Hans Rosling

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The Naked Presenter: Delivering Powerful Presentations With or Without Slides by Garr Reynolds

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deliberate practice, fear of failure, Hans Rosling, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

However, you should also move away from that lectern when you do not have to be there. Hans Rosling, a doctor, researcher, and presenter, is extraordinary at doing this. When he needs to pull up some data or start the Gapminder program, he will occasionally go to his computer on stage. But Rosling also spends a lot of time near or in front of the screen explaining how to read the data or pointing out important points. Rosling is a technical presenter with passion; he is able to engage his audiences with the visualizations of data in part because he removes the barriers by often moving away from the lectern. Hans Rosling removes the barriers and gets involved with the data, making things clear for the audience.

eBook <WoweBook.Com> It’s Not the Numbers, It’s What They Mean I’m a huge fan of Hans Rosling, the public health professor from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm and one of the cofounders of Gapminder (www.gapminder.org). Rosling is the Zen master of presenting statistics and one of the most popular speakers at TED. Rosling proves what we all know: Statistics are not boring. But Rosling shows that it is not enough just to show data—what matters is the meaning of the data. Statistics tell a story. Photo of Hans Rosling by Stefan Nilsson. The way the Gapminder software displays data is compelling and clarifies the data while bringing the viewer in for a closer look.

Presentation Zen Design: Simple Design Principles and Techniques to Enhance Your Presentations by Garr Reynolds

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, cloud computing, Hans Rosling, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra

Which graph makes it easier to determine R&D’s travel expense? 8. In which graph are the labels easier to read? 9. Which graph is easier to look at? 10. Which table allows you to see the areas of poor performance more quickly? The Future of Data Presentation One of the masters of displaying data during live presentations is Hans Rosling, a public health professor from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden. With his amazing ability to unveil the beauty of statistics, Rosling has become a bit of a super star. His talks during the annual Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) Conferences have been seen online millions of times.

The data, he says, are like musical notes that must be played to be truly appreciated. ...few people will appreciate the music if I just show them the notes. Most of us need to listen to the music to understand how beautiful it is. But often that’s how we present statistics: we just show the notes, we don’t play the music. Hans Rosling gets involved with the data at TED 09 in Long Beach, California. Let your data speak As a presenter, what sets Rosling apart is his animation of the data. Before Gapminder, he had been using data and playing it beautifully—in fact, he was a bit of a hero in his own academic community. But it was the Gapminder software that allowed him to really connect with people—to reveal the meaning of data and tell a story to the greater public.

What was missing before was the “instrument of playing,” says Rosling. Gapminder, which allows for complex animation, provides that instrument. “In statistics we need the composers, we need people who make the instruments, and we need those who play.” Gapminder was founded in Stockholm by Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund and Hans Rosling in early 2005. Trendalyzer, the Gapminder software, makes it possible to unveil the beauty of a statistical time series by converting “boring numbers” into engaging, animated, and interactive graphics. You can use the online Trendalyzer software in the form of Gapminder World, a Web service that displays a time series of development statistics for all countries (Google acquired Trendalyzer from the Gapminder Foundation in 2006).

pages: 204 words: 58,565

Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim

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Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method

This list was adapted and modified from one on the IBM ManyEyes site; see http://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/page/Visualization_Options.html. 7. This example is from the SAS Visual Analytics 5.1 User’s Guide, “Working with Automatic Charts,” http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/vaug/65384/ HTML/default/viewer.htm#n1xa25dv4fiyz6n1etsfkbz75ai0.htm. 8. Hans Rosling, “Stats That Reshape Your Worldview,” TED talk, February 2006, http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ever_seen.html. 9. While Schmitt’s group sometimes creates such videos in-house, this one was done by an external production company. 10. James Taylor, “Decision Management Systems: A Practical Guide to Using Business Rules and Predictive Analytics,” IBM Press, 2011. 11.

If the data includes, for example, “One date/time category and any number of other categories or measures,” the program will automatically generate a line chart.7 * * * Purposes and Types of Visual Analytics IF YOU WANT TO: See relationships among data points: Scatterplot: Shows the relationship between two variables on a two-dimensional grid Matrix plot: For showing relationships and frequencies for hierarchical variables Heat map: Individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors Network diagram: Shows relationships between entities and the strengths of the paths between them Compare a set of frequencies or values, typically for one variable: Bar chart: Length of bar represents values Histogram: Type of bar chart with bars showing frequencies of data at specified intervals Bubble chart: Displays a set of numeric values as circles, with the size of the circle corresponding to the value Show the rise and fall of one variable in relation to another (typically time): Line graph: Two-dimensional graph, typically with one variable or multiple variables with standardized data values Stack graph: Line graph with filled-in areas underneath the graph, typically showing change in multiple variables; can also show change in multiple categories with different colors See the parts of a whole and how they relate to each other: Pie chart: Displays distribution of values in one variable in a pie format; percentages of each value correspond to size of slices Tree map: Visual for showing the size of values in a hierarchical variable, such as world/continents/countries/population in each country Understand data across geography: Overlaying summarized data onto geographical maps with colors, bubbles, or spikes representing different values Analyzing text frequencies: Tag cloud: A visualization of word frequencies; more frequently used words are displayed in larger type Phrase net: Shows frequencies of combinations of words used together; more frequently used words are displayed in larger type * * * The types of visual analytics listed in the worksheet are static, but visual analytics are increasingly becoming dynamic and interactive. Swedish professor Hans Rosling popularized this approach with his frequently viewed TED Talk, which used visual analytics to show the changing population health relationships between developed and developing nations over time.8 Rosling has created a website called Gapminder (www.gapminder.org) that displays many of these types of interactive visual analytics.

pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

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23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

The big worry is that the effects of global warming will greatly reduce our capacity to grow food as crops wither under the onslaught of rising temperatures, which is why what Bruce and Tony are doing in Australia could be staggeringly important. Ironically, one way to continue to increase food production in a sustainable way could be to return to ancient practices. But can we continue to raise food production ad infinitum as our population continues to grow? The good news is we won’t have to. The statistician Hans Rosling from Sweden’s Karolinska Institute tells a story of how many of his students wonder if keeping the poor alive is really such a good idea. ‘In a time when we know the pressures on the environment are growing, my students tell me “population growth destroys the environment so poor children may as well die.”

A recent New York Times piece by Elisabeth Rosenthal, entitled ‘New Jungles Prompt a Debate on Rain Forests,’ went so far as to suggest that for every acre of rainforest being cut down, over fifty acres of secondary forest are regrowing. That’s pretty incredible, don’t you think? It is, however, important to stress that re-grown secondary forest in no way matches up to the biodiversity lost when ancient rainforests are destroyed. This teeming metropolis I’m walking through is therefore an engine of renewal. Hans Rosling’s students are dead wrong. Those ‘poor children’ must live, move to the city and prosper – and in doing so they will, in just a few generations, stabilise the world populace while allowing many ecosystems to flourish. It’s a nice thought to have as the sun sets on the Indian Ocean. The next morning brings fresh disappointment.

TED ideas are by turns so mind-bending, hopeful, scary and entertaining that they demand to be shared. Mixing the most radical ideas with a short format means speakers need to hone their presentations, and because the Internet audience is millions there is no room for academic long-windedness. In 2007, statistician Hans Rosling (whose thoughts on population I’d considered while walking the packed streets of Malé) delivered a blistering attack on the concept of ‘developed’ versus ‘developing’ nations … and then he swallowed a sword, because sword swallowing is ‘a cultural expression that for thousands of years has inspired human beings to think beyond the obvious.’

pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996, p. 56. 40 ‘Xiaogang Village, birthplace of rural reform, moves on’, China Development Gateway, 16 December 2008, http://en.chinagate.cn/features/rural_poverty/2008-12/16/content_16966805.htm (accessed on 21 March 2016). 2 Sanitation 1 G. K. Chesterton, The Man Who Was Thursday. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2004, p. 5. 2 Ann Lindstrand, Staffan Bergström, Hans Rosling, Birgitta Rubenson, Bo Stenson and Thorild Tylleskär, Global Health: An Introductory Textbook. Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, p. 77. 3 WHO, The World Health Report 1995: Bridging the Future. Geneva: WHO, 1995; WHO and UNICEF, Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2015 Update and MDG Assessment.

1 George Thomas White Patrick, ‘The new optimism’, Popular Science Monthly (May 1913), p. 493. 2 Bailey 2015, p. xvii. 3 Melanie Randle and Richard Eckersley, ‘Public perceptions of future threats to humanity and different societal responses: a cross-national study’, Futures, 72 (2015), 4–16. 4 Johan Norberg, ‘Rubriker som gör oss rädda’. Timbro, 2005. 5 Hans Rosling, ‘Highlights from Ignorance Survey in the UK’, 3 November 2013, http://www.gapminder.org/news/highlights-from-ignorance-survey-in-the-uk (accessed on 22 March 2016); Gapminder, ‘The Ignorance Survey: United States’, 2013, http://www.gapminder.org/GapminderMedia/wp-uploads/Results-from-the-Ignorance-Survey-in-the-US.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2016). 6 Mark Crispin Miller, ‘It’s a crime: the economic impact of the local TV news’.

Since I started writing about globalisation and development in 2001, I have been lucky to come across, meet with and learn from several thinkers who have tirelessly presented the case that humanity solves more problems than it creates, when it gets the freedom to do so. This group includes – but is far from limited to – Ronald Bailey, Lasse Berg, Anders Bolling, Angus Deaton, Robert Fogel, Indur Goklany, Charles Kenny, Deepak Lal, Bjørn Lomborg, Deirdre McCloskey, Joel Mokyr, Steven Pinker, Matt Ridley, Max Roser, Hans Rosling, Michael Shermer and Marian Tupy. And above all, I am indebted to Julian Simon, the grand old man of development optimism. Their common denominator is not political or even philosophical, but methodological. They look at the whole building rather than just one brick, long data series rather than anecdotes.

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Some changes, like the relationship between health and GDP, are so gradual that they’re nearly imperceptible to us. Animating nearly two hundred years’ worth of data depicting the relationship between infant mortality rates and GDP per capita in a forty-five-second clip is much more revealing than a static chart, says Professor Hans Rosling, the creator of Trendalyzer, a tool that allows users to turn spreadsheet data into rich, interactive visualizations on the Web.16 If you present the same data set without animation, just using “before” and “after” graphs, people somehow disbelieve it, says Rosling. These animations don’t tell a story: they’re “story busters,” because they correctly convey the richness and diversity of the data without oversimplifying.

Proenza, University of Akron; Jordan Raddick, Johns Hopkins University; Saad Rafi, Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure; Chris Rasmussen, U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency; Ben Rattray, Change.org; Michael Reinicke, Rideshare; Steve Ressler, GovLoop; David Rich, WRI; Ben Rigby, the Extraordinaries; Jay Rogers, Local Motors; Bruce Rogow, IT Odyssey; Mechthild Rohen, European Commission; Hans Rosling, Trendalyzer; Adam Roth-well, Intelligent Giving; John Gerard Ruggie, Harvard University; Charles Sabel, Columbia University; Rick Samans, World Economic Forum; Saskia Sassen, Columbia University; Kevin Schawinski, Yale University; Eric Schmidt, Google; Henrik Schuermann, CoreMedia; Brent Schulkin, Virgance; Klaus Schwab, WEF; Eddie Schwartz, Songwriters Association of Canada; Zuhairah Scott; Peggy Sheehy, Suffern Middle School; George Siemens, Connectivism; Anne Hojer Simonsen, Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy; Larry Smarr, Calit2; Marco Smit, Health 2.0; Kirsi Sormunen, Nokia; Dwayne Spradlin, InnoCentive; Soren Stamer, CoreMedia; Tom Steinberg, mySociety; Robert Stephens, Best Buy; Unity Stoakes, Organized Wisdom; Susanne Stormer, Novo Nordisk; Val Stoyanov, Cisco; Tomer Strolight, Torstar Digital; Anant Sudarshan, Stanford University; David Ticoll, author; Bill Tipton, HP; Michael Toffel, MapEcos; Linus Torvalds, Linux Foundation; Lena Trudeau, NAPA; Mike Turillo, Spencer Trask Collaborative Innovations; Wood Turner, Climate Counts; Gentry Underwood, IDEO; Jim Walker, Virtual Alabama; David Wheeler, CARMA; Dennis Whittle, Global Giving; John Wilbanks, Creative Commons; Sean Wise, VenCorps; Dave Witzel, Environmental Defense Fund; John Wonderlich, SunlightFoundation; Nicole Wong, Google; Jon Worren, MaRS; Doug Wright, RiffWorld; Nick Yee, Palo Alto Research Center; Jim Zemlin, Linux Foundation Thank you The title of the book came from a challenge we conducted online that showed there is indeed wisdom in crowds.

Nothhaft and David Kline, “The Biggest Job Creator You Never Heard Of: The Patent Office,” Harvard Business Review Blog (May 6, 2010). 13. Liz Allen, “Your chance to participate in Patent review—Peer to Patent needs you,” Public Library of Science (November 11, 2007). 14. Tom Steinberg, Ed Mayo, “Digital Engagement”, The Power of Information Task Force (2007). 15. Ibid. 16. Professor Hans Rosling, “New insights on poverty and life around the world,” TED (March 2007). See: http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/140. 17. “About,” MapEcos.org (accessed May 19, 2010). 18. In most countries, the public sector is encumbered by complex institutional legacies that encompass hundreds of separate departments across multiple levels of government.

pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Forty-two slides—a good sign,3 even though it meant I had only a little more than four seconds for each slide. There was going to be a giant TED sign on the stage behind me. This could make or break my public speaking career. And I was going to be on the same stage where the brilliant statistician Hans Rosling, using beautiful data, emphatically demonstrated how India ascended to economic superpower status—meanwhile, I was going to talk about a whale named Mister Splashy Pants. No pressure. I finished before sunrise and took a power nap. When I awoke I began feverishly practicing with my timer. I missed all the morning talks.

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

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agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

The “rise of the West” is over. The world looks the way it did a thousand years ago, when the ten largest cities were Córdoba, in Spain; Kaifeng, in China; Constantinople; Angkor, in Cambodia; Kyoto; Cairo; Baghdad; Nishapur, in Iran; Al-Hasa, in Saudi Arabia; and Patan, in India. As Swedish statistician Hans Rosling says, “The world will be normal again; it will be an Asian world, as it always was except for these last thousand years. They are working like hell to make that happen, whereas we are consuming like hell.” • It may be distracting, though, to focus just on the world’s twenty-four megacities—those with a population over 10 million.

pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley

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23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Changes in the Process of Aging during the Twentieth Century: Findings and Procedures of the Early Indicators Project. NBER Working Papers 9941, National Bureau of Economic Research. p. 19 ‘Yet the global effect of the growth of China and India has been to reduce the difference between rich and poor worldwide.’ This is especially clear in Hans Rosling’s animated graphs of global income distribution at www.gapminder.com. Incidentally, the individualisation of life that brought personal freedom after the 1960s also brought less loyalty towards the group, a process that surely reached crisis point in the bonus rows of 2009: see Lindsey, B. 2009.

pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Additionally, my writing benefited from conversations and other forms of support from many, many people: Debbie Apsley, Özlem Ayduk, Marika Arcese, Siva Athreya, Garima Bhatia, Chris Blattman, Peter Blomquist, Maurizio Bricola, Jenna Burrell, Suvojit Chattopadhyay, Deepti Chittamuru, Magdalena Claro, Josh Cohen, Kristina Cordero, David Daballen, Kristen Dailey, John Danner, Ankhi Das, Alain de Janvry, Thad Dunning, Paolo Ficarelli, Greg Fischer, Bablu Ganguly, Maria Gargiulo, Achintya Ghosh, Rachel Glennerster, Richa Govil, Jürgen Hagmann, Naomi Handa-Williams, Saskia Harmsen, Gaël Hernández, Melissa Ho, Shanti Jayanthasri, Rob Jensen, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Joseph Joy, Pritam Kabe, Ken Keniston, Neelima Khetan, Jessica Kiessel, Michael Kremer, Ramchandar Krishnamurthy, Antony Lekoitip, Miep Lenoir, Julia Lowe, Jeff MacKie-Mason, Drew McDermott, Patricia Mecheal, Pavithra Mehta, Ted Miguel, Eduardo Monge, Rohan Murty, Miguel Nussbaum, Chip Owen, Tapan Parikh, Paul Polak, Madhavi Raj, Ranjeet Ranade, Gautam Rao, Eric Ringger, Hans Rosling, Elisabeth Sadoulet, Maximiliano Santa Cruz Scantlebury, Jonathan Scanlon, Denise Senmartin, Jahanzeb Sherwani, Priyanka Singh, Pratima Stanton, Rick Szeliski, Steve Toben, Mike Trucano, Avinash Upadhyay, Dipti Vaghela, Suzanne van der Velden, Srikant Vasan, Wayan Vota, Terry Winograd, Christian Witt, Renee Wittemeyer, and Naa Lamle Wulff.