conceptual framework

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pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

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augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

Engelbart, Douglas. 1962a. ‘Letter to Vannevar Bush and Program on Human Effectiveness’. In From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine, edited by James Nyce and Paul Kahn, 235–44. London: Academic Press. . 1962b. ‘Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework’. Report to the Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Menlo Park, CA, Stanford Research Institute. Online: http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/ engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html (accessed April 2013). . 1963. ‘A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man’s Intellect’. In Vistas in Information Handling, Volume 1: The Augmentation of Man’s Intellect By Machine, edited by Paul W. Howerton and David C. Weeks, 1–29. Washington: Spartan Books. . 1986. ‘Interview with Henry Lowood’, Stanford University.

More deeply, this implies that Doug’s revolution requires a reversal of the current relationship between humans and technology; we need to be back in the driver’s seat.3 Hayles (1999) locates a similar contradiction in Norbert Wiener’s work. AUGMENTING THE INTELLECT: NLS 41 In particular, Engelbart feels we need to create tool systems that help us deal with knowledge work in a more effective way. This objective is something he claims he inherited from Bush’s 1945 paper, ‘As We May Think’ (Engelbart 1962), and it formed the basis of the ‘Conceptual Framework for Augmenting Man’s Intellect’ he would later erect to explain and support the development of the oN-Line System (NLS), a prototype hypertext system. As he told me: We need to think about how to boost our collective IQ , and how important it would be to society because all of the technologies are just going to make our world accelerate faster and faster and get more and more complex and we’re not equipped to cope with that complexity.

‘If we don’t get proactive, the human side of [the equation] is going to always get pushed by just the technology’ (Engelbart 1999). He wanted to build a laboratory at SRI filled with psychologists and computer scientists to research the new ‘field’ of intellectual augmentation. Initially, though, SRI was skeptical, and Engelbart was put to work in magnetics. If the project was to have the kind of impact on the engineering community he wanted, he needed the support of his peers. Engelbart decided to write a conceptual framework for it, an agenda that the computing (and engineering) community could understand. It was ‘remarkably slow and sweaty work’ (Engelbart 1988, 190), but he wrote the paper in 1962 and published it in 1963. It is interesting to note here that both Engelbart and Ted Nelson found writing difficult; they were far from prolific, and would draft and redraft multiple times. In Nelson’s case this frustration was largely with the paradigm of paper, and it led him to design an alternative.8 For Engelbart, it appears to be a frustration at expressing his ideas in a form that the computing community would understand.

 

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

There were no longer existing assets for Silverstein to manage, but he would continue to receive these fees as provided for in the December 2003 agreement between the PA and the Silverstein lessees. At this point, Silverstein and his company executives were managing what is called “the pre-development” process. Within twenty-four hours the Port Authority sent back a revised Conceptual Framework, and in his response letter of April 26, “accepting all of your key terms,” Silverstein wrote, “We understand each other’s positions clearly, including the need for reasonable certainty of completion and financeability.” He wanted to proceed immediately, he said, toward the documentation of the transaction rather than focus any longer on the Conceptual Framework and its seventeen specific elements.42 The Port Authority commissioners were tentatively scheduled to consider approval of the transaction in September, and the amount of work to be done before then was huge.

Furthermore, the status of insurance claims under Silverstein’s insurance policies had to be clarified, and this was not as straightforward as might have been expected because less than a month after the April Conceptual Framework agreement, seven of the insurers attempted to use the new financial plan as a lever to delay, if not evade, their responsibility to pay the full $4.6 billion for rebuilding. Those insurance policies, as the Times editorialized, “have provoked enough charges, countercharges and court documents to fill a bank vault.”46 Another item yet to be definitively settled was whether Silverstein could get rights to the retail portion of the site, rights that were subject to a resolution clarifying the intent of the PA and Westfield America, which now held a right of first offer to redevelop the retail spaces. From the twelve-page Conceptual Framework, the realignment transaction would balloon into twelve volumes of agreements, hundreds of thousands of words diligently documenting the complex duality of an intergovernmental political arrangement and hard-fought business deal.

No wonder officials aren’t calling it a deal, but a ‘conceptual framework’. ” The Times, more moderate in tone, also condemned “how badly blocked the redevelopment effort in Lower Manhattan has been in the last two years,” though from a different perspective: “There have been many obstructions, including Mr. Silverstein himself. After months of negotiations, the mayor and the governors of New York and New Jersey lined up solidly against the developer last week and offered him two good options and one solid deadline. Mr. Silverstein did the right thing by accepting one of these options, which should turn out to be a profitable deal, not only for his own company, but also for the public.” The amount of money the public was committing to make the Conceptual Framework a reasonable thrust at rebuilding—and ultimately would have to pump into Ground Zero—made the Times’ last concluding phrase suspect from a financial perspective.

 

pages: 153 words: 27,424

REST API Design Rulebook by Mark Masse

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anti-pattern, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, database schema, hypertext link, information retrieval, web application

In contrast, most of the rules presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 (particularly those that deal with media types and representational forms) are my solutions in the absence of consensus. Note When used in the context of rules, the key words: “must,” “must not,” “required,” “shall,” “shall not,” “should,” “should not,” “recommended,” “may,” and “optional” are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.[16] WRML I’ve invented a conceptual framework called the Web Resource Modeling Language (WRML) to assist with the design and implementation of REST APIs. WRML, pronounced like “wormle,” originated as a resource model diagramming technique that uses a set of basic shapes to represent each of the resource archetypes discussed in Resource Archetypes. The scope of WRML increased with the creation of the application/wrml media type,[17] which has pluggable format and schema components, as described in Media Type Design.

Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels, RFC 2119, RFC Editor, 1997 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt). [17] The application/wrml media type’s IANA registration is pending—see http://www.wrml.org for the most up-to-date information. [18] http://www.json.org Recap This chapter presented a synopsis of the Web’s invention and stabilization. It motivated the book’s rule-oriented presentation and introduced WRML, a conceptual framework whose ideas promote a uniform REST API design methodology. Subsequent chapters will build on this foundation to help us leverage REST in API designs. Table 1-1 summarizes the vocabulary terms that were introduced in this chapter. Table 1-1. Vocabulary review TermDescription Application Programming Interface (API) Exposes a set of data and functions to facilitate interactions between computer programs.

Tim Berners-Lee developed the first one, which was able to view and edit HTML documents. Web client (client) A computer program that follows REST’s uniform interface in order to accept and transfer resource state representations to servers. Web component (component) A client, network-based intermediary, or server that complies with REST’s uniform interface. Web Resource Modeling Language (WRML) A conceptual framework whose ideas can be leveraged to design and implement uniform REST APIs. Web server (server) A computer program that follows REST’s uniform interface constraints in order to accept and transfer resource state representations to clients. Web service A web server programmed with specific, often reusable, logic. Chapter 2. Identifier Design with URIs URIs REST APIs use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to address resources.

 

pages: 357 words: 98,854

Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease and Inheritance by Nessa Carey

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, life extension, mouse model, phenotype, stem cell, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Darwin knew nothing about genes when he developed the theory of evolution through natural selection. Mendel knew nothing about DNA when, in an Austrian monastery garden, he developed his idea of inherited factors that are transmitted ‘true’ from generation to generation of peas. It doesn’t matter. They saw what nobody else had seen and suddenly we all had a new way of viewing the world. The epigenetic landscape Oddly enough, there was a conceptual framework that was in existence when John Gurdon performed his work. Go to any conference with the word ‘epigenetics’ in the title and at some point one of the speakers will refer to something called ‘Waddington’s epigenetic landscape’. They will show the grainy image seen in Figure 1.1. Conrad Waddington was a hugely influential British polymath. He was born in 1903 in India but was sent back to England to go to school.

We no longer accept most of his ideas scientifically, but we should acknowledge that he was making a genuine attempt to address important questions. Inevitably, and quite rightly, Lamarck has been overshadowed by Charles Darwin, the true colossus of 19th century biology – actually, probably the colossus of biology generally. Darwin’s model of the evolution of species via natural selection has been the single most powerful conceptual framework in biological sciences. Its power became even greater once married to Mendel’s work on inheritance and our molecular understanding of DNA as the raw material of inheritance. If we wanted to summarise a century and a half of evolutionary theory in one paragraph we might say: Random variation in genes creates phenotypic variation in individuals. Some individuals will survive better than others in a particular environment, and these individuals are likely to have more offspring.

But females randomly inactivate an X chromosome in all their cells. Consequently, at a very fundamental level, all cells in a female body can be split into two camps depending on which X chromosome they inactivated. The expression for this is that females are epigenetic mosaics. This sophisticated epigenetic control in females is a complicated and highly regulated process, and that’s where Mary Lyon’s predictions have provided such a useful conceptual framework. They can be paraphrased as the following four steps: Counting: cells from the normal female would contain only one active X chromosome; Choice: X inactivation would occur early in development; Initiation: the inactive X could be either maternally or paternally derived, and the inactivation would be random in any one cell; Maintenance: X inactivation would be irreversible in a somatic cell and all its descendants.

 

pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey

For example, performing artists only have a maximum of 365 nights a year on which they can do a show, and can’t become more “productive.” Nurses become arguably less, not more, productive in a meaningful sense if they treat more patients but the statistics work the opposite way. In the online economy, digital products can show infinite productivity—they can be duplicated essentially for free—but if they’re priced for free, they will perhaps not be produced in the desirable quantities. In these varied examples, the conceptual framework of measurement isn’t up to assessing the things we value (in a noneconomic sense), which in turn actually makes it hard to value them in the monetary sense. This leads directly to a second requirement, which is clarity about the values and aims of economic policy and political choices. There is a fundamental set of trade-offs—a “trilemma,” or three-way dilemma—in the management of the economy—using resources as efficiently as possible, sharing them fairly between people, and allowing people as much freedom and self-determination as possible—and it is only possible to hit two of these three aims at any one time.

These increasing returns activities are growing in their extent, as seen in the growth of goods and research-intensive goods as a share of the leading economies’ annual output. The more you think about the measurement problems, the more it becomes clear that the difficulty in measuring is a result not just of failing to collect the right statistics but is actually due to the way we think about such activities. The conceptual framework that lies behind existing economic statistics is a bad fit for an economy that is no longer mass-producing standardized manufactured goods. The structure of the economy is changing, and so is what people value. This is true both in the sense of what they’ll spend their money on in the weightless economy and in the sense of a growing appreciation of the legacy of today’s economy for tomorrow’s society.

So, bizarrely, many previously highly profitable businesses are looking quite a lot like public services in some respects. The zero marginal cost of conveying the song or movie to another user makes it harder to charge anything, but that in turn is undermining the provision of the service. Many businesses are scrabbling to find what it is they can charge for in order to cover their costs and sustain profit margins. This all points toward the conclusion that our conceptual framework for understanding economic value hasn’t kept up with the way the economy has changed. INNOVATION IN STATISTICS Economists and statisticians certainly understand the problem. Questions of measurement have not only reached the public policy debate, they have been explored extensively within the profession. One type of innovation has been the challenge to the monopoly of GDP over policy debates, and the development of either alternative or supplementary indicators.

 

The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

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airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

The opponents voice concern about major changes in current system states by focusing on complexity and on normative values-in other words, their discussion is at Level II (if not Level III). Proponents and opponents both err in failing to recognize that both positions may be at once valid yet incommensurable. Any technology of more than trivial import exhibits behaviors at Levels I and II (and beyond, as we will discuss next), and these behaviors are unavoidable and symbiotic. But more profoundly, by relying on simplistic, anachronistic, and contradictory conceptual frameworks, both sides reinforce concepts and frameworks-Enlightenment certainties-that are not capable of engaging the radical technological transitions that we humans are continually creating. It is to these transitions that we now turn. 4 Level III Technology: Radical Contingency in Earth Systems We have explored two levels of technology. At the shop-floor level, we can see much of the cause-and-ef£ect chain necessary to meet specific and well-defined social goals: a vaccine prevents a particular disease, or a well-designed manufacturing process eliminates the use oftoxic chemicals (and thus workers' potential exposure to them).

Similarly, the Counter Rocket Artillery Mortar (CRAM) system is a computerized machine-gun system currently deployed to defend against rockets and missiles to which humans could not react in time. 9 Does the word "robot" signify a type of artifact, a type of capability, or a certain level of computational competence? Or does this discussion make the point that emerging technologies render dangerously contingent even words and concepts that we think we understand, Killer Apps 151 and thus leave us open to the risk of relying on implicit assumptions, discussions, and conceptual frameworks that are already obsolete? Lethal autonomous robots (LARs) are controversial at every level, but discussion to date is often characterized by category confusion. To begin with, why should such a technology, in any form, be deployed? The immediate response is Level I: "to save soldiers' lives." Indeed, robots, whether lethal and autonomous or simply robotic, do save the lives of soldiers: in Iraq and Afghanistan, many explosive devices that might otherwise have killed and maimed soldiers have been identified and eliminated by robots.

It is illegal for drug companies to advertise an "off-label" use, but it is legal for a physician to prescribe a drug for "off-label" use. It is, however, illegal to sell or trade in "off-label" drugs that have not been specifically prescribed for the individual. 3. This language was on the original website of the World Transhumanist Association, www.transhumanism.org.In 2008, that site was replaced by www.humanityplus.org. 4. The Great Chain of Being is a conceptual framework of the Universe perfected in the Christian medieval period in Europe. It envisions a structured hierarchy, with pure spirit and perfection (God)at the top, and pure matter and imperfection (rocks and other materials) at the bottom. In between, in order, come all things; angels are next to God, while plants are above matter, and beasts above plants. Humans are at the fulcrum point, for they are both spirit and matter.

 

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

.* 1530 Paracelsus pioneers the application of chemistry to physiology and pathology 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus’ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium states the heliocentric theory of the solar system Andreas Vesalius’ De humani corporis fabrica supplants Galen’s anatomical textbook 1546 Agricola’s De natura fossilium classifies minerals and introduces the term ‘fossil’ 1572 Tycho Brahe records the first European observation of a supernova 1589 Galileo’s tests of falling bodies (published in De motu) revolutionize the experimental method 1600 William Gilbert’s De magnete, magnetisque corporibus describes the magnetic properties of the earth and electricity 1604 Galileo discovers that a free-falling body increases its distance as the square of the time 1608 Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Jansen independently invent the telescope 1609 1609 Galileo conducts the first telescopic observations of the night sky 1610 Galileo discovers four of Jupiter’s moons and infers that the earth is not at the centre of the universe 1614 John Napier’s Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio introduces logarithms 1628 William Harvey writes Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, accurately describing the circulation of blood 1637 René Descartes’ ‘La Géométrie’, an appendix to his Discours de la méthode, founds analytic geometry 1638 Galileo’s Discorsi e dimonstrazioni matematiche founds modern mechanics 1640 Pierre de Fermat founds number theory 1654 Fermat and Blaise Pascal found probability theory 1661 Robert Boyle’s Skeptical Chymist defines elements and chemical analysis 1662 Boyle states Boyle’s Law that the volume occupied by a fixed mass of gas in a container is inversely proportional to the pressure it exerts 1669 Isaac Newton’s De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas presents the first systematic account of the calculus, independently developed by Gottfried Leibniz 1676 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovers micro-organisms 1687 Newton’s Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica states the law of universal gravitation and the laws of motion 1735 Carolus Linnaeus’ Systema naturae introduces systematic classification of genera and species of organisms 1738 Daniel Bernoulli’s Hydrodynamica states Bernoulli’s Principle and founds the mathematical study of fluid flow and the kinetic theory of gases 1746 Jean-Etienne Guettard prepares the first true geological maps 1755 Joseph Black identifies carbon dioxide 1775 Antoine Lavoisier accurately describes combustion 1785 James Hutton’s ‘Concerning the System of the Earth’ states the uniformitarian view of the earth’s development 1789 Lavoisier’s Traité élémentaire de chimie states the law of conservation of matter By the mid-1600s this kind of scientific knowledge was spreading as rapidly as had the doctrine of the Protestant Reformers a century before. The printing press and increasingly reliable postal services combined to create an extraordinary network, small by modern standards, but more powerful than anything previously achieved by a community of scholars. There was of course a great deal of intellectual resistance, as is always the case when the paradigm – the conceptual framework itself – shifts.28 Indeed, some of this resistance came from within. Newton himself dabbled in alchemy. Hooke all but killed himself with quack remedies for indigestion. It was by no means easy for such men to reconcile the new science with Christian doctrine, which few were ready to renounce.29 But it remains undeniable that this was an intellectual revolution even more transformative than the religious revolution that preceded and unintentionally begat it.

As the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 made clear, rhetorical pleas to ‘save the planet’ for future generations are insufficient to overcome the conflicts over economic distribution between rich and poor countries that exist in the here and now. We love our grandchildren. But our great-great-grandchildren are harder to relate to. Yet it is possible that this whole conceptual framework is, in fact, flawed. Perhaps Cole’s artistic representation of a civilizational supercycle of birth, growth and eventual death is a misrepresentation of the historical process. What if history is not cyclical and slow-moving but arrhythmic – sometimes almost stationary, but also capable of violent acceleration? What if historical time is less like the slow and predictable changing of the seasons and more like the elastic time of our dreams?

., The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force and Society since AD 1000 (Chicago, 1982) ———, The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (Chicago, 1991 [1963]) Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris, 2001) Melko, Matthew, The Nature of Civilizations (Boston, 1969) Matthews, Derek, ‘The Strange Death of History Teaching (Fully Explained in Seven Easy-to-Follow Lessons’, unpublished pamphlet (January 2009) Morris, Ian,Why the West Rules – For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future (New York, 2010) Mumford, Lewis, The City in History (New York, 1961) Murray, Charles A., Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 (New York, 2003) North, Douglass C., Understanding the Process of Economic Change (Princeton, 2005) ———, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast,Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, 2009) Osborne, Roger, Civilization: A New History of the Western World (New York, 2008) Pomeranz, Kenneth, The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, 2000) Putterman, L. and David N. Weil, ‘Post-1500 Population Flows and the Long Run Determinants of Economic Growth and Inequality’, working paper (September 2008) Quigley, Carroll, The Evolution of Civilizations (New York, 1961) Rajan, Raghuram G. and Luigi Zingales, ‘The Persistence of Underdevelopment: Institutions, Human Capital, or Constituencies?’

 

pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Nevertheless, as soon as the war ended, they became the basis for a series of massive military research projects, including the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, the SAGE air defense system, and the Polaris Intermediate Range Missile. All of these projects depended heavily on computers, on interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaborations, and on a systems approach to engineering.44 Over the next twenty years, cybernetics and systems theory more generally provided a rhetoric and a conceptual framework with which to link the activities of each of these actors to the others and to coordinate their work as a whole. The power of cybernetics and systems theory to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration emerged in large part thanks to the entrepreneurship of Norbert Wiener and the research climate of World War II. Wiener did not create the discipline of cybernetics out of thin air; rather, he pulled its analytical terms together by bridging multiple, if formerly segregated, scientific communities.

[Computer] intelligence should be directed toward instructing [the user], demystifying and exposing its own nature, and ultimately giving him active control.”25 The concept of building a peer-to-peer information system and the idea that individuals needed to gain control over information and information systems had been features of both the New Communalist movement and the New Left for some time. Yet, the notion of doing these things with computers was relatively new, at least outside the walls of SRI and Xerox PARC. For those who hoped to turn computing machines toward populist ends, the religion of technology espoused by the Whole Earth Catalog offered an important conceptual framework and source of legitimation. In the early 1970s, for example, Lee Felsenstein began to design the Tom Swift Terminal—a freestanding, easy-to-use terminal that would be as easy to repair as a radio. Although it was never built precisely to Felsenstein’s first specifications, the Tom Swift Terminal design ultimately drove the creation of an early personal computer known as the Sol. Felsenstein envisioned the Tom Swift Terminal “as something that could be printed in the Whole Earth Catalog.”

He explained in the first issue that the magazine took its name from the biological theory of “coevolution,” in which two species evolved symbiotically. Brand traced the origin of this idea to a 1965 study of the relationship between certain predatory caterpillars and the plants they ate, conducted by his old teacher Paul Ehrlich and Peter Raven.38 The first issue of CQ prominently featured an article by Ehrlich outlining his conceptual framework, entitled “Coevolution and the Biology of Communities.” Yet, Brand considered coevolution to be more than a biological theory. It was a metaphor— derived from and carrying the legitimacy of science—for a new way of life. That metaphor depended not so much on Brand’s reading of contemporary biology as it did on his reading of the mystical cybernetics of a former anthropologist, psychiatrist, and biological researcher, Gregory Bateson.

 

pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

For this reason, we’ll ground our discussion in concrete examples in the mold of the Polymath Project and Kasparov versus the World. In part 1 of this book we’ll use these concrete examples to distill a set of principles that explain how online tools can amplify collective intelligence. I have deliberately focused the discussion in part 1 on a relatively small number of examples, with the idea being that as we develop a conceptual framework for understanding collective intelligence, we’ll revisit each of these examples several times, and come to understand them more deeply. Furthermore, the examples come not just from science, but also from areas such as chess and computer programming. The reason is that some of the most striking examples of amplifying collective intelligence—examples such as Kasparov versus the World—come from outside science, and we can learn a great deal by studying them.

In this chapter we’ll see that it’s this ability to restructure expert attention that is at the heart of how online tools amplify collective intelligence. What examples such as InnoCentive, the Polymath Project, and Kasparov versus the World share is the ability to bring the attention of the right expert to the right problem at the right time. In the first half of the chapter we’ll look in more detail at these examples, and develop a broad conceptual framework that explains how they restructure expert attention. In the second half of the chapter we’ll apply that framework to understand how online collaborations can work together in ways that are essentially different from offline collaborations. Harnessing Latent Microexpertise While the ASSET-InnoCentive story is striking, Kasparov versus the World is an even more impressive example of collective intelligence.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [60] Nature editorial. Dreams of flu data. Nature, 440:255–256, March 16, 2006. [61] Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [62] T. S. Eliot. The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London: Methune, 1920. [63] Douglas C. Engelbart. Augmenting human intellect: A conceptual framework. Stanford Research Institute Report, October 1962. [64] Jon Fortt. Top 5 moments from Eric Schmidt’s talk in Abu Dhabi. Fortune Tech (blog), March 11, 2010. http://brainstormtech.blogs.fortune.cnn.com/2010/03/11/top-five-moments-from-eric-schmidt%27s-talk-in-abu-dhabi/. [65] Full cast and crew for Avatar. Internet Movie Database (IMDb). http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0499549/fullcredits

 

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What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Even his colleagues had their doubts. A friend told him at one point, “You know, if people really get to know you, it’s one thing. But otherwise, you sound just like all the other charlatans.” He had difficulties getting his ideas across to people throughout his career, but Engelbart persisted. By October 1962, he had sketched out his vision in a summary report for the air force entitled “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” and the following year he condensed his ideas into a chapter in a collection titled Vistas in Information Handling. His “framework” was both a technological and organizational prescription for creating computer-equipped teams of people who could more efficiently work on a broad range of human problems. Augment was thus the personal computer and the Internet rolled into one. In an effort to communicate the power of augmentation to his audiences, Engelbart occasionally relied on the concept of deaugmentation, an approach that was inspired by the same insight that underlay the original scaling ideas that he had come across in his days working around the NACA wind tunnels.

Engelbart Collection, Stanford Special Libraries, Stanford University. 3.Memo, March 14, 1961, Douglas C. Engelbart Collection, Stanford Special Library, Stanford University. 4.Doug Engelbart, “The Augmented Knowledge Workshop,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on the History of Personal Workstations, ed. Adele Goldberg (New York: ACM, 1988), p. 190. 5.D. C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” prepared for Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, October 1962, p. 5. 6.Ibid., p. 6. 7.Douglas Engelbart, oral history, interview by John Eklund, Division of Computers, Information, and Society, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institute, May 4, 1994. http://americanhistory.si.edu/csr/comphist/englebar.htm. 8.Oral history, interview by Lowood and Adams. 9.M.

Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Coyote, Peter. Sleeping Where I Fall: A Chronicle. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1998. Edwards, Paul N. The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996. Engelbart, Douglas C. Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1962. Evans, Christopher Riche. The Micro Millennium. New York: Viking Press, 1980. Farber, David R. The Sixties: From Memory to History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. ———. The Age of Great Dreams: America in the 1960s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994. Flamm, Kenneth. Creating the Computer: Government, Industry, and High Technology.

 

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Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush

But what would you see if you could follow a single reactive molecule, slowed down enough to enable the eye to follow its motions? You might not want to try, because to have good odds of seeing a reaction occur, you’d have to watch for about a billion minutes, which is to say, about two thousand years. Thus, the scaled view that gives such powerful insights into the behavior of rigid nanomachines is essentially useless for understanding solution-phase chemistry. Chemists must work in a different conceptual framework, one seldom concerned with mechanical speed, force, or position.* Thermal energy also dominates motions in biomolecular nanomachines, devices which straddle the gap between the chaos of solution-phase chemistry and the orderly motion of gears, bearings, shafts, and the rest. Many biomolecular components are made of protein, which makes proteins worth a closer look. To imagine a protein at work in water, first make the water molecules transparent to clear away the surrounding solution-phase blur.

Now we are ready to ask what these capabilities imply and what they will enable. We need to start at the bottom, exploring the performance of extraordinary materials in extraordinary forms, then move up to higher levels: components, products, applications, and costs (in the broadest, yet physical sense of the word). The results of this exploration will offer a concrete view of the potential products of radical abundance, providing a conceptual framework for considering its implications. The resulting picture combines radically low-cost production—in terms of labor, capital, materials, energy, and environmental impact—with products that themselves can be radically better in performance, efficiency, and cost of use. ASKING THREE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS “What can be made?” “What can it do?” “How much will it cost to produce?” These are the fundamental questions that any vision of future technologies must answer.

We’ve seen the emergence of a gift economy in digital products such as software, text, images, and video; the natural course of events would see this pattern extend to APM product-design files, leading (aside from the cost of input materials) to a gift economy in physical objects (but within what mandated constraints?). Considering both similarities and contrasts between the two revolutions can help to build a more robust conceptual framework. Regarding specific problems (a plunge in demand for steel, for example), it’s natural to worry that they might be neglected, simply out of distraction and inertia. In a world in which coherent scenarios have traction, however, specific problems will often be framed as instances of a broader, generic, high-profile problem—steel, after all, won’t be a special case of falling demand. Likewise, concerns about particular hazards of unconstrained applications of APM—this material, that device—won’t arise in isolation.

 

Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Chomsky, Noam

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning

Similarly, in an anguished review of “extremism” and its ascendance, New York Times Israel correspondent Thomas Friedman includes under this rubric those who advocate a non-racist settlement in accord with the international consensus, while the Western leaders of the rejectionist camp, who also hold a commanding lead in terrorist operations, are the “moderates”; by definition, one might add. Friedman writes that “Extremists have always been much better at exploiting the media.” He is quite right; Israel and the U.S. have shown unparalleled mastery of this art, as his own articles and news reports indicate.9 His convenient version of history and the conceptual framework of his reporting, as just illustrated, provide a few of the many examples of the success of extremists in “exploiting the media”—now using the term in its literal sense. In adopting a conceptual framework designed to exclude comprehension of the facts and issues, the Times follows the practice of Israeli models such as Rabin, who achieve the status of “moderates” by virtue of their general conformity to U.S. government demands. It is, correspondingly, entirely natural that when Friedman reviews “Two Decades of Seeking Peace in the Mideast,” major proposals rejected by the U.S. and Israel are omitted as inappropriate for the historical record.

One stable feature is the Churchillian doctrine: the rich and powerful have every right to demand that they be left in peace to enjoy what they have gained, often by violence and terror; the rest can be ignored as long as they suffer in silence, but if they interfere with the lives of those who rule the world by right, the “terrors of the earth” will be visited upon them with righteous wrath, unless power is constrained from within. The first five chapters below are concerned with the first phase of the “war on terror,” during the Reagan–Bush (No. 1) Administrations. The preface and the first three chapters constitute the original publication: Pirates and Emperors (Claremont, 1986). Chapter 1 is devoted to the conceptual framework in which these and related issues are presented within the reigning doctrinal system. Chapter 2 provides a sample—only a sample—of Middle East terrorism in the real world, along with some discussion of the style of apologetics employed to ensure that it proceeds unhampered. Chapter 3 turns to the role played by Libya in the doctrinal system during those years. Chapter 4 appears in the 1987 edition of Pirates and Emperors (Black Rose, Montreal); it is a transcript of a keynote address at the Arab Association of University Graduates Convention, November 15, 1986.

 

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Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

My hope for more complex and honest debate may sound too wishful, but I was struck in our lengthy interview by Rubin’s willingness to discuss contrary propositions, and by his disarmingly self-effacing and reflective manner (the transcript is posted at www.thenation.com). Several times, I was taken aback when his comments made tentative concessions to the opposition’s argument. He even endorsed, though only in broad principle, some objectives for reforming global trade that his critics have long advocated. I suggest that reformers test his sincerity. In the same spirit, they might try to initiate a conversation about what Rubin calls the “conceptual framework” for reform. He says he would welcome the discussion. The Hamilton Project’s early policy output, I concede, doesn’t encourage a belief that reasoned dialogue with dis-senters is what Rubin has in mind. Advisory board members see themselves as progressive-minded, but they do not stray from the mainstream’s conventional wisdom—lots of Harvard, Princeton and Berkeley, no one from the ranks of “free trade” skeptics.

It’s an imposition of one on the other.” This is a startling statement: The man from Citigroup has articulated the essential reasoning that makes the case for including labor rights in the global trading system. That conversation has convinced me that outgunned reformers ought to make use of Rubin’s musings. Knock on his door and try to initiate a dialogue. If the critics come forward and offer their ideas on a “conceptual framework” for reform, I ask, would the Hamilton Project be willing to discuss them? Rubin reiterates his doubts and reservations. “But the answer is yes,” he says. “The answer is absolutely yes.” Skeptical friends and kindred spirits will probably say to me, You have been conned. I would say back to them, What have you got to lose by talking to the man? The Hamilton Project is a sophisticated example of what I call “deep lobbying”—developing well in advance of the 2008 presidential election an agenda that safely avoids critical challenges to the global system and defines the terms of debate in very limiting ways.

 

pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

Barnett, Mi Feng, and Xaioqu Luo, “Social Identity, Market Memory, and First-Mover Advantage,” Industrial and Corporate Change 22, no. 3 (2012): 585. 116 Fast followers, on the other hand: Reasons for the second-wave advantage were proposed by researchers from Texas A&M only a few years after Lieberman and Montgomery’s initial paper on first movers. “Major shifts in technology for which the first mover is ill-prepared because of its investment in old technology may favor the fast follower that is not burdened with such investments,” write Roger A. Kerin, P. Rajan Varadarajan, and Robert A. Peterson, “First-Mover Advantage: A Synthesis, Conceptual Framework, and Research Propositions,” Journal of Marketing 56, no. 4 (1992): 33–52. “Later entrants’ access to relatively newer cost-efficient technologies enables them to offset or neutralize the first mover’s experience-based cost advantages.” 116 Many of the biggest corporate successes: Steve Blank, writing in Business Insider, makes one of the best-formed arguments on second-wave advantage out there: “You’re Better Off Being a Fast Follower than an Originator,” Business Insider, October 5, 2010, http://www.businessinsider.com/youre-better-off-being-a-fast-follower-than-an-originator-2010-10 (accessed February 16, 2014). 117 The way to predict the best waves: Fernando F.

The Odyssey. Translated by Alexander Pope. George Bell & Sons. 1906. Isaacson, Walter. Steve Jobs. Simon and Schuster, 2011. Jay-Z. Decoded. Spiegel and Grau, 2010. Kahneman, Daniel, and Gary Klein. “Conditions for Intuitive Expertise.” American Psychologist 64, no. 6 (September 2009): 515–26. Kerin, Roger A., P. Rajan Varadarajan, and Robert A. Peterson. “First-Mover Advantage: A Synthesis, Conceptual Framework, and Research Propositions.” Journal of Marketing 56, no. 4 (1992): 33–52. Kluger, Avraham N., and Angelo DeNisi. “The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory.” Psychological Bulletin 119, no. 2 (1996): 254–84. Lehrer, Jonah. Imagine: How Creativity Works. Houghton Mifflin, 2012. Lieberman, Marvin B., and David B.

 

pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Translated from Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaloka (3.41 a) by Luther Obrock. 2. Bronner and Shulman, “’A Cloud Turned Goose’: Sanskrit in the Vernacular Millennium,” 28–29. 3. Pollock, “The Death of Sanskrit,” 394. 4. Dalmia, “Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School,” 334. 5. See Srinivas, “Amarabhāratī: Sanskrit and the Resurgence of Indian Civilization,” 41–42. 6. Kapoor and Ratnam, Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework, 1. 7. Ramaswamy, “Sanskrit for the Nation,” 334–35. 8. Ibid., 373. 9. Pollock, “The Cosmopolitan Vernacular,” 29. 10. Merwin, East Window: The Asian Translations, 36. 11. Eliot, The Sacred Wood and Major Early Essays, 58. 12. Eliot, After Strange Gods, 43–44. 13. Sanderson, “Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions,” 675. 14. Christiansen, “Computers.” 15. Pipher, Writing to Change the World, 81. 16.

“Background of the Aṣṭādhyāyī.” In Sanskrit Computational Linguistics, 1–5. Springer, 2009. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-93885-9_1. Kapoor, Kapil. Dimensions of Pāṇini Grammar: The Indian Grammatical System. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 2005. ______. Text and Interpretation: The Indian Tradition. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 2005. Kapoor, Kapil and Nalini M. Ratnam. Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework. New Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press, 1998. Kelly, John D. “What Was Sanskrit For? Metadiscursive Strategies in Ancient India.” In Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit Language, edited by Jan E. M. Houben, 87–107. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Khan, Taslima. “40% of Startups in Silicon Valley Are Headed by India-Based Entrepreneurs.” Business Today, March 21, 2013. http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/google-executive-chairman-eric-schmidt-on-india/1/193496.html.

 

Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

And now, at present, there is a resurgence of cooperative currencies and other innovations as the shadow of recession looms, but the dire consequences and tough lessons from these experiences seem to have lapsed from memory. Back in the day when Michael Untergugenberger was elected mayor of Wörgl, in 1931, some 30 percent of the workforce was unemployed, leaving 200 families absolutely penniless. The mayor-with-the-longname, as the renowned U.S. economist Irving Fisher from Yale would call him, was familiar with Silvio Gesell’s work. A German economist and merchant, Gesell’s conceptual framework for demurrage and for other theories made him, some argue, the grandfather of modern-day cooperative currencies. His monetary designs are often referred to as freigelt, or “free money” in English. The mayor decided to put Gesell’s ideas to the test, as there was much to be done around the town and many willing and able-bodied folks looking for work. The rub was, however, that there were only 40,000 Austrian shillings remaining in the bank, just enough to pay the salaries of a couple of dozen people for one month, far short of what was needed.

See also Bank debt; Loan 253 Decentralization: in C3, 128; in CPX, 116; in principled society, 193; subsidiarity and, 69, 231n14; sustainability and, 219 Default, 41, 110, 112. See also Bankruptcy Defection, 196–197 Deflation, 167, 235n12 Democracy: in Bali, 187–188, 190–191; civic and, 147–148; concentration of wealth and, 21–22, 52– 53; in principled society, 193–194; regio and, 191; social capital and, 46 Demurrage: BONUS and, 171; on Chiemgauer, 88; concentration of wealth and, 67– 68; conceptual framework for, 176; saber and, 155; sustainability and, 67, 206; on Terra, 136, 138–139, 206; velocity and, 64, 68– 69; on wära, 179; on Wörgl, 176–177 Denver, 11–12 Development, 33 Disaster relief, 167, 169, 169–172 Discounted cash flow (DCF), 45– 46 Distance tax, 89 Diversity, 32– 33, 62– 63, 70 Divine right of kings, 24 Dixie Dollar, 113 Doctors without Borders, 17–18 Domestic care, 34 Drill and kill, 156, 220–221 Dual currency system, 65– 66, 99–102, 103–107, 162 Earthquake, 167, 169 Earthship model, 165 Ecological disaster, 34, 188 Eco-money, 235n12 Economic Literacy Program, 184 Economics, school of, 28, 35 Economic treadmill, 43, 52 Ecosystem, 32– 33 Ecosystem, monetary, 59– 60, 145, 199–202, 220 Education, 14, 16; for computers, 83; Creative Currencies Project and, 153–155; knowledge exchange network, 184; learning currency, 153–155, 201; in Mae Hong Son, 205; mentoring, 254 INDEX Education (continued) 153–154, 171–172; paradigms in, 220–221; in Paraná, 143–144; Patch Adams Free Clinic and, 165; in principled society, 193; Prussian model of, 216; standards, 43; Time dollars and, 82– 83; university, 153–154, 193, 226–227n13; wispos and, 156–157.

 

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From Dictatorship to Democracy by Gene Sharp

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Albert Einstein, conceptual framework

FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY A Conceptual Framework for Liberation GENE SHARP © 2002, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 by Gene Sharp All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form, without written permission from the publisher. Requests for permission to reproduce selections from this book should be mailed to: Permissions Department, The New Press, 38 Greene Street, New York, NY 10013. From Dictatorship to Democracy was originally published in Bangkok in 1993 by the Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma, in association with Khit Pyaing (The New Era Journal) Published in the United Kingdom by Serpent’s Tail, London, 2012 Published in the United States by The New Press, New York, 2012 Distributed by Perseus Distribution ISBN 978-1-59558-857-9 (pbk.)

 

pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

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Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy

His instant answer was statistics, because the ability to understand data would be the most powerful skill in the twenty-first century. The rise of the alpha geeks means the 1 percent is more fiercely educated and the returns on elite education are higher than ever before. One way to understand why we are living in a golden age of the nerds is with a metaphor invented by Jan Tinbergen, joint winner of the first Nobel Prize in economics: the race between education and technology. That idea is the title of and conceptual framework for a recent book by Larry Katz and Claudia Goldin, the Harvard pair who study how the interplay between new technologies and education shapes income distribution. In the nineteenth century, as the first gilded age was reaching its peak, technology raced ahead of education. As a result, if you were what counted as highly educated in that age—which was finishing high school (remember, bestselling author Henry George left school at fourteen)—you could command a premium compared to unskilled workers.

The pivot is about recognizing when you are on the wrong track and changing course—and that, too, is central to Soros’s ability to respond to revolution. Chanos, who leased office space from Soros’s Quantum Fund in midtown New York between 1988 and 1991, agrees. “One thing that I’ve both wrestled with and admired that Soros conquered many years ago is the ability to go from long to short, the ability to turn on a dime when confronted with the evidence. Emotionally that is really hard.” “My conceptual framework, which basically emphasizes the importance of misconceptions, makes me extremely critical of my own decisions,” Soros told me. “I reexamine them all the time and recognize when I am on the wrong track. . . . I know that I’m bound to be wrong and therefore am more likely to correct my mistakes.” “It’s an almost aggressive pessimism about his own ideas, that he is going to be the first person to find out what’s wrong with his theory, rather than what’s right with his theory,” his son Jonathan told me.

the ability to “pivot” Caroline O’Connor and Perry Klebahn, “The Strategic Pivot: Rules for Entrepreneurs and Other Innovators,” Harvard Business Review blog network, February 28, 2011. Flickr’s genesis was in 2002 See Jessica Livingston, Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (Apress, 2007), pp. 257–264. “One thing that I’ve both wrestled with” Chrystia Freeland, “The Credit Crunch According to Soros,” Financial Times, January 30, 2009. “My conceptual framework, which basically emphasizes” CF interview with George Soros, December 16, 2008. “It’s an almost aggressive pessimism about his own ideas” CF interview with Jonathan Soros, July 14, 2009. “The businesses and institutions underpinning” Jennings, “Opportunities of a Lifetime.” “The group of winners is churning at an increasing and rapid rate” “Measuring the Forces of Long-Term Change: The 2009 shift index”, Deloitte Center for the Edge, December 2009, p. 115.

 

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Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms: Proceedings of the Agi Workshop 2006 by Ben Goertzel, Pei Wang

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AI winter, artificial general intelligence, bioinformatics, brain emulation, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, epigenetics, friendly AI, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, John Conway, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Occam's razor, p-value, pattern recognition, performance metric, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, semantic web, statistical model, strong AI, theory of mind, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

Furthermore, precise probabilistic inference would be implemented as a special collection of rules running on top of the underlying NARS inference engine in roughly the same manner that programs may run on top of an operating system. Following up on the uncertain-logic theme, the next chapter by Stephan Vladimir Bugaj and Ben Goertzel moves this theme into the domain of developmental psychology. Piaget’s ideas have been questioned by modern experimental developmental psychology, yet remain the most coherent existing conceptual framework for studying human cognitive development. It turns out to be possible to create a Piaget-like theory of stages of cognitive development that is specifically appropriate to uncertain reasoning systems like PLN, in which successive stages involve progressively sophisticated inference control: simple heuristic control (the infantile stage); inductive, history-based control (the concrete operational stage); inference-based inference control (the formal stage); and inference-based modification P.

All rights reserved. 25 Four Contemporary AGI Designs: a Comparative Treatment September 26, 2006 Stan FRANKLIN, Ben GOERTZEL, Alexei SAMSONOVICH, Pei WANG Introduction (by Ben Goertzel) During his talk at the AGI Workshop, Stan Franklin suggested that his LIDA architecture might fruitfully be considered not only as a specific AGI design, but also as a general framework within which to discuss and compare various AGI designs and approaches. With this in mind, following the workshop itself, I (Goertzel) formulated a list of simple questions intended to be pertinent to any AGI software design, mostly based on the conceptual framework presented in Stan Franklin’s workshop presentation (and represented in this volume by his article “A Foundational Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence”) with a couple additions and variations. All individuals who presented talks on AGI architectures at the workshop were invited to respond to the questionnaire, giving answers appropriate to their own AGI design. Four individuals (myself, Wang, Franklin and Samsonovich) took up this offer, and their answers are reported here – without modification; exactly as they gave them.

And although we do have some external access to the functioning of the brain, through brain mapping techniques, signal interventions and post-mortem examination, our ability to get fine detail, and to link that detail to the cognitive level, is a subject of fierce debate within the cognitive science community [12]; [13]. 4.4. Frameworks and Quasi-Complete Systems What does it mean to engage in a program of “systematic exploration” of the space of cognitive systems? To be systematic, such a program needs to be unified by a common conceptual framework that is explicit enough that it allows the relationships between systems to be clearly seen. The idea of a “framework” is that it defines a set of choices for the broad architectural features of the class of cognitive systems that it expresses. For every one of the various mechanisms that we might anticipate being involved in a complete cognitive system, the framework should have something to say about how that mechanism is instantiated, and how it relates to the rest of the system.

 

pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

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Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor

In this, it helps to focus our attention on: the dizzying rates of capitalist growth made possible by oil; the ensuing political transformations that reinforce the oil-dependent economy and block transitions to a safer and fairer way of organizing economic life; and the perpetual state of crisis that is induced by the imperative of expansion, one that simultaneously undermines the supply of non-renewable fuel and—more importantly—the earth’s lifesupport systems. Ultimately, this conceptual framework helps us understand not only how Alberta is intimately connected to global oil crises, and the United States energy market in particular, but also how Canada and especially Alberta are riven with political, economic, and environmental problems in attempts to expand tar sands extraction. Petro-Capitalism At the centre of the analysis of capitalism’s relation to nature is its inherent and unavoidable dependence on fossil fuels, and particularly on oil.

Since capitalism needs infinite economic growth and ever-expanding consumption, its logic essentially compels increasing CO2 emissions that threaten the global ecological system—and indeed life itself.8 The growth imperative drives the continual global search for new (though ultimately finite) oil supplies in ways that often have high energy and resource demands (as in the tar sands, and in hydraulic fracturing for shale oil and gas) and carry a large ecological burden. In sum, the conceptual framework of petro-capitalism centres oil as the lifeblood of global capitalism, with the power to fundamentally reshape political institutions from global to national to provincial levels. Yet it is also a system in permanent crisis due to its intractable role in climate change and environmental degradation, alongside inevitable challenges to oil supplies. Global Petro-Capitalist Crises The contradictory nature of petro-capitalism, which depends upon incessant expansion at ever-higher economic and environmental costs, is coming into sharper focus with the global access to a steady supply of conventional crude oil now in question, and threatening to create a global energy crisis.

James, when Jim Munroe was presenting on the traditional system of keyoh (territory or trapline) holdings, a series of Dakelh terms were rendered illegible in the published transcript: “There are laws around that. There’s terms in our language it’s called (native word) and (native word) and it means they did—people disappear if they don’t respect the land and they don’t ask.”21 This silencing of Indigenous terms from the official record reflects an underlying disregard for Indigenous conceptual frameworks, despite the putative inclusions of Aboriginal traditional knowledge in the hearings. These exclusions are rationalized on the basis that the hearings process is recorded in “either of the official languages [French and English], depending on the languages spoken by the participant at the public hearing.”22 The fact that Indigenous languages are unrecognized as “official” languages underlines how, despite the ostensible inclusion of Indigeneity, the underlying framework of regulation remains an imposed and colonial one.

 

pages: 695 words: 194,693

Money Changes Everything: How Finance Made Civilization Possible by William N. Goetzmann

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Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, delayed gratification, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, invention of the steam engine, invention of writing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stochastic process, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, wage slave

Finance stimulated the development of quantitative models of the future and the maintenance of deep records about the past. Markets taught people about such things as the limitations of the capacity for reason and the dangers of miscalculation. These complex conceptual frameworks augmented and stimulated the development of problem solving, but they also set up a conflict between traditional and quantitative modes of thought. This conflict is heightened during periods of financial innovation and financial disaster. Not only did financial architecture challenge traditional institutions, it also challenged traditional conceptual frameworks for dealing with the unknown. Cultural notions of chance and fortune are embedded in a rich set of symbols, myths, and moral valences. Understanding and managing this conflict remain important challenges to modern society.

Financial technology made possible not just financial contracts but also financial thinking—conceptual ways of framing economic interactions that use the financial perspective of time. Borrowing, lending, and financial planning shaped a particular conceptualization of time, quantifying it in new ways and simplifying it for purposes of calculation. This way of thinking and specialized knowledge, in turn, affected and extended the capabilities of government and enterprise. This conceptual framework is what I refer to as the software of finance in the Introduction. Finance relies on the ability to quantify and calculate and reason mathematically. Thus, much of this chapter focuses on the development of mathematical tools in ancient times. Another basic ingredient of finance is the dimension of time. Finance requires the measurement and expression of time and this chapter explores time technology in some depth.

The Sumerians created tools for explicitly quantifying intertemporal contracts, eliminating ambiguity or disagreement between the parties through the invention of notation for economic units and a flexible number system. Writing and numbers brought clarity and precision to the economic arrangements demanded by the Near Eastern economic system. There is also evidence that financial contracting developed alongside and stimulated conceptual development. Increasing urban density in an economy managed by a common authority required a record system—and a conceptual framework—capable of expressing big numbers. Evidence from early cuneiform appears to document this leap in written expression and perhaps an accompanying shift in arithmetic thought. Likewise, scholars have documented an administrative quantification of time that abstracted from natural, astronomical time. Both of these laid a foundation for the development of further abstractions. The expression of immense quantities was limited only by the human imagination, as was the division of time into infinitesimal slices.

 

pages: 286 words: 90,530

Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen; Mark Ridley

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Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, bioinformatics, cognitive bias, computer age, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Haight Ashbury, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, phenotype, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Yogi Berra

Another was Trivers’ reciprocal altruism,7 which would work only if a replicator could rely on the returned favour coming back precisely to itself, at least most of the time. The exposition of these and other ideas in The Selfish Gene is not only a tour de force of plain speaking but, by relating them all to the same central argument, itself the best representation of Darwinism available, it established a single conceptual framework within which old and new ideas in adaptationism could be understood. This overarching coherent structure in The Selfish Gene provides the kind of logical foundation and conceptual unity across a broad spectrum of ideas that is usually associated with mathematics. The irony will become clear. First, I want to note that the successes of the book, popular and academic, stem not only from the clarity of exposition and beautiful use of language that are universally acknowledged in Dawkins’ work, but also from the less appreciated, but in intellectual terms much more significant, fundamental contribution to science represented by this foundational structure.

Dawkins, on the other hand, has no hesitation about Hamilton being the core of sociobiology. For him sociobiology is in fact ‘the branch of ethology inspired by Bill Hamilton’.27 Accordingly, The Selfish Gene expounds on such things as The Prisoner’s Dilemma as the prototype model for game theoretical reasoning. It teaches the reader to start thinking in terms of strategies, and it provides a common conceptual framework for the core theorists Hamilton, Williams, John Maynard Smith, and Trivers. The book is full of imaginative examples, some of them involving genetic actors as vivid as if they were humans, all in the service of explaining the logic or mechanism of evolution, and all from a gene’s eye perspective. It fell on Dawkins to be the one to clear up misunderstandings about sociobiology. Wilson had rather soon after Sociobiology moved on to gene-culture coevolutionary models and later on to preserving biodiversity.

 

pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, too big to fail, web application

Develop and re-use tools for data quality management across a wider variety of scenarios and applications. This chapter outlines a conceptual framework and approach for data quality analysis that will hopefully serve as a guide for how you think about your data, given the nature of your objective. The ideas presented here are born from (often painful) experience and are likely not new to anyone who has spent any extended time looking at data; but we hope it will also be useful for those newer to the data analysis space, and anyone who is looking to create or reinforce good data habits. Framework Introduction: The Four Cs of Data Quality Analysis Just as there are many angles from which to view your data when searching for an answer, there are many viewing angles for assessing quality. Below we outline a conceptual framework that consists of four facets. We affectionately refer to them as The Four Cs of Data Quality Analysis[77]: Complete: Is everything here that’s supposed to be here?

 

pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon

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air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

For example, CATENET would remain a system of independently administered networks, each run by its own people with its own rules. But when time came for one network to exchange data with, say, the ARPANET, the internetworking protocols would operate. The gateway computers handling the transmission couldn’t care about the local complexity buried inside each network. Their only task would be to get packets through the network to the destination host on the other side, making a so-called end-to-end link. Once the conceptual framework was established, Cerf and Kahn spent the spring and summer of 1973 working out the details. Cerf presented the problem to his Stanford graduate students, and he and Kahn joined them in attacking it. They held a seminar that concentrated on the details of developing the host-to-host protocol into a standard allowing data traffic to flow across networks. The Stanford seminar helped frame key issues, and laid the foundation for solutions that would emerge several years later.

The first Sun machines were shipped with the Berkeley version of UNIX, complete with TCP/IP. Berkeley UNIX with TCP/IP would be crucial to the growth of the Internet. When Sun included network software as part of every machine it sold and didn’t charge separately for it, networking exploded. It further mushroomed because of Ethernet. While packet radio and SATNET sparked the thinking about a conceptual framework for internetworking, they were largely experimental. Ethernet—the local area network designed by Bob Metcalfe and his colleagues at Xerox PARC back in 1973—was a practical solution to the problem of how to tie computers together, either on a campus or at a company. Xerox began selling Ethernet as a commercial product in 1980. At around the same time, Bob Taylor’s division at Xerox PARC gave a grant to major research universities in the form of Ethernet equipment, powerful computers, and laser printers.

 

pages: 321 words: 97,661

How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine by Trisha Greenhalgh

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call centre, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, deskilling, knowledge worker, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, New Journalism, p-value, personalized medicine, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, the scientific method

Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development. Implementation Science 2012;7(1):62. 3 Gurses AP, Marsteller JA, Ozok AA, et al. Using an interdisciplinary approach to identify factors that affect clinicians' compliance with evidence-based guidelines. Critical Care Medicine 2010;38:S282–91. 4 Gagliardi AR, Brouwers MC, Palda VA, et al. How can we improve guideline use? A conceptual framework of implementability. Implementation Science 2011;6(1):26. 5 Evans-Lacko S, Jarrett M, McCrone P, et al. Facilitators and barriers to implementing clinical care pathways. BMC Health Services Research 2010;10(1):182. 6 Michie S, Johnston M. Changing clinical behaviour by making guidelines specific. BMJ: British Medical Journal 2004;328(7435):343. 7 Grol R, Dalhuijsen J, Thomas S, et al.

Whilst there is a wealth of evidence on the sort of organisation that supports evidence-based practice, there is much less evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions to change an organisation to make it more ‘evidence based’—and it is beyond the scope of this book to address this topic comprehensively. Much of the literature on organisational change is in the form of practical checklists or the ‘ten tips for success’ type format. Checklists and tips can be enormously useful, but such lists tend to leave me hungry for some coherent conceptual models on which to hang my own real-life experiences. The management literature offers not one but several dozen different conceptual frameworks for looking at change—leaving the non-expert confused about where to start. It was my attempt to make sense of this multiplicity of theories that led me to write a series of six articles published a few years ago in the British Journal of General Practice entitled ‘Theories of change’. In these articles, I explored six different models of professional and organisational change in relation to effective clinical practice [39–44]: 1.

 

pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

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3D printing, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

Over recent years this relationship has increasingly exhibited what might be described as ‘parasitic’ features, with the private business sector lobbying governments to weaken regulations and cut capital gains taxes, but at the same time reducing its share of investment in basic research and thus relying even more on public spending in this area.21 As we shall show below, future growth will require a very different form of collaboration between public and private sectors, characterised by a healthy symbiosis that is sustainable over the long-term. Orthodox economic theory and the ‘market failure’ approach To meet these challenges and achieve the goal of smart, innovation-led growth, we need to develop a new conceptual framework. For this we need to look beyond the narrow assumptions of mainstream economics, which has paid too little attention to the disequilibrating process of innovation. These models continue to assume that innovation is (a) driven mainly by the individual genius of single entrepreneurs, at best ‘facilitated’ by the public sector; (b) only characterised by predictable risk (which can be precisely quantified ex-ante by means of well-defined probability distributions, as in lotteries) rather than true uncertainty; and (c) has the same probability of occurrence at any moment in time.

And a much more sophisticated approach needs to be taken to integrating endogenous technological and institutional change within them. The modelling community could fruitfully focus attention on the economic processes which generate knowledge and drive innovation and systemic change. This could prove greatly valuable in designing effective policy. Climate change policy A range of policy instruments are required to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Michael Grubb has provided a helpful conceptual framework. He notes how regulatory measures (such as energy efficiency standards) are appropriate where economic activity is characterised by satisficing behaviour; market-based incentives (such as carbon pricing) in the domain of optimising behaviour; and innovation policy (such as deployment subsidies and R&D expenditure) where technological and structural transformation is required.35 Of these, innovation policy is the most complex, and the one where environmental economics has so far had least to say.

 

pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

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AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

It’s the equivalent of a bicycle for our minds.”3 Jobs was almost assuredly inspired by the late Doug Engelbart in this (who in turn was inspired by MIT computer visionary Vannevar Bush). Engelbart, the inventor of the point-and-click computer user interface, and the mouse to use with it, was perhaps the first to embrace the term augmentation, which in his view involved getting machines to perform the mechanical aspects of thinking and idea sharing. In 1962 he published a widely circulated paper: “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.”4 He even founded an Augmentation Research Center, which in 1969, by the way, constituted one end of the first Internet link ever made. (The University of California, Los Angeles, was the other end.) Jobs borrowed not only Engelbart’s interface ideas, but also his desire to create “wheels for the mind.” Going back further, Norbert Wiener, the MIT colleague of Vannevar Bush whom we mentioned earlier as the author of The Human Use of Human Beings, was expressing his hope already in 1950 that machines would free people from the drudgery of repetitive industrial work so that they could focus on more creative pursuits.

Steve Jobs, in “Memory & Imagination: New Pathways to the Library of Congress” (TV movie), directed by Julian Krainin and Michael R. Lawrence, 1990, Accessed on YouTube, October 29, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ob_GX50Za6c. Jobs was referring to the article “Bicycle Technology,” by S. S. Wilson, in Scientific American 228, no. 3 (1973). 4. Douglas C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” SRI Summary Report AFOSR-3223, prepared for Director of Information Sciences, Air Force, Office of Scientific Research, Washington 25, DC, Contract AF 49(638)-1024, SRI Project No. 3578 (AUGMENT,3906), October 1962, http://insitu.lri.fr/~mbl/ENS/FONDIHM/2012/papers/Englebart-Augmenting62.pdf. 5. Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), 159. 6.

 

The End of Accounting and the Path Forward for Investors and Managers (Wiley Finance) by Feng Gu

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, inventory management, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, value at risk

In contrast, the modern machinery of accounting, with its numerous noncash revenues and expenses and the marking of assets and liabilities to market (fair values)—which constitutes most of the extensive, worldwide accounting rules and regulations—was intended to improve upon the 18 AND YOU THOUGHT EARNINGS ARE THE BOTTOM LINE “primitive” concept of cash flows. This was made clear by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the exclusive accounting rule-making body in the United States in its original conceptual framework: Information about enterprise earnings based on accrual [noncash] accounting generally provides a better indication of an enterprise’s present and continuing ability to generate favorable cash flows than information limited to the financial effects of cash receipts and payments.7 Obviously, as our research shows, reported earnings, the end product of accounting measurement and valuation procedures, do not outperform cash flows, at least for their predicted values to generate investment returns.

The yearly adjusted R2 s shown in Figure 3.4 are obtained from the annual regression of sample firms’ market value on their sales, cost of goods sold, selling, The Widening Chasm between Financial Information and Stock Prices 39 general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses, net earnings, total assets, and total liabilities. The samples for all regressions include all US-listed companies with the required data, as retrieved from the intersection of the Compustat and CRSP databases for 1950 to 2013. NOTES 1. FASB, 2010, Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 8, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, Chapter 1, Introduction. 2. See Yoree Koh, “Twitter Ad Woes Subside but Growth Stalls,” The Wall Street Journal (July 29, 2015), B1. 3. Some readers, accustomed to the proliferation of surveys and polls in many walks of life, may wonder why we don’t survey investors about the relevance of financial information. First, our main objective is to examine relevance patterns over half a century, which requires consistent surveys from the 1960s, 1970s, and on.

 

pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

Of course, collapse in this context doesn’t mean that everybody died, but that their ways of life radically shifted and often much of the population migrated to other regions. In other words, history provides us with no models of sustainable development other than democratic capitalism. Every one of these earlier ultimately unsustainable societies was what economics Nobelist Douglass North and his colleagues call, in Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, “natural states.” Natural states are basically organized as hierarchical patron-client networks in which small, militarily potent elites extract resources from a subject population. The basic deal is a Hobbesian contract in which elites promise their subjects an end to the “war of all against all” in exchange for wealth and power. Natural states operate by limiting access to valuable resources—that is to say, by creating and sharing the rewards of monopolies.

“Sustainable development”: Gro Harlem Brundtland, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. economic growth proceeded: Angus Maddison, The Maddison Project, Original Maddison Home Page, January 2013. www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm. ultimately unsustainable societies: Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. concur with the analysis: Daron Acemoğlu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Business, 2012. “Many lines of evidence”: Harvey Weiss and Raymond S. Bradley, “What Drives Societal Collapse?” The Heat Is Online, January 26, 2001. www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?

 

pages: 137 words: 36,231

Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Turing machine

The term `information theory' is an appealing but unfortunate label, which continues to cause endless misunderstandings. Shannon came to regret its widespread popularity, and I shall avoid it in this context. MTC is the theory that lies behind any phenomenon involving data encoding and transmission. As such, it has had a profound impact on the analyses of the various kinds of information, to which it has provided both the technical vocabulary and at least the initial conceptual framework. It would be impossible to understand the nature of information without grasping at least its main gist. This is the task of the present chapter. The mathematical theory of communication MTC treats information as data communication, with the primary aim of devising efficient ways of encoding and transferring data. 7. The mathematical theory of communication (MTC) It has its origin in the field of electrical engineering, as the study of communication limits, and develops a quantitative approach to information.

 

pages: 935 words: 267,358

Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, very high income, We are the 99%

Here again, the French experience is quite relevant to today’s world, where many commentators continue to believe, as Leroy-Beaulieu did a little more than a century ago, that ever more fully guaranteed property rights, ever freer markets, and ever “purer and more perfect” competition are enough to ensure a just, prosperous, and harmonious society. Unfortunately, the task is more complex. The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Before proceeding, it may be useful to say a little more about the theoretical and conceptual framework of this research as well as the intellectual itinerary that led me to write this book. I belong to a generation that turned eighteen in 1989, which was not only the bicentennial of the French Revolution but also the year when the Berlin Wall fell. I belong to a generation that came of age listening to news of the collapse of the Communist dicatorships and never felt the slightest affection or nostalgia for those regimes or for the Soviet Union.

Malthus, Young, and the French Revolution Ricardo: The Principle of Scarcity Marx: The Principle of Infinite Accumulation From Marx to Kuznets, or Apocalypse to Fairy Tale The Kuznets Curve: Good News in the Midst of the Cold War Putting the Distributional Question Back at the Heart of Economic Analysis The Sources Used in This Book The Major Results of This Study Forces of Convergence, Forces of Divergence The Fundamental Force for Divergence: r > g The Geographical and Historical Boundaries of This Study The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Outline of the Book Part One: Income and Capital 1. Income and Output The Capital-Labor Split in the Long Run: Not So Stable The Idea of National Income What Is Capital? Capital and Wealth The Capital/Income Ratio The First Fundamental Law of Capitalism: α = r × β National Accounts: An Evolving Social Construct The Global Distribution of Production From Continental Blocs to Regional Blocs Global Inequality: From 150 Euros per Month to 3,000 Euros per Month The Global Distribution of Income Is More Unequal Than the Distribution of Output What Forces Favor Convergence?

See also Global in­e­qual­ity of wealth; Inheritance, dynamics of Distribution of wealth debate: data and, 2–­3, 11–­13, 16–­19, 27–­30; classical po­liti­cal economy and, 3–­5; scarcity principle and, 5–­7; infinite accumulation principle and, 7–­11; postwar optimism and, 11–­15; in economic analysis, 15–­16; historical sources and, 19–­20; results of current study in, 20–­22; forces of convergence and divergence and, 22–­27; theoretical and conceptual framework and, 30–­33 Distribution tables, 267, 269–­270 Divergence, 22–­27, 424, 571; Eu­rope and North America and, 59–­61; supermanagers and, 333–­335; mechanism of wealth, 350–­353, 431; global, 438–­439, 461–­463; oligarchic, 463–­465, 627n49 Divisia, François, 591n19 Django Unchained (film), 163 Domar, Evsey, 230–­231 Domestic capital, 49; in Britain and France, 117–­119; in Germany, 141, 143; in the United States, 150–­151, 155; in Canada, 157; slavery and, 158–­163, 593n16 Domestic output/production, 44–­45, 598n3 Douglas, Paul, 599n18 Dowries, 392, 418 Duflo, Esther, 634n49 Duncan, G., 632n30 Dunoyer, Charles, 85 Dupin, Jean, 591n19 Durable goods and valuables, 179–­180, 594n13 Durkheim, Emile, 422, 621n55 Duval, Guillaume, 592n6 Earned and unearned income: inheritances and, 377–­379, 390; taxation and, 507–­508 Eastern bloc countries, privatization in, 186–­187 ECB (Eu­ro­pe­an Central Bank), 530, 545, 550–­552, 553, 557–­558, 649n26 “Ecological stimulus,” 568 Economic determinism, 20 Economic flows, 381–­383 Economic growth, 72–­74, 84, 93–­94; stages of, 86–­87; in postwar period, 96; social order and, 96.

 

pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

We will elaborate the three primary aspects of immaterial labor in the contemporary economy: the communicative labor of industrial production that has newly become linked in informational networks, the interactive labor of symbolic analysis and problem solving, and the labor of the production and manipulation of affects (see Section 3.4). This third aspect, with its focus on the productivity of the corporeal, the somatic, is an extremely important element in the contemporary networks of biopolitical production. The work of this school and its analysis of general intellect, then, certainly marks a step forward, but its conceptual framework remains too pure, almost angelic. In the final analysis, these new conceptions too only scratch the surface of the productive dynamic of the new theoretical framework of biopower.17 Our task, then, is to build on these partially successful attempts to recognize the potential of biopolitical production. Precisely by bringing together coherently the different defining characteristics of the biopolitical context that we have described up to this point, and leading them back to the ontology of production, we will be able to identify the new figure of the collective biopolitical body, which may nonetheless remain as contradictory as it is paradoxical.

In this way intervention is an effective mechanism that through police deployments contributes directly to the construction of the moral, normative, and institutional order of Empire. Royal Prerogatives What were traditionally called the royal prerogatives of sovereignty seem in effect to be repeated and even substantially renewed in the construction of Empire. If we were to remain within the conceptual framework of classic domestic and international law, we might be BIOPOLITICAL PRODUCTION tempted to say that a supranational quasi-state is being formed. That does not seem to us, however, an accurate characterization of the situation. When the royal prerogatives of modern sovereignty reappear in Empire, they take on a completely different form. For example, the sovereign function of deploying military forces was carried out by the modern nation-states and is now conducted by Empire, but, as we have seen, the justification for such deployments now rests on a state of permanent exception, and the deployments themselves take the form of police actions.

The institutions that constitute civil society functioned as passageways that channel flows of social and economic forces, raising them up toward a coherent unity and, flowing back, like an irrigation network, distribute the command of the unity throughout the immanent social field. These non-state institutions, in other words, organized capitalist society under the order of the state and in turn spread state rule throughout society. In the terms of our conceptual framework, we might say that civil society was the terrain of the becoming-immanent of modern state sovereignty (down to capitalist society) and at the same time inversely the becoming-transcendent of capitalist society (up to the state). In our times, however, civil society no longer serves as the adequate point of mediation between capital and sovereignty. The structures and institutions that constitute it are today progressively withering away.

 

pages: 551 words: 174,280

The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Bonfire of the Vanities, conceptual framework, cosmological principle, dark matter, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, first-past-the-post, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, William of Occam

Both oppose arrogance: the Principle of Mediocrity opposes the pre-Enlightenment arrogance of believing ourselves significant in the world; the Spaceship Earth metaphor opposes the Enlightenment arrogance of aspiring to control the world. Both have a moral element: we should not consider ourselves significant, they assert; we should not expect the world to submit indefinitely to our depredations. Thus the two ideas generate a rich conceptual framework that can inform an entire world view. Yet, as I shall explain, they are both false, even in the straightforward factual sense. And in the broader sense they are so misleading that, if you were seeking maxims worth being carved in stone and recited each morning before breakfast, you could do a lot worse than to use their negations. That is to say, the truth is that People are significant in the cosmic scheme of things; and The Earth’s biosphere is incapable of supporting human life.

The ‘naive’ audience’s mistake is a form of parochialism: they observe a phenomenon – people phoning in because their watches stopped – but they are failing to understand it as part of a wider phenomenon, most of which they do not observe. Though the unobserved parts of that wider phenomenon have in no way affected what we, the viewers, observe, they are essential to its explanation. Similarly, common sense and classical physics contain the parochial error that only one history exists. This error, built into our language and conceptual framework, makes it sound odd to say that an event can be in one sense extremely unlikely and in another certain to happen. But there is nothing odd about it in reality. We are now seeing the interior of the spaceship as an overwhelmingly complex jumble of superposed objects. Most locations on board are packed with people, some of them on very unusual errands, and all unable to perceive each other.

Short-lived rapid changes have always happened: famines, plagues and wars have begun and ended; maverick kings have attempted radical change. Occasionally empires were rapidly created or whole civilizations were rapidly destroyed. But, while a society lasted, all important areas of life seemed changeless to the participants: they could expect to die under much the same moral values, personal lifestyles, conceptual framework, technology and pattern of economic production as they were born under. And, of the changes that did occur, few were for the better. I shall call such societies ‘static societies’: societies changing on a timescale unnoticed by the inhabitants. Before we can understand our unusual, dynamic sort of society, we must understand the usual, static sort. For a society to be static, all its memes must be unchanging or changing too slowly to be noticed.

 

pages: 453 words: 132,400

Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

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Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, centralized clearinghouse, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, double helix, fear of failure, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

: Prentice-Hall. Durkheim, E. 1897 (1951). Suicide. New York: Free Press. ——. 1912 (1967). The elementary forms of religious life. New York: Free Press. Easterlin, R. A. 1974. Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In P. A. David & M. Abramovitz, eds., Nations and households in economic growth. New York: Academic Press. Eckblad, G. 1981. Scheme theory: A conceptual framework for cognitive-motivational processes. London: Academic Press. Ekman, P. 1972. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotions. In Current theory in research on motivation, Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 19 (pp. 207–83). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Eliade, M. 1969. Yoga: Immortality and freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Emde, R. 1980.

The trilogy of mind: Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 16:107–17. Hiscock, E. C. 1968. Atlantic cruise in Wanderer III. London: Oxford University Press. Hoffman, J. E., Nelson, B., & Houck, M. R. 1983. The role of attentional resources in automatic detection. Cognitive Psychology 51:379–410. Hoffman, L. 1981. Foundations of family therapy: A conceptual framework for systems change. New York: Basic Books. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychometric Research 11:213–18. Howell, M. C. 1986. Women, production, and patriarchy in late medieval cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Huizinga, J. 1939 (1970). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. New York: Harper & Row. ——. 1954.

 

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Human Security Report. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, figure 1.1. 92. Mark Duffield. 2001. Global Governance and the New Wars. The Merging of Development and Security. London: Zed Books. 93. UNHCR. 2009. 2008 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons. UNHCR: Geneva. 94. Anna Lindley. 2008. “Conflict-Induced Migration and Remittances: Exploring Conceptual Frameworks,” Working Paper Series No. 47, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford. 95. Stephen Castles and Sean Loughna. 2003. “Trends in Asylum Migration to Industrialized Countries: 1990–2001,” UNU-WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2003/31, p. 16. 96. Robert E. B. Lucas. 2005. International Migration and Economic Development: Lessons from Low-Income Countries. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, p. 67. 97.

Human Migration: A Geographical Perspective. New York: Taylor and Francis. Lindert, Peter H., and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 2003. “Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?” in Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor, and Jeffrey G. Williamson (eds.), Globalization in Historical Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 227-271. Lindley, Anna. 2008. “Conflict-Induced Migration and Remittances: Exploring Conceptual Frameworks,” Working Paper Series No. 47, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford. Oxford, UK: Refugee Studies Centre. Lluberas, Rodrigo. 2007. “The Untapped Skilled Labour of Latin America,” Towers Watson Technical Paper. Available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1261978. Losch, Bruno. 2008. “Migrations and the Challenge of Demographic and Economic Transitions in the New Globalization Era,” SSRC Migration & Development Conference Paper No. 12.

 

pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

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air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 47, 69; Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” pp. 79–80; Port of Oakland, “60 Years: A Chronicle of Progress,” 1987, pp. 17–18. 12. Erie, Globalizing L.A., p. 89; Walter Hamshar, “Must U.S. Approve All Pier Leases,” Herald Tribune, April 5, 1964. 13. Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” p. 82; Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 98–104. 14. Ting-Li Cho, “A Conceptual Framework for the Physical Development of the Port of Seattle,” Port of Seattle Planning and Research Department, April 1966, p. 15; Arthur D. Little Inc., Community Renewal Programming: A San Francisco Case Study (New York, 1966), p. 34. 15. Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 65 and 85–86; Worden, Cargoes, 148; Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” pp. 112, 120; Port of Oakland, “1957 Revenue Bonds, Series P, $20,000,000,” October 17, 1978, p. 15; Erie, Globalizing L.A., p. 90; Seattle Port Commission, “Container Terminals 1970–1975: A Development Strategy,” November 1969, pp. 1, 10. 16.

Outlook for Waterborne Commerce through the Port of New York. 1948. _. The Port of New York. 1952. _. “Proposal for Development of the Municipally Owned Waterfront and Piers of New York City.” February 10, 1948. _. Via—Port of New York. Port of Seattle, Marine Planning and Development Department. “Container Terminal Development Plan.” October 1991. Port of Seattle, Planning and Research Department. “A Conceptual Framework for the Physical Development of the Port of Seattle.” April 1966. Port of Singapore Authority. Annual Report and Accounts. Various years. _. A Review of the Past and a Look into the Future. Singapore: Port of Singapore Authority, 1971. Scottish Executive. “Container Transshipment and Demand for Container Terminal Capacity in Scotland.” Transport Research Institute, Napier University, Edinburgh, December 2003.

 

pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Washington Consensus, working poor, éminence grise

., p. 132 and general discussion. 11 Joel Mokyr (2002) The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy, Princeton University Press; Joel Mokyr, ‘Progress and Inertia in Technological Change’, in John James and Mark Thomas (eds) (1994) Capitalism in Context: Essays in Honor of R. M. Hartwell, University of Chicago Press, pp. 230–54. 12 See Joel Mokyr (2004) The Gifts of Athena: The Historical Orgins of the Knowledge Economy, Princeton University Press. 13 Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast (2009) Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, Cambridge University Press. 14 James C. Scott (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, Yale University Press. See also James C. Scott (2008) ‘Everyday Forms of Resistance’, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 49, at http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/cjas/article/viewFile/1765/1785. 15 Matthias Doepke and Fabrizio Zilibotti (2006) ‘Patience Capital, Occupational Choice, and the Spirit of Capitalism’, UCLA Department of Economics Working Paper No. 848. 16 William Baumol (1990) ‘Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive’.

See also William Doyle (2009) Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution, Oxford University Press. 3 Joel Mokyr and John Nye (2007) ‘Distributional Coalitions, the Industrial Revolution, and the Origins of Economic Growth in Britain’, paper prepared for the special session in honour of Mancur Olson, Southern Economic Meeting, Charleston. 4 Joel Mokyr (2009) The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain 1700–1850, Yale University Press. 5 Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson (2000) ‘Political Losers as a Barrier to Economic Development’, American Economic Review 90 (2): 126–30. See also Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson (2006) ‘Economic Backwardness in Political Perspective’, American Political Science Review 100 (1): 115–31. 6 Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast (2006) ‘A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History’, NBER Working Paper No. 12795, p. 32. 7 Cited in Edward L. Glaeser and Andrei Shleifer (2003) ‘The Rise of the Regulatory State’, NBER Working Paper No. W8650. 8 David Warsh (2006) Knowledge and the Wealth Of Nations: A Story of Economic Discovery, W. W. Norton. Chapter Six: Blind Capital 1 John Major (1999) The Autobiography, HarperCollins, p. 311. 2 Recounted in Andrew Rawnsley (2000) Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour, Penguin Press. 3 Margaret Cook (1999) A Slight and Delicate Creature: The Memoirs of Margaret Cook, Orion. 4 Alastair Campbell (2007) The Blair Years: Extracts from the Alastair Campbell Diaries, Hutchinson, p. 78. 5 Philip Gould (1999) The Unfinished Revolution: How the Modernisers Saved the Labour Party, Abacus. 6 For a good introduction to Brown’s political and economic philosophy, see Simon Lee (2009) Boom and Bust: The Politics and Legacy of Gordon Brown, OneWorld. 7 CRESC (2009) ‘An Alternative Report on UK Banking Reform’, ESRC Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change, University of Manchester. 8 See Brown’s foreword in Iain McLean’s (2006) Adam Smith, Radical and Egalitarian: An Interpretation for the 21st Century, Edinburgh University Press. 9 Gertrude Himmelfarb (2004) The Roads to Modernity: The British, French and America Enlightenments, Alfred A.

 

Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini

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Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

"The Grail Project: An Experiment in Man-Machine Communication." RM-5999-ARPA. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND. Engelbart, D. C. 196 I. "Special Considerations of the Individual as a User, Genera- tor, and Retriever of Information." AmerIcan Documentation I 2, no. 2: I2I- 2 5. . 1962. "AugmentIng Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework." Report to the Director of Information SCIences, Air Force Office of ScientIfic Re- search. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October. . I963. "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." In V,stas in Information Handling, edited by P. W. Howerton and D. C. Weeks, I: 1-29. Washington, D.C.: Spartan. . 1973. "Design Considerations for Knowledge Workshop Terminals." In Pro- ceedings of the AFIPS I973 NatIonal Computer Conference, pp. 221- 2 7.

 

On Language: Chomsky's Classic Works Language and Responsibility and Reflections on Language in One Volume by Noam Chomsky, Mitsou Ronat

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conceptual framework, finite state, theory of mind

Thus we have a concept of surface structure defined in terms of rules that generate an infinite set of objects, standing in opposition to deep structure, and considerably more abstract than before, in that properties of deep structure are captured through trace theory. On the other hand, suppose one were to discover that the structuralist concept of phoneme plays a very important role, previously unsuspected. Suppose that the arguments that have been advanced against the existence of a phonemic level could be surmounted within another conceptual framework. That would not be a return to an old idea, but an advance to a new idea, giving a new significance to an old concept. That would be progress. When theories and the concepts that appear in them are personalized, one looks to see “who” is wrong; but that is not the correct way of thinking. That “who” may have been right in the context of his or her own time, wrong in the context of a richer theory, and will perhaps prove right once again.

We might try to approach the classic problem of accounting for action that is appropriate to situations but uncontrolled by stimuli in these terms. Given a partially structured system that provides an evaluation of outcomes, choices that are random except for maximizing “value” may have the appearance of free, purposeful, and intelligent behavior—but one must remain skeptical about this approach, though it is the only one that seems to fall within any conceptual framework intelligible to us. Within cognitive capacity, the theory of mind has a distinctly rationalist cast. Learning is primarily a matter of filling in detail within a structure that is innate. We depart from the tradition in several respects, specifically, in taking the “a priori system” to be biologically determined. 6 Outside the bounds of cognitive capacity, an empiricist theory of learning applies, by unfortunate necessity.

 

pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

To study contemporary capitalism, I argue, sociology must go back before the disciplinary division of labour with economics negotiated on its behalf by its twentieth century founding figure, Talcott Parsons.2 For this it will be helpful to rediscover the sociology in classical economists from Smith to Pareto, Marshall, Keynes and Schumpeter, and the economics in classical sociologists like Weber, Sombart, Mauss and Veblen, to name only a few. Particular interest might usefully be paid to the institutional economics of the Historische Schule and to Marx the social theorist, as opposed to the deterministic economist. The lesson to be learned from all of them is that capitalism denotes both an economy and a society, and that studying it requires a conceptual framework that does not separate the one from the other. How to study contemporary capitalism, then? My first answer is: not as an economy but as a society – as a system of social action and a set of social institutions falling in the domain of sociological rather than today’s standard economic theory.3 This is in fact the tradition of political economy in the nineteenth century. Political-economic theory was to identify the actors and interests underlying, or hiding behind, the ‘laws of movement’ of ‘the economy’, translating economic relations into social relations and showing the former to be a special case of the latter.

For a time, the dependence of politics and political success under democratic capitalism on uninterrupted capital accumulation – or in the technocratic language of standard economics: on economic growth – led inevitably optimistic politicians to place their hopes on riding the tiger and jump on the historical bandwagon towards liberalization and deregulation until the re-formed capitalist economic regime almost crashed as a result of its unfettered progress. It may seem like hairsplitting if I now ask, in Block’s terms as he reconstructs the Polanyian conceptual framework, whether the current crisis was due to the capitalist ‘economy’ having become misembedded or disembedded. Block declares the latter to be impossible, due to economic action always and inevitably being social action. But while one can fully and indeed emphatically agree with this, as I do,26 there is no logical need to conclude from it that a capitalist political economy is governed by a primacy of politics.

 

pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Ron Hubbard and Scientology, 158–60 Maxwell Maltz and Psycho-Cybernetics, 162–65 culture (continued) personal computer and, 187–89 pseudoscience, 160–62 self-help books, 162–65 Spacewar video game, 181–84 cyber (term) origin stories, ix–xii as prefix, 304, 350 varieties of meaning, xi “Cyber and Justice Holmes, The” (Riley), 87–88 cybercash, 286; See also digital cash cyberculture, 102–3 cyberdelic, 227 cyberespionage, 316–39 cybernated systems, 101; See also cybernation cybernation, 100–102, 105–7, 110–12 Cybernation: The Silent Conquest (Michael), 100–102 “Cybernation and Culture” (McLuhan), 108 cybernetic anthropomorphous machine (CAM), 129–30, 136–38 cybernetic frontier, 181, 194 cybernetic myths, xiii–xvi anthropomorphizing of machines, 342–44 cultural impact of, 157–58 cyberspace and, 345–47 cyberwar and, 305–6 cyborgs and, 344–45 fall of the machines, 340–52 rise of the machines, 110–11 technology’s outperforming of, 349 three stages of, 342–47 cybernetics Gregory Bateson and, 175–76 coining of term, 3 conceptual framework development, 47–53 contradictions in predictions about, 348–49 and control, 47–48 and counterculture, 165–94 development of discipline, 43–72 early scholars of, 52 as emerging field, 68 and enchantment of the machine, 351 evolution of concept, 62 and feedback, 48–49 L. Ron Hubbard and, 158–60 and human-machine interaction, 49–51 irony as pattern in history of, 350–51 new terms as pattern in history of, 349–50 origins of term, xi–xii patterns in history of, 348–51 popularity in 1970s, 157 religious implications of, 90–92 spiritual pattens in history of, 348 three core concepts, 47–51 warnings in history of, 347 Cybernetics, or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (Wiener), xii, 3, 36, 51 inspiration for title, 46 second edition of, 119–20 and Whole Earth Catalog, 169 “Cybernetic War” (Post), 294–98 cybernetic warfare, 306–7; See also cyberwar cyberpunk, 209–12, 246, 297, 298 cybersecurity, global market for, x cybersex, 235–37 cyberspace Austin conference (1990), 231–35 John Perry Barlow and, 224–27 Communications Decency Act, 244–45 cybernetic myths, 345–47 Cyberthon, 240–43 cyberwar, 304–5 “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” 244–45 Habitat game, 228–30 and hackers, 237–40 and military research, 196–206 Operation Sundevil, 238–40 origins of term, 209–10, 219–20 parallels to 19th Century West, 240, 260 in science fiction, 206–8 teledildonics, 235–37 virtual reality, 212–19 virtual space, 195–96 cyberterrorism, 335 Cyberthon, 240–43 cyberwar, 301 Eligible Receiver exercise, 311–14, 322 Moonlight Maze, 316–39 Solar Sunrise, 314–15 “Cyberwar Is Coming” (Arquilla and Ronfelt), 303–5 Cyborg (Halacy), 140–41 Cyborg Handbook, The, 153–54 “Cyborg Manifesto, A” (Haraway), 151–54 cyborg research, 123–27 cyborgs (cybernetic organisms), 113 aviation medicine, 122–23 cybernetic myths, 344–45 feminism and, 151–54 man-machine interaction, 143–48 military research, 128–40 Pedipulator, 132–34 postmodernism, 151–54 quadruped, 134–35 radio-controlled, 138–40 space travel, 124–25, 142–43 “Cyborgs and Space” (Clynes and Kline), 125–26 Cyphernomicon (May), 265, 268–69 cypherpunks and BlackNet, 278–81 and the Clipper Chip, 274–75 early 1990s, 261–76 late 1990s, 277–93 origins of, 247 and The Sovereign Individual, 286–87 D-2 Project, 25–26, 29, 30 Daily Herald, 55 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 111 “Darth Vader helmet,” 199–206 Dartmouth College, 29–30 data gloves, 213–15 Davidson, James Dale, 285 Davis, Erik, 242 De Anza College (Cupertino, California), 188–89 “Death of the Ball Turret Gunner, The” (Jarrell), 15 DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), 181–82, 191 “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow), 244–45 Defense, US Department of cryptography, 252–53 cyber attacks, 309 cyberwar, 297 cyborg research, 133–34 DARPA, 111 helmet-mounted sights, 203 Moonlight Maze, 320, 321, 323, 327, 333 SAGE, 97 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 111 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), 309, 317–19 Defense Intelligence Agency, 323 Defense Week, 329 Degtyarev, Vitaliy, 330–31 delay, organism-environment interaction and, 58–59 Del Duca, Michael, 127 DePuy, William, 299 Design for a Brain (Ashby), 61, 169 deterrence, 75 Detweiler, Lance, 280, 281 Deutsch, John, 310 Deutsch, Karl, 52 DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line, 81 Dianetics (Hubbard), 159–60 Diebold, John, 97–99, 108–10 Diffie, Whitfield, 250–51 digital cash, 257, 281, 286, 287 digital computer, 343–44 Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 181–82, 191 digital pseudonyms, 281–82 digital voting, 257 direction, 17–18 DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency), 309, 317–19 display fascination, 203 “Diver, the,” See V-1 flying bomb Domain Name System (DNS), 186, 190, 328 domestic surveillance, foreign surveillance vs., 273 Dorsey, Michael, 321, 326, 332 Dramashop (MIT), 83–84 drones, 140 “Drugs, Space and Cybernetics: Evolution to Cyborgs” (Clynes and Kline), 124–25 drug trade, 267 duck hunting, 12–13 Dunkirk, Battle of, 24 Dynamic Simulation Lab (Rockland State Hospital), 124 dystopia in 1990s view of cybernetics, 5–6 Neuromancer, 210–12 thinking machines and, 4 utopia vs., 6 eBay, 244 ecology, 60–61 economic espionage, 281 economic theory, 105 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), 115 EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard), 273–74; See also Clipper chips Einstein, Albert, 45 electromagnets, 54 Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 240, 264, 276 “electronic Pearl Harbor,” 307–8, 310–11, 329, 333, 339 elevation, 22 elevators, 48 Eligible Receiver (cyberwar exercise), 311–14, 322 Ellis, James, 249 e-mail, 255 e-mail attachments, 312 e-mail lists, 263–65 Emirnet, 315 emotions, myths’ appeal to, xv employment, 105–6, 109–10; See also unemployment enchantment of the machine, 351 encryption, xv; See also crypto anarchy; cryptography; cypherpunks Energy, US Department of, 316–17, 320 energy infrastructure, 313 Engelbart, Douglas, 173 Engineering Man for Space: The Cyborg Study (NASA report), 127–28 English Channel, 41 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), 114–15 entropy, 48 environment organism and, 178 system and, 57–61, 63–67 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 320, 326 equilibrium, 55 Esalen Institute, 174, 221 escapism, 298 Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES), 273–74; See also Clipper Chip espionage Moonlight Maze, 316–39 VT fuse, 28, 34 evolution cyborgs and, 140–41 and mechanical self-reproduction, 117 reproduction and, 116 of self-reproducing programs, 150 technological, 121–22 Evolving Society, The (Hilton), 106 exoskeleton cyborg, 136–37 exosuit, 137 Explorers Club, 158 eye phone, 214 F-15 Eagle, 197 F-16, 197 F-86 Sabre, 299 factoring, 250 facts, myths and, xiv Fall Joint Computer Conference, 173 FANX (Friendship Annex) III, 311–13 Farmer, Randall, 228–30, 234, 241 FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and BlackNet, 281 and the Clipper Chip, 274 and German espionage, 28 and Moonlight Maze, 318, 319, 321–23, 325–27, 329–32, 334 national infrastructure protection center, 307 and Solar Sunrise, 315 and the WELL, 239, 240 Federalist Papers, 277 feedback cybernetics and, 48–49 cyborgs and, 129–30, 136–37 machines and, 92 radar-controlled artillery and, 20 feedback loops Gregory Bateson and, 176 prostheses and, 50 and Sperry control systems, 36–37 and Whole Earth Catalog, 171–72 feel (tactile sensation/feedback), 129–30, 135, 138 Feinstein, Dianne, 334 feminism, 151–54 fiber-optic cables, 289 fiction, myth and, xv; See also science fiction; specific works Field Manual (FM) 100-5, 299–301 Figallo, Cliff, 194 fighter-bombers, displays in, 197 fig wasp, 146 Final Report on Project C-43 (Koenig), 249 financial transactions, 267 Finney, Hal, 273 fire control prediction, 25–26 firing table, 22 First Amendment, 275, 276 First Austin Conference on Cyberspace (1990), 231–35 “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” (von Neumann), 115 fish, as theoretical cyborg, 125 flight paths/patterns, 13, 29–36, 42 FM (Field Manual) 100-5, 299–301 follower rack, 130 force feedback, 129–30 Ford Motor Company, 38 form, mythologies and, xiv–xv Fort Belvoir (Virginia), 305 Fort Hancock, New Jersey, 20 four-day workweek, 109 Frankenstein (Shelley), 343 Franklin, Benjamin, 277 Freedom of Information Act, 269 Friedman, Avi, 290 Friedman, William, 269, 270 Friendship Annex III (FANX III), 311–13 Frost, Mark, 185 FTP transfer log files, 317–18 Führer Directive number 17, 9–10 full-body data suit, 215 Fuller, Buckminster, 167 functionalism, 62, 64 Furness, Thomas, 198, 201–6 fuse, See proximity fuse future and cybernetic myths, xv–xvi and dystopian/utopian visions, 5 and machines, 4 and myths, xiv Wiener’s view of, 70–71 Fylingsdales Moor, Yorkshire, England, early-warning site, 99 Gagarin, Yuri, 126 gap-filler radar stations, 81 Garcia, Jerry, 227 Gardner, Doris, 321 Gardner, Martin, 252–53, 262 Garfinkel, Simson, 289 Garner, Jay, 306 GCHQ, x, 248, 250, 337 General Electric, 85–86, 128–37 general theory of machines, 4 genetics, 119 geometry, as analogy for cybernetics, 69 Germany, 8–10, 28, 33–34, 39–42 Getting, Ivan, 20 Gibson, William on “collective hallucination,” 196 and cyber as term, ix–x and cyberspace, 209–12 and cyberspace as term, 219, 220 and Cyberthon, 242 and cypherpunk, 266 Neuromancer, 189 Gilmore, John, 263–65, 269–71, 277 global positioning system (GPS), 296 goal-seeking, 56, 61 God, 91–92, 149 God and Golem, Inc.

Grey, 52, 61, 161 War and Anti-war (Toffler and Toffler), 308–9 war/warfare; See also specific wars automation of, 73–82, 96 computer simulation of, 71–72 control and communication during World War II, 8–42 cybernetic myths, 346–47 cyberwar, 294–339 cyborg research, 128–40 Eligible Receiver exercise, 311–14 Moonlight Maze, 316–39 Solar Sunrise, 314–15 Watergate, 254 Wavy Gravy (Hugh Romney), 241 Weaver, Sigourney, 136 Weaver, Warren, 25–26, 29–36 web browsers, 244, 264 Weldon, Curt, 329 WELL (Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link), 191–94, 239–40, 245, 345 Western Electric, 22 whistle-blowers, 284 white-hat hackers, 309 Whitehead, Ennis, 79–80 Whole Earth Catalog, 168–72 and cybernetic myths, 345 Terence McKenna and, 186–87 and the WELL, 190–91 Whole Earth Review crypto anarchy article, 264 and cybernetic myths, 346 and cyberspace, 220 on Cyberthon, 242 end of, 243 Jaron Lanier article, 216–17 and the WELL, 191 whole-systems thinking, 180 “wholism,” 161 Wiener, Norbert on Ashby’s homeostat, 61–62 on automated warfare, 71–72, 75, 96 Gregory Bateson and, 176 on brain–computer similarities, 114 Arthur C. Clarke and, 120, 122 Manfred Clynes and, 124 conceptual framework of cybernetics, 47–53 on cyberculture as term, 103–4 and cybernetic myth, 344 Cybernetics, xii, 3, 36, 51 Cybernetics (2nd edition), 119–20 and “cyber” prefix, 304 and dangers of cybernetics, 46 death of, 104 John Diebold and, 97 and enchantment of the machine, 351 and The Evolving Society, 106 and feedback, 48–49 first encounter with computer, 30 on future of intelligent machines, 70–71 God and Golem, Inc., 89–92 and guided missile development, 44–45 L.

 

pages: 486 words: 148,485

Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

They also tell us what not to look for and what questions not to ask, which is why those astronomers didn’t bother looking for a giant intergalactic battleship warping Uranus’s orbit instead. These are invaluable directives, prerequisite to doing science—or, for that matter, to doing much of anything. As Alan Greenspan pointed out, during a moment in his congressional testimony when he seemed to be coming under fire for merely possessing a political ideology, “An ideology is a conceptual framework, the way people deal with reality. Everyone has one. You have to. To exist, you need an ideology.” Greenspan was right. To exist, to deal with reality, we need a conceptual framework: theories that tell us which questions to ask and which ones not to, where to look and where not to bother. When that framework serves us well—when, say, it spares us the effort of asking what other kinds of long things a giraffe might possess, or taking seriously the proposition that behind a certain shaded rectangle we might encounter a certain naked movie star—we call it brilliant, and call it inductive reasoning.

 

pages: 159 words: 45,073

GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History by Diane Coyle

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Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial intermediation, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, mutually assured destruction, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, new economy, Occupy movement, purchasing power parity, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, University of East Anglia, working-age population

Consumers have moved progressively from purchasing in local stores to shopping in large stores, including discount “big-box” stores—where businesses may also buy some of their supplies. Now spending is shifting online. A third example is estimating the value of income received in the form of deferred stock options, once a small part of total remuneration but now quite significant. The actual number for GDP is therefore the product of a vast patchwork of statistics and a complicated set of processes carried out on the raw data to fit them to the conceptual framework. The “Production Boundary” As if all of this were not enough, there are some important conceptual questions about the GDP definition, some of which will be followed up in later chapters. The definitions have evolved over the years, and there are areas of active debate among national statistics experts. Much of GDP is private-sector output or expenditure measured at the prices charged in the market, as mentioned earlier.

 

pages: 165 words: 45,129

The Economics of Inequality by Thomas Piketty, Arthur Goldhammer

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affirmative action, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deindustrialization, Gini coefficient, income inequality, low skilled workers, means of production, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, very high income, working-age population

If one could precisely measure the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor and the elasticity of the supply of capital, it would be possible in principle to determine the optimal amount of capital-labor redistribution and the best instruments to achieve it. The intellectual and political conflict over redistribution is about more than just the measurement of elasticities, however. Indeed, this whole conceptual framework implicitly assumes that we accept the rules of the market economy and the allocative role of the price system. This is obvious in the case of the elasticity of capital supply (why should society give in to the threat of capitalist households to save less if they deem the rate of return on capital to be too low?). It is just as important, though, when it comes to the elasticity of capital/labor substitution: why should firms use more capital and less labor if the relative price of labor rises?

 

pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

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3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

Hustle is about getting things done, just like Fabian Ruiz did during his period of incarceration. It’s about being resourceful, opportunity-driven, and frugal—learning to do a lot with a little, to create your own destiny. A flexible mind-set allows you to move seamlessly from one world to another, borrowing from one and bringing new perspective to the next. An effective hustler does this seamlessly, transposing conceptual frameworks, making useful and valuable connections, and bringing skills and competencies from one area to another. When you are hustling, there is no master plan; you are improvising and being responsive to what life throws your way. The hustle is about spotting an idea and just going for it. You don’t need massive resources, a perfect team, or the right environment. Much of innovation comes from constraint—from challenge and even scarcity.

 

pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

In: Levien RE (ed) Computers in instruction: their future for higher education: proceedings of a conference held in October 1970. A Report Prepared for National Science Foundation and Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, pp 185–99. R-718-NSF/CCOM/RC. Santa Monica, CA; Washington, D.C.: The RAND Corporation; distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse. http://​files.​eric.​ed.​gov/​fulltext/​ED052635.​pdf *Nelson TH (1971) The route to Halftone image synthesis. Comput Decis May. Begins p. 12 Nelson TH (1973) A conceptual framework for man-machine everything. In: Proceedings of the June 4–8, 1973, National Computer Conference and Exposition, m21–26. AFIPS ‘73. ACM, New York. doi:10.​1145/​1499586.​1499776 *Nelson TH (1973) As we will think. In: Online 72: conference proceedings … International conference on online interactive computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, 4–7 September 1972, pp 439–54. Uxbridge, England: Online Computer Systems, Ltd.

 

pages: 200 words: 60,987

The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America by Steven Johnson

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Albert Einstein, Chance favours the prepared mind, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, Danny Hillis, discovery of DNA, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kevin Kelly, planetary scale, side project, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

In truth, when things burn in common air, something is being extracted from the air, not the reverse: oxygen molecules are bonding in the heat of combustion with whatever happens to be on fire. This is what we now call oxidation. When the air loses too many oxygen molecules to support the oxidation process, the flame goes out. Priestley, alas, was on the wrong end of the phlogiston paradigm, and so when he happened upon an air in which flames burned more brightly than common air, he interpreted his findings using the conceptual framework of the existing paradigm. Breathable air that also exacerbated combustion was, logically, air that had been entirely emptied of phlogiston. (Or, put another way, it was air primed to be filled with phlogiston.) Within the rules of that conceptual system, Priestley’s dephlogisticated air was a fitting, if ungainly, appellation. Unfortunately, the rules of that system were fundamentally flawed.

 

pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This is the principle embedded in the multistakeholder theory (what the World Economic Forum communities often call the Spirit of Davos), which I first proposed in a book published in 1971.70 Boundaries between sectors and professions are artificial and are proving to be increasingly counterproductive. More than ever, it is essential to dissolve these barriers by engaging the power of networks to forge effective partnerships. Companies and organizations that fail to do this and do not walk the talk by building diverse teams will have a difficult time adjusting to the disruptions of the digital age. Leaders must also prove capable of changing their mental and conceptual frameworks and their organising principles. In today’s disruptive, fast-changing world, thinking in silos and having a fixed view of the future is fossilizing, which is why it is better, in the dichotomy presented by the philosopher Isaiah Berlin in his 1953 essay about writers and thinkers, to be a fox than a hedgehog. Operating in an increasingly complex and disruptive environment requires the intellectual and social agility of the fox rather than fixed and narrow focus of the hedgehog.

 

On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

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Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Stephen Hawking

The status of the population will be settled “with the coming of peace.” This mode of operation allows Israel to continue to present itself as a “democratic state” and enjoy the many benefits attached to this status in the international arena. Hence “the peace process” and talk about “two states for two peoples” are not in any contradiction with the occupation, not even the “temporary occupation” of 1967. They are a political and conceptual framework designed to enable and perpetuate the status quo for as long as possible. Israel would find it hard to market this façade to the world if it were not assisted by many others, some serving their self-interests and others out of misled good intentions. The leadership of the Palestinian national movement also plays a key role in providing credibility for the fake peace process. It is followed by a large part of the leadership of the Palestinian Arab population within the Green Line.

 

What Kind of Creatures Are We? (Columbia Themes in Philosophy) by Noam Chomsky

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, conceptual framework, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, means of production, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Turing test, wage slave

Invoking Peirce’s understanding of scientific method and scientific growth that appeals to the concept of abduction, which puts limits on what count as “admissible hypotheses,” he argues that innate structures that are determined by our genetic endowment set limits to the questions that we can formulate. The questions we can tractably formulate are called “problems,” but given the limits within which their formulation is so much as possible, there will be things that escape our cognitive powers; to the extent that we can even think them, we will, given our current conceptual frameworks and knowledge, find ourselves unable to formulate them in a way that a tractable form of scientific inquiry of them can be pursued. These he calls “mysteries.” The title of this book, What Kind of Creatures Are We?, is directly addressed by this, since other sorts of creatures, with a different biological endowment from ours, may be able to formulate problems that remain mysteries to us.

 

pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by C. Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

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airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Computing Surveys (ACM) 3, issue 4es (December). Another pioneer in the 1960s who was inspired by Bush was Douglas En glebart, who founded a research lab with the goal of “augmenting human intellect.” His lab developed a hypermedia groupware system called Augment (originally called NLS). Augment supported bookmarks, hyperlinks, recording of e-mail, a journal, and more. Engelbart, Douglas C. “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. Summary Report AFOSR-3223 Under Contract AF 49(638)- 1024,” SRI Project 3578 for Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October 1962. ———. “Authorship Provisions in AUGMENT.” COMPCON ’84 Digest: Proceedings of the COMPCON Conference, San Francisco, California, February 27-March 1, 1984, 465-72. Many others besides us have noted the inadequacy of conventional computer file systems.

 

pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

Good ideas are not conjured out of thin air; they are built out of a collection of existing parts, the composition of which expands (and, occasionally, contracts) over time. Some of those parts are conceptual: ways of solving problems, or new definitions of what constitutes a problem in the first place. Some of them are, literally, mechanical parts. To go looking for oxygen, Priestley and Scheele needed the conceptual framework that the air was itself something worth studying and that it was made up of distinct gases; neither of these ideas became widely accepted until the second half of the eighteenth century. But they also needed the advanced scales that enabled them to measure the minuscule changes in weight triggered by oxidation, technology that was itself only a few decades old in 1774. When those parts became available, the discovery of oxygen entered the realm of the adjacent possible.

 

pages: 221 words: 67,240

The Other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent by Tom Śegev, Roane Carey, Jonathan Shainin

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conceptual framework, facts on the ground, Internet Archive, open borders, Yom Kippur War

This is what transpired at the moment of truth, the beginning of the new intifada, which shattered the fantasy of "the end of the conflict" and "peace is around the corner." The collapse of the political course imposed by Barak under the auspices of Clinton, the widespread feeling that Israel had put the Palestinians to the test and they had failed it—thus, in effect, betraying the entire peace camp, the violent Palestinian eruption—all these created a situation in which most Israeli Jews were forced to expose the fundamental conceptual framework within which they perceive political reality. This contradictory framework portrays the relationship between the two peoples as a supposedly symmetrical relationship between two national movements of equal standing, at the same time accepting the occupation as a paradigm of asymmetrical power relations and ignoring its continuous history. It dictates a willingness to make "concessions," alongside an imperious demand that the other side gratefully recognize the generous handout.

 

pages: 300 words: 79,315

Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity by David Allen

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Albert Einstein, asset allocation, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, index card, knowledge worker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex

Merely having the ability to be highly productive, relaxed, and in control doesn’t make you that way. If you’re like most people, you can use a coach—someone to walk you step by step through the experience and provide some guideposts and handy tricks along the way, until your new operational style is elegantly embedded. You’ll find that in part 2. part 2 Practicing Stress-Free Productivity 4 Getting Started: Setting Up the Time, Space, and Tools IN PART 2 we’ll move from a conceptual framework and limited application of workflow mastery to full-scale implementation and best practices. Going through this program often gives people a level of relaxed control they may never have experienced before, but it usually requires the catalyst of step-by-step procedures to get there. To that end, I’ll provide a logical sequence of things to do, to make it as easy as possible for you to get on board and glean the most value from these techniques.

 

pages: 209 words: 13,138

Empirical Market Microstructure: The Institutions, Economics and Econometrics of Securities Trading by Joel Hasbrouck

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barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, discrete time, disintermediation, distributed generation, experimental economics, financial intermediation, index arbitrage, interest rate swap, inventory management, market clearing, market design, market friction, market microstructure, martingale, price discovery process, price discrimination, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, second-price auction, short selling, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, transaction costs, two-sided market, ultimatum game

The zero expected profit condition underlying the Roll and asymmetric information models is conditional on a trade, in which event the dealer simply recovers his costs. The exceptions are the inventory control models where the dealer generally prefers to trade in one direction or the other. In this section we investigate a customer’s order choice when there is a preference for trade. The conceptual framework is based on Cohen, Maier, Schwartz, and Whitcomb (1981) (CMSW). Related papers include Angel (1994) and Harris (1998). We can set up a simple order choice situation by building on the model considered in section 11.2. In one version of that model, a dealer already at his portfolio optimum set his bid to include compensation for being pulled away from that optimum. The bid is defined by the condition that the expected utility is the same whether or not a customer actually executes against the bid.

 

pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning

Similarly, to say one wishes to create a “rational” social order implies that current social arrangements might as well have been designed by the inhabitants of a lunatic asylum. Now, surely, all of us have felt this way at one time or another. But if nothing else, it is an extraordinarily intolerant position, since it implies that one’s opponents are not just wrong, but in a certain sense, wouldn’t even know what it would mean to be right, unless, by some miracle, they could come around and accept the light of reason and decide to accept your own conceptual framework and point of view. This tendency to enshrine rationality as a political virtue has had the perverse effect of encouraging those repelled by such pretentions, or by the people who profess them, to claim to reject rationality entirely, and embrace “irrationalism.” Of course, if we simply take rationality in its minimal definition, any such position is absurd. You can’t really make an argument against rationality, because for that argument to be convincing, it would itself have to be framed in rational terms.

 

The Disciplined Trader: Developing Winning Attitudes by Mark Douglas

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Albert Einstein, conceptual framework, fear of failure, financial independence, prediction markets, risk tolerance, the market place

You form your expectations about the future with information technical systems don't take into consideration. Consequently, this sets up a conflict between what your intellect says should be happening and the purely mathematical means of predicting human behavior afforded by your technical system. This is precisely why technical systems are so difficult to relate to and execute. People aren't taught to think in terms of probabilities—and we certainly don't grow up constructing a conceptual framework that correlates a prediction of mass human behavior in statistical odds by means of a mathematical formula. To be able to execute your trading systems properly, you will need to incorporate two concepts into your mental framework—thinking in terms of probabilities and correlating the numbers or the mechanics of your system to the behavior. Unfortunately, the only way you can really learn these things is actually to experience them by executing your system.

 

pages: 229 words: 67,599

The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age by Paul J. Nahin

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, New Journalism, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Turing machine, Turing test, V2 rocket

The program, and its input data, exist together on the tape as sequences of symbols. And second, because of the arbitrarily long length of the tape, a Turing machine has the ability to “remember” what has happened in the arbitrarily distant past. In developing this view of a computing machine, Turing was not suggesting it as a practical design for an actual machine. Rather, as a mathematician he used his machines as a conceptual framework in which to study the limits on just what mechanistic devices can actually compute. Indeed, the title of his 1936 paper, “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem’’—that final tongue-twister translates as “the decision problem’’—clearly shows Turing’s intent. His great accomplishment was to show that not all the numbers we can imagine are in fact actually computable.

 

pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

“I was so linked to the Watson achievement,” he explains, “that I felt I was almost losing my identity.” Working for a hedge fund, he concedes, was never part of his career plan. But the appeal of working in a smaller environment in an entirely new field for him—applying artificial intelligence techniques to modeling the economy—won him over. Bridgewater strives to combine theory with data in a conceptual framework that the investment firm’s founder, Ray Dalio, terms the “economic machine.” That approach to investment, says Ferrucci, is in sync with his current thinking in what he calls “my 30-year journey in artificial intelligence.” Decades ago, the main focus of artificial intelligence research was to develop knowledge rules and relationships to make so-called expert systems. But those systems proved extremely difficult to build.

 

pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population

Scenario 1: from the work society to the knowledge society Many authors chase away, as if it were a troublesome fly, the human concern that the revolutionary rationalization based on information technology is designed, if not to eliminate, then to thin out paid employment. Two basic elements here reinforce each other: the way in which economists think in terms of models (some would say: their model Platonism); and the historical experience of the first modernity, in which the workers' fears that they would be replaced by machines proved for long to be unfounded. The conceptual framework of classical economics excludes in principle the notion that the work society could run out of paid jobs. In the model of homo oeconomicus, only certain prevailing conditions – too high a price for labour, fossilized bureaucratic structures, state intervention – can hinder the creation of new jobs. The historical variant of a capitalism without work does not even come into consideration.

 

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

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barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

"The future of warfare," the journal of the Army War College declared, "lies in the streets, sewers, highrise buildings, and sprawl of houses that form the broken cities of the world.... Our recent military history is punctuated with city names — Tuzla, Mogadishu, Los Angeles [!], Beirut, Panama City, Hue, Saigon, Santo Domingo — but these encounters have been but a prologue, with the real drama still to come."8 To help develop a larger conceptual framework for MOUT, military planners turned in the 1990s to Dr. Strangelove's old alma mater, the Santa Monica-based RAND Corporation. RAND, a nonprofit think tank established by the Air Force in 1948, was notorious for wargaming nuclear Armageddon in the 1950s and for helping to strategize the Vietnam War in the 1960s. These days RAND does cities: its researchers ponder urban crime statistics, inner-city public health, and the privatization of public education.

 

pages: 252 words: 73,131

The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

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Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, helicopter parent, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, winner-take-all economy

(According to market design guru Al Roth, one theory holds that the term “fraternity/sorority rush,” which today describes the process by which sororities and fraternities recruit new members, comes from the frenzied competition among sororities to lock in new members.4) It’s what prompted medical residency programs to develop a centralized clearinghouse in the 1940s to fend off students receiving exploding offers before they were done with their intro to anatomy course. These allocation problems all now have centralized clearinghouses, many designed with the basic deferred acceptance algorithm as their foundations. But that’s really all that Gale and Shapley provided: a conceptual framework that market designers have, for several decades now, been applying, evaluating, and refining. They’ve learned from its successes and, unfortunately, learned even more from its inevitable failures: modeling real-life exchanges is an imprecise, iterative process in which many of us find ourselves as experimental subjects. The Complicated Job of Engineering Matches Market designer Al Roth likes to use a bridge-building metaphor to explain the contrast between his own work and that of design pioneers like Shapley.

 

pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

This can be seen through a careful examination of the work of Charles Darwin. The quintessential phase transition in science, and paradigm shift, is that of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Everything in biology prior to evolution was sophisticated stamp collecting, ordering the living world around us and exploring its wonders. With the advent of evolution, biologists finally had a conceptual framework to make sense of the facts surrounding them. But the acceptance of evolution wasn’t immediate. While On the Origin of Species was a bestselling book, it did not find universal agreement within the Victorian populace. The same was true of the scientists themselves. David Hull, a philosopher of science, examined many of Darwin’s well-known contemporaries to see who eventually accepted the theory of natural selection, and how long it took them to do so.

 

pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

And whereas the basic income debate under President Johnson had begun when experts signaled unemployment as becoming endemic, Nixon now spoke of joblessness as a “choice.” He deplored the rise of big government, even though his plan would distribute cash assistance to some 13 million more Americans (90% of them working poor). “Nixon was proposing a new kind of social provision to the American public,” writes the historian Brian Steensland, “but he did not offer them a new conceptual framework through which to understand it.”4 Indeed, Nixon steeped his progressive ideas in conservative rhetoric. What, we may well ask, was the president doing? There is a brief anecdote that explains it. On August 7 of that same year, Nixon told Moynihan that he’d been reading biographies of the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and the statesman Lord Randolph Churchill (the father of Winston).

 

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

They can deal with shocks that might disrupt transport systems (strikes, civil unrest, and severe weather) and also with fuel price hikes that might result from peak oil and global shortages of oil as India, China and Brazil accelerate their “progress” towards Californian or Swedish levels of car ownership and use. It will be a mistake of some considerable historical significance not to build resilient cities. Holger and Dalkmann (2007) have provided a coherent structure that locates e-mobility in the sustainable transport conceptual framework. They call this the “Avoid, Shift, Improve” strategy or for short ASI. A= Avoid so that through land use planning and accessibility planning destinations are co-located with residential areas and distances are kept short. This leads to a lower level of car use and a higher level of use of non-motorised transport. Curitiba in Brazil and Singapore have developed spatial strategies and land use patterns that lead to lower CO2 emissions from transport than cities that pursue low density developments or extensive suburbanisation.

 

pages: 218 words: 65,422

Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott

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barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

So why not set a course for one of the biggest and most famous—and by far the most frequently visited—museums in the world? We’re in need of some culture. We’ll go to the Louvre. We may even catch a glimpse of the broken statue that moved Rilke to such lyrical ecstasies. But right away, things start getting confused. Not the travel arrangements or the scheduling of the visits, but the conceptual framework that underwrites the journey. The whole idea of “culture,” that is. In Keywords, his indispensable glossary of modern thought, the literary scholar Raymond Williams observes that “culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language.” In some of its early senses, it is nearly synonymous with education, referring to the growth and tending of young minds. It suggests farming and gardening—agriculture, horticulture, cultivation—but it also carries with it the burdens of civilization.

 

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

International Migration Review, 31(4), 923–960. Saleebey, D. (2002). Introduction: Power in the people. In Saleebey, D. (ed). The Strengths Perspective in social work practice. 3rd edition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Segal, U. (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Serageldin, I. (1999). Foreword. In Feldman, T.R. & Assaf, S. Social capital: Conceptual frameworks and empirical evidence. Social Capital Initiative, working paper #5. Washington, DC: World Bank. Tinker, H. (1995). The British colonies of settlement. In Cohen, R. (ed). The Cambridge survey of world migration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 14–20. Tsay, C-l. & Hayase, Y. (eds). (2001). Special issue: International migration and structural change in the APEC member economies.

London, Routledge. 226 Nations with Increasing Immigrant Populations Hughes, G. (2005). Annual Report on Statistics on Migration, Asylum, and Return: Ireland 2002. Dublin, Economic and Social Research Institute. Interdepartmental Committee on Non-Irish Nationals (1987). Interim Report on Applications for Refugee Status 25–11–1993. Dublin, Government Publications. Marx, E. (1990). ‘‘The Social World of Refugees: A Conceptual Framework.’’ Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3. National Economic and Social Council of Ireland (2006). Managing Migration in Ireland: A Social and Economic Analysis; A Report by the International Organisation for Migration for the National Economic and Social Council of Ireland. Report Number 116, Dublin, NESC. Neckerman, K. M., Carter, P., and Lee, J. (1999). ‘‘Segmented Assimilation and Minority Cultures of Mobility.’’

World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan. Schiller, N. G. (1999). Transmigrants and nation states: Something old and something new in the U.S. immigrant experience. In: Hirschman, C., Kasinitz, P., & DeWind, J., The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience (ch. 5). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Serageldin, I. (1999). Foreword. In: Feldman, T. R., & Assaf, S. (eds.) Social Capital: Conceptual Frameworks and Empirical Evidence (working paper #5). Social Capital Initiative, The World Bank. Segal, E. A., & Brzuzy, S. (1998). Social welfare policy, programs, and practice. Itasca, IL: Peacock. Segal, U. A. (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. Sherraden, M. (ed.) (2005). Inclusion in the American dream: Assets, poverty, and public policy.

 

pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

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23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

His observation, back in 2002, was that, of all the scientists and engineers working in the AI field: 1. 80 percent don’t believe in the concept of General Intelligence (but instead, in a large ­collection of specific skills and knowledge). 2. Of those that do, 80 percent don’t believe it’s possible – either ever, or for a long, long time. 3. Of those that do, 80 percent work on domain-specific AI projects for reasons of commercial or academic politics (results are a lot quicker). 4. Of those left, 80 percent have the wrong conceptual framework. 5. And nearly all of the people operating under basically correct conceptual premises lack the resources to adequately realize their ideas. I think Peter’s argument is basically on-target. Of course, the 80 percent numbers are crude approximations, and most of the concepts involved are fuzzy in various ways. But an interesting observation is that, whatever the percentages actually are, most of them have decreased considerably since 2002.

See Bartley 1962. 3 Examples include World Wide Web anchors, Microsoft Word bookmarks, Lotus Notes, and Folio Views Popup text. 4 The use of bidirectional links for decentralized consumer reports is already happening on the American Information Exchange. 5 This essay was written well before 1997, thus the fictitious tongue-in-cheek story is actually a hypothetical scenario about electronic media. References Bartley, William W. III (1962) The Retreat to Commitment. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. Drexler, K. Eric (1991) “Hypertext Publishing and the Evolution of Knowledge.” Social Intelligence 1/2. Engelbart, Douglas C. (1962) “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.” SRI Project 3578 (October). Popper, Karl R. (1950) The Open Society and its Enemies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Popper, Karl R. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Harper & Row. Weinberg, Gerald M. (1985) The Secrets of Consulting. New York: Dorset House Publishing. Originally published in Extropy: The Journal of Transhumanist Thought12 (1994). Copyright © Max More.

 

pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. I: The Central Islamic Lands (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 64–65. 11 Fred M. Donner, “The Formation of the Islamic State,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 106, no. 2 (1986): 283–96. 12 See, for example, Douglass C. North, Barry R. Weingast, and John Wallis, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), who tend to see the state as a collective action problem among a group of relatively equal oligarchs. 13 One of the practical consequences of this was that monarchs often intervened to lower the predatory taxes imposed by local elites on their dependent populations. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, pp. 281–82; Donner, “The Formation of the Islamic State,” pp. 290–91. 14 See Bernard Lewis, “Politics and War,” in Schacht, The Legacy of Islam, pp. 164–65. 15 Holt, Cambridge History of Islam, p. 72. 16 Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests, p. 258. 17 Ibid., p. 263. 18 For general background, see David Ayalon, Islam and the Abode of War: Military Slaves and Islamic Adversaries (Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1994). 19 On the rise of the Abbasids, see Hugh N.

New York: Cambridge University Press. ———. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. New York: Cambridge University Press. ———, and Barry R. Weingast. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” Journal of Economic History 49(4):803–32. ———, Barry R. Weingast, and John Wallis. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press. Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ———. 1982. The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. ———. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(9):567–76.

 

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

For a survey of existing definitions, see Rachel Kleinfeld, “Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law,” in Thomas Carothers, ed., Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment, 2006). 2. S. N. Eisenstadt, Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1973). 3. Douglass C. North, John Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 4. Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (New York: Crown, 2012). 5. For definitions of these terms, see Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 12–24; also the discussion in Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011), pp. 450–51. 6.

American Political Science Review 102(1):19–31. Niskanen, William A. 1973. Bureaucracy—Servant or Master? Lessons from America. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. North, Douglass C., and Robert Paul Thomas. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. New York: Cambridge University Press. North, Douglass C., John Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nunn, Nathan. 2007. “Historical Legacies: A Model Linking Africa’s Past to Its Current Underdevelopment.” Journal of Development Economics 83(1):157–75. ______. 2008. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(1):139–76. Nye, Joseph S., Jr. 1967. “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.”

 

The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan

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air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K

I do this out of a sense of responsibility to the historical record, and so that readers will know 10 More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. I NTRODUCTION where I'm coming from. The book is therefore divided into halves: the first half is my effort to retrace the arc of my learning curve, and the second half is a more objective effort to use this as the foundation on which to erect a conceptual framework for understanding the new global economy. Along the way I explore critical elements of this emerging global environment: the principles of governing it that arose out of the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century; the vast energy infrastructure that powers it; the global financial imbalances and dramatic shifts in world demographics that threaten it; and, despite its unquestioned success, the chronic concern over the justice of the distribution of its rewards.

That is not an altogether illogical feeling, but, as is taught in Economics 101, when a market economy periodically veers off a seemingly stable path, competitive responses act to rebalance it. Since millions of transactions are involved in the rebalancing, the process is very difficult to grasp. The abstractions of the classroom can only hint at the dynamics that, for example, enabled the U.S. economy to stabilize and grow after the September 11 attacks. Economic populism imagines a more straightforward world, in which a conceptual framework seems a distraction from evident and pressing need. Its principles are simple. If there is unemployment, then the government should hire the unemployed. If money is tight and interest rates as a consequence are high, the government should put a cap on rates or print more money. If imported goods are threatening jobs, stop the imports. Why are such responses any less reasonable than supposing that if you want a car to start, you turn the ignition key?

 

pages: 819 words: 181,185

Derivatives Markets by David Goldenberg

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Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, commodity trading advisor, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, fudge factor, implied volatility, incomplete markets, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, law of one price, locking in a profit, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market microstructure, martingale, Norbert Wiener, price mechanism, random walk, reserve currency, risk/return, riskless arbitrage, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, time value of money, transaction costs, volatility smile, Wiener process, Y2K, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

The text discusses some fairly sophisticated topics not usually discussed in introductory derivatives texts; for example, real-world electronic market trading platforms such as CME’s Globex. On the theory side, there is a muchneeded and detailed discussion of what risk-neutral valuation really means in the context of the dynamics of the hedge portfolio. The text is a balanced, logical presentation of the major derivatives classes including forward and futures contracts in Part 1, swaps in Part 2, and options in Part 3. The material is unified by providing a modern conceptual framework and exploiting the no-arbitrage relationships between the different derivatives classes. Some of the elements explained in detail in the text are: • • • • • • • Hedging, Basis Risk, Spreading, and Spread Basis Risk. Financial Futures Contracts, their Underlying Instruments, Hedging and Speculating. OTC Markets and Swaps. Option Strategies: Hedging and Speculating. Risk-Neutral Valuation and the Binomial Option Pricing Model.

On the theory side, a detailed discussion of what risk-neutral valuation really means in the context of the dynamics of the hedge portfolio is provided for the simplest option pricing model. A balanced, logical presentation of the major derivatives classes is given. This includes: Forward and futures contracts in Part 1; Swaps in Part 2; and Options in Part 3. The material is unified by providing a modern conceptual framework and exploiting the no-arbitrage relationships between the different derivatives classes. The goals of the text are to guide the reader through the derivatives markets; to develop the reader’s skill sets needed in order to incorporate and manage derivatives in a corporate or risk management setting; and to provide a solid foundation for further study. This textbook is for students, both undergraduate and graduate, as well as for those with an interest in how and why these markets work and thrive.

 

pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

A behaviorist running a rat through a maze would discuss the association between stimulus and response but would refuse to speculate in any way about the mind of the rat; now engineers were building mental models of rats out of a few electrical relays. They were not just prying open the black box; they were making their own. Signals were being transmitted, encoded, stored, and retrieved. Internal models of the external world were created and updated. Psychologists took note. From information theory and cybernetics, they received a set of useful metaphors and even a productive conceptual framework. Shannon’s rat could be seen not only as a very crude model of the brain but also as a theory of behavior. Suddenly psychologists were free to talk about plans, algorithms, syntactic rules. They could investigate not just how living creatures react to the outside world but how they represent it to themselves. Shannon’s formulation of information theory seemed to invite researchers to look in a direction that he himself had not intended.

But there had been papers on information theory, life, and topology; information theory and the physics of tissue damage; and clerical systems; and psychopharmacology; and geophysical data interpretation; and crystal structure; and melody. Elias, whose father had worked for Edison as an engineer, was himself a serious specialist—a major contributor to coding theory. He mistrusted the softer, easier, platitudinous work flooding across disciplinary boundaries. The typical paper, he said, “discusses the surprisingly close relationship between the vocabulary and conceptual framework of information theory and that of psychology (or genetics, or linguistics, or psychiatry, or business organization).… The concepts of structure, pattern, entropy, noise, transmitter, receiver, and code are (when properly interpreted) central to both.” He declared this to be larceny. “Having placed the discipline of psychology for the first time on a sound scientific basis, the author modestly leaves the filling in of the outline to the psychologists.”

 

pages: 482 words: 106,041

The World Without Us by Alan Weisman

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British Empire, carbon-based life, conceptual framework, invention of radio, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, out of africa, Ray Kurzweil, the High Line, trade route, uranium enrichment

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, http://www.nrc.gov/waste.html, March 1, 2006. “Raising the Quality: Treatment and Disposal of Sewage Sludge.” Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (U.K.), September 23, 1998, 13. Reaney, Patricia. “Cultivated Land Disappears in AIDs-ravaged Africa."Reuters, September 8, 2005. “Report of Workshop of Experts from Parties to the Montreal Protocol to Develop Specific Areas and a Conceptual Framework of Cooperation to Address Illegal Trade in Ozone-Depleting Substances.” Montreal, April 3, 2005, United Nations Environment Programme. “Reprocessing and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management at the Savannah River Site.” Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, Maryland, February 1999. Richardson, David, and Remy Petit. “Pines as Invasive Aliens: Outlook on Transgenic Pine Plantations in the Southern Hemisphere.”

 

pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

I have listed some of them in the endnotes for readers who want to go deeper. My aim here is to tie together the broader set of overlapping, complex issues in a way that makes sense to an informed reader who does not have special Internet-related expertise—beyond simply being an Internet and cell phone user. For people who are experts on some of these issues, I have tried to provide a fresh conceptual framework and geopolitical context, which I hope will be useful to experts and nonexperts alike who are concerned about the future of freedom in the Internet age. It is not possible to document in one concise book all the violations of Internet freedoms and rights happening everywhere in the world. If your rights to digital free expression and assembly are under attack but your country is not mentioned in this book, please understand that the omission does not imply a lack of concern for the violations you and your compatriots are enduring.

 

pages: 411 words: 108,119

The Irrational Economist: Making Decisions in a Dangerous World by Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Paul Slovic

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Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, bank run, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, incomplete markets, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Loma Prieta earthquake, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, moral hazard, mortgage debt, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, statistical model, stochastic process, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, urban planning

“Generating Objectives: Can Decision Makers Articulate What They Want?” Management Science 54: 56-70. Hammond, J.S., R.L. Keeney, and H. Raiffa (1999). Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kasperson, R. E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H. S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Goble, J. X. Kasperson, and S. Ratick (1988). “The Social Amplification of Risk: A Conceptual Framework.” Risk Analysis 8: 177-187. Keeney, R. L. (1980). “Evaluating Alternatives Involving Potential Fatalities.” Operations Research 28: 188-205. U.S. Geological Survey Staff (1990). “The Loma Prieta California Earthquake: An Anticipated Event.” Science 247: 286-293. 28 Decision Making A View on Tomorrow HOWARD RAIFFA A WIDER SCOPE FOR THE DECISION SCIENCES When I began studying decision making some sixty years ago, I was mainly oriented toward the ways that analytics can help the decision-making process.

 

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

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agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

Mayors travel routinely, cruising for ideas in the cities deemed the world’s Greenest—Reykjavik, Iceland; Portland, Oregon; Curitiba, Brazil; Malmö, Sweden; Vancouver, Canada; Copenhagen, Denmark; London, England; San Francisco, California; Bahi de Caráquez, Ecuador; Sydney, Australia; Barcelona, Spain; Bogotá, Colombia; Bangkok, Thailand; Kampala, Uganda; and Austin, Texas. Urban ecotourism is a growth industry. To manage the ecology of cities, we first have to understand it. A 2008 article in Science framed the necessary new discipline in meaty language I find delicious:Evolving conceptual frameworks for urban ecology view cities as heterogeneous, dynamic landscapes and as complex, adaptive, socioecological systems, in which the delivery of ecosystem services links society and ecosystems at multiple scales. . . . The changes in chemical environment, exposure to pollutants, simplified geomorphic structure, and altered hydro-graphs of urban streams combine to create an urban stream “syndrome” of low biotic diversity, high nutrient concentrations, reduced nutrient retention efficiency, and often elevated primary production. . . .

 

pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Just, “Altering Cortical Connectivity: Remediation-Induced Changes in the White Matter of Poor Readers,” Neuron 64 (2009): 624–31. * T. F. Oberlander et al., “Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression, Neonatal Methylation of Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene (NR3C1) and Infant Cortisol Stress Responses,” Epigenetics 3, 2 (2008): 97–106. * D. C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” Summary Report AFOSR-3233, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., October 1962. * “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes,” Psychological Review 84, 3 (1977): 231–59.

 

pages: 329 words: 93,655

Moonwalking With Einstein by Joshua Foer

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, deliberate practice, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, mental accounting, patient HM, pattern recognition, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking

One almost got the impression they were reading off an internal scorecard. The less avid fans remembered fewer important facts about the game and were more likely to recount superficial details like the weather. Because they lacked a detailed internal representation of the game, they couldn’t process the information they were taking in. They didn’t know what was important and what was trivial. They couldn’t remember what mattered. Without a conceptual framework in which to embed what they were learning, they were effectively amnesics. Could any less be said of those two thirds of American teens who don’t have a clue when the Civil War occurred? Or the 20 percent who don’t know who the United States fought against in World War II? Or the 44 percent who think that the subject of The Scarlet Letter was either a witch trial or a piece of correspondence?

 

pages: 336 words: 93,672

The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World's Leading Neuroscientists by Gary Marcus, Jeremy Freeman

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23andMe, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, bitcoin, brain emulation, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Glasses, iterative process, linked data, mouse model, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, Turing machine, web application

Matteo Carandini cautions us that it is too much to expect to be able to bridge directly from neurophysiology to behavior, and how computation might help fill the gap. Leah Krubitzer reminds us of the risks in assuming that science can be accomplished on a timetable, and Arthur Caplan highlights the practical and ethical concerns, and consequences, of a brain mapping project, including how to fund it, what to do with the data, and how to decide when we’ve succeeded. Finally, Gary Marcus argues that current conceptual frameworks for understanding complex cognition and behavior are impoverished, and that in order to make progress the field of neuroscience must significantly broaden its search for computational principles. Plate 1. a. Allen Reference Atlas plate for a sagittal section (i.e., front to back) of the mouse brain. b. In situ hybridization image of a calcium-binding gene (Calb 1), showing expression in the cortex (top layer of b), striatum (left center), hippocampus (curved shape below cortex), and cerebellum layer (top right in layer).

 

pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

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conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

Scholars across a range of disciplines have documented the rise and dominance of an approach to governance, across a variety of scales, informed by key principles of contemporary neoliberalism, including, most notably, the preeminence of the “free market” in allocating goods and services, the retreat or reconfiguration of the state to accommodate the requirements of transnational market forces, and an emphasis on policies promoting and protecting free trade, foreign direct investment, and private property rights.21 The following section discusses why the urban scale is of particular importance for understanding this project, the politics of urban security governance that are integral to defining it, and the specific role that policing, crime, and the criminal play in its execution; doing so will provide the necessary theoretical and conceptual framework for the subsequent discussion of Cape Town. Neoliberal principles of economic reform originally came to prominence through their application at the national level in the global South. Although change was already afoot in the nations and cities of the global North as well, it was the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in the 1980s and 1990s, and the intimately related prescriptions of the Washington Consensus, that first drew attention and notoriety to the ascent of neoliberalism as a global governance force.22 The requirements for installing this new governance regime were substantial, and their implementation often Introduction╇ ·â•‡ 11 necessitated significant restructuring of the state and the strict management of often intense political resistance to all or part of the project.

 

Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code by Martin Fowler, Kent Beck, John Brant, William Opdyke, Don Roberts

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conceptual framework, database schema, index card, MVC pattern, place-making, sorting algorithm

Bill investigated the refactorings that would be useful for C++ framework development and researched the necessary semantics-preserving refactorings, how to prove they were semantics preserving, and how a tool could implement these ideas. Bill's doctoral thesis [Opdyke] is the most substantial work on refactoring to date. He also contributes Chapter 13 to this book. I remember meeting Bill at the OOPSLA conference in 1992. We sat in a café and discussed some of the work I'd done in building a conceptual framework for healthcare. Bill told me about his research, and I remember thinking, "Interesting, but not really that important." Boy was I wrong! John Brant and Don Roberts have taken the tool ideas in refactoring much further to produce the Refactoring Browser, a refactoring tool for Smalltalk. They contribute Chapter 14 to this book, which further describes refactoring tools. And me? I'd always been inclined to clean code, but I'd never considered it to be that important.

 

pages: 337 words: 93,245

Diaspora by Greg Egan

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conceptual framework, cosmic abundance, cosmic microwave background, Fermat's Last Theorem, gravity well, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, stem cell, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing machine

"But they couldn't have avoided making a few assumptions about the way we'd think, and the kind of technology we'd be using-and some of those assumptions are hound to be wrong. I can easily imagine a space-faring civilization that wouldn't have tried the neutron phase experiment in a million years. So maybe the meaning of the rest of the data will be inaccessible to us ... but if it is, that won't be out of malice, and it won't be because their whole conceptual framework was beyond our comprehension. It will just be sheer bad luck." Paulo gave up his smirk of tolerant amusement, as if reluctantly conceding that this was an appealing vision of the Transmuters, however naive. Yatima seized the• moment. "And whatever you think about the map yourself, just remember that Orlando can't dismiss it the way you can. Everything about this drags him back to Lacerta."

 

pages: 350 words: 100,822

Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jörgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows

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agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

Most pollution has been eliminated from the smoke stacks and outflow pipes of factories in the rich world, and leading firms are pushing successfully for ever higher eco-efficiency. These apparent successes made it difficult to talk about problems of overshoot around 1990. The difficulty was increased by the lack of basic data and even elementary vocabulary related to overshoot. It took more than two decades before the conceptual framework-for example, distinguishing growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from growth in the ecological footprint-matured sufficiently to enable an intelligent conversation about the limits to growth issue. And world society is still trying to comprehend the concept of sustainability, a term that remains ambiguous and widely abused even sixteen years after the Brundtland Commission coined it.'

 

pages: 407 words: 109,653

Top Dog: The Science of Winning and Losing by Po Bronson, Ashley Merryman

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Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, game design, Jean Tirole, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, school choice, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Steve Jobs

.), Emotions in Sport, ch. 4, pp. 93–112, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics (2000) Robazza, Claudio, Laura Bortoli, Filippo Nocini, Giovanna Moser, & Carlo Arslan, “Normative and Idiosyncratic Measures of Positive and Negative Affect in Sport,” Psychology of Sport & Exercise, vol. 1(2), pp. 103–116 (2000) Roland, David, “How Professional Performers Manage Performance Anxiety,” Research Studies in Music Education, vol. 2(1), pp. 25–35 (1994) Salminen, Simo, Jarmo Liukkonen, Yuri Hanin, & Ari Hyvönen, “Anxiety and Athletic Performance of Finnish Athletes: Application of the Zone of Optimal Functioning Model,” Personality & Individual Differences, vol. 19(5), pp. 725–729 (1995) Skinner, Natalie, & Neil Brewer, “The Dynamics of Threat and Challenge Appraisals prior to Stressful Achievement Events,” Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, vol. 83(3), pp. 678–692 (2002) Tenenbaum, Gershon, William A. Edmonds, & David W. Eccles, “Emotions, Coping Strategies, and Performance: A Conceptual Framework for Defining Affect-Related Performance Zones,” Military Psychology, vol. 20(supp. 1), pp. S11–S37 (2008) Yoshie, Michiko, Eriko Kanazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki, & Kimitaka Nakazawa, “Music Performance Anxiety and Occupational Stress among Classical Musicians,” In: Janice Langan-Fo & Cary L. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of Stress in the Occupations, ch. 20, pp. 409–429, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. (2011) Yoshie, Michiko, Kazutoshi Kudo, Takayuki Murakoshi, & Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki, “Music Performance Anxiety in Skilled Pianists: Effects of Social-Evaluative Performance Situation on Subjective, Autonomic, and Electromyographic Reactions,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 199(2), pp. 117–126 (2009) Yoshie, Michiko, Kazutoshi Kudo, & Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki, “Effects of Psychological Stress on State Anxiety, Electromyographic Activity, and Arpeggio Performance in Pianists,” Medical Problems of Performing Artists, vol. 23(3), pp. 120–132 (2008) Yoshie, Michiko, Kazutoshi Kudo, & Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki, “Motor/Autonomic Stress Responses in a Competitive Piano Performance,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1169, pp. 368–371 (2009) Yoshie, Michiko, & Kazuo Shigemasu, “Effects of State Anxiety on Performance in Pianists: Relationship between the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Subscales and Piano Performance,” Paper Presentation for 9th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Bologna (2006) Yoshie, Michiko, Kazuo Shigemasu, Kazutoshi Kudo, & Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki, “Effects of State Anxiety on Music Performance: Relationship between the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Subscales and Piano Performance, Musicae Scientiae, vol. 3(1), pp. 55–84 (2009) 3.

 

pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Landlord's Game, lone genius, megacity, Minecraft, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The experimental tinkering of games—a parallel universe where rules and conventions are constantly being reinvented—creates a new supply of metaphors that can then be mapped onto more serious matters. (Think how reliant everyday speech is on metaphors generated from games: we “raise the stakes”; we “advance the ball”; we worry about “wild cards”; and so on.) Every now and then, one of those metaphors turns out to be uniquely suited to a new situation that requires a new conceptual framework, a new way of imagining. A top-down state could be described as a body or a building—with heads or cornerstones—but a state governed by contractual interdependence needed a different kind of metaphor to make it intelligible. The runaway success of The Game of Chess—first as a sermon, then as a manuscript, and finally as a book—suggests just how valuable that metaphor turned out to be. We commonly think of chess as the most intellectual of games, but in a way its greatest claim to fame may be its allegorical power.

 

Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq by Francis Fukuyama

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Berlin Wall, business climate, colonial rule, conceptual framework, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, informal economy, land reform, microcredit, open economy, unemployed young men

State-building, done (as Sutton indicates in his chapter) without regard for the democratic legitimacy of the governments involved, implicated foreign donors in the human rights abuses of recipients and failed to prevent coups, revolutions, and wars that led to political breakdown. Pakistan, an early target of foreign development efforts, is a prime example. Economic planning fell out of favor intellectually with the Reagan-Thatcher revolution in the late 1980s and was replaced by orthodox • 5 • • Francis Fukuyama economic liberalism as the dominant conceptual framework. But most importantly, none of the approaches popular in any given decade proved adequate to promote sustained long-term growth in countries with weak institutions or where local elites were uninterested or incapable of managing the development process themselves. The record is particularly horrendous in the world’s poorest region, sub-Saharan Africa, many of whose countries have experienced negative per capita growth in gross domestic product (GDP) and regression in institutional development, even though some 10 percent of the entire region’s GNP is provided by outside donors.7 Where sustained economic growth did occur, particularly in East Asia, it tended to come about under the leadership of domestic elites and not as a result of the efforts of foreign donors, lenders, or allies.8 To the extent that there has been intellectual progress in this area, it lies in an appreciation for the complexity and multidimensionality of the development problem.

 

pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters

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Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technoutopianism, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine

Instead, they worked on building a brain-inspired machine that was “capable of carrying out complex creative activities,” continuously seeking to reveal the “higher intellect” of machines modeled after mechanisms of the mind.18 If there was a danger in the brain and machine metaphor, it ran only one way for Glushkov: “the danger is not that machines will begin to think like people,” he intoned, “but that people will begin to think like machines.”19 Are National Networks More Like Brains or Nervous Systems? In 1962, Glushkov imagined the OGAS as a “brainlike” (mozgopodnobyi) network for managing the national economy and extending the life experience of the nation and its inhabitants. Consider the implications for the cybernetic analog between neural networks and national computer networks. As already noted, cybernetics brings to bear powerful conceptual frameworks for imagining structural analogies between ontologically different information systems—organisms, machines, societies, and others. The cybernetic instinct rushes many visionaries to profound structural insights but also to overly determined design decisions. The circuitry of a computer chip and the neural networks of a mind do not resemble each other, although cybernetics earns its keep by finding usable analogs between them.

 

pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Varacalli, Joseph A. 2006. The Catholic Experience in America. The American Religious Experience. Westwood, CT: Greenwood Press. Walker, Renee E., Christopher R. Keane, and Jessica G. Burke. 2010. “Disparities and Access to Healthy Food in the United States: A Review of Food Deserts Literature.” Health and Place 16:876–84. Weber, Lynn. 2001. Understanding Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality: A Conceptual Framework. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wolff, Naomi. 1991. The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used against Women. New York: William and Morrow. Yoder, Brian L. 2011.

 

Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television by Jerry Mander

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Alistair Cooke, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, full employment, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, music of the spheres, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics

Our information is narrowed to only what the telescope provides. If we don't experience a wider informa- tion field, we lose knowledge of that field's existence. We become the hermit in the cave who knows only what the TV offers. We experience what is, not knowing what isn't. The people who control television become the choreog- raphers of our internal awareness. We give way to their pro- cess of choosing information. We live within their conceptual frameworks. We travel to places on the planet which they choose and to situations which they decide we should see. What we can know is narrowed to what they know, and then narrowed further to what they select to send us through this instrument of theirs. The kind of people who control television is certainly a problem. But this is only the beginning. While our field of knowledge is constrained by their venality and arrogance, the people who run television are constrained by the instrument itself.

 

pages: 297 words: 91,141

Market Sense and Nonsense by Jack D. Schwager

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asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Brownian motion, collateralized debt obligation, commodity trading advisor, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, high net worth, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, merger arbitrage, pattern recognition, performance metric, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, transaction costs, two-sided market, value at risk, yield curve

In a chess tournament, a few highly skilled players will win most of the games by exploiting the mistakes of weaker players. Much like chess, it seems only reasonable to expect a few highly skilled market participants to interpret the same information—the current position of the market chessboard, so to speak—differently from the majority, and reach variant conclusions about the probable market direction. In this conceptual framework, mistakes by a majority of less skilled market participants can drive prices to incorrect levels (that is, prices out of line with the unknown equilibrium level), creating opportunities for more skilled traders. Quite simply, equal dissemination of knowledge does not imply equal use of knowledge. Since all market participants pay commissions and are subject to slippage, the majority of participants are doomed to below-average results.

 

pages: 271 words: 83,944

The Sellout: A Novel by Paul Beatty

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affirmative action, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, desegregation, El Camino Real, haute couture, illegal immigration, Lao Tzu, late fees, p-value, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, theory of mind, War on Poverty, white flight

It’s been drilled into my head ever since I was old enough to play One of These Things Just Doesn’t Belong and my father made me point out the token white guy in the Lakers team photo. Mark Landsberger, where are you when I need you? “The distinguishing feature of Stage II blackness is a heightened awareness of race. Here race is still all-consuming, but in a more positive fashion. Blackness becomes an essential component in one’s experiential and conceptual framework. Blackness is idealized, whiteness reviled. Emotions range from bitterness, anger, and self-destruction to waves of pro-Black euphoria and ideas of Black supremacy…” To avoid detection I go under the table, but the joint’s not hitting right. I can’t get any intake. From my newfound hiding place I struggle to keep the ember burning, while catching odd-angled glimpses of photographs of Foy Cheshire, Jesse Jackson, Sojourner Truth, Moms Mabley, Kim Kardashian, and my father.

 

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

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business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Thus correlations do not supersede causation, but rather should form the basis for additional research to establish if such correlations are indicative of causation. Only then can we get a sense as to how meaningful are the causes of the correlation. While the idea that data can speak for themselves free of bias or framing may seem like an attractive one, the reality is somewhat different. As Gould (1981: 166) notes, ‘inanimate data can never speak for themselves, and we always bring to bear some conceptual framework, either intuitive and illformed, or tightly and formally structured, to the task of investigation, analysis, and interpretation’. Making sense of data is always framed; examined through a particular lens that casts how it is interpreted. Even if the process is automated in some way, the algorithms used to process the data are imbued with particular values and contextualised within a particular scientific approach.

 

pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel

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Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

For a visual, conceptual breakdown of modeling methods that’s clickable: Saed Sayad, PhD, “An Introduction to Data Mining.” http://chem-eng.utoronto.ca/~datamining/dmc/data_mining_map.htm. Merger that made Chase the largest U.S. bank holding company in 1996: JPMorgan Chase & Co. website, “History of Our Firm.” www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/About-JPMC/jpmorgan-history.htm. The history of risk scoring: Vitalie BUMACOV and Arvind ASHTA, “The Conceptual Framework of Credit Scoring from Its Origins to Microfinance (Draft),” Burgundy School of Business, June 2, 2011. http://tinyurl.com/c7fs9cz. David Durand, Risk Elements in Consumer Instalment Financing (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1941), ISBN: 0-870-14124-4. www.nber.org/books/dura41–1. A perspective on micro-risk management: James Taylor, JT on EDM. “Risk by Risk—A Decision-Centric Approach to Risk Management,” DecisionManagementSolutions.com blog post, February 15, 2010. http://jtonedm.com/2010/02/15/risk-by-risk-a-decision-centric-approach-to-risk-management/.

 

pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

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access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

The military and political success of ISIS, and the ineptitude of Western powers in constructing a multi-religious Iraq have planted the seeds of yet another endless war in the most unstable and strategically decisive region of the planet. The investigation presented in this book stops at the threshold of understanding this barbaric confrontation, as it would require a different set of information and a different conceptual framework. I would simply add that the inability of authentic social movements to overcome the violence of the state, and their subsequent attempt to engage in the same kind of violence usually end up in the destruction of the social movement, and in justifying additional violence. Under such conditions, the actors, state or non-state, able to implement the highest level of violence are the winners, while people at large are the dramatic losers under all circumstances.

 

pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

“True success in strategic issues involves manipulating a situation so effectively that the outcome is inevitably in favor of Chinese interests. This emerges from the oldest Chinese strategic thinker, Sun Zi, who argued that ‘every battle is won or lost before it is ever fought.’”18 The United States understands how to handle a traditional military-political advance. After all, this was the nature of the Soviet threat and the Nazi rise to power. The United States has a conceptual framework as well as the tools—weapons, aid packages, alliances—with which to confront such an advance. Were China to push its weight around, anger its neighbors, and frighten the world, Washington would be able to respond with a set of effective policies that would take advantage of the natural balancing process by which Japan, India, Australia, and Vietnam—and perhaps others—would come together to limit China’s emerging power.

 

pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Broadly speaking, in tech circles, open systems—like the Internet itself—are always good, while closed systems—like the classic broadcast model—are bad. Open is Google and Wi-Fi, decentralization and entrepreneurialism, the United States and Wikipedia. Closed equals Hollywood and cable television, central planning and entrenched industry, China and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. However imprecisely the terms are applied, the dichotomy of open versus closed (sometimes presented as freedom versus control) provides the conceptual framework that increasingly underpins much of the current thinking about technology, media, and culture. The fetish for openness can be traced back to the foundational myths of the Internet as a wild, uncontrollable realm. In 1996 John Perry Barlow, the former Grateful Dead lyricist and cattle ranger turned techno-utopian firebrand, released an influential manifesto, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” from Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, the annual meeting of the world’s business elite.

 

pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

But with efficiency wages employers are doing exactly that. They are paying more for their labor than needed merely to get their labor force to show up for work. In contrast it would make no sense to have a theory of the stock market or the wheat market in which buyers do not want to pay less for what they buy. The efficiency wage theory further contradicts economists’ theoretical intuitions because it violates their usual conceptual framework of how to set up a theoretical problem. The usual methodology of economics is to ask questions, first on the demand side of the market and then on the supply side. According to this protocol, regarding the purchase of labor one would first ask: who are the potential employers? And then, at any given wage, how much labor would they want? The answers to these queries yield the demand for labor.

 

pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, conceptual framework, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket

Hacker, ‘Military institutions, Weapons, and Social Change: Toward a New History of Military Technology’, Technology and Culture, Vol. 35 (1994), pp. 768–834. 2. J. F. C. Fuller, Armament and History (New York: Scribners, 1945). 3. Van Creveld, for example, is clear that there are differences: ‘since technology and war operate on a logic which is not only different but actually opposed, the conceptual framework that is useful, even vital, for dealing with the one should not be allowed to interfere with the other’. Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War: from 2000 BC to the Present (London: Brassey’s, 1991), p. 320. 4. Bernard Davy, Air Power and Civilisation (London: Allen & Unwin, 1941), p. 116. 5. Ibid., p. 148. 6. H. G. Wells, A Short History of the World (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1946), p. 308. 7.

 

pages: 923 words: 516,602

The C++ Programming Language by Bjarne Stroustrup

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combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, database schema, distributed generation, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, index card, iterative process, job-hopping, locality of reference, Menlo Park, Parkinson's law, premature optimization, sorting algorithm

In each case, one must wonder if the implementation language was well chosen, if the design method was well chosen, or if the designer had failed to adapt to the tool in hand. There is nothing unusual or shameful in such a mismatch. It is simply a mismatch that delivers sub-optimal designs and imposes unnecessary burdens on programmers. It does the same to designers when the conceptual framework of the design method is noticeably poorer than C++’s conceptual framework. Therefore, we avoid such mismatches wherever possible. The following discussion is phrased as answers to objections because that is the way it often occurs in real life. 24.2.1 Ignoring Classes [lang.ignore.class] Consider design that ignores classes. The resulting C++ program will be roughly equivalent to the C program that would have resulted from the same design process – and this program would again be roughly equivalent to the COBOL program that would have resulted from the same design process.

These are then refined repeatedly (§23.4.3.5) to reach a set of class relationships that are sufficiently general, flexible, and stable to be of real help in the further evolution of a system. The best tool for finding initial key concepts/classes is a blackboard. The best method for their initial refinement is discussions with experts in the application domain and a couple of friends. Discussion is necessary to develop a viable initial vocabulary and conceptual framework. Few people can do that alone. One way to evolve a set of useful classes from an initial set of candidates is to simulate a system, with designers taking the roles of classes. This brings the inevitable absurdities of the initial ideas out into the open, stimulates discussion of alternatives, and creates a shared understanding of the evolving design. This activity can be supported by and documented by notes on index cards.

 

pages: 1,197 words: 304,245

The Invention of Science: A New History of the Scientific Revolution by David Wootton

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, British Empire, clockwork universe, Commentariolus, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, fudge factor, germ theory of disease, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, placebo effect, QWERTY keyboard, Republic of Letters, spice trade, spinning jenny, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

For this odd Assertion, I find to be contradicted by frequent practice of Diamond Cutters: And particularly having enquir’d of one of them, to whom abundance of those Gems are brought to be fitted for the Jeweller and Goldsmith, he assur’d me, That he makes much of his Powder to Polish Diamonds with, only, by beating board Diamonds (as they call them) in a Steel or Iron Morter, and that he has that way made with ease, some hundreds of Carrats of Diamond Dust.73 The assertion that goat’s blood softens diamonds seemed odd to Boyle, because he had escaped from the old conceptual framework of sympathy and antipathy, according to which there was a natural sympathy between the lodestone and goat’s blood and a natural antipathy between the diamond and goat’s blood. But all that was required to abolish this conceptual scheme was an insistence on direct as opposed to indirect experience.xi The result of such an approach, which looks to us just like common sense but was revolutionary at the time, was a transformation in the reliability of knowledge.74 William Wotton, in his Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1694), put it like this: Nullius in verba [‘Take no man’s word for it’, i.e. defer to no authority]xii is not only the motto of the ROYAL SOCIETY, but a received Principle among all the Philosophers of the present Age.

Science offers reliable knowledge (that is, reliable prediction and control), not truth.29 One day we may discover that some of our most cherished forms of knowledge are as obsolete as epicycles, phlogiston, caloric, the electromagnetic aether and, indeed, Newtonian physics. But it seems virtually certain that future scientists will still be talking about facts and theories, experiments and hypotheses. This conceptual framework has proved remarkably stable, even while the scientific knowledge it is used to describe and justify has changed beyond all recognition. Just as any progressive knowledge of natural processes would need a concept akin to ‘discovery’, so as further advances occurred it would need a way of representing knowledge as both reliable and defeasible: terms that do the work done by ‘facts’, ‘theories’ and ‘hypotheses’ would have to play a role in any mature scientific enterprise.

 

The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop

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Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process

I first tried to find close relevance within es- tablished disciplines [such as artificial intelligence,] but in each case I found that the people I would talk with would immediately translate my admittedly strange (for the times) statements of purpose and possibility into their own discipline's framework."9 At the 1960 meeting of the American Documentation Institute, a talk he gave was greeted with yawns, and his proposed augmentation environ- ment was dismissed as just another information-retrieval system. No, Engelbart realized, if his augmentation ideas were ever going to fly, he would have to create a new discipline from scratch. And to do that, he would have to give this new discipline a conceptual framework all its own-a manifesto that would layout his thinking in the most compelling way possible. Creating that manifesto took him the better part of two years. "Augmenting the Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" wouldn't be completed until October 1962. But Engelbart was nothing if not dogged. "By 'augmenting man's intellect,' " he wrote, struggling to articulate his own gut feelings, "we mean in- creasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to prob- lems. . . .

 

pages: 488 words: 144,145

Inflated: How Money and Debt Built the American Dream by R. Christopher Whalen

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, debt deflation, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global reserve currency, housing crisis, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, non-tariff barriers, oil shock, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Davidson, Morgan Partner; Paul Warburg, Kuhn Loeb partner; Frank A. Vanderlip, vice-president of Rockefeller’s National City Bank of New York; Charles D. Norton, president of Morgan’s First National Bank of New York; and Professor A. Piatt Andrew, head of the NMC staff, who had recently been made an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury under Taft, and who was a technician with a foot in both the Rockefeller and Morgan camps.31 But of course the conceptual framework for the central bank already was in place long before the Jekyll Island meeting. The architect of that design, Lawrence Laughlin, became the most visible and credible national advocate of the Federal Reserve proposal. Laughlin testified before the Congress and made statements in favor of the proposal put forward by the National Monetary Commission. His brainchild not only centralized and rationalized the nation’s currency system, but Laughlin’s creation had the additional benefit of removing the machinations of the private bankers from public view.

 

pages: 404 words: 134,430

Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time by Michael Shermer

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological principle, discovery of DNA, false memory syndrome, Gary Taubes, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, Co-Directors of the Center for Evolutionary Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, have summarized the field this way in a 1994 descriptive brochure: Evolutionary psychology is based on the recognition that the human brain consists of a large collection of functionally specialized computational devices that evolved to solve the adaptive problems regularly encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Because humans share a universal evolved architecture, all ordinary individuals reliably develop a distinctively human set of preferences, motives, shared conceptual frameworks, emotion programs, content-specific reasoning procedures, and specialized interpretation systems— programs that operate beneath the surface of expressed cultural variability, and whose designs constitute a precise definition of human nature. In his new book, How the Mind Works (W. W. Norton, 1997), Steven Pinker describes these specialized computational devices as "mental modules." The "module" is a metaphor, and is not necessarily located in a single spot in the brain, and should not be confused with the nineteenth century notion of phrenologists who allocated specific bumps on the head for specific brain functions.

 

pages: 868 words: 149,572

CSS: The Definitive Guide by Eric A. Meyer

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centre right, conceptual framework, Ralph Waldo Emerson

In a sense, p#two and all of its children share a z-index of 7, while having their own mini-z-index within the context of p#two. Put another way, it's as though the b element has a z-index of 7,36 while the em's value is 7,-42. These are merely implied conceptual values; they don't conform to anything in the specification. However, such a system helps to illustrate how the overall stacking order is determined. Consider: p#one 10 p#one b 10,-404 p#two b 7,36 p#two 7 p#two em 7,-42 p#three b 1,23 p#three 1 This conceptual framework precisely describes the order in which these elements would be stacked. While the descendants of an element can be above or below that element in the stacking order, they are all grouped together with their ancestor. It is also the case that an element that establishes a stacking context for its descendants is placed at the 0 position of that context's z-axis. Thus, you could extend the framework as follows: p#one 10,0 p#one b 10,-404 p#two b 7,36 p#two 7,0 p#two em 7,-42 p#three b 1,23 p#three 1,0 There remains one more value to examine.

 

pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman

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British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

It is a very partial version of the truth (the British suffered many more casualties in the operation). But it was enough. The empire that emerged from the war was a much less top-down association. It was soon time to send for the now septuagenarian Arthur Balfour, who chaired a committee which agreed that the white Dominions of the empire could in future be as independent as they chose. At the end of the war, the whole conceptual framework of empire looked shaky. Empire had become an official project and the awful loss of life had done nothing at all to enhance belief in the wisdom of government. (The great celebrant of empire, Rudyard Kipling, had lost his own son at the battle of Loos in September 1915: just turned eighteen when he was last seen staggering through the mud, half his face hanging off.) The emerging force in British politics, the Labour party, was more interested in improving living conditions at home than in the country’s possessions abroad.

 

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Even such shrewd observers of modern politics as Zbigniew Brzezinski and Carl Friedrich told readers of their 1965 classic, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, to forget institutions altogether: “The reader may wonder why we do not discuss the ‘structure of government,’ or perhaps ‘the constitution’ of these totalitarian systems. The reason is that these structures are of very little importance.” Such rigid conceptual frameworks may have helped in understanding Stalinism, but this is too simplistic of a perspective to explain much of what is going on inside today’s authoritarian states, which are busy organizing elections, setting up parliaments, and propping up their judiciaries. If authoritarian regimes are bold enough to allow elections, for reasons of their own, what makes us think they wouldn’t also allow blogs for reasons that Western analysts may not be able to understand yet?

 

pages: 465 words: 124,074

Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism From Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda by John Mueller

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, energy security, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, side project, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

In The Dispersion of Nuclear Weapons: Strategy and Politics, ed. Richard Rosecrance. New York: Columbia University Press, 293–314. ______. 1975. Strategic Deterrence Reconsidered. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, Adelphi Paper No. 116 (Spring). ______. 1986. The Rise of the Trading State: Conquest and Commerce in the Modern World. New York: Basic Books. Rosenberg, David Alan. 1994. “The History of World War III, 1945–1990: A Conceptual Framework.” In On Cultural Ground: Essays in International History, ed. Robert David Johnson. Chicago: Imprint Publications, 197–235. Ross, Brian. 2005. “Secret FBI Report Questions Al Qaeda Capabilities: No ‘True’ Al Qaeda Sleeper Agents Have Been Found in U.S.” ABC News 9 March. abcnews. go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=566425&page=1 Rothgeb, John M., Jr. 1993. Defining Power: Influence and Force in the Contemporary International System.

 

Programming Android by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

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anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application

Update The update method of the ContentProvider class is analogous to the REST UPDATE operation. It replaces records in the database with updated records. Delete The delete method of the ContentProvider class is analogous to the REST DELETE operation. It removes matching records from the database. Tip REST stands for “Representational State Transfer.” It isn’t a formal protocol the way that HTTP is. It is more of a conceptual framework for using HTTP as a basis for easy access to data. While REST implementations may differ, they all strive for simplicity. Android’s content provider API formalizes REST-like operations into an API and is designed in the spirit of REST’s simplicity. You can find more information on REST on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST. Content provider components are the heart of the Android content model: by providing a ContentProvider, your application can share data with other applications and manage the data model of an application.

 

pages: 655 words: 141,257

Programming Android: Java Programming for the New Generation of Mobile Devices by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

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anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application

Update The update method of the ContentProvider class is analogous to the REST UPDATE operation. It replaces records in the database with updated records. Delete The delete method of the ContentProvider class is analogous to the REST DELETE operation. It removes matching records from the database. Tip REST stands for “Representational State Transfer.” It isn’t a formal protocol the way that HTTP is. It is more of a conceptual framework for using HTTP as a basis for easy access to data. While REST implementations may differ, they all strive for simplicity. Android’s content provider API formalizes REST-like operations into an API and is designed in the spirit of REST’s simplicity. You can find more information on REST on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST. Content provider components are the heart of the Android content model: by providing a ContentProvider, your application can share data with other applications and manage the data model of an application.

 

pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Schivelbusch’s assessment of train travel is an instructive point of comparison here because he is explicitly concerned with the effect of transportation technologies on the collective experience of space and time. according to his thesis, the high speed of train travel fundamentally distorted passengers’ perception of the natural environment by inhibiting their ability to take in the details of their surroundings. at the same time, the train cultivated a new perspective that he calls the panoramic view: one that frames the landscape as an object to be aesthetically contemplated and appreciated, much like a painting.167 This techno-aesthetic practice encouraged the objectification of the landscape and contributed to the development of a broader industrialized consciousness that frames space and time in the abstract.168 Bicycling did not create the same subject/object split as the passenger train, but like train travel it facilitated a unique way of seeing that was both a literal vantage point as well as a conceptual framework that gave meaning to one’s point of view, and by extension, one’s form of mobility. an aptly titled 1895 magazine piece called “Some Thoughts on landscape” hints at some of the ways in which bicycling constructs the landscape as both a subject of auto-mobile desire and an object of the bicyclist’s gaze: Our high pressure, our covetous greed of the minute, have placed the bicycle upon the road in its thousands; and out of evil there has in this way come good, for it is to the green country that the fevered youth of the nation race, with rustling rubber and sharp-sounding bell. as they rush through the air and flash past the village and field, there is borne in upon them the educational germ of a love for land scape; they see, and they cannot help noting, the contrast between smoke-grimed cities and “fresh woods and pastures new.”169 Here one can see bicycling contributing to a specifically aesthetic conceptualization of nature; one that resonated with a population that sought to preserve landscapes through photography. indeed, several companies produced and marketed cameras explicitly for cyclists, including models that could be mounted directly to the bicycle itself.

 

pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

My account of Douglas Engelbart’s work draws on readings from his work collected at the Bootstrap Institute Web site at http://www.bootstrap.org/, as well as the accounts in Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping (Stanford University Press, 2000); Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought (Simon & Schuster, 1985); and John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (Viking, 2005). The video of Engelbart’s 1968 demo is at http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/1968Demo.htm. “store ideas, study them”: From the Invisible Revolution Web site, devoted to Engelbart’s ideas, at http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/nls.htm. “successful achievements can be utilized”: From the “Whom to Augment First?” section of Engelbart’s 1962 paper, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” at http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers /B5_F18_ConceptFrameworkPt4.htm. “an improving of the improvement process”: Bootstrap Institute home page at http://www.bootstrap.org/. “the feeding back of positive research”: In the “Basic Regenerative Feature” section of Engelbart’s 1962 paper, “Augmenting Human Intellect,” at http:// sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers/ B5_F18_ConceptFramework Pt4.htm.

 

pages: 499 words: 152,156

Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth, and Faith in the New China by Evan Osnos

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conceptual framework, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Gini coefficient, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, Mohammed Bouazizi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rolodex, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, transcontinental railway, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional

In the winter of 2009, Lin splurged on a trip to Thailand for himself and his mother. Before he flew, he visited a bookstore in Chengdu and happened on the memoir of a monk. He was not prepared for the effect it had on him. “I found Buddha to be an inspiration. He invited me to think bravely about this world,” Lin said. “Buddha could challenge any social norms, such as the caste system of India,” he went on. “He rethought the conceptual framework he had from day one.” Lin spent the trip to Thailand in his hotel room, absorbed in the book—“I never even went to the pool”—and when he returned, he began frequenting a Buddhist institute near his apartment in Beijing. His moment of transformation came when he grasped the idea, as he put it, that “this world is a fantasy.” He found it impossible to imagine going back to the work he had before.

 

pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

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23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Sequencing the genome of single cells has made it clear that we’re all mosaics.16,17 For example, researchers at the Salk Institute did single-cell sequencing of brain cells from individuals who had died and found striking differences from one cell to the next.17 Part of this mosaicism is explained by so-called de novo mutations, which occur in cells when they divide over the course of one’s life. We’ve also learned about the remarkable extent of heterogeneity that exists from one cancer cell to another. So moving from the conceptual framework of sequencing an individual’s DNA to that of a cell has already taught us some invaluable, disease-relevant lessons. There are important limitations to acknowledge about sequencing. When a person undergoes sequencing (some are now calling this getting “genomed”) there will typically be about 3.5 million variant bases compared with the human reference genome. But, as we discussed with BRCA, Myriad Genetics, and the Supreme Court ruling, most will be variants of unknown significance (VUS).

 

pages: 545 words: 137,789

How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy

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Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, asset allocation, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, diversification, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, incomplete markets, index fund, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Network effects, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, paradox of thrift, Ponzi scheme, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Vanguard fund

He became a successful economic consultant, advising many big corporations, including Alcoa, J.P. Morgan, and U.S. Steel. In 1968, he advised Richard Nixon during his successful run for the presidency, and under Gerald Ford he acted as chairman of the White House Council of Economic Advisers. In 1987, he returned to Washington, this time permanently, to head the Fed and personify the triumph of free market economics. Now Greenspan was on the defensive. An ideology is just a conceptual framework for dealing with reality, he said to Waxman. “To exist, you need an ideology. The question is whether it is accurate or not. What I am saying to you is, yes, I found a flaw. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is, but I have been very distressed by that fact.” Waxman interrupted him. “You found a flaw?” he demanded. Greenspan nodded. “I found a flaw in the model that I perceived as the critical functioning structure that defines how the world works, so to speak,” he said.

 

pages: 566 words: 155,428

After the Music Stopped: The Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead by Alan S. Blinder

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial innovation, fixed income, friendly fire, full employment, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, McMansion, moral hazard, naked short selling, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, the payments system, time value of money, too big to fail, working-age population, yield curve, Yogi Berra

Journalists, academics, and the like have, of course, penned hundreds of articles and op-eds on the origins of the crisis and the responses to it—including a few by yours truly. But mass media outlets require such brevity that anything remotely resembling a comprehensive explanation of something as complex as the financial crisis is out of the question. Twelve seconds of TV time constitutes a journalistic essay. While this book tells the story in what I hope is an intelligible manner, its more important goal is to provide a conceptual framework through which both the salient facts and the litany of policy responses can be understood. More concretely, I want to provide answers to the following three critical questions: How Did We Ever Get into Such a Mess? The objective here is not to affix blame, though some of that will inevitably (and deservedly) be done, but rather to highlight and analyze the many mistakes that were made so we don’t repeat them again.

 

pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

There’s evidence of this being proposed among the ancient Greeks and in India and Islamic cultures during the European Middle Ages. I think this question shows the extent to which a major paradigm shift depends on more than just some additional empirical data and more than just a brilliant new theory using a new concept. It really depends on a much larger context so that the seed of a potentially powerful idea falls on a whole different soil, out of which this organism, this new conceptual framework, can grow—literally a “conception” in a new cultural and historical womb or matrix. Richard Tarnas and Dean Radin, “The Timing of Paradigm Shifts,” Noetic Now, January 2012. 15 In the corporate sector, worker cooperatives have failed to achieve any meaningful traction. The ones that prevail are often run on practices that are a combination of Orange and Green. One often-cited success story is Mondragon, a conglomerate of cooperatives based in a Basque town of the same name in Spain (around 250 companies, employing roughly 100,000 people, with a turnover of around €15 billion).

 

pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

I have applied RCT methodology in my own research. I believe that packaged interventions should be verified by RCTs more often. I’m on the board of JPAL’s sister organization, Innovations for Poverty Action, a nonprofit that also runs RCTs and whose work I deeply respect and support. But if RCTs are an essential tool of decision-making for social policy, they still need to be placed within a larger conceptual framework. If a world-renowned economist and careful experimentalist such as Duflo can’t avoid the pathologies of packaged interventions, it’s not clear that other researchers running RCTs can either. A single methodology cannot be the sole paradigm for determining what’s right for social change. The problem is not RCTs themselves as much as careless interpretation of their results.19 An RCT is just one good tool in the toolbox of program evaluation.

 

pages: 500 words: 145,005

Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler

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Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, impulse control, index fund, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, late fees, law of one price, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market clearing, Mason jar, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, More Guns, Less Crime, mortgage debt, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, New Journalism, nudge unit, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, presumed consent, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel

For example, if you want to quit smoking, you could write a large check to someone you see often with permission to cash the check if you are seen smoking. Or you can make that bet with yourself, what Ainslie calls a “private side bet.” You could say to yourself, “I won’t watch the game on television tonight until I finish [some task you are tempted to postpone].” Armed with the insights of Strotz, Mischel, and Ainslie, I set out to create a conceptual framework to discuss these problems that economists would still recognize as being economics. The crucial theoretical question I wanted to answer was this: if I know I am going to change my mind about my preferences (I will not limit myself to a few more cashew nuts, as I intend, rather I will eat the entire bowl), when and why would I take some action to restrict my future choices? We all have occasions on which we change our minds, but usually we do not go to extraordinary steps to prevent ourselves from deviating from the original plan.

 

pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

Despite its limitations, our experience in introducing this model and earlier versions of it across the professions has been encouraging, and seems to capture the substance and direction of change as well as the choices that the professions are facing. Our hope for the model is that it helps professionals explain and predict the developments they are witnessing within their own fields, and that it offers a common vocabulary and conceptual framework for comparative analysis across different professional disciplines. There is one further characteristic of the model that should be borne in mind from the outset. We are not suggesting, for any particular piece of professional work—for instance, the treatment of a patient, the resolution of a dispute for a legal client, the teaching of a class, the auditing of a company’s accounts, the investigation of events or the reporting of a story for a reader—that the challenge for professionals is to determine into which of our boxes their work sits.

 

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

Retrieved from http://sais.aisnet.org/sais2004/ Greiner.pdf Grossman, W. (2001). From anarchy to power: The net comes of age. New York: NYU Press. Gruber, J., & Trickett, E. J. (1987). Can we empower others? The paradox of empower­ ment in the governing of an alternative public school. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(3), 353–371. Guo, C., & Musso, J. A. (2007). Representation in nonprofit and voluntary organizations: A conceptual framework. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 308–326. Hafner, K. (2007, August 19). Seeing corporate fingerprints in Wikipedia edits. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/19/tech nology/19wikipedia.html Haley, H., & Sidanius, J. (2005). Person-organization congruence and the maintenance of group-based social hierarchy: A social dominance perspective. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8(2), 187–203.

 

pages: 504 words: 139,137

Efficiently Inefficient: How Smart Money Invests and Market Prices Are Determined by Lasse Heje Pedersen

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algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, commodity trading advisor, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, late capitalism, law of one price, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, market design, market friction, merger arbitrage, mortgage debt, New Journalism, paper trading, passive investing, price discovery process, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, systematic trading, technology bubble, time value of money, total factor productivity, transaction costs, value at risk, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

GEORGE SOROS’S THEORY OF BOOM/BUST CYCLES AND REFLEXIVITY George Soros is one of the most successful investors of all times. In addition to being a successful investor, he is a philanthropist, opinion maker, and philosopher. Soros has developed a theory of boom/bust cycles and reflexivity, as he describes in the following excerpt from a recent lecture.5 Let me state the two cardinal principles of my conceptual framework as it applies to the financial markets. First, market prices always distort the underlying fundamentals. The degree of distortion may range from the negligible to the significant. This is in direct contradiction to the efficient market hypothesis, which maintains that market prices accurately reflect all the available information. Second, instead of playing a purely passive role in reflecting an underlying reality, financial markets also have an active role: they can affect the so-called fundamentals they are supposed to reflect.

 

pages: 405 words: 121,531

Influence: Science and Practice by Robert B. Cialdini

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Albert Einstein, attribution theory, bank run, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, desegregation, experimental subject, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Ralph Waldo Emerson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Leakey, R., & Lewin, R. (1978). People of the lake. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday. Lee, F., Peterson, C., & Tiedens, L. Z. (2004). Mea culpa: Predicting stock prices from organizational attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 1636–1649. Lee, K. M., & Nas, C. (2004). The multiple source effect and synthesized speech: Doubly disembodied language as a conceptual framework. Human Communication Research, 30, 182–207. Lefkowitz, M., Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1955). Status factors in pedestrian violation of traffic signals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 704–706. Leippe, M. R., & Elkin, R. A. (1987). When motives clash: Issue involvement and response involvement as determinants of persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 269–278.

 

Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

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Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

201 Expected Decision Costs Percentage of Population Required to Make Decision figure 8.2 Participation versus Speed of Decision Making. Source: James M. Buchanan and Gordon Tullock, The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962). that has only one veto gate (the dictator’s will), to a perfect consensual democracy in which all citizens have to agree to a policy. The concept of veto gates in a sense reprises the conceptual framework laid out by James Buchanan and Gordon Tullock to explain the principle of majority voting, where they posited a clear trade-off between legitimacy and effectiveness (see figure 8.2).21 The more members of a society who participate in a decision, the higher are the expected decision costs; for large societies, the costs rise exponentially as one approaches consensus. Buchanan and Tullock argued that the principle of majority voting has no inherent normative logic; one can choose any point on the curve in figure 8.2 as an appropriate trade-off between effectiveness and legitimacy, and in the case of constitutional law, supermajorities are, indeed, often required.

 

pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

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affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, income inequality, informal economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Cloward When this ground-breaking work was first published in 1971, it dramatically revised our understanding of the welfare system and its hidden role in the larger socioeconomic framework of the United States. Substantially updated for 1990s, this analysis ranges from the early history of poor relief through the inception of welfare during the Great Depression to its massive erosion during the Reagan and Bush years. The authors provide a conceptual framework that sharply illuminates the problems current and future administrations will encounter as they attempt to rethink the welfare system. Political Science/Sociology/Social Work/0-679-74516-5 THE WORK OF NATIONS Preparing Ourselves for list-Century Capitalism by Robert B. Reich “An elegant and penetrating analysis of the forces that are leading the globalization of the international system and to the growing anachronism of thinking solely in ‘national’ terms.

 

pages: 410 words: 114,005

Black Box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes--But Some Do by Matthew Syed

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Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, British Empire, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, deliberate practice, double helix, epigenetics, fear of failure, fundamental attribution error, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, Isaac Newton, iterative process, James Dyson, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Lean Startup, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, Wall-E, Yom Kippur War

“There is little formal geometry in it, and, of course, no mention of Euclid, mostly heuristics, the kind of knowledge that comes out of a master guiding his apprentices . . . Builders could figure out the resistance of materials without the equations we have today—buildings that are, for the most part, still standing.”6 These examples do not show that theoretical knowledge is worthless. Quite the reverse. A conceptual framework is vital even for the most practical men going about their business. In many circumstances, new theories have led to direct technological breakthroughs (such as the atom bomb emerging from the Theory of Relativity). The real issue here is speed. Theoretical change is itself driven by a feedback mechanism, as we noted in chapter 3: science learns from failure. But when a theory fails, like say when the Unilever mathematicians failed in their attempt to create an efficient nozzle design, it takes time to come up with a new, all-encompassing theory.

 

pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

the Promise TV box: Rupert Goodwins, “Four-Strong Team Builds Digital TV Revolution,” ZDNet, March 25, 2012, accessed March 23, 2013, www.zdnet.com/four-strong-team-builds-digital-tv-revolution-3040154872/; “What is Promise.tv?” Promise TV Web site, accessed March 23, 2013, www.promise.tv/what-is-it.html. “You can integrate your new ideas more easily”: Douglas C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework” (Menlo Park, CA: Stanford Research Institute, 1962), accessed March 23, 2013, www.invisiblerevolution.net/engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html. when we use word processors we’re more iterative: Christina Haas, “How the Writing Medium Shapes the Writing Process: Effects of Word Processing on Planning,” Research in the Teaching of English 23, no. 2 (May 1989): 181–207; Ronald D. Owston, Sharon Murphy, and Herbert H.

 

pages: 467 words: 116,094

I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

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call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

., ‘The North Wind and the Sun’, Proc Roy Coll Phys Edin 1991 21(3); 319-327 Maudsley, G., Williams, E., ‘Inaccuracy in death certification: where are we now?’, J Public Health Med 1996; 18: 59-66 Mott, J. ‘Crime and Heroin Use’ in Policing and Prescribing: The British System of Drug Control, eds. Whynes, D.K., Bean, P.T. Macmillan: London, 1991. Newcombe, R. (1992), ‘The reduction of drug-related harm: a conceptual framework for theory, practice, and research’ in O’Hare et al (eds.), The Reduction of Drug Related Harm. London: Routledge, 1992 Newcombe, R., ISDD Druglink 1996: 11(i), pp.9–12 Newcombe R, Parker H., ‘Heroin use and acquisitive crime in an English Community’, Br J Sociol 1987, 38: 331–350 Payne-James, J.J., Dean, P.J., Keys, D.W. (1994), ‘Drug misusers in police custody’, J R Soc Med 1994; 87: 13–14 Plant, M.A., Drugs in Perspective.

 

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

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additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

A scholar of business, MacMillan devised his framework in the context of his field—business and management—and thus goes on to examine power dynamics within firms. But there is no reason why his approach cannot be applied to other fields—which is what I do in this book. A third big advantage of this way of looking at power is that it lets us distinguish among concepts such as power, might, force, authority, and influence. For instance, people commonly confuse the difference between power and influence. Here, MacMillan’s conceptual framework is very helpful. Both power and influence can change the behavior of others or, more specifically, make others do something or stop them from doing it. But influence seeks to change the perception of the situation, not the situation itself.2 So the MacMillan framework helps show that influence is a subset of power, in the sense that power includes not only actions that change the situation but also actions that alter the way the situation is perceived.

 

pages: 525 words: 153,356

The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class, 1910-2010 by Selina Todd

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call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, full employment, income inequality, manufacturing employment, New Urbanism, Red Clydeside, rent control, rising living standards, strikebreaker, The Spirit Level, unemployed young men, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, young professional

., ‘Triumph of the Poshocracy’, London Review of Books, vol. 35, no. 15 (8 August 2013) Rawnsley, S., ‘The Membership of the British Union of Fascists’, in K. Lunn and R. Thurlow (eds.), British Fascism. Essays on the Radical Right in Interwar Britain (London: Croom Helm, 1980) Reay, D., ‘Surviving in Dangerous Places: Working-class Women, Women’s Studies and Higher Education’, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 21, no. 1 (1998) ——‘A Useful Extension of Bourdieu’s Conceptual Framework? Emotional Capital as a Way of Understanding Mothers’ Involvement in Children’s Schooling’, Sociological Review, vol. 48, no. 4 (2000) Saltzman, R., ‘Folklore as Politics in Great Britain: Working-class Critiques of Upper-class Strike Breakers in the 1926 General Strike’, Anthropological Quarterly, vol. 67, no. 3 (1994) Savage, M., ‘Affluence and Social Change in the Making of Technocratic Middle-Class Identities: Britain, 1939–55’, Contemporary British History, vol. 22, no. 4 (2008) Smyth, J., ‘Resisting Labour: Unionists, Liberals, and Moderates in Glasgow between the Wars’, Historical Journal, vol. 46, no. 2 (2003) Thane, P., ‘What Difference Did the Vote Make?’

 

pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

The degree of exploitation corresponds to the quantity of surplus labor time, that is, the portion of the working day that extends beyond the time necessary for the worker to produce value equal to the wage he or she is paid. Surplus labor time and the surplus value produced during that time are the key to Marx’s definition of exploitation. This temporal measure gave Marx a clear and convenient conceptual framework and also made his theory directly applicable in his era to the workers’ struggle to shorten the length of the working day. But today, in the paradigm of immaterial production, the theory of value cannot be conceived in terms of measured quantities of time, and so exploitation cannot be understood in these terms. Just as we must understand the production of value in terms of the common, so too must we try to conceive exploitation as the expropriation of the common.

 

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

New York: Oxford University Press. Genovese, J.E.C. 2002. Cognitive skills valued by educators: Historical content analysis of testing in Ohio. Journal of Educational Research, 96, 101–14. Ghosn, F., Palmer, G., & Bremer, S. 2004. The MID 3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, coding rules, and description. Conflict Management & Peace Science, 21, 133–54. Giancola, P. R. 2000. Executive functioning: A conceptual framework for alcohol-related aggression. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 576–97. Gibbons, A. 1997. Archeologists rediscover cannibals. Science, 277, 635–37. Gigerenzer, G. 2006. Out of the frying pan into the fire: Behavioral reactions to terrorist attacks. Risk Analysis, 26, 347–51. Gigerenzer, G., & Murray, D. J. 1987. Cognition as intuitive statistics. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Evidence from a cross-national panel of robbery and violent theft rates. London School of Economics. Newman, M.E.J. 2005. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf’s law. Contemporary Physics, 46, 323–51. Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. 1996. Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. New York: HarperCollins. North, D. C., Wallis, J. J., & Weingast, B. R. 2009. Violence and social orders: A conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nowak, M. A. 2006. Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science, 314, 1560–63. Nowak, M. A., May, R. M., & Sigmund, K. 1995. The arithmetic of mutual help. Scientific American, 272, 50–55. Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. 1998. Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature, 393, 573–77. Nunberg, G. 2006.

 

pages: 667 words: 186,968

The Great Influenza by John M. Barry

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Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, Chance favours the prepared mind, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, index card, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, means of production, statistical model, the medium is the message, the scientific method, traveling salesman, women in the workforce

Little medical research was being done in America—although the little that was done was significant—but even that little he had no part of. In Europe science was marching from advance to advance, breakthrough to breakthrough. The most important of these was the germ theory of disease. Proving and elaborating upon the germ theory would ultimately open the way to confronting all infectious disease. It would also create the conceptual framework and technical tools that Welch and others later used to fight influenza. Simply put, the germ theory said that minute living organisms invaded the body, multiplied, and caused disease, and that a specific germ caused a specific disease. There was need for a new theory of disease. As the nineteenth century progressed, as autopsy findings were correlated with symptoms reported during life, as organs from animals and cadavers were put under a microscope, as normal organs were compared to diseased ones, as diseases became more defined, localized, and specific, scientists finally discarded the ideas of systemic illness and the humours of Hippocrates and Galen and began looking for better explanations.

 

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

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additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra

We are shrinking the key feature size of technology, in accordance with the law of accelerating returns, at the exponential rate of approximately a factor of four per linear dimension per decade.68 At this rate the key feature sizes for most electronic and many mechanical technologies will be in the nanotechnology range—generally considered to be under one hundred nanometers—by the 2020s. (Electronics has already dipped below this threshold, although not yet in three-dimensional structures and not yet self-assembling.) Meanwhile rapid progress has been made, particularly in the last several years, in preparing the conceptual framework and design ideas for the coming age of nanotechnology. As important as the biotechnology revolution discussed above will be, once its methods are fully mature, limits will be encountered in biology itself. Although biological systems are remarkable in their cleverness, we have also discovered that they are dramatically suboptimal. I've mentioned the extremely slow speed of communication in the brain, and as I discuss below (see p. 253), robotic replacements for our red blood cells could be thousands of times more efficient than their biological counterparts.69 Biology will never be able to match what we will be capable of engineering once we fully understand biology's principles of operation.

 

pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

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business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

Robin: I don’t like the term “computer scientist” because it puts too much emphasis on the computer, and I think the computer is just an instance of informatic behaviour, so I would say “informatic scientist.” Of course it depends on what you mean by informatics. I tend to think it means acts of calculation and communication, communication being very important. What is your role as informatic scientist? Robin: My role, I think, is to try to create a conceptual framework within which analysis can happen. To do this you have to take account of what is actually happening in software, like for example this notion of ubiquitous system, but you try to abstract from that in some ways. This is truly difficult; you will make mistakes, you will invent the wrong concepts, they won’t fly in a sense, they won’t scale up. You are looking for elementary notions that can be scaled up, so that they can actually be used to explain existing or proposed large software systems.

 

pages: 504 words: 89,238

Natural language processing with Python by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, Edward Loper

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bioinformatics, business intelligence, conceptual framework, elephant in my pajamas, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, Firefox, information retrieval, Menlo Park, natural language processing, P = NP, search inside the book, speech recognition, statistical model, text mining, Turing test

Here’s another pair of examples that we created by computing the bigrams over the text of a children’s story, The Adventures of Buster Brown (included in the Project Gutenberg Selection Corpus): (4) a. He roared with me the pail slip down his back b. The worst part and clumsy looking for whoever heard light You intuitively know that these sequences are “word-salad,” but you probably find it hard to pin down what’s wrong with them. One benefit of studying grammar is that it provides a conceptual framework and vocabulary for spelling out these intuitions. Let’s take a closer look at the sequence the worst part and clumsy looking. This looks like a coordinate structure, where two phrases are joined by a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or or. Here’s an informal (and simplified) statement of how coordination works syntactically: Coordinate Structure: if v1 and v2 are both phrases of grammatical category X, then v1 and v2 is also a phrase of category X. 8.2 What’s the Use of Syntax?

 

pages: 893 words: 199,542

Structure and interpretation of computer programs by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

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Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Fermat's Last Theorem, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine

The difference between the two definitions is not that the computer is performing a different process (it isn't) but that we think about the process differently. In effect, map helps establish an abstraction barrier that isolates the implementation of procedures that transform lists from the details of how the elements of the list are extracted and combined. Like the barriers shown in figure 2.1, this abstraction gives us the flexibility to change the low-level details of how sequences are implemented, while preserving the conceptual framework of operations that transform sequences to sequences. Section 2.2.3 expands on this use of sequences as a framework for organizing programs. Exercise 2.21. The procedure square-list takes a list of numbers as argument and returns a list of the squares of those numbers. (square-list (list 1 2 3 4)) (1 4 9 16) Here are two different definitions of square-list. Complete both of them by filling in the missing expressions: (define (square-list items) (if (null?

 

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

Steiner, Christopher. $20 Per Gallon: How the Inevitable Rise in the Price of Gasoline Will Change Our Lives for the Better. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2009. Stewart, Amy. Flower Confidential: The Good, the Bad, and the Beautiful in the Business of Flowers. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2007. Stock, Gregory N., John D. Kasarda, and Noel P. Greis. “Logistics, Strategy and Structure: A Conceptual Framework.” International Journal of Operations & Production Management 18, no. 1–2 (January 1998): 37–52. Thompson, D’Arcy Wentworth. On Growth and Form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1917. Thompson, Wilbur R. A Preface to Urban Economics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1965. Toffler, Alvin. Future Shock. New York: Random House, 1970. ———. PowerShift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century.

 

pages: 685 words: 203,949

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, ultimatum game

What were you doing last Wednesday at one P.M.? In other words, there are a variety of ways that a single event such as a lunch with an old friend can be contextualized. For all of these attributes to be associated with the event, the brain has to toss and turn and analyze the experience after it happens, extracting and sorting information in complex ways. And this new memory needs to be integrated into existing conceptual frameworks, integrated into old memories previously stored in the brain (shrimp is seafood, Jim Ferguson is a friend from high school, good table manners do not include wiping shrimp off your mouth with the tablecloth). In the last few years, we’ve gained a more nuanced understanding that these different processes are accomplished during distinct phases of sleep. These processes both preserve memories in their original form, and extract features and meaning from the experiences.

 

pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

The notion of the (heterogeneous) foreign body permits one to note the elementary subjective identity between types of excrement (sperm, menstrual blood, urine, fecal matter) and everything that can be seen as sacred, divine, or marvellous: a half-decomposed cadaver fleeing through the night in a luminous shroud can be seen as characteristic of this unity. BATAILLE, “THE USE VALUE OF D.A.F. DE SADE”1 Having looked at money’s relationship to capital in Chapter 2, its configuration as a form of debt in Chapter 3, and its underlying structures of guilt in Chapter 4, we now turn to a fourth conceptual framework for exploring the theory of money, namely, notions that connect it to waste. This conception of money emerges with particular clarity when it is viewed through the perspective of general economy. The central thinker here is Georges Bataille, who although he remains largely a peripheral figure in anthropology and sociology, is best known for his theory of expenditure and the accursed share.

 

pages: 1,387 words: 202,295

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Second Edition by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

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Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine, wikimedia commons

The difference between the two definitions is not that the computer is performing a different process (it isn’t) but that we think about the process differently. In effect, map helps establish an abstraction barrier that isolates the implementation of procedures that transform lists from the details of how the elements of the list are extracted and combined. Like the barriers shown in Figure 2.1, this abstraction gives us the flexibility to change the low-level details of how sequences are implemented, while preserving the conceptual framework of operations that transform sequences to sequences. Section 2.2.3 expands on this use of sequences as a framework for organizing programs. Exercise 2.21: The procedure square-list takes a list of numbers as argument and returns a list of the squares of those numbers. (square-list (list 1 2 3 4)) (1 4 9 16) Here are two different definitions of square-list. Complete both of them by filling in the missing expressions: (define (square-list items) (if (null?

 

pages: 756 words: 228,797

Ayn Rand and the World She Made by Anne C. Heller

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, conceptual framework, greed is good, laissez-faire capitalism, Milgram experiment, Mont Pelerin Society, New Journalism, open borders, price stability, profit motive, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, wage slave, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, young professional

For example, “All swans are white” remains true only as long as no one discovers a black swan; afterward, a new truth must be constructed. Rand agreed that new facts may sometimes create new truths but insisted that fundamental concepts, such as, “A thing cannot act in contradiction to its nature,” remain permanently and self-evidently true. Their spirited exchanges resembled those she’d had with Paterson in the 1940s, except that, by this time, Rand’s conceptual framework was set and nothing would alter her thinking. Hospers had the unusual privilege of meeting with her alone. But he also sat in on a number of NBI lectures and even gave one or two himself. At one lecture he attended, on aesthetics, which was his academic specialty, he was almost shouted down when, speaking from the floor, he tried to defend the artistry of William Faulkner and Pablo Picasso, which the speaker had casually “relegated to the fcrap-heap.”

 

pages: 600 words: 174,620

The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma by Bessel van Der Kolk M. D.

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anesthesia awareness, British Empire, conceptual framework, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, false memory syndrome, feminist movement, impulse control, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, theory of mind, Yogi Berra

Lifton, successfully lobbied the American Psychiatric Association to create a new diagnosis: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which described a cluster of symptoms that was common, to a greater or lesser extent, to all of our veterans. Systematically identifying the symptoms and grouping them together into a disorder finally gave a name to the suffering of people who were overwhelmed by horror and helplessness. With the conceptual framework of PTSD in place, the stage was set for a radical change in our understanding of our patients. This eventually led to an explosion of research and attempts at finding effective treatments. Inspired by the possibilities presented by this new diagnosis, I proposed a study on the biology of traumatic memories to the VA. Did the memories of those suffering from PTSD differ from those of others?

 

The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, éminence grise

Israel was able to combine the image of a victim with effective use of the mailed fist to teach Third World upstarts their proper place. That’s an irresistible combination, particularly in the context of the developing strategic alliance with U.S. power. JP: You wrote that Henry Kissinger’s memoirs “give the impression of a middle-level manager who has learned to conceal vacuity with pretentious verbiage.” You doubt that he has any subtle “conceptual framework” or global design. Why do such individuals gain such extraordinary reputations, given what you say about his actual abilities? What does this say about how our society operates? NC: Our society is not really based on public participation in decisionmaking in any significant sense. Rather, it is a system of elite decision and periodic public ratification. Certainly people would like to think that there’s somebody up there who knows what he’s doing.

 

pages: 1,085 words: 219,144

Solr in Action by Trey Grainger, Timothy Potter

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business intelligence, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, glass ceiling, information retrieval, natural language processing, performance metric, premature optimization, recommendation engine, web application

We also discussed how fuzzy queries and phrase queries use position information to match misspellings and variations of terms and phrases in the Solr index. We took a deep dive into Solr relevancy, laying out the default relevancy formula Solr uses and explaining conceptually how each piece of relevancy scoring works and why it exists. We then provided a brief overview of the concepts of Precision and Recall, which serve as two opposing forces within the field of information retrieval and provide us with a good conceptual framework from which to judge whether or not our search results are meeting our goals. Finally, we discussed key concepts for how Solr scales, including discussions of content denormalization within documents and distributed searching to ensure that query execution can be parallelized to maintain or decrease search time, even as content grows beyond what can be reasonably handled by a single machine.

 

pages: 846 words: 232,630

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test

But, as Kitcher says, the sociobiology of nonhuman animals has always been conducted with greater care and caution. (See also Ruse 1985.) In fact, it includes some of the most important (and widely heralded) advances in recent theoretical biology, such as the classic papers of Hamilton, Trivers, and Maynard Smith. Hamilton could be said to have inaugurated the field with his introduction of the conceptual framework of kin selection, which solved, among other things, many of Darwin's puzzles about eusociality in insects — the way ants, bees, and termites live "selflessly" in large colonies, most of them sterile servants to a single fertile queen. But Hamilton's theory didn't solve all the problems, and among Richard Alexander's important contributions was his characterization of the conditions under which eusocial mammals {484} might evolve — a "prediction" stunningly confirmed by the subsequent studies of the amazing South African naked mole rats (Sherman, Jarvis, and Alexander 1991).

 

pages: 1,294 words: 210,361

The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee

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Barry Marshall: ulcers, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, iterative process, life extension, Louis Pasteur, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, scientific mainstream, Silicon Valley, social web, statistical model, stem cell, women in the workforce, éminence grise

In the decade between 1983 and 1993, a horde of other oncogenes and anti-oncogenes (tumor suppressor genes) were swiftly identified in human cancers: myc, neu, fos, ret, akt (all oncogenes), and p53, VHL, APC (all tumor suppressors). Retroviruses, the accidental carriers of oncogenes, faded far into the distance. Varmus and Bishop’s theory—that oncogenes were activated cellular genes—was recognized to be widely true for many forms of cancer. And the two-hit hypothesis—that tumor suppressors were genes that needed to be inactivated in both chromosomes—was also found to be widely applicable in cancer. A rather general conceptual framework for carcinogenesis was slowly becoming apparent. The cancer cell was a broken, deranged machine. Oncogenes were its jammed accelerators and inactivated tumor suppressors its missing brakes.* In the late 1980s, yet another line of research, resurrected from the past, yielded a further bounty of cancer-linked genes. Ever since de Gouvêa’s report of the Brazilian family with eye tumors in 1872, geneticists had uncovered several other families that appeared to carry cancer in their genes.

 

pages: 695 words: 219,110

The Fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, dark matter, dematerialisation, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, urban renewal

Instead, as Andrei Linde has proposed, there could have been many nuggets scattered here and there that underwent space-smoothing inflationary expansion. If that were so, our universe would be but one among many that sprouted—and perhaps continue to sprout—when chance fluctuations made the conditions right for an inflationary burst, as illustrated in Figure 11.2. As these other universes would likely be forever separate from ours, it’s hard to imagine how we would ever establish whether this “multiverse” picture is true. However, as a conceptual framework, it’s both rich and tantalizing. Among other things, it suggests a possible shift in how we think about cosmology: In Chapter 10, I described inflation as a “front end” to the standard big bang theory, in which the bang is identified with a fleeting burst of rapid expansion. But if we think of the inflationary sprouting of each new universe in Figure 11.2 as its own bang, then inflation itself is best viewed as the overarching cosmological framework within which big bang–like evolutions happen, bubble by bubble.

 

pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route,