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"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky
affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
The House bill is a Republican-sponsored bill that only small numbers of Democrats have come out in favor of. Most immigrants’ rights groups argue strongly for the need for a comprehensive reform. Some have come out in support of the Senate bill, believing that it is the best that can be hoped for in the current political climate.1 Others object to the punitive requirements for legalization, and to the notion of a new guest-worker program.2 Unions are similarly divided. The AFL-CIO opposes the Senate plan, arguing that guest-worker programs by their very nature create a group of people who are not full citizens, and who are easily exploited and abused. “It creates a permanent underclass of workers who are unable to fully participate in democracy,” said AFL-CIO president John Sweeney. “The plan deepens the potential for abuse and exploitation of these workers, while undermining wages and labor protections for all workers.”3 In contrast, Eliseo Medina, president of the SEIU (Service Employees International Union), whose father came to the United States under the bracero program, argues that this guest worker proposal avoids the problematic aspects of earlier programs.
The Change to Win Coalition, which split from the AFL-CIO in 2005 and to which the SEIU now belongs, has not taken an official position on the matter. But some SEIU members disagreed so strongly with their union’s position that they formed a new organization called “No Worker Is Illegal” to press the SEIU to revise its stance. “Guest-worker programs, further militarization of the border, and employer sanctions hurt all workers,” they explain.4 Others point out that a temporary guest-worker program is at odds with the jobs that migrant workers are filling. Only one in ten Mexican workers in the United States holds a temporary or seasonal job. “Rotating temporary workers through permanent jobs is simply not sound policy, and invites non-compliance with the terms of the programme by both migrants and employers,” notes immigration specialist Wayne Cornelius.5 Meanwhile, states and local communities around the United States are discussing or implementing anti-immigrant regulations.
Women lose citizenship upon marrying a noncitizen. 1917 Asiatic barred zone prohibits all immigration from Asia. Literacy requirement established for immigrants from Europe. Temporary guest-worker program exempts Mexicans from literacy requirement and head tax. Puerto Ricans granted citizenship. 1918 Passport Act requires official documentation for entry into the United States. Border Crossing Cards issued for Canadians and Mexicans. 1921 Quota Act limits European immigrants to 3 percent of each European nationality present in the U.S. in 1910. Visa issued in home country now required for entry. Non-Europeans are not included in the act: Asians are still barred, immigrants from the Western Hemisphere are allowed unlimited entry, and Africans are ignored. 1922 Mexican guest-worker program abolished. Women’s citizenship separated from that of their husbands (except if a woman marries an alien who is racially ineligible for citizenship, in which case she loses her citizenship). 1924 Quota Act revised to 2 percent of each nationality based on numbers in U.S in 1890.
Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley
affirmative action, business cycle, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game
“But even if we maximize the defense approach as best we can, there will still be an economic incentive to get across the border. I don’t see how you can have a good security policy without a good guest-worker program.” As globalization continues, our relationship with Canada and Mexico will be even more important, he said. “And at the end of the day, both a defensive posture along the border and a means to legitimize those who seek to work here is . . . in our economic interests, our security interests, and our global interests.” Chertoff told me he was astonished by the arguments he heard coming from the political right during the 2007 debate over the Senate immigration bill, which would have created a path to legal status for illegal immigrants already in the country and a guest-worker program for future labor flows. “I’ve been surprised at how many conservatives don’t really believe in the free market when it comes to immigration, ” he said.
That, in turn, would go a long way toward reducing illegal entries. It would also alleviate pressure on the border and free up our overburdened patrols to track down terrorists, drug dealers, and other serious threats to our welfare. Unfortunately, as things stand, our border security officers spend most of their time chasing migrants who come north to mow our lawns and burp our babies. A guest-worker program for such individuals would help regulate the labor flow and isolate the criminals, thus making us much safer than any wall along the Rio Grande. CHAPTER ONE POPULATION: DOOM AND DEMOGRAPHY Perhaps this is the first instance in which those with their pants up are going to be caught by those with their pants down! —JOHN TANTON Odd political bedfellows are nothing new in the nation’s capital, but a House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing held on March 24, 2004, was remarkable all the same.
In late 2005, the House had passed immigration legislation that, among other things, expanded physical barriers along the Mexican border, made unlawful presence in the United States a felony, and increased sanctions on businesses who hire illegal workers. The following spring, the Senate passed its own bill, which was more to Bush’s liking because it included not only more enforcement measures but also a guest-worker program for future cross-border labor flows. In addition, the Senate bill allowed illegal aliens in the United States to earn legal status without first returning to their home countries if they met certain requirements—a provision that got the entire Senate bill denounced by opponents as an offer of “amnesty.” Normally, the next step would have been a House- Senate conference to hash out a compromise bill for the president to sign.
Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor
The first and most obvious is that a program like the one Weyl and Posner envision would have profound consequences for political equality, as they would readily acknowledge. In the past, Weyl and Posner have called for mass guest-worker programs precisely because they recognize that U.S. citizens are reluctant to open the doors to citizenship to all potential migrants.21 And so they see a system of temporary labor visas as a way to give the global poor access to the U.S. labor market without also granting them full membership in the American polity. Though we already do this on a small scale, guest-worker programs that would welcome tens of millions would create new cleavages in our society. Assume for the moment that our main motivation for increasing low-skill immigration were to improve the relative status of low-skill natives, on the grounds that we don’t want low-skill natives to have to take on low-wage manual jobs.
America, as we have established, mostly eschews a monogenerational approach. And there is a good reason for that. As the political scientist Morris Levy suggested to The New York Times, Americans “dislike the idea of a permanent second-class citizen,” as it cuts against “a core set of values that people think of as really elemental to being American.”52 The United States does have long-term guest-worker programs, to be sure, but they typically give guest workers the right to bring over their dependents. Overstaying guest-worker visas is common, and, of course, people on temporary visas often have citizen children. The babies of low-skill immigrants are as much our babies as the babies of high-skill immigrants. And, as of now, we are letting them down. CHAPTER THREE Race to the Bottom As a little kid, I was an accidental ethnic pioneer.
The evidence suggests not: populists have gained support, and they have done so primarily by promising tighter immigration policies. While Sweden is trying to nudge its employers to adopt more labor-intensive business models, Singapore is doing the opposite.5 Like Sweden, Singapore is one of the world’s richest countries, and its citizens are also among the best educated in the world. Yet the city-state also makes use of a great deal of low-skill labor via its massive guest-worker program. Rather than taking in refugees, Singapore takes in hundreds of thousands of temporary labor migrants, who drive its taxis, unclog its toilets, and dig its tunnels. Singapore’s government rigorously enforces its immigration laws, and temporary labor migrants are truly temporary. There is zero expectation that these migrants will one day be welcomed into citizenship, unless they belong to the ultra-elite minority of highly educated expats.
Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population
Millions more, particularly from Africa, were forced to move under the tyranny of slavery or indentured labor. In this new era of globalization, free and forced migrants were the causes and consequences of economic growth. The twentieth century has witnessed the proliferation of states and the extension of government bureaucracies into the management of migration. The introduction of passports, strict border controls, immigration quotas, guest-worker programs, and the distribution of rights on the basis of nationality are all features of the new era of highly managed migration. Passports and border controls are relatively new innovations, and their increasingly strict enforcement in the twentieth century dramatically changed the dynamics of migration. International migration became regulated at the level of the nation-state. Apart from measures to protect refugees, international cooperation has largely neglected the vital dimension of migration.
A similar number of Africans moved to France from its former colonies by 1972.88 The United States also loosened it national origins immigration restrictions in 1965, leading to a surge in migration to the United States from Asia and Latin America.89 In the United States, the need for additional labor to produce “food to win the war” during World War II led Congress to introduce the Bracero guest-worker program to bring in migrants from Mexico and Central America to work as temporary agricultural laborers. During the period from 1943-1965, 4.6 million “braceros” from Mexico were admitted on temporary work permits to do farm work, many of them returning year after year.90 Britain required foreign migrants to fill labor shortages after the war, and as early as 1946, it had identified displaced persons as a possible solution.
Initially, Britain recruited about 90,000 (primarily male) workers from refugee camps and Italy through a European Voluntary Worker scheme. 91 Workers were tied to a specific job, they could not bring their families to join them, and they could face summary deportation in cases of indiscipline.92 Over 345,000 Europeans were ultimately recruited on restricted work permits, but the continued shortage of labor meant that British recruiters searched farther afield. By 1958, 115,000 West Indians, 55,000 Indians, 25,000 West Africans, and 10,000 Cypriots had been brought to the UK. West Germany's temporary guest-worker program, called Gastarbeiter, became one of Europe's largest and most sophisticated. Germany signed bilateral agreements with Italy (1955), Greece (1960), Turkey (1961), Portugal (1964), and Yugoslavia (1968) to recruit unskilled labor for jobs in the rapidly growing industrial sector. The Federal Labour Office set up recruitment offices in these countries, and they would test occupational skills, provide medical examinations, screen police records, and transport groups to Germany—after which, employers would provide initial accommodation.93 Stephen Castles and Mark Miller comment that under the Gastarbeiter program, “German policies conceived migrant workers as temporary labour units, which could be recruited, utilized and sent away again as employers required.”94 Like other European guest-worker programs, however, many of the initially “temporary” migrants eventually had families and established roots in Germany.
The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind
affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor
A pro-labor immigration policy would seek to minimize split labor markets which can be gamed by employers who can pick and choose among different categories of workers with different legal rights. The most fundamental labor right is the right to quit a job and find another, without needing to leave the country. For this reason, indentured servitude in the form of guest worker programs, which bind a worker to a single employer as a condition for working in a country, is a political abomination. Guest worker programs threaten all workers in the sectors in which they are permitted by allowing employers to hire bound serfs instead of workers who can respond to mistreatment or low pay by quitting. For this reason, all or most temporary guest worker programs that allow employers to hire foreign nationals as indentured servants should be abolished. If foreign nationals, other than a tiny number of foreign orchestra conductors and visiting professors, are allowed to work at all in a country, they should have the status described in the US as “legal permanent residents” (green card holders).
They complain only of those of other people.24 * * * — IMMIGRATION ALONG WITH offshoring can be used as a form of global labor arbitrage. Instead of bringing jobs to low-wage workers abroad, employers can encourage the importation of low-wage workers to their home countries to suppress wages, deter unionization, and weaken the bargaining power of native and immigrant workers alike. Some Western countries have had formal policies of encouraging unskilled, low-wage immigration, like the US with its exploitative guest worker programs in agriculture and West Germany with its Turkish Gastarbeiter (guest workers). But for the most part, unskilled immigration has been the incidental result of other policies. In the United States, most legal unskilled immigrants have been low-income Mexicans and Central Americans who come on the basis of US family reunification laws, in addition to 12 million or so illegal immigrants, mostly from the same nearby countries.
Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier
Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game
Evidently, the more uncertain, potentially adverse consequences for economic well-being are likely to come through the social effects discussed in chapter 3. There is only one way in which virtually all social effects can be avoided, leaving only the economic effects. That is if immigrants are prevented from integrating in any way into the society other than as workers: that is, in the German euphemism, “guest workers.” A genuine guest-worker program delivers the labor markets effect of migration and nothing else. Some societies, most notably in the Middle East, have chosen to run very substantial guest-worker programs. Since these societies are small and rich, the attractions of such a migration policy to the indigenous population are substantial: they get others to do the work without the composition of the society being changed. Dubai has become a luxury service economy—only 2 percent of its income is now from oil—by this model.
A visit to Dubai is a stark and unsettling reminder of global inequality precisely because, by design, the business model attracts the world’s extremes of income. The superrich come to stay in the luxury hotels and the superpoor come to work in them. However, although Dubai exploits the opportunity created by global inequality, it does not cause that inequality. On the contrary, the jobs that Dubai provides help poor people. In essence, the enthusiasm of economists for migration is enthusiasm for the guest-worker model. Commonly the espousal of guest-worker programs is implicit, since all the other effects of migration are ignored. But Professor Alan Winters, a distinguished economist who has specialized in migration, has had the intellectual honesty to advocate the guest-worker model explicitly. Specifically, he proposes that all the high-wage countries should encourage the mass temporary immigration of unskilled workers from poor countries.13 In economic terms it is hard to fault this prescription: it would indeed generate global economic gains and benefit almost everyone involved.
In teasing out such effects, somewhat surprisingly the key gap in the evidence turns out to be data on the policies of host countries. There is as yet no comprehensive quantitatively usable version of the myriad of complex changes in rules and practices, country by country. As a result, testing a theory of how policy affects remittances has to use proxies for policy. For example, one proxy for the restrictiveness of migration policy is whether the country has a formal guest-worker program, since guest workers have no right to bring in relatives. Another is the sex ratio of migrants, since this is likely to reflect whether wives and mothers can be brought in. With these caveats, there is solid evidence that remittances to most countries would be increased were the migration policies of host countries somewhat more restrictive, in the sense of not letting in the relatives of migrants.
The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin
Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator
Wagner, “Number of General Motors employees between FY 2010 and FY 2018,” Statista, February 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/239843/employees-of-general-motors/; Lockheed Martin, “About Lockheed Martin,” https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/who-we-are.html; Jan Conway, “Number of Employees Kroger 2014–2018,” Statista, April 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/717646/kroger-number-employees/; Home Depot, “About Home Depot,” https://corporate.homedepot.com/about. 9 Nikhil Swaminathan, “Inside the Growing Guest Worker Program Trapping Indian Students in Virtual Servitude,” Mother Jones, September/October 2017, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/09/inside-the-growing-guest-worker-program-trapping-indian-students-in-virtual-servitude. 10 Annalee Newitz, “Mark Zuckerberg’s manifesto is a political trainwreck,” Ars Technica, February 18, 2017, https://arstechnica.com/staff/2017/02/op-ed-mark-zuckerbergs-manifesto-is-a-political-trainwreck/; Ezra Klein, “Mark Zuckerberg’s theory of human history,” Vox, February 18, 2017, http://www.vox.com/new-money/2017/2/18/14653542/mark-zuckerberg-facebook-manifesto-sapiens. 11 Gregory Ferenstein, “The Disrupters,” City Journal, Winter 2017, https://www.city-journal.org/html/disrupters-14950.html. 12 Gregory Ferenstein, “A Lot of Billionaires Are Giving to Democrats.
psid=bwGGn; Aria Bendix, “San Francisco’s homelessness crisis is so bad, people appear to be using poop to graffiti the sidewalks,” SFGate, November 20, 2018, https://www.sfgate.com/technology/businessinsider/article/Meet-the-guy-in-charge-of-tackling-San-8331836.php. 27 Chris Brenner and Manuel Pastor, Equity, Growth, and Community: What the Nation Can Learn from America’s Metro Areas (Oakland: University of California Press, 2015), 167. 28 Rachel Massaro, “Silicon Valley Index,” Joint Venture, 2016, https://jointventure.org/images/stories/pdf; Dylan Wittenberg, “These Bay Area FinTech Companies Are Revolutionizing the Lending Space,” Benzinga, July 25, 2017, https://www.benzinga.com/fintech/17/07/9816489/these-bay-area-fintech-companies-are-revolutionizing-the-lending-space/index2016.pdf. 29 Issie Lapowsky, “Silicon Valley’s Biggest Worry Should Be Inequality, Not a Bubble,” Wired, February 4, 2015, https://www.wired.com/2015/02/silicon-valley-inequality-study/. 30 Gabriel Metcalf, “Four Future Scenarios for the San Francisco Bay Area,” SPUR Regional Strategy, August 2018, https://www.spur.org/sites/default/files/publications_pdfs/SPUR_Future_Scenarios_for_the_SF_Bay_Area.pdf; Alex Thomas, “The Demographics of Poverty in Santa Clara County,” New Geography, January 10, 2017, https://www.newgeography.com/content/005501-the-demographics-poverty-santa-clara-county; Jeff Desjardins, “Which Companies Make the Most Revenue Per Employee?” Visual Capitalist, June 15, 2017, http://www.visualcapitalist.com/companies-revenue-per-employee/. 31 Nikhil Swaminathan, “Inside the Growing Guest Worker Program Trapping Indian Students in Virtual Servitude,” Mother Jones, September/October 2017, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/09/inside-the-growing-guest-worker-program-trapping-indian-students-in-virtual-servitude. 32 Sam Levin, “Black and Latino representation in Silicon Valley has declined, study shows,” Guardian, October 3, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/oct/03/silicon-valley-diversity-black-latino-women-decline-study. 33 Seung Lee, “‘These are poverty-level jobs in Facebook’: Silicon Valley security officers protest for better wages,” Mercury News, June 18, 2018, https://www.mercurynews.com/2018/06/15/these-are-poverty-level-jobs-in-facebook-silicon-valley-security-officers-protest-for-better-wages/; Julia Carrie Wong, “Silicon Valley subcontracting makes income inequality worse, report finds,” Guardian, March 30, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/mar/30/silicon-valley-subcontracting-income-inequality-worse-report. 34 Kathleen Elkins, “Several Google employees say they’ve lived in the company parking lot—here’s why they did it,” Business Insider, October 30, 2015, https://www.businessinsider.com/why-google-employees-live-in-the-parking-lot-2015-10; Robert Johnson, “Welcome to ‘The Jungle’: The Largest Homeless Camp in Mainland USA Is Right in the Heart of Silicon Valley” Business Insider, September 7, 2013, https://www.businessinsider.com/the-jungle-largest-homeless-camp-in-us-2013-8. 35 Brenner and Pastor, Equity, Growth and Community, 168. 36 Antonio García Martínez, “How Silicon Valley Fuels an Informal Caste System,” Wired, July 9, 2018, https://www.wired.com/story/how-silicon-valley-fuels-an-informal-caste-system/. 37 Ibid. 38 Jeff Daniels, “Nearly half of California’s gig economy workers struggling with poverty,” CNBC, August 28, 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/28/about-half-of-californias-gig-economy-workers-struggling-with-poverty.html. 39 Nick Srnicek, “We need to nationalize Google, Facebook, and Amazon.
Vanishing Frontiers: The Forces Driving Mexico and the United States Together by Andrew Selee
Berlin Wall, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Donald Trump, energy security, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, payday loans, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Wozniak, Y Combinator
These factories, known as maquiladoras, were spawned by Mexican legislation in the 1960s that allowed foreign-owned companies to set up shop in the border region to manufacture goods for the US market. They were exempt from import and export tariffs and could hire Mexican workers at a fraction of the cost of US labor. The maquiladora program had been designed to create job growth in the border region after the US government suspended the bracero program, a migrant guest worker program begun during World War II to bring Mexican farmworkers into the United States for short periods. When that program ended in 1964, the flow of Mexicans to the United States continued, but some stayed in border towns and cities to work in the maquiladoras. By the late 1990s, Tijuana had somewhere between 1.5 million and 2 million residents, making it Mexico’s fourth-largest metropolitan area.
Index accountability, 19–20, 130, 157, 177 accreditation issues, 194–195 Advance America, 77 advanced manufacturing, shift to, 37–38, 39, 48 advertising, 210, 247, 248, 252 aerospace industry border crossing efficiency and, 46 hubs of, 62–63 and NAFTA, 55 shared production process in, 18, 23, 58, 61–63 Afghanistan war, 138, 144, 147, 148 Afro-Mexicans, 210 aging population, 196 agricultural industry farmworkers in, 36, 39, 97, 265 guest worker program for, 36 import/exports, 49–50 and NAFTA, 53, 282 ties in, 23 trade balance in, 51 Aguascalientes, Mexico, 95 Aguayo, Sergio, 278 airports border crossing and, 68, 71–72 shared, 6, 23, 28, 30, 46 Alonso, Miguel, 190 Alpek, 76 aluminum industry, 76 Amazon, 9 ambiguity, feelings of, 209, 211, 213 Ambulante, 240, 241, 243 America Móvil, 77, 89–90 American emigrants. See expatriation amnesty program, 265 Anguiano, Raúl, 42 appliance industry, 58, 59 April’s Daughters (film), 233 Arca Continental, 4–5 Aridjis, Homero, 214 Arzt, Sigrid, 148, 149 Asia, 4, 188, 195, 196 assassination, 135, 136 asylum, 199 Atzompa, Mexico, 7, 15, 16–17, 20 auto industry border crossing efficiency and, 45, 46 in the border region, 39 employment in, 56, 57 growth in, 5–6, 59–60, 271 increased production in, 57–58 and NAFTA, 54–55, 61 shared production process in, 5–6, 18, 23, 54–58, 89, 270 auto parts, 5, 39, 54–55, 55–56, 57, 58, 89, 95, 103 auto racing industry, 227, 248–249, 250 automation, 59, 60, 96 background checks, 71 Bairstow, Lynne, 107–108, 111, 272 BanRegioLabs, 110–111 Barletta, Lou, 10 baseball leagues, 1–2, 249–250, 272–273 basketball leagues, 250, 272 beer industry, 86–87, 262 Bell, Glen, 261 Beltrán Leyva Organization, 137, 176 Bersin, Alan, 69–70, 71, 176 Better Life, A (film), 232 Bichir, Damian, 232 biculturalism, 24, 25, 213–215, 215–216, 217, 218–219, 221–222, 224, 247, 255, 273 Biden, Joe, 200 Big Bend National Park, management of, 280–281 bilingualism, 24, 204, 206, 224, 246, 247, 255, 273 Bimbo, 4, 9, 14, 79–82, 84 binationalism, 30, 38, 39, 42, 45, 46–48, 107, 168, 219–221, 226, 244 bioenergy, 117, 123 BITCenter, 39 black market, 129 Blancornelas, Jesús, 135, 136, 137, 140 Bollywood productions, 227 border cities.
See agricultural industry fast-food industry, 261, 262 fears, 21, 22, 29, 185, 279 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 153–154, 174–175 Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), 118, 119, 120, 123, 126, 127 Federal Police, 170, 171 Félix, Arellano, 136, 137 Femsa, 86–87 fentanyl, 179 Fernández, José Antonio, 86–87 Fernandez, Marissa, 247, 252 film festivals, 6, 229, 233, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243 film industry awards, 229, 230–231, 232, 233, 254, 271 competition in, 237–238 evolution in, 234–239 global/international, 234, 237, 238, 244 golden age in, 234–235, 237 government-backed production in, 234–235 market in, 224–225, 226, 227–228 privatization of, 235–239 public-private partnerships involving, 229–230, 232, 237 social sensibility in, promotion of, 239–240, 241 success in, key to, 238–239 talent sourced for, 226, 229, 230, 232, 236, 237, 239 ties in, 6, 23 viability in, 238 See also Hollywood production/studios; independent filmmaking film institutes, 228, 229 financial crisis (2008) beginnings of, effect of, 190 recession resulting from, 79, 195 recovery from, 97 financial sector, 77, 110–111, 176 fintech, 110, 111 Fisk, Dan, 147, 148 Flint, Michigan, 56, 89 Flores, Adal, 99, 100–101, 106, 107 fluidity, 71, 72, 135, 281 food industry, 4–5, 9, 76, 79–82, 84–85, 90, 185 See also agricultural industry; restaurant industry football leagues, 246–248, 272 Ford, 56, 57, 58, 77, 271 Fortes, Elena, 240 Fortune 50 companies, 94 Fortune 100 companies, 86 Fox, Vincente, 114, 116, 133, 208 Fox Deportes, 247 Franco, Michel, 233, 242 free trade agreement, negotiating, 51–52 See also North American Free Trade Agreement Frida (film), 232 Fuentes-Berain, Rossana, 77, 78, 278–279 Fukunaga, Cary, 241 Fukuyama, Francis, 41 Fund of Funds, 109 Fusion, 255 fusion center domestic, 170 international, 169–170, 171, 172–174, 175, 178 See also specific agencies future, direction of the, 283 Galicot, José, 40–41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47 gang violence decline in, 31, 41, 150, 168, 177 hotbed of, 19, 180 innocent victims of, 165, 166, 180 prevalent, 31, 138, 166 spike in, 19, 139, 147, 161, 166, 172, 179, 180 spread of, 142, 150 Garcetti, Eric, 266 Garcia, Jeff, 246 García Bernal, Gael, 232, 237, 239–240, 243 Garza, Armando, 113, 117 Garza, Tony, 144, 146, 148, 215 Garza Sada, Eugenio, 86, 87 Gates Foundation, 102 gays/lesbians, safe zone for, 197 General Motors, 56 generational differences, 248, 250, 275, 276 generational transition in leadership, 85–86, 88 George Lopez (TV show), 253 George Weston, 79 Germany, 5, 50, 99, 104 Giorguli, Silvia, 207 glass industry, 76 Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 63, 78 global debt crisis, 51 global economy, 18, 59 global trade, concerns about, shorthand for, 21 González, Vidal, 106 González Iñárritú, Alejandro, 230, 231–232, 237, 271 Gore, Al, 41 government. See specific officials, agencies, and issues Gruma, 85, 90 Grupo Alfa, 85, 113–115, 116, 130 Grupo Electra, 77 Guadalajara, Mexico cost of living, 100 expatriates in, 206 innovation culture in, 104–107 manufacturing in, 98, 103 reinvention of, 98–99 technology innovation in, 23, 95, 97, 98–100, 101–102, 103–104, 107, 272 Guerrero, Vicente, 210 Guerrero violence, 19, 180 guest worker program, 36, 39 Guillén, Tonatiuh, 43 Gulf Cartel, 137, 138, 172, 176 gun sales/smuggling, 143, 150, 176 Gutiérrez, José Luis, 219–220, 221 Gutiérrez, Mak, 105 Gutiérrez, Raúl, 73, 74, 75, 86 Guzmán, “Chapo,” 137, 166, 176–177 Ha*Ash, 218, 219 Hackers/Founders, 105 Hadley, Steven, 148 Hayek, Salma, 227, 232, 236, 242, 253 Hazelton, Pennsylvania affiliation with, 7–8 crime in, 10–11 decline of, 8 demographics of, changes in, 9, 12–13, 187 employment in, 8, 9 ethnic history of, 2 immigration and, 1, 2–3, 4, 8, 185, 187 investment in, and nearby communities, 4–5, 9, 14, 76, 84, 85, 89 as a microcosm of US-Mexico relations, 20–21 migrant journey to, from Atzompa, 15–16 population in, 8, 9 public-private partnerships in, 14 restriction of immigration in, 2, 9 revitalization of, 8–9, 13–14, 21, 185, 201 start-ups in, expansion of, 9–10, 185 unifying, attempts at, 11–12, 14 voters in, and national elections, 21 Hazelton Integration Project (HIP), 11–12, 14 health care accessibility of, 18, 66, 205, 206 affordability of, 205 improvement in, 66 investment in, 189, 191 provision of, 204–205 quality of, 205 health-care technology, 103 heavy manufacturing, 63 Heineken, 86–87 Hernández, Roberto, 158–159, 159–160, 161–162, 163, 243 heroin, 19, 74, 137, 143, 158, 178–179, 180 Hewlett Foundation, 160, 162 Hewlett-Packard (HP), 95, 98, 99 high-tech industries attracting, 13–14 pairing low-tech and, 96 supply chains for, 30 See also technology sector hockey leagues, 248 holiday celebrations, 194 Hollywood production/studios, 6, 23, 39, 226, 228, 230, 231–232, 233, 235, 237, 238, 243 home cooking, ethnic, becoming mainstream, 260, 262 Homeland Security, Department of, 45, 134, 269 homicides immigration backlash and, 10, 11 organized crime and, 19, 31, 136, 138, 139, 142, 150, 165, 166, 168, 172, 177, 180 overall rate of, 19, 138, 150, 177, 178, 179 hospitality industry, 185 How to Be a Latin Lover (film), 227 Hughes, Langston, 208–209 Human Development Report, 241 Hunt, Hunter, 125, 127 Hunt Consolidated Energy, 125, 127 Hurricane Katrina assistance, 133–135, 141, 150, 151, 171 hydropower, 123, 126 IBM, 95, 98, 99 IEnova, 120, 122, 124 illegal drugs, demand for, 19, 21, 143, 149–150, 176, 178, 180, 274 See also drug addiction/overdoses; drug trade/trafficking illegal immigration amnesty for, 265 and the border wall, 22 concerns over, 186, 190 crackdown on, 269 decline in, 3–4, 186, 190, 191, 282 deterring, common goal of, 200 documentation issues facing, 193 new flows of, first line of defense in, 199–200 protest against, 2 Imcine, 228, 229 immigrant roots, 209, 210 immigration backlash against, 2, 10, 11 decline in, 3, 20, 187, 190–191, 195, 196, 198, 202, 255 as embedded, 186 fears associated with, 21, 185–186 films involving, 226–227, 228, 230, 232 height of, 190 job loss driving, 63, 190 mass, ending of, 4 new wave of, 1 positive views toward, 22, 186, 283 poverty driving, 2, 15, 189, 198 previous waves of, 9, 13, 186, 188 profound influence of, 282–283 restrictions on, focusing on, 2, 10 shifting face of, 4, 188, 198, 200, 201 and social integration, 186–187 See also illegal immigration; returning migrants immigration debate, 2–3, 4, 22, 188 immigration reform, 147, 265 Immigration Reform and Control Act, 265 imports agricultural, 49–50 border crossing and, 71 natural gas, 119, 124 oil, 124, 131 and tariffs, 36 See also exports; trade incarceration rates, 10 income disparity/inequality, 65, 275, 277 See also poverty income growth, 18, 66, 196, 248 See also economic growth; middle class independent filmmaking, 6, 228, 233, 234, 238, 239, 240, 241–242, 243–244, 254 See also documentary film Independents, 22, 275 India call centers and, 193 emigration from, 4 film industry and, 225, 227 outsourcing IT to, issue with, 94 technology sector in, 98 venture capital and, 107 indigenous roots, 209–210 industrial sector declining employment in, 59, 60, 275 development of, 8–9 shared production in, 58, 282 trade balance in, 51 See also specific industries informal sector, 66 Infosys, 95 infrastructure, 205 innovation culture, 104–107 innovation economy, 21, 23, 30, 39, 67 innovation labs/hubs, 39, 110–111 See also Guadalajara, Mexico; Silicon Valley, California innovation meet-ups, 104, 105–106 institution building, 157, 169, 180 Instructions Not Included (film), 226–227 Intel, 95, 99 intelligence model, 175 International Revolutionary Party (PRI), 114 investment matching, 189–190 as part of overall expansion, 90, 91 portfolio, 76 rise in, 4–5, 9, 74, 75–79, 80–82, 84, 88–89, 270, 271 in San Diego-Tijuana bridge, 28 See also venture capital investment laws, 109–110 investment risk, 111–112 Iraq war, 144, 147, 148 Ireland, emigration from, 2, 9, 13, 186, 197 Italy emigrants from, 1, 2, 8, 9, 13, 33, 39, 43, 186, 197, 260 movie market in, 224 Jalisco New Generation Cartel, 177 Jane the Virgin (TV show), 253 Japan, 5, 28, 47, 50 Jeep, 55, 57 Jesse & Joy, 215–216 Jiménez, Efraín, 188–189, 192, 201 Jinich, Pati, 260 jobs.
Arrival City by Doug Saunders
agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population
Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border. And yet, by the time it was passed, pressure from the Chamber of Commerce and agriculture lobbies had transformed it into a mass amnesty that provided legal citizenship to almost three million “illegals,” combined with a new program allowing low-skill migrants to enter under a guest-worker program demanded by agricultural industries in the western states. This guest-worker program eventually led to its own mass amnesty. An effort in the next decade by the conservative House of Representatives, led by Newt Gingrich, to reverse the effects of the IRCA, this time backed by widespread public pressure against “illegals,” had a similar result: The 1990s saw more immigration to the United States from Latin America than in any other decade in U.S. history, a surge of legal and illegal migration totalling 31 million people.
Such restrictions failed partly for the economic and political reasons described above, but also for a third reason: When immigrants are brought over without their networks of relatives and village neighbors, they are more likely to become isolated and unsocialized, to fall into criminality or social conservatism. This happens when family-reunification migration is restricted or when countries rely on temporary guest-worker programs to attract low-skilled workers without their families, as Germany did in the 1970s and Canada and Australia are attempting today. When settlement of families is restricted, arrival cities and their supportive networks are unable to take shape, and behavior changes. A study by Dennis Broeders and Godfried Engbersen at Erasmus University, in Rotterdam, examined immigrants forbidden to bring over relatives: Without family networks to support them, the migrants were forced into a “dependence on informal, and increasingly criminal, networks and institutions.”19 Arranged marriages, often to a cousin from a distant village whom the primary-immigrant spouse hadn’t met, became commonplace, even when the migrants are from countries such as Bangladesh or Turkey, where these practices are dying out.
The Politics Industry: How Political Innovation Can Break Partisan Gridlock and Save Our Democracy by Katherine M. Gehl, Michael E. Porter
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, future of work, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, Menlo Park, new economy, obamacare, pension reform, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, zero-sum game
Conservative radio was outraged over “amnesty” for “illegals,” while the AFL-CIO protested guest-worker programs. To make it through the Senate, the bill needed to avoid amendments championed by the disgruntled groups (i.e., remain similar to what had passed only months earlier). The inclusion of these so-called poison pills would ultimately kill the bill.17 When the bill came to the Senate floor in June, one such poison-pill amendment was offered by then freshman Senator Obama, who had months earlier launched his campaign for president. Fortunately, the amendment was rejected.18 But Obama quickly backed another poison pill supported by organized labor to sunset a popular Republican idea to expand the guest-worker program.19 The amendment ultimately passed—by just one vote.20 Immigration reform was dead.
Active Measures by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day
Wagner, although he was in debt, was still a conservative Bavarian politician, and working for Communists would have been a bridge too far for him.58 Wagner took the money and voted for the Americans. Or so he thought. Brandt survived the vote, and Ostpolitik was saved. Two years after the HVA’s remarkable election interference, the X launched another timeless disinformation campaign: it manufactured far-right, neo-Fascist sentiments in West Germany in response to the government’s guest worker program of the 1970s. The operation, known as RIGAS, was launched with a two-page flyer impersonating a far-right West German party, the Deutsche Volksunion (DVU).59 The goals were to “aggravate the relations between the Federal Republic, Turkey, and Greece”; to “internationally discredit the right-wingers in the Federal Republic”; and to “provoke action by foreign workers.”60 The pamphlet’s two paragraphs, printed under the headline “Deutsche, wehrt euch!”
Fish Committee Fitzgerald, Ella Fleissmann, Georg “Flying Psychoneurosis, The” (Bräunig) FM 30-31B; AM and; classified information in; Covert Action Information Bulletin printing; focus of; forgery and; in Italy; in Philippines; Schaap on authenticity of; Service A and; in Spain Ford, Gerald Ford Foundation Foreign Affairs (magazine) Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) forgery; CEC attack and; CIA and; deniability and; digital leaks and; distrust spread by; Dulles Memorandum and; exposure and spread of; FM 30-31B and; Helms on; Kampfverband and; KGB and; of KgU; KKK leaflets and; LCCASSOCK and; Marbach and; NEPTUN operation and; neutron bomb and; nuclear war threats and; OPLAN 10-1 and; The Penkovsky Papers and; Prats’s diary; Protocols of the Elders of Zion and; Protsyk’s emails and; Rockefeller letter; of Schlagzeug by KGB; spotting; Tanaka Memorial as; Whalen documents and Forsberg, Randall Forward, The Foucault, Michel France Nouvelle Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frau, Die Frau von Heute, Die free press Freie Bauer, Der Frey, Gerhard Friedenskampf, see peacewar Fruck, Hans FSB Fuchs, Jürgen G Gailat, Kurt Gaines, Stanley Gates, Robert Gawker Gay Community News Gehlen, Reinhard Geist und Leben Generale, Die (documentary) Generals for Peace Genscher, Hans-Dietrich Germany: AM in; Berlin Airlift and; Berlin Tunnel and; BOB in; election interference in; FALLEX 62 and; guest worker program in; hate crimes legislation in; special camps in; suicides in security establishment of; UfJ and; see also Bundesnachrichtendienst; Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung; LCCASSOCK; Stasi Gevorkyan, Pavel Gibney, Frank Gizunov, Sergey Glavlit Global War Plan for Clandestine Operations, of U.S. Gold, Stephen Gonzalez, Fernando Goodman, Benny Google Gorbachev, Mikhail Gordievsky, Oleg GPU (State Political Directorate) graffiti, anti-Semitic Grapfen, T.
Great Depression Greek guest workers, RIGAS operation and Greenwald, Glenn Gresh, Jason P. GRU: Assange and; Clinton campaign hacked by; DCCC hacked by; DCLeaks and; Guccifer 2.0 and; headquarters of; IRA and; NotPetya attack and; Secureworks exposing; state-level election interference by; Unit 26165 of; Unit 74455 of; WikiLeaks and; see also Internet Research Agency Guardian, The Guccifer 2.0 guerrilla units, U.S. guest worker program Guillaume, Günter H hacking operations: against Clinton; CyberCaliphate and; DCCC and; detecting; DNC and; Google calling out; Guccifer 2.0 and; NotPetya attack and; #OpSaudi and; Podesta’s emails and; SOFACY; see also Anonymous; digital leaks Hahn, Walter Hansapank Harare Sunday Mail Harbottle, Michael Harvey, William King Hatcher, Kyle hate crimes Hatfield, Mark Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung (HVA); Active Measures of Eastern Intelligence Services report and; Arbeitskreis and; archival records of; DENVER operation and; Devil and His Dart and; disinformation focus of; effectiveness of; Fleissmann and; Generals for Peace and; Headquarters Germany and; Helms’s accusations against; Kampfverband für Unabhängiges Deutschland and; Die Neue Nachhut project of; nuclear espionage activities of; peacewar and; RACER operation and; RIGAS operation and; secrecy of; StB cooperation with; swastika vandalism absence of; on youth values shifts; ZEUS operation and; see also Department X Headquarters Germany (Eichner and Dobbert) Hearst, William Randolph, Jr.
Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl
3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar
A few studies, relying on anecdotal data, do document some instances of abuse, but the problem is that existing programs are not structured as guest worker programs. See Janie A. Chuang, The U.S. Au Pair Program: Labor Exploitation and the Myth of Cultural Exchange, 36 Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 269 (2013); Daniel Costa, Guestworker Diplomacy, Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper No. 317 (July 14, 2011), http://www.epi.org/files/2011/BriefingPaper317.pdf. Instead, they are structured as cultural exchange programs, which then are manipulated by employers and private intermediary institutions who arrange for migration. The abuse arises from this mismatch; a properly structured guest worker program would have more protections. 33. E. Glen Weyl, The Openness-Equality Trade-Off in Global Redistribution, Economic Journal (Forthcoming), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?
Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce
The President and Congress determine the annual ceiling and country distributions (ceilings have ranged from 50,000–90,000). 1986: The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalized several undocumented immigrants but made it unlawful to hire undocumented workers. 1990: The Immigration Act of 1990 increased the annual immigrant limit to 700,000 and established the Immigrant Investor Program. 1996: Welfare Reform ended many cash and medical assistance programs for most legal immigrants. 1996: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) expanded enforcement operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2001: The USA Patriot Act, in response to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks on New York and Washington, DC, gives federal officials greater power to intercept national and international communications. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 was a bill that focused on managing unauthorized migration, but failed to pass the House. Its primary components were increased border security, creation of a guest worker program, a path to citizenship for undocumented workers, worksite enforcement, and criminal penalties for those continuing to reside illegally in the country. While the bill did not pass, the issues remain in the forefront of concern. Demographic Trends Newcomers to the United States enter under a variety of conditions. Early migrants of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came as volunteer immigrants, indentured laborers, or as slaves.
Finally, the mail-order bride market is burgeoning, and a ‘‘Google’’ search results in over 3 million internet websites catering to a growing clientele. Mail-order brides are usually women from developing countries who register with a catalog or website their intent to marry foreign men. Usually there is no period of courtship, and marriages take place in absentia, with the man having ‘‘shopped’’ for the wife who best fits his needs. These women can enter the country legally as wives of U.S. citizens. Under continuing discussion is a guest worker program that will allow temporary workers to enter the country for a period to assume jobs for which U.S. employers are unable to find native employees. While this may appear to be a novel idea, it has long been a part of the cross-border movement for Mexican workers who have entered the United States for seasonal work and returned home at the end of the season. Known as circular migration, this pattern is evidenced regularly and increasingly both in the United States and internationally (Hugo, 2003; Zuniga, 2006).
Economic Impact of Immigration Many deliberations in the United States revolve around the economic impact of migration. The ongoing immigration debate juggles arguments regarding the assets newcomers bring to the country with those about the drains they place on the infrastructure, and the country is divided on the current net worth of immigration in the twenty-first century. The Immigrant Workforce Recent foci on immigration reform and the guest worker program have drawn attention to undocumented workers. One must bear in mind in all deliberations that of the 34 million documented immigrants in the United States in 2004, over 27 million were between the ages of 16 and 65 years, and the majority of them were in the workforce and across the occupational structure (Table 3-6). A significant proportion of the legitimate workforce, they have the appropriate documentation and are essential to the functioning of the country.
A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell
addicted to oil, Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, WikiLeaks, working poor
For the past few years, Canada has accepted more migrant workers than permanent residents. This shift is most pronounced in resource-extractive economies, such as in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, where an entire petro-economy relies on the exploitable labour of migrant workers both in oil fields and in the associated service sector. Temporary workers are therefore a state-sanctioned federal program of indentured labour. They are similar to the US’s “guest worker programs.” In a number of bilateral meetings, US representatives have looked to Canada’s long-standing migrant worker program as the model to follow because it is a perfect way to contain and manage migration—commodify a certain class of migrants for their labour, use them, exploit them, bleed them, grant them no basic services, enforce conditions of servitude, and then remove them. And because the workers are essentially tied to and tracked by their employer, there is less chance of mobility, and of building community and resistance.
See also Keystone XL pipeline “transit justice,” 307 Trans Mountain pipeline, 11, 91, 95 transnational corporations (TNCs), 23, 27, 114, 272; in United States, 30 Transport Workers Union (TWU), 220 treaties, 256, 258, 260–61 Treaty 6: 119, 123, 125, 268 Treaty 8: 114, 125, 268 treaty rights, 75, 81, 122–23, 271, 274, 277 treaty violations, 139–40, 260 tribal sovereignty, 243 Trinidad and Tobago, “extreme” tar sands extraction in, 103–4 Trumka, Richard, 218, 223–24, 225 Tutu, Archbishop Desmond, 56 Tyee, The, 60 UK Tar Sands Network (UKTSN), 207–16, 292 unemployment, 125, 233, 303, 305 Unifor, 79 Unist’ot’en people, 16, 158–59, 260, 293 United Arab Emirates (UAE), 29 United Church of Christ: Fauntroy report, 67; Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States, 67 United Kingdom: Canada House protest, 208–9; Canadian embassy in, 57; grassroots activism opposing tar sands in, 55; oil imports from, 31; opposition to tar sands in, 207–16; unbuilt wind farms in, 269 United Mine Workers of America (UMW), 218 United Nations, 42, 114, 248, 267; Convention on Biological Diversity, 121; Copenhagen ministerial negotiations (2009), 167–68, 171, 209, 310–12; Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 12, 122, 251, 257, 268; Green Jobs report, 302; Human Rights Committee, 114; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 114; Working Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy, 300–301 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 302, 353n10; Towards a Green Economy, 300 United States, 6, 42, 78; as “addicted to oil,” 181; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 200; Bureau of Land Management, 315; Canadian lobbying of tar sands in, 59–63; Canadian oil as part of solution to energy security in, 30; civil rights movement, 75, 251; Clean Air Act, 283; climate movement in, 167–69, 243, 311; climate policy in, 244–45, 318; domestic gas prices in, 233; Endangered Species Act, 283; Energy Information Administration, 47; energy market, 24; ENGOs in, 310; Environmental Defense Fund, 283; Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), 198, 203; fight over Keystone XL in, 78, 166–80; forced migration to, 89; guest worker programs in, 85; Indian Energy Title V campaign, 242–43; labour movement and climate change in, 217–25; military industrial complex, 336n8; National Energy Policy Development Group, 30; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 202; National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), 198–99; Natural Resources Defense Council, 175, 221, 230, 242, 283; as net exporter of refined petroleum, 314; Oil Protection Act, 199; Oil Sands Advocacy Strategy, 59; oil shale exploration and experimentation in, 100; Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), 190, 198–99, 205; refining capacity of West Coast of, 95; tribal comtar munities in, 230–31, 243, 246; unemployment in, 233 uranium, 125, 241, 315–16 Urbaniak, Darek, 59 US Public Interest Research Group, 244 Utah, 315, 325n46 Utica shale formation, 283 Valero Energy Corporation, 210, 234 Velshi, Alykhan, 50–51 Venezuela, 6, 33; Bolivarian Revolution, 101–2; “extreme” tar sands extraction in, 101–2 Vermont, 315 Victims of Chemical Valley, 144 violence: against Indigenous women, 255; against land, 96, 252, 255; increases in rates of, 255; symbolic vs. real, 44; systemic, 263 volatile organic compounds, emissions of, 32 Walpole Island Native reserve (Bkejwanong First Nation), 145, 241 “war in the woods,” 70–71 “war of position,” 39 Warren County (North Carolina), 66–67 water: diversion of, 9, 129; pollution, 9, 51, 114, 116, 119–20, 128, 136, 181, 196, 255, 268, 315; use of in extraction, 9, 32, 33, 100, 230, 281 Wawanosh, Joshua, 139 Waxman, Henry, 60, 62 Waxman-Markey climate legislation, 224 wealth accumulation, vs. environmental and social protection, 38 wealth polarization, 73 web-based resources, list of, 19 “Week of Action to Stop Tar Sands Profiteers,” 189 West, Ben, 164 Western Mining Action Network, 168 West Virginia, 314 wetland, destruction of, 9 Wet’suwet’en Nation, 157, 260, 293; C’ihlts’ehkhyu (Big Frog Clan), 158 white supremacy, 96, 265 Whitley, David, 192 Wikileaks, 56 Wildfire Project, 322n3 wildlife, declines in and threats to, 116, 120–21, 254, 295, 300 wind-powered generation, 314 Winnsboro Tree Blockade, 186–88 Wisconsin: Clean Energy Jobs Act, 61–62 women: grassroots, 192, 277; Indigenous, 193, 209, 213, 242, 246, 251–52, 255, 261–63 Wong, Kent, 97 Wood Buffalo National Park, 130 Woodward, Ron, 130 workers’ rights, 303, 306 World Bank, 90, 303 World Trade Organization, 311 Worldwatch Institute, 353n10 World Wildlife Fund, 270 xenophobia, 92–93 Yearwood Jr., Rev.
Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling
active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
The workers argued that “concerted activities” includes joining together claims in arbitration or in court. 97. Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis, 584 U.S. ___ (2018), slip op. at 17 (Ginsburg, J., dissenting). 98. Pollock v. Williams, 322 U.S. 4, 17–18 (1944). 99. 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a). 100. 20 C.F.R. § 655.1310(b). 101. Gosia Wozniacka, “The H-2A Guest Worker Program Has Ballooned in Size, but Both Farmers and Workers Want It Fixed,” Civil Eats, July 16, 2019, https://civileats.com/2019/07/16/the-h-2a-guest-worker-program-has-ballooned-in-size-but-both-farmers-and-workers-want-it-fixed. 102. U.S. Government Accountability Office, H-2A and H-2B Visa Programs: Increased Protections Needed for Foreign Workers, GAO-15-154 (Washington, DC: GAO, March 2015), 37–38, https://www.gao.gov/assets/690/684985.pdf. 103. Jennifer J. Lee and Kyle Endres, “Overworked and Underpaid: H-2A Herders in Colorado,” Colorado Legal Services, January 14, 2010, https://humantraffickinghotline.org/sites/default/files/Overworked%20and%20Underpaid%20-%20CLS.pdf. 104.
The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation
But eventually, in the face of overwhelming evidence, the majority will generally accept the new theory, before their recalcitrance becomes too counterproductive. Lant Pritchett, a professor of international development at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, is all too aware of this. In the field of international development there are many sacred cows, and challenges to them are not met with as much cool and calculating logic as one might wish. Pritchett recently proposed an intriguing idea to help developing countries: create lots of guest worker programs. But is everyone simply weighing its merits? Not exactly. Pritchett argues that a more apt way to describe how these ideas are adopted is that they often follow this trajectory: “Crazy. Crazy. Crazy. Obvious.” Plot that on a graph, and you’ve got a phase transition, but this time it’s one about how ideas are accepted and adopted. Thomas Kuhn, a physicist turned historian of science, also discussed how such rapid transitions occur in his celebrated book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
Open: The Progressive Case for Free Trade, Immigration, and Global Capital by Kimberly Clausing
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, investor state dispute settlement, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, zero-sum game
In California’s Central Valley, where annual crop output is worth $35 billion, that share reaches 70 percent. Lately, undocumented worker crackdowns have resulted in labor shortages. Immigration from Mexico is on a downward trend, and growers watch with dismay as their crops rot in place. The shortage presents employment opportunities that very few American workers are willing to take. A 2013 paper by Michael Clemens studied the North Carolina Growers Association (NCGA). Before using the guest worker program (which offers foreign workers seasonal contracts), the NCGA must prove it has made an effort to recruit Americans. In the years 1998 to 2012, when farms needed thousands of workers each season, applications from US-born workers never surpassed 268. And in that peak year, 2011, only seven Americans stayed for the whole growing season—while their Mexican counterparts boasted a retention rate of 90 percent.2 ________________________ 1.
Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt
carbon-based life, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce
Speaking slightly more elegantly and to the point, Waseda University scientist Ichiro Kato elaborated, "We have an unwritten law that only allows Japanese residents to work here. But this is not the case in other countries, which gives them access to far more plentiful human resources."13 Unlike the United States, Europe, or even the oil nations of the Middle East, postwar Japan has never resorted to foreign "guest worker" programs, immigration programs, or the use of illegal aliens to solve its labor shortages. Prior to 1945, it is true that thousands of Koreans were brought to Japan, often as forced labor, but their descendants (who form nearly 80 percent of Japan's less-than-1-percent minority population) are still victims of discrimination and regarded by some as a blemish on an otherwise pure racial complexion.
Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green
4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning
Stunned by a loss few of them had anticipated, most prominent Republicans concluded that passing comprehensive immigration reform was an existential imperative for the party. In early 2013, the vehicle to do so took shape in what became known as the “Gang of Eight” bill, a bipartisan reform measure led by eight senators that would provide a path to citizenship for the now 11 million immigrants living illegally in the United States, while enlarging guest-worker programs for low-skilled jobs in industries such as agriculture. In what seemed a positive omen, the Gang of Eight bill had the added designation of being a vehicle for the presidential ambitions of Senator Marco Rubio of Florida, the telegenic young Cuban American then considered to be the GOP’s brightest rising star. With Rubio, the darling of Fox News, leading the charge, the bill appeared to have unstoppable momentum.
The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter
Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game
In 2006, as the United States Congress debated an overhaul of immigration law, I met Faylene Whitaker, a farmer who grew tobacco, tomatoes, and other crops in the Piedmont area of North Carolina. Whitaker was concerned about the high cost of employing immigrant workers through the prevailing legal channels and wanted a better deal. “We would rather use legal workers,” she said. But “if we don’t get a reasonable guest worker program, we are going to hire illegals.” The visa set a minimum wage by comparison with other farm wages in the area. At the time it was about to rise to about $8.51 an hour from $8.24. Illegal workers, by contrast, could be had for less than $6.50. ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS, OF course, want the $6.50-an-hour jobs. That’s why they risk life and limb to come across the border to get them, evading Border Patrol agents, criminal gangs, and snakes.
An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen
agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce
Beware: Most of the Chinese restaurants in Germany are too influenced by the blandness and starchiness of a lot of German food. Turkish food in Germany is overrated, and it is a partial exception to the principle that you should look for lots of competition in an ethnic cuisine. There are a lot of Turkish restaurants in Germany, in part because the Turks are Germany’s largest ethnic minority, due to decades of guest-worker programs. Some of the Turkish restaurants are quite good, but I don’t recommend random selection. You need to know where you are going. The underlying problem has to do with dysfunctional German fast food. McDonald’s never achieved the foothold in Germany that it has in the United States, in part because Germans are skeptical about the quality of the cuisine, in part because many Germans view it as a symbol of Americanization, and also, in part, because compared to the United States, German family eating is less centered around the child.
The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey
And they fail to recognize that workers from developing nations would queue up in droves for temporary jobs abroad, given their alternatives. However, two of the objections deserve closer scrutiny. The first is that it will be difficult, if not impossible, to enforce the return of foreign workers to their home countries after their permits expire. This is a legitimate concern since many “guest worker” programs have in practice produced permanent immigrants, sometimes creating a large underclass of foreign-born residents left in ambiguous status (as in Germany and many other countries of Europe). On the other hand, past programs typically have offered few incentives for “temporary” workers to return, relying on little more than their willingness to abide by the terms of their visa. It comes as no surprise that many do not go home, given the huge wage gaps between home and host countries.
Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, business cycle, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K
But, he admitted, "I don't know if they're doing it for me or as a tactic against Bilbray:' The mystery was solved when ads touting Griffith began running on conservative talk radio, saying in part: Think lobbyist Brian Bilbray's a conservative when it comes to immigration? Think again ... Lobbyist Bilbray isn't the candidate to secure our borders. You have a choice. Independent William Griffith is en- 121 GAMING THE VOTE dorsed by the San Diego Minutemen and San Diego Border Alert because he opposes guest worker programs, amnesty, and the hiring of illegal immigrants. Francine Busby supports John McCain's position on immigration-stronger enforcement at the border, better support for border agents, and no amnesty. When it comes to immigration, don't expect lobbyist Brian Bilbray to fix Washington, or fix our borders. I'm Francine Busby, candidate for Congress, and I approve this message. Paid for by Francine Busby for Congress.
The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith
Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K
French and British trappers and traders arrived in the New World; Russian Cossacks surged east through Siberia all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries almost three million Scandinavians emigrated to the American Midwest and rural Canada. Today, there are Nigerians moving to Fort McMurray, Iraqis to Stockholm, Filipinos to Yellowknife, and Azerbaijanis to Noril’sk. There are growing cities, guest-worker programs, and multinational corporations. As I drove across the Arctic Circle in my rental car, just a few hours north of Fairbanks, it was with a Starbucks Venti latte still clutched in my hand. The latest invasions have begun. So, unlike the Arctic Ocean seafloor, even our northernmost landmasses are hardly a vacant frontier. Siberia has thirty-five million people, most living in million-plus cities.
The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank
affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty
Thus did a hired gun for apartheid South Africa remake himself as a hair-trigger antiracist, fighting colonialism and deploring bigotry in places where most people saw only disputes over treaties and concerns about low-wage workers. Every defense of the CNMI followed the same script. First, to enforce U.S. labor and immigration laws on this U.S. commonwealth, as liberals wanted to do, was an act of colonialism, if not racism or genocidal fascism. Second, low taxes, low wages, and an unrestricted guest-worker program were the true components of “freedom” and also, between them, the policies that brought independence from colonial powers. Abramoff’s comments to the press about the CNMI’s cause were a fine example of the strategy. Leaving aside the denials that are a routine part of a lobbyist’s business—nope, no sweatshops here—he repeatedly flashed the anticolonialism card. “You know what all this fuss is really about?”
Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, Deep Water Horizon, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, full employment, greed is good, guest worker program, invisible hand, knowledge economy, McMansion, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, payday loans, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, working poor, Yogi Berra
Also see “Governor Bobby Jindal Says Americans Want a ‘Hostile Takeover’ of Washington,” TeaParty.org, September 16, 2014, http://www.teaparty.org/gov-bobby-jindal-says-americans-want-hostile-takeover-washington-55848. 47among them nurses, nurse’s aides, medical technicians, public school teachers In 2007, 350 Filipino teachers were brought in by Universal Placement International to teach in public schools under the H-1B Guest Worker program. But they were forced to pay an initial $16,000 fee. Most had to borrow the money and were charged monthly interest. UPI took away their passports and visas until they repaid the loan. The contracts were later ruled illegal, and the agency officials were jailed for human trafficking. Claire Gordon, “Filipino Workers Kept as Slaves in Louisiana, Lawsuit Charges,” AOL Jobs, November 15, 2011, http://jobs.aol.com/article/2011/11/15/filipino-workers-kept-as-slaves-in-louisiana-according-to-lawsu/20106284; “Lawsuit: Filipino Teachers Defrauded in International Labor Trafficking Scheme,” LA.AFT.org, http://la.aft.org/news/lawsuit-filipino-teachers-defrauded-international-labor-trafficking-scheme. 48won a score of 0 on the League of Conservation Voters scorecard “David Vitter on Environment,” On the Issues (a website that describes congressional bills and candidate’s votes across a range of issues), http://www.ontheissues.org/Domestic/David_Vitter_Environment.htm. 49for the affluent, a journey to the Swiss Alps Svetlana Boym, The Future of Nostalgia (New York: Basic Books, 2001).
Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K
Competitiveness,” National Venture Capital Association, 2006, http://www.nvca.org. 5 “It makes no sense to” “Bill Gates to Congress: Let Us Hire More Foreigners,” CNET News, March 12, 2006, http://news.cnet.com. 6 No ironclad protections for Americans Morrison, interview, January 24, 2011. 7 Senior AIG executives summoned 250 Linda Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion and T-Visas,” web post, January 8, 2008, accessed January 17, 2011. http://www.zazona.comLibrary/BrainSavers/Problems_Kilcrease.htm, and Kilcrease, letter to editor, “H-1B Visa: A Bad Idea,” Cnet, 2009, accessed April 21, 2012. 8 “After we were seated” Douglas Crouse, “Competition from Abroad,” The Daily Record, Morris County, New Jersey, May 2, 2000. http://www.programmersguild.org/archives/lib/abuse/drm20000502aig.htm. 9 Americans were being replaced by H-1B Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion.” 10 Did not bring in any special skills William Branigan, “White Collar Visas: Back Door for Cheap Labor,” The Washington Post, October 21, 1995. 11 “This profitable company boasted Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion.” 12 One-third of its 46,000-member workforce “Quota Quickly Filled on Visas for High-Tech Guest Workers,” The New York Times, April 5, 2007. 13 Foreign worker tide kept rising “Flaws in Guest Worker Programs Add to US Unemployment Misery,” International Business Times News, November 21, 2010. 14 Or multinational temp agencies Ron Hira and Anil Hira, Outsourcing America: The True Cost of Shipping Jobs Overseas and What Can Be Done About It, 2nd. ed. (New York: Amacom, 2008) 54–59, 158–160. “Outsourcers Are Criticized on Visa Use,” The New York Times, March 31, 2011. 15 “Tata has about 18,000 people in the U.S.”
The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin
accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game
See also Jessica Gordon Nembrand, Capital Controls, Financial Regulation, and Industrial Policy in South Korea and Brazil, London: Praeger, 1996; and Peter Evans, Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 92 Even by 1980, the 120,000 jobs in the maquiladoras corresponded to less than a quarter of the half-million Mexicans that had been repatriated from the US in 1965 when it terminated its guest-worker program and began encouraging cross-border production instead. See William I. Robinson, Latin America and Global Capitalism: A Critical Globalization Perspective, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 96–101, esp. Table 2.9. Indeed, by the late 1970s the core of Mexico’s export-oriented auto industry had shifted to new assembly and engine plants built outside the maquila zones. These plants were the Mexican nodes of regionally integrated auto production under NAFTA.
Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House by Peter Baker
addicted to oil, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, buy low sell high, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, drone strike, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, South China Sea, stem cell, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Amid all this violence, I know Americans ask the question: Is the sacrifice worth it? It is worth it, and it is vital to the future security of our country.” It was, thought some aides, a necessary corrective to Cheney’s “last throes.” WITH SOCIAL SECURITY going nowhere, Bush wanted to take on another domestic priority, immigration. Since his days as Texas governor, he had favored a more flexible approach to illegal immigration than many in his party, advocating a guest worker program and a route to legal status for some of the ten million undocumented immigrants in the country. It was both his personal conviction and an obvious political calculation. Two days before his first inauguration, Karl Rove had declared that making inroads among Latino voters was “our mission and our goal.” While Bush knew it would be an uphill challenge he figured a newly reelected president was in the best position to make it happen.