall would drown him in flashbulb brightness.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

In China, Foxconn, the Chinese electronics manufacturer that builds Apple’s iPhone, made news in 2013 when the skyrocketing demand for cell phones led to labor disputes, reports of harsh working conditions, even riots and suicides. In the aftermath of these reports, Foxconn’s president, Terry Gou, said he intended to replace one million workers with robots over the next three years.54 Besides replacing our blue-collar workforce, over the next three to five years, robots will invade a much wider assortment of fields. “Already,” says Dan Barry, “we’re seeing telepresence robots transport our eyes, ears, arms, and legs to conferences and meetings. Autonomous cars, which are, after all, just robots, will [start to] chauffeur people around and deliver goods and services. Over the next decade, robots will also move into health care, replacing doctors for routine surgeries and supplementing nurses for eldercare. If I were an exponential entrepreneur looking to create tremendous value, I’d look for those jobs that are least enjoyable for humans to do. . . .


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Retail and Shopping 12 January 2015 Dear Stevo It all sounded so promising. No need to leave home. Just hop online any time you like and shop until you find true happiness. Search for what you want from around the world in seconds; try on anything you want (even things you can’t afford) in any one of an infinite number of virtual 3-D changing rooms. Ask how things are made, where they are from, and even take a telepresence tour of the factory if you want. You can smell and touch things using scent downloads and haptic gloves, and payment is instantaneous. Fantastic. Of course, none of this works. The web was browned out again this morning, so logging on took over an hour. The changing rooms were all full (I have no idea how this can be possible), and my Smell-A-Rama™ pod kept pumping out milk chocolate when I was trying to get a whiff of a navy cashmere jumper (size: extra medium).


pages: 463 words: 105,197

Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar

So Tuyên began to travel around the country and world looking for pockets of fellow travelers unwilling to sell their soul to the demons of data and commonly owned capital. She found her compatriots online and rallied a hundred local victories from Winnipeg to Tashkent. Her “Defend our World” (DoW) movement became a paradox: fiercely localist, tied to the soil and traditions, almost every meeting relied on automated translation and virtual reality telepresence. Too few citizens were willing to join to create a critical mass of solidarity beyond a few pockets. Yes, they won a local council seat in many small towns, and when by luck enough of their members were in or had ties to Novosibirsk they even won a mayoralty. But as they started to build outward, in each case, the liberals (rich and poor) always got wind of it and flocked in to buy up more votes than DoW could ever muster.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Here are six ways that the possession of a rapid and vast communication network will make us much luckier than our predecessors: 1. Sidelining Epidemics One of the more dire prospects for collapse is an infectious disease epidemic. Bacterial or viral epidemics precipitated the fall of the golden age of Athens, the Roman Empire, and most empires of the Native Americans. The Internet can be our key to survival, because the ability to work telepresently can inhibit microbial transmission by reducing human-to-human contact. In the face of an otherwise devastating epidemic, businesses can keep supply chains running with the maximum number of employees working from home. This won’t keep everyone off the streets, but it can reduce host density below the tipping point. If we are well prepared when an epidemic arrives, we can fluidly shift into a self-quarantined society in which microbes fail due to host sparseness.


pages: 352 words: 104,411

Rush Hour: How 500 Million Commuters Survive the Daily Journey to Work by Iain Gately

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, global pandemic, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise

*2 The march of sans-serif fonts continues: they’re reckoned to be easier to read on computer screens and therefore dominate digital publishing. *3 The first totally driverless system in London. CHAPTER XIII Virtual Journeys We are entering an era of electronically extended bodies living at the intersection points of the physical and virtual worlds, of occupation and interaction through telepresence as well as through physical presence. William Mitchell, City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn, 1994 If it is possible to take drivers out of commuter trains, might it be feasible to take commuters off them too? Instead of people travelling to work, their work would come to them: leave its place of origin for the homes of workers every morning, and return at the end of each day to be integrated into whatever grand scheme it belonged.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Facebook sustains social knowledge and networks that begin in conferences and then fade almost immediately until a couple of months later we have a hard time attaching a face to that business card still banging around in our briefcase. A “newsflash” about my cat helps keep the network node called Grant McCracken from blinking out. So, while we may not be able to be fully present across all sensory channels when we’re physically remote (hence the concept of “telepresence” or “online presence”), we do have a growing set of tools and traditions for simulating or modeling presence in the online world (Figure 5-1). For many of us, the first encounter with these sorts of presence indicators occurs in instant message or other real-time communication applications. Figure 5-1. What are the tools that enable remote or partial presence (not just indicators of availability but mindfulness, attention, and responsiveness)?


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

Hand waving means you’ve failed. At MIT’s Media Lab, the students are required to show off their new projects on Demo Day, with an audience of interested spectators and corporate sponsors. For years the unofficial credo was “demo or die”: if your project didn’t work as intended, you died (much as stand-up comedians “die” on stage when their act bombs). I’ve attended a few of these events and watched as some poor student’s telepresence robot freezes up and crashes . . . and the student’s desperate, white-faced hand waving begins. When you walk around meditating on an idea quietly to yourself, you do a lot of hand waving. It’s easy to win an argument inside your head. But when you face a real audience, as Weinberg points out, the hand waving has to end. One evening last spring he rented the movie Moneyball, watching it with his wife after his two toddlers were in bed.


pages: 571 words: 124,448

Building Habitats on the Moon: Engineering Approaches to Lunar Settlements by Haym Benaroya

3D printing, biofilm, Black Swan, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, carbon-based life, centre right, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, gravity well, inventory management, Johannes Kepler, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, performance metric, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, telepresence, telerobotics, the scientific method, urban planning, X Prize, zero-sum game

This additional source of funds may need to be supplemented in some way.Table 2.1Partial list of dual-use technologies: Communications and Information Systems; In-Situ Resources Utilization; Surface Mobility – Suits Dual-Use Technologies: Communications/Information Systems Terrestrial Applications Technology Space/lunar/Mars applications Communications High-definition TV broadcast Business video conferencing Ka band or higher Telepresence: vision and video data Interferometers: raw data transmission Entertainment industry Commercial aviation Powerplant operations Manufacturing operations Machine-human interface Control stations System management Communications Archiving Computer operating systems Data-compression information processing Large-scale data management systems Interferometers: raw data transmission information processing System management expert data Archiving/neural nets Dual-Use Technologies: In-Situ Resource Utilization Terrestrial Applications Technology Space/lunar/Mars applications Mineral analysis, yield estimation – deep mine vein location and tracking Wall and cell integrity Advanced sensors Mineral analysis, yield estimation of surface mineral analysis and resource location Deep mine robotic operations for – mining – beneficiating – removal Advanced robot mining Surface mine robotic operations for – mining – beneficiating – removal Improved automated processing: increased efficiency Automated processing technology Remote, low-maintenance processing Reliable, low-pollution personal transmission Regenerable energy economies Small, decentralized power systems for remote third world applications Alternative, regenerable energy economies – methane/O2, H2/O2 ISRU-based engines Regenerable energies High-density energy storage Environmentally safe energy production Space-based energy generation and transmission Surface power generation and beaming Dual-Use Technologies: Surface Mobility – Suits Terrestrial Applications Technology Space/lunar/Mars applications Hazardous materials cleanup Fire fighting protection Underwater equipment Homes Aircraft Lightweight superinsulated materials Surface suits: thermal protection Surface facilities: thermal protection Robotic assisted systems Orthopedic devices for mobility of impaired persons Human power enhancement Robotics Mobility enhancement devices and manipulators Robotic assisted suit systems Human power enhancement Hazardous materials cleanup Fire fighting protection Underwater equipment Dust protection, seals, abrasive resistant materials Surface suits: outer garment Hazardous materials cleanup Underwater breathing gear Lightweight hi-reliability life support Portable life support for surface suits Backup life support systems Remote health monitoring Portable biomedical sensors and health evaluation systems Surface EVA crew member health monitoring Hypo-hyper thermal treatments Fire fighting protection and underwater equipment Arctic/Antarctic undergarments Small, efficient, portable cooling and heating systems Surface suits: thermal control systems Rovers : thermal control systems Table 2.2Partial list of dual-use technologies: Surface Mobility – Vehicles, Human Support, and Power.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

A computing device with the power of our current iPhone would fit inside a “nano-robot” computer the size of a blood cell in two or three decades’ time. What does that mean for medical sciences? What will it mean when the device we carry around in our pocket is more powerful than the most advanced supercomputer available today? How will such technologies impact our life? Self-driving cars, computer-based personal assistants that can predict and anticipate our needs or manage our calendar without needing to ask us any questions; holographic telepresence when we’re away from our loved ones; computers built into everything, from the paint we put on our walls, the clothes to jewellery we wear, to sensors in our bathrooms that can monitor our health based on our morning’s ablutions . . . However, one of the most significant developments Kurzweil predicts centres around the development of 3D printing and replication technologies. “Ten years ago, if I wanted to send you a movie, I would have sent you a FedEx package.


City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

Its ambitious plan involves creating an electronic central nervous system for the city. The city will ‘run on information’.10 A pervasive network of sensors and smart chips, spread throughout the city, will transform what is usually a collection of separate machines, buildings and networks into a single urban organism, a sentient city. Just as the parts of the city will talk to each other electronically so, too, will the inhabitants. Every home will be equipped with TelePresence screens, which will be the citizen’s interface with the urban operating system and a communications system for everything from booking a restaurant table to talking to your doctor. The city’s data and services will be instantly available without the need to step outside your apartment. New Songdo City is due for completion in 2015. It is viewed by its developers, the New York-based Gale International, as the first of many such smart cities across the region.


Jennifer Morgue by Stross, Charles

call centre, correlation does not imply causation, disintermediation, dumpster diving, Etonian, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, planetary scale, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, stem cell, telepresence, traveling salesman, Turing machine

Conference calls every Friday morning at 9:00 a.m. EST." He gestures at a console across the room, where an old bakelite handset squats atop an old graypainted circuit box that I recognize as an enclosure for Billington's Gravedust communicator. "It's so much easier to just dial 'D' for Dagon, so to speak, than to bother with the eerie voices and walls softening under your fingertips. And these days we've sorted out a telepresence solution: he's taken up residence in a host body so he can keep an eye on things in person, while we restore his primary core to full functionality. Of course it's energetically expensive for him to occupy another body, so we have to keep the sacrifice schedule in mind as a critical path element in the restoration project, but there's no shortage of centh-decile underperformers on the sales force ... ah, yes."


pages: 532 words: 140,406

The Turing Option by Harry Harrison, Marvin Minsky

industrial robot, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, theory of mind, Turing test, undersea cable

For one thing everything is digital now and fiber optics have replaced copper wire in all but the most remote areas. Every telephone has a built-in modem—and they are already old-fashioned. All of the large cities have cellphone networks and they are expanding." He tapped the telephone on his belt. "I have my own number for this. About most of the time it rings wherever I am in the continental United States." "Is it a satellite link?" "No, satellite connections are too slow for most uses— particularly telepresence. Everything is fiber optics now— even the undersea cables. Cheap and fast. With plenty of room for communication with eight thousand megahertz band-width capacity available everywhere—and all of it two-way." Brian nodded. "I get your drift, Ben. What you're saying is that there is very little chance that I had a local mechanical backup. It was undoubtedly an electronic one. Which will mean an electronic search."


pages: 377 words: 21,687

Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight by David A. Mindell

1960s counterculture, Charles Lindbergh, computer age, deskilling, fault tolerance, interchangeable parts, Mars Rover, more computing power than Apollo, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, telepresence, telerobotics

These new technologies raise familiar questions about skill, training, and whether inexperienced pilots become too reliant on automation and prone to distraction by computers and display screens. Yet 268 Chapter 11 the new control systems also offer safe access to new realms for amateur pilots. Human lives depend on striking the right balance. Aviation is not alone; professional identities in a broad range of fields face similar challenges from automation, simulation, remote operation, and telepresence. Architects now build prototype buildings entirely inside computers, leading some to question whether they are becoming mere computer operators and losing touch with the ‘‘reality’’ of their craft. Scientists conduct experiments entirely in simulated environments, leading some to question whether they lose the ‘‘feel’’ of the physical world. Archeologists use remote robots to explore shipwrecks in the very deep ocean, leading some to question whether one can do ‘‘real’’ archaeology without physically touching a site.


Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)

Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional

"Is Computer-Mediated Communication Intrinsically Apt to Enhance Democracy in Organizations?" Human Relations 47, no. 1 (1994): 45-62. Mantovani, G. "Social Context in HCl: A New Framework for Mental Models, Cooperation, and Communication." Cognitive Science 20, no. 2 (1996): 237-269. Mantovani, G., and G. Riva. "Real Presence: How Different Ontologies Generate Different Criteria for Presence, Telepresence, and Virtual Presence." Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 8, no. 5 (1999): 540-550. Matheson, Kimberly. "Social Cues in Computer-Mediated Communication: Gender Makes a Difference." Computers in Human Behavior 7 (1991): 137-145. McChesney, R.W. "The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy-making in Historical and Critical Perspective." Journal of Communication 46 (1996): 98-124. McClellan, J.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

He was simply reaffirming what he had told journalists back in 2013: “Let us speak no more of faith in man, but bind him down from mischief by chains of cryptography.”65 Snowden’s call to arms was taken up by people all over the world: Silicon Valley companies, privacy groups, corporate think tanks and lobbyists, political activists, and thousands of eager techies around the globe. Even Google’s Sergey Brin posed for a selfie with the infamous leaker—or the video-equipped “telepresence” robot that Snowden used to speak at conferences for him.66 Thanks to Snowden, the privacy movement was going mainstream, and the Tor Project was at the center of it all. No matter where you turned in the privacy world, people were united in their admiration for Tor as a solution to surveillance on the Internet. This was true of powerful groups like the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union, Pulitzer Prize–winning journalists, hackers, and whistle-blowers.67 Google subsidized further development of Tor, as did eBay.68 Facebook built support for Tor, allowing users to access the social network as if it were a dark web site, in the same exact way people accessed Silk Road.


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Makinson, Final Report on Hardiman I Prototype for Machine Augmentation of Human Strength and Endurance, ONR contract no. N00014-66-C0051 (Philadelphia: General Electric, 1971). 60.Berry, “I Was an 18-Foot Robot,” 66. 61.Freitas, “Birth of the Cyborg,” 159. 62.Walter Troy Spencer, “Not Robots, They’re Cyborgs,” New York Times, December 14, 1969. 63.Halacy, Cyborg, 144. 64.Marvin Minsky, “Telepresence,” Omni 2, no. 9 (June 1980): 50. 65.Charles P. Comeau and James S. Bryan, “Headsight Television System Provides Remote Surveillance,” Electronics 34, no. 45 (November 10, 1961): 89. 66.Halacy, Cyborg, 11. 67.Ibid., 19. 68.David M. Rorvik, As Man Becomes Machine: The Evolution of the Cyborg (New York: Doubleday, 1970), 16. 69.Ibid., 13. 70.Gray, Cyborg Handbook, 36. 71.Ibid., 37. 72.William Aspray and Arthur Norberg, An Interview with J.


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The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, fudge factor, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, information retrieval, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, the medium is the message, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

It was this collaboration that led him to consider using mathematics in the service of understanding how children can learn and think. In the early 1960s, Papert came to MIT where, with Marvin Minsky, he founded the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and coauthored their seminal work Perceptrons.” From the web page entitled “Seymour Papert” at <http://papert.www.media.mit.edu/people/papert/>. 4 “[Marvin] Minsky was ... one of the pioneers of intelligence-based mechanical robotics and telepresence.... In 1951 he built the first randomly wired neural network learning machine (called SNARC, for Stochastic Neural-Analog Reinforcement Computer), based on the reinforcement of simulated synaptic transmission coefficients.... Since the early 1950s, Marvin Minsky has worked on using computational ideas to characterize human psychological processes, as well as working to endow machines with intelligence.”


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The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? by David Brin

affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

As the number of users grows geometrically, some anticipate that by 2008 the Net might encompass the entire world population. In his 1993 book Virtual Reality, Howard Rheingold called for redefining the word community, since in the near future each sovereign individual may be able to sift among six or more billion souls, sorting by talent or avocation to find those compatible for consorting with at long range, via multimedia telepresence, in voluntary associations of shared interest. No longer will geography or birth-happenstance determine your friendships, but rather a natural affinity of passions and pastimes. Some pundits emphasize transnational features of an electronic world, predicting the end of the nation state. (See “A Withering Away?” after chapter 9.) Others proclaim the Internet a modern oracle, enabling simple folk to query libraries, databases, political organizations, or even corporate and university researchers, at last breaking the monopoly of “experts” and empowering multitudes with the same information used by the decisionmaking class.


pages: 489 words: 148,885

Accelerando by Stross, Charles

business cycle, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K, zero-sum game

But after an hour, just as she's quieting down into a slough of raw despair, there's a knock – a knock! – at the door. An inquisitive head pops in. "Please to come with us?" It's the female cop with the bad translationware. She takes in Amber's sobbing and tuts under her breath, but as Amber stands up and shambles toward her, she pulls back. At the front desk of a cubicle farm full of police bureaucrats in various states of telepresence, the detective is waiting with a damp cardboard box wrapped in twine. "Please identify," he asks, snipping the string. Amber shakes her head, dizzy with the flow of threads homing in to synchronize their memories with her. "Is it –" she begins to ask as the lid comes apart, wet pulp disintegrating. A triangular head pops up, curiously, sniffing the air. Bubbles blow from brown-furred nostrils.


pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

In some respects, high-speed computation has already made it possible to mimic the magic of the genie. Early generations of "digital servants" already obey the commands of those who control the computers in which they are sealed much as genies were sealed in magic lamps. The virtual reality of information technology will widen the realm of human wishes to make almost anything that can be imagined seem real. Telepresence will give living individuals the same capacity to span distance at supernatural speed and monitor events from afar that the Greeks supposed was enjoyed by Hermes and Apollo. The Sovereign Individuals of the Information Age, like the gods of ancient and primitive myths, will in due course enjoy a kind of "diplomatic immunity" from most of the political woes that have beset mortal human beings in most times and places.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

If China ultimately succeeds in overcoming the middle-income trap, strategic urbanization will have been a big reason why. MASTER PLANNING FOR MEGACITIES The more advanced SEZs China builds, the more even rich countries are picking up on what was once considered a poor state’s model—both to stay ahead of and to connect to China’s key new hubs. South Korea’s Songdo International Business District is the most advanced such “smart city” effort. With zero-emissions buildings, homes outfitted with telepresence monitors, and large R&D centers for Cisco, Microsoft, and other major IT companies, Songdo is a high-tech hub serving the two billion people within a three-hour flight radius of Incheon Airport outside Seoul. South Korea is already one of the world’s most advanced and competitive economies, and yet, as John Kasarda and Greg Lindsay write in Aerotropolis, Songdo is a city built “to fight trade wars”4—in other words, as a new Korean weapon in tug-of-war.


pages: 471 words: 147,210

Children of Ruin by Adrian Tchaikovsky

experimental subject, gravity well, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, microbiome, pattern recognition, post scarcity, remote working, side project, telepresence, theory of mind

Instead, it slumps and shifts, as though some internal structure has been abruptly removed, and then the apparition breaks apart, individual shells and balls of detritus rolling (crawling?) away into the gathering shadows, and Fabian has the drone flee and re-watches the appalling footage and wonders what he can even say to Viola about it. 6. Kern, Avrana Kern, formerly of the Lightfoot and now with her consciousness situated, by her own estimation, somewhere between that vessel’s crashed remains and her orbital telepresence, probes the live comms channels of the station carefully. The infestation looked to be purely an organic thing, but something was transmitting the xenobiology lesson which drew her here. Was the amorphous entity that attacked Meshner also the sender of that signal? Had it once been Erma Lante, or indeed had there ever been such an individual? Memory pieces fall into place as her ants replenish enough for her to recover and access them.


pages: 562 words: 153,825

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

“The fact that I am so free to work, by virtue of the internet, and by my ability to armor my communications—that is something that’s really new,” he told the Homeland cast and creative team the same year. The latest innovation, he explained, allowed him to “sort of ‘possess’ a robot.” He was talking about possession in the ghostly sense. From a keyboard in Moscow, Snowden inhabited a five-foot-two automaton on wheels. It was called a BeamPro, ninety pounds of sleek steel, aluminum, and glass that its manufacturer, Suitable Tech Inc., described as a “remote telepresence.” Everyone naturally called the thing a Snowbot. Snowden not only could speak and listen, see and be seen, but move around a room or down a hallway. He controlled the motion with the arrows on his keyboard. The effect reminded me of Rosie, the household robot in the Jetsons cartoons. In March 2014, Snowden made his public debut with a BeamPro by giving a TED Talk in Vancouver, pivoting between the moderator and his audience.


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

Soma didn’t hesitate, but threw open the closest rear door and pulled Japheth in behind him. When the three of them — painter, Crow, Owl — were stuffed into the rear door, Soma shouted, “Up those stairs, car!” In the front seat, there was a woman whose eyes seemed as large as saucers. commodores faulting headless people in the lick protocols compel reeling in, strengthening, temporarily abandoning telepresence locate an asset with a head asset with a head located Jenny-With-Grease-Beneath-Her-Fingernails was trying not to go crazy. Something was pounding at her head, even though she hadn’t tried to open it herself. Yesterday, she had been working a remote repair job on the beach, fixing a smashed window. Tonight, she was hurtling across the Great Salt Lick, Legislators and bears and Commodores acting in ways she’d never seen or heard of.


pages: 561 words: 157,589

WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The first time a venture capitalist friend of mine saw one unreleased augmented reality platform in the lab, he said, “If LSD were a stock, I’d be shorting it.” That’s a unicorn. But what is most exciting to me about this technology is not the LSD factor, but how augmented reality can change the way we work. You can imagine how augmented reality could enable workers to be “upskilled.” I’m particularly fond of imagining how the model used by Partners in Health could be turbocharged by augmented reality and telepresence. The organization provides free healthcare to people in poverty using a model in which community health workers recruited from the population being served are trained and supported in providing primary care. Doctors can be brought in as needed, but the bulk of care is provided by ordinary people. Imagine a community health worker who is able to tap on Google Glass or some next-generation wearable, and say, “Doctor, you need to see this!”


pages: 761 words: 231,902

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business cycle, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, coronavirus, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra

The human brain is about 75,000 times heavier than the 0.02 grams of neurons in this portion of the retina, resulting in an estimate of about 1014 (100 trillion) instructions per second for the entire brain.37 Another estimate comes from the work of Lloyd Watts and his colleagues on creating functional simulations of regions of the human auditory system, which I discuss further in chapter 4.38 One of the functions of the software Watts has developed is a task called "stream separation," which is used in teleconferencing and other applications to achieve telepresence (the localization of each participant in a remote audio teleconference), To accomplish this, Watts explains, means "precisely measuring the time delay between sound sensors that are separated in space and that both receive the sound." The process involves pitch analysis, spatial position, and speech cues, including language-specific cues. "One of the important cues used by humans for localizing the position of a sound source is the Interaural Time Difference (ITD), that is, the difference in time of arrival of sounds at the two ears."39 Watts's own group has created functionally equivalent re-creations of these brain regions derived from reverse engineering.


pages: 1,280 words: 384,105

The Best of Best New SF by Gardner R. Dozois

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, lateral thinking, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K, zero-sum game

It was like praising a painting because it had been done by someone holding a brush between their teeth. “My work said nothing about the cosmos that the cosmos wasn’t already capable of saying for itself. More importantly, it said nothing about me. So what if I walked in vacuum, or swam in seas of liquid nitrogen? So what if I could see ultraviolet photons, or taste electrical fields? The modifications I inflicted upon myself were gruesome and extreme. But they gave me nothing that a good telepresence drone couldn’t offer any artist.” “I think you’re being a little harsh on yourself,” I said. “Not at all. I can say this now because I know that I did eventually create something worthwhile. But when it happened it was completely unplanned.” “You mean the blue stuff?” “The blue stuff,” he said, nodding. “It began by accident: a misapplication of colour on a nearly-finished canvas. A smudge of pale, aquamarine blue against near-black.