land tenure

48 results back to index

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

While there were peasant revolts accompanying the increasing commercialization of agriculture in Japan both before and after the Meiji Restoration, they did not reach a level that was sufficient to breed a nationwide uprising.24 Less convincing is Moore’s effort to relate rural land tenure to the rise of the militarist governments of the 1930s. He wants to draw parallels between Japan and Prussia, a country whose military was indeed implicated in the increasingly repressive system of agrarian land tenure from the sixteenth century on. The Prussian officer corps was recruited directly from the class of Junker landlords who in civilian life were busy repressing their own peasants. But in Japan, feudal land tenure was already being replaced by freer forms of tenancy and commercial agriculture by the late nineteenth century. There were large landlords who survived until the American-imposed land reform of the late 1940s, forming part of the conservative parties’ political base.

Mahmood Mamdani has gone further, to charge that the tyrannical postindependence Big Man was largely the product of the “decentralized despotism” created by indirect rule. The British had two long-term economic policy objectives that indirect rule was meant to serve. First, they sought to convert customary land tenure into modern property rights, at the behest of both commercial agricultural interests and white settlers. Modern property rights are formal, freely alienable, and held by individuals or by legal entities operating as individuals. As elaborated in Volume 1, customary land tenure is a complex informal system of private property rights, sometimes mistakenly said to be communal in the sense of a Communist collective farm. Traditional customary property is intimately connected with the kinship system and heavily entailed by kin obligations; individuals usually are not free to alienate their holdings.15 The chief in particular does not have any right to alienate land.

Traditional customary property is intimately connected with the kinship system and heavily entailed by kin obligations; individuals usually are not free to alienate their holdings.15 The chief in particular does not have any right to alienate land. While customary property in this sense once existed in barbarian Europe, the feudal property rights that prevailed in the European Middle Ages were more modern in the sense of being formal, contractual, and individual. Moving from a customary to a modern land tenure system was therefore much more revolutionary than the shift from feudal to modern land tenure in Europe; it involved huge changes within the authority structure of the kin groups involved. When colonial authorities sought to buy land from customary owners, they found no one actually in charge who had the authority to alienate property. One reason to create a subordinate tribal chief under indirect rule was to empower an African equivalent of a European feudal lord who had the authority to alienate communal property into a modern property rights system.16 A second reason for empowering indigenous chiefs was to serve as tax collectors.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

In the early thirteenth century, the argument was put forth that the king exercised jurisdiction over all temporal matters in the realm, and that lesser courts were granted jurisdiction only by delegation. Plaintiffs preferred to have their cases taken to the royal courts, and over time the seigneurial courts lost their jurisdiction over land tenure disputes to them.30 This market-driven preference suggests that the royal courts must have been perceived as being fairer and less biased in favor of the local lords, and better able to enforce their decisions. A similar shift did not occur in other European countries. In France, in particular, seigneurial courts retained their jurisdiction over land tenure issues right up to the French Revolution. This is ironic, in a sense, since it was seventeenth-century French kings such as Louis XIII and Louis XIV who were perceived, in contrast to their English counterparts, as having emasculated the nobility in their assertion of absolute power.

The parliaments of PNG and the Solomons have no coherent political parties; they are full of individual leaders, each striving to bring back as much pork as possible to his or her narrow base of supporters.4 Melanesia’s tribal social system limits economic development because it prevents the emergence of modern property rights. In both Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, upward of 95 percent of all land is held in what is known as customary land tenure. Under customary rules, property is private but held informally (that is, with no legal documentation) by groups of kinfolk, who have both individual and collective rights to different strips of land. Property has not only an economic but also a spiritual significance, since dead relatives are buried in certain spots on the wantok’s land, and their spirits continue to inhabit that place. No one in the wantok, including the Big Man, has the exclusive right to alienate title to the land to an outsider.5 A mining or palm oil company seeking a concession has to negotiate with hundreds or sometimes thousands of landowners, and there is no statute of limitations on land claims under traditional rules.6 From the standpoint of many foreigners, the behavior of Melanesian politicians looks like political corruption.

In an influential article, Garrett Hardin argued that the tragedy of the commons exists with respect to many global resources, such as clean air, fisheries, and the like, and that in the absence of private ownership or strong regulation they would be overexploited and made useless.3 In many contemporary ahistorical discussions of property rights, one often gets the impression that in the absence of modern individual property rights, human beings always faced some version of the tragedy of the commons in which communal ownership undermined incentives to use property efficiently.4 The emergence of modern property rights was then postulated to be a matter of economic rationality, in which individuals bargained among themselves to divide up the communal property, much like Hobbes’s account of the emergence of the Leviathan out of the state of nature. There is a twofold problem with this scenario. The first is that many alternative forms of customary property existed before the emergence of modern property rights. While these forms of land tenure may not have provided the same incentives for their efficient use as do their modern counterparts, very few of them led to anything like the tragedy of the commons. The second problem is that there aren’t very many examples of modern property rights emerging spontaneously and peacefully out of a bargaining process. The way customary property rights yielded to modern ones was much more violent, and power and deceit played a large role.5 KINSHIP AND PRIVATE PROPERTY The earliest forms of private property were held not by individuals but by lineages or other kin groups, and much of their motivation was not simply economic but religious and social as well.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders


agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, megacity, microcredit, new economy, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

., “Changes in Earnings in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: Disentangling the Forces Behind Pro-Poor Change in Labour Markets” (Brasilia: IPC-IG [UNDP], 2009). 18 Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). 19 A. Durand-Lasserve and L. Royston, Holding Their Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries (London: Earthscan, 2002), 3. 20 Hernando de Soto, The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World (New York: Harper & Row, 1989). 21 de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (London: Black Swan, 2000), 35. A number of critics have pointed out that this number is unverifiable. 22 L. J. Alston, G. D. Libecap and B. Mueller, Titles, Conflict and Land Use: The Development of Property Rights on the Brazilian Amazon Frontier (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1999). 23 G. Feder and D. Feeny, “Land Tenure and Property Rights: Theory and Implications for Development Policy,” World Bank Economic Review 3 (1991); O.

Razzaz, “Examining Property Rights and Investment in Informal Areas: The Case of Jordan,” Land Economics 69, no. 4 (1993); J. M. L. Kironde, “Understanding Land Markets in African Urban Areas: The Case of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania,” Habitat International 24 (2000). 25 Robert E. Smith, “Land Tenure Reform in Africa: A Shift to the Defensive,” Progress in Development Studies 3, no. 3 (2003). 26 A. Antwi and J. Adams, “Economic Rationality and Informal Urban Land Transactions in Accra, Ghana,” Journal of Property Research 20, no. 1 (2003); M. M. Omirin and A. Antwi, “Informality, Illegality and Market Efficiency: A Case for Land Market Deregulation in Accra and Lagos” (London, 2004). 27 R. Home and H. Lim, Demystifying the Mystery of Capital: Land Tenure and Poverty in Africa and the Caribbean (London: Glasshouse Press, 2004); Bishwapriya Sanyal, “Intention and Outcome: Formalization and Its Consequences,” Regional Development Dialogue 17, no. 1 (1996). 28 Staffan Granér, “Hernando de Soto and the Mystification of Capital,” Eurozine, no. 13 (Jan. 19, 2007): 6. 29 Donald A.

The reason why China has hundreds of millions of people floating rootlessly and inefficiently between arrival city and village, scholars at Oxford and the Chinese Academy of Sciences concluded in a major study, “is because no social assistance, public housing and schooling arrangements have been established for migrants to enable them to settle down on a permanent basis in cities.” For those peasants who have found solid roots, home ownership, and thriving businesses in the arrival city, “the lack of such arrangements makes them unwilling or unable to give up their rural land, which, in turn, makes it difficult for those left in rural areas to expand their scale of agricultural production and secure their land tenure because too little extra land can be released to accommodate rural demographic changes.”11 The “hollow village,” as these rural enclaves of children and grandparents are known in China, has become a global phenomenon, as subsistence farming is forced to serve as a substitute for a proper social safety net. In Romania, hollow villages have become a national issue for related reasons. The millions of working-age peasants who have moved to the arrival cities of Italy and Spain to work have discovered school systems and social-service agencies that are closed to new arrivals (even from within the European Union) settling down or, in the case of Italy, a police and legal system that is actively hostile to arrival-city families.


The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly


airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

Congress with little or no input on the proposed draft from congressional committees, the judiciary, the bar, business interests, law schools, or other stakeholders, I would be looking for a new career rather quickly. Based on many current practices, however, that career could easily be found abroad ‘helping’ transition countries with the same process.45 Titling Toward Confusion in Kenya Lord Lugard, the architect of British colonial rule in Africa, said land tenure follows “a steady evolution, side by side with the evolution of social progress.” This “natural evolution” leads to “individual ownership.” The Native Land Tenure Rules of 1956 privatized land in Kenya, advertising it as “a normal step in the evolution of a country,” under which “energetic or rich Africans will be able to acquire more land.” The anthropologist Parker Shipton, one of the few outsiders who bothered studying the region in detail, looked at the consequences of land titling for the Luo tribe in western Kenya in the early 1980s.46 The traditional system among the Luo was a complicated maze of swapping plots among kin and seasonal exchanges of land for labor and livestock.

., p. 201. 15.Mamdani, Citizen and Subject, p. 53. 16.Iliffe, Africans, p. 201. 17.Mamdani, Citizen and Subjects, p. 52. 18.Ibid., pp. 54–56. 19.Iliffe, Africans, p. 200. 20.Ibid., p. 199. 21.Ibid., pp. 251–52. 22.Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, p. 161. 23.Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Systems: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” MIT mimeograph, October 2004; Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, pp. 278–79; and Ravina Daphtary, “Systems of Land Tenure in Bengal: The Unyielding Legacy of the Zamindar,” NYU undergraduate thesis, April 2005. 24.Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, pp. 280–83. 25.Bergner, Land of Magic Soldiers, p. 29. 26.P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism, 1688–2000, 2d ed., Harlow, UK: Longman, Pearson Education, 2002, p. 83. 27.Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power, New York: Basic Books, 2004, p. 116. 28.Ibid., p. 141. 29.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 291. 30.Ferguson, Empire, p. 22. 31.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 291. 32.James, Rise and Fall, p. 175. 33.Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics,” Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003. 34.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 308. 35.Iliffe, Africans, p. 204. 36.Ibid., p. 212. 37.Ibid., p. 222. 38.Ibid., pp. 203–4. 39.Maddison, “World Economy.” 40.Mamdani, Citizen and Subject, p. 158. 41.Bergner, Land of Magic Soldiers, p. 97. 42.Scott, Seeing Like a State, pp. 226–28. 43.Thayer Watkins, “The Tanganyikan Groundnuts Scheme,” San José State University Economics Department, at groundnt.htm. 44.Maddison, World Economy.” 45.Ibid.

Ohero’s sons, who blamed their uncle Ogwok Nyayal, who blamed Alloyce Ohero, who, if he had been alive, would have blamed Ocholla Ogweng. Here was a deal with nothing for everyone. What looks like opportunistic behavior could be the mingling of private property with traditional values, which place obligations to kin above those to strangers or banks. By imposing land titling on such complex social customs, “private property rights” may actually increase the insecurity of land tenure rather than decrease it. Perhaps chastened by these experiences, formal land law in Kenya is now moving back toward recognizing customary rights. The government is allowing the paper titles to lapse.47 Reformers who want to increase the security of property rights have to search for what works in each locality. A more likely way forward for formal law would be building on the customary law rather than contradicting it.


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis


barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

(Most spectacular, perhaps, has been the transformation of the bleak Congolese diamond-trading center of Mbuji-Mayi from a small town of 25,000 in 1960 into a contemporary metropolis of 2 million, with growth occurring mostly in the last decade.23) In Latin America, where primary cities long monopolized growth, secondary cities such as Santa Cruz, Valencia, Tijuana, Curitiba, Temuco, Maracay, Bucaramanga, Salvador, and Belem are now booming, with the most rapid increase in cities of fewer than 500,000 people.24 Moreover, as anthropologist Gregory Guldin has emphasized, urbanization must be conceptualized as structural transformation along, and intensified interaction between, every point of an urban—rural continuum. In Guldin's case study of southern China, he found that the 22 Census 2001, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India; and Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston, "International Trends and Country Contexts," in Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston (eds), HoldingT heir Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries, London 2002, p. 20. 23 Mbuji-Mayi is the center of the "ultimate company state" in the Kaasai region run by the Societe Mini ere de Bakwanga. See Michela Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. KurtLiving on theBrink of Disaster in the Congo, London 2000, pp. 121-23. 24 Miguel Villa and Jorge Rodriguez, "Demographic Trends in Latin America's Metropolises, 1950-1990," in Alan Gilbert (ed.), The Mega-City in Latin America, Tokyo and New York 1996, pp. 33-34.

He speaks of "trillions of dollars, all ready to put to use if only we can unravel the mystery of how assets are transformed into live capital."32 Ironically, de Soto, the Messiah of people's capitalism, proposes little more in practice than what the Latin American Left or the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Kolkata had long fought for: security of tenure for informal settlers. But tiding, as land-tenure expert Geoffrey Payne points out, is a double-edged sword. "For owners it represents their formal incorporation into the official city, and the chance to realize what may be a dramatically increased asset. For tenants, or those unable to pay the additional taxes that usually follow, it may push them off the housing ladder altogether." Titling, in other words, accelerates social differentiation in the slum and does nothing to aid renters, the actual majority of the poor in many cities.

Structural adjustment programs, in turn, channeled domestic savings from manufacture and welfare into land speculation. "The high rate of inflation and the massive scale of devaluation," writes political economist Kwadwo Konadu-Agyemang of Accra, "have discouraged savings and made investment in undeveloped or 43 Ibid. As the authors emphasize, "despite the importance of the topic, data on urban land-ownership are extremely rare. This contrasts sharply with research on land tenure in rural areas." (p. 184) 44 Berner, Defending a Place, p 21. 45 Baken and van der Linden, Land Delivery for Low Income Groups in Third World Cities, p 13. 46 Brennan, "Urban Land and Housing Issues Facing the Third World," p. 78. partially developed land the safest and most profitable way of holding assets that could also be sold in foreign currency."47 The result has been the emergence or persistence of property bubbles amidst otherwise general economic stagnation or even decline.


pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

., The Brenner Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 10-63. 30 On the end of the peasantry in France, see Henri Mendras, Sociétés paysannes: éléments pour une théorie de la paysannerie (Paris: Armand Colin, 1976). For a more general view, see David Goodman and Michael Redclift, From Peasant to Proletarian: Capitalist Development and Agrarian Transitions (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982). 31 See, for example, on the history of pre-peasant land tenure in Vietnam, Ngo Vinh Long, “Communal Property and Peasant Revolutionary Struggles in Vietnam,” Peasant Studies 17, no. 2 (Winter 1990): 121-40. For similar histories of Sub-Saharan Africa, see Enwere Dike, “Changing Land Tenure Systems in Nigeria,” Peasant Studies 17, no. 1 (Fall 1989): 43-54; and J. S. Saul and R. Woods, “African Peasantries,” in Teodor Shanin, ed., Peasants and Peasant Societies , 2nd ed., (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), 80-88. 32 There is considerable debate whether the term peasantry ever did in fact accurately describe such systems of small-holding production, especially in Africa.

The historical tendency of the changes in class composition of the peasantry through the modern era reduces dramatically the numbers of the middle peasantry, corresponding to the centrifugal conceptual tendency in Mao’s analysis. At the top end a few rich peasants manage to gain more land and become indistinguishable from landowners, and at the bottom most poor peasants tend to be excluded from their traditional forms of land tenure (such as sharecropping) and become simple agricultural laborers. Middle peasants all but vanished in the process, being forced to fall one way or the other along the general cleavage of ownership. This centrifugal historical tendency corresponds to the processes of modernization in both its capitalist and socialist forms. When Stalin launched the program of collectivization, the Soviet regime thought the strategy would boost agricultural production through economies of scale and facilitate the use of more advanced equipment and technologies: collectivization, in short, would bring tractors to the farm.24 The cruel process of collectivization was clearly understood from the beginning—not only by the leaders but also by the peasants themselves—as a war not simply against the rich peasants, the kulaks, who were accused of hoarding grain, but against all the peasants who owned property, and really against the entire peasantry as a class.

Land reform, which was a liberal and revolutionary battle cry in Latin America throughout the twentieth century, from Zapata’s ragged troops to guerilla revolutionaries in Nicaragua and El Salvador, held something like the figure of the middle peasant as its goal. Aside from a few brief exceptions, most notably in Mexico and Bolivia, the tendency in Latin America has constantly moved in the opposite direction, exacerbating the polarization of land tenure and ownership.33 Throughout the subordinated capitalist world small-holding agricultural producers are systematically deprived of land rights as property is gradually consolidated into large holdings, controlled either by national landowners or mammoth foreign corporations.34 This process may appear as a haphazard and undirected movement carried out by an extended and disunited series of agents, including national governments, foreign governments, multinational and transnational agribusiness corporations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and many others.


pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger


California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

In a nutshell, they cannot produce more, because they cannot afford it, and they cannot afford it because they do not produce more.5 Lack of access to credit coupled with geographic isolation means farmers depend on middlemen to provide them with credit—at exorbitant interest rates—and to bring their product to market. Worse, land tenure systems in many tropical nations are stacked heavily against the rural poor. In those countries that endured colonialism, traditional indigenous land-tenure systems were supplanted by top-down structures that gave land rights to the government or to rich, often absentee—and often foreign—landlords. This state of affairs means that small farmers must pay for the use of their own land or be shut out from working their land entirely and serving instead as laborers for others.


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici


Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This type of program was imposed by the World Bank and the IMF on most African countries starting in the early 1980s, allegedly to spur economic recovery and help the African governments pay for the debts that they had contracted during the previous decade in order to finance development projects. Among the reforms it prescribes are land privatization (starting with the abolition of communal land tenure), trade liberalization (the elimination of tariffs on imported goods), the deregulation of currency transactions, the downsizing of the public sector, the de-funding of social services, and a system of controls that effectively transfers economic planning from the African governments to the World Bank and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).5 This economic restructuring was presumably meant to boost productivity, eliminate inefficiency and increase Africa’s “competitive edge” on the global market.

Two objectives stand out when we consider the prevailing patterns of war in Africa, and the way in which warfare intersects with globalization. First, war forces people off the land, i.e., it separates the producers from the means of production, a condition for the expansion of the global labor market. War also reclaims the land for capitalist use, boosting the production of cash crops and export-oriented agriculture. Particularly in Africa, where communal land tenure is still widespread, this has been a major goal of the World Bank, whose raison d’etre as an institution has been the capitalization of agriculture.12 Thus, it is hard today to see millions of refugees or famine victims fleeing their localities without thinking of the satisfaction this must bring to World Bank officers as well as agribusiness companies, who surely see the hand of progress working through it.


pages: 964 words: 296,182

Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones


anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave

The age-old ‘village system’ based upon the ‘domestic union of agricultural and manufacturing pursuits’ was being ‘dissolved’, ‘not so much through the brutal interference of the British tax-gatherer and the British soldier, as to the working of English steam and English free trade’. British rule was bringing the advantages of political unity, European science, a European trained army, a free press, British-trained civil servants, the abolition of the old system of common-land tenure and a shorter passage between India and England. If the revolution depended upon the social transformation of Asia, England ‘was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution’.176 Despite what Dana called ‘the Indian War’, Karl’s thinking was not deeply affected by the Indian Mutiny. The Indian revolt did not begin with the Ryots, who were ‘tortured, dishonoured and stripped naked by the British’, but with ‘the Sepoys, clad, fed, petted, fatted and pampered by them’.

Nor were they – as they were to become in the post-Darwin era – natural beings striving to rise above their simian origins and baser instincts or instinctively herding together in nature’s competitive struggle. But this focus on production had not proved an adequate guide either to a full understanding of the economy, or to the construction of a tenable politics based upon it. Other forms of radicalism and socialism were proving more flexible. In England, more attention was paid to inequalities of distribution, and the political domination of the landed class. The aim of Mill’s Land Tenure Reform Association and of the Land and Labour League, both founded in 1869, was to contest this dominance.77 In France, the Saint-Simonians had contested more broadly the right of inheritance. Among the socialists, the followers of Owen and Proudhon emphasized the defects of circulation, a system based upon ‘buying cheap and selling dear’. They suggested a variety of measures ranging from cooperative production to a currency of labour-notes or, in more moderate and reform-minded versions, the full legalization of trade unions, an expansion of credit or reform of the banks.

As in the Grundrisse, the starting point of Karl’s depiction of circulation in the draft of Volume II was that of the circular or spiral progression of capital, which through its own momentum dissolved previous economic forms and produced workers and capitalists on an ever-increasing scale. The particular aim of the analysis was to connect the emergence of commodity production in Book I with the transition from feudal or other pre-capitalist forms of land tenure to capitalist ground rent in Book III. But how could a necessary connection be established between the abstract depiction of the extended reproduction of capital and the actual historical expansion of capitalist relations? The version of Volume II which Engels published in 1885 presented Karl’s writings on this question as a series of consecutive chapters. But the material itself suggested repeated attempts to draft a satisfactory solution to the same problem.


Year 501 by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

“Instead of building from existing democratic institutions which, on paper, were quite impressive and had long incorporated the liberal democratic philosophy and governmental machinery associated with the French Revolution, the United States blatantly overrode them and illegally forced through its own authoritarian, antidemocratic system.” “The establishment of foreign-dominated plantation agriculture necessitated destruction of the existing minifundia land-tenure system with its myriad peasant freeholders,” who were forced into peonage. The US supported “a minority of collaborators” from the local elite who admired European fascism but lacked the mass appeal of their fascist models. “In effect,” Schmidt observes, “the Occupation embodied all the progressive attitudes of contemporary Italian fascism, but was crippled by failures in human relationships” (lack of popular support).

It was soon to be answered, in just the way she anticipated. Again, the advanced civilization of the Indians stood in the way of civilization, properly conceived. What followed is described by Angie Debo in her classic study And Still the Waters Run. In the independent Indian Territory, land was held collectively and life was contented and prosperous. The Federal Indian Office opposed communal land tenure by ideological dogma, as well as for its practical effect: preventing takeover by white intruders. In 1883, a group of self-styled philanthropists and humanitarians began to meet to consider problems of the Indians. Their third meeting was addressed by Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, considered a “distinguished Indian theorist,” who had just concluded a visit of inspection to the Indian Territory.


Investment: A History by Norton Reamer, Jesse Downing


Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, backtesting, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Brownian motion, buttonwood tree, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, colonial rule, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, equity premium, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, land tenure, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, margin call, means of production, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Own Your Own Home, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, statistical arbitrage, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Vanguard fund, working poor, yield curve

McIntosh, Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 3, 62–65, and 349–350; Van De Mieroop, Ancient Mesopotamian City, 146–147. 3. Benjamin Foster, “A New Look at the Sumerian Temple State,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 24, no. 3 (October 1981): 226–227. 4. Maria deJ Ellis, Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Introduction to the Problems of Land Tenure, Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 1 (Philadelphia: University Museum, 1976), 10. 5. Foster, “Sumerian Temple State,” 226. 6. W. F. Leemans, “The Role of Landlease in Mesopotamia in the Early Second Millennium b.c.,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 18, no. 2 (June 1975): 136. 7. Foster, “Sumerian Temple State,” 226. 8. G. van Driel, “Capital Formation and Investment in an Institutional Context in Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Trade and Finance in Ancient Mesopotamia, ed.

Capital: The Story of Long-Term Investment Excellence. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004. Ellis, Charles D., and James R. Vertin. True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance. Vol. 2 of Wall Street People. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003. Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Knopf, 2004. Ellis, Maria deJ. Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Introduction to the Problems of Land Tenure. Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 1. Philadelphia: University Museum, 1976. Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage.” Accessed January 2015. -Olivia-Slocum-Sage. ——. “Married Women’s Property Acts.” Accessed January 2015. http:// w w w. b r i t a n n i c a . c o m / E B c h e c k e d / t o p i c / 3 6 6 3 0 5 / M a r r i e d -Womens-Property-Acts. ——.


pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing

And here the fingerprints of empire seem more readily discernible and less easy to expunge. When the British governed a country – even when they only influenced its government by flexing their military and financial muscles – there were certain distinctive features of their own society that they tended to disseminate. A list of the more important of these would run: The English language English forms of land tenure Scottish and English banking The Common Law Protestantism Team sports The limited or ‘night watchman’ state Representative assemblies The idea of liberty The last of these is perhaps the most important because it remains the most distinctive feature of the Empire, the thing that sets it apart from its continental European rivals. I do not mean to claim that all British imperialists were liberals: some were very far from it.

Nowadays we tend to think of this as the start of Ireland’s troubles. But colonization was intended as the answer to the country’s chronic instability. Since Henry VIII’s proclamation of himself as King of Ireland in 1541, English power had been limited to the so-called ‘Pale’ of earlier English settlement around Dublin and the beleaguered Scottish fort of Carrickfergus. In language, religion, land tenure and social structure, the rest of Ireland was another world. There was, however, a danger: Roman Catholic Ireland might be used by Spain as a back door into Protestant England. Systematic colonization was adopted as the remedy. In 1556 Mary allocated confiscated estates in Leix and Offaly in Leinster to settlers who established Philips-town and Maryborough there, but these were little more than military outposts.


The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival by Dr. Stephen R Palumbi Phd, Ms. Carolyn Sotka M. A.


California gold rush, clean water, glass ceiling, land tenure, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

The old mission system was largely gone, decayed into adobe ruin when the Spanish Empire fell and Mexico won its 1821 independence. But war between the former colonies of the United States and Mexico was coming and would shift the ownership of land out of Mexican hands. By 1848, California left the Mexican republic and was incorporated into the United States. Such a period of upheaval left many land tenure records shattered and lost, with disastrous consequences to the Ohlone and to the former Spanish citizens who had settled in California. It was a time of transformation from the old to the new. Far-Reaching Effects The hunters went off to other trades, and the Chinese lost their taste for otter fur. The ships no longer came to California to trade for furs, and the native culture was slipping away.


The Handbook of Personal Wealth Management by Reuvid, Jonathan.


asset allocation, banking crisis, BRICs, collapse of Lehman Brothers, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, financial deregulation, fixed income, high net worth, income per capita, index fund, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, market bubble, merger arbitrage, new economy, Northern Rock, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, short selling, side project, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, systematic trading, transaction costs, yield curve

Damage by the combined vectors of insects and disease has become more significant in recent years on all continents, probably resulting from tree stress and habitat changes brought about by global warming effects; for example Mountain Pie Beetle has destroyed approximately 1 million hectares of pine forestry over the last 10 years in Alberta and British Columbia. This makes it even more important that investors obtain a risk spread across several geographies and species. Political and country risk A potential risk to forestry is political or regulatory change, such as restrictive environmental laws that limit or control timber harvesting practices. Further risks concern the legal framework, in particular regarding land tenure, in specific countries. In certain countries, northern Brazil for example, there is a significant risk arising from historical land ownership claims made by indigenous peoples. Global timber demand Globally, the dual impact of competition for scarce land between food, fibre and fuel uses and a continuing and increasing excess of demand over supply of wood fibre, at least for the next 20 years, is expected to result in a steady increase in timberland and timber prices.1 In recent years, technological changes and increasing personal wealth have increased utilization of wood globally, adding value to forestry.


pages: 206 words: 67,030

Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches: The Riddles of Culture by Marvin Harris


colonial exploitation, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, stakhanovite, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route

Older animals are simply tethered on short ropes and allowed to starve—a process that does not take too long if the animal is already weak and diseased. Finally, unknown numbers of decrepit cows are surreptitiously sold through a chain of Moslem and Christian middlemen and end up in the urban slaughterhouses. If we want to account for the observed proportions of cows to oxen, we must study rain, wind, water, and land-tenure patterns, not cow love. The proof of this is that the proportion of cows to oxen varies with the relative importance of different components of the agricultural system in different regions of India. The most important variable is the amount of irrigation water available for the cultivation of rice. Wherever there are extensive wet rice paddies, the water buffalo tends to be the preferred traction animal, and the female water buffalo is then substituted for the zebu cow as a source of milk.


The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz


airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

He concluded that the "macroparasitism" of landowners drained 30 percent of the production capacity from peasants in the form of rents, while the "microparasitism" of malaria accounted for a reduction of less than 10 percent in their gross production. And here we shouldn't expect a vaccine to do any better than bed nets; here the goal-creating wealth-cannot be captured and internalized by a particular technology. In fact, if creating wealth is your goal, there may be much better routes to progress than curing malaria-for example, changing patterns of land tenure, or improving levels of education. But of course these goals are themselves very hard to make progress on. Understanding a technology is not just a process of observing something "out there"; it is an integrated result of a query, a set of artifacts, and elements of social, economic, psychological, and cultural context, called forth as a whole. Each query implicitly identifies certain elements of the underlying system as relevant and ignores others-a process that is perfectly le- . gitimate until one extends one's judgment or analysis beyond the boundaries that are also implicit in the query, when it might 54 Chapter 3 break down.


pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques


Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

Their intention was to re-create the Old World in the New World.69 In contrast to Europe, however, where capitalism was shaped by its feudal antecedents, the settlers were not constrained by pre-existing social structures or customs. In effect, they could start afresh, unencumbered by the past. This, of course, entailed the destruction of the native population of Amerindians in what we would now describe as a most brutal act of ethnic cleansing.70 While Europe was mired in time-worn patterns of land tenure, the American settlers faced no such constraints and, with the decimation of the native population, enjoyed constantly expanding territory as the mythical frontier moved ever westwards. Where Europeans possessed a strong sense of place and territory, the Americans, in contrast, formed no such attachment because they had no need of it. The fact that the United States started as a blank piece of paper enabled it to write its own rules and design its own institutions: from the outset, steeped in Protestant doctrine, Americans were attracted to the idea of abstract principles, which was to find expression in the Constitution and, subsequently, in a strong sense of a universalizing and global mission.

There was the failure of the imperial state to modernize, culminating in its demise in the 1911 Revolution; the failure of the nationalist government to modernize China, unify the country, or defeat the occupying powers (notably Japan), leading to its overthrow in the 1949 Revolution; the Maoist period, which sought to sweep away much of imperial China, from Confucius and traditional dress to the old patterns of land tenure and the established social hierarchies; followed by the reform period, the rapid decline of agriculture, the rise of industry and the growing assertion of capitalist social relations. Each of these periods represents a major disjuncture in Chinese history. Yet much of what previously characterized China remains strikingly true and evident today. The country still has almost the same borders that it acquired at the maximum extent of the Qing empire in the late eighteenth century.


pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg


back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Merchants and other gentlemen hoarded the best land near the coast or along the commercial rivers, and poorer men were forced to possess remote, less desirable land. South Carolina was a poor white family’s worst nightmare.57 Oglethorpe left the colony in 1743, never to return. Three years earlier, a soldier had attempted to murder him, the musket ball tearing through his wig. He survived, but his dream for Georgia died. Over the next decade, land tenure policies were lifted, rum was allowed to flow freely, and slaves were sold surreptitiously. In 1750, settlers were formally granted the right to own slaves.58 A planter elite quickly formed, principally among transplants from the West Indies and South Carolina. By 1788, Carolinian Jonathan Bryan was the most powerful man in Georgia, with thirty-two thousand acres and 250 slaves. He set up shop there in 1750, the very year slavery was made legal, and his numerous slaves entitled him to large tracts of lands.

Baine, “Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 418–24. On debtors and economic vulnerability, see Oglethorpe, Some Account of the Design, 11–12; Oglethorpe, A New and Accurate Account, 30–33; and Rodney M. Baine, “New Perspectives on Debtors in Colonial Georgia,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 77, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 1–19, esp. 4. 53. See Milton L. Ready, “Land Tenure in Trusteeship Georgia,” Agricultural History 48, no. 3 (July 1974): 353–68, esp. 353–57, 359. 54. See Translation of Reverend Mr. Dumont’s Letter to Mr. Benjamin Martyn, May 21, 1734, Egmont Papers, vol. 14207. Dumont wrote from Rotterdam, and represented a community of French Vaudois. 55. See Oglethorpe, A New and Accurate Account, 73–75. In his other promotional tract, he used a similar argument about the Roman colonies, noting that only men with land married and had children; see Oglethorpe, Some Account of the Design, 6, 9–10, 40. 56.


The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, business climate, colonial rule, declining real wages, deliberate practice, European colonialism, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, new economy, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, union organizing

The actual policies pursued, while benefiting a traditional and foreign elite, are not only destroying the Indians but are severely damaging the Brazilian peasant small-holders and agricultural workers and have, in fact “worsened the already severe pattern of hunger and malnourishment that characterizes the majority of the population of Brazil” (pp. 126, 132). According to Davis: One of the major results of this new settlement pattern has been the uprooting of large numbers of poor Brazilian peasants who previously formed the pioneer element in central Brazil. It must be stated categorically that the land-tenure situation of these peasant small-holders is no less precarious than that of Indian groups in the Amazon basin. In addition, all attempts to seek legal protection for the land claims of these peasant populations, on the part of such institutions as the Brazilian Catholic Church, have been met by severe repression on the part of local, state, and national officials in Brazil.78 As a result, over the past decade, agrarian protest and violence have reached epidemic proportions in several areas of Mato Grosso and central Brazil.

He estimates per capita income at $240—three times that of Haiti but half that of Cuba... Most of the 370 young women who work at La Romana earn 30 cents to 40 cents an hour last year...Malnutrition is widespread. Says George B. Mathues, director of CARE in the Dominican Republic: “You see kids with swollen bellies all over the country, even here in Santo Domingo.” Food production is hampered by semi-feudal land tenure. At last count, less than 1% of the farmers owned 47.5% of the land, while 82% farmed fewer than 10 acres... Land reform has moved with glacial speed...Most Dominican children don’t go beyond the third grade; only one in five reaches the sixth grade.174 G&W acknowledged in 1978 that cane cutter money wages had not kept up with inflation in the years since 1966,175 and there is other evidence to the same effect,176 which suggests a probable further absolute fall in the real income of the majority and a further shift toward inequality in income shares.


pages: 370 words: 112,602

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo


Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning

., Peter Thomas Bauer, Dissent on Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). 2 Ritva Reinikka and Jakob Svensson, “The Power of Information: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign to Reduce Capture,” working paper, IIES, Stockholm University (2004). 3 See, for example, Easterly’s post on randomized control trials, available at 4 See, for example, Jeffrey Sachs, “Who Beats Corruption,” available at 5 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). 6 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail (forthcoming, Crown, 2012). 7 See, for example,Tim Besley and Torsten Persson, “Fragile States and Development Policy” (manuscript, November 2010), which argues that fragile states are a key symptom of underdevelopment in the world and that such states are incapable of delivering basic services to their citizens. 8 Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review 91 (5) (2001): 1369—1401. 9 Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” American Economic Review 95 (4) (2005): 1190—1213. 10 Dwyer Gunn, “Can ‘Charter Cities’ Change the World? A Q&A with Paul Romer,” New York Times, September 29, 2009; and see “Charter Cities,” available at 11 Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); and Paul Collier, Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places (New York: HarperCollins, 2009). 12 William Easterly, “The Burden of Proof Should Be on Interventionists—Doubt Is a Superb Reason for Inaction,” Boston Review (July–August 2009). 13 See Rajiv Chandrasekaram, Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone (New York: Knopf, 2006), as well as Easterly’s insightful critique of the army operation manual, available at 14 William Easterly, “Institutions: Top Down or Botton Up,” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 98 (2) (2008): 95–99. 15 See The White Man’s Burden, p. 133. 16 Ibid., p. 72. 17 William Easterly, “Trust the Development Experts—All 7 Billion,” Financial Times, May 28, 2008. 18 The White Man’s Burden, p. 73. 19 Marianne Bertrand, Simeon Djankov, Rema Hanna, and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Obtaining a Driving License in India: An Experimental Approach to Studying Corruption,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 2007): 1639–1676. 20 See his presentation on the subject, available at 21 Rohini Pande and Christopher Udry, “Institutions and Development: A View from Below,” Yale Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper 928 (2005). 22 Monica Martinez-Bravo, Gerard Padro-i-Miquel, Nancy Qian, and Yang Yao, “Accountability in an Authoritarian Regime: The Impact of Local Electoral Reforms in Rural China,” Yale University (2010), manuscript. 23 Benjamin Olken, “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia,” Journal of Political Economy 115 (2) (April 2007): 200–249. 24 Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, Daniel Keniston, and Nina Singh, “Making Police Reform Real: The Rajasthan Experiment,” draft paper, MIT (2010). 25 Thomas Fujiwara, “Voting Technology, Political Responsiveness, and Infant Health: Evidence from Brazil,” University of British Columbia, mimeo (2010). 26 World Bank, World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People (2003). 27 Raghabendra Chattopadhyay and Esther Duflo, “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,” Econometrica 72 (5) (2004): 1409–1443. 28 Leonard Wantchekon, “Clientelism and Voting Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Benin,” World Politics 55 (3) (2003): 399–422. 29 Abhijit Banerjee and Rohini Pande, “Ethnic Preferences and Politician Corruption,” KSG Working Paper RWP07-031 (2007). 30 Nicholas Van de Walle, “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems,” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2) (June 2003): 297–321. 31 Abhijit Banerjee, Donald Green, Jennifer Green, and Rohini Pande, “Can Voters Be Primed to Choose Better Legislators?


pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu


air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 74 (1–2): 137–147. 46 We visited the site in 2010. The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site’s website can be found at . 47 Because our aim in the following paragraphs is limited to the importance of transportation and economic development as they relate to food security, we limit ourselves to generally agreed upon facts rather than more controversial political debates (e.g., the impact of the land tenure system on peasant behavior, British trade policy and the nature and the actual scope and impact of public relief efforts). Concise discussions and further references on the subject can be found in Ellen Messer. 2000. “Potatoes (White).” In Kenneth F. Kipple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press; and Cormac Ó Gráda. 2009.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand


agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

They include (to quote a Gates-funded National Research Council report):controlled grazing, mulching with organic matter, applying manure and biosolids, use of cover crops in the rotation cycle, agroforestry, contour farming, hedgerows, terracing, plastic mulch for erosion control, no-till or conservation tillage, retention of crop residue, appropriate use of water and irrigation, and the use of integrated nutrient management, including the judicious use of chemical fertilizers. Land-use planning and land-tenure reform are policy tools to accompany those techniques. Africa has particularly horrendous pests. Tsetse flies torture the livestock, parasitic weeds such as Striga (witchweed) attack everything that grows, a new version of wheat rust from Uganda now threatens wheat crops worldwide, and flocks of millions of the red-billed quelea devour entire harvests of sorghum, keeping generations of children out of school to chase the birds from the fields.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason


back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

In 2003 an influential UN report, The Challenge of Slums, signalled a shift away from the old slum-clearance policies and recognized that slums make a positive contribution to economic development: they house new migrants; being dense, they use land efficiently; they’re culturally diverse and harbour numerous opportunities for ragged-trousered entrepreneurs.2 ‘Even ten years ago we used to dream that cities would become slum-free,’ Mohammed Khadim of UN-Habitat had told me at the organization’s Cairo office. ‘Now the approach has changed; people see the positives. The approach now is not to clear them but improve them gradually; regularize land tenure.’ Cameron Sinclair, who runs the non-profit design firm Architecture For Humanity, goes further: A slum is a resilient urban animal, you cannot pry it away. It’s like a good parasite—there are some parasites that attack the body and you have to get rid of them. But within the city, the informal settlement is a parasite that acts in harmony with the city; keeps it in check. Sinclair, whose organization has upgraded slums in Brazil, Kenya and South Africa, believes modern city design should not only tolerate slums but learn from them—and even emulate them.


pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

/Keynesianism 56 China 132, 141, 142, 152 freedom concept 8, 10, 11, 13, 20–4 passim, 29 freedom’s prospect 186, 187, 188 paradox 152 uneven development 88, 93 Khanna, T. 216 King, D. 222 King, R. 83 Kirchner, N. 106 Kirkpatrick, D. 210 Kissinger, H. 7 Klein, N. 207 Koolhaas, R. 47 Korea see South Korea Kraev, E. 218 Krasner, S. 208 Kristol, I. 50 Krugman, P. 186, 221 Kuwait 27 Labour Party (UK) 55, 58, 61 labour/employment/working class 70 China 123, 130, 138, 141, 148–50 as commodity 70, 153, 157, 164, 167–71 consent, construction of 47–8, 50 as disposable commodity 153, 157, 164, 167–71 flexible/casual 100, 112 full 10 see also income/wages; unemployment; unions Laffer, A. 54 Lambert, J. 211 land tenure 101, 103, 159 Landler, M. 217 Lange, O. 21 Lardy, N. 215 Latin America 199 uneven development 88, 108, 109 see also Central America; South America law/regulation 159 coercive legislation 77 judiciary 78 legitimacy 80, 180–1 rolled back 161 rule of 64, 66–7 Lay, K. 77 Lebretton, J. 216 Lee, C.K. 219–20 Lee Kuan Yew 213 Lee, S. K. 148, 218 left see socialism/communism legislation see law Leigh, General G. 8 Lenovo 146 LETS (local economic trading systems) 186, 201 Lévy, D.


pages: 346 words: 102,666

Infomocracy: A Novel by Malka Older


corporate governance, game design, land tenure, young professional

“It’s more of a hunch than anything else,” but Mishima is pretty sure. She knows these bastards. “Look.” She projects the comparison sheets and highlights the Liberty line. Tabby picks up on it almost immediately. “Restoration, retribution … that’s not the usual rhetoric for a corporate.” “And look at this one,” Mishima says, highlighting. “Not under the IF ELECTED TO SUPERMAJORITY line, under WITHIN CENTENALS THAT SELECT. ‘Aggressive land tenure reform.’” Tabby enlarges the explanation provided by the Information worker who glossed this: WILL WORK TO CLARIFY AND/OR REALIGN LAND OWNERSHIP. “They took it at face value,” she says, pushing the tail of her sari back off her shoulder. “But you’re right. That doesn’t make any sense in the context of the positions Liberty’s been putting out for the past two years. They’re all about protecting private property, especially land.”


pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner


Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

In the country’s immediate postcolonial period, French and American mapping officials used triangulation to tie the country to the Blue Nile Datum. The country was later resurveyed based on the WGS, and in 2012 the government established a series of continuously operating GPS receivers linked to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), the ultra-accurate frame used by geophysicists to monitor plate movement. The Burkina Faso government’s embrace of this highest of high-tech physical reckoning is an attempt to modernize a land tenure and management system rife with instability and inaccuracy. A World Bank report predicts that the system will help “avoid land ownership overlapping . . . and enhance social equity and peace.” The ITRF is considered the ultimate mathematic representation of the earth: its size and the exact location of its center. It is acknowledged as the ultimate datum. WGS 84 is the United States Department of Defense’s “realization” of that frame, an attempt to wrap a grid around the skeleton as tightly as possible, so that, today, WGS 84 is accurate to the ITRF to within a centimeter.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In the short run, 40,000 African Americans received land grants of almost 40,000 acres.1 Promising experiments ended due to lack of wider support in Washington for confiscation and redistribution, lest such policies make people dependent on charity.2 By 1866, white plantation owners were allowed to re-enter their former lands and then to claim back lands that had been distributed to black families. Due to bureaucratic snafus, many black people had never received titles, which made their land tenure very easy to contest. Many who were deprived of their land grants despaired of being able to raise a crop without seed money and began to work for white planters under labor contracts; others were directly dispossessed. Historians differ about whether land reform was likely to have been successful. Roger Ransom argues that, given the shortage of credit and failure of infrastructure in the postwar South, freed blacks were very unlikely to have been successful commercial farmers even had they been granted land.3 Moreover, black landowners with substantial land generally opposed confiscation and redistribution, instead emphasizing that all freed people had the opportunity to save their earned wages in order to buy land.


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler


A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

As soon as the Revolutionary War was over, companies like the Geor­ giana, the Wabash, the Vandalia, the Loyal, the Ohio, and the Indiana were organized to speculate in vast tracts of interior land that had been claimed by the seaboard states. Leading citizens engaged in speculation. For instance, George Washington owned land in Virginia, Pennsylva­ nia, and the Ohio country. Banker Robert Morris, who almost single­ handedly financed the war, acquired enormous tracts in western New York. The Revolution swept away the prerogatives of the Crown associated with English land tenure in America. In America, ownership meant freedom from the meddling of nobles, the right to freely dispose of land by sale at a profit, the ability to move from one place to another without hindrance, to enjoy the social respect of other small holders, and to have a voice in matters of community interest. The Revolution also got rid of such obnoxious English traditions of inheritance as primogeniture, the law that awarded all of a man's estate to his eldest son, and the right of entail, which allowed a landowner to forbid by will the future sale of his property by his descendants.


pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader


agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Every individual has an interest in trees, both as owner and utilizer, and it is in everyone's interest to ensure that the crucial renewable resource does indeed renew itself. The same principle of private interest applies to the land. With the exception of springs, river and pond water, communal buildings, and the main trackways between villages, every square metre of the island is privately owned. Even the rocky outcrops and the bushes around them belong to known individuals. Traditional systems of land tenure among indigenous farmers throughout Africa granted only rights of use – rights that could be revoked, or were forfeited if the land was left uncultivated. Africa's indigenous farmers were more concerned about using land than owning it.25 By contrast, all the land on Ukara belonged to individual families and could be sold or even left uncultivated with impunity. Ownership was vested in the oldest male in the family, who divided the property among his sons when they established families of their own.

They wrote down names and addresses and dates of birth, and set in print the laws by which people must conduct their lives. In this way literacy transformed the flexibility of customary practice into hard, immutable, prescriptive law. Customary law had always taken contemporary assessments into account when making its judgements, but once a particular set of interpretations was codified in colonial law it became rigid and unable to reflect change in the future. In land-tenure disputes, for instance, ‘colonial officers expected the courts to enforce long-established custom rather than current opinion’.15 Common official stereotypes about African customary land law thus came to be used by colonial officials in assessing the legality of current decisions, and so came to be incorporated in ‘customary’ systems of tenure. The most far-reaching inventions of tradition in colonial Africa probably occurred precisely when European administrators believed they were respecting age-old African custom, whereas ‘What were called customary law, customary land-rights, customary political structure and so on, were in fact all invented by colonial codification’.16 The colonizers claimed that they were merely confirming the significance of existing traditions, but traditions in Africa (and everywhere else for that matter) are merely accepted modes of behaviour that currently function to the benefit of society as a whole.


pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman


British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

But they then consolidated their position by creating a (whites-only) legislature which passed laws imposing hut taxes and banning others from growing coffee. Similar things were happening in Rhodesia, but to a rather different class of white settler. While Kenya was for the upper classes, Cecil Rhodes’s creation offered to many of the servicemen demobilized at the end of the Second World War land and wealth they could never have found at home, with vast swathes of the best land reserved for them. To give a sense of what this meant, the Land Tenure Act of 1969, a statute which purported to offer a fairer division of the spoils between whites and blacks, meant that Rhodesia’s 250,000 white people could now own only as much land as five million black citizens. This promotion of white settlement in the twentieth century might have been comprehensible at the height of the empire, for it offered agricultural development and the creation of a cadre of imperial loyalists.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

A civilization, as the etymology of the word suggests, revolves around its cities, and in many ways it is cities that are the heroes of this book.3 But a city’s laws (civil or otherwise) are as important as its walls; its constitution and customs – its inhabitants’ manners (civil or otherwise) – as important as its palaces.4 Civilization is as much about scientists’ laboratories as it is about artists’ garrets. It is as much about forms of land tenure as it is about landscapes. The success of a civilization is measured not just in its aesthetic achievements but also, and surely more importantly, in the duration and quality of life of its citizens. And that quality of life has many dimensions, not all easily quantified. We may be able to estimate the per-capita income of people around the world in the fifteenth century, or their average life expectancy at birth.


pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith


Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

Trapped on the Kola Peninsula—the militarized, industrialized heart of the Russian North—they are mostly unemployed with no parliament. What few reindeer herders remain complain of grazing lands privatized and closed, and horrid environmental pollution from mining, smelting, and leaking radiation from old nuclear reactors. Russian soldiers sometimes shoot their animals to eat or for fun.477 Snared in poverty, lacking land tenure, and with no political voice, they are quickly losing their aboriginal language. Of Sápmi’s four fragmented pieces, Russia’s has the most uncertain future. The Mi-8 Time Machine We thudded over the taiga in an orange Soviet-era Mi-8 helicopter, crammed against one of its little porthole windows. Below us was an endless plain of mossy lakes, cottongrass sedge, and hunched conifers stretching to infinity.


pages: 487 words: 139,297

Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa by Jason Stearns


Berlin Wall, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, technology bubble, transfer pricing, unemployed young men, working-age population, éminence grise

It is amazing to what extent the ethnic stereotypes and conflicts that were born in Rwanda have contaminated the rest of the region. No other image plagues the Congolese imagination as much as that of the Tutsi aggressor. No other sentiment has justified as much violence in the Congo as anti-Tutsi ideology. Again and again, in the various waves of conflict in the Congo, the Tutsi community has taken center stage, as victims and killers. This antagonism is fueled by struggles over land tenure, citizenship, and access to resources, but also and most directly by popular prejudice and a vicious circle of revenge. The wars that began in the eastern Congo in 1993 acted as a vector to these prejudices, as Tutsi soldiers and politicians took lead roles in every Rwandan-backed insurgency since then. Whereas previously anti-Tutsi resentment was a phenomenon limited to small areas of North and South Kivu, it has now spread across the region.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce


Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave,, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

Post-independence African states either expunged the customary rights or overrode them by nationalizing the common pastures and forests in the name of socialism. Socialism is out of favor today. So the great sell-off has begun—in the name of economic development. Parcel it all out and all will be well. Alden Wily wants neither state control nor privatization. Instead she wants a renaissance for customary land tenure, by enshrining it in national laws. That is no panacea. As we saw in Ghana, tribal chiefs can be as venal as government ministers when a foreigner comes calling with a checkbook. But without some change to vest land rights in the community, she believes that most of the commons are doomed. “Half a billion Africans will remain tenants of a state that can perfectly legally sell or lease their farms and commons from beneath their feet.”


pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott


agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

HAWAII BECOMES “KING OF THE SUGAR WORLD” The story of Hawaiian sugar’s Asian indentured laborers (Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Filipino) begins with its American plantocracy’s rise to power. In the early nineteenth century, Polynesian Hawaii was evangelized by missionaries sent by the American Board of Foreign Missions. Until then, as the U.S. government acknowledged in 1993 in its official apology to the Hawaiian people, “the Native Hawaiian people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture, and religion.”564 In 1835, American Ladd and Company leased land on Kauai to grow and mill sugarcane, which became Hawaii’s major crop. Many missionaries founded plantations: the Alexanders, Baldwins, Castles, Cookes, Rices and Wilcoxes. “A plantation is a means of civilization,” the Planters’ Monthly proselytized. “It has come in very many instances like a mission of progress into a barbarous region and stamped its character on the neighbourhood for miles around.”565 Hawaii’s haole, or foreign, sugar interests depended on land-leases for enormous holdings, cheap labor governed by planter-biased laws, interconnected and intermarried factors and merchants, and centralized mills.


pages: 448 words: 142,946

Sacred Economics: Money, Gift, and Society in the Age of Transition by Charles Eisenstein


Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, disintermediation, diversification, fiat currency, financial independence, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liquidity trap, lump of labour, McMansion, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, special drawing rights, spinning jenny, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail

In England, free alienation of land was generally not possible until the fifteenth century.9 Thereafter, the vast communal lands of England rapidly came under private ownership thanks to the Enclosure Acts, a process paralleled across the continent, for example through the “emancipation” of the serfs. Lewis Hyde writes, Whereas before a man could fish in any stream and hunt in any forest, now he found there were individuals who claimed to be the owners of these commons. The basis of land tenure had shifted. The medieval serf had been almost the opposite of a property owner: the land had owned him. He could not move freely from place to place, and yet he had inalienable rights to the piece of land to which he was attached. Now men claimed to own the land and offered to rent it out at a fee. While a serf could not be removed from his land, a tenant could be evicted not only through failure to pay the rent but merely at the whim of the landlord.10 As with so many social reforms, the freeing of the serfs was another step in the consolidation of economic and political power in the hands of the already powerful.


Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama


Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

Unless otherwise noted, all figures are in U.S. dollars and are Geary-Khamis (G-K) index 1990 purchasing power parity dollars. While this is the most comprehensive income series available, Maddison’s figures are not universally accepted by historians. Indeed, at times they constitute only rough guesses. Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 2002, p. 1. When, in 1969, Kuznets posed the question of whether Europe was wealthier than the rest of the world in 1750, his estimate was that the ratio of the lowest to the highest per capita income in the world was 1:2, perhaps even 1:2.5. Newer Does Politics Explain the Economic Gap?


pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell


affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

.), The East Asian Development Experience: The Miracle, the Crisis, and the Future (London: Zed Books, 2006). Ha-Joon Chang, Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies and the Threat to the Developing World (London: Random House, 2007). Ha-Joon Chang and Gabriel Palma (eds.) Financial Liberalisation and the Asian Crisis (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001). Ching Peng, My Side of History (Singapore: Media Masters 2003). Mark Cleary and Peter Eaton, Tradition and Reform: Land Tenure and Rural Development in South-east Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). R. H Coase, ‘The Institutional Structure of Production’, American Economic Review 82, no. 4 (September 1992). Klaus W. Deininger, Land Policies and Land Reform (Washington DC: World Bank Publications, 2004). Klaus W. Deininger, Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction (Washington DC: World Bank Publications, 2003).


Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington


airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

Daily 9am–5pm. Qasr Ethnographic Museum This museum is located in an old mud-brick building on the edge of the ruins of the old town of Qasr, and the exhibits ramble through a series of rooms to the back of the building. Some of them are a bit cheesy, such as the mocked-up traditional oven, but there’s quite a lot here that can give you insight to life in the oasis. My particular favorites are the land-tenure deeds. You don’t have to be able to follow the complex swirl of the handwritten Arabic script to see how sophisticated the system of land usage is in the oasis, and, taken together with the toothed sluice board exhibit in the Ethnographic Museum in Mut, they begin to give 13_259290-ch10.qxp 282 7/22/08 12:40 AM Page 282 CHAPTER 10 . THE WESTERN DESERT a context for the complex interweaving of irrigation channels that you’ll see on any excursion into the countryside.


pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

The program was a resounding success that strongly influenced many other governments around Latin America—though those who implemented similar policies often thankfully did so in tandem with political liberalization as well. 24. Thinking the Unthinkable, Cockett, 306. 25. Ibid., 307. 26. The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy, Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, 219. 27. Ibid., 233. 28. Ibid., 258. 29. Margaret Thatcher, Campbell, 2:625. 30. National Review, Congdon, 1993. CHAPTER 24: SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE CHARACTERISTICS 1. “Crossing the River While Feeling the Rocks: Land-Tenure Reform in China,” John W. Bruce and Zongmin Li, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2009, 2. Fujian was also home to the Xiamen Special Economic Zone, the only SEZ created in 1979 that was outside of Guangdong Province. 3. “The Course of China’s Rural Reform,” Du Runsheng, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2006, 6, 4.


pages: 762 words: 246,045

The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson


Admiral Zheng, Khyber Pass, land tenure, Malacca Straits, post scarcity, South China Sea, trade route

Just as the geologists had been greatly helped in their labours by the construction of a framework of understanding based on the movement of the broken eggshell plates of the crust, so the bureaucrats and technocrats and scientists and diplomats at the League of All Peoples were helped in their endeavours by Zhu's theoretical considerations. It helps to have a plan! as Zhu had often remarked. And so Bao criss crossed the world, meeting and talking to people, helping to put certain strands into place, thickening the warp and weft of treaties and agreements by which all the peoples on the planet were tied together. He worked variously on land tenure reform, forest management, animal protection, water resources, panchayat support and divestiture of accumulated wealth, chipping away at the obdurate blocks of privilege left in the wake of the Long War and all that had happened in the centuries before it. Everything went very slowly, and progress was always in small increments, but what Bao noticed from time to time was that improvements in one part of the world situation often helped elsewhere, so that, for instance, the institution of panchayat governments at the local level in China and the Islamic states led to increased power for more and more people, especially where they adopted the Travancori law of requiring at least two of every five panchayat members to be women; and this in turn mitigated many land problems.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman


3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Consider the 3-2-1 Service in Madagascar, founded by David McAfee, CEO of Human Network International. He explained: At a moment of need, callers use their own simple mobile phones to proactively retrieve information across a range of topics. Callers dial a toll-free number anytime, anywhere and listen to a menu of options: “Would you like to know about: Health? Press one. Agriculture? Press two. Environment? Press three. Water and sanitation? Press four. Land tenure? Press five. Micro finance? Press six. Family planning? Press seven.” We use the same out-of-the-box software that every 1-800 number uses—“Press one to continue in English. Press two to switch to Spanish.” But we repurpose it so illiterate audiences can use their telephone keypad to select and listen to prerecorded messages free of charge and on demand. The innovation here is the “pull” aspect.


The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, éminence grise

Steven Kinzer, “Salvador activist Gómez Finds It Pays to Stay One Step Ahead,” Boston Globe, February 25, 1981, a lengthy interview with Gómez. 41. Daniel Southerland, “New Allegations Against Rightists in El Salvador,” Christian Science Monitor, March 4, 1981. 42. Kinzer, op.cit. 43. Latin America Weekly Report, February 13, 1981. 44. Leonel Gómez and Bruce Cameron, “El Salvador: The Current Danger: American Myths,” Foreign Policy, Summer 1981. 45. Simon and Stephens, op.cit. (see note 1). See also Mac Chapin, “A Few Comments on Land Tenure and the Course of Agrarian Reform in El Salvador,” June 1980 (Chapin is an AID official). On the role of the U.S. labor movement’s AIFLD, see Carolyn Forché and Philip Wheaton, History and Motivations of U.S. Involvement in the Control of the Peasant Movement in El Salvador (Ecumenical Program for Interamerican Communication and Action [EPICA], n.d.). 46. Correspondingly the media too began to decide that there might be reason for a diagnosis of the El Salvador affair that differs from the standard government line that a centrist regime is being attacked from the left and is unable to control the right.


pages: 699 words: 192,704

Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scramble for Africa, trade route

They constituted from the start, as Wakefield wished, a working cross-section of the English community—‘a complete slice of England’, so The Times said, ‘cut from top to bottom’. The original intention to supply a nobleman and a bishop as spiritual and temporal heads of the colony unfortunately languished when no nobleman could be persuaded to emigrate and the bishop changed his mind after a month in the settlement: but they made a start with the church, the school and the library, they painfully worked out details of land tenure, grazing rights, Church endowments and squatting privileges, and they presently settled into a reasonably ordered and prosperous routine. It was all very English. Transplanted oaks and plane trees flourished, and in their branches chirped and procreated the skylarks, blackbirds, sparrows, greenfinches, yellow-hammers, magpies, plovers and starlings misguidedly brought from home. It was not, however, much like the society Wakefield had envisaged.


pages: 687 words: 189,243

A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy by Joel Mokyr


Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Copley Medal, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Deng Xiaoping, Edmond Halley, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, framing effect, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, hindsight bias, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land tenure, law of one price, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, new economy, phenotype, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, the market place, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, ultimatum game, World Values Survey, Wunderkammern

Many scholars have shown that while the Chinese relied on different institutional forms of contract enforcement and dispute resolution, these were strong enough to create a well-functioning market economy.7 Furthermore, the Chinese state administration served far more as a third-party enforcement mechanism of property right’s than had been previously believed. Local officials resolved property disputes over water, land tenure, and contracts even in the absence of a formal civil code (Rowe, 2009, p. 58). While there were craft guilds (hang) in China, there is no evidence that they played a serious role at excluding others from their trade, as they often did in Europe, thus leading to local cartels generating rents for the incumbents before the late nineteenth century (Pomeranz, 2013, pp. 106–8). Using the traditional definitions of what “good” institutions do, namely underpinning and supporting well-functioning markets, it is hard to see much daylight between China and the most advanced parts of Europe.


pages: 824 words: 268,880

Blue Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson


anthropic principle, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, dark matter, epigenetics, gravity well, James Watt: steam engine, land tenure, new economy, phenotype, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

So once again the system had worked; they had warm bodies filling the whole polyarchic array, the neighborhood boards, the ag board, the water board, the architectural review board, the project review council, the economic coordination group, the crater council to coordinate all these smaller bodies, the global delegates’ advisory board— all that network of small management bodies that progressive political theorists had been suggesting in one variation or another for centuries, incorporating aspects of the almost-forgotten guild socialism of Great Britain, Yugoslavian worker management, Mondragon ownership, Kerala land tenure, and so on. An experiment in synthesis. And so far it seemed to be working, in the sense that the Da Vinci techs seemed about as self-determined and happy as they had been during the ad hoc underground years, when everything had been done (apparently) by instinct, or, to be more precise, by the general consensus of the (much smaller) population in Da Vinci at that time. They certainly seemed as happy; out on the terraces they were lining up at big pots of kavajava and Irish coffee, or kegs of beer, clumped in talkative groups so that the clatter of voices was like the sound of waves, as at any cocktail party: an amazing sound, those voices all together.


pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal

The Visigothic kings were given to taking hostages and to punishing disloyal subjects, but they did not indulge in gratuitous violence. Numerous Romans entered their service, notably the military general Nepotanius, the admiral Namatius of Saintes, and Victorius, the dux super septem civitates, or ‘commander of Septimania’.10 The Visigoths did not legislate separately for the Gallo-Romans, suggesting a willingness to assimilate; a new system of land tenure did not involve significant confiscations; and in religious matters, the Arian practices of the Visigothic clergy proceeded in parallel to the well-established network of Roman bishoprics and rural churches. The fact that the General Church Council of Agde could take place in Visigothic territory in 506 suggests that the non-Arians had no special fear for their safety.11 The Roman city of Tolosa, built on the plain beneath an ancient Celtic hill fort, had been given the epithet Palladia by the Emperor Domitian in honour of the goddess Pallas Athena, patroness of the arts.


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall


agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

The oldest debate in Chinese political thought was between the Taoists, who advocated a simple life in harmony with nature, and the Legalists and Confucians, who stressed the need for a strong centralized State and bureaucracy.1 Modern anarchism not only advocated the Taoist rural idyll, but also echoed the peasant longing embedded in Chinese culture for a frugal and egalitarian millennium which has expressed itself in peasant rebellions throughout Chinese history. It further struck a chord with two traditional concepts, Ta-t’ung, a legendary golden age of social equality and harmony, and Ching-t’ien, a system of communal land tenure which was probably practised locally at different periods during the first millennium.2 At the turn of the century, China was almost completely dependent on Japan for its knowledge of the West. It is not therefore surprising mat the formative stage of Chinese radicalism was closely linked to Japan’s. A Chinese group of students in Tokyo came under the influence of the Japanese anarchist thinker Kōtoku Shūsui.