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pages: 124 words: 38,034

Journey to Crossrail by Stephen Halliday

active transport: walking or cycling, Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, wikimedia commons

Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the most famous and energetic of Victorian engineers. (Carlo Marochetti, by Tagishsimon via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) Farringdon station, an early beneficiary of the development of the Thameslink service connecting the north and south of the Thames. (Mattbuck via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) Canary Wharf (Ryan Tang on unsplash.com) Canary Wharf roof garden, Crossrail Place, by Jason Williams. (Jayflux via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 4.0) Crossrail Canary Wharf. (Tony Hisgett, via Wikimedia Commons CC 2.0) Crossrail tunnel, December 2013. (Matt Brown via Wikimedia Commons CC 2.0) Crossrail construction shaft, December 2013. (Matt Brown via WikimediaCommons CC 2.0) Greenwich Crossrail TBM, May 2013. (DarkestElephant via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) Removal of the temporary track at the Royal Oak Crossrail portal, London, prior to installation of overhead cable gantries and permanent track.

London’s Roman wall, built around AD 120. This remaining fragment is in the vicinity of the Tower of London. (Adam Bishop via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) The site of Tyburn, scene of executions until 1783, when they were moved to Newgate, is marked by this plaque at Marble Arch. (Quodvultdeus via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) The London Stone, set behind a grill at 111 Cannon Street, supposedly set by the Trojan Prince Brutus when he founded the city. (Lonpicman via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) The Roman site of the Temple of Mithras, discovered in the city in the 1950s, is now within the Headquarters of Bloomberg in Queen Victoria Street. (Oxyman via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 2.0) HAPPY ARCHAEOLOGISTS So when the Crossrail engineers proposed to remove 3 million tons of earth from beneath London and rather more than that in building new stations and other essential works on the surface, a smile crossed the faces of London’s archaeologists, based at the Museum of London.

(DarkestElephant via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 3.0) Removal of the temporary track at the Royal Oak Crossrail portal, London, prior to installation of overhead cable gantries and permanent track. (Marcus Rowland via WikimediaCommons CC SA 4.0) Whitechapel Crossrail work, December 2013. (Matt Brown via Wikimedia Commons CC 2.0) A mock-up of the Crossrail rolling stock displayed at the London Transport Museum depot, Acton, prior to its production. (Frankie Roberto via Wikimedia Commons CC 2.0) The first Class 345 Crossrail Line 1 (Elizabeth) train passes by platform 10a at Stratford station, London. Hauled by diesel locomotive 67 013 and with translator carriages at each end, this journey was taking the brand-new train to Ilford depot. (Spsmiler via Wikimedia Commons) Class 345 unit 345007 interior, as of July 2017. (Sunil060902 via Wikimedia Commons CC SA 4.0) Class 345 unit 345007 passes Stratford eastbound with an empty coaching stock service to Gidea Park sidings, on 7 July 2017.


pages: 317 words: 79,633

Buzz: The Nature and Necessity of Bees by Thor Hanson

airport security, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Columbine, Honoré de Balzac, if you build it, they will come, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, wikimedia commons

Yet, throughout history, in cultures around the world, people have overcome or set aside that fear to bond with bees: watching them, tracking them, taming them, studying them, writing poems and stories about them, even worshiping them. No other group of insects has grown so close to us, none is more essential, and none is more revered. FIGURE 1.1. The human fear of arthropods features heavily in our storytelling, from biblical locusts to Kafka’s beetle to the horrors pictured on these pulp magazine covers from the 1920s. WIKIMEDIA COMMONS. The human fascination with bees took root deep in our prehistory, when early hominins sought out the sugary blast of honey at every opportunity. As ancient peoples migrated around the globe, they continued searching for that sweetness, robbing the honeybees as well as scores of lesser-known species. Stone Age artists captured the practice in cave paintings from Africa to Europe to Australia, depicting hunts that sometimes involved tall ladders, flaming brands, and dangerous ascents.

In return, bees perform what is their most fundamental and essential service. Yet, oddly, it’s one that people didn’t begin to understand—let alone appreciate—until the seventeenth century. FIGURE 1.4. According to one Greek and Roman myth, this is where it all began, with Dionysus (Bacchus) capturing the first swarm of bees in a hollow tree. Piero di Cosimo, The Discovery of Honey by Bacchus (c. 1499). WIKIMEDIA COMMONS. When German botanist Rudolf Jakob Camerarius first published his observations on pollination in 1694, most scientists found the whole notion of plant sex absurd, obscene, or both. Decades later, Philip Miller’s description of bees visiting tulip flowers was still deemed too racy for his best-selling The Gardeners Dictionary. After numerous complaints, the publisher deleted it completely from the third, fourth, and fifth editions.

This sweat bee (Oligochlora semirugosa, top) shows clearly visible wing veins, leg hairs, and antennae, while the stingless bee (Proplebeia dominicana, bottom), retains tidy balls of resin (collected for nest building) attached to its hind legs. Both specimens come from deposits in the Dominican Republic and are approximately 15 million to 25 million years old. TOP IMAGE COURTESY OF MICHAEL ENGEL VIA WIKIMEDIA COMMONS; BOTTOM IMAGE COURTESY OF OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY. For bees, amber provides the perfect medium, preserving all the fine anatomical details of a pollen-gathering lifestyle (and sometimes the pollen itself). Even in photographs, the fossils look startlingly lifelike and often quite beautiful, backlit and glowing in their translucent tombs. The oldest example, unearthed from a deposit in New Jersey that is also rich in flowering plants, dates back 65 million to 70 million years.


pages: 79 words: 24,875

Are Trams Socialist?: Why Britain Has No Transport Policy by Christian Wolmar

active transport: walking or cycling, Beeching cuts, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, BRICs, congestion charging, Diane Coyle, financial independence, full employment, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Network effects, railway mania, trade route, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, Zipcar

By Smalljim (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Twyford Down cutting’ (page 43). By Jim Champion (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Nottingham tram’ (page 57). Malc McDonald [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘The driverless car: a game changer?’ (page 68). By Grendelkhan (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Cycling in Amsterdam’ (page 97). By Steven Lek (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Zurich: rampant socialism’ (page 102). By © Roland Fischer, Zürich (Switzerland) – Mail notification to: roland_zh(at)hispeed(dot)ch / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?

By © Roland Fischer, Zürich (Switzerland) – Mail notification to: roland_zh(at)hispeed(dot)ch / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=25610112.


Driverless Cars: On a Road to Nowhere by Christian Wolmar

Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, BRICs, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, deskilling, Diane Coyle, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Tesla Model S, Travis Kalanick, wikimedia commons, Zipcar

By Grendelkhan (own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/​ by‑sa/​4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Uber’s self-driving car test driving in downtown San Francisco’ (page 21). By Diablanco (own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creative​com​ m​ons​​.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Levels of automation’ (page 38). Created for this book by the publisher. ‘In 100 metres turn left (but only if you are on foot)’ (page 47). By David Stowell (from geograph.org.uk) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https:// creative​commons​.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘431ch twin turbo 3.0 550N.m 1572kg 0-100 en 4.1sec à partir de 82 300 €’ (page 60). By Falcon® Photography from France [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creative​commons​.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons. ‘Looking northeast as bicyclers go down 5th Avenue after a snowfall’ (page 79).

‘Looking northeast as bicyclers go down 5th Avenue after a snowfall’ (page 79). By Jim Henderson (own work) [CC0 1.0 Universal (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons. Photo credits ‘A massive pothole in Carisbrooke Road, Newport, Isle of Wight, so big it had to be sectioned off to prevent cars getting damaged by driving over it’ (page 86). By Editor5807 (own work) [GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 (https://commons.wikimedia. org/​w iki/​C ommons:GNU_Free_Documentation_License,_version​ _1.2)] via Wikimedia Commons. 120 PERSPECTIVES Centennial Scholar are at essays the Brookings Institution, and co-author of The Perspectives on big ideas by leading writers, each given Revolution free rein and a modest word limit to reframe an issue of Metropolitan great contemporary interest.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Figure 6 NASA Great Images. Figure 7 Wikimedia Commons and Fastfission. Figure 8 Wikimedia Commons and Lokilech. Figure 9 Wikimedia Commons and Russian Federation. Figure 10 Mark Wade/Astronautix .com. Figure 11 U.S. Government/USAF. Figure 12 Roel van der Hoorn/NASA. Figure 13 NASA. Figure 14 Wikipedia Commons and David Kring/USRA. Figure 15 Wikimedia Commons and NOAA/Mysid. Figure 16 Chris Impey. Figure 17 Chris Impey. Figure 18 Wikimedia Commons and Kelvin Case. Figure 19 “Countdown Continues on Commercial Flight,” Albuquerque Journal. Figure 20 NASA/Regan Geeseman. Figure 21 SpaceX. Figure 22 NASA. Figure 23 U.S. Government/FAA. Figure 24 Wikimedia Commons and Nasa.apollo. Figure 25 NASA/Kennedy Space Center. Figure 26 Andrew Ketsdever. Figure 27 NASA/JPL. Figure 28 NASA. Figure 29 Wikimedia Commons and Aldaron.

Figure 45 Biosphere 2, College of Science, University of Arizona. Figure 46 NASA. Figure 47 NASA/JSC. Figure 48 Javiera Guedes. Figure 49 U.S. Government/LLNL. Figure 50 NASA. Figure 51 NASA. Figure 52 Wikimedia Commons and Picoquant. Figure 53 H. Schweiker/WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF. Figure 54 NASA. Figure 55 Wikimedia Commons and Fastfission. Figure 56 Chris Impey. Figure 57 Wikimedia Commons and Bibi Saint-Pol. Figure 58 Andrei Linde. Figure 59 Wikimedia Commons and Was a bee. Index Page numbers listed correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. Page numbers starting with 265 refer to endnotes. Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations. Able (monkey), 47–48 Aboriginal Australians, 8 abstract thinking, 13–17, 18–19 Abu Dhabi, UAE, 106 Adams, Mike, 82 adenine, 6 Advanced Robotic Development Lab, 206 aerodynamics, 26, 66–73, 82–83 aesthetic judgment, 15 A4 rocket, 33 Africa, 15–16, 120 as origin site for early human dispersion, 5, 7–8, 11, 15, 118, 186, 202, 218, 262 Air Force, US, 239 covert projects of, 69, 72 in rocket development, 36–37, 48, 71, 85 Rutan’s work for, 82 in space exploration, 50, 73, 272 airplanes: development of, 69–72, 83, 262 safety of, 108, 109 Albert (monkey), 47 Alcubierre, Miguel, 229–30 Aldrin, Buzz, 108, 170 aliens, extraterrestrial: aggressive, 259 hyperintelligent, 258, 260, 260, 262 hypothetical categorization of, 252–57 lack of evidence of, 236–37, 239–44, 257, 291 potential to communicate with, 52, 189, 234–35, 238, 239, 246 potentially dead civilizations of, 243–44 search for, 186–91, 189, 236–44, 246, 291 aliens, extraterrestrial (continued) speculative number of, 188, 233–35 as unrecognizable, 216, 244 Allen, John, 192–93 Allen, Paul, 84–85, 188 Allen Telescope Array, 188–89, 243 Alling, Abigail, 194 Alpha Centauri system, 132, 133, 215, 216, 219–20, 222, 225–26 Alzheimer’s disease, 115 Amazon, 79, 103 Americas: European settlement of, 204, 243, 250 population dispersion into, 8, 218 amino acids, 8 Amish, 203 ammonia, 125, 173 Anaxagoras, 17–18, 17 Anderson, Eric, 275 Anderson, Laurie, 76 Anders, William, 270 Andes mountains, 172 population adaptation to altitude in, 119 Andreessen, Marc, 79 Andrews, Dana, 223 animals: in Biosphere 2, 193 evolution of, 172 human beings compared to, 186, 262 minimum viable population in, 201 in religious sacrifice, 119 in scientific research, 46–49, 250–51 Anonym, Lepht, 207 Ansari, Anousheh, 91 Antarctica, 169 Antares rocket, 275 anthropocentrism, 244, 291 antimatter, 221–22, 254 ants, 193 apes, human beings compared to, 10 Apollo 1, loss of crew of, 43, 107 Apollo 11, 13, 30, 45, 56 Apollo program, 30, 42–44, 49–51, 55, 64, 108, 157–58, 158, 170, 176, 196, 219, 270, 271, 272 Arabs, use of rockets by, 23 Archon Genomics X Prize, 93 Archytas, 19, 22 Area 51, 238, 240 Arecibo Observatory, 239, 243, 292–93 Ares, 163 Ariane 5 rocket, 113 Arianespace, 106 Aristarchus, 19 Aristotle, 19–20 Arizona, University of, 193 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of, 156 arms race, 24, 36, 139 Armstrong, Neil, 43, 45, 56, 71, 74, 108, 158 Army, German, Ordnance Department, 32 Army, US: in rocket development, 35, 36 in space exploration, 50 Art of Electronics, The (Horowitz), 237 artificial intelligence (AI), 179, 208, 245, 249, 259 human intelligence surpassed by, 258 Artist in Space program, 74, 76 Artsutanov, Yuri, 149 Asia, population dispersion into, 7–8, 11, 15, 218 Asimov, Isaac, 94 Asteroid Redirect Mission, 104–5, 146, 156 asteroids: capture of, 104–5, 146, 173, 276 impacts by, 245 mining of, 155–56, 182 astrobiology, 123–24 astronauts, 141, 272 physiological effects on, 114–17 selection criteria for, 73–75 sex and, 200 see also specific individuals Atacama Desert, population adaptation to dry environment in, 119 Athene, 163 Atlantic Ocean, first non-stop flight over, 90–91 Atlas rocket, 36–37, 71, 72 atmosphere: of Earth, 8, 70–71, 70, 118, 167, 172, 174 of exoplanets, 216 habitability requirements for, 132–33, 216–17 of Mars, 124, 164–66, 173–74, 216 of Venus, 171 atomic bomb: Soviet, 35, 36 US development of, 35, 36, 239, 244 atomic energy, 219, 244 Atomic Energy Commission, 99, 222 Atomists, 18 atoms, 19 manipulation of, 258 in nanotechnology, 151 rearrangement of, 229–30, 232 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 11, 12, 86 Australia: isolation in, 204 population dispersion into, 7–8 Autonomous Nanotechnological Swarm (ANTS), 182 aviation industry, 91, 99 accident rate for, 108 Aviation Week, 71 B-2 bomber, 70 Babylonians, 163 Bacon, Roger, 23 bacteria, 172, 180 Baikonur Cosmodrome, 65–66 Bailey, Ronald, 207 Baker, David, 169 ballistic missiles (ICBMs): Chinese, 141 intercontinental, 36–37, 65 long-range, 30–34, 33 balloons: flight principles for, 68–69 high-altitude, 32 hot-air, 47, 68, 89 Barrow, John, 258 Bass, Ed, 192–93, 285 Baumgartner, Felix, 68, 272 Baum, L.

Figure 29 Wikimedia Commons and Aldaron. Figure 30 Matthew R. Francis. Figure 31 Planetary Habitability Laboratory/University of Puerto Rico. Figure 32 Postage stamp, Chinese State. Figure 33 Wikimedia Commons and Dave Rajczewski. Figure 34 Data source reports of Satellite Industry Association. Figure 35 Patrick Collins. Figure 36 NASA/Dennis M. Davidson. Figure 37 NASA. Figure 38 NASA/JPL/University of Arizona. Figure 39 NASA/JPL/Caltech. Figure 40 NASA/John Frassanito and Associates. Figure 41 NASA. Figure 42 Christopher Barnatt/Explaining the Future.com. Figure 43 NASA/MSFC/D. Higginbotham. Figure 44 From Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization by Robert A. Freitas, Jr., 1979, Xenology Research Institute, Sacramento, California. Figure 45 Biosphere 2, College of Science, University of Arizona.


pages: 345 words: 84,847

The Runaway Species: How Human Creativity Remakes the World by David Eagleman, Anthony Brandt

active measures, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, haute couture, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, lone genius, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, microbiome, Netflix Prize, new economy, New Journalism, pets.com, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, X Prize

Hersom Snowboard bicycle Courtesy of Michael Killian DiCycle Courtesy of GBO Innovation Makers, www.gbo.eu Conference bicycle Photo by Frank C. Müller [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons National Football Stadium of Brasilia, Brazil (No attribution required) Stadion Miejski, Poznan, Poland By Ehreii – Own work, CC BY 3.0, http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10804159 Stadium of SC Beira-Mar at Aveiro, Portugal CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=139668 Saddledome, Calgary, Alberta, Canada By abdallahh from Montréal, Canada (Calgary Saddledome Uploaded by X-Weinzar) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography showing diminishing response to a repeated stimulus Courtesy of Carles Escera, BrainLab, University of Barcelona Skeuomorph of a digital bookshelf By Jonobacon Apple Watch By Justin14 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Chapter 2 An advertisement for the Casio AT-550-7 © Casio Computer Company, Ltd.

Photo by Americasroof JR: Mohamed Yunis Idris Courtesy of JR-art.net Alberto Giocometti: Piazza Guggenheim Museum of Art, New York © 2016 Alberto Giacometti Estate/Licensed by VAGA and ARS, New York, NY Anastasia Elias: Pyramide Courtesy of the artist Vic Muniz: Sandcastle no. 3 Art © Vik Muniz/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY The views through an unpolarized windshield and Land’s polarized one Courtesy of Victor McElheny Two photographs of Martha Graham from the Barbara and Willard Morgan photographs and papers (Collection 2278): “Letter to the World” and “Lamentation” Barbara and Willard Morgan photographs and papers, Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA Frank Gehry and Vladu Milunic: Dancing House, Prague, Czechoslovakia Photo by Christine Zenino [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Frank Gehry: Beekman Tower, New York City (No attribution required) Frank Gehry: Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, Nevada Photo by John Fowler [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Volute conforming tank Courtesy of Volute Inc., an Otherlad company Claes Oldenburg: Icebag – Scale B, 16/25, 1971. Programmed kinetic construction in aluminum, steel, nylon, fiberglass. Dimensions variable 48 x 48 x 40 in. (121.9 x 121.9 x 101.6 cm). Edition of 25 Private Collection, James Goodman Gallery, New York, USA/Bridgeman Images. ©1971 Claes Oldenburg Ant-Roach Courtesy of Otherlab Roy Lichtenstein: Rouen Cathedral, Set 5 1969 Oil and Magna on canvas 63 x 42 in. (160 x 106.7 cm) (each) Courtesy of the estate of Roy Lichtenstein Monet: Water-lilies and Japanese bridge Princeton University Art Museum.

Chapter 5 Minotaur (No attribution required) Sphinx Photo credit: Nadine Doerle Dona Fish, Ovimbundu peoples, Angola Circa 1950s-1960s Wood, pigment, metal, mixed media H 75 cm Fowler Museum at UCLA X2010.20.1; Gift of Allen F. Roberts and Mary Nooter Roberts Image © courtesy Fowler Museum at UCLA. Photography by Don Cole, 2007 Ruppy the Puppy in daylight and darkness Courtesy of CheMyong Jay Ko, PhD Human skeleton Photo by Sklmsta [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons Joris Laarman bone rocker Image courtesy of Friedman Benda and Joris Laarman Lab. Photography: Steve Benisty Kingfisher bird Photo by Andreas Trepte Shinkansen series N700 bullet train By Scfema, via Wikimedia Commons Girl (Simone Leigh + Chitra Ganesh): My dreams, my works must wait till after hell, 2012 Single-channel HD video, 07:14 min RT, Edition of 5 Courtesy of the artists Sewell family photo Courtesy of Jason Sewell HDR photograph of Goldstream Provincial Park Photo by Brandon Godfrey Louvre Pyramid (No attribution required) Frida Kahlo: La Venadita Formerly in the collection of Dr.


The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World by Catherine Nixey

Eratosthenes, Index librorum prohibitorum, Socratic dialogue, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons

Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite, from the Parthenon East Pediment © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons, via Wikimedia Commons 17. The left-hand group of surviving figures from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, exhibited as part of the Elgin Marbles © Andrew Dunn, 3 December 2005 via Wikimedia Commons SECTION TWO 1. A green basanite bust of Germanicus Caesar, Roman, Egypt © The Trustees of the British Museum 2. Saint Apollonia Destroys a Pagan Idol by Giovanni d’Alemagna, c. 1442–5 © by Daderot (own work) [Public domain or CC0], via Wikimedia Commons 3. A photograph of a cult statue of the deified Augustus at the Ephesus museum in Selçuk, Turkey by QuartierLatin1968 (own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/­fdl.html)] via Wikimedia Commons 4. Theophilus standing on the Serapeion, Goleniscev Papyrus, 5th century, unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 5.

A funerary stele of Licinia Amias, Rome, early 3rd century AD by Unknown. Marie-Lan Nguyen (own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 7. The Allegory of the Deadly Sins by Vincent de Beauvais, historical mirror, Paris, 1463 © Paris, BNF, Department of Manuscripts, French 50, fol. 25 8. A bust of Epicurus (341–270 BC) in stone © Musei Capitolini, Rome, Italy / Bridgeman Images 9. A bust of Lucretius the Roman philosophical poet (96?–55 BC) © Granger / Bridgeman Images 10. Emperor Constantine and the Council of Nicaea with the burning of Arian books illustrated below, Italian manuscript, 9th century AD by James Steakleym, artwork: unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 11. A fresco of the raising of Lazarus, catacombs of Via Latina, Rome, 4th century AD © Catacomb of Via Latina, Rome, Italy / Bridgeman Images 12.

Theophilus standing on the Serapeion, Goleniscev Papyrus, 5th century, unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 5. A photo of a Byzantine Chapel in Roman amphitheatre, Duresi, Albania © Julian Chichester / Bridgeman Images 6. A portrait of Hypatia by Charles William Mitchell, 1885, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK / © Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums / Bridgeman Images 7. The Archimedes palimpsest, c. 10th–13th century, Private Collection / Photo © Christie’s Images / Bridgeman Images 8. Theological debate between Catholic and Nestorian Christians at Acre, 1290 CE, pictures from History / Bridgeman Images 9. A fresco of satyr and maenad at Pompeii, 1st century BC, Private Collection / Index / Bridgeman Images 10. A fresco of Priapus, from the Casa dei Vettii AD c. 50–79 © Pompeii, Italy / Bridgeman Images 11. Hell, Portuguese School, 16th century © Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon, Portugal / Bridgeman Images 12.


Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models by Gabriel Weinberg, Lauren McCann

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business process, butterfly effect, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, fear of failure, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hindsight bias, housing crisis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, income inequality, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, lateral thinking, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, mail merge, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, Potemkin village, prediction markets, premature optimization, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, publication bias, recommendation engine, remote working, replication crisis, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Shai Danziger, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, uber lyft, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

All rights reserved. 36: Adapted from Creative Commons image: Martinowsky and Chiswick Chap, “Natural selection in action: light and dark morphs of the peppered moth, Biston betularia,” Wikimedia Commons, February 18, 2007, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lichte_en_zwarte_versie_berkenspanner_crop.jpg. 37: Cartoon by Larry Lambert. 38: “Inertia - Demotivational Poster,” Fake Posters, July 22, 2009, www.fakeposters.com/posters/inertia. 39: Communic@tions Management Inc., “Sixty Years of Daily Newspaper Circulation: Canada, United States, United Kingdom,” (May 6, 2011), http://media-cmi.com/downloads/Sixty_Years_Daily_Newspaper_Circulation_Trends_050611.pdf. 40: Adapted from a Creative Commons image. Birmingham Museums Trust, “Richard Trevithick’s 1802 steam locomotive,” Wikimedia Commons, August 11, 2005, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel#/media/File:Thinktank_Birmingham_-_Trevithick_Locomotive(1).jpg. 41: Adapted from public domain image.

Damian Yerrick, “Illustration of a roly-poly toy viewed from the side. The red and white bullseye represents the figurine’s center of mass (COM).” Wikimedia Commons, August 15, 2009, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poli_Gus_N_rocked.svg. 42: “How does a Nuclear Bomb work?” Figure 1: The Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction, guernseyDonkey.com, February 24, 2012. 43: Peter Leyden, “Historical Adoption Rates of Communication Technologies,” infographic. 44: Justin McCarthy, “Record-High 60% of Americans Support Same-Sex Marriage,” Gallup (May 19, 2015). 45: Adapted from a Creative Commons image. Woody993, “Diagram showing the network effect in a few simple phone networks,” Wikimedia Commons, May 31, 2011, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metcalfe’s_law#/media/File:Metcalfe-Network-Effect.svg [inactive]. 46: J.

Joss Whedon (Marvel Studios, 2012). 2: Adapted from Apollo 13, dir. Ron Howard (Imagine Entertainment, 1995). 3: Based on a meme from “What is the next step with our MVP?” Gerry Claps, Quora, September 10, 2015, www.quora.com/what-is-the-next-step-with-our-mvp. 4: Adapted from Creative Commons image: Ghiles, “Somewhat noisy linear data fit to both a linear function and to a polynomial of 10 degrees,” Wikimedia Commons, March 11, 2016, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Overfitted_Data.png. 5: Cartoon by Wiley Miller. 6: Headlines from August 31, 2015, on foxnews.com and cnn.com. Both early headlines have since been altered, though the final stories from the following day are still available: “Atlanta-Area Police Officer Shot after Responding to Wrong Home,” Fox News, September 1, 2015, www.foxnews.com/us/atlanta-area-police-officer-shot-after-responding-to-wrong-home; Eliott C.


The Atlas of Disease by Sandra Hempel

clean water, coronavirus, global pandemic, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, out of africa, trade route, wikimedia commons

145 U Urbani, Carlo 62 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 63, 77, 166, 185, 197, 200, 214 V vaccination 8 diphtheria 19 measles 47 polio 179 smallpox 75 tuberculosis (TB) 89 typhoid 116 yellow fever 158 Variola virus 72, 77 Verdi, Giuseppe 82 Vibrio cholera 94 Victoria 113 Voltaire, François 209 W Wakefield, Andrew 47 Walpole, Horace 122 war fever 144 War of Jenkins’ Ear 154 Warren, Charles 113 waterborne infections cholera 92 dysentery 102 typhoid 108 whooping cough 46 William and Mary 73 Wolbachia pipientis 167 Wood, Anthony à 104 World Health Assembly 179 World Health Organization (WHO) 19, 37 AIDS 202, 203 cholera 101 dysentery 104 ebola 185, 189, 202 malaria 127 measles 47, 49, 51 polio 179 SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) 62, 68 smallpox 77 tuberculosis (TB) 89 typhoid 117 yellow fever 158 zika 163, 166 Y yellow fever 8, 63, 126, 150, 163, 166, 167, 184 Areas with risk of yellow fever transmission in 2017 156 Confirmed cases of yellow fever during the Angola outbreak December 2015 to June 2016 159 from African rainforests to the New World 153 transmission in different habitats 155 yellow fever in the twenty-first century 158 Yersin, Alexandre 141 Yersinia pestis 134, 141 Z Zaire ebolavirus 185 zika 160 complacency leads to outbreaks 166 emergence of new strain 162 First recorded incidence of Zika virus around the globe 164 Spread of zika virus during 2013 outbreak 168 spreading through Latin America 163 still a lot to learn 167 zika linked to microcephaly 163 zika reaches Brazil 163 Credits 7 ‘A map taken from a report by Dr. John Snow’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 13 Wikimedia Commons, URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:El_Lazarillo_de_Tormes_de_Goya.jpg; 14 Melba Photo Agency/Alamy Stock Photo; 15 ‘Symptoms of diptheria, in Koplik’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 19 Mary Evans/Library of Congress; 23 ‘Charles Kean, ill with flu. Coloured etching’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 24 ‘Drawing of the 1918 Influenza: Lymph sinus’ by John George Adami, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 28 ‘A monster representing an influenza virus hitting a man over the head as he sits in his armchair’, pen and ink drawing by Ernest Noble, c. 1918, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 33 ‘28 year old woman with leprosy, from the title “Om spedalskhed … Atlas/udgivet efter foranstaltning of den Kongelige Norske Regjerings Department for det Indre.

(Wilhelm), 1808–75’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 34 ‘The Leprosy Man’ woodcut, akg-images; 35 ‘Leprosy of the skin: an Indian man with red patches on his chest. Watercolour (by Jane Jackson), 1921/1950, after a (painting) by Ernest Muir, c. 1921’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 39 ‘Leprosy poster, India, 1950s’ by Hind Kusht Nivaran Sangh, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 43 VintageMedStock/Alamy Stock Photo; 44 Scott Camazine/Alamy Stock Photo; 45 Chronicle/Alamy Stock Photo; 46 CCI Archives/Science Photo Library; 47 Australian War Memorial/Wikimedia Commons, URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HMS_Dido_(1869)_AWM_302178.jpeg; 49 ‘Four children, two with measles, in the same bed: their mother tells the district nurse that there is no risk of infection’, wood engraving by Starr Wood, 1915, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 53 VintageMedStock/Alamy Stock Photo; 54 Gado Images/Alamy Stock Photo; 55 © Florilegius/Getty Images; 58 ‘A country vicar visiting a family where a child has been suffering from scarlet fever’, wood engraving by Claude Alin Shepperson, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 61 Scott Camazine/Alamy Stock Photo; 62 Phanie/Alamy Stock Photo; 68 Luis Enrique Ascui/Stringer/Getty Images; 69 Iain Masterton/Alamy Stock Photo; 71 ‘Edward Jenner vaccinating patients against smallpox’ by James Gillray, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 73 ‘Smallpox, textured illustration, Japanese manuscript, c. 1720’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 74 ‘Ships used as smallpox isolation hospitals’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 75 ‘Gloucester smallpox epidemic, 1896: a ward in the isolation hospital’, photograph by H.C.F., 1896, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 77 ‘St Pancras Smallpox Hospital, London: housed in a tented camp at Finchley’, watercolour by Frank Collins, 1881, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 81 ‘A health visitor holding a small child, promoting a campaign against tuberculosis and infant mortality’, colour process print by Jules Marie Auguste Leroux, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 82 Hulton Archive/Stringer/Getty Images; 89 ‘Liverpool’s x-ray campaign against tuberculosis’, lithograph, c. 1960, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 93 ‘John Bull defending Britain against the invasion of cholera; satirizing resistance to the Reform Bill’, coloured lithograph, c. 1832, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 94 ‘A cholera patient experimenting with remedies’, coloured etching by Robert Cruikshank, c. 1832, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 95 ‘Actual & supposed routes of Cholera from Hindoostan to Europe’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 97 ‘John Snow, 1856’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 98 ‘A map taken from a report by Dr.

John Snow’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 103 ‘Soldier suffering from dysentery’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 106 Universal History Archive/Getty Images; 109 ‘Man suffering from typhoid’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 110 Shutterstock; 111 ‘The angel of death (a winged skeletal creature) drops some deadly substances into a river near a town; representing typhoid’, watercolour, 1912, by Richard Tennant Cooper, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 112 Science & Society Picture Library/Getty Images; 113 Mary Evans Picture Library; 117 ‘Anti-typhoid vaccination in World War I’, photograph, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 121 ‘Lady suffering from malaria’, Abb 7, page 82, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 122 ‘Illustrations of parasites that cause malaria, 1901’, by Giovanni Battista Grassi, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 124 ‘Map of the world, showing positions of malaria’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 125 ‘The malaria mosquito forming the eye-sockets of a skull, rep’, by Abram Games, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 126 ‘World Health Organisation Interim Committee on malaria’, photograph, 1947, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 133 ‘A physician wearing a seventeenth-century plague preventive costume’, watercolour, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 134 ‘The dance of death’, lithograph after A. Dauzats, 1831, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 135 Wikimedia Commons, URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pieter_Bruegel_the_Elder_-_The_Triumph_of_Death_-_WGA3389.jpg; 139 ‘A cart for transporting the dead in London during the great’, by George Cruikshank, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 143 ‘Soldiers suffering from typhus, lying in the streets’, lithograph by E. Leroux after A. Raffet, by Denis-Auguste-Marie Raffet, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 144 Mary Evans Picture Library; 147 ‘After the defeat of the White Army, a new white peril threatens in the form of the typhus louse, against which the Red soldiers fight by washing themselves and their clothes vigorously’, colour lithograph, c. 1921, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 151 ‘Different stages of yellow fever, 1820’, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 152 ‘Yellow fever: section of the liver of a patient infected with yellow fever’, watercolour, c. 1920, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 153 ‘A parodic cosmological diagram showing opposing aspects of the life of colonialists in Jamaica – langorous noons and the hells of yellow fever’, coloured aquatint by A.J., 1800, Wellcome Collection, CC BY; 154 Mary Evans Picture Library/Everett Collection; 155 ‘A yellow quarantine flag, signalling yellow fever, raised on a ship anchored at sea some distance from a port’, watercolour by E.


pages: 312 words: 93,504

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2010_submis sions/220/ Collins, R. (1990). Market closure and the conflict theory of the professions. In M. Burrage & R. Torstendahl (Eds.), Professions in theory and history: Rethinking the study of the professions. London: Sage. Commons talk:Sexual content. (2013, August 17). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons_talk:Sexual _content/Archive_4 Commons:Deletion requests/file:Jimmy Wales by Pricasso.jpg. (2013, August 20). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/Commons:Deletion_requests/File:Jimmy_Wales_by_Pricasso.jpg 2 4 6    R e f e r e n c e s Community Logo/Request for consultation. (2013, October 29). Wikimedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Community_Logo/ Request_for_consultation Conlon, M.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Second International Conference on Social Computing (pp. 17–24). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Turner, F. (2006). From counterculture to cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the rise of digital utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. User talk:Jimbo Wales/Archive. (2010, May 9). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/Archive 2 7 6    R e f e r e n c e s User talk:Jimbo Wales/Archive/2010/5. (2010, June 5). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Jimbo _Wales/Archive/2010/5 User talk:Jimbo Wales/Difference between revisions. (2011, August 24). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User _talk%3AJimbo_Wales&diff=446424770&oldid=446419156 User talk:John Cline: Difference between revisions. (2011, March 18).

The debate, held at Wikiversity but also partly on Meta-Wiki6 and on the discussion lists, exceeded sixty thousand words and stimulated another L e a d e r s h i p T r a n s f o r m e d   1 6 7 debate, started on Wikimedia on March 25, 2010, on whether Wales should have his founder flag removed because of his transgressions (see “Requests for Comment,” 2013). Toward the end of March votes favored Wales: eighteen supporting removal, twenty-six against, three abstaining. Then another unfortunate event took place. Child Pornography? In April 2010 Larry Sanger sent a letter to the FBI accusing Wikimedia Commons of hosting child pornography (Metz, 2010) and other hard pornographic images. The message, aimed at the media, was clear: Wikipedia, though positioning itself as an educational and knowledge-sharing website, contained explicit, potentially offensive, or even illegal images. The topic was eagerly picked up by FoxNews.com (Winter, 2010c). This could have been disastrous to the Wikimedia projects’ image, and Wales decided a speedy reaction was necessary.


From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Yet when they considered their land’s international situation, two issues troubled them: first, that if they did not keep up intense efforts to promote the Magyar language and suffocate all competitors, Hungary would disappear as a nation. But second, if they did not do something about Hungary’s wretched economic backwardness, the land would never stand as an equal to the great nations of Western Europe. FIGURE 4.1. Count Széchényi donates a year’s income to found the Hungarian Academy (1825). Source: Drawing by Vinzenz Katzler. Via Wikimedia Commons. The nobles traveled to England and envied everything they saw, from the gentry and its affluent and self-confidant lifestyle, to the busy factories that could produce thousands of shoes in a day. In 1822 the patriot Baron Miklós Wesselényi described his impressions to a friend. “One glass factory, coal mine, and iron works next to the other,” he wrote, “The entire area is covered by fire and smoke like the scenery of the last judgment.”

By the late nineteenth century, they owned substantial sectors of Bohemian industry and commerce and on the eve of World War I had more than two billion crowns in banks and savings accounts (in all of Austria, there were 6.3 billion crowns in savings accounts).59 FIGURE 4.2. Laying Down the Foundation at the National Theatre in Prague (May 16, 1868). Source: Zlatá Praha 33 (1908), 378. Via Wikimedia Commons. This campaign for economic equality accompanied the struggle for control of political and cultural institutions. In Prague there were German and Czech casinos, but from the 1850s, the latter came to overshadow the former.60 In 1868 ground was finally broken for the Czech National Theater, but unlike the Hungarian, it was built not with state money, but from donations of uncounted Czechs.

Through the spring and summer, Kościuszko worked to fortify the capital and created a National Governing Council, staffing it with moderates. However, radicals predominated in the city government, and they publicly hanged Poles suspected of assisting the partitioning powers.17 FIGURE 5.1. Hanging traitors in effigy (1794). Source: Jean-Pierre Norblin de la Gourdaine, National Museum, Warsaw. Via Wikimedia Commons. By June, Polish forces had engaged Russian, Prussian, and Austrian armies, but were falling back. First the Austrians took Kraków, Sandomierz, and Lublin; then Russian forces seized Wilno and placed Warsaw under siege, with Prince Poniatowski leading the defense. Poles in Prussian territories to the northwest provided relief by liberating towns and drawing away Prussian forces, but from the east, a new and huge Russian army descended, scoring a decisive victory south of Warsaw on October 10.


pages: 352 words: 87,930

Space 2.0 by Rod Pyle

additive manufacturing, air freight, barriers to entry, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, experimental subject, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, mouse model, risk-adjusted returns, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, telerobotics, trade route, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Y Combinator

The transition from the Los Angeles metropolis to high desert is gradual. Once past the extended suburbs of Palmdale and Lancaster, one passes through sun-bleached housing developments and generic industrial parks until the city runs out, as if it simply lost the will to go on. Only the occasional cluster of gas stations and fast-food outlets break the desolation. The drive to the city of Mojave, California. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons/Theschmallfella Then you cross into the historic city of Mojave, which began life as a railroad town in 1876 and later became a stopover on the main highway between Southern California and the old gold-rush country to the north. In 1964, the construction of Highway 58 largely bypassed the town. The business district is now a combination of gas stations and fast-food franchises interspersed with older, sometimes abandoned buildings, from which paint peels like cornflakes.

This modern craft is patterned after a decade of pioneering work by Burt Rutan, the man who built a rocketplane to win the Ansari X Prize. Rutan won the multimillion-dollar cash award in 2004 for flying SpaceShipOne twice in one week to the edge of space. He subsequently merged his efforts with Branson, though Rutan later left the company to pursue other space ventures. But his unique and innovative rocketplane design concepts live on. Entrance to Mojave Spaceport. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons/Californiacondor Virgin’s assembly facility fills a vast modern building amid smaller, older hangars. The only way you would know that anything special takes place here is the large sign across the single glass protrusion out front bearing the word FAITH in tall white letters—an acronym for Final Assembly, Integration, and Test Hangar. From the outside, the facility takes more cues from the rough-and-ready days of test flight than from NASA’s massive operations in Florida and Texas.

If it weren’t for the magnificent rocketplane and its carrier craft sitting boldly in the middle of the shop, gleaming white and chrome under the bright lights, it could be any midsized machine shop. To someone used to the vast spaces and precise, Germanic layouts of NASA facilities, this looks almost casual—just a couple dozen workers on any given shift, enthusiastically fabricating the future. Virgin Galactic’s Mojave facility. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons/Ed Parsons The author inside Virgin Galactic’s fabrication and assembly facility, in front of the carrier airplane Eve. This twin-fuselage jet carries Virgin’s rocketplane Unity to altitude before it detaches and begins its rocket-powered climb to space. Image credit: Rod Pyle A group of engineers—three men and two women—are collected underneath Unity’s left wing. The rocketplane is supported on jack stands, and the left landing gear is up, tucked inside the fuselage as it would be during flight.


pages: 1,048 words: 187,324

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Arrington p. 350; Paul Hall p. 318; Dick Jones p. 286 (btm); Brad Kisling/Museum of Clean p. 311 (btm left & btm right); Knight’s Spider Web Farm p. 375; Leather Archives & Museum p. 319; Jennifer Mishra p. 321 (top); MJT p. 281; Mukluk Land p. 377 (all); Nick Peña p. 304; Steven Orfield of Orfield Laboratories, Inc. p. 329 (btm); The Paper House p. 373; Steven Pierson p. 324; Center for PostNatural History p. 362; Richard Reames-Arborsmith p. 288 (btm); Skeletons: A Museum of Osteology/Skulls Unlimited, Inc. p. 316 (all); Unclaimed Baggage Center p. 339; Bruce Wicks p. 323 (all). Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Dppowell p. 313 (top). Public Domain: Federal Aviation Administration/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 290 (top); U.S. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, “Built in America” Collection/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 315 (top); The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Healing Devices (FDA 138)/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 370; US Army Corps of Engineers/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain; U.S. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Collection p. 367 (top). Atlas Obscura Contributors: Ashley Avey p. 298 (spot); Kyle Bennett p. 312; Lindsey K Biscardi p. 366 (btm); K.

Matteo Bertolino/matteobertolino.com: p. 200. fotolia: demerzel21 p. 214 (top); dpreezg p. 215; luisapuccini p. 209 (top); piccaya p. 201. Getty Images: DigitalGlobe/ScapeWare3d p. 202. naturepl.com: Ian Redmond p. 210 (inset). William Clowes: p. 207. Courtesy Photos: NLÉ p. 203. Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Santa Martha p. 213. OCEANIA agefotostock: Auscape/UIG pp. 231 (btm), 237; Joe Dovala/WaterFra p. 247; Jim Harding p. 251; Jean-Marc La-Roque p. 239 (pineapple); Keven O’Hara p. 241 (btm). Alamy Stock Photo: Bill Bachman p. 236 (btm); Robert Bird p. 242 (top); Jan Butchofsky p. 252; chris24 p. 238 (guitar); Christine Osborne Pictures p. 238 (banana); Iconsinternational.com p. 239 (Big Ned); John White Photos p. 239 (Big Galah); Martin Norris Travel Photography 2 p. 232; National Geographic Image Collection p. 239 (koala); Stefano Ravera p. 238 (mango); Andrew Sole p. 242 (btm); Steve Davey Photography p. 253; Jack Sullivan p. 239 (prawn); Wiskerke p. 238–239 (merino); ian woolcock p. 233; Zoonar GmbH p. 238–239 (crocodile). fotolia: Tommaso Lizzul p. 230.

Getty Images: The Asahi Shimbun p. 245 (btm); Ben Bohane/AFP p. 254; Desmond Morris Collection/UIG p. 245 (top); Don Kelsen/Los Angeles Times p. 241 (top); Mitch Reardon/Lonely Planet Images p. 231 (top); Oliver Strewe/Lonely Planet Images p. 249; Michele Westmorland/The Image Bank p. 248. REX/Shutterstock: Newspix p. 227. Martin Rietze/mrietze.com: p. 243. Courtesy Photos: Patrick J Gallagher p. 235 (btm); David Hartley-Mitchell p. 240 (top); Malcolm Rees p. 244; National Library Australia/Trove p. 236 (top). Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Peter Campbell p. 234. Atlas Obscura Contributors: Jonatan Jansson p. 226; Céline Meyer p.240 (btm); Amanda Olliek p. 235 (top). CANADA Alamy Stock Photo: 914 Collection p. 258 (btm); All Canada Photos pp. 260, 261, 263 (center right), 267; Alt-6 p. 274 (top); blickwinkel p. 265; Yvette Cardozo pp. 262 (btm), 273 (top); Cosmo Condina p. 269; INTERFOTO p. 264 (btm); Andre Jenny pp. 259 (btm), 273 (btm); Lannen/Kelly Photo p. 274 (btm); Ilene MacDonald p. 266; Mary Evans Picture Library p. 268; Susan Montgomery p. 271 (btm); Radharc Images p. 264 (top); Randsc p. 272; Michael Wheatley p. 257.


I You We Them by Dan Gretton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

I You We Them: List of Illustrations Book One: Map of Fitzrovia to Soho walk Joff Winterhart Map of old Highbury area Darren Bennett Map of Suffolk 1753 Robert Morden Map of Oswiecim today Darren Bennett Für das kind, Kindertransport memorial Flor Kent, 2003; image by Jams O’Donnell Author and J. in 1984 Author collection Author on Germany walk Author collection Saurer logo Adolph Saurer AG Rauff/Just memorandum Public domain Saurer logo at Arbon Author photograph Saurer sheds Author photograph Adolph Saurer memorial Author photograph Saurer offices Author photograph Saurer lorry Author photograph Saurer van Adolph Saurer AG Saurer assembly plant Adolph Saurer AG Saurer apprentices Adolph Saurer AG Saurer designer Adolph Saurer AG Former Saurer factory Author photograph China execution van AFP Gas flaring in Nigeria Both images Lionel Healing/AFP/Getty Images Ken Saro-Wiwa Times Newspapers/Shutterstock Meeting of RSW at Platform Emma Sangster Remember Saro-Wiwa bus memorial Platform collection Mark Moody-Stuart Gianluigi Guercia/AFP/Getty Images Shell Centre, London Wikimedia Commons 2004. Przemyslaw ‘BlueShade’ Idzkiewicz. Used under license: CC-BY-SA 1.0 Old Shell HQ, St Helen’s Place, London James Norton Henri Deterding Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Map of Berlin (overview) Darren Bennett Spanish Embassy, Berlin Wikimedia Commons 2008. Sargoth. Used under license: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Map of Berlin Day One Walk Darren Bennett T4 building, Tiergartenstrasse Landesarchiv Berlin Heydrich letter Public domain Georg Leibbrandt Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Wilhelm Stuckart Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Josef Bühler Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Alfred Meyer Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Rudolf Lange Bundesarchiv Roland Freisler Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Gerhard Klopfer Bundesarchiv Friedrich Kritzinger Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Erich Neumann Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Martin Luther Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Map of Berlin Day Two Walk: (1) Darren Bennett Map of Berlin Day Two Walk: (2) Darren Bennett Foreign Ministry, Berlin Wikimedia Commons.

Used under license: CC-BY-SA 2.5 Karl Dove Public domain Paul Rohrbach Public domain Eugen Fischer Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Captain Cook, from The Story of Captain Cook by L. du Garde Peach/John Kenney Penguin Random House Governor Sir George Arthur, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Truganini Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Sir Charles Trevelyan Universal History Archive/Getty Images Karl Marx Roger Viollet/Getty Images Willy Brandt in Warsaw, December 1970 Getty Images Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul and Namibian Public domain officials Namibia 2004 Turkish migrant worker in Germany, © Jean Mohr, Musée de 1973, from A Seventh Man by Berger/Mohr l’Elysee, Lausanne The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp, Public domain via Rembrandt van Rijn, 1632 Wikimedia Commons Self-Portrait with Velvet Beret, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Rembrandt van Rijn Farmhouse in Suffolk Author photograph Will of Sir Herbert Waterhouse Author collection Map of Weimar/Buchenwald walk Darren Bennett Goethe’s Gartenhaus, Weimar Wikimedia Commons 2014. Dr. Bernd Gross. Used under license: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Weimar to Buchenwald walk 1 Author photograph Weimar to Buchenwald walk 2 Author photograph Weimar to Buchenwald walk 3 Author photograph Weimar to Buchenwald walk 4 Author photograph Weimar to Buchenwald walk 5 Author photograph Weimar to Buchenwald walk 6 Author photograph The gates of Buchenwald Author photograph Jay Bybee Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Steven Bradbury Public domain via Wikimedia Common Kurt Schmitt of Allianz saluting behind Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Adolf Hitler, 1 May 1934 München/Bildarchiv Allianz advertisement Public domain Deutsche Bank advertisement Public domain Thomas Watson and Adolf Hitler Public domain Hollerith machine Public domain Table of the top 100 countries and Public domain (but based on Global corporations Justice Now’s original table) Spandau Prison Public domain Georges Casalis © Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français.

Used under license: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Map of Berlin Day One Walk Darren Bennett T4 building, Tiergartenstrasse Landesarchiv Berlin Heydrich letter Public domain Georg Leibbrandt Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Wilhelm Stuckart Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Josef Bühler Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Alfred Meyer Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Rudolf Lange Bundesarchiv Roland Freisler Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Gerhard Klopfer Bundesarchiv Friedrich Kritzinger Public domain via Wikimedia Commons Erich Neumann Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Martin Luther Ullstein Bild/Getty Images Map of Berlin Day Two Walk: (1) Darren Bennett Map of Berlin Day Two Walk: (2) Darren Bennett Foreign Ministry, Berlin Wikimedia Commons. Bundesarchiv. Used under license: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Führer Chancellery, Berlin Wikimedia Commons. Bundesarchiv. Used under license: CC-BY-SA 3.0 Site of former Fuhrer Chancellery, Berlin Author photograph Former German rail headquarters, Berlin Author photograph Former office of Adolf Eichmann, Berlin Public domain Former office of Adolf Eichmann, Berlin Ullstein Bild/TopFoto Grünewald station Author photograph Grünewald railway sleeper (one) Author photograph Grünewald railway sleeper (two) Author photograph Kinderzenen – Träumerei score by Public domain Schumann Diagram of Wannsee participants Darren Bennett Wannsee Conference minutes page 1 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 2 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 3 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 4 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 5 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 6 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 7 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 8 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 9 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 10 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 14 Public domain Wannsee Conference minutes page 15 Public domain The Wannsee Conference villa Author photograph Wannsee lake Author photograph The meeting room at the Haus der Wikimedia Commons 2017.


pages: 174 words: 56,405

Machine Translation by Thierry Poibeau

AltaVista, augmented reality, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, crowdsourcing, easy for humans, difficult for computers, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, information retrieval, Internet of things, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, natural language processing, Necker cube, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Robert Mercer, Skype, speech recognition, statistical model, technological singularity, Turing test, wikimedia commons

ISBN: 978-0-262-53421-5 eISBN 9780262342438 ePub Version 1.0 Table of Contents Series page Title page Copyright page Series Foreword Acknowledgments 1 Introduction 2 The Trouble with Translation 3 A Quick Overview of the Evolution of Machine Translation 4 Before the Advent of Computers… 5 The Beginnings of Machine Translation: The First Rule-Based Systems 6 The 1966 ALPAC Report and Its Consequences 7 Parallel Corpora and Sentence Alignment 8 Example-Based Machine Translation 9 Statistical Machine Translation and Word Alignment 10 Segment-Based Machine Translation 11 Challenges and Limitations of Statistical Machine Translation 12 Deep Learning Machine Translation 13 The Evaluation of Machine Translation Systems 14 The Machine Translation Industry: Between Professional and Mass-Market Applications 15 Conclusion: The Future of Machine Translation Glossary Bibliography and Further Reading Index About Author List of Tables Table 1 Example of possible translations in French for the English word “motion” List of Illustrations Figure 1 The Necker cube, the famous optical illusion published by Louis Albert Necker in 1832. (Image licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons. From https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Necker_cube.svg.) Figure 2 Vauquois’ triangle (image licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0, via WikiMedia Commons). Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Direct_translation_and_transfer_translation_pyramind.svg. Figure 3 An extract from the Hansard corpus aligned at sentence level. Figure 4 Two texts of different length. Each cell with a number n corresponds to a sentence of length n. Figure 5 Beginning of alignment based on sentence length.

Thanks to the communication context, the brain probably directly activates the “right” meaning, without even considering alternate solutions. A parallel has sometimes been proposed with the Necker cube, the representation of a cube seen in perspective with no depth cue (figure 1). Figure 1 The Necker cube, the famous optical illusion published by Louis Albert Necker in 1832. (Image licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons. From https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Necker_cube.svg.) The drawing is “ambiguous” in that no cue makes it possible to determine which side of the cube is in front and which side is at the back. However, it was noticed by Necker (and others before him) that humans naturally select one of the representations so that it makes sense and is coherent with the image of a cube in nature.

These three kinds of approaches can be considered to form a continuum, going from a strategy that is very close to the surface of the text (a word-for-word translation) up to systems trying to develop a fully artificial and abstract representation independent of any language. These varying strategies have been summarized in a very striking figure called the “Vauquois triangle,” from the name of a famous French researcher in machine translation in the 1960s (figure 2). Figure 2 Vauquois’ triangle (image licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0, via WikiMedia Commons). Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Direct_translation_and_transfer_translation_pyramind.svg. Direct transfer, represented at the bottom of the triangle, corresponds to word-for-word translation. In this framework, there is no need to analyze the source text and, in the simplest case, a simple bilingual dictionary is enough. Of course, this strategy does not work very well, since every language has its own specificities and everybody knows that word-for-word translation is a bad strategy that should be avoided.


pages: 346 words: 92,984

The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

Page 31: Brain scans of tumor shrinking using polio virus. Images courtesy of the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke University. Used with permission. Page 33: Undated photo of Élie Metchnikoff. Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/Dr_Metchnikoff_in_his_Laboratory.jpg. Page 35: Caricature of Metchnikoff. Reprinted with permission of the Institut Pasteur—Musée Pasteur. Page 39: “End of History” illustration. Courtesy of author. Page 42: The Hydra image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Hydra_magnipapillata.jpg. Page 44: The killifish image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothobranchius_furzeri#/media/File:Nothobranchius_furzeri_GRZ_thumb. Page 46: Quantification of biological aging graphic. Duke University School and Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences.

Page 191: Courtesy of Duke Medicine. Originally published in M. W. Dewhirst, et al., “Modulation of Murine Breast Tumor Vascularity, Hypoxia and Chemotherapeutic Response by Exercise,” JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 107, no. 5 (2015): djv040 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djv040. Page 203: Illustration by Habib M’henni, via Wikimedia Commons, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Obstruction_ventilation_apn%C3%A9e_sommeil.svg. Page 226: Photo of the Kouros by Dorli Burge, via Wikimedia Commons, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Kouros_Real_or_Fake.jpg. Page 230: Photo of me courtesy of Sydney Agus. INTRODUCTION Destiny of the Species Welcome to the Lucky Years O wonder! How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, That has such people in ’t.


pages: 540 words: 119,731

Samsung Rising: The Inside Story of the South Korean Giant That Set Out to Beat Apple and Conquer Tech by Geoffrey Cain

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double helix, Dynabook, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Internet of things, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, patent troll, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

Regulators, journalists, and the public were looking for answers from Samsung. Puzzled by the inaction of the global powerhouse, Samsung’s carrier partners started abandoning the company’s products. AT&T announced on October 9, four days after the evacuation of the Southwest Airlines flight, that it was discontinuing all sales and exchanges of the Galaxy Note 7. Other carriers followed suit. WIKIMEDIA COMMONS, USED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE The Samsung Galaxy Note 7. Samsung announced that day it was “temporarily pausing” shipments of the Galaxy Note 7 to an Australian carrier. But the messages from the company were still hazy and unclear. Tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of people were still tapping away on these potentially explosive devices in their purses and pockets.

“In placing my hopes in this new business venture, I chose the name myself. Looking back even now, it was a name that brimmed with drive,” he wrote in his memoir. “The ‘sam’ [‘three’] in ‘Samsung’ symbolizes the big, the many, and the strong, and is a number that our people like the most. ‘Sung’ [‘star’] means to shine brightly, high above, its light pristine for all of eternity. Be big, strong, and eternal.” WIKIMEDIA COMMONS B.C. Lee in 1950. A year later he expanded to buy a Japanese-founded beer brewery, Chosun, which he later sold off for a small fortune. B.C. was probably eyeing the success of Mitsubishi (“Three Diamonds”), the Japanese carmaker, given the company’s remarkably similar name and early “three diamonds” logo. Longevity, strength, and size were some of the characteristics of Japanese zaibatsu (“wealth clan”) groups that B.C. admired the most.

Snobbish stereotypes toward Koreans were especially prevalent in Japan, where the country’s now-liberated Korean slave laborers were denied citizenship. “The Koreans…are the cruellest, most ruthless people in the world,” James Bond’s nemesis Goldfinger says in the Ian Fleming novel (but not the film adaptation), explaining why he hired Korean henchman Oddjob, whose famous top hat could slice through a marble statue. NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION VIA WIKIMEDIA COMMONS An aged Korean woman pauses during her search for salvageable materials in Seoul, South Korea, 1950. For much of its history, South Korea was a poor nation with low prospects for development, devastated by the Korean War of 1950 to 1953. B.C. built his first fortune using political savvy, and by playing into a sudden postwar boom. He established political links to South Korea’s first president, Syngman Rhee, and was awarded a crucial but difficult-to-get government license as a foreign currency recipient, allowing him to embrace an economic growth model called import substitution, importing raw materials like wool and transforming them into finished products like clothing.


Atomic Accidents: A History of Nuclear Meltdowns and Disasters: From the Ozark Mountains to Fukushima by James Mahaffey

clean water, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Google Earth, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, loose coupling, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, uranium enrichment, wage slave, wikimedia commons

, 279 Z Zero Energy Experimental Pile (ZEEP), 90-94, 91, 101, 106 Zewe, Bill, 343-348, 350 Zinn, Walter, 114-119, 129-134, 207 Illustration Credits Illustration credits are listed in the order the images appear in the art inserts Tho-Radia ad (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Rama) Undark ad (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Daghlian mock-up (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) Slotin mock-up (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) Slotin setup table (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) The Castle Bravo bomb (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) NRX reactor, Chalk River, 1955, after rebuild (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) NRX reactor, ports to the core (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) NRU reactor, Chalk River, under construction (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) BORAX-I (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) SL-1 accident (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) SL-1 poster (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) Reactor refueling face, Oak Ridge (Photo courtesy of the author) Windscale, tight shot from the rear (Copyright © Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) Windscale, wider shot (Copyright © Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) Windscale Unit 1, aerial shot (Copyright © Daily Mail/Rex/Alamy) Santa Susana Field Laboratory (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Damaged fuel rod, SRE (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Americium extraction hood, Hanford (Courtesy of AP Photo) Room 180, Building 771 (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) HEPA filter room, Building 771 (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Workers evaluating radiation at JCO, 1999 (Courtesy of AP Photo/JCO Co.) H-bomb being unloaded from B-52 (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) President Carter at TMI, April 1, 1979 (Copyright © ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy) Chernobyl-4, aerial shot after smoke has cleared (Copyright © Igor Kostin/Sygma/Corbis) Chernobyl-4 burning (Courtesy of Sovfoto/UIG via Getty Images) The author running the SPDS at Hatch (Photo courtesy of the author) The next three photos are all of the inside of a BWR/4 (Photos courtesy of the author) Diagram of Mark I containment (Courtesy of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) The Fukushima plant, March 24, 2011 (Courtesy of Air Photo Service/EPA/Landov) All interior images first appeared in Nuclear Power by James Mahaffey, published by Facts on File, and have been modified by originating artist Bobbi McCutcheon, for this book.

., 301 Wuergassen Nuclear Power Plant incident, 381-382 X X-10 reactor, 62, 119, 157-161, 163, 165 x-ray beams, 5-8, 16 x-ray machines, 16 Y Y-12 site, 45-46 Yokata, Kazuma, 390 Yokokawa, Yutaka, 274-277 Yoshitake, George, 156 You Are Responsible!, 279 Z Zero Energy Experimental Pile (ZEEP), 90-94, 91, 101, 106 Zewe, Bill, 343-348, 350 Zinn, Walter, 114-119, 129-134, 207 Illustration Credits Illustration credits are listed in the order the images appear in the art inserts Tho-Radia ad (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Rama) Undark ad (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Daghlian mock-up (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) Slotin mock-up (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) Slotin setup table (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) The Castle Bravo bomb (Courtesy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Archives) NRX reactor, Chalk River, 1955, after rebuild (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) NRX reactor, ports to the core (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) NRU reactor, Chalk River, under construction (Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada) BORAX-I (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) SL-1 accident (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) SL-1 poster (Courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory) Reactor refueling face, Oak Ridge (Photo courtesy of the author) Windscale, tight shot from the rear (Copyright © Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) Windscale, wider shot (Copyright © Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) Windscale Unit 1, aerial shot (Copyright © Daily Mail/Rex/Alamy) Santa Susana Field Laboratory (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Damaged fuel rod, SRE (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Americium extraction hood, Hanford (Courtesy of AP Photo) Room 180, Building 771 (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) HEPA filter room, Building 771 (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Workers evaluating radiation at JCO, 1999 (Courtesy of AP Photo/JCO Co.)


pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Kleinrock: Courtesy of Len Kleinrock Cerf and Kahn: © Louie Psihoyos/Corbis Kesey: © Joe Rosenthal/San Francisco Chronicle/Corbis Brand: © Bill Young/San Francisco Chronicle/Corbis Whole Earth Catalog cover: Whole Earth Catalog Engelbart: SRI International First mouse: SRI International Brand: SRI International Kay: Courtesy of the Computer History Museum Dynabook: Courtesy of Alan Kay Felsenstein: Cindy Charles People’s Computer Company cover: DigiBarn Computer Museum Ed Roberts: Courtesy of the Computer History Museum Popular Electronics cover: DigiBarn Computer Museum Allen and Gates: Bruce Burgess, courtesy of Lakeside School, Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and Fredrica Rice Gates: Wikimedia Commons/Albuquerque, NM police department Microsoft team: Courtesy of the Microsoft Archives Jobs and Wozniak: © DB Apple/dpa/Corbis Jobs screenshot: YouTube Stallman: Sam Ogden Torvalds: © Jim Sugar/Corbis Brand and Brilliant: © Winni Wintermeyer Von Meister: The Washington Post/Getty Images Case: Courtesy of Steve Case Berners-Lee: CERN Andreessen: © Louie Psihoyos/Corbis Hall and Rheingold: Courtesy of Justin Hall Bricklin and Williams: Don Bulens Wales: Terry Foote via Wikimedia Commons Brin and Page: Associated Press Lovelace: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Vitruvian Man: © The Gallery Collection/Corbis TIMELINE CREDITS (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) Lovelace: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Hollerith: Library of Congress via Wikimedia Commons Bush (first image): © Bettmann/Corbis Vacuum tube: Ted Kinsman/Science Source Turing: Wikimedia Commons/Original at the Archives Centre, King’s College, Cambridge Shannon: Alfred Eisenstaedt/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images Aiken: Harvard University Archives, UAV 362.7295.8p, B 1, F 11, S 109 Atanasoff: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Bletchley Park: Draco2008 via Wikimedia Commons Zuse: Courtesy of Horst Zuse Mauchly: Apic/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Atanasoff-Berry Computer: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Colossus: Bletchley Park Trust/SSPL via Getty Images Harvard Mark I: Harvard University Von Neumann: © Bettmann/Corbis ENIAC: U.S.

Kleinrock: Courtesy of Len Kleinrock Cerf and Kahn: © Louie Psihoyos/Corbis Kesey: © Joe Rosenthal/San Francisco Chronicle/Corbis Brand: © Bill Young/San Francisco Chronicle/Corbis Whole Earth Catalog cover: Whole Earth Catalog Engelbart: SRI International First mouse: SRI International Brand: SRI International Kay: Courtesy of the Computer History Museum Dynabook: Courtesy of Alan Kay Felsenstein: Cindy Charles People’s Computer Company cover: DigiBarn Computer Museum Ed Roberts: Courtesy of the Computer History Museum Popular Electronics cover: DigiBarn Computer Museum Allen and Gates: Bruce Burgess, courtesy of Lakeside School, Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and Fredrica Rice Gates: Wikimedia Commons/Albuquerque, NM police department Microsoft team: Courtesy of the Microsoft Archives Jobs and Wozniak: © DB Apple/dpa/Corbis Jobs screenshot: YouTube Stallman: Sam Ogden Torvalds: © Jim Sugar/Corbis Brand and Brilliant: © Winni Wintermeyer Von Meister: The Washington Post/Getty Images Case: Courtesy of Steve Case Berners-Lee: CERN Andreessen: © Louie Psihoyos/Corbis Hall and Rheingold: Courtesy of Justin Hall Bricklin and Williams: Don Bulens Wales: Terry Foote via Wikimedia Commons Brin and Page: Associated Press Lovelace: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Vitruvian Man: © The Gallery Collection/Corbis TIMELINE CREDITS (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) Lovelace: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Hollerith: Library of Congress via Wikimedia Commons Bush (first image): © Bettmann/Corbis Vacuum tube: Ted Kinsman/Science Source Turing: Wikimedia Commons/Original at the Archives Centre, King’s College, Cambridge Shannon: Alfred Eisenstaedt/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images Aiken: Harvard University Archives, UAV 362.7295.8p, B 1, F 11, S 109 Atanasoff: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Bletchley Park: Draco2008 via Wikimedia Commons Zuse: Courtesy of Horst Zuse Mauchly: Apic/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Atanasoff-Berry Computer: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Colossus: Bletchley Park Trust/SSPL via Getty Images Harvard Mark I: Harvard University Von Neumann: © Bettmann/Corbis ENIAC: U.S. Army photo Bush (second image): © Corbis Transistor invention at Bell Labs: Lucent Technologies/Agence France-Presse/Newscom Hopper: Defense Visual Information Center UNIVAC: U.S.

The quote form Steve Jobs comes from an interview I did with him for my previous book. 35. Kelly and Hamm, Smart Machines, 7. PHOTO CREDITS Lovelace: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Lord Byron: © The Print Collector/Corbis Babbage: Popperfoto/Getty Images Difference Engine: Allan J. Cronin Analytical Engine: Science Photo Library/Getty Images Jacquard loom: David Monniaux Jacquard portrait: © Corbis Bush: © Bettmann/Corbis Turing: Wikimedia Commons/Original at the Archives Centre, King’s College, Cambridge Shannon: Alfred Eisenstaedt/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images Stibitz: Denison University, Department of Math and Computer Science Zuse: Courtesy of Horst Zuse Atanasoff: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Atanasoff-Berry Computer: Special Collections Department/Iowa State University Aiken: Harvard University Archives, UAV 362.7295.8p, B 1, F 11, S 109 Mauchly: Apic/Contributor/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Eckert: © Bettmann/Corbis ENIAC in 1946: University of Pennsylvania Archives Aiken and Hopper: By a staff photographer / © 1946 The Christian Science Monitor (www.CSMonitor.com).


pages: 253 words: 69,529

Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins

Beeching cuts, British Empire, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, market bubble, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, starchitect, the market place, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Photographic Credits Bridgeman Images (Dennis Gilbert) Getty Images (SSPL) Getty Images (SSPL) Getty Images (SSPL) Railway & Canal Historical Society, Jeoffry Spence Collection © Historic England Archive Bridgeman Images (Royal Holloway, University of London) Getty Images (SSPL) © Punch Limited David Burrows/Blue Pelican Alamy (Ange) Alamy (Tim Gainey) CRJennings.com Nigel Regden/Re-Format Bridgeman Images (Museum of London) Alamy (Archimage) VIEW Pictures (© Hufton + Crow) Alamy (Jon Ratcliffe) Railway Heritage Trust Bridgeman Images (Mark Fiennes) Wikimedia Commons Getty Images (Alberto Toledano) Getty Images (Simon Dawson) Getty Images (Oli Scarff) Alamy (Brian Anthony) Alamy (Johnny Jones) Paul Childs/Railway Heritage Trust Construction Photography (© Rail Photo) Alamy (Avpics) Alamy (Brian Anthony) Getty Images (SSPL) Construction Photography (© Rail Photo) Alamy (Arcaid) Alamy (Exflow) Bridgeman Images (Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection) Getty Images (Maico Presente) © Richard D.

Allen Paul Childs/Railway Heritage Trust © Edwin Jones CRJennings.com CRJennings.com Transport for London/Mike Garnett © Edwin Jones Alamy (Stockimo) James Beard VIEW Pictures (© Dennis Gilbert) Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust Getty Images (Howard Kingsnorth) Getty Images (SSPL) Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust Michael Turnbull Alamy (Janzig England) Railway Heritage Trust Colin Smith Amanda Russell Rex Shutterstock Martin Horne Roger Marks Alamy (Greg Balfour Evans) Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust Wikimedia Commons Science & Society Picture Library/NRM Alamy (Alex Ramsay) Alamy (MSP Travel) Paul Childs/Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Colin Palmer) Courtesy Brunel’s Old Station (photo: Zach Podd) Alamy (Eye35.pix) Jim Knight Lucy Runge Lucy Runge Lucy Runge Private Collection Railway Heritage Trust John Llewellyn/Flickr Creative Commons Alamy (Steve Frost) Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust Greater Anglia Trains Alamy (Clint Garnham) Alamy (Richard Osbourne) Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust © Colin Spalding Bridgeman Images (© Lucinda Lambton) Bridgeman Images (© Neil Holmes) Getty Images (SSPL) Paul Childs/Railway Heritage Trust Alamy Sony Music Roger Marks Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Paul Weston) C.

Construction Photography (© Rail Photo) Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Robert Wyatt) © Urban 75 Jim Knight Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Neil McAllister) Phil Beard / Flickr Creative Commons CHECK Railway Heritage Trust Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Graeme Peacock) © Kristen McCluskie www.kristenmccluskie.com (project architect: Ryder Architecture) Nexus (photo: Sally Ann Norman) © John M Hall Construction Photography (© Rail Photo) Alamy (James Walsh) Railway Heritage Trust Paul Childs/ Railway Heritage Trust Paul Childs/Railway Heritage Trust Ironbridge Gorge Museum, Elton Trust Alamy (Brinkstock) Alamy (Keith Morris) Jane Baker Alamy (Steve Taylor ARPS) Alamy (Chris Poole) Ben Brooksbank/Wikimedia Commons Alamy (Powys Photo) Alamy (Landscape) Alamy (D. Newbould/Photolibrary Wales) Bridgeman Images (National Railway Museum, York) Alamy (Andrew Wilson) Alamy (Christoph Lischetzki) Alamy (Quillpen) Andrew Lee Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Neale Elder Paul Childs / Railway Heritage Trust Alamy (Karen Appleyard) © Nick McGowan-Lowe © Graham McKenzie-Smith / Alpiglen Getty Images (VWB Photos) Acknowledgements Sir John Betjeman features strongly in this book as it was time spent driving him round London in the 1970s that bred in me an early affection for stations (as for churches).


pages: 431 words: 106,435

How the Post Office Created America: A History by Winifred Gallagher

British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, white flight, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

You are supporting writers and allowing Penguin to continue to publish books for every reader. Illustration credits Chapter openers: National Postal Museum: here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here; Wikimedia Commons: here; Rural Free Delivery © 1996. United States Postal Service. All rights reserved. Used with permission: here; Forever Stamp © 2007. United States Postal Service. All rights reserved. Used with permission: here. Insert: Office of War Information, Wikimedia Commons: here; Wikimedia Commons: here, here; Library of Congress: here, here, here; The U.S. Democratic Review, 1838: here; Thomas Nast, Wikimedia Commons: here; Art and Picture Collection, The New York Public Library: here; National Postal Museum, Curatorial Photographic Collection: here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here; National Postal Museum: here, here, here, here, here, here, here; Harry T.


The Ages of Globalization by Jeffrey D. Sachs

Admiral Zheng, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, Commentariolus, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, European colonialism, global supply chain, greed is good, income per capita, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, packet switching, Pax Mongolica, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Yet with the possible exception of Gutenberg’s printing press, it is very hard to think of an invention by a single inventor as consequential as Watt’s steam engine (figure 7.1). The steam engine gave birth to the Industrial Age and the modern economy. While the steam engine is not solely responsible for economic modernity, without the steam engine most of the other technological breakthroughs of the past two centuries would not have been possible.2 7.1 James Watt’s Steam Engine, c. 1776 Source: Wikimedia Commons contributors, “File:Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg,” Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maquina_vapor_Watt_ETSIIM.jpg&oldid=362051513 Newton had declared “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Watt too made his great breakthroughs by building on the innovations of worthy predecessors. Thomas Savery invented the first modern steam engine in 1699, using steam created by burning coal to pump water.

In order to divide up Africa without instigating clashes among the European powers, the Conference of Berlin in 1885 gathered diplomats to divide up Africa among the competitor empires. Depictions of the conference show a roundtable of European diplomats, a map of Africa on the wall, but no Africans in sight. Imperialism was a one-way affair. By 1913, all of Africa, with the notable exceptions of Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa and Liberia in the west, was under European imperial control, as seen in figure 7.5. 7.5 Africa Divided Among European Empires, 1913 Source: Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Colonial_Africa_1913_map.svg&oldid=367487165 (accessed October 27, 2019). Anglo-American Hegemony By the end of the nineteenth century, Britain was first among the imperial powers, with Queen Victoria reigning over the British Isles, India, Burma, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Malaya, much of Africa (“Cape to Cairo”), New Guinea, and dozens of islands and smaller possessions around the world.


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

(Schrödinger), 84 wheat and chessboard problem, 218–20, 219 Whitfield, John, 431–32 Whole Earth Catalog, 212 wide-gauge railway, 64–65 Wilson, Colin, 179 Wired (magazine), 434, 442 world energy consumption, 234, 235 World War II, 133–34, 290, 292, 301 X-ray crystallography, 437 Yale University, 132, 301, 382 Youn, Hyejin, 364 Young, Thomas, 125–26 Yule, Udny, 369–70 Yule-Simon process, 368–71 Yun, Anthony “Joon,” 184 Zahavi, Yacov, 332–34, 335 “zeroth order,” 109–10, 117 Zhang Jiang, 389–90 Zimbardo, Philip, 301–2, 303–4 Zipf, George Kingsley, 310–14 Zipf’s law, 310–14, 311–12, 389 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Here: Public.Resource.Org/CC BY 2.0 Here: (mitochondrion): Blausen.com staff, “Blausen gallery 2014” from Wikiversity Journal of Medicine; (ant): Katja Schulz/CC BY 2.0; (ants’ nest): Natural History Museum: Hymenoptera Section/CC BY 2.0; (Dubai): Henrik Bach Nielsen/CC BY 2.0 Here: (circulatory system of the brain): OpenStax College/CC BY 4.0; (cell network): NICHD/CC BY 2.0; (tree): Ales Kladnik/CC BY 2.0 Here: (Romanesco cauliflower): Jon Sullivan/PDPhoto.org; (dried-up riverbed): Courtesy of Bernhard Edmaier/Science Source; (Grand Canyon): Michael Rehfeldt/CC BY 2.0 Here: (ant): Larry Jacobsen/CC BY 2.0; (shrew): Marie Hale/CC BY 2.0; (elephant): Brian Snelson/CC BY 2.0; (blue whale): Amila Tennakoon/CC BY 2.0; (Paraceratherium): Dmitry Bogdanov/Wikimedia Commons Here: Courtesy of YAY Media As/Alamy Here: (tumor network): Courtesy of JACOPIN/BSIP/Alamy Here: (aging woman): Courtesy of Image Source/Alamy; (marathon runner): Courtesy of Sportpoint/Alamy Here: (long-term real growth in U.S. GDP): Data courtesy of Catherine Mulbrandon/VisualizingEconomics.com Here: (Earth, on left): NASA Here: (São Paulo): Francisco Anzola/Wikimedia Commons; (Sana’a): Rod Waddington/Wikimedia Commons; (Seattle): Tiffany Von Arnim/CC BY 2.0; (Melbourne): Francisco Anzola/CC BY 2.0 Here: (Los Angeles): Courtesy of Aerial Archives/Alamy; (New York subway map): CountZ/English Wikipedia/CC BY-SA 3.0 Here: (Masdar city center): Courtesy of Laboratory for Visionary Architecture (LAVA); (Le Corbusier’s designs): Courtesy of © FLC/ARS, 2016 Here: (central place theory, Mexico): Courtesy of Tony Burton/Geo-Mexico Here: (Paris): Lincoln Institute of Land Policy; (bacterial colony): Courtesy of Microbeworld user Tasha Sturm/Cabrillo College Here: (flow of trucks to and from Texas): U.S.

Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Freight Management and Operations Here: (social network, left): Martin Grandjean/CC BY-SA 3.0; (social network, right): Courtesy of Maxim Basinski/Alamy Here: (Liverpool fast lane): Courtesy of PA Images/Alamy Here: (GM): Carol M. Highsmith’s America/Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; (“Going Out of Business”): timetrax23/CC BY 2.0; (Lehman Brothers): Courtesy of Yuriko Nakao/Reuters/Alamy; (TWA): Ted Quackenbush/Wikimedia Commons Graph art by Jeffrey L. Ward Geoffrey West is a theoretical physicist whose primary interests have been in fundamental questions in physics and biology. West is a Senior Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a distinguished professor at the Sante Fe Institute, where he served as the president from 2005 to 2009. What’s next on your reading list? Discover your next great read!


pages: 244 words: 69,183

Squid Empire: The Rise and Fall of the Cephalopods by Danna Staaf

3D printing, colonial rule, Kickstarter, nuclear winter, Skype, wikimedia commons

They evolved from creatures that weren’t exactly snails but looked and behaved a lot like snails, crawling along the ocean floor under weighty homes. Then some of these not-snails did a curious thing. While all the other animals of the time continued to burrow in or grovel on or cruise over the seafloor, the far-distant ancestors of today’s squid filled their shells with gas and floated up through the water. FIGURE 1.3 The cut shell of a modern nautilus displays a logarithmic spiral. Wikimedia Commons user Chris 73 They were slow swimmers, but they had no need for speed. They could drift over the bottom-dwelling buffet like deadly dirigibles, selecting their prey at leisure. Two hundred and fifty million years before the first dinosaur, cephalopods became the planet’s primary predators, and it was all thanks to their buoyant shells. Over time their lineage separated into three main branches: nautiloids, coleoids, and ammonoids.

Genetics indicate that Allonautilus is a young genus, recently birthed from within the Nautilus species group, which suggests there’s a lot of work that evolution could do with this lineage.19 Who knows if new nautilus species may even reinvent ammonoid-style sutures or ornament? Unfortunately, humans may not give evolution a chance. The mass extinction we are in the midst of creating poses a different kind of threat than all the mass extinctions nautiluses have survived thus far. FIGURE 7.1 A living nautilus swims in the water near Palau, displaying its many specialized tentacles, fleshy hood, pinhole eye, and countershading stripes. Wikimedia Commons user Manuae Closing Time Over the course of the Cenozoic, the continents moved into the positions they occupy today—though of course only temporarily, as they are still and forever on the move. As various bits of ocean were separated by land, Panthalassa finished fragmenting into the “seven seas.” These changes helped to create the evolutionary patterns we see throughout the world, both aquatic and terrestrial, and they also might have created the current ice age we find ourselves in . . . an ice age that human industry is altering at unparalleled speed, with tragic results for our fellow Earthlings.


pages: 250 words: 64,011

Everydata: The Misinformation Hidden in the Little Data You Consume Every Day by John H. Johnson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Black Swan, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, obamacare, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, publication bias, QR code, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, statistical model, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons, Yogi Berra

This mapmaking technique required some finagling on Mercator’s part, since a sailor’s direct path on a three-dimensional globe doesn’t automatically translate to a straight line on a two-dimensional map. But Mercator figured out how to do it, and enjoyed the fame and fortune that followed.1 FIGURE 6-1 A Mercator projection. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Created by user $200inaire on Wikimedia Commons. (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mercator_Blank_Map_World.png#filelinks) FIGURE 6-2 For comparison purposes, here’s a Winkel tripel projection. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Created by user Hellerick on Wikimedia Commons. (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1937_world_map_%28Winkel_tripel_projection%29.svg) Unfortunately, while the new map helped ocean-faring navigators, it also drastically misrepresented the size of countries and continents around the globe. Sailors got their straight lines for navigation at great expense, as Mercator’s map distorted the size of nearly everything on it.


pages: 50 words: 15,155

Women & Power: A Manifesto by Mary Beard

Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Donald Trump, feminist movement, glass ceiling, knowledge economy, Saturday Night Live, wikimedia commons

Photo: Express & Star, Wolverhamption 11. Edward Burne-Jones, Philomene. Wood-engraving on India paper. Proof of an illustration designed by for the Kelmscott chaucer, p. 441, ‘The Legend of Goode Wimmen’, 1896. Photo: The British Museum Online collection/Wikimedia 12. Fulvia With the Head of Cicero, painted in oils by Pavel Svedomsky, c. 1880, held at Pereslavl-Zalessky History and Art Museum. Photo: Wikimedia Commons 13. cover of Herland by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, originally published in 1915 by The Forerunner (magazine) and published in book form in the USA by Pantheon Books, April 1979 14. German Chancellor Angela Merkel and former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton at the Chancellory in Berlin, Germany, 9 November 2009. Photo: Action Press/REX/Shutterstock 15. Frederick leighton’s Clytemnestra from the Battlements of Argos Watches for the Beacon Fires which are to Announce the Return of Agamemnon, c. 1874 (oil on canvas).


pages: 276 words: 78,094

Design for Hackers: Reverse Engineering Beauty by David Kadavy

Airbnb, complexity theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Isaac Newton, John Gruber, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, web application, wikimedia commons, Y Combinator

Although the logarithmic spiral present in the shell of the nautilus is certainly strikingly beautiful, it is not, in fact, created from a golden ratio spiral at all, which you can see clearly in Figure 5-13. I have superimposed such a spiral over half of a nautilus shell. There are likely variations seen from shell to shell, but to find one that actually followed the golden ratio would be a very unusual departure from the norm. Figure 5-13 The spiral of the shell of a nautilus comes nowhere near the golden ratio spiral. Chris 73 / Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Chris_73) The golden ratio in psychology Much of the claims that the golden ratio is beautiful by some aesthetic imperative are based upon research done by Gustav Fechner in the 1860s. He presented subjects with only ten different rectangles of varying proportions and concluded that since 90 percent of the subjects chose one of the rectangles that was either 0.57, 0.62 (the golden ratio), or 0.67, the golden ratio was the most pleasing ratio.

Subdividing both of those golden-ratio rectangles with squares creates lines that align convincingly with the pectoral fin and the end of the second fin. A further subdivision of the subdivision that lines up with the pectoral fin aligns perfectly with the fish’s eye. Figure 5-17 A logarithmic spiral that decays by a factor of 0.75 fits perfectly over this spiral from the cutaway of the Nautilus shell. Chris 73 / Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Chris_73) Figure 5-18 The clownfish has some interesting proportional relationships with the golden ratio. Fir0002/Flagstaffotos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Fir0002), licensed under http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:GNU_Free_Documentation_License_1.2 The powder blue tang also shows some proportional relationships with the golden ratio, although its proportions are different from those of the clownfish.


A Natural History of Beer by Rob DeSalle

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, double helix, Drosophila, Louis Pasteur, microbiome, NP-complete, phenotype, placebo effect, wikimedia commons

Like the popchartlab.com poster it has cousin connections, but there are fewer of them and only cream ale and Baltic porter are shown as difficult to place among lagers or ales. Some beer genealogies, such as the cratestyle.com version, don’t attempt to show these cousin, or “hybrid,” relationships. Yet other genealogies are much simpler, and do not attempt to show relationships beyond the major styles such as IPA or stout. Two of them (from Wikimedia Commons and MicroBrews USA at https://microbrewsusa.wordpress.com/2013/07/17/beer-family-tree/) don’t even try to connect lagers with ales in their diagrams, and give only the bare outlines of beer relationships. And one of our evolutionary biologist colleagues, Dan Graur, prefers a more treelike diagram, with no connections between ales and lagers. Why are we mentioning these essentially decorative diagrams?

Water The Dry Earth Theory and the impact of the Vesta research on it was reported on by Fazekas (2014), and the veracity of Archimedes’ “eureka!” is discussed by Biello (2006). References for the French and U.S. water hardness maps can be found online. Biello, D. 2006. “Fact or Fiction? Archimedes Coined the Term ‘Eureka!’ in the Bath.” Scientific American, December 8, 2006. Fazekas, A. 2014. “Mystery of Earth’s Water Origin Solved.” National Geographic, October 30, 2014. French water hardness data from Wikimedia Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Duret%C3%A9_de_l%27eau_en_France.svg (accessed June 7, 2018). U.S. Water Hardness Map. Fresh Cup Magazine, July 19, 2016. http://www.freshcup.com/us-water-hardness-map (accessed June 7, 2018). Water Hardness and Beers: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/443112050818231146 (accessed June 7, 2018). Chapter 7. Barley The archaeological remains from Ohalo II relevant to the study of barley are described by Weiss et al. (2004, 2005).


pages: 1,002 words: 276,865

The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean by David Abulafia

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, colonial rule, David Attenborough, Eratosthenes, ghettoisation, joint-stock company, long peace, mass immigration, out of africa, spice trade, trade route, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War

Sixth-century mosaic of the Byzantine fleet at Classis, from the basilica of Sant’Apollinare, Ravenna (akg-images/Cameraphoto) 36. Cornice from the synagogue at Ostia, second century (Photograph: Setreset/Wikimedia Commons) 37. Inscription from the synagogue at Ostia (akg-images) 38. Panel from the Pala d’Oro, St Mark’s Basilica, Venice (akg-images/Cameraphoto) 39. View of Amalfi, 1885 (Archiv für Kunst und Geschichte, Berlin. Photograph: akg images) 40. Majorcan bacino (Museo Nazionale di San Matteo, Pisa) 41. Khan al-‘Umdan, Acre, Israel (Photograph: Ariel Palmon/Wikimedia Commons) 42. The Venice quadriga (Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS) 43. Late-medieval map, after Idrisi (Wikimedia Commons) 44. Majorcan portolan chart, early fourteenth century (British Library) 45. Wall-painting showing the capture of the City of Majorca in 1229 (Museo de Catalunya, Barcelona.

Aigues-Mortes, Carmargue, France (Photo: Bertrand Rieger/Hemis/Corbis) 47. Genoa, as depicted in Hartmann-Schedel’s 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle (by permission of the Master and Fellows of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) 48. Dubrovnik (Photograph: Jonathan Blair/Corbis) 49. Manises bowl (Victoria and Albert Museum, London) 50. Votive model of a cargo ship, c. 1420 (Maritime Museum, Rotterdam) 51. The Exchange in Valencia (Photograph: Felivet/Wikimedia Commons) 52. Early manuscript copy of the Consulate of the Sea (Album/Oronoz/akg-images) 53. Portrait of Mehmet II by Giovanni Bellini (akg-images/Erich Lessing) 54. French miniature of the siege of Rhodes (detail) (The Granger Collection, New York) 55. Portrait of Admiral Khair-ed-din, 1540, by Nakkep Reis Haydar (Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey/The Bridgeman Art Library) 56. Portrait of Andrea Doria (Palazzo Bianco, Genoa.

Portrait of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1784, by James Northcote (National Maritime Museum, London/The Bridgeman Art Library) 64. Portrait of Ferdinand von Hompesch by Antonio Xuereb (attrib.), Presidential Palace, Valletta (Malta) (Photograph by and courtesy of Heritage Malta) 65. Portrait of Stephen Decatur, c. 1814, by Thomas Sully (Atwater Kent Museum of Philadelphia/courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library) 66. Port Said, 1880 (Wikimedia Commons) 67. Lloyd’s quay, Trieste, c. 1890 (adoc-photos) 68. The Grand Square, or Place Mehmet Ali, Alexandria, c. 1915 (Werner Forman Archive/Musees Royaux, Brussels/Heritage-Images/Imagestate) 69. The Italian occupation of Libya, 1911 (akg-images) 70. The attack on the French warships moored at Mers el-Kebir, October 1940 (Photograph: Bettmann/Corbis) 71. British troops land in Sicily, 1943 (Imperial War Museum, London, A17918) 72.


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The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

The “five pillars” of Wikipedia have as their very first item, “Wikipedia is an encyclopedia,” something that people often have to be reminded of, and even pruned back to, when the community engages in too many frivolous MySpace-esque social networking activities. But if Wikipedia is getting close to some level of being done, then the “community” and “wikiness” can be turned toward other useful endeavors. Wikisource, Wikibooks, and Wikiversity, for example, are other projects started within the WMF and inspired by Wikipedia. One of the more successful offshoots is Wikimedia Commons, a repository for photos and multimedia that can be shared across all Wikimedia projects. These will no doubt become more important, but it’s not clear if they will garner the same passionate crowds as Wikipedia. That’s because Wikipedia was the remarkable beneficiary of some very special dynamics and uncanny timing. By happening to launch at the bottom of the dot-com advertising market, it perhaps benefited from many out-of-work or lightly employed dot-com types.

., 43, 85, 172–73, 175 Nupedia-L, 63 Reagle, Joseph, 82, 96, 112 Nupedia Open Content License, 35, 72 Rec.food.chocolate, 84–85 RickK, 120, 185–88 rings, Web site, 23, 31 objectivism, 32, 36–37 robots, software, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, OCR (optical character recognition), 35 177, 179 Open Directory Project (ODP), 30–31, Rosenfeld, Jeremy, 45 33, 35 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 15 Ota, Takashi, 146 Russell, Bertrand, 13, 81 Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 70–72 Russian language, 152 peer production, 108–9 Sandbox, 97, 115 Pellegrini, Mark (Raul654), 180–81 Sanger, Larry, 6–7, 32–34, 36–38, Perl, 56, 67, 101, 140 40–41, 43–45, 61–65, 67, 88, 89, Peul language, 158 115, 184, 202, 210–11 phantom authority, 175–76 boldness directive and, 91, 113 Philological Society, 70 Citizendium project of, 190, 211–12 PHP, 74, 101 Essjay and, 197 Pike, Rob, 144 memoir of, 174, 190, 225 piranha effect, 83, 106, 109, 113, 120 resignation from Wikipedia, 174–75, Plautus Satire, 181 210 Pliny the Elder, 15 on rules, 76, 112 Poe, Marshall, 171 Spanish Wikipedia and, 9, 136–38 Polish Wikipedia, 146, 147 trolls and, 170–75, 189–90 Popular Science, 126 Wikipedia license and, 72 Portland Pattern Repository, 59 Y2K bug and, 32–33 Portuguese language, 136 San Jose Mercury News, 126 PostScript, 52 Schechter, Danny, 8–9 “Potato chip” article, 136 Schiff, Stacy, 196 Professor and the Madman, The Schlossberg, Edwin, 46 (Winchester), 70, 71 schools, 177–78 Project Gutenberg, 35 Scott, Jason, 131, 189 public domain content, 26, 111 search engines, 11, 22, 34 Pupek, Dan, 58 Google, see Google Seigenthaler, John, 9–10, 191–94, 200, 220 Quickpolls, 126–27 Senegal, 158 Quiz Show, 13 Serbian Wikipedia, 155–56 Index_243 servers, 77–79, 191 Tagalog language, 160 Sethilys (Seth Anthony), 106–11 Taiwan, 150, 151, 154 Shah, Sunir, 59–60, 64 “Talossan language” article, 120 Shaw, George Bernard, 135 Tamil language, 160 Shell, Tim, 21–22, 32, 36, 66, 174, Tawker, 177, 179, 186 184 Tektronix, 46, 47, 50, 55, 56 sidewalks, 96–97 termites, 82 Sieradski, Daniel, 204 Thompson, Ken, 143–44 Signpost, 200 Time, 9, 13 Silsor, 186 Torvalds, Linus, 28–29, 30, 173, 175 Sinitic languages, 159 Tower of Babel, 133–34 see also China tragedy of the commons, 223 Skrenta, Rich, 23, 30 Trench, Chenevix, 70 Slashdot, 67–69, 73, 76, 88, 205, trolls, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, 189–90 207, 216 Truel, Bob, 23, 30 Sanger’s memoir for, 174, 190, 225 2channel, 145 Sneakernet, 50 Snow, Michael, 206–7 Socialtext, 207 “U,” article on, 64 sock puppets, 128, 178–79 Unicode, 142, 144 software, open-source, 5, 23–28, 30, 35, UTF-8, 144–45 62, 67, 79, 216 UTF-32, 142, 143 design patterns and, 55, 59 UNIX, 27, 30–31, 54, 56, 143 Linux, 28–30, 56, 108, 140, 143, 173, Unregistered Words Committee, 70 216, 228 urban planning, 96–97 software robots, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 53, 54 177, 179 USA Today, 9, 191, 220 Souren, Kasper, 158 UseModWiki, 61–63, 66, 73–74, 140–41 South Africa, 157–58 Usenet, 35, 83–88, 114, 170, 190, 223 spam, 11, 87, 220 Usenet Moderation Project (Usemod), 62 Spanish Wikipedia, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, USWeb, 211 215, 226 squid servers, 77–79 Stallman, Richard, 23–32, 74, 86, 217 vandalism: GNU Free Documentation License of, on LA Times Wikitorial, 207–8 72–73, 211–12 on Wikipedia, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, GNU General Public License of, 27, 72 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, GNU Manifesto of, 26 202, 220, 227 GNUpedia of, 79 Van Doren, Charles, 13–14 Steele, Guy, 86 verein, 147 Stevertigo, 184 VeryVerily, 128 stigmergy, 82, 89, 92, 109 Vibber, Brion, 76 Sun Microsystems, 23, 27, 29–30, 56 Viola, 54 Sun Tzu, 169 ViolaWWW, 54–55 Swedish language, 140, 152 Voltaire, 15 244_Index WAIS, 34, 53 Wik, 123–25, 170, 180 Wales, Christine, 20–21, 22, 139 Wikia, 196, 197 Wales, Doris, 18, 19 Wiki Base, 62 Wales, Jimmy, 1, 8, 9, 18–22, 44, 76, Wikibooks, 216 88, 115, 131, 184, 196, 213, 215, Wikimania, 1–3, 8, 146, 147–48 220 WikiMarkup, 90 administrators and, 94, 185 Wikimedia Commons, 216 background of, 18–19 Wikimedia Foundation, 146, 157, 183–84, at Chicago Options Associates, 20, 196, 199, 213–15, 225–26, 227 21, 22 Wikipedia: Cunctator essay and, 172 administrators of, 67, 93–96, 119, 121, and deletion of articles, 120 125, 127, 148, 178, 185–86, dispute resolution and, 179–80, 181, 195–96, 224–25 223 advertising and, 9, 11, 136–38, 215, Essjay and, 197, 199 226 languages and, 139, 140, 157–58 amateurs and professionals in, 225 neutrality policy and, 6, 7, 113 Arbitration Committee of, 180–81, 184, objectivism and, 32, 36–37 197, 223 Nupedia and, 32–35, 41, 43–45, “assume good faith” policy in, 114, 187, 61–63 195, 200 on piranha effect, 83 blocking of people from, 93 role of, in Wikipedia community, 174–76, boldness directive in, 8, 91, 102, 179–80, 223 113–14, 115, 122, 221 Seigenthaler incident and, 192, 194 categories in, 97–98, 221 Spanish Wikipedia and, 137, 175 “checkuser” privilege in, 179, 196, 199 Stallman and, 30–32 database for, 73–74, 77, 78, 94 three revert rule and, 127–28 discussions in, 7–8, 65–66, 75–76, 89, Wikimania and, 146 121–22 Wikipedia license and, 72 DMOZ as inspiration for, 23 Wikitorials and, 206–7 five pillars of, 113, 216 Wales, Jimmy, Sr., 18 future of, 213–17, 219–29 Wall Street Journal, 126 growth of, 4, 9, 10, 77, 88–89, 95–97, “War and Consequences” Wikitorial, 99–100, 126, 184, 215, 219, 220 206–7 how it works, 90–96 wasps, 82 influence of, 201–212 Weatherly, Keith, 106 launch of, 64, 69, 139, 171 Web browsers, 51–55 legal issues and, 94, 111, 186, 191–92, Weblogs Inc., 215 227; see also copyright; libel WebShare, 209 linking in, 66–67, 73 Webster, Noah, 70, 133 mailing list for, 89, 95 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 main community namespace in, 76 Wei, Pei-Yan, 54–55 main page of, 95 Weinstock, Steven, 202–3 MeatballWiki and, 60, 114, 119, 187–88 “Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its mediation of disputes in, 180, 181, 195 Anti-Elitism” (Sanger), 189–90 meta pages in, 91 Index_245 name of, 45 “diff” function and, 74, 75, 93, 99 namespaces in, 75–76 edit histories of, 64–65, 71, 82, 91–93 number of editors in, 95–96 editing of, 3–4, 6, 38, 64–66, 69, 73, Nupedia and, 64–65, 88, 136, 171, 172 88, 114–15, 131, 194 openness of, 5–6, 9 edit wars and, 95, 122–31, 136, 146 origins of, 43–60 eventualism and, 120–21, 129, 159 policies and rules of, 76, 112–14, first written, 64 127–28, 170, 171, 192, 221, flagged revisions of, 148–49, 215–16, 224–25 227 popularity of, 4 inclusion of, 115–21 Quickpolls in, 126–27 inverted pyramid formula for, 90 Recent Changes page in, 64–65, 82, license covering content of, 72–73, 98, 104, 109, 176–77 211–12 schools and, 177–78 locking of, 95 servers for, 77–79, 191 maps in, 107, 109–11 Slashdot and, 69, 73, 76, 88 neutral point of view in, 6–7, 82, 89, 111, sock puppets and, 128, 178–79 112–13, 117, 140, 174, 203–4, 217, SOFIXIT directive in, 114–15, 122, 221 228 software robots and, 88, 99–106, 145, news and, 7 147, 177, 179 original research and, 112–13, 117, 174 spam and self-promotion on, 11, 220 protection and semi-protection of, 194, talk pages in, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 216 templates in, 97–98, 113, 221 reverts and, 125, 127–28 trolls and, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, single versions of, 6 189–90 spelling mistakes in, 104–5 user pages in, 76, 89 stability of, 227–28 vandalism and, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, stub, 92, 97, 101, 104, 148 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, talk pages for, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 202, 220, 227 test edits of, 176 watchlists in, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 “undo” function and, 93 wiki markup language for, 221–22 uneven development of, 220 wiki software for, 64–67, 73, 77, 90, 93, unusual, 92, 117–18 140–41, 216 verifiability and, 112–13, 117 Wikipedia articles: watchlists for, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 accuracy of, 10, 72, 188–89, 194, 208 Wikipedia community, 7–8, 81–132, 174, attempts to influence, 11–12 175, 183–200, 215–17, 222–23 biographies of living persons, 192, Essjay controversy and, 194–200 220–21 Missing Wikipedians page and, 184–85, census data in, 100–104, 106 188 citations in, 113 partitioning of, 223 consensus and, 7, 94, 95, 119–20, 122, Seigenthaler incident and, 9–10, 222–23 191–94, 220 consistency among, 213 stress in, 184 creation of, 90–93, 130–31, 188–89 trolls and, 170 deletion of, 93–94, 96, 119–21, 174 Wales’s role in, 174–76, 179–80, 223 246_Index Wikipedia international editions, 12, 77, Wikitorials, 205–8 100, 131–32, 133–67 Wikiversity, 216 African, 157–58 WikiWikiWeb, 44–45, 58–60, 61, 62 Chinese, 10, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Willy on Wheels (WoW), 178–79 encoding languages for, 140–45 Winchester, Simon, 70, 71 French, 83, 139, 146, 147 Wizards of OS conference, 211 German, 11, 139, 140, 147–49, 215, Wolof language, 158 220, 227 Wool, Danny, 3, 158, 199 Japanese, 139, 140, 141–42, 144, World Book, 16–19 145–47 World Is Flat, The (Friedman), 11 Kazakh, 155–57 World Wide Web, 34, 35, 47, 51–55 links to, 134–35, 140 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 list of languages by size, 160–67 WYSIWYG, 222 Serbian, 155–56 Spanish, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, 215, 226 Yahoo, 4, 22, 23, 30, 191, 214 Wikipedia Watch, 192 “Year zero” article, 117 Wikipedia Weekly, 225 Yeats, William Butler, 183 wikis, 44, 51 Yongle encyclopedia, 15 Cunningham’s creation of, 2, 4, 56–60, “You have two cows” article, 118 62, 65–66, 90 YouTube, 58 MeatballWiki, 59–60, 114, 119, 175, Y2K bug, 32–33 187–88 Nupedia and, 61–65 Wikisource, 216 ZhengZhu, 152–57 About the Author Andrew Lih was an academic for ten years at Columbia University and Hong Kong University in new media and journalism.


Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

So in the construction sector we will see a shift from building using concrete and other energy-intensive materials to building in wood; in agriculture we will see a shift from fossil-fuel-intensive agriculture towards organic agriculture; recycling and reuse businesses will thrive, while those concerned with extraction of raw materials and waste disposal will diminish in size. Table 6.1 offers a compari- GREEN BUSINESS 99 Figure 6.1 The carbon cycle Note: The figure shows the natural transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide between plants and animals and other systems of CO2 circulation. It is the burning of fossil fuels that has disrupted this cycle. Source: Image provided free of charge by Wikimedia commons. son of those sectors likely to increase and decrease in size as we make the transition to a low-carbon economy. This is the most basic cycle that we must rebalance to achieve sustainability – the carbon cycle – but beyond that we must also learn to use resources in a way that does not exceed nature’s ability to replenish them. This leads us to the principles shown in Box 6.4, taken from the research and pressure group, Natural Step.

First, most people in the UK do not live in new homes (for example, 97 per cent of London’s housing was built before 1995);7 second, because of the progressive tightening-up of energy efficiency requirements in the building regulations over the years, new homes are already massively more energy efficient than older homes.8 Solar thermal collector (optional) Super insulation Supply air Triple pane double low-e glazing Extract air Supply air Extract air Ventilation system with heat recovery Ground heat exchanger Figure 7.1 The Passivhaus Source: The Passivhaus has the highest levels of insulation; uses natural air flows for ventilation; windows face south to maximize solar gain. Source: Image provided free of charge by Wikimedia commons. THE POLICY CONTEXT 109 BOX 7.1 THE EUROPEAN UNION PACKAGING DIRECTIVE Following the introducing of a ‘packaging ordinance’ by Germany in 1991 the EU adopted a Packaging Directive in 1994 to prevent obstacles to EU trade. It included targets of 50–65 per cent for recovery of packaging waste and recycling rates of 15–45 per cent of such waste. As with all EU Directives, national governments were responsible for determining how it should be implemented within their states.


pages: 490 words: 146,259

New World, Inc. by John Butman

Admiral Zheng, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, commoditize, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversified portfolio, Etonian, Francisco Pizarro, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, market design, Skype, spice trade, trade route, wikimedia commons

Insert credits and copyright information Here: John Dee, by unknown artist; c. 1594 (© Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford); John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (© National Trust Images/John Hammond); Map by Martin Waldseemüller, printed in Universalis Cosmographia; 1507 (Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress); Title page of The Commonwealth of England, by Thomas Smith, 1609; Sebastian Cabot, engraving after Hans Holbein, 1824 (© National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London) Here: Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel, c. 1577 (The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford); William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, by unknown artist (© National Portrait Gallery, London); Anne, Countess of Warwick, attributed to The Master of the Countess of Warwick, 1566–1569 (From The Woburn Abbey Collection); Matthew Baker, an image from Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (By permission of the Pepys Library, Magdalene College Cambridge) Here: A chart showing Frobisher’s straits and surrounding area, from A True Discourse of the late voyages of discouerie…, 1578 (© British Library Board/Robana/Art Resource, NY); An image from Accounts, with subsidiary documents, of Michael Lok, treasurer, of first, second and third voyages of Martin Frobisher to Cathay by the north-west passage, 1576–1578 (© The National Archives, UK); Mining in Potosí, engraving by Theodor de Bry in Historia Americae sive Novi Orbis; 1596 (Image & Sound Collections, International Institute of Social History [Amsterdam]) Here: LONDON, c. 1560, Engraving from Civitates Orbis Terrarum, by Frans Hogenberg, 1572 (Wikimedia Commons. Public domain. In the collection of the Universitätsbibliothek, Heidelberg); Portrait of Sir Thomas Gresham, by Anthonis Mor, c. 1560–c. 1565, (Wikimedia Commons. Public domain. In the collection of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam); The Royal Exchange, London, by Frans Hogenberg; c. 1569 (Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org) Here: GILBERT’S MAP OF THE WORLD, 1576, A general map, made onelye for the particuler declaration of this discovery, by H.

Jhones, 1576 (British Library/Granger, NYC—All Rights Reserved); Sir Francis Walsingham, possibly after John De Critz the Elder; based on a work of circa 1587 (© National Portrait Gallery, London); Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by an unknown artist, c.1584 (National Trust Photo Library/Art Resource, NY) Here: Sir Walter Ralegh (Raleigh), by Nicholas Hilliard, circa 1585 (© National Portrait Gallery, London); WHITE’S DRAWINGS OF INDIANS AT ROANOKE, 1585 [The Flyer, left; Woman and Child, right], Native Indian Conjurer, by Theodor de Bry, in America, after a drawing by John White, 1590 (© The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource, NY); An Indian woman and child of Pomeiooc in Virginia, by John White, 1585 (© The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource, NY) Here: Sir Francis Drake, by an unknown artist; circa 1581 (© National Portrait Gallery, London); Elizabeth I, attributed to George Gower, c. 1588 (From The Woburn Abbey Collection); Portrait of Philip II, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 (Wikimedia Commons. Public domain. In the collection of the Prado Museum, Madrid.) Here: TREATY OF LONDON CEREMONY, 1604, The Somerset House Conference, 19 August 1604, by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, circa 1604 (© National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London); Sir Thomas Smythe, by Simon de Passe, John Woodall, 1616 (© National Portrait Gallery, London); King James I of England and VI of Scotland, after John De Critz the Elder, c. 1605 (© National Portrait Gallery, London); Image of John Smith, from A Description of New-England, by an unknown artist, possibly after Simon de Passe, c. 1617 (National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution); Portrait of Pocahontas, aged 21, by Crispin van de Passe, 1616 (© The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource, NY) Notes THE PREQUEL TO THE PILGRIMS 1 “Pilgrim Fathers,” Oxford English Dictionary; definition C2. 2 John Stowe and Edmund Howes, Annales, or a General Chronicle of England, begun by John Stow: continued and augmented with matters Forraigne and Domestique, Ancient and Moderne, unto the end of this present yeere (London, 1631), 605. 1.


The Map of Knowledge: How Classical Ideas Were Lost and Found: A History in Seven Cities by Violet Moller

Book of Ingenious Devices, British Empire, double entry bookkeeping, Johannes Kepler, Murano, Venice glass, Republic of Letters, spice trade, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons

To L, E and S, my three little stars Contents List of Illustrations Maps PREFACE ONE: THE GREAT VANISHING TWO: ALEXANDRIA THREE: BAGHDAD FOUR: CÓRDOBA FIVE: TOLEDO SIX: SALERNO SEVEN: PALERMO EIGHT: VENICE 1500 AND BEYOND Acknowledgements Select Bibliography Notes Index List of Illustrations COLOUR PLATES 1.Raphael’s School of Athens (Vatican Museums / Alamy) 2.The Doric columns of the Greek temple of Athena, incorporated into the walls of Syracuse Cathedral (Wikimedia Commons) 3.A thirteenth-century Arabic depiction of Aristotle teaching a pupil (Or. 2784, ff.101-101v., British Library, London, UK © British Library Board. All Rights Reserved / Bridgeman Images) 4.The oldest surviving fragment of Euclid’s Elements (Wikimedia Commons) 5.Pages from the copy of The Elements discovered by Peyrard (Vat.gr.190.pt.1 fols. 13v–14r © Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, reproduced by permission, with all rights reserved) 6.Pages from a Greek copy of Ptolemy’s Almagest (Vat.gr.1594, fols. 79v–80r © Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, reproduced by permission, with all rights reserved) 7.A rose from Dioscorides’ De materia medica (Science & Society Picture Library / Getty Images) 8.A detailed depiction of an Arabic library from al-Hariri’s the Maqamat (AKG Images) 9.Another image from the Maqamat showing a doctor treating a patient (Heritage Image Partnership Ltd / Alamy Stock Photo) 10.A sixteenth-century image of astronomers in the Galata Observatory, Istanbul (World History Archive / Alamy Stock Photo) 11.A gold Abbasid dinar, struck during the reign of Caliph al-Mamun (The Picture Art Collection / Alamy Stock Photo) 12.The interior of the Mezquita in Cordoba (imageBROKER / Alamy Stock Photo) 13.A fourteenth-century copy of The Almagest in Arabic (The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, MS.


pages: 321 words: 89,109

The New Gold Rush: The Riches of Space Beckon! by Joseph N. Pelton

3D printing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, Carrington event, Colonization of Mars, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, global pandemic, Google Earth, gravity well, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, life extension, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, megastructure, new economy, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-industrial society, private space industry, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, Tim Cook: Apple, Tunguska event, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, X Prize

Only if the receiving rectenna was located off shore in the ocean, over a desert area, or in previously mined areas would this large amount of area be easily available. Thus it would seem that higher energy intensities would likely be required for the economics of solar power satellites to work. Figure 5.2 below provides a basic schematic of a large rectenna for receiving a continuous flow of energy from space in a desert area. Fig. 5.2Giant ground rectenna for receiving power from a solar power satellite (Image courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Space-based_​solar_​power.) It is, of course, possible to conceive of systems that would distribute smaller amounts of power to smaller rectennas at different locations, but even if we were to think of sites that received just 250 MW of energy this would still require rectennas that were about 2.5 km2 (1 sq. mile) in area. Currently Japan has championed the use of 5.8 GHz as a suitable radio frequency for downlinking microwave energy.

There are indeed design studies that indicate that if we proceed with space mining it might be possible to fabricate solar power satellites from materials obtained from the Moon or asteroids. Figure 5.3 below represents such a solar power system derived from space mining, processing and fabrication operations in space [3]. Fig. 5.3Artist’s conception of a solar power system fabricated from materials mined from an asteroid (Image courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Space-based_​solar_​power#/​media/​File:​Solar_​power_​satellite_​from_​an_​asteroid.​jpg.) This analysis, which was admittedly undertaken as part of the rationale in support of space mining ventures, argues that if space mining and space-based fabrication using 3D printing technology are all taken amazing results can be achieved—perhaps by or even before 2050.


Beautiful Visualization by Julie Steele

barriers to entry, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, database schema, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, index card, information retrieval, iterative process, linked data, Mercator projection, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, semantic web, social graph, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, web application, wikimedia commons

SVG stands for scalable vector graphics and is an open standard for vector images maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is a popular vector image standard, particularly for free images and maps, and many vector manipulation applications support it. Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org) has a number of free, high-quality maps in vector format. These maps scale very well and are excellent for this kind of project. Some of the countries that are hard to find can also be pulled from vector maps of the world that are available on Wikimedia Commons. These files can be opened as editable vector files in Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape (http://www.inkscape.org) or as bitmaps in GIMP. From Illustrator, the vector objects can be copied and pasted directly into Photoshop. In the interest of simplicity, we’ll display only countries responsible for a certain minimum (1,000+ vehicles) of either the traded-in or purchased cars.


pages: 393 words: 115,217

Loonshots: How to Nurture the Crazy Ideas That Win Wars, Cure Diseases, and Transform Industries by Safi Bahcall

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Astronomia nova, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Gary Taubes, hypertext link, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, PageRank, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, Wall-E, wikimedia commons, yield management

Reprinted with permission from AAAS. Tug-of-war: Antar Dayal, AntarWorks LLC. Launch of Sputnik: By permission of the Marcus family. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ds-04944. The DARPA team prepares: DARPA. Shredding the Dead Sea Scrolls: Antar Dayal, AntarWorks LLC. Richard Feynman: Tamiko Thiel, via Wikimedia Commons. Einstein and Kepler: Antar Dayal, AntarWorks LLC. Shen Kuo: Antar Dayal, AntarWorks LLC. Hooke, Boyle, and air pump: Rita Greer, via Wikimedia Commons. Papin’s discovery: Public domain. SOURCE NOTES Because sources mostly do not overlap between chapters, a bibliography is provided for each chapter, to make it easier for the reader to browse related subjects. INTRODUCTION Miller’s piranha: Company reports; interview with Richard Miller. Amgen: See Introduction note for “unable to repeat” on page 315.


pages: 789 words: 207,744

The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

Aujoulat-MCC/Centre National de Préhistoire) Figure 3.2. Archaeological finds from Hohle Fels Cave 3.2a. Ivory bird (Photo: J. Lipták, © University of Tübingen, Germany) 3.2b. “Venus” figurine (Photo: Hilde Jensen, © University of Tübingen, Germany) 3.2c. Lion-man (Thilo Parg/Wikimedia Commons. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported) 3.2d. Bone flute (Photo: Hilde Jensen, © University of Tübingen, Germany) Figure 3.3. Ochre with cross-hatching from Blombos Cave (Image Courtesy of Christopher Henshilwood) Figure 3.4. Spandrels in St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice (Joanbanjo/Wikimedia Commons. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported) Figure 4.1. Megafauna extinctions by continent Figure 6.1. Harappan seal showing a seated yoga posture (© J. M. Kenoyer/Harappa.com, Courtesy Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan) Figure 6.2.

Kenoyer/Harappa.com, Courtesy Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan) Figure 6.2. The PIE homeland, according to the Kurgan hypothesis (After David Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007, Figure 13.1) Figure 7.1. The extent of the Persian Empire around 500 BCE (Department of History, United States Military Academy, West Point/Wikimedia Commons) Figure 9.1. The classic Chinese symbol of yin and yang Figure 9.2. Examples of I Ching hexagrams (Frater5. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike) Figure 10.1. “Which two go together?” Figure 14.1. Major Neo-Confucian philosophers Figure 14.2. Key Neo-Confucian terms Figure 15.1. Thirteenth-century illustration showing God as architect of the universe Figure 15.2. “Buddhist Temple in the Hills after Rain” by Li Cheng (Attributed to Li Cheng, Chinese [919–67 CE].


When Computers Can Think: The Artificial Intelligence Singularity by Anthony Berglas, William Black, Samantha Thalind, Max Scratchmann, Michelle Estes

3D printing, AI winter, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, blue-collar work, brain emulation, call centre, cognitive bias, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, create, read, update, delete, cuban missile crisis, David Attenborough, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, factory automation, feminist movement, finite state, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, natural language processing, Parkinson's law, patent troll, patient HM, pattern recognition, phenotype, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, zero day

Worse, it was an explanation based solely on our ability to breed rather than any higher God inspired purpose. Darwin understood that the real heresy was that natural selection did not just explain man’s body. Natural selection also explained man’s mind and his soul. 1870s cartoon of Darwin. Public Expired Creationists should reject natural selection Creationist evolution. Public Jacoba Werther, Wikimedia Commons. Creationists are right to reject evolution by natural selection. Not because it conflicts with the creation myths found in the old testament. Those wonderful lines in Genesis are poetic in nature, only the most narrow minded would be unwilling to accept the more rational model that science provides. Nor even because evolution makes God unnecessary. We look upon a world of wonder. Flowers and trees, animals great and small, birds and bees and broccoli.

Hurdles for natural selection The theory did have several hurdles to overcome. The peacock’s tail particularly upset Darwin because it was so obviously counter productive to carry such a useless dead weight just to satisfy some abstract desire for beauty. Darwin correctly postulated that the tail was in fact used by peahens to select their mate, and so was driven by sexual selection. Peacock displaying its expensive tail. Public Wikimedia Commons Unlike many birds, a peacock does not help raise their chicks, and so they can mate with many peahens. Peahens prefer peacocks that have fine tails, so a peacock without a tail will not produce grandchildren, even if it would be otherwise fitter to survive without the burdensome tail. Being able to survive with a long and cumbersome tail provides an easy metric for peahens to assess their mates.


pages: 331 words: 47,993

Artificial You: AI and the Future of Your Mind by Susan Schneider

artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, Elon Musk, Extropian, hive mind, life extension, megastructure, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, silicon-based life, Stephen Hawking, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons

Autonomous AI could be quite useful, because if a ship is near Alpha Centauri, communicating with Earth at light speed would take eight years—four years for Earth to receive a signal and four years for the answer from Earth to return to Alpha Centauri. To have real-time decision-making capacities, civilizations embarking on interstellar voyages will either need to send members of their civilizations on intergenerational missions—a daunting task—or put AGIs on the ships themselves. A solar sail spacecraft begins its journey (Wikimedia Commons, Kevin Gill) Of course, this doesn’t mean that the AGIs would be conscious; as I’ve stressed, that would require a deliberate engineering effort over and above the mere construction of a highly intelligent system. Nonetheless, if Earthlings send AGIs in their stead, they may become intrigued by the possibility of making them conscious. Perhaps the universe will not have a single other case of intelligent life, and disappointed humans will long to seed the universe with their AI “mindchildren.”


pages: 469 words: 132,438

Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet by Varun Sivaram

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, demand response, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, financial innovation, fixed income, global supply chain, global village, Google Earth, hive mind, hydrogen economy, index fund, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, M-Pesa, market clearing, market design, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Negawatt, off grid, oil shock, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, renewable energy transition, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, time value of money, undersea cable, wikimedia commons

As figure 2.5 illustrates, there are four major markets, divided by the typical size of a solar system: Utility-scale installations range from several to several hundred megawatts of generation capacity. Commercial and industrial installations typically are smaller than 2 MW. Residential installations are typically below 50 kW. Off-grid installations, which are deployed where the central power grid does not reach, can be as small as a single panel. Figure 2.5 Solar PV upstream production and downstream markets. Source: Images from Wikimedia Commons. As figure 2.5 shows, the solar power sector can be divided into the downstream deployment of solar panels in these four markets and their upstream manufacturing. Manufacturing a solar panel starts with mining and refining polysilicon, which is then melted into long, cylindrical ingots and sliced into thin wafers. These wafers of high-purity silicon are then turned into solar cells, which convert sunlight into electricity.

At this scale, the grid consists of networked microgrids with their own distributed energy resources (clockwise from top left are a college campus, a neighborhood, an industrial facility, and a military base). These networked microgrids connect to the superstructure of HVDC lines that connect disparate regions and enable access to faraway renewable resources. Important note: This schematic is not exhaustive—that is, many other resources, like conventional power plants, can plug into this hybrid grid, though they are not shown owing to space constraints. Source: DESERTEC map obtained from Wikimedia Commons. Achieving a hybrid grid would be the pinnacle of systemic innovation. But steep barriers stand in the way. Almost everywhere, clumsy regulations and conservative utilities are unwilling to move beyond the twentieth-century paradigm of the power system—even in such pioneering states as New York and California, progress is slow. There are also considerable technical details to work out—including standards for how smart microgrids can talk to one another and effectively emulate a cellular network.55 Cost is another issue.


The Europeans: Three Lives and the Making of a Cosmopolitan Culture by Orlando Figes

Anton Chekhov, British Empire, glass ceiling, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Internet Archive, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Journalism, Republic of Letters, wikimedia commons

List of Illustrations ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT Here. The Théâtre Italien, engraving after a drawing by Eugène Lami, c. 1840. (New York Public Library) Here. Alfred de Musset, satire on Louis Viardot’s courtship of Pauline, cartoon, c. 1840. Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France, Paris. (Copyright © RMN-Grand Palais (Institut de France)/Gérard Blot) Here. Giacomo Meyerbeer, photograph, 1847. (Wikimedia Commons) Here. Varvara Petrovna Lutovinova, Turgenev’s mother, daguerreotype, c. 1845. (I. S. Turgenev State Memorial Museum, Orel) Here. Clara and Robert Schumann, daguerreotype, c. 1850. (adoc-photos/Getty Images) Here. The Leipzig Gewandhaus, engraving, c. 1880. (akg-images) Here. Pauline Viardot, drawing of the château at Courtavenel, in a letter to Julius Rietz, 5 July 1858. (New York Public Library (JOE 82-1, 40)) Here.

(Open Access Image from the Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT) Here. Cham (Amédée Charles Henri, Comte de Noé), Impressionist painters can double the effect of their exhibition on the public by having Wagner’s music played at it, cartoon in Le Charivari, 22 April 1877. (Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg) Here. Anon., The Obsequies of Victor Hugo at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, 31 May 1885, photograph, 1885. (Wikimedia Commons) Here. Anon., portrait of Auguste Rodin standing next to his sculpture of Victor Hugo, photograph, 1902. (ullstein bild/Getty Images) Here. Guigoni and Bossi, Funeral procession of Giuseppe Verdi in Foro Bonaparte, Milan, 30 January 1901, from L’illustrazione Italiana, Year XXVIII, No, 9, 3 March 1901. (Getty Images) Here. Anon., the Ricordi shop in London, photograph, c. 1900. (Copyright © Ricordi Archives) Here.

., Pauline Viardot on her balcony in boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris, photograph c. 1900. (Lebrecht/Alamy) Here. Anon., Entrance to the Exposition Universelle, Paris, photograph, 1900. (Bibliothèque de Genève, Centre d’iconographie genevoise) PLATES 1. Ary Scheffer, portrait of Pauline García, oil on canvas, 1840. Musée de la Vie romantique, Paris. (Roger-Viollet/TopFoto) 2. Anon., portrait of Manuel García as Otello, engraving, c. 1821. (Wikimedia Commons) 3. Louis Viardot, engraving, c. 1839. (Heritage Image Partnership/Alamy) 4. Henri Decaisne, Maria Malibran as Desdemona in Otello, oil on canvas, 1830. Musée Carnavalet, Paris. (Granger Historical Collection/Alamy) 5. Josef Weninger, portrait of Ivan Turgenev, daguerreotype, 1844. (Copyright © State Historical Museum, Moscow) 6. Musical score for ‘Armida dispietata’ and ‘Lascia chio Pianga’, from Rinaldo by George Frideric Handel, arr.


Science...For Her! by Megan Amram

Albert Einstein, blood diamonds, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, double helix, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, pez dispenser, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Wall-E, wikimedia commons

Interior design by Brian Chojnowski Jacket Design by Tal Gorersky Jacket Photograph by Matthias Clamer for StocklandMartel.com Cover photograph and photos on pages xxiv and 101 by Matthias Clamer for StocklandMartel.com Photos on pages xxv, 1, 19, 36, 81, 84, 85, 121, 130, 143, 158, 164, and 189 ©Liz Bretz Photos on pages 19 and 51 ©Alamy Photo of white dwarf on page 71 ©NASA, ESA, H. Bond (STScl), and M. Barstow (University of Leicester) Photo of neutron star on page 71 ©NASA Photos on pages 51, 68, and 127 ©Gettyimages Photo on page 128 ©Shutterstock Photo of Rachel Carson on page 172 from Library of Congress Photos via Wikimedia Commons on pages 66, 71, 79, 112, and 173 Illustration on page 128 by Alexandra Rushfield Library of Congress Control Number: 2014017574 ISBN 978-1-4767-5788-9 ISBN 978-1-4767-5790-2 (ebook)


pages: 221 words: 61,146

The Crowded Universe: The Search for Living Planets by Alan Boss

Albert Einstein, Dava Sobel, diversified portfolio, full employment, if you build it, they will come, Johannes Kepler, Kuiper Belt, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Pluto: dwarf planet, Silicon Valley, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

The problem for stars is that the relevant standard of comparison is the speed of light, which is about 186,000 miles per second, or 670,000,000 mph. Thus 30 mph is practically stationary by comparison. FIGURE 2. Christian Johann Doppler [1803- 1853], the Austrian physicist who showed that sound waves shift in wavelength by an amount that depends on the velocity of their source. [Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.] The star’s speed is compared this way because Walker and Campbell planned to find planets by measuring it through the Doppler effect. Christian Johann Doppler, an Austrian physicist, hypothesized in 1842 that light waves emitted by a moving star behave exactly the same way as sound waves emitted by a moving train. When a train blows its whistle as it is moving toward you, you hear the whistle at a higher pitch, or frequency, than when the whistle is sounded while the train is stopped.


Exploring Everyday Things with R and Ruby by Sau Sheong Chang

Alfred Russel Wallace, bioinformatics, business process, butterfly effect, cloud computing, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Debian, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Gini coefficient, income inequality, invisible hand, p-value, price stability, Ruby on Rails, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, text mining, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, We are the 99%, web application, wikimedia commons

Heart Sounds S1 and S2 refer to sounds caused by the heart valves shutting when the heart contracts (ventricular systole). S1 (lub) is caused by the sudden blockage of reverse blood when the triscuspid and mitral valves shut at the beginning of the contraction. S2 (dub) is caused by the sudden blockage of reverse blood when the aortic and pulmonary valves shut at the end of the contraction. See Figure 6-6 for a picture of the human heart. Figure 6-6. The human heart (adapted from Wikimedia Commons, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license) The heart sounds waveform looks pretty good; I seem quite healthy. But what’s my heart rate? How can we get the heart rate from the heart sounds? Finding the Heart Rate Finding the heart rate from the heart sounds turns out to be a bit trickier than we initially thought. Getting the heart rate seems obvious—each heartbeat is essentially the time taken from either one S1 to the next S1, or one S2 to the next S2.


pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

XLIX, no. 3, April 1967. Institute Archives and Special Collections, MIT Libraries, Cambridge, MA Figure 5.1: Rules from the Ashtadhyayi (Vedic Literature Collection, Maharishi University of Management) Figure 6.1: Dependency diagram (TheDailyWTF, www.thedailywtf.com) Figure 6.2: “Hello, world!” in brainfuck Figure 6.3: “Hello, world!” in Malbolge Figure 6.4: Gartner, Inc.’s Hype Cycle (Jeremy Kemp, Wikimedia Commons) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project has been supported by the University of California, Berkeley. Thanks to Martin Howard for the images of the LEGO logic gates (http://www.randomwraith.com/logic.html); and to Alex Papadimoulis of TheDailyWTF.com for the dependency diagram. For inspiration, aid, and insight, I’m grateful to Jennie Durant; Janet Miller; Maura Finklestein; Wendy James, for the loan of that PCjr; Margo True; David Harvey, with fond memories of “the rapture of the freeways” and AH&AJ Computing; Balaji Venkateswaran; Jeff Kowalski; Sumeet Shetty; S.


pages: 247 words: 64,986

Hive Mind: How Your Nation’s IQ Matters So Much More Than Your Own by Garett Jones

centre right, clean water, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hive mind, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, law of one price, meta analysis, meta-analysis, prediction markets, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, social intelligence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

“Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes.” Journal of Public Economics 95, no. 9 (2011): 1213–1222. Ram, Rati. “IQ and Economic Growth: Further Augmentation of Mankiw-Romer-Weil Model.” Economics Letters 94, no. 1 (2007): 7–11. Ramsey, Frank P. “A Mathematical Theory of Saving.” The Economic Journal (1928): 543–559. Raven Matrix. User: Life of Riley. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons in Wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Raven_Matrix.svg#mediaviewer/File:Raven_Matrix.svg. Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw. “Environmental Policy as Social Policy? The Impact of Childhood Lead Exposure on Crime.” The BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 7, no. 1 (2007). Rindermann, Heiner. “The g-Factor of International Cognitive Ability Comparisons: The Homogeneity of Results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-Tests Across Nations.”


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

In April 1956, the first container ship set out from New York City to Houston. Fifty-eight boxes were brought ashore in mere hours, and a day later the vessel was making its way back with another full load of cargo. Before the invention of the steel box, ships might spend four to six days at port, fully 50% of their time. A couple years later, just 10%. Moore’s Law The number of transistors in processors, 1970–2008 Source: Wikimedia Commons The advent of the chip and the box made the world shrink as goods, services, and capital circled the globe ever more rapidly.9 Technology and globalization advanced hand in hand and faster than ever. Then something happened – something that nobody had imagined possible. Labor vs. Capital Something happened that, according to the textbooks, could not happen. Back in 1957 the economist Nicholas Kaldor outlined his six famous “facts” of economic growth.


pages: 634 words: 185,116

From eternity to here: the quest for the ultimate theory of time by Sean M. Carroll

Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Columbine, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, gravity well, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Laplace demon, lone genius, low earth orbit, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pets.com, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Schrödinger's Cat, Slavoj Žižek, Stephen Hawking, stochastic process, the scientific method, wikimedia commons

First printing, January 2010 Copyright © 2010 by Sean Carroll All rights reserved Photograph on page 37 by Martin Röll, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License, from Wikimedia Commons. Photograph on page 47 courtesy of the Huntington Library. Image on page 53 by the NASA/WMAP Science Team. Photograph on page 67 courtesy of Corbis Images. Image on page 119 courtesy of Getty Images. Figures on pages 147, 153, 177, 213, 270, 379, and 382 by Sean Carroll. Photograph on page 204 courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. Photograph on page 259 courtesy of Professor Stephen Hawking. Photograph on page 267 courtesy of Professor Jacob Bekenstein. Photograph on page 295 by Jerry Bauer, from Wikimedia Commons. Photograph on page 315 courtesy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All other images courtesy of Jason Torchinsky. REGISTERED TRADEMARK—MARCA REGISTRADA LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Carroll, Sean M., 1966- From eternity to here : the quest for the ultimate theory of time / Sean Carroll.


pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Gunter’s chain; twenty-two yards, one hundred links. The instrument that measured out the United States and the British Empire. COURTESY OF WIKIMEDIA COMMONS, PHOTO BY USER ROSEOHIORESIDENT. Patent for land ownership in Ohio in 1805, signed by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison. NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION. A combine harvester in an Idaho wheat field. COURTESY OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Edward Gibbon Wakefield. COURTESY OF THE WIKIMEDIA COMMONS AND THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Henry George. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Like a European feudal knight, a samurai owed his standing to the peasants who worked his land. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Che Guevara.


pages: 271 words: 79,367

The Switch: How Solar, Storage and New Tech Means Cheap Power for All by Chris Goodall

3D printing, additive manufacturing, decarbonisation, demand response, Elon Musk, energy transition, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Haber-Bosch Process, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, M-Pesa, Negawatt, off grid, Peter Thiel, smart meter, standardized shipping container, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons

Martin Lubikowski produced admirably clear charts; Carol Anderson proofread; and Caroline Wilding indexed. I owe the greatest debt to my wife Charlotte Brewer and daughters Alice Brewer, Mimi Goodall and Ursula Brewer. Images Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following sources for providing images: Page 2 (Roger Easton) NASA; p. 13 (diagram data) BP; p. 69 Chris Case; p. 72 Nina Klein; p. 81 Oxford Photovoltaics; p. 85 Heliatek; p. 87 Heliatek; p. 95 Wikimedia Commons; p. 118 Solar Reserve; p. 121 Helio100; p. 129 Spinetic; p. 136 Tropical Power; p. 140 Tropical Power; p. 169 Energiesprong; p. 175 Getty Images; p. 177 Tesla; p. 180 24M; p. 182 Sonnen; p. 186 Facebook; p. 203 Eos; p. 209 Highview Power; p. 239 Doris Hafenbradl; p. 242 LanzaTech; p. 247 University of California, Berkeley; p. 251 Climeworks. Index A Abramovitz, Yosef 64 absorption chilling 146 acetogens 242–3 Actinomyces 215 Africa food production 134 solar power 60–4 see also individual countries AGL 7 agriculture pumping operations 56–7 UK 226–7 Ainsworth, David 197–8, 199 air, carbon capture 249–54 air travel 224–5 algae 244–5 Algenol 245–6 alkanes 223 aluminium 108 American Physical Society 252 amine absorption 250 ammonia 229–30 anaerobic digestion (AD) 5, 131, 132, 135–41 Andasol 117 Andhra Pradesh 54 Apple 66, 67, 108 Arcelor Mittal 155, 243 archaea 234–5 Argonne National Laboratory 194 Arriba 154 artificial photosynthesis 246–9 asphalt 153 Atacama desert 59 Audi 232 Austin, Texas 53 Australia domestic electricity consumption 260 tracking 96 B bacteria 247–9 Bangladesh 16–17 banks funding solar 105, 106–7 interest rates 98–100 solar power predictions 50–1 batteries 5–6, 173, 240 car batteries 190–2 cost declines 44, 173, 176–9, 256 and demand charges 192–3 domestic 57, 171, 181–5 drones 185–7 flow batteries 174, 201–3, 206 grid storage 44, 187–90, 206–7, 219–20 lithium air 198–9 lithium ion 173–96, 199–201, 210 lithium sulphur 197–8 long term targets 194–5 PV plus battery 199–201 and time-of-use-pricing 162 24M 179–80 zinc-air batteries 201, 203–4 Becquerel, Edmond 74 behind the meter schemes 107, 108 Belgium demand response 152 liquid hydrocarbons 243 Bickl, Thomas 85, 86–90 biochar 225 biofuels see liquid fuels biogas Electrochaea 233–6 Tropical Power 134–41 see also carbon dioxide; methane biological methanation 233–8 biomass 13, 14, 15, 131–4, 142–6, 256 power to gas 233–8, 240 storing liquid hydrocarbons 220, 221–7 Tropical Power 135–42 Bishop, Pete 185–9 Bissell, David 200 Bloch, Mathias 181–2 Bloomberg 35, 42, 53, 60, 178 blue-green algae 244–5 Boardman, Brenda 164–5 Boston Consulting Group (BCG) 18, 19, 20, 176, 177, 178–9 BP 12–13 Bradford, Travis 22, 48–50 Brandao, Rafael 60 Brazil biofuels 223 pylon lines 120 solar electricity prices 3, 60 Breakthrough Energy Coalition 214, 244 Britwind 130–1 Bruce, Peter 198–9 Buffett, Warren 177 Burundi 64 Butler, Nick 41–2, 44 BYD 176–7 C Calgary 253 California demand response 156–8 domestic electricity storage 184 grid storage 201 power to gas 233 renewable energy 35 solar power cost 3 time-of-use-pricing 162, 163 CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plants 135–41, 142–5 Cambridge Architectural Research 166 Canada air capture of CO2 253 demand response 154 grid batteries 202 time-of-use-pricing 159 carbon dioxide (CO2) air capture 213, 249–54 artificial photosynthesis 248 cement plants 238–40 diesel generators 149 and microbes 213, 215 plants 133, 135, 137 power to gas 232, 233 using to make liquid hydrocarbons 241, 243, 244–5, 246, 256 Carbon Engineering 253 carbon monoxide 241–2, 243 carbon tax 239, 253 cars component manufacturers 127–8 energy usage 11 hydrogen 228 PV film 89–90 see also electric cars Case, Chris 68–71, 73–4, 79–83 cement factories 238–40, 245 Chiang, Yet-Ming 179–80 Chile concentrating solar power 119 pylon lines 120 solar electricity prices 3 solar power 59–60 China coal-fired power stations 35 energy demand 11, 12 liquid hydrocarbons 243 solar power 24, 53–4, 66 and Zimbabwe 64 Chu, Steven 230 CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) 90 Citibank 51 Climeworks 250–3 Clinton, Hillary 54 Clostridium Autoethanogenum 242–3 coal 40 Germany 46 Nigeria 60–1 coal-fired power stations Chile 59 China 11, 35 cost 122 demand 36–7 in developing world 58 India 55, 56, 58 move away from 7 Coal India Limited 58 Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants 34–5, 37, 39, 40, 236 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 47–8 compound growth 30–1 compressed air storage 207–8 concentrating solar power (CSP) 116, 117–21, 256 Connolly, Steve 154 conversion efficiency 73, 76–7, 78–9, 80 Cook, Tim 67 Cool Planet 225–6, 241 Cornwall 104–5, 206 cows 139–40 Crabtree, George 194, 195 Crescent Dunes 118 cyanobacteria 244–5 D demand charges 192–3 demand response 149–55, 166, 232, 237–8 and energy efficiency 163 in the home 156–8 what happens next 158–63 Denmark power to gas 233–4, 235 solar electricity costs 45 wind power 116, 124, 234 Deutsche Bank 51, 59, 176 diesel generators 57, 60, 121, 185, 199 demand response 148–9, 151 Hawaii 161, 199 Dinorwig 205 dispatchable power 199–200 Drax power station 131, 132 drones 185–7 Dubai 52 E Easter Island 133 Easton, Roger L 2 Einstein, Albert 75 Eisenberger, Peter 3, 19–20 electric cars 12, 156, 158, 224–5 batteries 173–8, 195 as grid backup 190–2 electricity 255 cutting power demand in the home 156–8 demand and supply 4, 5, 37–9, 147, 150–1, 215, 216–20 demand charges 192–3 demand response 149–55, 158–63, 166, 232, 237–8 distribution costs 55 domestic consumption 259–60 lighting 164–6 microgrids 62–3 power to gas 231–40 prices 37–8, 107, 257 storage 4–6, 43, 44, 173–254 time-of-use-pricing 158–63 transmission networks 58, 59, 61 see also solar power Electrochaea 233–40 electrolysis 220, 227–30, 231–40, 252–3 electrons 74–6, 78–9, 201 Enbala 154 Energiesprong 167–71 energy demand for 9–13, 144 and power 259–60 energy efficiency and demand response 163 insulation 167–72 lighting 165–6 Engie 7 Enterococcus 215 Entrade 145–6 Eos 203–4 EPR 15 ethanol 223, 243–5 Euphorbia Tirucalli 135, 137 experience curve 18–19, 33 batteries 175, 176–9, 187, 210 inverters 97 photovoltaics 22, 26, 30–1, 33 transistors 31–2 wind power 123 Exxon 3, 19–20 F Facebook 185–7 Farmer, Doyne 33 Fischer-Tropsch process 223, 252 Florida 245–6 flow batteries 174, 201–3, 206 food 132–4 Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) 142–3 fossil fuels 27–9, 33–40 see also coal; gas; oil France demand response 152, 155 gas grid 231–2 nuclear power 23 Fraunhofer Institute 3–4, 46–7, 104 Fritts, Charles 74 fullerene 72 G gas 7, 40 grid 231–2 power to gas 6, 213–15, 231–40 see also biogas; methane; syngas gas-fired power stations 150–1 ammonia 229 cost 4, 122 financing 34–5, 36–7, 39, 40, 99 power to gas 236, 238 US 35 gasification 132, 145–6 Gates, Bill 1, 6, 208, 214–15, 244, 255 Gebald, Christoph 252, 253 gene sequencing 18–19 geothermal 59, 108 Germany domestic electricity storage 181–5 electricity demand and supply 215, 217, 218–20, 229–30, 237 electricity price 101, 260 electricity production 260 gas grid 228–9, 231–2 hydrogen 228–9 oil storage 230 power to gas 232 solar power cost 3–4, 46–7 solar power funding 104, 106, 107 wind power 124 Ghent 243 gigawatt hours 260 gigawatts 259, 260 GM 176–7, 198 Google 66, 225 governments 6, 189 solar power tenders 51–3, 54–5, 59, 60 subsidies 50, 107–8, 126 GranBio 223 graphene 187 Greencoat Capital 109 grid integration costs 55–6 grid storage flow and zinc-air batteries 201–4 pumped hydro 205–7 PV plus battery 199–201 South Korea 204 GTM Research 96–7, 193, 201 H Haber Bosch process 229 Hafenbradl, Doris 238–9 Handelsbanken 105 Hawaii 161–2, 184, 199–201 heat pumps 12, 167 heating 12, 167 Heliatek 84–90 Helio100 120–1 heliostats 117–18 Henderson, Bruce 18, 20 Highview Power 208–10 Hinwil 250–1 Hinkley Point 15 Hofstetter, Dominic 233–6 hospitals 148, 149 houses batteries 57, 181–5 heating 12, 167 insulation 167–72 lighting 12, 164–6, 169 Solar House 57–8 see also residential PV installations Hutcheson, Dan 32 hydro-electric power 14, 15, 141–2, 159 pumped hydro 204–7 hydrogen 5, 213–15 conversion to methane 221, 231–40, 256 using electrolysis to generate 212, 220, 227–31, 252–3, 256 Hydrogenics 235 Hymind floating turbines 125–6 I Ibbenbeuren 229 Iceland 108 IKEA 19, 66, 166 Imergy 202 India coal-fired power stations 55–6, 58 solar electricity prices 3 Solar Houses 57–8 solar power 24, 53–8 insulation 167–72 Intel 20 interest rates 98–100, 101–2 International Energy Agency (IEA) 42–3, 45–6 inverters 91–5, 96, 97 investment 4, 100–14, 115, 214 corporate 66–7, 108 Investment and Pensions Europe 102 ITM Power 228–9 J Jelley, Nick 25 Joule Unlimited 244–5 K Kaua’i 199–200 Keith, David 253 Kennedy, Danny 42 Kenya 62–4, 145 Tropical Power 134–42 kilowatt hours 259 kilowatts 259–60 Kisii 62–3 Kiwi Power 149 Klein, Nina 71–3, 74, 85–6 Kohn, Rick 213, 215, 246 KPMG 54–7 L Lafond, Francois 33 Laikipia 135–41 Lancashire County Council 102, 103 Lanzatech 241–4 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) 46, 65 lead 83 learning curve 19, 23 LEDs 165–6, 169 Leggett, Jeremy 50 Lemnacae 139 levelised cost 98–101 LeVine, Steve 180 Liebreich, Michael 178 lighting 12, 164–6, 169 Lightsail 207–8 lignite 46 liquid air storage 208–10 liquid fuels 5, 6, 213–15 from biomass 220, 221–7 using microbes 221, 240–6, 256–7 lithium air batteries 198–9 lithium ion batteries 173–6, 192–5, 210 car batteries 190–2 cost declines 176–9 domestic 181–5 energy density 195 large-scale 185–90, 199–201 lithium supply 195–6 recycling 195, 196 24M 179–80 lithium sulphur batteries 197–8 Louisiana 226 M M-Pesa 63 MacKay, David 259 Madhya Pradesh 54 Manchester 39, 209 Mason, Mike 137–42, 143, 144 megawatts 259 Mermans, Pieter-Jan 38, 149–53, 155 Meteo 91 methane 131, 135, 137, 213–16 power to gas 221, 231–40, 256 methyl ammonium lead halides 80 microbes 212–15 artificial photosynthesis 247–9 making liquid hydrocarbons 221, 240–6, 256 power to gas 233–40 microgrids 62–3 mobile phones 61–2, 63–4, 185 Modi, Narendra 53 Monbiot, George 226 Moody’s 173, 193 Moore, Gordon 20 Moore’s Law 20–1, 32 Morocco 116, 119–20 Moylan, Andy 111–13 multi-junction cells 76–7 Musk, Elon 175 N Naam, Ramez 49–50 Nelson, Jenny 75 Netherlands home improvements 169, 170–1 storage in car batteries 191 Nevada 53, 118 New Mexico 244–5 NexWafe 78, 79 Nigeria 60–2 Nissan 176 Nissan LEAF 156 Nourse, Richard 109, 122 nuclear power stations 6, 15 costs 22–3, 48, 122 O Oahu 161–2 O’Dea, Christopher 103 offshore wind turbines 15, 124–6 Ohl, Russell 75 OhmConnect 156–8 oil, storage 230, 240–1 oil companies 6, 7–8 oligomer cells 84–90 onshore wind turbines 22, 122–5 Ontario 159, 202 Open Energi 153 Opuntia ficus-indica 135, 136, 138 Oregon 7, 223–4, 225 organic molecules 71–3, 74 organic photovoltaics 84–90 Osinbajo, Yemi 60–1 Ouarzazate 119 oversizing 91–5 Oxford Photovoltaics 68, 79–84 Oxis 197–8, 240 oxygen 234 P Palmer, Jason 166 Panasonic 175, 187–9 paper mills 152 passivation 78–9 Peabody Energy 40 peak shaving 193 see also time-of-use-pricing Pencil Cactus 135, 137 pension funds 4, 101–4, 106–7, 109–11, 112 pentacene 71 perovskites 68, 79–84 Peterhead 125–6 petrol 240 photons 74–5 photosynthesis artificial 246–9 CAM plants 135–7 photovoltaics, electricity prices 3, 45, 46, 51–3, 59, 60 photovoltaics (PV) 5–6, 8, 42–3, 74–6, 116, 255–8 and alternative sources of energy 33–40 availability 34, 55–6, 94–5, 211–12 Brazil 60 Burundi 64 capital and levelised costs 98–101 Chile 59–60 corporate investment 65–7 cost declines 1, 2–4, 21–33, 42, 45, 46–51, 123–4, 254 daily curve 90–6, 147, 260–1 experience curve 22, 26, 30–33 films 84–90 financing 4, 98–114 Germany 217, 218–20 grid integration costs 56 India 53–8 Kenya 62–4 Nigeria 60–2 oversizing 91–5 and pension funds 101–4 predictions 41–51 PV plus battery 199–201 S curve 25–6 system costs 96–7 and time-of-use-pricing 160–3 UK 215, 216–17 USA 65 Vanguard 1 2 Zimbabwe 64 see also solar cells; solar farms; solar panels PJM 155, 200–1 plants see biomass potassium hydroxide 253 power 259–60 power purchase agreements (PPAs) 51–3, 65, 101 power to gas (P2G) 231–40, 256 Powerhive East Africa Ltd 62–3 PowerOasis 185–90 Preqin 111–13 Prickly Pear 135, 136, 138 Primus Power 199 private electricity generators 148–9 pumped hydro 204–7 Punjab 54 pyrolysis 225–6 Q quantum dots 73 Quarry Battery 205–7 R Raizen 223 Red Rock Biofuels 223–4, 225, 241 renewable energy 13–15 see also geothermal; hydro-electric power; solar power; wind power residential PV installations investment 66, 100–1, 107, 110–11 PV film 89 storage 181–5 system costs 96–7 REstore 38–9, 149–55, 158 Robertson, Andrew 103, 112 Rombouts, Jan-Willem 151, 152 Roulstone, Tony 23 Rudd, Amber 40 Russia 226 S S curve 25–6 Sabatier reaction 231 Sainsbury’s 66 Schellnhuber, John 41 Schmickler, Arno 168, 170, 171 Schneider Electric 157–8 Scotland carbon-neutral housing 171 drones 186–7 wind power 122 seawater 245–6 second glass problem 43 second half of the chessboard problem 30–1 semiconductors 18 Sermol, Peter 110–11 sewage farms 154 Shao, Vic 193 Shell 7–8, 41, 43, 223 Siemens 235, 243 silicon 68, 73, 75, 76, 84, 87–8, 195 efficiency 78–9 manufacturing techniques 77–9 tandem cells 81–4 Silicor 108 smart meters 157, 159 Smil, Vaclav 255, 257 Snaith, Henry 80, 81 SoCalGas 233 solar cells 69–70 efficiency 74–7, 78–9 from organic molecules 71–3 history 74–6 multi-junction 76–7 oligomers 84–90 passivation 78–9 perovskite 79–84 silicon 76 solar energy 9–10 solar farms Brazil 60 China 66 costs 48–51, 97 electricity prices 3, 45, 46, 51–3, 54, 55, 59, 60 financing 4, 66, 98–114 and hydro-electric dams 141–2 India 54, 55, 57 land needed for 15–18 oversizing 91–5 shading 141 tracking 95–6 US 3 Zimbabwe 64 solar fuels 213–15 Solar Houses 57–8 solar panels Chris Case 68–71, 73–4 cost declines 4, 21–2, 23–4, 49, 73–4, 77–9 daily curve 260–1 efficiency 76–7 history 74–6 lifetime of 114–15 manufacturing volumes 24 organic molecules 71–3 oversizing 91–5 perovskites 68, 79–84 technology improvements 68–97 tracking 91, 95–6 see also solar cells solar power 1–8, 13–14 concentrating solar power 117–21 see also photovoltaics SolarCity 66, 199 SolarReserve 119 Solexel 78, 79 Sonnen 181–5 Sony 179 South Africa blackouts 183 concentrating solar power 119–21 Fischer-Tropsch refineries 223 tracking 96 South Korea 204 Spain 117, 120 Spinetic 127–30 Sporomusa Ovata 247–8 Statoil 125–6 steelworks 242, 243–4, 245 Stellenbosch University 120 storage 4–6, 13, 43, 44, 94, 104, 116, 173, 210 air capture of CO2 249–54 artificial photosynthesis 246–9 compressed and liquid air storage 207–10 concentrating solar power 117–19, 121 as gas or liquids 220–54, 256–7 methane 135 need for long-term storage 216–20 pumped hydro 204–7 and time-of-use-pricing 162 see also batteries subsidies 50, 107–8, 126 SunEdison 54 SunShot 65 Swanson’s Law 21–2, 23–4 Switzerland 250–1 syngas 145, 223–4, 225, 252 system costs 96–7 T Taiwan 243 tandem cells 81–4 Tarmac 153 Telangana 54 terawatt hours 259, 260 terawatts 259 Tesla 127, 175 batteries 5, 176, 177, 178 Gigafactory 175–6, 177, 180 Powerall 162, 175, 181 Texas 123 Thiel, Peter 8, 208 time-of-use-pricing 158–63 tracking 91, 95–6 transistors 20–1, 31–2 trees see biomass Trina Solar 79, 115 Tropical Power 134–42, 145 24M 179–80 U UK biogas 236 biomass 145–6 daily solar power curve 260–1 demand response 152, 153, 154 electricity demand and supply 148, 164–5, 215, 216–18, 237 electricity price 4, 37–8, 101, 260 Energiesprong 170, 171 energy use 11–12 fossil fuel generation demand 36–7 funding 102–7, 108–10 gas-fired power stations 39 government bonds 101–2 insulation 167 land use 16, 17, 226–7 liquid air storage 208–10 nuclear power stations 23 oil storage 230, 240–1 pension funds 102–4, 106–7, 108–10 pumped hydro 205–7 seasonal deficit 211–12 solar costs 45, 47–8, 52 solar power 24, 36 subsidies 50, 108 time-of-use-pricing 159–60, 162 utility companies 7 willow coppicing 136 wind power 4, 15, 122–3, 124, 125–6, 130 Unilever 66, 108 United States (US) batteries 194, 240 biomass refining 223–4, 225–6 blackouts 183 demand charges 193 demand response 155, 156–8 domestic electricity consumption 260 domestic electricity storage 184 electricity price 3, 52–3 energy demand 11 gas-fired power stations 35, 40 government bonds 101–2 land use 17–18 large-scale grid storage 199–201 power to gas 232–3 solar power 24, 33, 54, 65 system costs 97 time-of-use-pricing 161–2 tracking 96 utility companies 7 wind power 33, 122, 123 United States Geological Service (USGS) 196 University of California, Berkeley 247–8 University of Dresden 84 University of New South Wales 79 utility companies 6, 7, 34–6 Utrecht 191 V van Beurden, Ben 41, 43, 258 vanadium 202–3 Vanguard 1 2 vertical wind turbines 127–30 W Wadebridge 160–1 Wales 226–7 Walmart 66, 67, 108 waste water treatment plants demand response 154 power to gas 233, 234–5 wave power 13, 14 weather forecasting 91, 141, 183 Weil, Bill 105–9 Werlte 232 West Country Renewables 104–5 Westmill Solar 102, 103 Williams, Gage 104–5, 106 Willis, Kathy 142 willow coppicing 136 wind power 5, 13, 14–15, 53, 116, 122–6, 256 Chile 59 cost declines 22 Denmark 116, 124, 234 Germany 124, 217, 218–20 UK 215, 216–17, 237 US 33 wind turbines 4, 123–5 Britwind 130–1 Hymind floating turbine 125–6 Spinetic 126–31 vertical turbines 127–30 wood 131, 132 see also biomass Wright, T.P. 19 Y Yang, Peidong 248–9 Z Zimbabwe, solar power 64 zinc-air batteries 201, 203–4 Zurich Federal Institute of Technology 250 ALSO AVAILABLE FROM PROFILE BOOKS Where Do Camels Belong?


Mastering Structured Data on the Semantic Web: From HTML5 Microdata to Linked Open Data by Leslie Sikos

AGPL, Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business process, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, linked data, natural language processing, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, platform as a service, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, software as a service, SPARQL, text mining, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, wikimedia commons

person dbo:birthPlace :Budapest . ?person dbo:birthDate ?birth . ?person foaf:name ?name . ?person dbo:deathDate ?death . FILTER (?birth < "1901-01-01"^^xsd:date) . } ORDER BY ?name Wikidata Wikidata is one of the largest LOD databases that features both human-readable and machine-readable contents, at http://www.wikidata.org. Wikidata contains structured data from Wikimedia projects, such as Wikimedia Commons, Wikipedia, Wikivoyage, and Wikisource, as well as from the once popular directly editable Freebase dataset, resulting in approximately 13 million data items. In contrast to many other LOD datasets, Wikidata is collaborative—anyone can create new items and modify existing ones. Like Wikipedia, Wikidata is multilingual. The Wikidata repository is a central storage of structured data, whereby data can be accessed not only directly but also through client Wikis.


pages: 230 words: 71,834

Building the Cycling City: The Dutch Blueprint for Urban Vitality by Melissa Bruntlett, Chris Bruntlett

active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, car-free, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, intermodal, Jones Act, Loma Prieta earthquake, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, the High Line, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

“It was very effective, this myth that Rotterdam would reinvent itself and rise from the ashes like a phoenix,” says Provoost. “In the juxtaposition between Amsterdam and Rotterdam, that is the identity of the city: dynamic, changeable, and resilient.” Figure 1-1: Once the German bombs had stopped falling, the fires were extinguished, and the debris was cleared, little was left of Rotterdam’s city center. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons) Aided by US president Harry S. Truman’s Marshall Plan—which provided the Netherlands with over $1.1 billion (USD) in financial aid to rebuild the roads, railroads, bridges, and factories that had been destroyed—the rebuilding necessitated by this “gift from God” proved in some ways to be fortuitous. For instance, it allowed Rotterdam to modernize its harbor facilities, making it one of the first to invest heavily in the freshly introduced concept of containerization and establishing Rotterdam as the world’s busiest port (until it was eventually surpassed by Singapore and Shanghai in 2004).


pages: 257 words: 80,100

Time Travel: A History by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, Doomsday Book, index card, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, wikimedia commons

Illustration Credits Credit 1.1: From The Dublin Review, January–June 1920, vol. 166. Courtesy of Stanford University Library. Credit 1.2: Courtesy of the New York Public Library. Credit 2.1: Still image from episode 41 of Rocky & Bullwinkle & Friends, copyright © 2004 by DreamWorks Animation LLC. Used by permission. Credit 2.2: From A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court by Mark Twain. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co., 1889. Credit 2.3: From Wikimedia Commons. Credit 3.1: Still image from Felix the Cat Trifles with Time, copyright © DreamWorks Animation LLC. Used by permission. Credit 3.2: From Science and Invention in Pictures, July 1925. Credit 5.1: Courtesy of the Robert A. and Virginia Heinlein Archives and the Heinlein Prize Trust. Credit 9.1: From The Story of the Westinghouse Time Capsule. East Pittsburgh, Penn.: Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 1938.


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

Nelson also cast van Dam in his first rock musical: ‘he and his wife were both – both had parts in my great rock musical which, by the way, was the pivot of my life in a sense’ (Nelson 2011). When Nelson was a keynote speaker at the 2001 Digital Arts and Culture conference, van Dam introduced him with the comment that he’s ‘known [Ted] longer than anyone else in my adult life – literally since my freshman week in 1956 at Swarthmore College’ (Lloyd 2001). They had some catching up to do. SEEING AND MAKING CONNECTIONS 99 Andries van Dam, Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under a Creative Commons License. Passionate and eloquent, Nelson told van Dam about what he’d been doing since he left Swarthmore: hypertext. ‘He had nothing to show for this idea, no prototypes or work in the sense that computer scientists talk about work – i.e. software, algorithms, things that are concrete’, recalled van Dam (1999). What Nelson did have was a vision of what hypertext should look like, and an infectious enthusiasm for the idea.


pages: 299 words: 79,739

Enemy of All Mankind: A True Story of Piracy, Power, and History's First Global Manhunt by Steven Johnson

British Empire, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, Jeff Bezos, moral panic, Stewart Brand, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, wikimedia commons

Classification: LCC G537.A9 J64 2020 (print) | LCC G537.A9 (ebook) | DDC 910.4/5—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019022493 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019022494 Map by Jeffrey L. Ward Cover design: Gregg Kulick Cover images: (flag, crossbones, hourglass) Culture Club / Hulton Archive / Getty Images; (depiction of Henry Every’s pirate flag) Unknown author via Wikimedia Commons pid_prh_5.5.0_c0_r0 For Alexa CONTENTS Introduction I. THE EXPEDITION 1. Origin Stories 2. The Uses of Terror 3. The Rise of the Mughals 4. Hostis humani generis 5. Two Kinds of Treasure 6. Spanish Expedition Shipping 7. The Universe Conqueror 8. Holding Patterns II. THE MUTINY 9. The Drunken Boatswain 10. The Fancy 11. The Pirate Verses 12.


pages: 1,136 words: 73,489

Working in Public: The Making and Maintenance of Open Source Software by Nadia Eghbal

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, death of newspapers, Debian, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, Induced demand, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, node package manager, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, urban planning, web application, wikimedia commons, Zimmermann PGP

Michael Froomkin, “The Next Economy?” (draft), University of Miami School of Law, April 6, 1997, http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/newecon.htm. 237 Ben Thompson, “AWS, MongoDB, and the Economic Realities of Open Source,” Stratechery, January 14, 2019, https://stratechery.com/2019/aws-mongodb-and-the-economic-realities-of-open-source/. 238 Bill Gates, “An Open Letter to Hobbyists,” February 3, 1976, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bill_Gates_Letter_to_Hobbyists.jpg. 239 David Friedman, Price Theory: an Intermediate Text (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co, 1986), 20. 240 Ben Lesh (@BenLesh), “Open Source is such a strange thing . . .,” Twitter, November 30, 2017, 1:26 p.m., https://twitter.com/BenLesh/status/936300388906446848. 241 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 433. 242 Timothy Patitsas, Nadia Eghbal, and Henry Zhu, “City as Liturgy,” Hope in Source, podcast audio, March 21, 2019, https://hopeinsource.com/city/. 243 Randall W.


Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything by Lydia Kang, Nate Pedersen

Albert Einstein, complexity theory, germ theory of disease, helicopter parent, Honoré de Balzac, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Louis Pasteur, placebo effect, stem cell, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, wikimedia commons, Y2K

In Memory of Einar and Beulah Pedersen, Neil Whitehead, Norman Kane, and especially my mother, Donna Pedersen. Credits COVER: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group/Getty Images (poison bottle) INTERIOR: Alamy Stock Photo: Lordprice Collection p. 102; PNC Collection p. 48; Rich Wheater/Aurora Photos p. 228. AP Photo: John W. Liston p. 42. Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under Creative Commons Attribution—Share Alike 3.0, Author: Bullenwächter pp. 227 (all), 230. Courtesy: “Ad for the Keeley Institute, Greensboro, N.C.” The Edward Merritt McEachern Jr. Collection. Courtesy of East Carolina University Digital Collections, https://digital.lib.ecu.edu/15393 p. 41; Division of Medicine & Science, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution pp. 132 (bottom), 137; Lydia Kang p. 6; Margaret Thatcher Foundation p. 279; “Mrs.


pages: 304 words: 85,291

Cities: The First 6,000 Years by Monica L. Smith

clean water, diversified portfolio, failed state, financial innovation, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, South China Sea, telemarketer, the built environment, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Image credits: 1: The History Collection / Alamy Stock Photo; 2: GL Archive / Alamy Stock Photo; 3: Vincenzo Dragani / Alamy Stock Photo; 4: The Excavation of an Obelisk from the Campo Marzo, by Jean Barbault, ca. 1749, The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Creative Commons, The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1962; 5: © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved; 6: Santa Maria in Trastvere. Detail of Map of Rome by Giovanni Maggi, 162, Wikimedia Commons; 7: 19th era / Alamy Stock Photo; 8: Abandoned Antique Stacked Amphoras, Furkan Darici / EyeEm; 9: © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved; 10: The Fall of the Magician, by Pieter van der Heyden, 1565, The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Creative Commons, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1928; 11: PRISMA ARCHIVO / Alamy Stock Photo; 12: Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.


pages: 275 words: 84,980

Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From Money That We Understand to Money That Understands Us (Perspectives) by David Birch

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, creative destruction, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, large denomination, M-Pesa, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, Northern Rock, Pingit, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, social graph, special drawing rights, technoutopianism, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, Washington Consensus, wikimedia commons

The Bank of England, being a sensible and conservative institution naturally suspicious of new technologies, continued to use wooden tally sticks until 1826: some 500 years after the invention of double-entry bookkeeping and 400 years after Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. At this time, the Bank came up with a wonderful British compromise: they would switch to paper but they would keep the tallies as a backup (who knew whether the whole ‘printing’ thing would work out, after all) until the last person who knew how to use them had died. Medieval tally sticks. (Source: Winchester City Council Museums (Flickr), via Wikimedia Commons.) Thus, tally sticks like the ones shown in figure 6 were then taken out of circulation and stored in the Houses of Parliament until 1834, when the authorities decided that the tallies were no longer required and that they should be burned. As it happened, they were burned rather too enthusiastically and in the resulting conflagration the Houses of Parliament were razed to the ground (Shenton 2012), which is why they are now the Victorian Gothic pile designed by Sir Charles Barry, built from 1840 onwards, rather than the original mediaeval palace.


pages: 502 words: 82,170

The Book of CSS3 by Peter Gasston

centre right, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, web application, wikimedia commons

If, in the examples, I refer to a “default” or “untransformed” element, I am referring to this reference element with these transformations applied and no others. Figure 14-2. A reference element used in many examples in this chapter Again, I encourage you to visit the website that accompanies this book (http://www.thebookofcss3.com/) to take a look at the example files. * * * [5] This image is from Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coord_system_CA_0.svg). Transform Style The first new property is very simple but very important; if you don’t change it from the default value, you won’t be able to view your transformations in three dimensions. The property is called transform-style, and here’s the syntax: E { transform-style: keyword; } The keyword value can be either flat (the default) or preserve-3d.


pages: 292 words: 92,588

The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities, and the Remaking of the Civilized World by Jeff Goodell

Airbnb, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, desegregation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, fixed income, Frank Gehry, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

They found evidence that Black Lake/Sea water levels rose only about half as much as Ryan and his colleagues proposed and would have drowned only about 800 square miles of land (about half of Rhode Island), rather than the 25,000 square miles (more than the entire state of West Virginia) that Ryan and Pitman suggested. “The Deluge,” from 19th-century French artist Gustave Doré’s illustrated edition of the Bible. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) However serious the Black Sea flood may have been, researchers will likely never know for sure whether or not it inspired the flood stories in Gilgamesh or the Bible. But it is certainly true that flooding was a frequent and destructive occurrence in the ancient world and a common metaphor for political and social dissolution. In both Gilgamesh and the Bible, the flood is a catastrophe—but it’s also a cleansing, and a way of preparing the fallen world for a new order to emerge.


pages: 337 words: 103,522

The Creativity Code: How AI Is Learning to Write, Paint and Think by Marcus Du Sautoy

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Andrew Wiles, Automated Insights, Benoit Mandelbrot, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Jacquard loom, John Conway, Kickstarter, Loebner Prize, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, music of the spheres, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Rubik’s Cube, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Here Diagram showing the amount of blue in paintings by Picasso and Van Gogh. Here Plotting paintings by Picasso and Van Gogh in two-dimensional space. Here The Wundt Curve. Here A simple three-part canon. Here The Alberti bass pattern, from Mozart’s piano sonata in C, K545. Here David Cope’s analysis of Scriabin’s Prelude No.1, Op. 16. Here Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow. Oliverbeatson / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain. Here Diagram demonstrating that if you add together N consecutive odd numbers, you will get the Nth square number. FURTHER READING Machine Learning: The Power and Promise of Computers That Learn by Example. The report by the Royal Society that Margaret Boden, Demis Hassabis and I helped prepare. Issued in April 2017. It can be viewed online at http://­royalsociety­.org/machine­-learning.


pages: 417 words: 97,577

The Myth of Capitalism: Monopolies and the Death of Competition by Jonathan Tepper

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, diversification, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, merger arbitrage, Metcalfe's law, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, passive investing, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, undersea cable, Vanguard fund, very high income, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

If we look at Maslow's hierarchy of needs, most workers are not asking to find their true calling at their jobs, as Weber suggested, but are simply asking to get paid a living wage and have certainty they'll have a job next week. Workers are asking for their most basic needs to be met; they're not asking for Porsches or even personal enlightenment (Figure 4.6). Figure 4.6 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg. Used under CC BY-SA 3.0. One company that understands the needs of workers is Costco. Costco continuously ranks among the world's most beloved companies – and not only because of the free samples. They continue to outperform industry competitors, pay workers well, offer great benefits to close to 90% of staff, and have very low turnover as a result.


The Art of SEO by Eric Enge, Stephan Spencer, Jessie Stricchiola, Rand Fishkin

AltaVista, barriers to entry, bounce rate, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, cloud computing, dark matter, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, risk tolerance, search engine result page, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, social web, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Steven Levy, text mining, web application, wikimedia commons

Don’t store the image in a sidebar column with your ads or inside the header/footer navigation elements; otherwise, the search engine algorithms will ignore the image as irrelevant, just as they ignore page decor and navigation graphics. Have a proper copyright license! You need to have a proper license to display the images found on your site so that you don’t get sued. Be careful about trying to use images from Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page) or other public stock photo sites, since you cannot be sure that those images really are in the public domain. If you are using images that may also be displayed on other websites, store/display them at different sizes from how they were provided to you. Don’t change only their HTML img tag height/width parameters; reduce the size of the images or increase or decrease their compression and then resave them so that they have different file sizes.

, Web Analytics, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume most requested pages report, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume unique visitors report from, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume web browsers, Glossary (see also browsers) web bugs, RSS Feed Tracking and Measurement Web CEO, Ranking web hosting, Server and Hosting Issues, Search engine–friendly navigation guidelines issues affecting SEO, Server and Hosting Issues issues for search engines, Search engine–friendly navigation guidelines web page for this book, How to Contact Us web pages, An analogy, AJAX and JavaScript, Root Domains, Subdomains, and Microsites, Measuring the value of a link PageRank value for, Measuring the value of a link search engine metrics on, Root Domains, Subdomains, and Microsites similarities to file cabinets, An analogy static, AJAX and JavaScript Webalizer, Basic Overview webinars on SEO, Basic low-budget SEO ideas Webmaster Guidelines, link building tactics that push the limits or ignore them, Gray Hat/Black Hat, NoFollow uses and scams Webmaster Tools, Google and Bing Webmaster Tools, Benchmarking Current Indexing Status, The Two Major Approaches, Bing Webmaster Tools and Google Webmaster Tools, Search engine–supplied tools, Ranking, Tools from the search engines, Google Webmaster Tools, Reinclusion/Reconsideration Requests, Search Engine Webmaster Tools, Bing Webmaster Tools, Google Webmaster Tools, Google Webmaster Tools, Bing Webmaster Tools, Bing Webmaster Tools Bing, Bing Webmaster Tools, Bing Webmaster Tools crawl error diagnostics, Tools from the search engines geotargeting option in Google Webmaster Central, The Two Major Approaches Google, Benchmarking Current Indexing Status, Google Webmaster Tools, Google Webmaster Tools crawl data from, Benchmarking Current Indexing Status link metrics from, Search engine–supplied tools rankings data from Google Webmaster Tools, Ranking reinclusion/reconsideration requests to Bing and Google, Reinclusion/Reconsideration Requests site indexing data from, Bing Webmaster Tools and Google Webmaster Tools spider activity report from Google, Google Webmaster Tools WebmasterWorld Forums, Leveraging User-Generated Content website development, The Major Elements of Planning, Identifying the Site Development Process and Players, Defining Your Site’s Information Architecture, Technology Decisions, Structural Decisions defining site's information architecture, Defining Your Site’s Information Architecture, Technology Decisions, Structural Decisions structural decisions, Structural Decisions technology decisions, Technology Decisions identifying process and players, Identifying the Site Development Process and Players planning and incorporating SEO strategy, The Major Elements of Planning website traffic, Website Traffic, SEO for Raw Traffic, Uncovering Their Secrets, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume, What the Traffic Estimator provides, Measuring Search Traffic, Common analytics mistakes, Search Engine Robot Traffic Analysis, Web Traffic Comparison, Google Trends for Websites, Alexa, Compete, Quantcast, Glossary assessing for competitors, Uncovering Their Secrets benchmarking current sources and volume, Benchmarking Current Traffic Sources and Volume comparison with other sites, Web Traffic Comparison, Google Trends for Websites, Alexa, Compete, Quantcast Alexa, Alexa Compete, Compete Google Trends for Websites, Google Trends for Websites Quantcast, Quantcast Google's AdWords Traffic Estimator, What the Traffic Estimator provides measuring search traffic, Measuring Search Traffic, Common analytics mistakes search engine robot traffic analysis, Search Engine Robot Traffic Analysis SEO for, Website Traffic SEO for raw traffic, SEO for Raw Traffic websites, How to Contact Us, Understanding Your Audience and Finding Your Niche, Mapping Your Products and Services, Auditing an Existing Site to Identify SEO Problems, Types of Site Changes That Can Affect SEO, Review your website assets, User Engagement as a Measure of Search Quality, Voting Mechanisms, Optimizing Your Website for Local Search Engines, Setting up a mobile subdomain, Common considerations for a mobile site, Maintaining Search Engine Visibility During and After a Site Redesign, Content Theft, The Impact of Site Complexity on SEO Workload auditing site for SEO problems, Auditing an Existing Site to Identify SEO Problems companion site for this book, How to Contact Us complexity of, impact on SEO workload, The Impact of Site Complexity on SEO Workload copies of, over time (Wayback Machine), Content Theft maintaining search engine visibility during and after site redesign, Maintaining Search Engine Visibility During and After a Site Redesign mobile subdomain, Setting up a mobile subdomain mobile, common considerations for, Common considerations for a mobile site optimizing for local search engines, Optimizing Your Website for Local Search Engines reviewing your site's assets for link building, Review your website assets types of changes that affect SEO, Types of Site Changes That Can Affect SEO understanding audience and finding your niche, Understanding Your Audience and Finding Your Niche, Mapping Your Products and Services mapping products and services, Mapping Your Products and Services user engagement as measure of quality, User Engagement as a Measure of Search Quality, Voting Mechanisms Webtrends, Basic Overview, Search Engine Robot Traffic Analysis white hat SEO, Glossary widgets, syndicating content to third-party sites, Giveaways WiFi service, free, How Google and Bing Collect Engagement Metrics Wikimedia Commons, Image Optimization Tips Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Temporal Link Growth Measurements tremendous growth in pages and links, Temporal Link Growth Measurements using for link building, Wikipedia wikis, using for link building, Wikis Windows Phone 7, How Google and Bing Collect Engagement Metrics Woopra analytics solution, Basic Overview Word, use for web development or SEO, Basic low-budget SEO ideas WordPress, Selecting a CMS, Spammy giveaways, Blog Optimization, Structural blog optimizations, Basic low-budget SEO ideas Clean Trunks plug-in, Structural blog optimizations reporting tools, Basic low-budget SEO ideas “sponsored” WordPress templates with embedded links, Spammy giveaways WordPress Codex, Wikis Wordstream, tools for keyword research, Wordstream Wordtracker, Segmenting Your Site’s Audience, Things to Keep in Mind, Wordtracker, Mining Keyword Research Tools extracting long-tail data from, Mining Keyword Research Tools top shoe-related search terms, Segmenting Your Site’s Audience World Wide Web Consortium, Basics of search engine friendliness (see W3C) Wurman, Richard Saul, The Importance of a Logical, Category-Based Flow X Xenu, Link Sleuth, Third-party tools to check for crawl errors, Basic low-budget SEO ideas XML, Schema.org and Microformats, Glossary defined, Glossary marking up content, Schema.org and Microformats XML Sitemaps, XML Sitemaps, Updating your Google Sitemap, Layout of an XML Sitemap, Layout of an XML Sitemap, Where to upload your Sitemap file, Managing and updating XML Sitemaps, Syntax of the robots.txt file, Image Optimization Tips, Optimizing Through Flickr and Other Image Sharing Sites, Video Search Optimization, What is crawl efficiency and why is it important?


pages: 768 words: 252,874

A History of Judaism by Martin Goodman

British Empire, liberation theology, mass immigration, place-making, spice trade, the market place, trade route, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War

Floor mosaic, from the synagogue at Hamat Tiberias in Galilee, fourth century CE. (BibleLandPictures.com/Alamy) 18. Floor mosaic depicting David, from a synagogue in Gaza, sixth century CE. (BibleLandPictures.com/Alamy) 19. Bronze magic bowl from Babylonia, fifth–sixth century CE. (Zev Radovan/Bridgeman Images) 20. Halakhic mosaic floor inscription from Rehov synagogue, sixth century CE. (Amirki/Wikimedia Commons) 21. Marble table in the synagogue at Sardis, fourth century CE. (BibleLandPictures.com/Alamy) 22. Lid of the sarcophagus of Faustina, a Jewish woman buried in Rome, probably in the late third century CE. (Ryan Baumann) 23. Maimonides’ autograph draft of a section of his Mishneh Torah, found in the Cairo Genizah, c. 1180. (© Bodleian Library, University of Oxford) 24. Part of a marriage contract in Hebrew, Aramaic and Judeo-Arabic, between a Karaite woman and a Rabbanite man, written in 1082 CE, probably in Cairo.

Cambridge University Library, Taylor-Schechter Collection, T-S 24.1 fol 1r. (Reproduced by kind permission of The Syndics of Cambridge University Library) 25. The synagogue of El Transito in Toledo, fourteenth century. (Frédéric Reglain/Getty Images) 26. Stucco work in the interior of the El Transito synagogue, Toledo. (age fotostock/Alamy) 27. The Altneuschul in Prague, 1270. (Oyvind Holmstad/Wikimedia Commons) 28. The New Synagogue in Oranienburger Strasse, Berlin, painting by Emile Pierre Joseph de Cauwer, c. 1866. (Art Collection4/Alamy) 29. The Portugese Esnoga in Amsterdam, undated painting. (Zev Radovan/Bridgeman Images) 30. Bevis Marks synagogue, London, 1701. (Grant Smith/Alamy) 31. Image of the Pesach Seder from the Sarajevo Haggadah, mid-fourteenth century. (Zev Radovan/Bridgeman Images) 32.


pages: 371 words: 108,105

Under the Knife: A History of Surgery in 28 Remarkable Operations by Arnold van de Laar Laproscopic Surgeon

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Louis Pasteur, placebo effect, the scientific method, wikimedia commons

Ulyanova, 1923) Without artificial light, no cavity of the body could be inspected that was farther away than the reach of a doctor’s finger. For centuries, these were inspected with the light of the sun or a candle. The first organ to be reached by artificial light was the stomach, with a metal tube the size of a Roman sword that had to be swallowed in its entirety. On the tip there was a small electric lightbulb, illuminating the organ from the inside. (Wikimedia Commons) King Louis XIV was France’s magnificent seventeenth-century monarch known as the Sun King, but this didn’t prevent him from falling victim to a painful anal fistula. The fact that he dared to undergo an operation – and survived – would have given the reputation of his surgeon’s profession a tremendous boost. (Louis XIV Collection, 1701) The electric eel of Amsterdam’s Artis Zoo during his operation to examine a tumor in 2013.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

., 6 micro-businesses, 9, 173, 178 microeconomics, 132–4 microgrids, 187–8 Micronesia, 153 Microsoft, 231 middle class, 6, 46, 58 middle-income countries, 90, 164, 168, 173, 180, 226, 254 migration, 82, 89–90, 166, 195, 199, 236, 266, 286 Milanovic, Branko, 171 Mill, John Stuart, 33–4, 73, 97, 250, 251, 283, 284, 288 Millo, Yuval, 101 minimum wage, 82, 88, 176 Minsky, Hyman, 87, 146 Mises, Ludwig von, 66 mission zero, 217 mobile banking, 199–200 mobile phones, 222 Model T revolution, 277–8 Moldova, 199 Mombasa, Kenya, 185–6 Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 94 money creation, 87, 164, 177, 182–8, 205 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 Monoculture (Michaels), 6 Monopoly, 149 Mont Pelerin Society, 67, 93 Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, The (Friedman), 258 moral vacancy, 41 Morgan, Mary, 99 Morogoro, Tanzania, 121 Moyo, Dambisa, 258 Muirhead, Sam, 230, 231 MultiCapital Scorecard, 241 Murphy, David, 264 Murphy, Richard, 185 musical tastes, 110 Myriad Genetics, 196 N national basic income, 177 Native Americans, 115, 116, 282 natural capital, 7, 116, 269 Natural Economic Order, The (Gessel), 274 Nedbank, 216 negative externalities, 213 negative interest rates, 275–6 neoclassical economics, 134, 135 neoliberalism, 7, 62–3, 67–70, 81, 83, 84, 88, 93, 143, 170, 176 Nepal, 181, 199 Nestlé, 217 Netherlands, 211, 235, 224, 226, 238, 277 networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6, 174–6 neuroscience, 12–13 New Deal, 37 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 New Year’s Day, 124 New York, United States, 9, 41, 55 Newlight Technologies, 224, 226, 293 Newton, Isaac, 13, 15–17, 32–3, 95, 97, 129, 131, 135–7, 142, 145, 162 Nicaragua, 196 Nigeria, 164 nitrogen, 49, 52, 212–13, 216, 218, 221, 226, 298 ‘no pain, no gain’, 163, 167, 173, 204, 209 Nobel Prize, 6–7, 43, 83, 101, 167 Norway, 281 nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 O Obama, Barack, 41, 92 Oberlin, Ohio, 239, 240–41 Occupy movement, 40, 91 ocean acidification, 45, 46, 52, 155, 242, 298 Ohio, United States, 190, 239 Okun, Arthur, 37 onwards and upwards, 53 Open Building Institute, 196 Open Source Circular Economy (OSCE), 229–32 open systems, 74 open-source design, 158, 196–8, 265 open-source licensing, 204 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 38, 210, 255–6, 258 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 14 Ormerod, Paul, 110, 111 Orr, David, 239 Ostrom, Elinor, 83, 84, 158, 160, 181–2 Ostry, Jonathan, 173 OSVehicle, 231 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 ownership of wealth, 177–82 Oxfam, 9, 44 Oxford University, 1, 36 ozone layer, 9, 50, 115 P Pachamama, 54, 55 Pakistan, 124 Pareto, Vilfredo, 165–6, 175 Paris, France, 290 Park 20|20, Netherlands, 224, 226 Parker Brothers, 149 Patagonia, 56 patents, 195–6, 197, 204 patient capital, 235 Paypal, 192 Pearce, Joshua, 197, 203–4 peer-to-peer networks, 187, 192, 198, 203, 292 People’s QE, 184–5 Perseus, 244 Persia, 13 Peru, 2, 105–6 Phillips, Adam, 283 Phillips, William ‘Bill’, 64–6, 75, 142, 262 phosphorus, 49, 52, 212–13, 218, 298 Physiocrats, 73 Pickett, Kate, 171 pictures, 12–25 Piketty, Thomas, 169 Playfair, William, 16 Poincaré, Henri, 109, 127–8 Polanyi, Karl, 82, 272 political economy, 33–4, 42 political funding, 91–2, 171–2 political voice, 43, 45, 51–2, 77, 117 pollution, 29, 45, 52, 85, 143, 155, 206–17, 226, 238, 242, 254, 298 population, 5, 46, 57, 155, 199, 250, 252, 254 Portugal, 211 post-growth society, 250 poverty, 5, 9, 37, 41, 50, 88, 118, 148, 151 emotional, 283 and inequality, 164–5, 168–9, 178 and overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 and taxation, 277 power, 91–92 pre-analytic vision, 21–2 prescription medicines, 123 price-takers, 132 prices, 81, 118–23, 131, 160 Principles of Economics (Mankiw), 34 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 17, 98 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 288 ProComposto, 226 Propaganda (Bernays), 107 public relations, 107, 281 public spending v. investment, 276 public–private patents, 195 Putnam, Robert, 76–7 Q quantitative easing (QE), 184–5 Quebec, 281 Quesnay, François, 16, 73 R Rabot, Ghent, 236 Rancière, Romain, 172 rating and review systems, 105 rational economic man, 94–103, 109, 111, 112, 126, 282 Reagan, Ronald, 67 reciprocity, 103–6, 117, 118, 123 reflexivity of markets, 144 reinforcing feedback loops, 138–41, 148, 250, 271 relative decoupling, 259 renewable energy biomass energy, 118, 221 and circular economy, 221, 224, 226, 235, 238–9, 274 and commons, 83, 85, 185, 187–8, 192, 203, 264 geothermal energy, 221 and green growth, 257, 260, 263, 264, 267 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 pricing, 118 solar energy, see solar energy wave energy, 221 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 rentier sector, 180, 183, 184 reregulation, 82, 87, 269 resource flows, 175 resource-intensive lifestyles, 46 Rethinking Economics, 289 Reynebeau, Guy, 237 Ricardo, David, 67, 68, 73, 89, 250 Richardson, Katherine, 53 Rifkin, Jeremy, 83, 264–5 Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The (Kennedy), 279 risk, 112, 113–14 Robbins, Lionel, 34 Robinson, James, 86 Robinson, Joan, 142 robots, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 Rockefeller Foundation, 135 Rockford, Illinois, 179–80 Rockström, Johan, 48, 55 Roddick, Anita, 232–4 Rogoff, Kenneth, 271, 280 Roman Catholic Church, 15, 19 Rombo, Tanzania, 190 Rome, Ancient, 13, 48, 154 Romney, Mitt, 92 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 37 rooted membership, 190 Rostow, Walt, 248–50, 254, 257, 267–70, 284 Ruddick, Will, 185 rule of thumb, 113–14 Ruskin, John, 42, 223 Russia, 200 rust belt, 90, 239 S S curve, 251–6 Sainsbury’s, 56 Samuelson, Paul, 17–21, 24–5, 38, 62–7, 70, 74, 84, 91, 92, 93, 262, 290–91 Sandel, Michael, 41, 120–21 Sanergy, 226 sanitation, 5, 51, 59 Santa Fe, California, 213 Santinagar, West Bengal, 178 São Paolo, Brazil, 281 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 43 Saumweder, Philipp, 226 Scharmer, Otto, 115 Scholes, Myron, 100–101 Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich, 42, 142 Schumpeter, Joseph, 21 Schwartz, Shalom, 107–9 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 163, 167, 204 ‘Science and Complexity’ (Weaver), 136 Scotland, 57 Seaman, David, 187 Seattle, Washington, 217 second machine age, 258 Second World War (1939–45), 18, 37, 70, 170 secular stagnation, 256 self-interest, 28, 68, 96–7, 99–100, 102–3 Selfish Society, The (Gerhardt), 283 Sen, Amartya, 43 Shakespeare, William, 61–3, 67, 93 shale gas, 264, 269 Shang Dynasty, 48 shareholders, 82, 88, 189, 191, 227, 234, 273, 292 sharing economy, 264 Sheraton Hotel, Boston, 3 Siegen, Germany, 290 Silicon Valley, 231 Simon, Julian, 70 Sinclair, Upton, 255 Sismondi, Jean, 42 slavery, 33, 77, 161 Slovenia, 177 Small Is Beautiful (Schumacher), 42 smart phones, 85 Smith, Adam, 33, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78–9, 81, 96–7, 103–4, 128, 133, 160, 181, 250 social capital, 76–7, 122, 125, 172 social contract, 120, 125 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 social media, 83, 281 Social Progress Index, 280 social pyramid, 166 society, 76–7 solar energy, 59, 75, 111, 118, 187–8, 190 circular economy, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226–7, 239 commons, 203 zero-energy buildings, 217 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84 Solow, Robert, 135, 150, 262–3 Soros, George, 144 South Africa, 56, 177, 214, 216 South Korea, 90, 168 South Sea Bubble (1720), 145 Soviet Union (1922–91), 37, 67, 161, 279 Spain, 211, 238, 256 Spirit Level, The (Wilkinson & Pickett), 171 Sraffa, Piero, 148 St Gallen, Switzerland, 186 Stages of Economic Growth, The (Rostow), 248–50, 254 stakeholder finance, 190 Standish, Russell, 147 state, 28, 33, 69–70, 78, 82, 160, 176, 180, 182–4, 188 and commons, 85, 93, 197, 237 and market, 84–6, 200, 281 partner state, 197, 237–9 and robots, 195 stationary state, 250 Steffen, Will, 46, 48 Sterman, John, 66, 143, 152–4 Steuart, James, 33 Stiglitz, Joseph, 43, 111, 196 stocks and flows, 138–41, 143, 144, 152 sub-prime mortgages, 141 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 Sugarscape, 150–51 Summers, Larry, 256 Sumner, Andy, 165 Sundrop Farms, 224–6 Sunstein, Cass, 112 supply and demand, 28, 132–6, 143, 253 supply chains, 10 Sweden, 6, 255, 275, 281 swishing, 264 Switzerland, 42, 66, 80, 131, 186–7, 275 T Tableau économique (Quesnay), 16 tabula rasa, 20, 25, 63, 291 takarangi, 54 Tanzania, 121, 190, 202 tar sands, 264, 269 taxation, 78, 111, 165, 170, 176, 177, 237–8, 276–9 annual wealth tax, 200 environment, 213–14, 215 global carbon tax, 201 global financial transactions tax, 201, 235 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 non-renewable resources, 193, 237–8, 278–9 People’s QE, 185 tax relief v. tax justice, 23, 276–7 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 202, 258 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 61, 63, 93 Texas, United States, 120 Thailand, 90, 200 Thaler, Richard, 112 Thatcher, Margaret, 67, 69, 76 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 96 Thompson, Edward Palmer, 180 3D printing, 83–4, 192, 198, 231, 264 thriving-in-balance, 54–7, 62 tiered pricing, 213–14 Tigray, Ethiopia, 226 time banking, 186 Titmuss, Richard, 118–19 Toffler, Alvin, 12, 80 Togo, 231, 292 Torekes, 236–7 Torras, Mariano, 209 Torvalds, Linus, 231 trade, 62, 68–9, 70, 89–90 trade unions, 82, 176, 189 trademarks, 195, 204 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 transport, 59 trickle-down economics, 111, 170 Triodos, 235 Turkey, 200 Tversky, Amos, 111 Twain, Mark, 178–9 U Uganda, 118, 125 Ulanowicz, Robert, 175 Ultimatum Game, 105, 117 unemployment, 36, 37, 276, 277–9 United Kingdom Big Bang (1986), 87 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 free trade, 90 global material footprints, 211 money creation, 182 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 poverty, 165, 166 prescription medicines, 123 wages, 188 United Nations, 55, 198, 204, 255, 258, 279 G77 bloc, 55 Human Development Index, 9, 279 Sustainable Development Goals, 24, 45 United States American Economic Association meeting (2015), 3 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 Congress, 36 Council of Economic Advisers, 6, 37 Earning by Learning, 120 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 Federal Reserve, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 free trade, 90 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 global material footprint, 211 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 inequality, 170, 171 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 political funding, 91–2, 171 poverty, 165, 166 productivity and employment, 193 rust belt, 90, 239 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 wages, 188 universal basic income, 200 University of Berkeley, 116 University of Denver, 160 urbanisation, 58–9 utility, 35, 98, 133 V values, 6, 23, 34, 35, 42, 117, 118, 121, 123–6 altruism, 100, 104 anthropocentric, 115 extrinsic, 115 fluid, 28, 102, 106–9 and networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6 and nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 and pricing, 81, 120–23 Veblen, Thorstein, 82, 109, 111, 142 Venice, 195 verbal framing, 23 Verhulst, Pierre, 252 Victor, Peter, 270 Viner, Jacob, 34 virtuous cycles, 138, 148 visual framing, 23 Vitruvian Man, 13–14 Volkswagen, 215–16 W Wacharia, John, 186 Wall Street, 149, 234, 273 Wallich, Henry, 282 Walras, Léon, 131, 132, 133–4, 137 Ward, Barbara, 53 Warr, Benjamin, 263 water, 5, 9, 45, 46, 51, 54, 59, 79, 213–14 wave energy, 221 Ways of Seeing (Berger), 12, 281 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 74, 78, 96, 104 wealth ownership, 177–82 Weaver, Warren, 135–6 weightless economy, 261–2 WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialised, rich, democratic), 103–5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 282 West Bengal, India, 124, 178 West, Darrell, 171–2 wetlands, 7 whale hunting, 106 Wiedmann, Tommy, 210 Wikipedia, 82, 223 Wilkinson, Richard, 171 win–win trade, 62, 68, 89 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 Wizard of Oz, The, 241 Woelab, 231, 293 Wolf, Martin, 183, 266 women’s rights, 33, 57, 107, 160, 201 and core economy, 69, 79–81 education, 57, 124, 178, 198 and land ownership, 178 see also gender equality workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 World 3 model, 154–5 World Bank, 6, 41, 119, 164, 168, 171, 206, 255, 258 World No Tobacco Day, 124 World Trade Organization, 6, 89 worldview, 22, 54, 115 X xenophobia, 266, 277, 286 Xenophon, 4, 32, 56–7, 160 Y Yandle, Bruce, 208 Yang, Yuan, 1–3, 289–90 yin yang, 54 Yousafzai, Malala, 124 YouTube, 192 Yunnan, China, 56 Z Zambia, 10 Zanzibar, 9 Zara, 276 Zeitvorsoge, 186–7 zero environmental impact, 217–18, 238, 241 zero-hour contracts, 88 zero-humans-required production, 192 zero-interest loans, 183 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84, 191, 264 zero-waste manufacturing, 227 Zinn, Howard, 77 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Illustrations are reproduced by kind permission of: archive.org. © Kyle Depew. © Mark Segal/Panoramic Images, Chicago. © McGraw-Hill Education. Dreamstime (© Roman Yatsnya). Getty Images: (© Yale Joel/The LIFE Picture Collection), (© Hulton Archive/Stringer), (© Lucas Oleniuk), (© urbancow), (© Matt Champlin), (© Kurt Hutton/Stringer). LSE Library. New York Public Library. Wikimedia Commons. Diagrams designed by: Christian Guthier: 11, 44, 51. Marcia Mihotich: 26, 39, 47, 54, 64, 71, 96, 108, 127, 132, 140, 168, 207, 212, 220, 257, 251, 259. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publisher apologises for any errors or omissions in the above list and would be grateful if notified of any corrections that should be incorporated in future reprints or editions of this book.


A People’s History of Computing in the United States by Joy Lisi Rankin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate social responsibility, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pink-collar, profit motive, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, wikimedia commons

Note the play on byte, overbyte, and overbite, leading to “orthodontia” in the title. 22. Jim Warren quoted in Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, 265. 23. Warren quoted in Levy, Hackers, 235. Notes to Pages 236–241 293 24. Bill Gates, oral history interview by David Allison, National Museum of American History (Smithsonian Institution), http://­americanhistory​.­si​.­edu​ /­comphist ​/­gates​.­htm#tc3. 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid. 27. The letter is now available on Wikimedia Commons via the DigiBarn Computer Museum, which notes that it was published not only in the Homebrew Computer Club Newsletter but also in Computer Notes, ­People’s Computer Com­ pany, and Radio-­Electronics. “File: Bill Gates Letter to Hobbyists.jpg,” https://­ commons​.­w ikimedia​.­org​/­w iki​/ ­File:Bill​_­G ates​_ ­Letter​_­to​_ ­Hobbyists​.­jpg. 28. Jim Warren, Editor of Dr. Dobb’s Journal, April 10, 1976, http://­w ww​ .­v intagecomputer​.­net ​/­pcc​/ ­billgatesopenletter​.­pdf. 29.


Time of the Magicians: Wittgenstein, Benjamin, Cassirer, Heidegger, and the Decade That Reinvented Philosophy by Wolfram Eilenberger

Albert Einstein, Charles Lindbergh, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, liberation theology, precariat, scientific worldview, side project, traveling salesman, wikimedia commons

Original owner: Thomas Stonborough, Vienna: 6 Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach (dla): 7, 8, 9, 10 (NL Henning Ritter), 11 (Suhrkamp Archive) akg images: 12 (Bilderarchiv Pisarek), 13 (Imagno), 14 (F. Frith Collection) ullstein bild: 15 (ullstein bild—akg), 16, 17, 18 (all: ullstein bild—ullstein bild), 19 (Photo 12) Dokumentationsbibliothek Davos: 20, 21 22 (all: private archive Dr. Henning Ritter), 23, 24 (both: Fotosammlung Müller) Akademie der Künster (adk) / Walter Benjamin Archiv, Berlin: 25 (Photograph: Joel Heinzelmann), 26 (Asja Lacis, ca. 1924) Wikimedia Commons / Galerie Bassenge (www.bassenge.com): 27 HarperCollins Publishers: Excerpt from pp. 232, 234 from Being and Time by Martin Heidegger, translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. Copyright © 1962 by Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers. Harvard University Press: Excerpt from Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil by Rüdiger Safranski, translated by Ewald Osers.


pages: 480 words: 123,979

Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier

4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

Left: Photograph by Ann Lasko Harvill, used with permission. Right: Photograph by Kevin Kelly, used with permission. © Linda Jacobson. Photograph by Walter Greenleaf, used with permission. TK Reproduced with permission. Copyright © 1987 Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Photograph by Dan Winters. Courtesy of Scientific American. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. © REX / Shutterstock. Drawings by Ann Lasko Harvill, photographed by Kevin Kelly, used with permission. © George MacKerron, used with permission. Reproduced with permission. Copyright © 1984 Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. © MixPix / Alamy Stock Photo. Photograph by Ann Lasko Harvill, used with permission. Photograph by Kevin Kelly, used with permission


pages: 433 words: 124,454

The Burning Answer: The Solar Revolution: A Quest for Sustainable Power by Keith Barnham

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, carbon footprint, credit crunch, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Naomi Klein, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, uranium enrichment, wikimedia commons

Oxford Dictionary of Scientists, Oxford University Press (1999). 3. Roy Porter and Marilyn Ogilvie, The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Vols I & II, Oxford University Press, 3rd edition (2000). 4. C.W.F. Everitt, James Clerk Maxwell, Physicist and Natural Philosopher, Charles Scribner’s Sons (1975). 5. Gerard Cheshire, Electricity and Magnetism (Science Essentials – Physics), Evans Brothers Ltd (2010). 6. Wikimedia commons, ‘File:Magnet0873.png’ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magnet0873.png, accessed 5 February 2014. 7. Wikibooks, ‘GCSE Science/Magnetic effects of a current’ http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/GCSE_Science/Magnetic_effects_of_a_current, accessed 5 February 2014. 8. GCSE Physics, ‘Electromagnetism’, http://www.gcse.com/energy/electromagnetism.htm, accessed 6 January 2014. 9. Richard P. Feynman, Robert B.


pages: 457 words: 143,967

The Bank That Lived a Little: Barclays in the Age of the Very Free Market by Philip Augar

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, break the buck, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, high net worth, hiring and firing, index card, index fund, interest rate derivative, light touch regulation, loadsamoney, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, out of africa, prediction markets, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Sloane Ranger, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, wikimedia commons, yield curve

Lord Camoys (Rex Shutterstock) 3. 54 Lombard Street, 1906 (Historic England) 4. 54 Lombard Street, 1980s (Associated Newspapers/Rex Shutterstock) 5. 54 Lombard Street, 2000 (John Sturrock/Alamy) 6. 1 Churchill Place (Jacob Carter/Rex Shutterstock) 7. 41–43 Brook Street (Openoffices.com) 8. Sir Timothy Bevan (The Times/News Licensing/Tim Bishop) 9. John Quinton (Trevor Humphries/Rex Shuttestock) 10. BZW Trading Floor (Mike Abrahams/Alamy) 11. Harry Enfield as Loadsamoney (ITV/Rex Shutterstock) 12. Andrew Buxton and Martin Taylor (UPP/TopFoto) 13. Matthew Barrett and Sir Peter Middleton (Sean Dempsey/PA Images) 14. New York Racquet and Tennis Club (BeyondMyKen/Wikimedia Commons) 15. Bob Diamond playing golf (Getty Images) 16. Carol Vorderman advertises FirstPlus (The Advertising Archives) 17. John Varley and Rijkman Groenink (EPA/Rex Shutterstock) 18. Gordon Brown on holiday (Darren Staples/PA Images) 19. Lord Myners (Mark Harrison/Camera Press, London) 20. Baroness Vadera (Charlie Bibby/Financial Times, 2016. Used under licence from the Financial Times. All rights reserved) 21.


pages: 556 words: 141,069

The Profiteers by Sally Denton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche

Courtesy Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. 7) Courtesy of Nixon Presidential Library. 8) Courtesy of Nixon Presidential Library. 9) Courtesy of Nixon Presidential Library. 10) Courtesy of Nixon Presidential Library. 11) Photo by Mark Wolfe, January 2, 2006. Courtesy of FEMA. 12) Photo by Cecil Stoughton. Courtesy of Lyndon B. Johnson Library. 13) Courtesy: Greg Mello. 14) Courtesy: J. Gary Gwilliam. Insert Two: 15) Photographer Robert Knudsen. Courtesy John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 16) Creative Commons. 17) Creative Commons. 18) Creative Commons. 19) No Credit Listed. 20) Photo by Tamerian. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons. 21) Leonard McCombe/The LIFE Picture Collection/ Getty Images. 22) Photographer Richard Sheinwald/Bloomberg via Getty Images. 23) Photo by Deborah Coleman/Getty Images. 24) Joe Klamar/AFP/Getty Images. 25) Photo by Getty Images. 26) Photo Courtesy: Grant Samuel. 27) Photo Courtesy: Grant Samuel.


pages: 482 words: 125,429

The Book: A Cover-To-Cover Exploration of the Most Powerful Object of Our Time by Keith Houston

clean water, Commentariolus, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, invention of movable type, Islamic Golden Age, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, paper trading, Ponzi scheme, wikimedia commons

Anna Oler, personal correspondence with the author, November 2015. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Adrian Bullock, Book Production (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), 164–69. Illustration Credits Page 5: Domenico Cirillo. Cyperus Papyrus, 1796. Image courtesy of Álvaro Pérez Vilariño. Page 7: Norman de Garis Davies. The Tomb of Puyemrê at Thebes, Volume I, Plate XV. Image courtesy of University of Glasgow Library. Page 12: Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user “Aethralis.” CC Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. Original at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Papyrus_sheet.svg; published version at http://www.keithhouston.co.uk/?attachment_id=395. Page 15: Author’s collection. Pages 26–27: Photo Shai Halevi. Full Spectrum Color Image. Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Page 29: Jost Amman, Stände und Handwerker aus dem Jahre 1568 (Knorr & Hirth, 1923), 18.


pages: 459 words: 138,689

Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

Devezas, “Specifying Technology and Rebound in the IPAT Identity,” Procedia Manufacturing 21 (2018): 476–85, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978918301860. 17. Unsurprisingly, there is more than you might ever want to read about Moore’s law ever so easily available: see Wikipedia, accessed 2 September 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law. 18. Wgsimon, “Microprocessor Transistor Counts 1971–2011 & Moore’s Law,” Wikimedia Commons, 13 May 2011, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Transistor_Count_and_Moore%27s_Law_-_2011.svg. 19. The Internet of Things is a term that is itself going through a rapid slowdown in use and usefulness. It may mean nothing to you, depending on when you read this book. So much that we hyped as new and amazing at the start of the twenty-first century was, in hindsight, simply hype. CHAPTER 5.


Thomas Cromwell: A Life by Diarmaid MacCulloch

active measures, distributed generation, failed state, land tenure, wikimedia commons

Sir Henry Wyatt, portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Bridgeman Images 3. Thomas Cromwell, portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1532–3. © Copyright The Frick Collection 4. Thomas Cromwell, portrait by English school, late 1530s. Private collection. Christie’s / Bridgeman Images 5. Coat of arms of Thomas Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell, KG/6. Chevron Tango/Wikimedia Commons 6. Coat of arms of Thomas Wolsey (also the arms of Christ Church College Oxford) Chevron Tango/Wikimedia Commons 7. Silver-gilt medallion of Cromwell, 1538. © The Trustees of the British Museum, M.6792 8. The arms of Cromwell as augmented in 1537. College of Arms, MS Num Sch 6/40. Reproduced by permission of the Kings, Heralds and Pursuivants of Arms 9. The arms of Edward Seymour, augmented in 1536. College of Arms, M. 7 f. 40v. Reproduced by permission of the Kings, Heralds and Pursuivants of Arms 10.


pages: 744 words: 142,748

Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley

air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, undersea cable, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Photo courtesy AT&T Archives and History Center Long-distance operators at “cord boards” circa 1945. Well until mid-century the operators’ hands, arms, and brains were the workhorses of long-distance telephone switching. Photo courtesy National Archives The inner workings of a bank of Strowger switches showing the ratchets and pawls and assorted mechanical clockwork required to automate telephone switching in the early 1900s. Photo courtesy Túrelio/Wikimedia Commons A portion of the magnificent 4A toll crossbar switch, 1957. The brains of the long-distance network, the 4A would enable truly automated long-distance telephone calls that customers could dial themselves. Photo courtesy AT&T Archives and History Center A 1950 magazine ad describing the multifrequency signaling system; the ad even went so far as to give the musical equivalents of the MF digits.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

There are many different Wikipedia barnstars that connote different things. For example, General Barnstars are awarded to describe “contributions or editing along a specific theme.” The Barnstar of High Culture, Epic Barnstar, and Ancient Ruin History Barnstar are examples of barnstars awarded “in recognition of excellent contributions” that are within one of seven major categories listed on the Main Page. Wikimedia Commons, Barnstar, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Barnstar (as ofJUNE 1, 2007, 08:30 GMT) (describing different barnstars awarded to Wikipedia contributors). 36. Wikipedia, English Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:25 GMT). 37. See Eric S. Raymond, Release Early, Release Often, in THE CATHEDRAL AND THE BAZAAR: MUSINGS ON LINUX AND OPEN SOURCE BY AN ACCIDENTAL REVOLUTIONARY (2001), available at http://www.catb.org/-esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/ ar01s04.html. 38.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Missouri Historical Society. 10: Illustration of the Erie Canal from “Summer Excursion Routes,” catalogue by Sunshine Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1881. Digitized by the Sloan Foundation. Library of Congress. 11: The room in the McLean House, at Appomattox Court House, in which General Lee surrendered to General Grant. Lithograph. Major & Knapp, Library of Congress. 12: Library of Congress via Corbis Historical/Getty (left); Photo 12/Alamy Stock Photo (right). 13: Photograph of prospector by L. C. McClure, 1850. Wikimedia Commons. 14: Advertisement for the Pony Express, then owned by Wells, Fargo & Company, 1861. Smithsonian National Postal Museum. 15: Artist W. H. Jackson; photo MPI via Getty. 16: American Progress by John Gast, 1872. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. 17: Photograph of Engine No. 133, U.S. Military R.R., City Point, Virginia, by Mathew Brady, ca. 1860–1865. U.S.


What We Cannot Know: Explorations at the Edge of Knowledge by Marcus Du Sautoy

Albert Michelson, Andrew Wiles, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Arthur Eddington, banking crisis, bet made by Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne, Black Swan, Brownian motion, clockwork universe, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Ernest Rutherford, Georg Cantor, Hans Lippershey, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Henri Poincaré, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Murray Gell-Mann, music of the spheres, Necker cube, Paul Erdős, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, Thales of Miletus, Turing test, wikimedia commons

Illustration adapted from images generated by the One Zoom Tree of Life Explorer: http://www.onezoom.org/index.htm 4. Magnetic fields © Joe McLaren 5. Four graphs describing the behaviour of the dice. Illustration adapted from M. Kapitaniak, J. Strzalko, J. Grabski and T. Kapitaniak. ‘The three-dimensional dynamics of the die throw’, Chaos 22(4), 2012 EDGE 2 6. Atoms inside a dice. Yikrazuul / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain 7. Jean Baptiste Perrin’s Les Atomes. J. B. Perrin (SVG drawing by MiraiWarren) / Public Domain EDGE 3 8. Reprinted graph with permission from the American Physical Society as follows: C.G. Shull, ‘Single-Slit Diffraction of Neutrons’. Physical Review. 179, 752, 1969. Copyright 1969 by the American Physical Society: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.179.752 EDGE 5 9.


pages: 799 words: 187,221

Leonardo Da Vinci by Walter Isaacson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, Commentariolus, crowdsourcing, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, game design, iterative process, lone genius, New Journalism, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, urban planning, wikimedia commons

Zaremba Filipczak, “New Light on Mona Lisa: Leonardo’s Optical Knowledge and His Choice of Lighting,” Art Bulletin 59.4 (December 1977), 518; Zöllner, 1:160; Klein, Leonardo’s Legacy, 32. 14 Clark, “Mona Lisa,” 144; Pascal Cotte, Lumiere on the Mona Lisa (Vinci Editions, 2015); “New Technology Sheds Light On Centuries-Old Debate about Mona Lisa,” PR Newswire, October 17, 2007; “High Resolution Image Hints at ‘Mona Lisa’s’ Eyebrows,” CNN, October 18, 2007. 15 Good books include Mohen et al., The Mona Lisa; Cotte, Lumiere on the Mona Lisa; Zöllner. The best online versions are from the Paris research firm C2RMF, available on its website, http://en.c2rmf.fr/, and also at Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mona_Lisa,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_natural_color.jpg. 16 Bruno Mottin, “Reading the Image,” in Mohen et al., The Mona Lisa, 68. 17 Carlo Starnazzi, Leonardo Cartografo (Istituto geografico militare, 2003), 76. 18 Walter Pater, The Renaissance (University of California, 1980; originally published 1893), 79. 19 Takao Sato and Kenchi Hosokawa, “Mona Lisa Effect of Eyes and Face,” i-Perception 3.9 (October 2012), 707; Sheena Rogers, Melanie Lunsford, et al., “The Mona Lisa Effect: Perception of Gaze Direction in Real and Pictured Faces,” in Sheena Rogers and Judith Effken, eds., Studies in Perception and Action VII (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), 19; Evgenia Boyarskaya, Alexandra Sebastian, et al., “The Mona Lisa Effect: Neural Correlates of Centered and Off-centered Gaze,” Human Brain Mapping 36.2 (February 2015), 415. 20 Windsor, RCIN 919055v. 21 Margaret Livingstone, “Is It Warm?


How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

Goodrich worker: DC-54, Lot 3464, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress “Synthetica, a New Continent of Plastics”: Ortho Plastic Novelties / Fortune, October 1940 Conquest of the Japanese main islands: Data from Kenneth Hewitt, “Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73 (1983), table 3 “The All-Red Line Around the World”: George Johnson, The All Red Line: Annals and Aims of the Pacific Cable Project (Ottawa, 1903) Sign at army hospital: MAMAS D44-145-1, National Museum of Health and Medicine Herbert Hoover: Harris & Ewing / 2016882827, Library of Congress Wartime poster: National Aircraft Standards / Industrial Standardization, January 1943 Li Yang: China Photos / 73813303, Getty Images Ernest Gruening: Paradise of the Pacific, January 1938 The pointillist empire today: Foreign bases, David Vine, www.basenation.us/maps; domestic/territorial bases, www.data.gov Marine Corps Air Station Futenma: Wikimedia Commons Sony transistor radio and mascot: Courtesy of Michael Jack Major coalition airfields: After Richard P. Hallion, Storm over Iraq: Air Power and the Gulf War (Washington, DC, 1992) The face of battle in a war of points: Steve Horton / 070807-F-9602H-101, U.S. Air Force ALSO BY DANIEL IMMERWAHR Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHOR Daniel Immerwahr is an associate professor of history at Northwestern University and the author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development, which won the Organization of American Historians’ Merle Curti Intellectual History Award.


pages: 829 words: 186,976

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

"Robert Solow", airport security, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, global pandemic, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Laplace demon, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pets.com, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Copyright © Nate Silver, 2012 All rights reserved Illustration credits Figure 4-2: Courtesy of Dr. Tim Parker, University of Oxford Figure 7-1: From “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics” by Jeffery Taubenberger and David Morens, Emerging Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, January 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Figures 9-2, 9-3A, 9-3C, 9-4, 9-5, 9-6 and 9-7: By Cburnett, Wikimedia Commons Figure 12-2: Courtesy of Dr. J. Scott Armstrong, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Silver, Nate. The signal and the noise : why most predictions fail but some don’t / Nate Silver. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-101-59595-4 1. Forecasting. 2. Forecasting—Methodology. 3.


pages: 1,387 words: 202,295

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Second Edition by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, Johannes Kepler, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine, wikimedia commons

Painters can be more elaborate than this: The primitive painter called rogers paints a picture of MIT’s founder, William Barton Rogers, as shown in Figure 2.11.89 The four images in figure 2.11 are drawn with respect to the same four frames as the wave images in figure 2.10. SVG Figure 2.10: Images produced by the wave painter, with respect to four different frames. The frames, shown with dotted lines, are not part of the images. SVG Figure 2.11: Images of William Barton Rogers, founder and first president of MIT, painted with respect to the same four frames as in Figure 2.10 (original image from Wikimedia Commons). To combine images, we use various operations that construct new painters from given painters. For example, the beside operation takes two painters and produces a new, compound painter that draws the first painter’s image in the left half of the frame and the second painter’s image in the right half of the frame. Similarly, below takes two painters and produces a compound painter that draws the first painter’s image below the second painter’s image.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

When you connect one circuit’s output to another one’s input, the power transfer across the connection is maximized if the output and input impedances of the two circuits match. An impedance mismatch can lead to signal reflections and other troubles. 30 | Chapter 2: Data Models and Query Languages Figure 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile using a relational schema. Photo of Bill Gates courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, Ricardo Stuckert, Agência Brasil. For a data structure like a résumé, which is mostly a self-contained document, a JSON representation can be quite appropriate: see Example 2-1. JSON has the appeal of being much simpler than XML. Document-oriented databases like MongoDB [9], RethinkDB [10], CouchDB [11], and Espresso [12] support this data model. Example 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile as a JSON document { "user_id": "first_name": "last_name": "summary": "region_id": "industry_id": "photo_url": 251, "Bill", "Gates", "Co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates...


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

A third option is to encode jobs, education, and contact info as a JSON or XML document, store it on a text column in the database, and let the application interpret its structure and content. In this setup, you typically cannot use the database to query for values inside that encoded column. Figure 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile using a relational schema. Photo of Bill Gates courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, Ricardo Stuckert, Agência Brasil. For a data structure like a résumé, which is mostly a self-contained document, a JSON representation can be quite appropriate: see Example 2-1. JSON has the appeal of being much simpler than XML. Document-oriented databases like MongoDB [9], RethinkDB [10], CouchDB [11], and Espresso [12] support this data model. Example 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile as a JSON document { "user_id": 251, "first_name": "Bill", "last_name": "Gates", "summary": "Co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates...


pages: 920 words: 237,085

Rick Steves Florence & Tuscany 2017 by Rick Steves

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, carbon footprint, Dava Sobel, Google Hangouts, index card, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, place-making, Skype, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wikimedia commons, young professional

Hoerlein, Lauren Mills, Mary Rostad Avalon Travel Senior Editor and Series Manager: Madhu Prasher Editor: Jamie Andrade Associate Editor: Sierra Machado Copy Editor: Patrick Collins Proofreader: Patty Mon Indexer: Stephen Callahan Cover Design: Kimberly Glyder Design Maps & Graphics: Kat Bennett, Mike Morgenfeld Front Cover: City Hall in Siena © Jaroslaw Pawlak / Alamy Stock Photo Title Page: View of Florence © Rick Steves Additional Photography: Dominic Arizona Bonuccelli, Ben Cameron, Rich Earl, Jennifer Hauseman, Cameron Hewitt, David C. Hoerlein, Gene Openshaw, Michael Potter, Robyn Stencil, Rick Steves, Laura VanDeventer, Bruce VanDeventer, Wikimedia Commons (PD-Art/PD-US). Photos are used by permission and are the property of the original copyright owners. Although the author and publisher have made every effort to provide accurate, up-to-date information, they accept no responsibility for loss, injury, David envy, or inconvenience sustained by any person using this book.


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, global pandemic, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, twin studies, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Here Katherine Cronin and Edwin van Leeuwen/Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust. Here Courtesy Yulin Jia/Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center/U.S. Department of Agriculture/CC BY 2.0. Here (Right) Augustin Ochsenreiter/South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology. Here (Left) Eurac/Samadelli/Staschitz/South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology. Here Courtesy Mopane Game Safaris/CC BY-SA 4.0. Here (Bottom) SD Dirk/Wikimedia Commons. Here Courtesy Liz Schulze. Here Vincent J. Musi/National Geographic Creative. Here ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy. Here (Top right) Jacob Halls/Alamy. Here (Bottom) Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures/Lucasfilm Ltd. Here Dennis Hallinan/Alamy. Here Courtesy © 2016 C. Herscovici/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Here Moshe Milner/Israel’s Government Press Office/Flickr.