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Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
Planet of Slums • M I K E DAVIS V VERSO London • New York First published by Verso 2006 © Mike Davis 2006 All rights reserved The moral rights of the author have been asserted 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F OEG USA: 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014-4606 www.versobooks.com Verso is the imprint of New Left Books ISBN 1 - 8 4 4 6 7 - 0 2 2 - 8 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Typeset in Garamond by Andrea Stimpson Printed in the USA for my darlin' Koisin Slum, semi-slum, and superslum ... to this has come the evolution of cities. Patrick Geddes1 1 Quoted in Lewis Mumford, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospeds, New York 1961, p. 464. Contents 1. The Urban Climacteric 1 2. The Prevalence of Slums 20 3. The Treason of the State 50 4. Illusions of Self-Help 70 5. Haussmann in the Tropics 95 6. Slum Ecology 121 .7. SAPing the Third World 151 •8. A Surplus Humanity? 174 Epilogue: Down Vietnam Street 199 Acknowledgments 207 Index 209 The Urban Climacteric We live in the age of the city. The city is everything to us — it consumes us, and for that reason we glorify it. Onookome Okome1 Sometime in the next year or two, a woman will give birth in the Lagos slum of Ajegunle, a young man will flee his village in west Java for the bright lights of Jakarta, or a farmer will move his impoverished family into one of Lima's innumerable pueblos jovenes.
Thus the granite, steel and tinted glass offices in Bangalore, most of them belonging to software companies, pose a stark contrast to ill-maintained factories facing falling orders and tighter credit conditions."74 Ruefully, a leading Western economic consultant was forced to concede that "Bangalore's high tech [boom] is a drop in the bucket in a sea of poverty."75 74 Benjamin, "Governance, Economic Settings and Poverty in Bangalore," pp. 36-39. 75 William Lewis quoted in Bernard Wysocki, "Symbol Over Substance," Wall Street Journal, 25 September 2000 A Surplus Humanity? A proletariat without factories, workshops, and work, and without bosses, in the muddle of the odd jobs, drowning in survival and leading an existence like a path through embers. Patrick Chamoiseai} The brutal tectonics of neoliberal globalization since 1978 are analogous to the catastrophic processes that shaped a "Third World" in the first place, during the era of late-Victorian imperialism (1870-1900).
The chief partners in Africa's underdevelopment, the IMF and World Bank, repeated the same pessimistic assessment in their Global Monitoring Report issued in April 2005.4 With a literal "great wall" of high-tech border enforcement blocking large-scale migration to the rich countries, only the slum remains as a 4 Human Development Report 2004, pp. 132—33; Tanya Nolan, "Urgent Action Needed to Meet Millennium Goals," ABC Online, 13 April 2005. fully franchised solution to the problem of warehousing this century's surplus humanity. Slum populations, according to UN-HABITAT, are currently growing by a staggering 25 million per year.5 Moreover, as emphasized in an earlier chapter, the frontier of safe, squattable land is everywhere disappearing and new arrivals to the urban margin confront an existential condition that can only be described as "marginality within marginality" or, in the more piquant phrase of a desperate Baghdad slum-dweller, a "semi-death."6 Indeed, peri-urban poverty — a grim human world largely cut off from the subsistence solidarities of the countryside as well as disconnected from the cultural and political life of the traditional city — is the radical new face of inequality.
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
This includes the reservoir of proto-proletarians (including peasants), but this group also includes unwaged domestic labourers, as well as salaried professionals who are under threat of being returned to the proletariat, often through deskilling (for example, medical professionals, lawyers and academics).41 The importance of this group is that it forms an additional reservoir of labour for capitalism when existing labour markets are tight.42 Finally, in addition to the other strata, a vast number of people are considered economically inactive (including the discouraged, the disabled and students).43 Overall, determining the precise size and nature of the global surplus population is difficult with existing data, and subject to fluctuations as individuals move in and out of categories, but a variety of measures converge to suggest it significantly outnumbers the active working class.44 This is the crisis of work that capitalism faces in the coming years and decades: a lack of formal or decent jobs for the growing numbers of the proletarian population. In an earlier generation, the identification of surplus populations as a problem was an idea that was often derided. During the ‘golden age’ of capitalism, low unemployment, stable jobs, rising wages and rising living standards meant the idea that capitalism produced a surplus humanity enjoyed little material support. Yet, while most leftist thinkers turned to the economic problems of growth for capitalism, an occluded intellectual tradition has instead emphasised the social reproduction problem of surplus populations. It is no surprise that it was often those outside the functioning capitalist order who saw the potential in this surplus class.45 Writing from Algiers in the 1970s, Eldridge Cleaver presciently argued that ‘When workers become permanently unemployed, displaced by the streamlining of production, they revert back to their basic [proletarian] condition’ and that ‘the real revolutionary element of our era is the [proletariat]’.46 From the capitalist core, Paul Mattick called it ‘the most important of all capitalistic contradictions’.47 And more recently, communisation theorists have made important contributions to analysing the crisis of wage labour, and Fredric Jameson has argued that Capital ‘is not a book about politics, and not even a book about labour: it is a book about unemployment’.48 Indeed, it is often forgotten that Marx argued that the expulsion of surplus populations was part of ‘the absolute general law of capitalist accumulation’.49 In the wake of the 2008 crisis and continued sluggishness in the labour market, it is no surprise that the issue of surplus populations should emerge again.
It is no surprise that it was often those outside the functioning capitalist order who saw the potential in this surplus class.45 Writing from Algiers in the 1970s, Eldridge Cleaver presciently argued that ‘When workers become permanently unemployed, displaced by the streamlining of production, they revert back to their basic [proletarian] condition’ and that ‘the real revolutionary element of our era is the [proletariat]’.46 From the capitalist core, Paul Mattick called it ‘the most important of all capitalistic contradictions’.47 And more recently, communisation theorists have made important contributions to analysing the crisis of wage labour, and Fredric Jameson has argued that Capital ‘is not a book about politics, and not even a book about labour: it is a book about unemployment’.48 Indeed, it is often forgotten that Marx argued that the expulsion of surplus populations was part of ‘the absolute general law of capitalist accumulation’.49 In the wake of the 2008 crisis and continued sluggishness in the labour market, it is no surprise that the issue of surplus populations should emerge again. With technological change proceeding apace, the already large numbers of surplus humanity look set to swell. The very social basis of capitalism as an economic system – the relationship between the proletariat and employers, with waged work mediating between them – is crumbling. THE MISERY OF NOT BEING EXPLOITED As we have seen, very little of the global labour force is employed in formal wage labour, and this number has only decreased in the wake of the 2008 crisis. The most obvious symptoms of this rising surplus population are embodied in the long-term changes in unemployment statistics.
Rather than a scarcity of labour, recent industrialisation has occurred in the context of a large and global labour force.100 The result has been little development of anything resembling a traditional working class, continually weak job prospects and a lack of adequate housing.101 New urban migrants have been left in a permanent state of transition between peasantry and proletarianisation, and sometimes in seasonal circulation between rural existence and urban poverty.102 Slums and other improvised housing therefore represent a dual expulsion from the land and from the formal economy.103 This surplus humanity, having been deprived of its traditional means of subsistence yet left without employment, has been forced to create its own non-capitalist subsistence economies. Much of the labour performed here is informal: low-paid, insecure, irregular and without state support. In these economies, production is typically organised in non-capitalist forms but remains directed towards commodity production – to selling goods on the market, rather than for individual use.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
It underpins a highly technocratic and technophilic discussion centred on what Ashley Dawson refers to as ‘the increasing prominence of urban combat zones’ combined with a complete inability ‘to acknowledge the underlying economic and political forces that are driving urbanization in the megacities of the global South.’148 In failing to address the root causes of the extreme polarization and violence generated by neoliberalization and the massive growth of informal settlements, urban military discourse simply echoes the catastrophic failure of the world’s political and economic élites to ‘question how to integrate the surplus humanity of the global South into the global economy’. Fantasies harboured by US military theorists of controlling the world’s burgeoning cities and settlements are probably best interpreted as what Dawson calls ‘an index of the waning hegemony of US imperial power rather than a sign of the empire’s invincible might’.149 In 2009, as one witnesses the rapidly waning power of the US economy, reeling under the current financial crash, one is hard pressed to disagree.
Even these totals were expected to grow significantly.88 Brady Thomas Heiner argues that the construction of such a transnational US war prison has the effect of clearing the path for American capital investment abroad and neutralizing the resistance waged in other lands against evolving US colonial governance.89 Indeed, Amy Kaplan, in response to the revelations of systematic torture at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay, foresees a future dominated by a normalized ‘floating colony’ where homeland security ‘will increasingly depend on proliferating these mobile, ambiguous spaces between the domestic and the foreign’.90 Meanwhile, in the expanding cities of the global South, securocratic warfare is often being launched against informal settlements, which are commonly demolished, erased, or surrounded by militarized borders because of the threat they seem to pose to the body politic, or to public health, or to achieving the city’s goal of being regarded as global, high-tech, modern or attractive to the wider world.91 As Loïc Wacquant points out, regarding state violence against the favelas of Rio or São Paulo, many states are resorting to a strategy of ‘punitive containment’ towards informal cities – ‘the management of dispossessed and dishonored populations in the polarizing city in the age of triumphant neoliberalism’.92 To Wacquant, Brazilian cities, especially, serve as a ‘historical revelator of the full consequences of the penal disposal of the human detritus of a society swamped by social and physical insecurity.’ He argues that as ‘proving grounds’ for the neoliberal state, moreover, Brazil’s favelas, African-American ghettos, the French banlieues, and other sites for the disposal or warehousing of capitalism’s surplus humanity are the places where exemplars for securocratic warfare are ‘concretely being assembled, tried, and tested’.93 Naomi Klein has argued that Israel’s experiments in incarcerating the entire population of Gaza and the West Bank serve a similar role.94 In the Indian city of Chandigarh as well, residents of the slums must now ‘furnish details of their fingerprints, photographs, face recognition, voice recognition, signature, shape of the hand’ for a biometric ID system which will not cover the rest of the city’s population.95 In extreme cases, paramilitary forces mobilized for internal securocratic wars attempt to impose new internal biopolitical borders based on denying racialized minorities the rights of citizenship or international humanitarian law.96 The resulting intraterritorial states of exception are exemplified by a lengthening list of examples, of which the systematic ignoring of New Orleans’ poor, disposable African-Americans in 2005 is perhaps the most startling.97 The crack-down on residents of Paris’s banlieues entering central Paris since the major 2005 riots is another telling example, marked by a widespread discourse of ‘barbarians’ now being within the gates, not just of the city, but of the iconic city of Western modernity.98 A third relevant example is the use of Israeli-style shoot-to-kill tactics to enforce the new internal border politics, which resulted in the killing of Jean Charles de Menezes in a London tube station on 22 July 2005.99 Finally, within Italy, the mobilization, registration, and attempted erasure of Gypsy and Romany individuals and their camps by the post-2008 Berlusconi government reveal the risk of neo-fascist takeovers in liberal democracies in the early twenty-first century.100 FACES OF TERROR In practices that mimic the techniques of urban counterinsurgency on the streets of Baghdad, entire city districts and infrastructure systems are now subject to remote, visual electronic scrutiny.
Index Page numbers in italics indicate images ABC, 72 Abu Ghraib, 57, 72, 109, 110 n.81, 112, 235, 352 Abu Manneh, Bashir, 230–31 Achcar, Gilbert, 39, 372 Ackerman, Robert, 164 Ackerman, Spencer, 129 n.143 Aegis air-defence, 181 Afflicted Powers: Capital and Spectacle in a New Age of War, 69 n.28, 162 n.27, 211 n.91, 302 n.4, 338 n.150, 349 n.3, 381 n.89, 385 n.98 Afghanistan, 54, 73, 129, 170, 178, 195, 239–40, 252, 270, 273, 359, 371, 379; simulated, 196, 216 Africa, 2, 7, 17, 53 n.74, 54, 119, 176, 297, 311, 334, 337 African Americans: and Hummer, 321; and Hurricane Katrina, 25, 48 n.57, 52, 86 n.107, 94–95, 113; media portrayal of, 44–45; military target & employee, 62, 321; and prison, 110; surplus humanity, 113 Agamben, Giorgio, xxii n.19, xxv, 73, 94 n.31, 96 n.38, 113 n.96, 175 n.76, 235, 296 n.130, 300, 307 Agier, Michel, 18 n.72 Agre, Phil, 24 n.102, 31 n.130, 117, 263 n.2, 293–96, 298–300 Ahtisaari, Martti, 281 Air Force Magazine, 172 airport security, 136–38 Air and Space Power Chronicles, 275 Aizenman, N. C., 110 n. 77&79 Aksu, Esref, 378 n.75 Alaska, 311, 335 al-Harithi, Ali Qaed Sinan, 249 Al Jazeera, 72, 224, 283 Allison, Aime, 371 n.59 al-Qaeda, 22, 39, 40–43, 178, 232–33, 249, 338 Alsayyad, Nezar, 144–45 Alvarez, Samantha, 4 n.8 al-Zawahri, Ayman, 178 America’s Army, xxv, 203, 204, 205–6, 208–9, 210, 372; and US army recruits, 206 Amidon, John M., 303 n.11, 311, 335 n.142 Amman, 261 Amoore, Louise, 99,100, 125 n.128, 126, 138 n.180, 139, 142 n.190, 360 n.33 Anastassia, Tsoukala, 90 n.6, 91 n.10 Andrejevic, Marc, 93 Andreu, Paul, 89 n.2 Andrews, Andy, 190 Ansary, Tamim, 273 n.32, 300 Ansems de Vries, Leonie, 267 n.14, 383 n.93 Anthropocene, 382 anthropologists, 33 anti-globalization, 22–23, 59, 122, 353 anti-urbanism, xxi, 27, 32, 40–52 passim, 314, 317, 320 APEC, 122 Appadurai, Arjun, 145; Fear of Small Numbers, 16 n.66, 17 n.70, 28, 56 n.83; Modernity at Large,18 appropriation, 363–68 Arab cities, 38, 41 n.25, 53 n.74, 56–57, 71, 185, 188, 191, 194, 196, 199, 203, 205–6, 209, 211, 218–19, 225, 227, 237 Arabs, pathos of, 235 The Arab Mind (Patai), 53 n.71, 57, 235 Arafat, Yasser, 233 Arizona Republic,187 Arkin, Ronald, 180 Armitage, John, 181 ARMY, 243 Army News Service, 209 Arnold, Kathleen, 93 n.25 Arquilla, John, 22 n.89, 155 n.7 art, 351–80 passim Arziof, David, 255 Assa, Haim, 286 assassination raids, 248–50 Astore, William J., 292 n.112 asymmetric war, xiv, xx, 19, 27, 40, 71, 156, 162–63, 175, 230, 235, 238, 260, 265, 267, 292, 316 Atkinson, Rowland, 95 n.34, 107 Atta, Mohammed, 41 Aum Shinrikyo group, 268, 295 Australia, 98, 137, 340 Axe, David, 208 n.81 Axyell, Bryan, 202 Aziz, Tariq, 153 n.1 Aznar, 82 Azri, Ben, 284 Babero, Mike, 190 Backhaus, Gary, 110 n.78 Baeten, Guy, 43 n.36, 95 Baghdad, 112, 114, 121, 129, 130, 158, 170, 203, 224–25, 241, 242, 248, 261, 270, 280, 283–84, 324, 361–62; simulated, 201–2 Bajkowski, Julian, 378 n.71 Baker, Peter, 364, 364 n.39 Baladia.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
Small-scale agriculture and pastoralism also meant living a bounded existence. Habitats became more permanent and with more dependable supplies of food, population increased. The first village settlements began to emerge in the Middle East, the Indus Valley, China, and elsewhere. In Chapter 1, we noted that neolithic life brought with it the pivotal invention of containers—pots, baskets, and bins—to store grain. With stored surplus, human beings created the possibility, for the first time, of planning ahead, establishing a bulwark against the vagaries of nature and gaining control over their environment. With surplus came economics, and the gnawing question that has plagued the human family ever since—who produces the surplus, who stores it, to whom is it distributed, and in what proportions. Stored grain, as Lewis Mumford points out, is potential energy and, along with cattle, the oldest form of capital.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Rainfall increased and became plentiful during the period up to about AD 1100, promoting the expansion of both local and long-distance trade networks.14 Population densities increased too – of both humans and livestock – and a conjunction of internal and external influences transformed the political structure of some ethnic groups from the age-set system which dispersed authority through the community to a system favouring centralized control and the formation of states. Long-distance trade was a primary influence in this transformation – most especially the export of commodities for which Africans had no use but which were in demand abroad, such as ivory, ‘surplus’ human beings, and gold. It is no accident that the development of the first indigenous African states coincides with the rising importance of gold as a medium of exchange in the economies of the Mediterranean and beyond. Furthermore, all five regions known to have been producing gold before the colonial period are also the regions in which the first notable indications of indigenous state formation occur in sub-Saharan Africa: Aksum on the northern Ethiopian plateau, ancient Ghana, Mali and Asante in West Africa, Zimbabwe in south-east Africa.