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pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Figure 6 NASA Great Images. Figure 7 Wikimedia Commons and Fastfission. Figure 8 Wikimedia Commons and Lokilech. Figure 9 Wikimedia Commons and Russian Federation. Figure 10 Mark Wade/Astronautix .com. Figure 11 U.S. Government/USAF. Figure 12 Roel van der Hoorn/NASA. Figure 13 NASA. Figure 14 Wikipedia Commons and David Kring/USRA. Figure 15 Wikimedia Commons and NOAA/Mysid. Figure 16 Chris Impey. Figure 17 Chris Impey. Figure 18 Wikimedia Commons and Kelvin Case. Figure 19 “Countdown Continues on Commercial Flight,” Albuquerque Journal. Figure 20 NASA/Regan Geeseman. Figure 21 SpaceX. Figure 22 NASA. Figure 23 U.S. Government/FAA. Figure 24 Wikimedia Commons and Nasa.apollo. Figure 25 NASA/Kennedy Space Center. Figure 26 Andrew Ketsdever. Figure 27 NASA/JPL. Figure 28 NASA. Figure 29 Wikimedia Commons and Aldaron.

Figure 45 Biosphere 2, College of Science, University of Arizona. Figure 46 NASA. Figure 47 NASA/JSC. Figure 48 Javiera Guedes. Figure 49 U.S. Government/LLNL. Figure 50 NASA. Figure 51 NASA. Figure 52 Wikimedia Commons and Picoquant. Figure 53 H. Schweiker/WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF. Figure 54 NASA. Figure 55 Wikimedia Commons and Fastfission. Figure 56 Chris Impey. Figure 57 Wikimedia Commons and Bibi Saint-Pol. Figure 58 Andrei Linde. Figure 59 Wikimedia Commons and Was a bee. Index Page numbers listed correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. Page numbers starting with 265 refer to endnotes. Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations. Able (monkey), 47–48 Aboriginal Australians, 8 abstract thinking, 13–17, 18–19 Abu Dhabi, UAE, 106 Adams, Mike, 82 adenine, 6 Advanced Robotic Development Lab, 206 aerodynamics, 26, 66–73, 82–83 aesthetic judgment, 15 A4 rocket, 33 Africa, 15–16, 120 as origin site for early human dispersion, 5, 7–8, 11, 15, 118, 186, 202, 218, 262 Air Force, US, 239 covert projects of, 69, 72 in rocket development, 36–37, 48, 71, 85 Rutan’s work for, 82 in space exploration, 50, 73, 272 airplanes: development of, 69–72, 83, 262 safety of, 108, 109 Albert (monkey), 47 Alcubierre, Miguel, 229–30 Aldrin, Buzz, 108, 170 aliens, extraterrestrial: aggressive, 259 hyperintelligent, 258, 260, 260, 262 hypothetical categorization of, 252–57 lack of evidence of, 236–37, 239–44, 257, 291 potential to communicate with, 52, 189, 234–35, 238, 239, 246 potentially dead civilizations of, 243–44 search for, 186–91, 189, 236–44, 246, 291 aliens, extraterrestrial (continued) speculative number of, 188, 233–35 as unrecognizable, 216, 244 Allen, John, 192–93 Allen, Paul, 84–85, 188 Allen Telescope Array, 188–89, 243 Alling, Abigail, 194 Alpha Centauri system, 132, 133, 215, 216, 219–20, 222, 225–26 Alzheimer’s disease, 115 Amazon, 79, 103 Americas: European settlement of, 204, 243, 250 population dispersion into, 8, 218 amino acids, 8 Amish, 203 ammonia, 125, 173 Anaxagoras, 17–18, 17 Anderson, Eric, 275 Anderson, Laurie, 76 Anders, William, 270 Andes mountains, 172 population adaptation to altitude in, 119 Andreessen, Marc, 79 Andrews, Dana, 223 animals: in Biosphere 2, 193 evolution of, 172 human beings compared to, 186, 262 minimum viable population in, 201 in religious sacrifice, 119 in scientific research, 46–49, 250–51 Anonym, Lepht, 207 Ansari, Anousheh, 91 Antarctica, 169 Antares rocket, 275 anthropocentrism, 244, 291 antimatter, 221–22, 254 ants, 193 apes, human beings compared to, 10 Apollo 1, loss of crew of, 43, 107 Apollo 11, 13, 30, 45, 56 Apollo program, 30, 42–44, 49–51, 55, 64, 108, 157–58, 158, 170, 176, 196, 219, 270, 271, 272 Arabs, use of rockets by, 23 Archon Genomics X Prize, 93 Archytas, 19, 22 Area 51, 238, 240 Arecibo Observatory, 239, 243, 292–93 Ares, 163 Ariane 5 rocket, 113 Arianespace, 106 Aristarchus, 19 Aristotle, 19–20 Arizona, University of, 193 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of, 156 arms race, 24, 36, 139 Armstrong, Neil, 43, 45, 56, 71, 74, 108, 158 Army, German, Ordnance Department, 32 Army, US: in rocket development, 35, 36 in space exploration, 50 Art of Electronics, The (Horowitz), 237 artificial intelligence (AI), 179, 208, 245, 249, 259 human intelligence surpassed by, 258 Artist in Space program, 74, 76 Artsutanov, Yuri, 149 Asia, population dispersion into, 7–8, 11, 15, 218 Asimov, Isaac, 94 Asteroid Redirect Mission, 104–5, 146, 156 asteroids: capture of, 104–5, 146, 173, 276 impacts by, 245 mining of, 155–56, 182 astrobiology, 123–24 astronauts, 141, 272 physiological effects on, 114–17 selection criteria for, 73–75 sex and, 200 see also specific individuals Atacama Desert, population adaptation to dry environment in, 119 Athene, 163 Atlantic Ocean, first non-stop flight over, 90–91 Atlas rocket, 36–37, 71, 72 atmosphere: of Earth, 8, 70–71, 70, 118, 167, 172, 174 of exoplanets, 216 habitability requirements for, 132–33, 216–17 of Mars, 124, 164–66, 173–74, 216 of Venus, 171 atomic bomb: Soviet, 35, 36 US development of, 35, 36, 239, 244 atomic energy, 219, 244 Atomic Energy Commission, 99, 222 Atomists, 18 atoms, 19 manipulation of, 258 in nanotechnology, 151 rearrangement of, 229–30, 232 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 11, 12, 86 Australia: isolation in, 204 population dispersion into, 7–8 Autonomous Nanotechnological Swarm (ANTS), 182 aviation industry, 91, 99 accident rate for, 108 Aviation Week, 71 B-2 bomber, 70 Babylonians, 163 Bacon, Roger, 23 bacteria, 172, 180 Baikonur Cosmodrome, 65–66 Bailey, Ronald, 207 Baker, David, 169 ballistic missiles (ICBMs): Chinese, 141 intercontinental, 36–37, 65 long-range, 30–34, 33 balloons: flight principles for, 68–69 high-altitude, 32 hot-air, 47, 68, 89 Barrow, John, 258 Bass, Ed, 192–93, 285 Baumgartner, Felix, 68, 272 Baum, L.

Figure 29 Wikimedia Commons and Aldaron. Figure 30 Matthew R. Francis. Figure 31 Planetary Habitability Laboratory/University of Puerto Rico. Figure 32 Postage stamp, Chinese State. Figure 33 Wikimedia Commons and Dave Rajczewski. Figure 34 Data source reports of Satellite Industry Association. Figure 35 Patrick Collins. Figure 36 NASA/Dennis M. Davidson. Figure 37 NASA. Figure 38 NASA/JPL/University of Arizona. Figure 39 NASA/JPL/Caltech. Figure 40 NASA/John Frassanito and Associates. Figure 41 NASA. Figure 42 Christopher Barnatt/Explaining the Future.com. Figure 43 NASA/MSFC/D. Higginbotham. Figure 44 From Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization by Robert A. Freitas, Jr., 1979, Xenology Research Institute, Sacramento, California. Figure 45 Biosphere 2, College of Science, University of Arizona.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2010_submis sions/220/ Collins, R. (1990). Market closure and the conflict theory of the professions. In M. Burrage & R. Torstendahl (Eds.), Professions in theory and history: Rethinking the study of the professions. London: Sage. Commons talk:Sexual content. (2013, August 17). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons_talk:Sexual _content/Archive_4 Commons:Deletion requests/file:Jimmy Wales by Pricasso.jpg. (2013, August 20). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/Commons:Deletion_requests/File:Jimmy_Wales_by_Pricasso.jpg 2 4 6    R e f e r e n c e s Community Logo/Request for consultation. (2013, October 29). Wikimedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Community_Logo/ Request_for_consultation Conlon, M.

In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Second International Conference on Social Computing (pp. 17–24). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Turner, F. (2006). From counterculture to cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the rise of digital utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. User talk:Jimbo Wales/Archive. (2010, May 9). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved August 22, 2013, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/Archive 2 7 6    R e f e r e n c e s User talk:Jimbo Wales/Archive/2010/5. (2010, June 5). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Jimbo _Wales/Archive/2010/5 User talk:Jimbo Wales/Difference between revisions. (2011, August 24). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User _talk%3AJimbo_Wales&diff=446424770&oldid=446419156 User talk:John Cline: Difference between revisions. (2011, March 18).

The debate, held at Wikiversity but also partly on Meta-Wiki6 and on the discussion lists, exceeded sixty thousand words and stimulated another L e a d e r s h i p T r a n s f o r m e d   1 6 7 debate, started on Wikimedia on March 25, 2010, on whether Wales should have his founder flag removed because of his transgressions (see “Requests for Comment,” 2013). Toward the end of March votes favored Wales: eighteen supporting removal, twenty-six against, three abstaining. Then another unfortunate event took place. Child Pornography? In April 2010 Larry Sanger sent a letter to the FBI accusing Wikimedia Commons of hosting child pornography (Metz, 2010) and other hard pornographic images. The message, aimed at the media, was clear: Wikipedia, though positioning itself as an educational and knowledge-sharing website, contained explicit, potentially offensive, or even illegal images. The topic was eagerly picked up by FoxNews.com (Winter, 2010c). This could have been disastrous to the Wikimedia projects’ image, and Wales decided a speedy reaction was necessary.

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Arrington p. 350; Paul Hall p. 318; Dick Jones p. 286 (btm); Brad Kisling/Museum of Clean p. 311 (btm left & btm right); Knight’s Spider Web Farm p. 375; Leather Archives & Museum p. 319; Jennifer Mishra p. 321 (top); MJT p. 281; Mukluk Land p. 377 (all); Nick Peña p. 304; Steven Orfield of Orfield Laboratories, Inc. p. 329 (btm); The Paper House p. 373; Steven Pierson p. 324; Center for PostNatural History p. 362; Richard Reames-Arborsmith p. 288 (btm); Skeletons: A Museum of Osteology/Skulls Unlimited, Inc. p. 316 (all); Unclaimed Baggage Center p. 339; Bruce Wicks p. 323 (all). Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Dppowell p. 313 (top). Public Domain: Federal Aviation Administration/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 290 (top); U.S. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, “Built in America” Collection/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 315 (top); The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Healing Devices (FDA 138)/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain p. 370; US Army Corps of Engineers/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain; U.S. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Collection p. 367 (top). Atlas Obscura Contributors: Ashley Avey p. 298 (spot); Kyle Bennett p. 312; Lindsey K Biscardi p. 366 (btm); K.

Matteo Bertolino/matteobertolino.com: p. 200. fotolia: demerzel21 p. 214 (top); dpreezg p. 215; luisapuccini p. 209 (top); piccaya p. 201. Getty Images: DigitalGlobe/ScapeWare3d p. 202. naturepl.com: Ian Redmond p. 210 (inset). William Clowes: p. 207. Courtesy Photos: NLÉ p. 203. Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Santa Martha p. 213. OCEANIA agefotostock: Auscape/UIG pp. 231 (btm), 237; Joe Dovala/WaterFra p. 247; Jim Harding p. 251; Jean-Marc La-Roque p. 239 (pineapple); Keven O’Hara p. 241 (btm). Alamy Stock Photo: Bill Bachman p. 236 (btm); Robert Bird p. 242 (top); Jan Butchofsky p. 252; chris24 p. 238 (guitar); Christine Osborne Pictures p. 238 (banana); Iconsinternational.com p. 239 (Big Ned); John White Photos p. 239 (Big Galah); Martin Norris Travel Photography 2 p. 232; National Geographic Image Collection p. 239 (koala); Stefano Ravera p. 238 (mango); Andrew Sole p. 242 (btm); Steve Davey Photography p. 253; Jack Sullivan p. 239 (prawn); Wiskerke p. 238–239 (merino); ian woolcock p. 233; Zoonar GmbH p. 238–239 (crocodile). fotolia: Tommaso Lizzul p. 230.

Getty Images: The Asahi Shimbun p. 245 (btm); Ben Bohane/AFP p. 254; Desmond Morris Collection/UIG p. 245 (top); Don Kelsen/Los Angeles Times p. 241 (top); Mitch Reardon/Lonely Planet Images p. 231 (top); Oliver Strewe/Lonely Planet Images p. 249; Michele Westmorland/The Image Bank p. 248. REX/Shutterstock: Newspix p. 227. Martin Rietze/mrietze.com: p. 243. Courtesy Photos: Patrick J Gallagher p. 235 (btm); David Hartley-Mitchell p. 240 (top); Malcolm Rees p. 244; National Library Australia/Trove p. 236 (top). Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Peter Campbell p. 234. Atlas Obscura Contributors: Jonatan Jansson p. 226; Céline Meyer p.240 (btm); Amanda Olliek p. 235 (top). CANADA Alamy Stock Photo: 914 Collection p. 258 (btm); All Canada Photos pp. 260, 261, 263 (center right), 267; Alt-6 p. 274 (top); blickwinkel p. 265; Yvette Cardozo pp. 262 (btm), 273 (top); Cosmo Condina p. 269; INTERFOTO p. 264 (btm); Andre Jenny pp. 259 (btm), 273 (btm); Lannen/Kelly Photo p. 274 (btm); Ilene MacDonald p. 266; Mary Evans Picture Library p. 268; Susan Montgomery p. 271 (btm); Radharc Images p. 264 (top); Randsc p. 272; Michael Wheatley p. 257.


pages: 346 words: 92,984

The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

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3D printing, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

Page 31: Brain scans of tumor shrinking using polio virus. Images courtesy of the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke University. Used with permission. Page 33: Undated photo of Élie Metchnikoff. Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/Dr_Metchnikoff_in_his_Laboratory.jpg. Page 35: Caricature of Metchnikoff. Reprinted with permission of the Institut Pasteur—Musée Pasteur. Page 39: “End of History” illustration. Courtesy of author. Page 42: The Hydra image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Hydra_magnipapillata.jpg. Page 44: The killifish image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothobranchius_furzeri#/media/File:Nothobranchius_furzeri_GRZ_thumb. Page 46: Quantification of biological aging graphic. Duke University School and Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences.

Page 191: Courtesy of Duke Medicine. Originally published in M. W. Dewhirst, et al., “Modulation of Murine Breast Tumor Vascularity, Hypoxia and Chemotherapeutic Response by Exercise,” JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 107, no. 5 (2015): djv040 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djv040. Page 203: Illustration by Habib M’henni, via Wikimedia Commons, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Obstruction_ventilation_apn%C3%A9e_sommeil.svg. Page 226: Photo of the Kouros by Dorli Burge, via Wikimedia Commons, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Kouros_Real_or_Fake.jpg. Page 230: Photo of me courtesy of Sydney Agus. INTRODUCTION Destiny of the Species Welcome to the Lucky Years O wonder! How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, That has such people in ’t.

Everydata: The Misinformation Hidden in the Little Data You Consume Every Day by John H. Johnson

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Black Swan, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, obamacare, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, publication bias, QR code, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, statistical model, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons, Yogi Berra

But Mercator figured out how to do it, and enjoyed the fame and fortune that followed.1 221158 i-xiv 1-210 r4ga.indd  83 2/8/16  5:58:50 PM 84 E V E R Y D ATA Figure 6‑1  A Mercator projection. Licensed under the Creative Commons ­Attribution-​­Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Created by user $200inaire on Wikimedia Commons. (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mercator_Blank_Map​ _World.png#filelinks) Figure 6‑2  For comparison purposes, here’s a Winkel tripel projection. Licensed under the Creative Commons ­Attribution-​­Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Created by user Hellerick on Wikimedia Commons. (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:1937_world_map_%28Winkel_tripel_projection%29.svg) 221158 i-xiv 1-210 r4ga.indd  84 2/8/16  5:58:50 PM Shrinking Africa 85 Unfortunately, while the new map helped ­ocean-​­faring navigators, it also drastically misrepresented the size of countries and continents around the globe.


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

(Schrödinger), 84 wheat and chessboard problem, 218–20, 219 Whitfield, John, 431–32 Whole Earth Catalog, 212 wide-gauge railway, 64–65 Wilson, Colin, 179 Wired (magazine), 434, 442 world energy consumption, 234, 235 World War II, 133–34, 290, 292, 301 X-ray crystallography, 437 Yale University, 132, 301, 382 Youn, Hyejin, 364 Young, Thomas, 125–26 Yule, Udny, 369–70 Yule-Simon process, 368–71 Yun, Anthony “Joon,” 184 Zahavi, Yacov, 332–34, 335 “zeroth order,” 109–10, 117 Zhang Jiang, 389–90 Zimbardo, Philip, 301–2, 303–4 Zipf, George Kingsley, 310–14 Zipf’s law, 310–14, 311–12, 389 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Here: Public.Resource.Org/CC BY 2.0 Here: (mitochondrion): Blausen.com staff, “Blausen gallery 2014” from Wikiversity Journal of Medicine; (ant): Katja Schulz/CC BY 2.0; (ants’ nest): Natural History Museum: Hymenoptera Section/CC BY 2.0; (Dubai): Henrik Bach Nielsen/CC BY 2.0 Here: (circulatory system of the brain): OpenStax College/CC BY 4.0; (cell network): NICHD/CC BY 2.0; (tree): Ales Kladnik/CC BY 2.0 Here: (Romanesco cauliflower): Jon Sullivan/PDPhoto.org; (dried-up riverbed): Courtesy of Bernhard Edmaier/Science Source; (Grand Canyon): Michael Rehfeldt/CC BY 2.0 Here: (ant): Larry Jacobsen/CC BY 2.0; (shrew): Marie Hale/CC BY 2.0; (elephant): Brian Snelson/CC BY 2.0; (blue whale): Amila Tennakoon/CC BY 2.0; (Paraceratherium): Dmitry Bogdanov/Wikimedia Commons Here: Courtesy of YAY Media As/Alamy Here: (tumor network): Courtesy of JACOPIN/BSIP/Alamy Here: (aging woman): Courtesy of Image Source/Alamy; (marathon runner): Courtesy of Sportpoint/Alamy Here: (long-term real growth in U.S. GDP): Data courtesy of Catherine Mulbrandon/VisualizingEconomics.com Here: (Earth, on left): NASA Here: (São Paulo): Francisco Anzola/Wikimedia Commons; (Sana’a): Rod Waddington/Wikimedia Commons; (Seattle): Tiffany Von Arnim/CC BY 2.0; (Melbourne): Francisco Anzola/CC BY 2.0 Here: (Los Angeles): Courtesy of Aerial Archives/Alamy; (New York subway map): CountZ/English Wikipedia/CC BY-SA 3.0 Here: (Masdar city center): Courtesy of Laboratory for Visionary Architecture (LAVA); (Le Corbusier’s designs): Courtesy of © FLC/ARS, 2016 Here: (central place theory, Mexico): Courtesy of Tony Burton/Geo-Mexico Here: (Paris): Lincoln Institute of Land Policy; (bacterial colony): Courtesy of Microbeworld user Tasha Sturm/Cabrillo College Here: (flow of trucks to and from Texas): U.S.

Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Freight Management and Operations Here: (social network, left): Martin Grandjean/CC BY-SA 3.0; (social network, right): Courtesy of Maxim Basinski/Alamy Here: (Liverpool fast lane): Courtesy of PA Images/Alamy Here: (GM): Carol M. Highsmith’s America/Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division; (“Going Out of Business”): timetrax23/CC BY 2.0; (Lehman Brothers): Courtesy of Yuriko Nakao/Reuters/Alamy; (TWA): Ted Quackenbush/Wikimedia Commons Graph art by Jeffrey L. Ward Geoffrey West is a theoretical physicist whose primary interests have been in fundamental questions in physics and biology. West is a Senior Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a distinguished professor at the Sante Fe Institute, where he served as the president from 2005 to 2009. What’s next on your reading list? Discover your next great read!


pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

The “five pillars” of Wikipedia have as their very first item, “Wikipedia is an encyclopedia,” something that people often have to be reminded of, and even pruned back to, when the community engages in too many frivolous MySpace-esque social networking activities. But if Wikipedia is getting close to some level of being done, then the “community” and “wikiness” can be turned toward other useful endeavors. Wikisource, Wikibooks, and Wikiversity, for example, are other projects started within the WMF and inspired by Wikipedia. One of the more successful offshoots is Wikimedia Commons, a repository for photos and multimedia that can be shared across all Wikimedia projects. These will no doubt become more important, but it’s not clear if they will garner the same passionate crowds as Wikipedia. That’s because Wikipedia was the remarkable beneficiary of some very special dynamics and uncanny timing. By happening to launch at the bottom of the dot-com advertising market, it perhaps benefited from many out-of-work or lightly employed dot-com types.

., 43, 85, 172–73, 175 Nupedia-L, 63 Reagle, Joseph, 82, 96, 112 Nupedia Open Content License, 35, 72 Rec.food.chocolate, 84–85 RickK, 120, 185–88 rings, Web site, 23, 31 objectivism, 32, 36–37 robots, software, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, OCR (optical character recognition), 35 177, 179 Open Directory Project (ODP), 30–31, Rosenfeld, Jeremy, 45 33, 35 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 15 Ota, Takashi, 146 Russell, Bertrand, 13, 81 Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 70–72 Russian language, 152 peer production, 108–9 Sandbox, 97, 115 Pellegrini, Mark (Raul654), 180–81 Sanger, Larry, 6–7, 32–34, 36–38, Perl, 56, 67, 101, 140 40–41, 43–45, 61–65, 67, 88, 89, Peul language, 158 115, 184, 202, 210–11 phantom authority, 175–76 boldness directive and, 91, 113 Philological Society, 70 Citizendium project of, 190, 211–12 PHP, 74, 101 Essjay and, 197 Pike, Rob, 144 memoir of, 174, 190, 225 piranha effect, 83, 106, 109, 113, 120 resignation from Wikipedia, 174–75, Plautus Satire, 181 210 Pliny the Elder, 15 on rules, 76, 112 Poe, Marshall, 171 Spanish Wikipedia and, 9, 136–38 Polish Wikipedia, 146, 147 trolls and, 170–75, 189–90 Popular Science, 126 Wikipedia license and, 72 Portland Pattern Repository, 59 Y2K bug and, 32–33 Portuguese language, 136 San Jose Mercury News, 126 PostScript, 52 Schechter, Danny, 8–9 “Potato chip” article, 136 Schiff, Stacy, 196 Professor and the Madman, The Schlossberg, Edwin, 46 (Winchester), 70, 71 schools, 177–78 Project Gutenberg, 35 Scott, Jason, 131, 189 public domain content, 26, 111 search engines, 11, 22, 34 Pupek, Dan, 58 Google, see Google Seigenthaler, John, 9–10, 191–94, 200, 220 Quickpolls, 126–27 Senegal, 158 Quiz Show, 13 Serbian Wikipedia, 155–56 Index_243 servers, 77–79, 191 Tagalog language, 160 Sethilys (Seth Anthony), 106–11 Taiwan, 150, 151, 154 Shah, Sunir, 59–60, 64 “Talossan language” article, 120 Shaw, George Bernard, 135 Tamil language, 160 Shell, Tim, 21–22, 32, 36, 66, 174, Tawker, 177, 179, 186 184 Tektronix, 46, 47, 50, 55, 56 sidewalks, 96–97 termites, 82 Sieradski, Daniel, 204 Thompson, Ken, 143–44 Signpost, 200 Time, 9, 13 Silsor, 186 Torvalds, Linus, 28–29, 30, 173, 175 Sinitic languages, 159 Tower of Babel, 133–34 see also China tragedy of the commons, 223 Skrenta, Rich, 23, 30 Trench, Chenevix, 70 Slashdot, 67–69, 73, 76, 88, 205, trolls, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, 189–90 207, 216 Truel, Bob, 23, 30 Sanger’s memoir for, 174, 190, 225 2channel, 145 Sneakernet, 50 Snow, Michael, 206–7 Socialtext, 207 “U,” article on, 64 sock puppets, 128, 178–79 Unicode, 142, 144 software, open-source, 5, 23–28, 30, 35, UTF-8, 144–45 62, 67, 79, 216 UTF-32, 142, 143 design patterns and, 55, 59 UNIX, 27, 30–31, 54, 56, 143 Linux, 28–30, 56, 108, 140, 143, 173, Unregistered Words Committee, 70 216, 228 urban planning, 96–97 software robots, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 53, 54 177, 179 USA Today, 9, 191, 220 Souren, Kasper, 158 UseModWiki, 61–63, 66, 73–74, 140–41 South Africa, 157–58 Usenet, 35, 83–88, 114, 170, 190, 223 spam, 11, 87, 220 Usenet Moderation Project (Usemod), 62 Spanish Wikipedia, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, USWeb, 211 215, 226 squid servers, 77–79 Stallman, Richard, 23–32, 74, 86, 217 vandalism: GNU Free Documentation License of, on LA Times Wikitorial, 207–8 72–73, 211–12 on Wikipedia, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, GNU General Public License of, 27, 72 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, GNU Manifesto of, 26 202, 220, 227 GNUpedia of, 79 Van Doren, Charles, 13–14 Steele, Guy, 86 verein, 147 Stevertigo, 184 VeryVerily, 128 stigmergy, 82, 89, 92, 109 Vibber, Brion, 76 Sun Microsystems, 23, 27, 29–30, 56 Viola, 54 Sun Tzu, 169 ViolaWWW, 54–55 Swedish language, 140, 152 Voltaire, 15 244_Index WAIS, 34, 53 Wik, 123–25, 170, 180 Wales, Christine, 20–21, 22, 139 Wikia, 196, 197 Wales, Doris, 18, 19 Wiki Base, 62 Wales, Jimmy, 1, 8, 9, 18–22, 44, 76, Wikibooks, 216 88, 115, 131, 184, 196, 213, 215, Wikimania, 1–3, 8, 146, 147–48 220 WikiMarkup, 90 administrators and, 94, 185 Wikimedia Commons, 216 background of, 18–19 Wikimedia Foundation, 146, 157, 183–84, at Chicago Options Associates, 20, 196, 199, 213–15, 225–26, 227 21, 22 Wikipedia: Cunctator essay and, 172 administrators of, 67, 93–96, 119, 121, and deletion of articles, 120 125, 127, 148, 178, 185–86, dispute resolution and, 179–80, 181, 195–96, 224–25 223 advertising and, 9, 11, 136–38, 215, Essjay and, 197, 199 226 languages and, 139, 140, 157–58 amateurs and professionals in, 225 neutrality policy and, 6, 7, 113 Arbitration Committee of, 180–81, 184, objectivism and, 32, 36–37 197, 223 Nupedia and, 32–35, 41, 43–45, “assume good faith” policy in, 114, 187, 61–63 195, 200 on piranha effect, 83 blocking of people from, 93 role of, in Wikipedia community, 174–76, boldness directive in, 8, 91, 102, 179–80, 223 113–14, 115, 122, 221 Seigenthaler incident and, 192, 194 categories in, 97–98, 221 Spanish Wikipedia and, 137, 175 “checkuser” privilege in, 179, 196, 199 Stallman and, 30–32 database for, 73–74, 77, 78, 94 three revert rule and, 127–28 discussions in, 7–8, 65–66, 75–76, 89, Wikimania and, 146 121–22 Wikipedia license and, 72 DMOZ as inspiration for, 23 Wikitorials and, 206–7 five pillars of, 113, 216 Wales, Jimmy, Sr., 18 future of, 213–17, 219–29 Wall Street Journal, 126 growth of, 4, 9, 10, 77, 88–89, 95–97, “War and Consequences” Wikitorial, 99–100, 126, 184, 215, 219, 220 206–7 how it works, 90–96 wasps, 82 influence of, 201–212 Weatherly, Keith, 106 launch of, 64, 69, 139, 171 Web browsers, 51–55 legal issues and, 94, 111, 186, 191–92, Weblogs Inc., 215 227; see also copyright; libel WebShare, 209 linking in, 66–67, 73 Webster, Noah, 70, 133 mailing list for, 89, 95 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 main community namespace in, 76 Wei, Pei-Yan, 54–55 main page of, 95 Weinstock, Steven, 202–3 MeatballWiki and, 60, 114, 119, 187–88 “Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its mediation of disputes in, 180, 181, 195 Anti-Elitism” (Sanger), 189–90 meta pages in, 91 Index_245 name of, 45 “diff” function and, 74, 75, 93, 99 namespaces in, 75–76 edit histories of, 64–65, 71, 82, 91–93 number of editors in, 95–96 editing of, 3–4, 6, 38, 64–66, 69, 73, Nupedia and, 64–65, 88, 136, 171, 172 88, 114–15, 131, 194 openness of, 5–6, 9 edit wars and, 95, 122–31, 136, 146 origins of, 43–60 eventualism and, 120–21, 129, 159 policies and rules of, 76, 112–14, first written, 64 127–28, 170, 171, 192, 221, flagged revisions of, 148–49, 215–16, 224–25 227 popularity of, 4 inclusion of, 115–21 Quickpolls in, 126–27 inverted pyramid formula for, 90 Recent Changes page in, 64–65, 82, license covering content of, 72–73, 98, 104, 109, 176–77 211–12 schools and, 177–78 locking of, 95 servers for, 77–79, 191 maps in, 107, 109–11 Slashdot and, 69, 73, 76, 88 neutral point of view in, 6–7, 82, 89, 111, sock puppets and, 128, 178–79 112–13, 117, 140, 174, 203–4, 217, SOFIXIT directive in, 114–15, 122, 221 228 software robots and, 88, 99–106, 145, news and, 7 147, 177, 179 original research and, 112–13, 117, 174 spam and self-promotion on, 11, 220 protection and semi-protection of, 194, talk pages in, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 216 templates in, 97–98, 113, 221 reverts and, 125, 127–28 trolls and, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, single versions of, 6 189–90 spelling mistakes in, 104–5 user pages in, 76, 89 stability of, 227–28 vandalism and, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, stub, 92, 97, 101, 104, 148 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, talk pages for, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 202, 220, 227 test edits of, 176 watchlists in, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 “undo” function and, 93 wiki markup language for, 221–22 uneven development of, 220 wiki software for, 64–67, 73, 77, 90, 93, unusual, 92, 117–18 140–41, 216 verifiability and, 112–13, 117 Wikipedia articles: watchlists for, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 accuracy of, 10, 72, 188–89, 194, 208 Wikipedia community, 7–8, 81–132, 174, attempts to influence, 11–12 175, 183–200, 215–17, 222–23 biographies of living persons, 192, Essjay controversy and, 194–200 220–21 Missing Wikipedians page and, 184–85, census data in, 100–104, 106 188 citations in, 113 partitioning of, 223 consensus and, 7, 94, 95, 119–20, 122, Seigenthaler incident and, 9–10, 222–23 191–94, 220 consistency among, 213 stress in, 184 creation of, 90–93, 130–31, 188–89 trolls and, 170 deletion of, 93–94, 96, 119–21, 174 Wales’s role in, 174–76, 179–80, 223 246_Index Wikipedia international editions, 12, 77, Wikitorials, 205–8 100, 131–32, 133–67 Wikiversity, 216 African, 157–58 WikiWikiWeb, 44–45, 58–60, 61, 62 Chinese, 10, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Willy on Wheels (WoW), 178–79 encoding languages for, 140–45 Winchester, Simon, 70, 71 French, 83, 139, 146, 147 Wizards of OS conference, 211 German, 11, 139, 140, 147–49, 215, Wolof language, 158 220, 227 Wool, Danny, 3, 158, 199 Japanese, 139, 140, 141–42, 144, World Book, 16–19 145–47 World Is Flat, The (Friedman), 11 Kazakh, 155–57 World Wide Web, 34, 35, 47, 51–55 links to, 134–35, 140 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 list of languages by size, 160–67 WYSIWYG, 222 Serbian, 155–56 Spanish, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, 215, 226 Yahoo, 4, 22, 23, 30, 191, 214 Wikipedia Watch, 192 “Year zero” article, 117 Wikipedia Weekly, 225 Yeats, William Butler, 183 wikis, 44, 51 Yongle encyclopedia, 15 Cunningham’s creation of, 2, 4, 56–60, “You have two cows” article, 118 62, 65–66, 90 YouTube, 58 MeatballWiki, 59–60, 114, 119, 175, Y2K bug, 32–33 187–88 Nupedia and, 61–65 Wikisource, 216 ZhengZhu, 152–57 About the Author Andrew Lih was an academic for ten years at Columbia University and Hong Kong University in new media and journalism.


pages: 221 words: 61,146

The Crowded Universe: The Search for Living Planets by Alan Boss

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Albert Einstein, Dava Sobel, diversified portfolio, full employment, if you build it, they will come, Kuiper Belt, Mars Rover, Pluto: dwarf planet, Silicon Valley, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

The problem for stars is that the relevant standard of comparison is the speed of light, which is about 186,000 miles per second, or 670,000,000 mph. Thus 30 mph is practically stationary by comparison. FIGURE 2. Christian Johann Doppler [1803- 1853], the Austrian physicist who showed that sound waves shift in wavelength by an amount that depends on the velocity of their source. [Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.] The star’s speed is compared this way because Walker and Campbell planned to find planets by measuring it through the Doppler effect. Christian Johann Doppler, an Austrian physicist, hypothesized in 1842 that light waves emitted by a moving star behave exactly the same way as sound waves emitted by a moving train. When a train blows its whistle as it is moving toward you, you hear the whistle at a higher pitch, or frequency, than when the whistle is sounded while the train is stopped.

Science...For Her! by Megan Amram

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Albert Einstein, blood diamonds, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, double helix, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, pez dispenser, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Wall-E, wikimedia commons

Interior design by Brian Chojnowski Jacket Design by Tal Gorersky Jacket Photograph by Matthias Clamer for StocklandMartel.com Cover photograph and photos on pages xxiv and 101 by Matthias Clamer for StocklandMartel.com Photos on pages xxv, 1, 19, 36, 81, 84, 85, 121, 130, 143, 158, 164, and 189 ©Liz Bretz Photos on pages 19 and 51 ©Alamy Photo of white dwarf on page 71 ©NASA, ESA, H. Bond (STScl), and M. Barstow (University of Leicester) Photo of neutron star on page 71 ©NASA Photos on pages 51, 68, and 127 ©Gettyimages Photo on page 128 ©Shutterstock Photo of Rachel Carson on page 172 from Library of Congress Photos via Wikimedia Commons on pages 66, 71, 79, 112, and 173 Illustration on page 128 by Alexandra Rushfield Library of Congress Control Number: 2014017574 ISBN 978-1-4767-5788-9 ISBN 978-1-4767-5790-2 (ebook)

Exploring Everyday Things with R and Ruby by Sau Sheong Chang

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bioinformatics, business process, butterfly effect, cloud computing, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Debian, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Gini coefficient, income inequality, invisible hand, p-value, price stability, Ruby on Rails, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, text mining, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, We are the 99%, web application, wikimedia commons

Heart Sounds S1 and S2 refer to sounds caused by the heart valves shutting when the heart contracts (ventricular systole). S1 (lub) is caused by the sudden blockage of reverse blood when the triscuspid and mitral valves shut at the beginning of the contraction. S2 (dub) is caused by the sudden blockage of reverse blood when the aortic and pulmonary valves shut at the end of the contraction. See Figure 6-6 for a picture of the human heart. Figure 6-6. The human heart (adapted from Wikimedia Commons, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license) The heart sounds waveform looks pretty good; I seem quite healthy. But what’s my heart rate? How can we get the heart rate from the heart sounds? Finding the Heart Rate Finding the heart rate from the heart sounds turns out to be a bit trickier than we initially thought. Getting the heart rate seems obvious—each heartbeat is essentially the time taken from either one S1 to the next S1, or one S2 to the next S2.


pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

XLIX, no. 3, April 1967. Institute Archives and Special Collections, MIT Libraries, Cambridge, MA Figure 5.1: Rules from the Ashtadhyayi (Vedic Literature Collection, Maharishi University of Management) Figure 6.1: Dependency diagram (TheDailyWTF, www.thedailywtf.com) Figure 6.2: “Hello, world!” in brainfuck Figure 6.3: “Hello, world!” in Malbolge Figure 6.4: Gartner, Inc.’s Hype Cycle (Jeremy Kemp, Wikimedia Commons) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project has been supported by the University of California, Berkeley. Thanks to Martin Howard for the images of the LEGO logic gates (http://www.randomwraith.com/logic.html); and to Alex Papadimoulis of TheDailyWTF.com for the dependency diagram. For inspiration, aid, and insight, I’m grateful to Jennie Durant; Janet Miller; Maura Finklestein; Wendy James, for the loan of that PCjr; Margo True; David Harvey, with fond memories of “the rapture of the freeways” and AH&AJ Computing; Balaji Venkateswaran; Jeff Kowalski; Sumeet Shetty; S.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

In April 1956, the first container ship set out from New York City to Houston. Fifty-eight boxes were brought ashore in mere hours, and a day later the vessel was making its way back with another full load of cargo. Before the invention of the steel box, ships might spend four to six days at port, fully 50% of their time. A couple years later, just 10%. Moore’s Law The number of transistors in processors, 1970–2008 Source: Wikimedia Commons The advent of the chip and the box made the world shrink as goods, services, and capital circled the globe ever more rapidly.9 Technology and globalization advanced hand in hand and faster than ever. Then something happened – something that nobody had imagined possible. Labor vs. Capital Something happened that, according to the textbooks, could not happen. Back in 1957 the economist Nicholas Kaldor outlined his six famous “facts” of economic growth.


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

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augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

Nelson also cast van Dam in his first rock musical: ‘he and his wife were both – both had parts in my great rock musical which, by the way, was the pivot of my life in a sense’ (Nelson 2011). When Nelson was a keynote speaker at the 2001 Digital Arts and Culture conference, van Dam introduced him with the comment that he’s ‘known [Ted] longer than anyone else in my adult life – literally since my freshman week in 1956 at Swarthmore College’ (Lloyd 2001). They had some catching up to do. SEEING AND MAKING CONNECTIONS 99 Andries van Dam, Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under a Creative Commons License. Passionate and eloquent, Nelson told van Dam about what he’d been doing since he left Swarthmore: hypertext. ‘He had nothing to show for this idea, no prototypes or work in the sense that computer scientists talk about work – i.e. software, algorithms, things that are concrete’, recalled van Dam (1999). What Nelson did have was a vision of what hypertext should look like, and an infectious enthusiasm for the idea.


pages: 257 words: 80,100

Time Travel: A History by James Gleick

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, Doomsday Book, index card, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, wikimedia commons

Illustration Credits Credit 1.1: From The Dublin Review, January–June 1920, vol. 166. Courtesy of Stanford University Library. Credit 1.2: Courtesy of the New York Public Library. Credit 2.1: Still image from episode 41 of Rocky & Bullwinkle & Friends, copyright © 2004 by DreamWorks Animation LLC. Used by permission. Credit 2.2: From A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court by Mark Twain. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co., 1889. Credit 2.3: From Wikimedia Commons. Credit 3.1: Still image from Felix the Cat Trifles with Time, copyright © DreamWorks Animation LLC. Used by permission. Credit 3.2: From Science and Invention in Pictures, July 1925. Credit 5.1: Courtesy of the Robert A. and Virginia Heinlein Archives and the Heinlein Prize Trust. Credit 9.1: From The Story of the Westinghouse Time Capsule. East Pittsburgh, Penn.: Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 1938.


pages: 634 words: 185,116

From eternity to here: the quest for the ultimate theory of time by Sean M. Carroll

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Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Columbine, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, gravity well, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, lone genius, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pets.com, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Schrödinger's Cat, Slavoj Žižek, Stephen Hawking, stochastic process, the scientific method, wikimedia commons

First printing, January 2010 Copyright © 2010 by Sean Carroll All rights reserved Photograph on page 37 by Martin Röll, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License, from Wikimedia Commons. Photograph on page 47 courtesy of the Huntington Library. Image on page 53 by the NASA/WMAP Science Team. Photograph on page 67 courtesy of Corbis Images. Image on page 119 courtesy of Getty Images. Figures on pages 147, 153, 177, 213, 270, 379, and 382 by Sean Carroll. Photograph on page 204 courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. Photograph on page 259 courtesy of Professor Stephen Hawking. Photograph on page 267 courtesy of Professor Jacob Bekenstein. Photograph on page 295 by Jerry Bauer, from Wikimedia Commons. Photograph on page 315 courtesy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All other images courtesy of Jason Torchinsky. REGISTERED TRADEMARK—MARCA REGISTRADA LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Carroll, Sean M., 1966- From eternity to here : the quest for the ultimate theory of time / Sean Carroll.


pages: 502 words: 82,170

The Book of CSS3 by Peter Gasston

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centre right, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, web application, wikimedia commons

If, in the examples, I refer to a “default” or “untransformed” element, I am referring to this reference element with these transformations applied and no others. Figure 14-2. A reference element used in many examples in this chapter Again, I encourage you to visit the website that accompanies this book (http://www.thebookofcss3.com/) to take a look at the example files. * * * [5] This image is from Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coord_system_CA_0.svg). Transform Style The first new property is very simple but very important; if you don’t change it from the default value, you won’t be able to view your transformations in three dimensions. The property is called transform-style, and here’s the syntax: E { transform-style: keyword; } The keyword value can be either flat (the default) or preserve-3d.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

., 6 micro-businesses, 9, 173, 178 microeconomics, 132–4 microgrids, 187–8 Micronesia, 153 Microsoft, 231 middle class, 6, 46, 58 middle-income countries, 90, 164, 168, 173, 180, 226, 254 migration, 82, 89–90, 166, 195, 199, 236, 266, 286 Milanovic, Branko, 171 Mill, John Stuart, 33–4, 73, 97, 250, 251, 283, 284, 288 Millo, Yuval, 101 minimum wage, 82, 88, 176 Minsky, Hyman, 87, 146 Mises, Ludwig von, 66 mission zero, 217 mobile banking, 199–200 mobile phones, 222 Model T revolution, 277–8 Moldova, 199 Mombasa, Kenya, 185–6 Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 94 money creation, 87, 164, 177, 182–8, 205 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 Monoculture (Michaels), 6 Monopoly, 149 Mont Pelerin Society, 67, 93 Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, The (Friedman), 258 moral vacancy, 41 Morgan, Mary, 99 Morogoro, Tanzania, 121 Moyo, Dambisa, 258 Muirhead, Sam, 230, 231 MultiCapital Scorecard, 241 Murphy, David, 264 Murphy, Richard, 185 musical tastes, 110 Myriad Genetics, 196 N national basic income, 177 Native Americans, 115, 116, 282 natural capital, 7, 116, 269 Natural Economic Order, The (Gessel), 274 Nedbank, 216 negative externalities, 213 negative interest rates, 275–6 neoclassical economics, 134, 135 neoliberalism, 7, 62–3, 67–70, 81, 83, 84, 88, 93, 143, 170, 176 Nepal, 181, 199 Nestlé, 217 Netherlands, 211, 235, 224, 226, 238, 277 networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6, 174–6 neuroscience, 12–13 New Deal, 37 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 New Year’s Day, 124 New York, United States, 9, 41, 55 Newlight Technologies, 224, 226, 293 Newton, Isaac, 13, 15–17, 32–3, 95, 97, 129, 131, 135–7, 142, 145, 162 Nicaragua, 196 Nigeria, 164 nitrogen, 49, 52, 212–13, 216, 218, 221, 226, 298 ‘no pain, no gain’, 163, 167, 173, 204, 209 Nobel Prize, 6–7, 43, 83, 101, 167 Norway, 281 nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 O Obama, Barack, 41, 92 Oberlin, Ohio, 239, 240–41 Occupy movement, 40, 91 ocean acidification, 45, 46, 52, 155, 242, 298 Ohio, United States, 190, 239 Okun, Arthur, 37 onwards and upwards, 53 Open Building Institute, 196 Open Source Circular Economy (OSCE), 229–32 open systems, 74 open-source design, 158, 196–8, 265 open-source licensing, 204 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 38, 210, 255–6, 258 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 14 Ormerod, Paul, 110, 111 Orr, David, 239 Ostrom, Elinor, 83, 84, 158, 160, 181–2 Ostry, Jonathan, 173 OSVehicle, 231 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 ownership of wealth, 177–82 Oxfam, 9, 44 Oxford University, 1, 36 ozone layer, 9, 50, 115 P Pachamama, 54, 55 Pakistan, 124 Pareto, Vilfredo, 165–6, 175 Paris, France, 290 Park 20|20, Netherlands, 224, 226 Parker Brothers, 149 Patagonia, 56 patents, 195–6, 197, 204 patient capital, 235 Paypal, 192 Pearce, Joshua, 197, 203–4 peer-to-peer networks, 187, 192, 198, 203, 292 People’s QE, 184–5 Perseus, 244 Persia, 13 Peru, 2, 105–6 Phillips, Adam, 283 Phillips, William ‘Bill’, 64–6, 75, 142, 262 phosphorus, 49, 52, 212–13, 218, 298 Physiocrats, 73 Pickett, Kate, 171 pictures, 12–25 Piketty, Thomas, 169 Playfair, William, 16 Poincaré, Henri, 109, 127–8 Polanyi, Karl, 82, 272 political economy, 33–4, 42 political funding, 91–2, 171–2 political voice, 43, 45, 51–2, 77, 117 pollution, 29, 45, 52, 85, 143, 155, 206–17, 226, 238, 242, 254, 298 population, 5, 46, 57, 155, 199, 250, 252, 254 Portugal, 211 post-growth society, 250 poverty, 5, 9, 37, 41, 50, 88, 118, 148, 151 emotional, 283 and inequality, 164–5, 168–9, 178 and overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 and taxation, 277 power, 91–92 pre-analytic vision, 21–2 prescription medicines, 123 price-takers, 132 prices, 81, 118–23, 131, 160 Principles of Economics (Mankiw), 34 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 17, 98 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 288 ProComposto, 226 Propaganda (Bernays), 107 public relations, 107, 281 public spending v. investment, 276 public–private patents, 195 Putnam, Robert, 76–7 Q quantitative easing (QE), 184–5 Quebec, 281 Quesnay, François, 16, 73 R Rabot, Ghent, 236 Rancière, Romain, 172 rating and review systems, 105 rational economic man, 94–103, 109, 111, 112, 126, 282 Reagan, Ronald, 67 reciprocity, 103–6, 117, 118, 123 reflexivity of markets, 144 reinforcing feedback loops, 138–41, 148, 250, 271 relative decoupling, 259 renewable energy biomass energy, 118, 221 and circular economy, 221, 224, 226, 235, 238–9, 274 and commons, 83, 85, 185, 187–8, 192, 203, 264 geothermal energy, 221 and green growth, 257, 260, 263, 264, 267 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 pricing, 118 solar energy, see solar energy wave energy, 221 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 rentier sector, 180, 183, 184 reregulation, 82, 87, 269 resource flows, 175 resource-intensive lifestyles, 46 Rethinking Economics, 289 Reynebeau, Guy, 237 Ricardo, David, 67, 68, 73, 89, 250 Richardson, Katherine, 53 Rifkin, Jeremy, 83, 264–5 Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The (Kennedy), 279 risk, 112, 113–14 Robbins, Lionel, 34 Robinson, James, 86 Robinson, Joan, 142 robots, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 Rockefeller Foundation, 135 Rockford, Illinois, 179–80 Rockström, Johan, 48, 55 Roddick, Anita, 232–4 Rogoff, Kenneth, 271, 280 Roman Catholic Church, 15, 19 Rombo, Tanzania, 190 Rome, Ancient, 13, 48, 154 Romney, Mitt, 92 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 37 rooted membership, 190 Rostow, Walt, 248–50, 254, 257, 267–70, 284 Ruddick, Will, 185 rule of thumb, 113–14 Ruskin, John, 42, 223 Russia, 200 rust belt, 90, 239 S S curve, 251–6 Sainsbury’s, 56 Samuelson, Paul, 17–21, 24–5, 38, 62–7, 70, 74, 84, 91, 92, 93, 262, 290–91 Sandel, Michael, 41, 120–21 Sanergy, 226 sanitation, 5, 51, 59 Santa Fe, California, 213 Santinagar, West Bengal, 178 São Paolo, Brazil, 281 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 43 Saumweder, Philipp, 226 Scharmer, Otto, 115 Scholes, Myron, 100–101 Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich, 42, 142 Schumpeter, Joseph, 21 Schwartz, Shalom, 107–9 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 163, 167, 204 ‘Science and Complexity’ (Weaver), 136 Scotland, 57 Seaman, David, 187 Seattle, Washington, 217 second machine age, 258 Second World War (1939–45), 18, 37, 70, 170 secular stagnation, 256 self-interest, 28, 68, 96–7, 99–100, 102–3 Selfish Society, The (Gerhardt), 283 Sen, Amartya, 43 Shakespeare, William, 61–3, 67, 93 shale gas, 264, 269 Shang Dynasty, 48 shareholders, 82, 88, 189, 191, 227, 234, 273, 292 sharing economy, 264 Sheraton Hotel, Boston, 3 Siegen, Germany, 290 Silicon Valley, 231 Simon, Julian, 70 Sinclair, Upton, 255 Sismondi, Jean, 42 slavery, 33, 77, 161 Slovenia, 177 Small Is Beautiful (Schumacher), 42 smart phones, 85 Smith, Adam, 33, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78–9, 81, 96–7, 103–4, 128, 133, 160, 181, 250 social capital, 76–7, 122, 125, 172 social contract, 120, 125 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 social media, 83, 281 Social Progress Index, 280 social pyramid, 166 society, 76–7 solar energy, 59, 75, 111, 118, 187–8, 190 circular economy, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226–7, 239 commons, 203 zero-energy buildings, 217 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84 Solow, Robert, 135, 150, 262–3 Soros, George, 144 South Africa, 56, 177, 214, 216 South Korea, 90, 168 South Sea Bubble (1720), 145 Soviet Union (1922–91), 37, 67, 161, 279 Spain, 211, 238, 256 Spirit Level, The (Wilkinson & Pickett), 171 Sraffa, Piero, 148 St Gallen, Switzerland, 186 Stages of Economic Growth, The (Rostow), 248–50, 254 stakeholder finance, 190 Standish, Russell, 147 state, 28, 33, 69–70, 78, 82, 160, 176, 180, 182–4, 188 and commons, 85, 93, 197, 237 and market, 84–6, 200, 281 partner state, 197, 237–9 and robots, 195 stationary state, 250 Steffen, Will, 46, 48 Sterman, John, 66, 143, 152–4 Steuart, James, 33 Stiglitz, Joseph, 43, 111, 196 stocks and flows, 138–41, 143, 144, 152 sub-prime mortgages, 141 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 Sugarscape, 150–51 Summers, Larry, 256 Sumner, Andy, 165 Sundrop Farms, 224–6 Sunstein, Cass, 112 supply and demand, 28, 132–6, 143, 253 supply chains, 10 Sweden, 6, 255, 275, 281 swishing, 264 Switzerland, 42, 66, 80, 131, 186–7, 275 T Tableau économique (Quesnay), 16 tabula rasa, 20, 25, 63, 291 takarangi, 54 Tanzania, 121, 190, 202 tar sands, 264, 269 taxation, 78, 111, 165, 170, 176, 177, 237–8, 276–9 annual wealth tax, 200 environment, 213–14, 215 global carbon tax, 201 global financial transactions tax, 201, 235 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 non-renewable resources, 193, 237–8, 278–9 People’s QE, 185 tax relief v. tax justice, 23, 276–7 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 202, 258 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 61, 63, 93 Texas, United States, 120 Thailand, 90, 200 Thaler, Richard, 112 Thatcher, Margaret, 67, 69, 76 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 96 Thompson, Edward Palmer, 180 3D printing, 83–4, 192, 198, 231, 264 thriving-in-balance, 54–7, 62 tiered pricing, 213–14 Tigray, Ethiopia, 226 time banking, 186 Titmuss, Richard, 118–19 Toffler, Alvin, 12, 80 Togo, 231, 292 Torekes, 236–7 Torras, Mariano, 209 Torvalds, Linus, 231 trade, 62, 68–9, 70, 89–90 trade unions, 82, 176, 189 trademarks, 195, 204 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 transport, 59 trickle-down economics, 111, 170 Triodos, 235 Turkey, 200 Tversky, Amos, 111 Twain, Mark, 178–9 U Uganda, 118, 125 Ulanowicz, Robert, 175 Ultimatum Game, 105, 117 unemployment, 36, 37, 276, 277–9 United Kingdom Big Bang (1986), 87 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 free trade, 90 global material footprints, 211 money creation, 182 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 poverty, 165, 166 prescription medicines, 123 wages, 188 United Nations, 55, 198, 204, 255, 258, 279 G77 bloc, 55 Human Development Index, 9, 279 Sustainable Development Goals, 24, 45 United States American Economic Association meeting (2015), 3 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 Congress, 36 Council of Economic Advisers, 6, 37 Earning by Learning, 120 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 Federal Reserve, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 free trade, 90 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 global material footprint, 211 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 inequality, 170, 171 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 political funding, 91–2, 171 poverty, 165, 166 productivity and employment, 193 rust belt, 90, 239 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 wages, 188 universal basic income, 200 University of Berkeley, 116 University of Denver, 160 urbanisation, 58–9 utility, 35, 98, 133 V values, 6, 23, 34, 35, 42, 117, 118, 121, 123–6 altruism, 100, 104 anthropocentric, 115 extrinsic, 115 fluid, 28, 102, 106–9 and networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6 and nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 and pricing, 81, 120–23 Veblen, Thorstein, 82, 109, 111, 142 Venice, 195 verbal framing, 23 Verhulst, Pierre, 252 Victor, Peter, 270 Viner, Jacob, 34 virtuous cycles, 138, 148 visual framing, 23 Vitruvian Man, 13–14 Volkswagen, 215–16 W Wacharia, John, 186 Wall Street, 149, 234, 273 Wallich, Henry, 282 Walras, Léon, 131, 132, 133–4, 137 Ward, Barbara, 53 Warr, Benjamin, 263 water, 5, 9, 45, 46, 51, 54, 59, 79, 213–14 wave energy, 221 Ways of Seeing (Berger), 12, 281 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 74, 78, 96, 104 wealth ownership, 177–82 Weaver, Warren, 135–6 weightless economy, 261–2 WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialised, rich, democratic), 103–5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 282 West Bengal, India, 124, 178 West, Darrell, 171–2 wetlands, 7 whale hunting, 106 Wiedmann, Tommy, 210 Wikipedia, 82, 223 Wilkinson, Richard, 171 win–win trade, 62, 68, 89 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 Wizard of Oz, The, 241 Woelab, 231, 293 Wolf, Martin, 183, 266 women’s rights, 33, 57, 107, 160, 201 and core economy, 69, 79–81 education, 57, 124, 178, 198 and land ownership, 178 see also gender equality workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 World 3 model, 154–5 World Bank, 6, 41, 119, 164, 168, 171, 206, 255, 258 World No Tobacco Day, 124 World Trade Organization, 6, 89 worldview, 22, 54, 115 X xenophobia, 266, 277, 286 Xenophon, 4, 32, 56–7, 160 Y Yandle, Bruce, 208 Yang, Yuan, 1–3, 289–90 yin yang, 54 Yousafzai, Malala, 124 YouTube, 192 Yunnan, China, 56 Z Zambia, 10 Zanzibar, 9 Zara, 276 Zeitvorsoge, 186–7 zero environmental impact, 217–18, 238, 241 zero-hour contracts, 88 zero-humans-required production, 192 zero-interest loans, 183 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84, 191, 264 zero-waste manufacturing, 227 Zinn, Howard, 77 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Illustrations are reproduced by kind permission of: archive.org. © Kyle Depew. © Mark Segal/Panoramic Images, Chicago. © McGraw-Hill Education. Dreamstime (© Roman Yatsnya). Getty Images: (© Yale Joel/The LIFE Picture Collection), (© Hulton Archive/Stringer), (© Lucas Oleniuk), (© urbancow), (© Matt Champlin), (© Kurt Hutton/Stringer). LSE Library. New York Public Library. Wikimedia Commons. Diagrams designed by: Christian Guthier: 11, 44, 51. Marcia Mihotich: 26, 39, 47, 54, 64, 71, 96, 108, 127, 132, 140, 168, 207, 212, 220, 257, 251, 259. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publisher apologises for any errors or omissions in the above list and would be grateful if notified of any corrections that should be incorporated in future reprints or editions of this book.


pages: 275 words: 84,980

Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From Money That We Understand to Money That Understands Us (Perspectives) by David Birch

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, capital controls, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, creative destruction, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, large denomination, M-Pesa, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, Northern Rock, Pingit, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, social graph, special drawing rights, technoutopianism, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, Washington Consensus, wikimedia commons

The Bank of England, being a sensible and conservative institution naturally suspicious of new technologies, continued to use wooden tally sticks until 1826: some 500 years after the invention of double-entry bookkeeping and 400 years after Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. At this time, the Bank came up with a wonderful British compromise: they would switch to paper but they would keep the tallies as a backup (who knew whether the whole ‘printing’ thing would work out, after all) until the last person who knew how to use them had died. Medieval tally sticks. (Source: Winchester City Council Museums (Flickr), via Wikimedia Commons.) Thus, tally sticks like the ones shown in figure 6 were then taken out of circulation and stored in the Houses of Parliament until 1834, when the authorities decided that the tallies were no longer required and that they should be burned. As it happened, they were burned rather too enthusiastically and in the resulting conflagration the Houses of Parliament were razed to the ground (Shenton 2012), which is why they are now the Victorian Gothic pile designed by Sir Charles Barry, built from 1840 onwards, rather than the original mediaeval palace.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

There are many different Wikipedia barnstars that connote different things. For example, General Barnstars are awarded to describe “contributions or editing along a specific theme.” The Barnstar of High Culture, Epic Barnstar, and Ancient Ruin History Barnstar are examples of barnstars awarded “in recognition of excellent contributions” that are within one of seven major categories listed on the Main Page. Wikimedia Commons, Barnstar, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Barnstar (as ofJUNE 1, 2007, 08:30 GMT) (describing different barnstars awarded to Wikipedia contributors). 36. Wikipedia, English Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:25 GMT). 37. See Eric S. Raymond, Release Early, Release Often, in THE CATHEDRAL AND THE BAZAAR: MUSINGS ON LINUX AND OPEN SOURCE BY AN ACCIDENTAL REVOLUTIONARY (2001), available at http://www.catb.org/-esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/ ar01s04.html. 38.


pages: 744 words: 142,748

Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley

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air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Photo courtesy AT&T Archives and History Center Long-distance operators at “cord boards” circa 1945. Well until mid-century the operators’ hands, arms, and brains were the workhorses of long-distance telephone switching. Photo courtesy National Archives The inner workings of a bank of Strowger switches showing the ratchets and pawls and assorted mechanical clockwork required to automate telephone switching in the early 1900s. Photo courtesy Túrelio/Wikimedia Commons A portion of the magnificent 4A toll crossbar switch, 1957. The brains of the long-distance network, the 4A would enable truly automated long-distance telephone calls that customers could dial themselves. Photo courtesy AT&T Archives and History Center A 1950 magazine ad describing the multifrequency signaling system; the ad even went so far as to give the musical equivalents of the MF digits.


pages: 482 words: 125,429

The Book: A Cover-To-Cover Exploration of the Most Powerful Object of Our Time by Keith Houston

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clean water, Commentariolus, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, invention of movable type, Islamic Golden Age, knowledge economy, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, paper trading, Ponzi scheme, wikimedia commons

Anna Oler, personal correspondence with the author, November 2015. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Adrian Bullock, Book Production (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), 164–69. Illustration Credits Page 5: Domenico Cirillo. Cyperus Papyrus, 1796. Image courtesy of Álvaro Pérez Vilariño. Page 7: Norman de Garis Davies. The Tomb of Puyemrê at Thebes, Volume I, Plate XV. Image courtesy of University of Glasgow Library. Page 12: Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user “Aethralis.” CC Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. Original at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Papyrus_sheet.svg; published version at http://www.keithhouston.co.uk/?attachment_id=395. Page 15: Author’s collection. Pages 26–27: Photo Shai Halevi. Full Spectrum Color Image. Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Page 29: Jost Amman, Stände und Handwerker aus dem Jahre 1568 (Knorr & Hirth, 1923), 18.


pages: 829 words: 186,976

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

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airport security, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pets.com, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Copyright © Nate Silver, 2012 All rights reserved Illustration credits Figure 4-2: Courtesy of Dr. Tim Parker, University of Oxford Figure 7-1: From “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics” by Jeffery Taubenberger and David Morens, Emerging Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, January 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Figures 9-2, 9-3A, 9-3C, 9-4, 9-5, 9-6 and 9-7: By Cburnett, Wikimedia Commons Figure 12-2: Courtesy of Dr. J. Scott Armstrong, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Silver, Nate. The signal and the noise : why most predictions fail but some don’t / Nate Silver. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-101-59595-4 1. Forecasting. 2. Forecasting—Methodology. 3.


pages: 1,387 words: 202,295

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Second Edition by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

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Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine, wikimedia commons

Painters can be more elaborate than this: The primitive painter called rogers paints a picture of MIT’s founder, William Barton Rogers, as shown in Figure 2.11.89 The four images in figure 2.11 are drawn with respect to the same four frames as the wave images in figure 2.10. SVG Figure 2.10: Images produced by the wave painter, with respect to four different frames. The frames, shown with dotted lines, are not part of the images. SVG Figure 2.11: Images of William Barton Rogers, founder and first president of MIT, painted with respect to the same four frames as in Figure 2.10 (original image from Wikimedia Commons). To combine images, we use various operations that construct new painters from given painters. For example, the beside operation takes two painters and produces a new, compound painter that draws the first painter’s image in the left half of the frame and the second painter’s image in the right half of the frame. Similarly, below takes two painters and produces a compound painter that draws the first painter’s image below the second painter’s image.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

When you connect one circuit’s output to another one’s input, the power transfer across the connection is maximized if the output and input impedances of the two circuits match. An impedance mismatch can lead to signal reflections and other troubles. 30 | Chapter 2: Data Models and Query Languages Figure 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile using a relational schema. Photo of Bill Gates courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, Ricardo Stuckert, Agência Brasil. For a data structure like a résumé, which is mostly a self-contained document, a JSON representation can be quite appropriate: see Example 2-1. JSON has the appeal of being much simpler than XML. Document-oriented databases like MongoDB [9], RethinkDB [10], CouchDB [11], and Espresso [12] support this data model. Example 2-1. Representing a LinkedIn profile as a JSON document { "user_id": "first_name": "last_name": "summary": "region_id": "industry_id": "photo_url": 251, "Bill", "Gates", "Co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates...


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

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