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pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase


3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk,, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Slicing and Aggregating: Right-Sizing Supply Zipcar slices. It takes big, lumpy options (owning a car or renting one in twenty-four-hour increments) and slices them into half-hour increments so that people can consume just the amount of driving time they want and can pay only for what they actually use. Zipcar’s success has led to scores of companies that describe themselves as “We’re like Zipcar for …” Each business has found a way to slice a previously existing asset into smaller pieces, to match the way we actually want to consume that asset. Bixi, B-cycle, CitiBike, DecoBike, Hubway, Social Bikes, and Velib are “like Zipcar for bikes.”3 Hello Health is “like Zipcar for online concierge medicine.”4 Ziplens is “like Zipcar for photographers.”5 SnapGoods is “like Zipcar for Gadgets.”6 And Cohealo is “the Zipcar for hospital gear.”7 Other platforms aggregate the excess capacity of assets that were individually too small to bother with and make them into something reliable and consistent, thus creating enough value to make tapping into those resources worthwhile.

Leveraging excess proved to be an important component of Zipcar’s success. Before Zipcar, people in Boston who needed a car had just two options. They could rent in twenty-four-hour bundles, or they could own their own car, paying an average of $8,000 a year in depreciation and costs for insuring, parking, maintaining, and fueling it.1 Zipcar allowed people to book cars near them in less than twenty seconds and rent them for as little as thirty minutes. An early Zipcar member told me that he had decided to join when he realized he hadn’t driven his own car in so many months that he’d basically lost it in the downtown Boston garage where he paid $250 a month for a space. In both cases—renting or owning—it is necessary to buy a lot more car than you really want, resulting in significant excess capacity. I knew that Zipcar would win on the economics if it allowed people to pay only for the amount of car they actually used.

More than 40 million people purchase products on Etsy, and most of the transactions—$1.35 billion worth in 2013—represent new income to the more than 1 million Etsy sellers from two hundred different countries. Zipcar is my personal experience that sharing improves people’s lives and the environment simultaneously. In aggregate, for every Zipcar on the street, fifteen people either avoided buying a car or sold theirs because they now had access to the shared fleet. With 870,000 members and 10,000 cars, that means that 150,000 personal cars are no longer being stored on city streets and in driveways. Boston, New York, Washington, D.C., and Chicago have all seen declines in car registrations of between 7 and 10 percent since Zipcar entered their markets. Zipcar members weigh the full cost of going by car against their other options—walking, biking, or taking transit. The result is that Zipcar members drive about 80 percent fewer miles than they would if they owned their own car.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers


Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation,, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Joel Makower, “Reinventing Mobility: It’s Not Just the Cars, Stupid,” (August 7, 2009), 23. Driving costs retrieved from AAA, 24. Paul Keegan, “Zipcar: The Best New Idea in Business,” (August 27, 2009), 25. Reid J. Lifset, “Moving from Products to Services,” Journal of Industrial Ecology 4, no. 1 (February 13, 2002), 26. Keegan, “Zipcar: The Best New Idea in Business.” 27. Mark Levine discussed a similar idea in “Share My Ride,” New York Times (March 5, 2009), /08Zipcar-t.html. 28. Makower, “Reinventing Mobility: It’s Not Just the Cars, Stupid.” 29. Ray Anderson, Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable Enterprise (Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1999). 30.

The power of Collaborative Consumption to change behavior and for that behavior to stick is illustrated by the “Low-Car Diet Challenge” experiment, a marketing campaign conducted by Zipcar, the world’s largest car-sharing service. Zipcar members can reserve a car twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week on the Internet, by using an iPhone app, or by phone for periods as short as one hour in any of the forty-nine U.S. cities it operates in, as well as Vancouver, Toronto, and London. On July 15, 2009, 250 participants from thirteen cities around the world—many of them self-confessed “car addicts” and so-called car-sharing “rookies”—committed their keys and their consciences to not using their own vehicle for a month. Instead, they utilized public transportation, walked and biked, and resorted to a car (they were given a Zipcar membership) only when necessary.6 The survey conducted after the challenge showed that living without a car had a positive impact on participants’ wallets, bodies, and communities.

According to Susan Shaheen, an expert in Innovative Mobility Research at the University of California at Berkeley, car sharers report reducing their vehicle miles traveled by 44 percent (addressing travel congestion) and surveys in Europe show CO2 emissions are being cut by up to 50 percent per user.24 Can you imagine the cumulative environmental savings if even a quarter of the 600 million vehicles on the road were switched to car sharing? Zipcar is getting people to change their car ownership habits by using the same psychological and sociological pulls of brand that got us to want to buy and own to get us to want to share. The white-and-green bus billboards for Zipcar with the messages “350 hours a year having sex. 420 looking for parking” and “Today’s a BMW day. Or is it a Volvo day?” highlight key benefits of car sharing, convenience and choice. Most people buy a car to meet the functional need of getting from A to B. But their choice of vehicle, like most products, is influenced by the brand. With car sharing, drivers can pick whatever brand fits their mood that day. The service delivers not just “wheels when you want them” (the Zipcar tagline) but the choice of “wheels you really want.”


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee


4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Consumers like and even want more of this surveillance, as they feel it is the only way the system can work effectively, since they don’t trust each other to obey the rules without Zipcar’s heavy handed enforcement.”4 Bardhi and Eckhardt also expected Zipcar users to be motivated by political consumerism, especially as it relates to anti-car, environmental concerns, but they found no evidence of these motivations either. The Zipcar experience was clearly a lot more of a normal, mainstream consumer exchange than advocates were claiming, so perhaps it should have been no surprise when, in January 2013, Zipcar was bought by rental company Avis.5 With that purchase there is no longer a suggestion that the relationship between Zipcar users and the company is anything other than a straightforward commercial exchange (with the usual company brand promotion), and there is no suggestion of any relationship at all between Zipcar users and each other. The brand continues to promote its environmental message, saying on one of its university pages that: “Every day we are working towards a place with less dependence on personally-owned vehicles.

In 2012, researchers Fleura Bardhi and Giana Eckhardt interviewed a set of Zipcar users in Boston, rode with them, and found that Zipcar users are motivated by self-interest and utilitarianism rather than by any altruistic community motives.3 The researchers expected a community to emerge around the Zipcar brand, but found that users resisted the company’s efforts to create a community beyond the straightforward fact of market exchange. Zipcar users were prepared to “look out for their own interests at the expense of the object [the car] as well as the other users,” so that “surveillance and command controls are welcomed” to stop other users from treating the shared cars badly. In an interview the authors say, “Zipcar uses a strict style of governance to maintain compliance with the rules of car sharing to make sure cars aren’t brought back late, the gas tank is filled, etc.

Nevertheless, the phrase “ridesharing,” inaccurate as it may be, is still more widely used and I will use it, without the scare quotes. But let’s start with carsharing. ZIPCAR Carsharing co-operatives have been around for a long time, some run as non-profits and some as commercial companies. There is a continuous history of activities starting in the 1970’s, and in Kitchener-Waterloo where I live, Community CarShare was founded in 1998 and is still running. But in 2000 when Antje Danielson and Robin Chase started ZipCar, they brought a new ambition to the space. Just as the story of Airbnb is featured in Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers’ What’s Mine Is Yours, ­Zipcar takes the pole position in Lisa Gansky’s 2010 book The Mesh: Why the Future of Business is Sharing.2 Zipcar was never a peer-to-peer company, as the cars were all owned by the company, but it was a form of shared or collaborative consumption based on digital technology: Gansky quotes Chase as saying, once Danielson described a Berlin car-sharing service to her, “A lightbulb went off in my head.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky


Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

The robust information platform and focus on building the brand distinguished Zipcar from early car-sharing companies that were merely long on good intentions, many of which failed. In fact, Zipcar is primarily an information business that happens to share cars. The company collects information about who is using the car, and when, how, and where it’s being used. That data makes the business work and generates the greatest value. As the number of people using Zipcar grows, the collected data enables the company to better know specific groups of customers, defined by demographics or location. That in turn creates opportunities to extend the brand to, say, bikes or clothes. Other services can be offered directly by the car-sharing company or its partners. Over time, Zipcar has developed partnerships with food and wine, hotel, fitness, and even ink cartridge recycling companies.

So I tried my first Zipcar, on a trip to Vancouver, where I fell in love with a little two-door number named Mini Mucho. Before I left the Bay Area, I signed up for a membership on the Zipcar Web site. They have several different flavors for joining, including what I call the “tapas” version—trial choices like “I’m not really sure if I like it or not, so I’m going to try it first.” In a few days I received my member’s Zipcard in the mail. Today, you can also download the Zipcar app on your mobile phone. Your Zipcard or app-enabled phone unlocks the car by wirelessly connecting to a box under the windshield that contains a circuit board, processor, and modem. When you make a reservation, your card or app is authorized for that specific car, using AT&T’s wireless network. The same network allows Zipcar to remotely monitor the vehicle.

When GM was forced to beg Congress for a bailout in late 2008, and then went into bankruptcy, it drew the curtain on an industrial model, centered on cars, that had dominated business for much of the twentieth century. Meanwhile, far from the national spotlight, a different kind of car company was quietly breaking business records. That company, Zipcar, had established itself in less than nine years throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe. From its inception in 2001, Zipcar had one of the decade’s fastest growth rates. Revenues doubled and tripled in the second and third years. In 2009 it generated over $130 million in revenue, up over 30 percent from the previous year. Zipcar is a near perfect example of a successful Mesh business. It doesn’t make, sell, or repair cars. It shares them. The Boston-based company was the brainchild of two friends who first met in kindergarten. While sitting in a café in Berlin in 1999, Antje Danielson saw signs for a service that shared cars.


pages: 186 words: 49,251

The Automatic Customer: Creating a Subscription Business in Any Industry by John Warrillow


Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, call centre, cloud computing, discounted cash flows, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Network effects, passive income, rolodex, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, subscription business, telemarketer, time value of money, Zipcar

By June 2000, Chase and Danielson had raised $50,000 from an angel investor and leased their first 12 cars in Boston.3 The partners quickly expanded and brought on more investors; by the end of 2002, Zipcar was up to 6,000 subscribers in Boston, New York City, and Washington, DC. But not all was happy in Zipland. Zipcar was hemorrhaging cash. When Chase failed to deliver on an expected round of financing, the board replaced her as CEO with technology entrepreneur Scott Griffith.4 One of Griffith’s first moves as CEO was to commission a series of focus groups among people who had considered using Zipcar but had chosen not to subscribe. The focus groups revealed that the main reason interested people didn’t become subscribers was that they were worried about not being able to have access to a Zipcar when they wanted one. At the time, Zipcar was spread too thin, with subscribers all over the cities it operated in. Griffith realized that, like any network model subscription, the value proposition of subscribing increased with the density of members.

He also calculated that to be profitable, he needed a 40:1 ratio of members to cars. Since Zipcar was operating in three cities, he estimated it needed between 18,000 and 24,000 subscribers to become viable. Instead of focusing on the big number of 18,000 to 24,000 members, Griffiths decided to break each city down into smaller zones and build density one zone at a time. For example, Zipcar divided Boston up into 12 geographic sections and then leveraged the demographics of each area to design its fleet. In Boston’s well-to-do Beacon Hill neighborhood, Zipcar provided Volvos and BMWs.5 In the left-leaning area of Cambridge, the fleet was made up mostly of Toyota’s Prius hybrids. Zipcar also matched the fleet in each zone with the usage pattern of subscribers in the area. Boston’s Back Bay users often took their cars to Cape Cod for the weekend, so Zipcar made sure its vehicles were larger and more comfortable.

Roberts, and Julia D. Stevens, “Zipcar: Refining the Business Model,” Harvard Business School, May 9, 2005. 4. Clifford, Stephanie, “How Fast Can This Thing Go, Anyway?” Inc., March 1, 2008. 5. Ibid. 6. Naughton, Keith, “Avis Budget Embraces Car Sharing with Zipcar Acquisition,” Bloomberg News, January 2, 2013. 7. “Number of World of Warcraft Subscribers from 1st Quarter 2005 to 3rd Quarter 2014 (in millions),” Statista. 8. Patrick, Brian, “Zipcar Timeline: From Business Idea to IPO to $500 Million B1uyout,” Entrepreneur, January 2013. 9.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams


accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Progressive Automotive X Prize. See: 18. Orteig Prize. See: 19. Jeremy Korzeniewski, “Chevy Volt will cost GM $750 million,” autobloggreen (December 9, 2008). 20. See Zipcar Press Release: 21. “Case Study: Zipcar,” District of Columbia—Department of the Environment. See:,a,1210,q,499698.asp. 22. Ibid. 23. See Zipcar Corporate Overview: 24. Paul Keegan, “Zipcar: The best new idea in business,” Fortune (August 27, 2009). 25. Bill Ford, quoted in ibid. Chapter 8 1. “Education at a Glance 2009,” OECD (2009). 2. Cindy P. Veenstra, “A Strategy for Improving Freshman College Retention,” Journal for Quality and Participation, vol. 31, no. 4 (January 2009), p. 19, citing A.

To make much more efficient use of those cars, Zipcar offers them up to consumers as a pay-only-for-what-you-use model that strips away some hassles of ownership while taking away some of its conveniences. Chase likes to say that Zipcar is the car your mother always said you couldn’t have—all the fun and none of the responsibilities. For a significant demographic, the trade-off makes a whole a lot of sense. At the time of writing, Zipcar was serving sixty-seven cities in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, using a fleet of 6,500 vehicles.23 As the largest car-sharing company in the world, Zipcar has cultivated a roster of 300,000 faithful and enthusiastic members, called “Zipsters,” who have shared access to this trendy, useful, and generally fuel-efficient fleet. Zipcar estimates that for every vehicle added to its fleet, fifteen to twenty single-user automobiles are removed from the road.24 The claim may be somewhat exaggerated.

Then Aaron considered Zipcar—something he had seen all over Toronto but knew little about. (Toronto residents have embraced the Zipcar with considerable enthusiasm. One cannot walk more than a few blocks in Toronto’s inner city without sighting several Zipcar parking spots.) He learned that he could join the service for a $35 membership fee, on an “Occasional Use” plan. He calculated that if he took 6 car trips per month, at an average of 2 hours each, for about $13 per hour, he would spend about $156 monthly. Aaron decided the economics of the Zipcar model looked pretty sharp at first glance, so he decided to give the service a try. This decision was not only cost-effective (indeed, months went by when Aaron did not use a Zipcar at all), but completely transformed Aaron’s approach to personal transportation. Since Aaron could, quite literally, see the dollars adding up by the minute each time he used a Zipcar, he began to combine trips.


pages: 294 words: 82,438

Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification,, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar

To see how simple rules balance coordination with individual interests, consider the case of Zipcar, which was founded in 2000 by Antje Danielson and Robin Chase. Zipcar emerged as the world’s leading car-sharing network, with approximately 810,000 members and over ten thousand vehicles in cities and on college campuses spread across the United States, Canada, the U.K., and Europe. Unlike car rental firms like Hertz or Enterprise, Zipcar has no drop-off centers or staff to clean, check, and refuel the cars. Instead, Zipcar relies on its members to ensure that the vehicles they used are fit for the next driver’s use. The quality of each member’s car-sharing experience depends critically on the behavior of the complete stranger who drove the car just before them. To ensure smooth coordination, Zipcar could have employed a thick contract that few would read and even fewer would remember.

., “Stop Signals Provide Cross Inhibition in Collective Decision-Making by Honeybee Swarms,” Science 6 (January 2012), 108–11. [>] Instead, for its first: Since its acquisition by Avis Budget, Zipcar’s six simple rules have been incorporated into fifty-one frequently asked questions, which were themselves organized into ten categories, including “driving rates, billing and fees,” “insurance and vehicle damage,” and “manual driving record checks.” The rules are no longer simple. “No smoking” was stretched out to 26 words (plus an appendix), “pets in carriers” to 73 words, and “return on time” to a 142-word statement of policy. Accessed January 28, 2014, [>] Students might use them: Examples of how people use Zipcars from company website,, accessed August 4, 2014. [>] A study of dozens: Emmanuelle Fauchart and Eric von Hippel, “Norms-Based Intellectual Property Systems: The Case of French Chefs,” Organization Science 19, no. 2 (2008): 187–201. [>] One chef explained: Ibid., 193. [>] The offending chef: Ibid., 198. [>] PayPal’s terms and conditions: Rich Parris, “Online T&Cs Longer Than Shakespeare Plays—Who Reads Them?”

When information is limited and time is short, simple rules make it fast and easy for people, organizations, and governments to make sound choices. They can even outperform complicated decision-making approaches in some situations. Finally, simple rules allow the members of a community to synchronize their activities with one another on the fly. As a result, communities can do things that would be impossible for their individual members to achieve on their own. Bee colonies, for example, use simple rules to find a new nest, and members of Zipcar relied on simple rules to share cars across thousands of users. In the next chapter, we’ll expand on why simple rules are so powerful. At first glance, the rules of triage have nothing in common with, for example, the rules geese follow to flock in tight formations. But a deep unity lies beneath the variety. Whether they are used by rock stars or crickets, effective simple rules share four common traits.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck


A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

It is also in these same cities that car-share might push someone over the tipping point into ditching their car, as it did me. So, here’s one good test: Go downtown. Stick out your hand. Does a taxi stop? If so, you are probably ready for Zipcar. And then go for it, as the benefits are tremendous. After a year of service, Zipcar Baltimore polled its members and found that they were walking 21 percent more, biking 14 percent more, and taking transit 11 percent more than before joining. Only 12 percent of members had taken more than five driving trips in the previous month, compared to 38 percent before joining Zipcar. About a fifth of members had sold their cars, and almost half claimed that Zipcar had saved them from having to buy a car.36 There is only one challenge to Zipcar, which is that they are too smart to locate in unwalkable cities. THE SAFE WALK STEP 5: PROTECT THE PEDESTRIAN STEP 6: WELCOME BIKES STEP 5: PROTECT THE PEDESTRIAN Size matters; A turn too far; Fat lanes; Keep it complicated; The safety apotheosis; The one-way epidemic; Sacred sidewalks; Senseless signals Will the pedestrian survive?

But, for most of the profession, Upton Sinclair’s famous observation still holds sway: “It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends on his not understanding it.” ●AAA: “Your Driving Costs,” 2010 edition, 7. The marginal operating cost of most vehicles is well below twenty cents per mile. This explains why Zipcar and the other urban car-share programs are so effective at reducing auto use. According to the company website, each “Zipcar takes at least 15 personally-owned vehicles off the road.” For a Zipcar member, the fixed costs—a twenty-five-dollar application fee and a sixty-dollar annual membership fee—are negligible compared to the marginal costs of hourly rental. ●Walk Score website: “America’s Most Walkable Neighborhoods.” This outcome makes sense, because the best cities have often attracted the most sprawl.

Finally, many cities that are considering trolleys for the standard set of wrong reasons may want instead to purchase small electric shuttles like the ones that have brought increased life to places like Chattanooga and San Diego. These don’t need rails, but they function as pedestrian accelerators in already-populated corridors, and each one costs less than the cheapest Ferrari.● Although technically buses, they are also cute, and can serve as an effective gateway drug to more hard-core rail transit in the future. ZIP IT IF YOU CAN Every city wants Zipcar. Does Zipcar want them back? Probably not. By all means, invite them to dinner, give them the key to your city, and offer them all of the concessions they usually ask, including dedicated parking spaces in the best locations—as many as they want. But understand that this superficially pro-driving enterprise cannot thrive in your city unless you have already moved beyond the pro-driving paradigm. Because if everybody has a car, nobody needs one.


pages: 391 words: 97,018

Better, Stronger, Faster: The Myth of American Decline . . . And the Rise of a New Economy by Daniel Gross


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, index fund, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

The company struck a deal with Ford to provide memberships to college students for as little as $25 and with rates as low as $7 per hour. As it has gained scale, Zipcar has moved from exclusively serving efficient consumers to providing solutions to efficiency-seeking businesses and institutions. It has signed deals with the New York City Department of Transportation, the city of Chicago, and the General Services Administration to offer cars to employees.6 Zipcar, which went public in April 2011, is making money; it scraped out a small profit in the third quarter of 2011. But the profit is beside the point. The value is what it saves consumers who get the full, or near-full, utility of ownership without the enormous associated costs, and how it benefits the economy at large. Zipcar saves people money, and then encourages its customers to drive less or more strategically. On its website, Zipcar touts a study that shows “each car shared takes 15 privately owned vehicles off the road, and that vehicle miles traveled per driver is reduced almost 50 percent when car owners switch to car sharing.”

In the aftermath of the bust, new businesses that aimed to cash in on the growing market for efficient vehicle use were launched. Chief among them is Zipcar. Founded in 2000, it grew by focusing on cities and college campuses. It uses information technology to manage the fleet and control access; members get a card that lets them into garages where cars are housed and then into the cars. Users in New York pay a $60 annual fee and then $8.75 per hour on weekdays and $13.75 per hour on weekends; they do not pay for gas or insurance, and there is no charge per mile. As the U.S. economy contracted, Zipcar went into hypergrowth: 225,000 members in 2008 to 350,000 members in January 2010 to 650,000 members and 9,500 cars in November 2011. Zipcar has had predictable success in the big cities of Boston, New York, and San Francisco, but its vehicles can also be found on 350 college campuses.

Five million times $80 per night is $400 million.8 Even taken together, companies like Zipcar,, Rent the Runway, and Airbnb won’t transform the U.S. economy. Many of today’s consumer inefficiencies are habits acquired over decades, and they won’t be broken easily. But these businesses all got off the ground and gained critical mass, customers, and, crucially, funding in the teeth of the downturn. Once the economy improves, it’s possible the efficient consumption businesses will run out of steam as consumers return to their profligate ways. But that day seems a long way off. And over time, logic tends to trump emotion in economic affairs. It just makes more sense to rent textbooks than to own them, and to sign up for Zipcar rather than own a car in New York City. There will come a day when nobody needlessly pays AOL $25 per month for online access.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby


AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

They still felt a need to work with an ecosystem, because—as we suggested in describing the LUMAscape—the amount of new technology is “overwhelmingly complex,” as both Daley and Harrington described it, and a smaller company like Zipcar still needs external expertise. But they decided to rely on focused external expertise, and found agency partners who employ automated tools within each marketing channel. Zipcar uses the partners to actually “turn the dials” on the automated systems, and Daley and his colleagues monitor the results. It’s clearly an augmentation situation rather than pure automation. To show how specialized this expertise has become, Zipcar works with one company on the programmatic buying of digital display ads, another one on automated search engine optimization, another on YouTube video advertising, another for automated Facebook ad buys, and so forth.

We are guessing that there is more change—more new vendors, more new products, more companies entering and leaving the space—in this area than any other technology category on planet Earth. Andrew Daley has to live the LUMAscapes every day. He’s the vice president of member acquisition at Zipcar, the pioneering car-sharing service acquired by the Avis Budget group in 2013. Member acquisition means finding new customers and the primary approach to that is digital marketing—much of which is automated. Daley has been in digital marketing since 1999, but he’s not sure that anyone is an expert on programmatic buying (automated purchase of digital ads) and marketing automation. But, he admits, he works with them every day, so he might qualify as much as anyone. Until a couple of years ago, Daley says, Zipcar wasn’t that sophisticated in digital marketing. It turned over almost every decision about software platforms and automation approaches to a single digital ad agency, and it didn’t study the results in much detail.

It’s Daley’s job to manage the overall ecosystem for new member acquisition, and he manages a lean team that looks over all the channels for twenty-six different geographical markets. Daley says there is no way so few people could manage all the channels without both automation and external partners. The “programmatic” systems don’t run on automatic pilot. Daley says that Zipcar’s goal in digital marketing is to observe who signs up as a member, and then to find other people like them. The automated marketing systems let them study all the people who convert with them, and create look-alike profiles. Regardless of where they are on the Internet, Daley and his team try to find them. There is also a complicated internal Zipcar budgeting structure that Daley and Harrington have to work with. Each of the twenty-six geographic regions has a budget for marketing. For a particular campaign, Providence, Rhode Island, might have X dollars to spend, whereas New York might have Y.


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman


3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Martin Wolf, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Put the brand’s Clever Little Shopper bag in hot water for three minutes and it harmlessly dissolves, so you can pour it safely down the plug. The social accommodation brand Airbnb, the car-sharing service Zipcar and music-streaming site Spotify are all examples of what is variously known, from slightly different angles, as the new trend for dis-ownership, the sharing economy and collaborative consumption. Now, thanks to these trends and the technologies that make them possible, you can enjoy the experience of a room, a house, a car, a CD, a handbag, a lawnmower, a musical instrument or even a dog – without all the hassle that comes with owning them. The success of Zipcar, for instance, reflects the space and cost that comes with keeping a car in a city, and the fact that, if you live in a city, you just do not need a car so much anymore.

For a rigorous analysis of the millennials’ housing aspirations, read Nathan Morris, “Why Generation Y is Causing the Great Migration of the 21st Century”, on the website of a design firm called Placemakers (, 9 April 2012. “Rather than owning a thing”: millennials not so interested in material objects Various sources, including Tammy Erickson, “Meaning Is the New Money”, HBR Blog Network, 23 March 2011; and David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011. The rise of services like Zipcar, Spotify, and Netflix For excellent introductions to how these companies operate, read Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers, “Beyond Zipcar: Collaborative Consumption”, Harvard Business Review, October 2010; and, for the rise of these services, read “All Eyes on the Sharing Economy”, The Economist, 9 Mar 2013. CHAPTER ELEVEN Are You Experienced? Your Government Wants to Know This chapter is informed by many sources, including Roger Cohen, “The Happynomics of Life”, New York Times, 12 March 2011; Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (London: Penguin, 2011).

For a quick introduction to the subject, read B. Joseph Pine II and James H Gilmore, “Welcome to the Experience Economy”, Harvard Business Review, July 1998. More on TOMS shoes: More on the Common Threads Initiative between eBay and Patagonia: Watch Puma’s Clever Little Shopper disappear on YouTube. Stay with Airbnb: Rent a car from Zipcar: . Get your music from Spotify: “London, one of the world’s most visited cities” Source: Deborah L. Jacobs, “The 20 Most Popular Cities In The World To Visit In 2012”, Forbes, 20 June 2012. In the 2013 rankings, Bangkok pipped London to the number one spot. CHAPTER FOURTEEN What about the Chinese? The description of Liu Dandan, Zhou Zhou, and Richard Lu is taken from the photoshoot for Bill Saporito, “A Great Leap Forward: Can China’s famously thrifty workers become the world’s big spenders?”


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation,, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

A study in Europe found that car sharing cut CO2 emissions by as much as 50 percent.30 Zipcar, the world’s largest car-sharing business is a for-profit operation founded in 2000. In just ten years, the company has grown to hundreds of thousands of members. There are several thousand Zipcar locations around the world and more than eight thousand vehicles to choose from. The company, whose revenue topped $130 million in 2009, is growing at a phenomenal rate of 30 percent a year. In 2010, Zipcar launched a hybrid electric vehicle pilot project in its San Francisco location. The brand has become popular among the environmentally conscious millennium generation who refer to themselves as “zipsters.”31 As renewable energy and the TIR infrastructure become more widespread, car-share lots, like Zipcar, will be able to provide green electricity on site to power electric plug-in vehicles.

Retrieved from 27.Ibid. 28.Facts & History. (n.d.). Kiva. Retrieved from 29.Community Supported Agriculture. (n.d.). Local Harvest. Retrieved from 30.Keegan, P. (2009, August 27). Car-Rental, Auto Industry React to Zipcar’s Growing Appeal. CNNMoney. Retrieved from; Green Benefits. (2011). Zipcar. Retrieved from 31.Ibid. 32.Fenton, C. (n.d.). Guiding Principles. CouchSurfing. Retrieved from 33.Statistics. (n.d.). CouchSurfing. Retrieved from 34.British Have Smallest Homes in Europe. (2002, May 3).

The brand has become popular among the environmentally conscious millennium generation who refer to themselves as “zipsters.”31 As renewable energy and the TIR infrastructure become more widespread, car-share lots, like Zipcar, will be able to provide green electricity on site to power electric plug-in vehicles. Car-share commons are likely to become a significant alternative to the conventional model of purchasing cars in markets, especially in dense urban areas where the cost of maintaining a car that is used only infrequently makes little practical sense. I had the occasion to meet Robin Chase, the founder and former CEO of Zipcar, at the 2011 OECD International Transport Forum in Leipzig, Germany. I was there to give an opening address on the need to create an integrated post-carbon transport and logistics network—pillar 5—across each continent between now and 2050 in order to advance the creation of seamless continental markets. Robin participated in the transport panel immediately following my presentation. In her remarks, she emphasized that the new car-sharing business model represented a disruptive revolution in the nature of mobility, transforming the automobile from a private possession to a collective convenience and from an autonomous experience to a collaborative enterprise.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

Because a lot of those Millennials who still like driving are choosing to do so without the burden of car ownership. According to a 2014 study by the business consultants Alix Partners, car-sharing services like Zipcar or RelayRides are responsible for auto manufacturers selling half a million fewer cars from 2004 to 2014. If the trend continues (that is, unless it gets worse), another 1.2 million aren’t going to leave dealers’ car lots between now and 2020. It’s not as if automobile manufacturers can make up for this shortfall by fleet sales to the car-sharing companies. Every new car they sell to a company like Zipcar equals thirty-two cars not purchased by civilians. Nearly one American household in ten is now a “zero-car” family. Automobile manufacturers and oil companies, however, have some very attractive strategic options.

“PRT Statewide Application: The Conceptual Design of a Transit System Capable of Serving Essentially All Daily Trips.” In Urban Public Transportation Systems, 2013, Steven L. Jones (ed.), 357–368. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2013. Koslowsky, M., et al. Commuting Stress: Causes, Effects, and Methods of Coping. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1995. KRCResearch. Millennials and Driving: A Survey Commissioned by Zipcar. Cambridge, MA: Zipcar, Inc., November 2011. Lachman, M. L., and D. L. Brett. Generation Y: America’s New Housing Wave. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 2011. Lee, I. M., C. C. Hsieh, and R. S. Paffenbarger Jr. “Exercise Intensity and Longevity in Men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study.” Journal of the American Medical Association 273, no. 15 (April 1995): 1179–1184. Levine, J., et al. “Does Accessibility Require Density or Speed?”

One thing the Internet does unambiguously well is to make information that used to be expensive and scarce now cheap and abundant. You don’t have to spend ten years learning the commuting ropes to know whether the train or bus you’re on is an express or a local, or even when it’s going to show up. You just need a smartphone. Smartphones are also all that’s needed to take advantage of other revolutionary new transportation options: ridesharing services like Via, car-sharing like Zipcar, and—especially—dispatchable taxi services like Uber and Lyft.c However, these and other cool new businesses didn’t create Millennial distaste for driving. They just exploited it. The question remains: why do Millennials find the automobile so much less desirable than their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents did? Woodbridge, Virginia, is a small suburb about twenty miles south of Washington, DC.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend


1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

The basic idea is to use energy-intensive manufactured goods more intensively, so we don’t have to make as many in the first place. Take the car-sharing service Zipcar, for instance. By transforming cars from something you own into a service you subscribe to, Zipcar claims that each of its shared vehicles replaces some twenty private ones.29 Smart technology plays a huge role in making Zipcar practical, by automating many of the traditional tasks involved in renting a car. GPS telemetry tracks vehicle location and use, Web and mobile services eliminate centralized rental depots so cars can be placed close by, and an RFID card identifies allows the renter to unlock one. But as smart as Zipcar is, it’s not very social. But take the same business model and weave in social software to connect people to others with idle vehicles, and suddenly you don’t even need Zipcar. San Francisco–based RelayRides helps its members to rent their cars to each other, using a social-reputation system to instill trust and good behavior.

Calabrese and F. and C. Ratti, “Real Time Rome,” Networks and Communications Studies 20, no. 3–4 (2006): 247–58. 28J. Borge-Holthoefer et al., “Structural and Dynamical Patterns on Online Social Networks: The Spanish May 15th Movement as a Case Study,” PLoS ONE, (2011); doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023883. 29April Kilcrease, “A Conversation with Zipcar’s CEO Scott Griffith,” GigaOM, last modified December 5, 2011, 30Ron Lieber, “Share Your Car, Risk Your Insurance,” New York Times, last modified March 16, 2012, 31“Our Carbon Footprint,” Corporate Responsibility Report, InterContinental Hotel Groups, 2011,

., 62 “Web 2.0,” 237 Web start-ups, 240 Weinberger, David, 297 Welter, Volker, 96 West, Geoffrey, 160, 250, 312–15 Western Union, 5 White Oak Plantation, 21 Wiener, Norbert, 75, 77, 277–78 Wi-Fi, 28, 55, 68, 126–34, 154, 195 limitations of, 196 public network for, 217–18 Wikipedia, 200 Wilde, Oscar, 282 Wilson, Fred, 152, 154 wireless networks, 52, 178, 195, 198–99 local area networks of (WLAN), 128 RFID barcode technology in, 318–19 U.S. investment in, 3 Wire, The, 211 Wireless Web, 122 World Bank, 12, 169–71, 178, 189 Apps for Development contest, 201 estimate of global GDP, 30 Worldnet, 36–37 World War I, U.S. postwar period of, 99–100 World War II, 51, 128 World Wildlife Foundation, 30 Wrestling with Moses (Flint), 103–4 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 26 X.25, 109 Y2K bug, 257 Yackinach, Mark, 302 Yahoo, 157 Yale University, 69 YouTube, 115 in Arab Spring, 12 Zakaria, Fareed, 107 Zaragoza, 217–23 Center for Art and Technology in, 219–20, 222–23 “citizen card” for, 221–22 Digital Diamond in, 220 Digital Mile in, 218–22 Digital Water Pavilion in, 220 as “open source city,” 218 Zehnder, Joe, 83–85 “zero-day” attacks, 267–68 Zipcar, 162–63 Zoellick, Robert, 169–70 Copyright Copyright © 2013 by Anthony M. Townsend All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America First Edition For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact W.


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher


Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

One reason for the change in behavior may be an ever-increasing awareness about the need to be more responsible with energy use. Consider the success of the Prius and other hybrids, or the rise of Zipcar, the car-sharing service that saw membership grow to close to eight hundred thousand before rental car giant Avis bought it in early 2013. The company specifically markets its service as a way to reduce the number of cars on the road. “Less cars on the road mean less congestion, less pollution, less dependence on oil, and cleaner, fresher air to breathe,” its Web site says. Originally born as a service for city residents, it’s seeing more demand come from suburban markets: in early 2012, Zipcar invested in Wheelz, a peer-to-peer car-sharing service, in order to test the concept at lower densities, and it’s been expanding regular Zipcar service to suburban areas like White Plains, New York, and Montgomery County, Maryland.

—Sarah Susanka, author of The Not So Big House series and The Not So Big Life “Through compelling expert interviews, data, and trends analysis, Leigh affirms the notion that we’ve hit ‘peak burb.’ This book presents a strong case for America’s increasing preference for higher density lifestyles and the resulting trend to manage our lives via the information highway, not the paved kind!” —Scott W. Griffith, chairman and CEO of Zipcar “This book is a steel fist in a velvet glove. Beneath Leigh Gallagher’s smooth, elegant prose there is a methodical smashing of the suburban paradigm. When all is done, a few shards remain—but only because she is scrupulously fair. This story of rise and ruin avoids the usual storm of statistics, nor is it a tale told with apocalyptic glee—which is most amusing to me but too depressing for most people.

See also New Urbanism communities, listing of, 116–18, 121–25, 140–42, 200–201 design elements, 116, 119–120, 122–25, 129, 134, 136–37 driving options in, 133–34 free time as bonus, 133, 170–71 home value increase in, 111, 130–32 as market of future, 25–26, 130, 142 millennials’ preference for, 157–59 New Urbanism communities, 128 obesity, lack of, 89 older suburb transformations, 128–29 retrofitted shopping malls as, 180–81 social interaction elements, 116, 120, 123, 134, 136, 140, 141 supply/demand factors, 135, 141, 199 walkability factors, 132 Walkable Urban Places (WalkUPs), 130 Walk Score, 109, 132 Walking and pedestrians accidents and suburbs, 84–85 health benefits, 93–94 interactions during, benefits of, 92–93 Walmart, 18, 172 Washington, DC, renewal and growth (2011), 167–68 Watkins, Michael, 123 Wealth, rise in cities, 17–18, 163–177, 187–88 Westborough, Massachusetts, 79–81, 112 Westchester County, New York, 30, 74, 149 West Village, New York City, 133 Wheeler, Richard S., 184 Wheelz, 108 Whelan, Robbie, 183 Whitney, Meredith, 59–60 Whole Foods, 18, 23 Williamson, June, 180 Women, as single parents, 146 Woodlands, Houston, 51 World’s Fair (1939), 64 Yearley, Douglas, 18, 164, 166, 189–190, 208–9 Yergin, Daniel, 105 Zappos, 92, 174–76 Zell, Sam, 165 Zipcars, 108 Zoning New Urbanism communities, 126 single-use zoning issue, 39–42, 63 Zuckerberg, Mark, 93 Table of Contents PRAISE FOR The End of the Suburbs TITLE PAGE COPYRIGHT DEDICATION CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 | THE GREAT URBAN EXODUS 2 | THE MASTER-PLANNED AMERICAN DREAM 3 | “MY CAR KNOWS THE WAY TO GYMNASTICS” 4 | THE URBAN BURBS 5 | THE END OF THE NUCLEAR FAMILY 6 | WHERE THE WEALTH IS MOVING 7 | THE FUTURE PHOTOGRAPHS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES INDEX


pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips


3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

These platforms permit unemployed and underemployed individuals to exchange what they do have for goods and services that they need. This trend toward “collaborative consumption” is taking place worldwide. As Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers chronicle in their book, What’s Mine Is Yours, sharing, trading, and selling idle items, time, and services is a rising trend. From Airbnb (a rental website that has gone from 120,000 listings in early 2012 to over 300,000 at the time of this writing) to Zipcar (the car-sharing service that was sold to Avis for $500 million in January 2013), people the world over are moving away from the fixed, formal “own it” model to a more fluid “exchange it” approach. The importance of the informal economy is starting to become more apparent in other European countries. In the United Kingdom, a September 2012 study6 by the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) and Community Links found that the informal economy was flourishing, and that its existence was, in fact, important to the health of entrepreneurship.

A similar dynamic can be observed in the commercial world, where smaller players are adopting the hacker mind-set, acting decisively to take on bigger, better-resourced, and highly established competitors; in doing so, they are disrupting industry after industry. Airbnb is disrupting the mammoth hotel industry. Spotify—and the wider wave of companies helping consumers experience music rather than own it—is forcing the music industry to change its business model. Car-lending and -sharing firms like Zipcar are inducing the automobile industry to rethink itself, suggesting a shift from selling cars to making them available without ownership. Even drug-trafficking organizations and the contemporary Mafia have started to adopt a hacker’s approach. As Moises Naim, the author and former editor of Foreign Policy, writes about the changing nature of the drug industry, “Rigid hierarchies in which authority is centralized don’t do well in a high-speed global marketplace where opportunities and risks change too fast.”18 Naim goes on to point out how drug-dealing organizations have moved from hierarchical approaches to decentralized networks.

., 148 We-Think (Leadbeater), 89 What’s Mine Is Yours (Botsman and Rogers), 65 Where Good Ideas Come From (Johnson), 98 Whitby, England, 107 “white hat” hacking, 108–9 Whole Earth Catalog, 141 Whole Earth Review, 141–42 Whole Foods, 9 Wilkins, Maurice, 86 Wilmington, Ohio, 67–70 Wimdu, 83 Wired, 83, 84 Wisdom Hackers, 220 Woodroof, Ron, 8 Woolf, Arthur, 89–90 World Bank, 17 World Economic Forum, 163 World Health Organization (WHO), 129, 136 World Trade Organization (WTO), 95, 154–55 World War II, 145 WPP, 158 Wright, Helena, 21, 143 Yes Lab, 155 Yes Men, 153–55, 214 York, University of, 108 YouGov, 66 Youthstream Media Networks, 104 YouTube, 83, 152 ZICO, 184 Zimbabwe, 188 Zipcar, 65, 124 Zuckerberg, Mark, 104, 122–23 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Copyright © 2015 by Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information, address Simon & Schuster Subsidiary Rights Department, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020.


pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez


barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

If you resist the idea of carpooling because it seems like a hassle, know that sharing the task of dri- CONCLUSION 211 ving, having companionship, and being able to use HOV (high occupancy vehicle) lanes actually make carpooling a stress-reducer. Many communities sponsor services that match up interested carpool partners, like a dating service for commuters. If the car sold was only used occasionally, then take public transportation or rent a car from a traditional firm such as Hertz or Dollar or from a new hourly rental firm like Zipcar when one is needed. At $8 an hour or $60 a day, including insurance, gas, and parking, you could use Zipcar one out of every four days and still come out well ahead of owning. In mild climates, a bike or electric scooter could serve most of the functions of an extra car, particularly for a teenager who has been using the car to go short distances. Donate your second or third car. Many charities accept used cars to help fund their work. Think about donating to a charity that is working to mitigate the negative impact of the car, such as the American Lung Association, or donate to a charity that is helping poor or unemployed people obtain the cars they need to get and retain decent-paying jobs, such as Charity Cars for Military Families in Need or one of the many local groups such as Free to Be!

An excellent car cost calculator at the Webwinder site (www. will let you compare the true total cost of holding on to your current car versus buying a new or used vehicle of various models and vintages. Calculate your savings and consider how these savings could be put toward advanced safety features in your next car. Use a car-sharing system. Car-sharing companies have grown exponentially in the last few years, primarily in urban areas where they allow people to avoid the headache of car ownership. An industry launched in 1998 in Boston by Zipcar, there are now more than 15 car-sharing organizations in over 66 cities. These companies make it incredibly easy to get a car, even on a moment’s notice. After you’ve registered online, you can make a reservation, a minute or a year in advance, walk to the car you reserved (often at a nearby parking lot), access it with your member’s electronic card, and drive off. The company, not you, maintains the car, fills the tank, and pays for insurance.

., 96 stimulus spending, 10, 95, 208 Stone, Judy, 188 Stone, Oliver, 123 Straith, Clair, 195 Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD), 193, 198 Subaru, 16, 50–1, 57 Suckow, Fred, 43–6 Superbad (film), 18 talk radio, 149–51 tax credits, 235n34 technology: alternative fuels, 36, 89, 226 Americans’ faith in, 34–37 in-car technologies, 74–5, 147–9, 156 See also electric cars teenagers: car crashes and, 23, 52, 136, 181–3, 189, 197–8 cars purchased for, 3, 72 delayed driving for, 219 freedom and, 19–21 marketing to, 2, 51–4, 59 product placing and, 51–3 public transportation and, 137 trips taken by, 82–3, 139 telecommuting, 157, 219–20 Thelma and Louise, 22 Tillerson, Rex, 120 Toronto, Canada, 126 toxins, car-related, 169–71 Toyota, 16, 30, 40, 43–4, 51, 54, 57, 59, 65–9, 73, 88, 141, 157, 178, 206, 215 trade-ins, 70, 78, 86, 212–3 traffic: congestion, 6, 21, 36, 90, 92–5, 98, 127–135, 137–8, 142–148 court, 106 reduction strategies, 133–4, 152 regulation, 17–21, 112–114, Transformers (film), 7 transportation costs by income, 236n6 TREAD Act, 196 Truckers and Citizens United, 121 Turner, Terence, 30 Twitchell, James, 52 United Auto Workers (UAW), 9, 121 Used cars, 5, 8, 37, 72, 85, 99, 106–11, 119, 213–214 254 Carjacked Veblen, Thorstein, 57–8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 167, 169 Volkswagen, 22, 27–8, 45, 47–8, 53, 62, 77, 82, 148 Volvo, 27, 54, 74, 137, 166, 190 Wagoner, Rick, 120–1 Wahl, Wendy, 41–3, 57–8 walkable neighborhoods, 133, 165, 223, 225 Wall Street (film), 123 Wal-Mart, 8, 102–3, 110, 141 Waterworld (film), 34 Whitman, Walt, 15 Wild West, 16–7 Wilkinson, Tom, 87 Zenn, 215 Zipcar, 211–2


pages: 299 words: 91,839

What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis


23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar

I discussed my rationale for the open-source car platform with Fred Wilson, a venture capitalist you’ll hear from shortly, and asked him what a Googley car company would look like. He said it already exists. It’s Zipcar, which provides 5,000 cars to 200,000 drivers in various cities and campuses. Drivers join Zipcar for $50 a month, then make reservations online and pick up a car in any of a number of garages, paying $9 an hour or $65 a day in New York, including insurance, gas, and 180 miles. I can get similar rates from traditional rental companies but with less flexibility and convenience. Zipcar says each of its cars replaces 15 privately owned cars and that 40 percent of its members decide to give up owning a car. Similarly, Paris’ mayor announced in 2008 that the city would follow its successful bike-sharing program by making 4,000 electric cars available to residents to pick up and drop off at 700 locations.

See vendor relationship management Waghorn, Rick, 56 Wales, Jimmy, 60, 87 Wall Street Journal, 129 Wal-Mart, 54–55, 101 Washlet, 181 Wattenberg, Laura, 233 Weinberger, David, 3, 82, 96–97, 137, 149, 232 Westlaw, 224 widgets, 36–37 Wikia, 60, 92–93 Wikinomics (Tapscott), 113, 151, 225 Wikipedia communities and, 50 growth of, 66 mistakes in, 92–93 open-source and, 60 speed of, 106 wikitorials, 86–87 Williams, Evan, 105–6 Williams, Raymond, 63 Wilson, Fred, 35, 176, 189–92, 225, 237, 158 WineLibrary.TV, 157 The Winner Stands Alone (Coelho), 142 Wired, 33 wireless access, 166 airlines and, 182–83 wireless spectrum, 166 The Wisdom of Crowds (Surowiecki), 88 The Witch of Portobello (Coelho), 142–43 WNYC, 128 Wojcicki, Anne, 205 Wolf, Maryanne, 235 World Economic Forum, 48, 113 Wyman, Bob, 211 Yahoo, 5, 36, 58 China and, 99–100 communities and, 50 Yang, Jerry, 36 Y Combinator, 193 youth, 191–94, 212 YouTube, 6, 20, 33, 37 Zappos, 161 Zara, 103–4 Zazzle, 180 Zell, Sam, 129 zero-based budgeting, 79–80 Zillow, 75, 80, 187 Zipcar, 176 Zopa, 196 Zuckerberg, Mark, 4, 48–53, 94–95 About the Author Jeff Jarvis is the proprietor of one of the Web’s most popular and respected blogs about the internet and media, He also writes the new media column for the Guardian in London. He was named one of 100 worldwide media leaders by the World Economic Forum at Davos in 2007 and 2008, and he was the creator and founding editor of Entertainment Weekly.


Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

The ownership of physical objects, he predicts, will be seen as an albatross around consumers’ necks, as people come to prefer access and experience to ownership.7 The sharing economy that Rifkin predicted is now upon us. An example is Zipcar (and its equivalents from around the world), a cheap pay-as-you-go car-sharing service popular among urban Americans. The service is easy to use, convenient and better for the local community and the environment. Why own a car, say its customers, when you can get wheels when you need them? Today, nearly 10 million people are less than 10 minutes’ walk from a Zipcar. Similarly, why pay $400 for a night in a New York hotel when Airbnb will find you a couch to crash on in Manhattan (or 8,000 other cities the site covers) for $40? This grassroots shift from an ownership-based consumer economy to a sharing society is propelling the growth of a peer-to-peer economic model based on frugality that involves sharing, bartering, swapping, renting or trading.

Frugal solutions are not only being used to deliver intangible services like news, education and advertising; increasingly, manufacturers are also grappling with the service aspects of physical products. For instance, BMW’s business used to be simply selling cars. It now sells a package of services with every car. This is because any mid-level car, such as a Volvo Gold, is similar to a BMW. Thus BMW no longer asks “how do we make and sell cars?”, but “how do we engage users through our cars and services?” BMW is also asking how it can be part of innovative car-related services such as ZipCar and ParkatmyHouse and offer related financial services. Although it is important to flex a firm’s physical and service assets, it is more crucial to make greater use of a company’s most valuable assets: its staff. Frugal organisations In 1958, Bill Gore, a chemical engineer with 16 years’ experience as a research scientist at DuPont, decided to go it alone. With his wife Vieve, Bill founded W.L.

Gore & Associates 63–4 women 87, 103, 122, 140 work environment 70, 80 workforce, ageing 13, 29, 49, 153 “workspaces” 128 World Business Council for Sustainable Development 194 World Economic Forum 9, 81, 194 X Xerox Research Centre India 169 Y Yahoo! 38 Yamazaki, Tomihiro 29–30 Yatango Mobile 146 85 young people 79–80, 85, 122, 139 as consumers 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 as employees 14, 79–80, 124, 204 YouTube 17, 29, 108, 144, 147 Z Zara 55 Zipcar 10, 63 Zopa 10 Praise for Jugaad Innovation GAPPAA .ORG ‘Innovation is a western word. In spoken Indian languages, there is no equivalent. The act of innovating is referred to as jugaad, meaning an adaptation or practical solution. Although jugaad sometimes has mildly pejorative overtones, it is used by crores of Indian entrepreneurs to create effective solutions to pressing socioeconomic issues.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott


Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Brown, CTO, R3 CEV (former Executive Architect for Industry Innovation and Business Development, IBM) Vitalik Buterin, Founder, Ethereum Patrick Byrne, CEO, Overstock Bruce Cahan, Visiting Scholar, Stanford Engineering; Stanford Sustainable Banking Initiative James Carlyle, Chief Engineer, MD, R3 CEV Nicolas Cary, Cofounder, Blockchain Ltd. Toni Lane Casserly, CEO, CoinTelegraph Christian Catalini, Assistant Professor, MIT Sloan School of Management Ann Cavoukian, Executive Director, Privacy and Big Data Institute, Ryerson University Vint Cerf, Co-creator of the Internet and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google Ben Chan, Senior Software Engineer, BitGo Robin Chase, Cofounder and Former CEO, Zipcar Fadi Chehadi, CEO, ICANN Constance Choi, Principal, Seven Advisory John H. Clippinger, CEO, ID3, Research Scientist, MIT Media Lab Bram Cohen, Creator, BitTorrent Amy Cortese, Journalist, Founder, Locavest J-F Courville, Chief Operating Officer, RBC Wealth Management Patrick Deegan, CTO, Personal BlackBox Primavera De Filippi, Permanent Researcher, CNRS and Faculty Associate at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School Hernando de Soto, President, Institute for Liberty and Democracy Peronet Despeignes, Special Ops, Augur Jacob Dienelt, Blockchain Architect and CFO, itBit and Factom Joel Dietz, Swarm Corp Helen Disney, (formerly) Bitcoin Foundation Adam Draper, CEO and Founder, Boost VC Timothy Cook Draper, Venture Capitalist; Founder, Draper Fisher Jurvetson Andrew Dudley, Founder and CEO, Earth Observation Joshua Fairfield, Professor of Law, Washington and Lee University Grant Fondo, Partner, Securities Litigation and White Collar Defense Group, Privacy and Data Security Practice, Goodwin Procter LLP Brian Forde, Former Senior Adviser, The White House; Director, Digital Currency, MIT Media Lab Mike Gault, CEO, Guardtime George Gilder, Founder and Partner, Gilder Technology Fund Geoff Gordon, CEO, Vogogo Vinay Gupta, Release Coordinator, Ethereum James Hazard, Founder, Common Accord Imogen Heap, Grammy-Winning Musician and Songwriter Mike Hearn, Former Google Engineer, Vinumeris/Lighthouse Austin Hill, Cofounder and Chief Instigator, Blockstream Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President of Estonia Joichi Ito, Director, MIT Media Lab Eric Jennings, Cofounder and CEO, Filament Izabella Kaminska, Financial Reporter, Financial Times Paul Kemp-Robertson, Cofounder and Editorial Director, Contagious Communications Andrew Keys, Consensus Systems Joyce Kim, Executive Director, Stellar Development Foundation Peter Kirby, CEO and Cofounder, Factom Joey Krug, Core Developer, Augur Haluk Kulin, CEO, Personal BlackBox Chris Larsen, CEO, Ripple Labs Benjamin Lawsky, Former Superintendent of Financial Services for the State of New York; CEO, The Lawsky Group Charlie Lee, Creator, CTO; Former Engineering Manager, Litecoin Matthew Leibowitz, Partner, Plaza Ventures Vinny Lingham, CEO, Gyft Juan Llanos, EVP of Strategic Partnerships and Chief Transparency Officer, Joseph Lubin, CEO, Consensus Systems Adam Ludwin, Founder, Christian Lundkvist, Balanc3 David McKay, President and Chief Executive Officer, RBC Janna McManus, Global PR Director, BitFury Mickey McManus, Maya Institute Jesse McWaters, Financial Innovation Specialist, World Economic Forum Blythe Masters, CEO, Digital Asset Holdings Alistair Mitchell, Managing Partner, Generation Ventures Carlos Moreira, Founder, Chairman, and CEO, WISeKey Tom Mornini, Founder and Customer Advocate, Subledger Ethan Nadelmann, Executive Director, Drug Policy Alliance Adam Nanjee, Head of Fintech Cluster, MaRS Daniel Neis, CEO and Cofounder, KOINA Kelly Olson, New Business Initiative, Intel Steve Omohundro, President, Self-Aware Systems Jim Orlando, Managing Director, OMERS Ventures Lawrence Orsini, Cofounder and Principal, LO3 Energy Paul Pacifico, CEO, Featured Artists Coalition Jose Pagliery, Staff Reporter, CNNMoney Stephen Pair, Cofounder and CEO, BitPay Inc.

They aggregate the willingness of suppliers to sell their excess capacity (cars, equipment, vacant rooms, handyman skills) through a centralized platform and then resell them, all while collecting valuable data for further commercial exploitation. Companies like Uber have cracked the code for large-scale service aggregation and distribution. Airbnb competes with hotels on travel accommodations; Lyft and Uber challenge taxi and limousine companies; Zipcar, before it was purchased by Avis, challenged traditional car rental companies with its hip convenience and convenient hourly rentals. Many of these companies have globalized the merchandising of traditional local, small-scale services—like bed-and-breakfasts, taxis, and handypersons. They use digital technologies to tap into so-called underutilized, time-based resources like real estate (apartment bedrooms), vehicles (between-call taxis), and people (retirees and capable people who can’t get full-time jobs).

Some platforms differ from prosumer communities where a company decides to cocreate products with its customers. With open platforms, a company offers partners a broader venue for staging new businesses or simply adding value to the platform. Now with blockchain technology companies can quickly create platforms and partner with others to create platforms or utilities for an entire industry. Robin Chase founded Zipcar (a service aggregator) as well as Buzzcar (users can share their cars with others), and is now the author of Peers Inc., a lucid book on the power of peers working together. She told us, “Leveraging the value found in excess capacity depends on high-quality platforms for participation. These platforms don’t come cheap. The blockchain excels in providing a standard common database (open APIs) and standard common contracts.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

In 2011 Paris launched Autolib’, an electric car-share system that works much like the Vélib’, with a fleet of rentable vehicles scattered at recharge stations around the city and accessible using the Navigo card. In more typical car-share systems, such as Zipcar, whose fleet of nine thousand vehicles is spread among cities in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, you book a car by phone or online, pick it up from its designated parking spot, and return it when done. But even Autolib’ and Zipcar feel clumsy compared with the versatility of what we might call smart sharing. For example, Daimler, the German car company, has scattered hundreds of Smart cars around dozens of cities, including, in 2011, Vancouver. Daimler’s CAR2GO concept is deliciously simple. Like Zipcar, you find a car using the Internet or an iPhone or Android application. Like Zipcar, you unlock it with the swipe of a magnetic card over a reader on the windshield. But then you can drive that car wherever you want to go within the service area for as long as you like, and when you arrive at your destination, you just leave it there.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman


23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Uber is also known for flouting local laws by setting up business in a new city without speaking to officials responsible for managing the transport sector. There’s a great deal of unacknowledged work involved in the sharing economy. Drivers have to keep their cars clean and insured, with no help from the company nominally employing them. Zipcar customers have to clean the cars after using them. They also may have to get extra liability insurance and can be charged for dents that are discovered after they drop off a rental car (that dent might’ve been caused by someone bumping into the car while it was parked in the rental lot, but in this mostly automated system, there are no Zipcar employees to watch over parked cars). TaskRabbits have to keep their online profiles spotless, so as to earn people’s trust with small tasks, and many workers report agreeing to a task only to find that the listing played down the amount of labor involved.

This latter idea is particularly important, as cleaning, child care, cooking, and many other domestic tasks that are labor-intensive and time-consuming have long been diminished as not “real” work. That, in turn, helps to hollow support for feminist movements, the rights of homemakers, and a strong social safety net which, for example, would provide child-care services that would allow women to put aside their domestic labor and enter the paid workforce. The sharing economy is loaded with shadow work, which you might discover when you learn you’re required to clean out your Zipcar but not the (similarly priced) rental from Hertz or Enterprise. Shadow work also includes many tasks—driving, paying for gas, maintaining equipment, buying office supplies to make up for a budget shortfall—that hit poor people hardest. Shadow work can easily turn a living wage into something below subsistence level. It’s the very hidden nature of shadow work that makes it even more problematic.

(Lanier), 328 WiFi, 323–24 Wikipedia, 198 Winnebago Man (documentary), 72 Winogrand, Garry, 48 women and abusive labor practices in Asia, 266n and revenge porn, 210 and shadow work, 271 targeting ads by gender in the physical world, 298–99 tracking feelings of unattractiveness, 304 warning other women about deadbeat men, 191 Wonkblog (Washington Post), 105–7, 123, 124 Wood, Graeme, 213 World Economic Forum (WEF), 281–82, 328–29, 330–31 World Wide Web. See Internet Wu, Tim, 2, 67 Yahoo, 28, 96 Yang, Zoe, 78–80, 81, 82 Y Combinator, 324 YouTube, 13, 15, 70–71, 84, 361 Zakas, Laimonas, 353–54 Zengotita, Thomas de, 120, 346 Zipcar, 236 Zuckerberg, Mark claims for Facebook, 6 on companies over countries, 6 on Facebook’s supply of data, vii on frictionless sharing, 12 on human beings as cells of a single organism, 12, 376n on maintaining two identities, 159 on privacy, 287–88, 292 Shreateh’s post on Zuckerberg’s Facebook page, 354–55 Zuckerberg, Randi, 159 Zuckerberg’s Law, 288 About the Author JACOB SILVERMAN’S work has been published in the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, Slate, the Atlantic, the New Republic, and many other publications.


pages: 304 words: 22,886

Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein


Al Roth, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, availability heuristic, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, continuous integration, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, feminist movement, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, index fund, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mason jar, medical malpractice, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, pension reform, presumed consent, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, school choice, school vouchers, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Zipcar

However, many Stairmaster users enjoy watching the “calories burned” meter while they work out (especially since those meters seem to give generous estimates of calories actually burned). Even better, for some, might be a pictorial display that indicated the calories one had burned in terms of food: after ten minutes one had earned only a bag of carrots but after forty minutes a large cookie. We have sketched six principles of good choice architecture. As a concession to the bounded memory of our readers, we thought it might be *Companies such as Zipcar that specialize in short-term rentals could profitably benefit by helping people solve these mental accounting problems. 99 100 HUMANS AND ECONS useful to offer a mnemonic device to help recall the six principles. By rearranging the order, and using one small fudge, the following emerges. iNcentives Understand mappings Defaults Give feedback Expect error Structure complex choices Voilà: NUDGES With an eye on these nudges, choice architects can improve the outcomes for their Human users.

AARP, 161–62, 163–64 ABBA, Gold: Greatest Hits, 194 “above average” effect, 32, 224 Abu Ghraib prison, 245 accessibility, 25 accountability, in schools, 200 acid deposition program, 187–88 acid rain, 187–88 air conditioners, filters for, 234 air pollution, 183, 184–85, 186, 188 alcohol abuse, 67–68, 234–35 Ambient Orb, 194 American dream, 135 American Express, 35 anchoring and adjustment, 23–24 angels, 235 annual percentage rate (APR), 133, 137 anonymity, 57 arbitrage opportunity, 51 arousal, power of, 42 asbestos, warnings about, 189 Asch, Solomon, 56–59 aspects, elimination by, 95 asset allocation, 34–35, 118–28; company stock, 125–28; diversification heuristic, 123; and loss aversion, 120–21; and market timing, 121–22; mutual funds, 119; and rates of return, 123; and risk toler- ance, 124–25; rules of thumb for, 122– 25; stocks and bonds, 118, 119–20 asymmetric paternalism, 72n, 249–51 ATM cards, 88 attention, lack of, 35 Attila the Hun, 23–24 Austria, organ donations in, 178–79 autokinetic effect, 57 automatic pilot, 43 Automatic System, 19–22; and Doers, 42; mindless choosing by, 43–44; and priming, 69–71; and risk, 25; in Stroop test, 82; and temptation, 42 Automatic Tax Return, 230–31 automobiles: buying, 98–99, 138; catalytic converters for, 184; emissions from, 184, 186; fuel economy standards for, 191–92, 192, 193; gas tank caps, 88–89; user-friendly, 88; Zipcar rentals, 99n autopsies, corneas removed in, 177 availability bias, 24–26, 67 Ayres, Ian, 231–32 “back to zero” option, 12–13 Barrera, Ramiro, 163 basketball: “hot hands” in, 30, 31; “streak shooting,” 30 283 284 INDEX behavior: dynamically inconsistent, 41; risk-related, 7, 25, 32–33 Benartzi, Shlomo, 112, 124, 127 Bennett, Robert, 14 Bettinger, Eric, 141 Big Blue, 6 birth control pills, 89 Bismarck, Otto von, 105 boomerang effect, 68 borrowing, 132; see also credit markets Boston, school system in, 203–5 Boston Research Group, 126 brain, functioning of, 19–22 Brandeis, Louis, 240 brand switching, 64–65 Breman, Anna, 229 broadcast programming, 55 Burke, Edmund, 238n Bush, George H.

Linda, 163 Vitality Bucks, 233 vouchers, school choice, 199–200, 203, 206 Wansink, Brian, 43 Watts, Duncan, 65 weight loss, strategy for, 46–47 Wilkins, Lauren, 137 Woodward, Susan, 133–34, 138 Worcester, Massachusetts, schools in, 200–201 workers’ compensation, 213 work safety, 189, 251 WorldCom, 126 World War II, London bombed in, 27–28, 28, 29 Yale University, tetanus shots at, 71 “yeah, whatever,” heuristic, 35, 83 Yunus, Muhammad, 135 Zeckhauser, Richard, 34 Zhe Jin, Ginger, 190n Zipcar, 99n 293


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater


1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics,, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Pioneers are starting to use the social-networking web for public good. In some cities in the UK, citizens can add information to online maps to alert councils to dumped cars and rubbish that needs collecting. A US scheme, Zipcar, gives people a share in ownership of pools of cars in cities across the country, allowing them to get access to a car just when they need it rather than have it sitting in the garage most of the year. Another scheme, GoLoco, aims to use the power of social networking to revive the flagging culture of sharing cars for commuting. At the moment we have just either very public forms of mass transit – buses and trains – or private cars and cycles. Zipcar and GoLoco’s approach, allowing people to make flexible use of shared transport resources, will become more attractive as more US cities introduce congestion charges to reduce car usage.

Gore and Associates 112 Woolf, Arthur 55 work 108–15 collaborative approaches to 109 division of labour 111 fragmented careers 89 loyalty and trust 110 motivate, co-ordinate and innovate 109, 110–11 offices 112–13 open and participative ways of working 114 and open-source copmmunities 109 relationships 110 satisfying 114–15 self-management 89 self-scheduling 112 worker co-operatives 90 Workers’ Party (Brazil) 201 World Health Organization 157, 200 World of Warcraft 5, 87, 98–100, 117, 227 Worm Breeder’s Gazette 63, 65, 77 worm project (C. elegans) 62–5, 68, 69, 70, 77, 87, 118 worms 3 Wright, Will 105–6, 149, 228 Wurth, Charles 95 183 Y Yahoo 97, 190 Yemen 189 YouTube xiii, 2, 3, 34, 45, 46, 56, 57, 85, 86, 171, 176, 182, 183, 218 Yunnus, Muhammad 205 Z Zhejiang, China 136 Zipcar scheme 153 Zittrain, Jonathan 234 Zuckerman, Mark 35


pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum


3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk,, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Most disruptive innovations come from individuals who are leading a cause and who’ve inspired a loyal following to get involved in that community. And yet our investments into innovation don’t always reflect that. Most of our efforts to promote creativity go to older, established corporations, where incremental innovation is, at best, the result. Yet where have the most important innovations that have changed our lives in recent years come from? Google, Facebook, Zipcar, Wikipedia, and Kickstarter were all founded by individuals, not big corporations. Which is not to say that big companies can’t do innovation right—but they’d do well to look to start-ups for guidance. Pivoting often requires charisma, a relationship with the community of people invested in your project: team members, partners, and a devoted audience. Today’s most creative individuals see their work as a calling; that belief in their work gives them the energy to move forward and inspire others to join them in what becomes not just a business but a social movement.

In the high-tech sector, engineers tried to expand the functionalities of existing products, adding a button here or a click-through feature there for our every need. We frame commerce and society—even our relationships—in terms of needs, but that kind of framework is limited. People are much more complicated than a list of needs; we need food and housing and shelter, sure, but what makes humanity unique are the dreams and longings that are much deeper and more complicated than mere necessity. No one needs an iPhone or a Zipcar, and yet these products have become as meaningful to us as the homes we live in or the food we eat. Mining for knowledge isn’t simply about sifting for data. It also involves an understanding of what people find meaningful. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger connected rhythm and blues and jazz and brought their music to restless kids yearning for change. Method founders Alex Lowry and Eric Ryan brought together cool design and sustainability to create a green product that didn’t require sacrifice.

The heads of big corporations felt they had a “calling” to do good for the nation. This sense of calling is now rare among CEOs of global corporations, who focus on shareholders and see themselves as global citizens, not leaders of local communities. CEOs often have international responsibilities that surpass local and even national obligations. But the idea of a calling is alive and well among the founders of start-ups like Zipcar or Method who often embrace a social challenge with an entrepreneurial solution. The notion of creating neighborhood jobs and sourcing materials locally is strongest today among new companies growing up, rather than big companies going global. Back in 2004, when Sergey Brin and Larry Page were taking the company they founded public, they, too, expressed a “calling” for their effort. “Sergey and I founded Google because we believed we could provide an important service to the world—instantly delivering relevant information on virtually any topic,” wrote Page.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Early in his book, Stephany, with a nod to the influence of the “geeky school” that sent him to the dictionary for answers to his questions, provides a short definition of the sharing economy: “The sharing economy is the value in taking underutilized assets and making them accessible online to a community, leading to a reduced need for ownership of those assets.”16 He then explains each of the five limbs of his definition: (1) value (the exchange creates economic value, either through the use of money or through barter); (2) underutilized assets (akin to Botsman’s idling capacity); (3) online accessibility (the enabling power of the Internet); (4) community (the facilitation of more fluid exchange through community trust, social interaction, or shared value), and (5) reduced need for ownership (goods become services). Stephany, in his definition, does not focus exclusively on peer exchange, but rather encompasses companies like Zipcar and Rent the Runway that rent directly to consumers instead of only facilitating individual-based supply. He is explicit, however, in his interest in the “business” of sharing, and, realizing the inherent potential contradiction, explains his use of the term “sharing economy”: Why am I using the term “sharing economy” time and time again in this book? In part, I do so because this term has come to dominate discourse on the subject.

Like Airbnb, which enables people to list their own homes for short-term rental, Turo enables people to rent out their personal cars to their peers. Unlike Getaround, whose cars on-demand are rented by community residents who need a ride for a short periods, Turo focused in 2015 on travelers who might need a car rental when visiting a new city—it’s a peer-to-peer version of Hertz rather than a crowd-based Zipcar. Like Airbnb, most Turo “providers” simply rent out their own primary car while it’s not in use, or make some money off a second vehicle. But like Airbnb, there are also exceptions. In 2013, a Turo member named David learned about the platform and decided to rent out a truck he was about to sell. The experience was positive enough for David to start using Craigslist to purchase other vehicles to list for rent on Turo.

., 119 Varian, Hal, 118 Vayable, 77 Venture capital, 25–26, 42–43 Visible Hand, The (Chandler), 4, 69, 71 VizEat, 3, 45, 77, 149 Von Hippel, Eric, 76 Wag, 12 Walk, Hunter, 187 Walmart, 98–99 Warner, Mark, 161, 187, 190 Warner, Sam Bass, 4 Washio, 12 Waskow, Debbie, 3 Way, Niobe, 44 WeChat, 54 Weingast, Barry, 144–145 Wenger, Albert, 90, 189, 190 Werbacah, Adam, 198–199 Westly Group, 199 West Seattle Tool Library, 15 WeWork, 6 Whang, Seungjin, 74–75 What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption (Botsman and Rogers), 28 Whole Foods, 71, 213n3 Wikipedia, 199 Wilson, Fred, 17, 85 With Liberty and Dividends for All (Barnes), 189 Wong, Jamie, 77 Woolard, Caroline, 43 World Bank, 111 World Economic Forum, 162, 205 Woskow, Debbie, 121 Yahoo, 96 Yates, Joanne, 69, 72–74 YCombinator, 23 Yelp, 147, 200–201 Yerdle, 44 Yourdrive, 3 YouTube, 55, 57 Zagat, 147 Zervas, Georgios, 121 Zimmer, John, 10, 11, 12, 187 Zimride, 12 Zipcar, 30, 107 Zluf, Shay, 94 Table of Contents Title page Copyright page Dedication Author’s Note and Acknowledgments Introduction I Cause 1 The Sharing Economy, Market Economies, and Gift Economies 2 Laying the Tracks: Digital and Socioeconomic Foundations 3 Platforms: Under the Hood 4 Blockchain Economies: The Crowd as the Market Maker II Effect 5 The Economic Impacts of Crowd-Based Capitalism 6 The Shifting Landscape of Regulation and Consumer Protection 7 The Future of Work: Challenges and Controversies 8 The Future of Work: What Needs to Be Done 9 Concluding Thoughts Index Table 3.1 Platforms: hierarchies, markets, or hybrids?


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel


Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

A new generation is emerging that considers their phones to be their personal computers. Simultaneously, it is becoming cool to not own a car at all. Ford is not trying to reverse the trend with an expensive marketing campaign, as carmakers would have done in earlier eras. Instead, it is coping with the “democratization of technology,” and following the lead of future customers by investing in Zipcar, an urban ride-sharing service, and TechShop, where urban entrepreneurs can access advanced tech tools to germinate new city-based businesses. A Blind Spot As impressed as we were with the automotive industry’s understanding of contextual technology and its importance to the future of cars, we were disappointed to find that, as of now, none seems to be considering the impact of digital eyewear such as Google Glass.

Lindsay, his wife Sophie, and their young son Teddy own a “shoebox apartment” in Brooklyn Heights. “We live in the oldest and arguably most beautiful neighborhood in Brooklyn, steps away from Brooklyn Bridge Park, along the East River with playgrounds, athletic fields and breathtaking views,” he says. “We’ve traded a considerable amount of private space for one-of-a-kind public amenities.” The Lindsays don’t own a car. When they need one, there’s a Zipcar garage nearby. The rest of the time they get around by subway, bikes and on foot. Each morning Lindsay walks to his co-work space, dropping little Teddy off at daycare en route. To visit Sophie’s folks near Boston they take the Amtrak Bullet Train. “I like the buzz and connection of city life. I want to live and work and raise my family in a city environment,” he says. New Urbanists The Lindsay family is not alone.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst


3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

Millennials, who often carry mountains of school debt, have little interest in dumping all their cash into a car or in deriving satisfaction from the size of their front lawn. Simply put, they don’t care as much as Boomers did about acquiring possessions. They need to find ways to make money go further. Fortunately, the market for sharing has accelerated exponentially in the last decade, receiving a huge boost into the mainstream by Zipcar, the market leader in car sharing. More than just a niche, Zipcar was bought by rental car giant Avis. The business of sharing has become investment-worthy and is even sparking new venture capital funds, like New York-based Collaborative Fund. And new services such as Airbnb, an online service that allows property owners to post rental listings for as short as one night, are creating whole new markets where once there were none.


Early Retirement Guide: 40 is the new 65 by Manish Thakur


Airbnb, diversified portfolio, financial independence, index fund, Lyft, passive income, passive investing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, time value of money, Vanguard fund, Zipcar

This is less of a life change than biking or walking, but also has the big effect of less financial waste. When it comes down to it, owning a large, powerful car is an expensive luxury that most people don't remotely get close to using to the fullest, and don't even realize the kind of luxury they have. Here are several conscientious spending alternatives: 1. Carpooling to work and split the cost of gas. 2. Signing up for a car sharing service such as Zipcar or Car2Go. 3. Use Uber or Lyft if the longer distance rides are rarer and signing up for a car sharing service doesn't add up. Get free rides just by signing up with these links and try them out if you haven't yet Savings: $8,800 Challenges: 1. Compare the cost of public transportation to all the costs of owning a car, there's probably a significant difference. 2. Take public transportation or carpool to work with coworkers and use the freed up time to relax, prepare for the day, read a book, or even learn a new professional skill. 3.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor


Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser,, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

The Share Solution When I published The Overspent American in 1998, one sentence generated a reaction akin to outrage—my suggestion that neighbors could share expensive items that are only used periodically, such as riding mowers. Ten years later, it’s not only mowers that are being jointly owned, but tractors and even vehicles. The sharing economy is taking off. The best-known example is car sharing, pioneered in the United States by Zipcar, which makes vehicles available to urban members on a short-term basis. Its founder, Robin Chase, has moved on to create GoLoco, a ride-sharing service. members are committed to the reciprocity of both giving and getting. allows individuals to post items they are willing to share and to contact others who have done the same. These examples are extensions of two important movements that promote global sharing: the information commons and responsible use of common resources of land, water, and atmosphere.

., climate change and shadow wages Shafer, Jay Shandra, John Share the World’s Resources sharing economy Sheldon, Kennon Shiller, Robert Shiva, Vandana shrimp Simon, Julian Sky Trust proposal Slow Food movement Slow Money movement Slow Travel movement smart machines social capital - socialism social networking Social Security Society for Ecological Economics soil solar energy Spain, ecological footprint in stagflation Stanford University Stern, Nicholas Stern Review Stiglitz, Joseph Stockholm Environment Institute stock market storage stress substitution effect sulfur oxides Susanka, Sarah sustainability: affluence and BAU economy and community and-13n economics of environment and growth and household production and knowledge and multifunctionality and natural asset restoration and one planet living and path to population and self-provisioning and sharing and slow spending and small business and technology and time wealth and working less and Sustainable South Bronx Swan, Simone Sweden: ecological footprint in productivity growth in systems dynamics Tasch, Woody taxes, taxation carbon pricing and technology climate change reduction and - diffusion of economic change and household production and productivity growth and rebound effect and sustainability and time and see also green technology televisions environmental impact of storage and disposal of Thailand, health care in Thoreau, Henry David time, allocation of tool sharing trade, balance of trademarks trade-off economics - trains Transition Town movement transportation see also specific types of transportation travel true materialism Tumbleweed Tiny House Company underemployment unemployment aggregate growth and company size and working hours reduction and United Arab Emirates, ecological footprint in United Kingdom: ecological footprint in historical carbon emissions of hours worked in rebound effects in technological change in well-being and United Nations (UN) United States: clothing exports from clothing purchases in consumption as percent of GDP in ecological footprint in expansion of consumption in furniture imports to greenhouse gas emissions in Happy Planet Index of health care and historical profitability of hours worked in Human Development Index and income inequality in market growth of materials consumption in pensions in per capita income in rebound effects in sharing economy in technological change and well-being and urban farming urban homesteading value, monetized versus non-monetized forms of Velib Vertical Garden Victor, Peter Wackernagel, Mathis wages nonmonetized value and time wealth and Wal-Mart waste stream water privatization of water footprint Waters, Alice water stress Wealth of Networks, The (Benkler) weather see also specific types Wedgwood, Josiah Weisbrot, Mark well-being West, Paul Who Killed the Electric Car? Whybrow, Peter Wikipedia wildfires Williams, Raymond wind energy winemaking Worcester, Mass. work, see labor World Bank World Wildlife Fund YouTube yurts zero waste concept Zipcar About the Author Juliet B. Schor’s research has focused on the economics of work, spending, environment, and the consumer culture. She is the author of Born to Buy, The Overworked American, and The Overspent American. Schor is professor of sociology at Boston College, a former member of the Harvard economics department, and a Guggenheim Fellowship recipient. She is also a cofounder of the Center for a New American Dream, an organization devoted to ecologically and socially sustainable lifestyles.


pages: 397 words: 109,631

Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking by Richard E. Nisbett


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, endowment effect, experimental subject, feminist movement, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, William of Occam, Zipcar

So the cost of driving a car seems slight (I’ve got the thing, might as well use it), whereas every trip by another means hurts a bit (fifteen bucks just to go downtown?!). As it happens, many young people have learned the principle that every car trip usually costs a lot by comparison to the alternatives. They’re buying fewer cars than their parents (helped along in this by the appearance on the scene of Zipcars and their imitators). A person who uses an office in a building the person owns is likely to consider the office to be rent-free. And an accountant might indeed record her as paying nothing for rent. But in fact she is paying something for using the office, namely the payment for the office if she were to rent it out. If the person could find an office that was as good or better than her own, but that costs less money than what the person could get for her own office, she is paying an opportunity cost for using her own office.

Smith, Adam social conflict social desirability bias social facilitation effect social psychology; context in; experiments in; founding of; fundamental attribution error in; microeconomics and; in political campaigns; reality in; social influence in Social Security Social Text Socrates Socratic dialogue Sokal, Alan South Carolina Soviet Union Speed (movie) Spender, Stephen Sperber, Dan spreading activation standard deviation (SD); for IQs; for observations Standard & Poor’s Stanford University; Graduate School of Business statistical dependence statistical heuristics statistical independence status quo stereotypes Stich, Stephen stimuli; incidental Stoic philosophers Stoler, Ann Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The (Kuhn) Subaru subliminal perception and persuasion Summers, Lawrence sunk costs Sunstein, Cass Sweden syllogisms Talmudic scholars Tanzania Tao Tennessee Texas text, reality as Thaler, Richard theology Thorndike, Edward Time magazine Towers of Hanoi problem Toyota tragedy of the commons training, transfer of traits; behaviors related to; correlations for; role-related “Transgressing the Boundaries” (Sokal) Triplett, Norman Turkish language Tversky, Amos Twain, Mark uncertainty unconscious mind; rational Unitarians United States; academic performance in; allergies in; autism diagnosis in; crime prevention programs in; death penalty in; dialectical thinking in; health issues in; history teachers in; homicide versus suicide deaths in; incarceration rate in; income ranges in; life insurance coverage in; manufacturing in; minority advancement in armed forces of; national election polls in; oil reserves of; per capita GDP in; pragmatism in; product choice in; Social Security program in; subjectivist view in; vaccination in; values and beliefs in vaccination validity; of arguments; reliability and value: expected; of human life; monetary, in cost-benefit analysis; sentimental; of sunk costs and opportunity costs Van Buren, Abigail (Dear Abby) variables; continuous; control; correlation of; economic; outcome; predictor; regression to the mean of; see also dependent variables; independent variables Varnum, Michael Venn, John Venn diagrams Vermont Volkswagen von Neuman, John Wall Street Journal, The Washington, University of Washington State Institute for Public Policy Western culture, difference between Eastern culture and, see cultural differences West Germany What Works Clearinghouse Whitehead, Alfred North William of Occam Wilson, Timothy within designs World Economic Forum Zajonc, Robert Zen Buddhism Zeno Zhang, Yitang Zipcars A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHOR Richard E. Nisbett is Distinguished University Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan and one of the world’s most respected psychologists. He has been awarded the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association and the William James Fellow Award for Distinguished Scientific Achievements of the Association for Psychological Science, among others.


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson


Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Another idea already taking off is the pay-as-you-go car. The notion that everyone needs their own vehicle is beginning to sound faintly ridiculous, especially in cities, where lack of parking spaces and congestion charging are making other forms of public or group transport more logical. A number of companies are springing up offering car-sharing services of one type or another. In the US companies like Zipcar are growing at breakneck speed, partly because small organizations and businesses are trying to cut costs, and car 168 FUTURE FILES sharing makes more sense than traditional auto rental or taxis. In Switzerland 2% of drivers already use such schemes, while in the UK organizations like City Car Club are renting cars to people for as little as £4 ($8) an hour — including fuel. Better still, again because of remote-monitoring technology, there are companies that simply scatter share cars across a city.

A 311 Index ‘O’ Garage 170 3D printers 56 accelerated education 57 accidents 159, 161–6, 173, 246 ACNielsen 126 adaptive cruise control 165 Adeg Aktiv 50+ 208 advertising 115–16, 117, 119 Africa 70, 89, 129, 174, 221, 245, 270, 275, 290, 301 ageing 1, 10, 54, 69, 93, 139, 147–8, 164, 188, 202, 208, 221, 228–9, 237, 239, 251, 261, 292, 295, 297–8 airborne networks 56 airlines 272 allergies 196–7, 234, 236 Alliance Against Urban 4x4s 171 alternative energy 173 alternative futures viii alternative medicine 244–5 alternative technology 151 amateur production 111–12 Amazon 32, 113–14, 121 American Apparel 207 American Express 127–8 androids 55 Angola 77 anti-ageing drugs 231, 237 anti-ageing foods 188 anti-ageing surgery 2, 237 antibiotics 251 anxiety 10, 16, 30, 32, 36, 37, 128, 149, 179, 184, 197, 199, 225, 228, 243, 251, 252, 256, 263, 283–4, 295–6, 300, 301, 305 Apple 61, 115, 121, 130, 137–8, 157 Appleyard, Bryan 79 Argentina 210 Armamark Corporation 193 artificial intelliegence 22, 40, 44, 82 131, 275, 285–6, 297, 300 Asda 136, 137 Asia 11, 70, 78, 89, 129, 150, 174, 221, 280, 290, 292 Asimov, Isaac 44 216 asthma 235 auditory display software 29 Australia 20–21, 72–3, 76, 92, 121, 145, 196, 242, 246, 250, 270, 282 Austria 208 authenticity 32, 37, 179, 194, 203–11 authoritarianism 94 automated publishing machine (APM) 114 automation 292 automotive industry 154–77 B&Q 279 baby boomers 41, 208 bacterial factories 56 Bahney, Anna 145 Bahrain 2 baking 27, 179, 195, 199 Bangladesh 2 bank accounts, body double 132 banknotes 29, 128 banks 22, 123, 135–8, 150, 151 virtual 134 Barnes and Noble 114 bartering 151 BBC 25, 119 Become 207 Belgium 238 313 314 benriya 28 Berlusconi, Silvio 92 Best Buy 223 biofuel 64 biomechatronics 56 biometric identification 28, 35, 52, 68, 88, 132 bionic body parts 55 Biosphere Expeditions 259 biotechnology 40, 300 blended families 20 blogs 103, 107, 109, 120 Blurb 113 BMW 289 board games 225 body double bank accounts 132 body parts bionic 55 replacement 2, 188, 228 Bolivia 73 Bollywood 111 books 29, 105, 111–25 boomerang kids 145 brain transplants 231 brain-enhancing foods 188 Brazil 2, 84, 89, 173, 247, 254, 270, 290 Burger King 184 business 13, 275–92 Bust-Up 189 busyness 27, 195, 277 Calvin, Bill 45 Canada 63, 78, 240 cancer 251 car sharing 160, 169, 176 carbon credits 173 carbon footprints 255 carbon taxes 76, 172 cars classic 168–9 driverless 154–5 flying 156, 165 hydrogen-powered 12, 31, 157, 173 pay-as-you-go 167–8 self-driving 165 cascading failure 28 cash 126–7, 205 cellphone payments 129, 213 cellphones 3, 25, 35, 51, 53, 120, 121, FUTURE FILES 129, 156, 161, 251 chicken, Christian 192 childcare robots 57 childhood 27, 33–4, 82–3 children’s database 86 CHIME nations (China, India, Middle East) 2, 10, 81 China 2, 10, 11, 69–72, 75–81, 88, 92–3, 125, 137, 139–40, 142, 151, 163, 174–5, 176, 200, 222, 228, 247, 260, 270–71, 275, 279, 295, 302 choice 186–7 Christian chicken 192 Christianity, muscular 16, 73 Chrysler 176 cinema 110–11, 120 Citibank 29, 128 citizen journalism 103–4, 108 City Car Club 168 Clarke, Arthur C. 58–9 Clarke’s 187 classic cars 168–9 climate change 4, 11, 37, 43, 59, 64, 68, 74, 77–9, 93, 150, 155, 254, 257, 264, 298–9 climate-controlled buildings 254, 264 cloning 38 human 23, 249 CNN 119 coal 176 Coca-Cola 78, 222–3 co-creation 111–12, 119 coins 29, 128, 129 collective intelligence 45–6 Collins, Jim 288 comfort eating 200 Comme des Garçons 216 community 36 compassion 120 competition in financial services 124–5 low-cost 292 computers disposable 56 intelligent 23, 43 organic 56 wearable 56, 302 computing 3, 33, 43, 48, 82 connectivity 3, 10, 11, 15, 91, 120, Index 233, 261, 275–6, 281, 292, 297, 299 conscientious objection taxation 86 contactless payments 123, 150 continuous partial attention 53 control 36, 151, 225 convenience 123, 178–9, 184, 189, 212, 223, 224 Coren, Stanley 246 corporate social responsibility 276, 282, 298 cosmetic neurology 250 Costa Rica 247 Craig’s List 102 creativity 11, 286; see also innovation credit cards 141–3, 150 crime 86–9 forecasting 86–7 gene 57, 86 Croatia 200 Crowdstorm 207 Cuba 75 cultural holidays 259, 273 culture 11, 17–37 currency, global 127, 151 customization 56, 169, 221–2, 260 cyberterrorism 65, 88–9 Cyc 45 cynicism 37 DayJet 262 death 237–9 debt 123–4, 140–44, 150 defense 63, 86 deflation 139 democracy 94 democratization of media 104, 108, 113 demographics 1, 10, 21, 69, 82, 93, 202, 276, 279–81, 292, 297–8 Denmark 245 department stores 214 deregulation 11, 3 Destiny Health 149 detox 200 Detroit Project 171 diagnosis 232 remote 228 digital downloads 121 evaporation 25 315 immortality 24–5 instant gratification syndrome 202 Maoism 47 money 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 nomads 20, 283 plasters 241 privacy 25, 97, 108 readers 121 digitalization 37, 292 Dinner by Design 185 dirt holidays 236 discount retailers 224 Discovery Health 149 diseases 2, 228 disintegrators 57 Disney 118–19 disposable computers 56 divorce 33, 85 DNA 56–7, 182 database 86 testing, compulsory 86 do-it-yourself dinner shops 185–6 dolls 24 doorbells 32 downshifters 20 Dream Dinners 185 dream fulfillment 148 dressmaking 225 drink 178–200 driverless cars 154–5 drugs anti-ageing 231, 237 performance-improving 284–5 Dubai 264, 267, 273 dynamic pricing 260 E Ink 115 e-action 65 Earthwatch 259 Eastern Europe 290 eBay 207 e-books 29, 37, 60, 114, 115, 302 eco-luxe resorts 272 economic collapse 2, 4, 36, 72, 221, 295 economic protectionism 10, 15, 72, 298 economy travel 272 316 Ecuador 73 education 15, 18, 82–5, 297 accelerated 57 lifelong learning 290 Egypt 2 electricity shortages 301 electronic camouflage 56 electronic surveillance 35 Elephant 244 email 18–19, 25, 53–4, 108 embedded intelligence 53, 154 EMF radiation 251 emotional capacity of robots 40, 60 enclosed resorts 273 energy 72, 75, 93 alternative 173 nuclear 74 solar 74 wind 74 enhancement surgery 249 entertainment 34, 121 environment 4, 10, 11, 14, 64, 75–6, 83, 93, 155, 171, 173, 183, 199, 219–20, 252, 256–7, 271, 292, 301 epigenetics 57 escapism 16, 32–3, 121 Estonia 85, 89 e-tagging 129–30 e-therapy 242 ethical bankruptcy 35 ethical investing 281 ethical tourism 259 ethics 22, 24, 41, 53, 78, 86, 132, 152, 194, 203, 213, 232, 238, 249–50, 258, 276, 281–2, 298–9 eugenics 252 Europe 11, 70, 72, 81, 91, 141, 150, 174–5, 182, 190, 192, 209 European Union 15, 139 euthanasia 238, 251 Everquest 33 e-voting 65 experience 224 extended financial families 144 extinction timeline 9 Facebook 37, 97, 107 face-recognition doors 57 fakes 32 family 36, 37 FUTURE FILES family loans 145 fantasy-related industries 32 farmaceuticals 179, 182 fast food 178, 183–4 fat taxes 190 fear 10, 34, 36, 38, 68, 150, 151, 305 female-only spaces 210–11, 257 feminization 84 financial crisis 38, 150–51, 223, 226, 301 financial services 123–53, 252 trends 123–5 fish farming 181 fixed-price eating 200 flashpacking 273 flat-tax system 85–6 Florida, Richard 36, 286, 292 flying cars 165 food 69–70, 72, 78–9, 162, 178–201 food anti-ageing 188 brain-enhancing 188 fast 178, 183–4 functional 179 growing your own 179, 192, 195 history 190–92 passports 200 slow 178, 193 tourism 273 trends 178–80 FoodExpert ID 182 food-miles 178, 193, 220 Ford 169, 176, 213, 279–80 forecasting 49 crime 86–7 war 49 Forrester Research 132 fractional ownership 168, 175, 176, 225 France 103, 147, 170, 189, 198, 267 Friedman, Thomas 278–9, 292 FriendFinder 32 Friends Reunited 22 frugality 224 functional food 179 Furedi, Frank 68 gaming 32–3, 70, 97, 111–12, 117, 130, 166, 262 Gap 217 Index gardening 27, 148 gas 176 GE Money 138, 145 gendered medicine 244–5 gene silencing 231 gene, crime 86 General Motors 157, 165 Generation X 41, 281 Generation Y 37, 41, 97, 106, 138, 141–2, 144, 202, 208, 276, 281, 292 generational power shifts 292 Genes Reunited 35 genetic enhancement 40, 48 history 35 modification 31, 182 testing 221 genetics 3, 10, 45, 251–2 genomic medicine 231 Germany 73, 147, 160, 170, 204–5, 216–17, 261, 267, 279, 291 Gimzewski, James 232 glamping 273 global currency 127 global warming 4, 47, 77, 93, 193, 234 globalization 3, 10, 15–16, 36–7, 63–7, 72–3, 75, 81–2, 88, 100, 125, 139, 143, 146, 170, 183, 189, 193–5, 221, 224, 226, 233–4, 247–8, 263, 275, 278–80, 292, 296, 299 GM 176 Google 22, 61, 121, 137, 293 gout 235 government 14, 18, 36, 63–95, 151 GPS 3, 15, 26, 50, 88, 138, 148, 209, 237, 262, 283 Grameen Bank 135 gravity tubes 57 green taxes 76 Greenpeace 172 GRIN technologies (genetics, robotics, internet, nanotechnology) 3, 10, 11 growing your own food 178, 192, 195 Gucci 221 Gulf States 125, 260, 268 H&M 217 habitual shopping 212 Handy, Charles 278 317 Happily 210 happiness 63–4, 71–2, 146, 260 health 15, 82, 178–9, 199 health monitoring 232, 236, 241 healthcare 2, 136, 144, 147–8, 154, 178–9, 183–4, 189–91, 228–53, 298; see also medicine trends 214–1534–7 Heinberg, Richard 74 Helm, Dieter 77 Heritage Foods 195 hikikomori 18 hive mind 45 holidays 31, 119; see also tourism holidays at home 255 cultural 259 dirt 236 Hollywood 33, 111–12 holographic displays 56 Home Equity Share 145 home baking 225 home-based microgeneration 64 home brewing 225 honesty 152 Hong Kong 267 hospitals 228, 241–3, 266 at home 228, 238, 240–42 hotels 19, 267 sleep 266 human cloning 23, 249 Hungary 247 hybrid humans 22 hydrogen power 64 hydrogen-powered cars 12, 31, 157, 173 Hyperactive Technologies 184 Hyundai 170 IBM 293 identities, multiple 35, 52 identity 64, 71 identity theft 88, 132 identity verification, two-way 132 immigration 151–2, 302 India 2, 10, 11, 70–72, 76, 78–9, 81, 92, 111, 125, 135, 139, 163, 174–5, 176, 247, 249–50, 254, 260, 270, 275, 279, 302 indirect taxation 86 318 individualism 36 Indonesia 2, 174 industrial robots 42 infinite content 96–7 inflation 151 information overlead 97, 120, 159, 285; see also too much information innovation 64, 81–2, 100, 175, 222, 238, 269, 277, 286–8, 291, 297, 299 innovation timeline 8 instant gratification 213 insurance 123, 138, 147–50, 154, 167, 191, 236, 250 pay-as-you-go 167 weather 264 intelligence 11 embedded 53, 154 implants 229 intelligent computers 23, 43 intelligent night vision 162–3 interaction, physical 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 interactive media 97, 105 intergenerational mortgages 140, 144–5 intermediaries 123, 135 internet 3, 10, 11, 17–18, 25, 68, 103, 108, 115–17, 124, 156, 240–41, 261, 270, 283, 289, 305 failure 301 impact on politics 93–4 sensory 56 interruption science 53 iPills 240 Iran 2, 69 Ishiguro, Hiroshi 55 Islamic fanaticism 16 Italy 92, 170, 198–9 iTunes 115, 130; see also Apple Japan 1, 18, 26, 28–9, 54–5, 63, 80–81, 114, 121, 128–9, 132, 140, 144–5, 147, 174, 186, 189, 192, 196, 198, 200, 209–10, 223, 240, 260, 264, 271, 279, 291 jetpacks 60 job security 292 journalism 96, 118 journalism, citizen 103–4, 107 joy-makers 57 FUTURE FILES Kaboodle 207 Kapor, Mitchell 45 Kenya 128 keys 28–9 Kindle 60, 121 Kramer, Peter 284 Kuhn, Thomas 281 Kurzweil, Ray 45 Kuwait 2 labor migration 290–91 labor shortages 3, 80–81, 289–90 Lanier, Jaron 47 laser shopping 212 leisure sickness 238 Let’s Dish 185 Lexus 157 libraries 121 Libya 73 life-caching 24, 107–8 lighting 158, 160 216 limb farms 249 limited editions 216–17 live events 98, 110, 304 localization 10, 15–16, 116, 128, 170, 178, 189, 193, 195, 215, 220, 222–3, 224, 226, 255, 270, 297 location tagging 88 location-based marketing 116 longevity 188–9, 202 Longman, Philip 71 low cost 202, 219–22 luxury 202, 221, 225, 256, 260, 262, 265–6, 272 machinamas 112 machine-to-machine communication 56 marketing 115–16 location-based 116 now 116 prediction 116 Marks & Spencer 210 Maslow, Abraham 305–6 masstigue 223 materialism 37 Mayo Clinic 243 McDonald’s 130, 168, 180, 184 McKinsey 287 Index meaning, search for 16, 259, 282, 290, 305–6 MECU 132 media 96–122 democratization of 104, 108, 115 trends 96–8 medical outsourcing 247–8 medical tourism 2, 229, 247 medicine 188, 228–53; see also healthcare alternative 243–4 gendered 244–5 genomic 231 memory 229, 232, 239–40 memory loss 47 memory pills 231, 240 memory recovery 2, 228–9, 239 memory removal 29–30, 29, 240 Menicon 240 mental health 199 Meow Mix 216 Merriman, Jon 126 metabolomics 56 meta-materials 56 Metro 204–5 Mexico 2 micromedia 101 micro-payments 130, 150 Microsoft 137, 147, 293 Middle East 10, 11, 70, 81, 89, 119, 125, 129, 139, 174–5, 268, 301 migration 3, 11, 69–70, 78, 82, 234, 275, 290–91 boomerang 20 labor 290–91 Migros 215 military recruitment 69 military vehicles 158–9 mind-control toys 38 mindwipes 57 Mitsubishi 198, 279 mobile payments 123, 150 Modafinil 232 molecular biology 231 monetization 118 money 123–52 digital 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 monitoring, remote 154, 168, 228, 242 monolines 135, 137 319 mood sensitivity 41, 49, 154, 158, 164, 187–8 Morgan Stanley 127 mortality bonds 148 Mozilla Corp. 289 M-PESA 129 MTV 103 multigenerational families 20 multiple identities 35, 52 Murdoch, Rupert 109 muscular Christianity 16, 73 music industry 121 My-Food-Phone 242 MySpace 22, 25, 37, 46, 97, 107, 113 N11 nations (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, Vietnam) 2 nanoelectronics 56 nanomedicine 32 nanotechnology 3, 10, 23, 40, 44–5, 50, 157, 183, 232, 243, 286, 298 napcaps 56 narrowcasting 109 NASA 25, 53 nationalism 16, 70, 72–3, 139, 183, 298, 302 natural disasters 301 natural resources 2, 4, 11, 64, 298–9 Nearbynow 223 Nestlé 195 Netherlands 238 NetIntelligence 283 154 networks 28, 166, 288 airborne 56 neural nets 49 neuronic whips 57 neuroscience 33, 48 Neville, Richard 58–9 New Economics Foundation 171 New Zealand 265, 269 newspapers 29, 102–9, 117, 119, 120 Nigeria 2, 73 Nike 23 nimbyism 63 no-frills 224 Nokia 61, 105 Norelift 189 320 Northern Rock 139–40 Norwich Union 167 nostalgia 16, 31–2, 51, 169–70, 179, 183, 199, 203, 225, 303 now marketing 116 nuclear annihilation 10, 91 nuclear energy 74 nutraceuticals 179, 182 Obama, Barack 92–3 obesity 75, 190–92, 199, 250–51 oceanic thermal converters 57 oil 69, 72–3, 93, 151, 174, 176, 272, 273, 301 Oman 2, 270 online relationships 38 organic computers 56 organic food 200, 226 osteoporosis 235 outsourcing 224, 292 Pakistan 2 pandemics 4, 10, 16, 59, 72, 128, 232, 234, 272, 295–7, 301 paper 37 parasite singles 145 passwords 52 pictorial 52 pathogens 233 patient simulators 247 patina 31 patriotism 63, 67, 299 pay-as-you-go cars 167–8 pay-as-you-go insurance 167 payments cellphone 129, 213 contactless 123, 150 micro- 130, 150 mobile 123, 150 pre- 123, 150 PayPal 124, 137 Pearson, Ian 44 performance-improving drugs 284–5 personal restraint 36 personal robots 42 personalization 19, 26, 56, 96–8, 100, 102–3, 106, 108–9, 120, 138, 149, 183, 205–6, 223, 244–5, 262, 267, 269 Peru 73 FUTURE FILES Peters, Tom 280 Pharmaca 244 pharmaceuticals 2, 33, 228, 237 Philippines 2, 212, 290 Philips 114 Philips, Michael 232–3 photographs 108 physical interaction 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 physicalization 96–7, 101–2, 106, 110, 120 pictorial passwords 52 piggy banks 151 Pink, Daniel 285 plagiarism 83 polarization 15–16, 285 politics 37, 63–95, 151–2 regional 63 trends 63–5 pop-up retail 216, 224 pornography 31 portability 178, 183–4 power shift eastwards 2, 10–11, 81, 252 Prada 205–6, 216 precision agriculture 181–2 precision healthcare 234–7 prediction marketing 116 predictions 37, 301–2 premiumization 223 pre-payments 123, 150 privacy 3, 15, 41, 50, 88, 154, 165–7, 205, 236, 249, 285, 295 digital 25, 97, 108 Procter & Gamble 105, 280 product sourcing 224 Prosper 124, 135 protectionism 67, 139, 156, 220, 226, 301 economic 10, 15, 72, 299 provenance 178, 193, 226 proximity indicators 32 PruHealth 149 psychological neoteny 52 public ownership 92 public transport 171 purposeful shopping 212 Qatar 2 quality 96–7, 98, 101, 109 Index quantum mechanics 56 quantum wires 56 quiet materials 56 radiation, EMF 251 radio 117 randominoes 57 ranking 34, 83, 109, 116, 134, 207 Ranking Ranqueen 186 reality mining 51 Really Cool Foods 185 rebalancing 37 recession 139–40, 202, 222 recognition 36, 304 refrigerators 197–8 refuge 121 regeneration 233 regional food 200 regional politics 63 regionality 178, 192–3 regulation 124, 137, 143 REI 207 Reid, Morris 90 relationships, online 38 religion 16, 58 remote diagnosis 228 remote monitoring 154, 168, 228, 242 renting 225 reputation 34–5 resistance to technology 51 resorts, enclosed 273 resource shortages 11, 15, 146, 155, 178, 194, 254, 300 resources, natural 2, 4, 11, 64, 73–4, 143, 298–9 respect 36, 304 restaurants 186–8 retail 20–21, 202–27, 298 pop-up 216, 224 stealth 215 theater 214 trends 202–3 Revkin, Andy 77 RFID 3, 24, 50, 121, 126, 149, 182, 185, 192, 196, 205 rickets 232 risk 15, 124, 134, 138, 141, 149–50, 162, 167, 172, 191, 265, 299–300, 303 Ritalin 232 321 road pricing 166 Robertson, Peter 49 robogoats 55 robot department store 209 Robot Rules 44 robotic assistants 54, 206 concierges 268 financial advisers 131–2 lobsters 55 pest control 57 soldiers 41, 55, 60 surgery 35, 41, 249 robotics 3, 10, 41, 44–5, 60, 238, 275, 285–6, 292, 297 robots 41, 54–5, 131, 237, 249 childcare 57 emotional capacity of 40, 60 industrial 42 personal 42 security 209 therapeutic 41, 54 Russia 2, 69, 72, 75, 80, 89, 92–3, 125, 174, 232, 254, 270, 295, 302 safety 32, 36, 151, 158–9, 172–3, 182, 192, 196 Sainsbury’s 215 Salt 187 sanctuary tourism 273 satellite tracking 166–7 Saudi Arabia 2, 69 Schwartz, Barry 186 science 13, 16, 40–62, 300 interruption 53 trends 40–42 scramble suits 57 scrapbooking 25, 108, 225 Sears Roebuck 137 seasonality 178, 193–4 second-hand goods 224 Second Life 133, 207–8 securitization 124, 140 security 16, 31, 151 security robots 209 self-driving cars 165 self-medication 242 self-publishing 103, 113–14 self-reliance 35, 75 self-repairing roads 57 322 self-replicating machines 23, 44 Selfridges 214 sensor motes 15, 50, 196 sensory internet 56 Sharia-based investment 125 Shop24 209 shopping 202–27 habitual 212 laser 212 malls 211–5 purposeful 212 slow 213 social 207 Shopping 2.0 224 short-wave scalpels 57 silicon photonics 56 simplicity 169–70, 179, 186, 202, 218, 224, 226, 272 Singapore 241 single-person households 19–20, 202–3, 208–9, 221, 244, 298, 304 skills shortage 293, 302 sky shields 57 sleep 159–60, 188, 228, 231, 246–7, 265 sleep debt 96, 266 sleep hotels 266 sleep surrogates 57 slow food 178, 193 slow shopping 213 slow travel 273 smart devices 26–7, 28, 32, 35, 44, 50, 56, 57, 164, 206, 207 smart dust 3, 15, 50, 196 smartisans 20 Smartmart 209 snakebots 55 social networks 97, 107, 110, 120, 133, 217, 261 social shopping 207 society 13, 15–16, 17–37 trends 15–16 Sodexho 193 solar energy 74 Sony 114, 121 South Africa 84, 149, 242 South America 82, 270 South Korea 2, 103, 128–9 space ladders 56 space mirrors 47 space tourism 271, 273 FUTURE FILES space tugs 57 speed 164, 202, 209, 245, 296–7 spirituality 16, 22, 282, 298, 306 spot knowledge 47 spray-on surgical gloves 57 St James’s Ethics Centre 282 stagflation 139 starch-based plastics 64 stealth retail 215 stealth taxation 86 Sterling, Bruce 55 storytelling 203 Strayer, David 161 street signs 162–3 stress 32, 96, 235, 243, 245–6, 258–9, 265, 257–9, 275, 277, 283–5 stress-control clothing 57 stupidity 151, 302 Stylehive 207 Sudan 73 suicide tourism 236 Super Suppers 185 supermarkets 135–6, 184–6, 188, 191–2, 194, 202–3, 212, 215, 218–19, 224, 229 surgery 2, 31 anti-ageing 2, 237 enhancement 249 Surowiecki, James 45 surveillance 35, 41 sustainability 4, 37, 74, 181, 193–5, 203, 281, 288, 298–9 Sweden 84 swine flu 38, 251, 272 Switzerland 168, 210, 215 synthetic biology 56 Taco Bell 184 Tactical Numerical Deterministic Model 49 tagging, location 86, 88 Taiwan 81 talent, war for 275, 279, 293; see also labor shortages Target 216 Tasmania 267 Tata Motors 174, 176 taxation 85–6, 92, 93 carbon 76, 172 conscientious objection 86 Index fat 190 flat 85–6 green 76 indirect 86 stealth 86 Tchibo 217 technology 3, 14–16, 18, 22, 26, 28, 32, 37, 40–62, 74–5, 82–3, 96, 119, 132, 147–8, 154, 157, 160, 162, 165–7, 178, 182, 195–8, 208, 221, 229, 237, 242–3, 249, 256, 261, 265–6, 268, 275–6, 280, 283–4, 292, 296–7, 300 refuseniks 30, 51, 97 trends 40–42 telemedicine 228, 238, 242 telepathy 29 teleportation 56 television 21, 96, 108, 117, 119 terrorism 67, 91, 108, 150, 262–3, 267, 272, 295–6, 301 Tesco 105, 135–6, 185, 206, 215, 219, 223 Thailand 247, 290 therapeutic robots 41, 54 thermal imaging 232 things that won’t change 10, 303–6 third spaces 224 ThisNext 207 thrift 224 Tik Tok Easy Shop 209 time scarcity 30, 96, 102, 178, 184–6, 218, 255 time shifting 96, 110, 116 time stamps 50 timeline, extinction 9 timeline, innovation 8 timelines 7 tired all the time 246 tobacco industry 251 tolerance 120 too much choice (TMC) 29, 202, 218–19 too much information (TMI) 29, 51, 53, 202, 229; see also information overload tourism 254–74 cultural 273 ethical 259 food 273 323 local 273 medical 2, 229, 247 sanctuary 273 space 271, 273 suicide 238 tribal 262 Tourism Concern 259 tourist quotas 254, 271 Toyota 48–9, 157 toys, mind-control 38 traceability 195 trading down 224 transparency 3, 15, 143, 152, 276, 282, 299 transport 15, 154–77, 298 public 155, 161 trends 154–6 transumerism 223 travel 2, 3, 11, 148, 254–74 economy 272 luxury 272 slow 273 trends 254–6 trend maps 6–7 trends 1, 5–7, 10, 13 financial services 123–5 food 178–80 healthcare 228–9 media 96–8 politics 63–5 retail 202–3 science and technology 40–42 society 15–16 transport 154–6 travel 254–6 work 275–7 tribal tourism 262 tribalism 15–16, 63, 127–8, 183, 192, 220, 260 trust 82, 133, 137, 139, 143, 192, 203, 276, 282–3 tunnels 171 Turing test 45 Turing, Alan 44 Turkey 2, 200, 247 Twitter 60, 120 two-way identity verification 132 UAE 2 UFOs 58 324 UK 19–20, 72, 76, 84, 86, 90–91, 100, 102–3, 105, 128–9, 132, 137, 139–42, 147–9, 150, 163, 167–8, 170–71, 175, 185, 195–6, 199, 200, 206, 210, 214–16, 238, 259, 267–8, 278–9, 284, 288 uncertainty 16, 30, 34, 52, 172, 199, 246, 263, 300, 303 unemployment 151 Unilever 195 University of Chicago 245–6 urban rental companies 176 urbanization 11, 18–19, 78, 84, 155, 233 Uruguay 200 US 1, 11, 19–21, 23, 55–6, 63, 67, 69, 72, 75, 77, 80–83, 86, 88–90, 92, 104–5, 106, 121, 129–33, 135, 139–42, 144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 162, 167, 169–71, 174, 185, 190–3, 195, 205–6, 209, 211, 213, 216, 218, 220, 222–3, 237–8, 240–8, 250, 260, 262, 267–8, 275, 279–80, 282–4, 287, 291 user-generated content (UGC) 46, 97, 104, 289 utility 224 values 36, 152 vending machines 209 Venezuela 69, 73 verbal signatures 132 VeriChip 126 video on demand 96 Vietnam 2, 290 Vino 100 113 Virgin Atlantic 261 virtual adultery 33 banks 134 economy 130–31 protests 65 reality 70 sex 32 stores 206–8 vacations 32, 261 worlds 157, 213, 255, 261, 270, 305 Vocation Vacations 259–60 Vodafone 137 voice recognition 41 voice-based internet search 56 voicelifts 2, 237 FUTURE FILES Volkswagen 175 voluntourism 259 Volvo 164 voting 3, 68, 90–91 Walgreens 244 Wal-Mart 105, 136–7, 215, 219–20, 223, 244, 282 war 68–9, 72 war for talent 275, 279; see also labor shortages war forecasting 49 water 69–70, 74, 77–9, 199 wearable computers 55 weather 64 weather insurance 264 Web 2.0 93, 224 Weinberg, Peter 125 wellbeing 2, 183, 188, 199 white flight 20 Wikipedia 46, 60, 104 wild swimming 273 Wilson, Edward O. 74 wind energy 74 wine producers 200 wisdom of idiots 47 Wizard 145 work 275–94 trends 275–94 work/life balance 64, 71, 260, 277, 289, 293 worldphone 19 xenophobia 16, 63 YouTube 46, 103, 107, 112 Zara 216–17 Zipcar 167 Zopa 124, 134


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel,, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

Phil Simon, The Age of the Platform: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Have Redefined Business (Henderson, NV: Motion Publishing, 2011). 8. Feng Zhu and Marco Iansiti, “Entry into Platform-Based Markets,” Strategic Management Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 88–106. 9. Jason Tanz, “How Airbnb and Lyft Finally Got Americans to Trust Each Other,” Wired, April 23, 2014, 10. Arun Sundararajan, “From Zipcar to the Sharing Economy,” Harvard Business Review, January 3, 2013, 11. Dan Charles, “In Search of a Drought Strategy, California Looks Down Under,” The Salt, NPR, August 19, 2015, 12. Simon, The Age of the Platform. 13. Hemant K. Bhargava and Vidyanand Choudhary, “Economics of an Information Intermediary with Aggregation Benefits,” Information Systems Research 15, no. 1 (2004): 22–36. 14.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff


3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

We have gone from buying music on records or CDs to downloading MP3 files to simply subscribing to Pandora or Spotify. Owning music—or a car, for that matter—is becoming less important than having access to it. This is certainly a step on the path from hoarding to sharing. Except the many sharing platforms and services are not sharing at all but renting. We don’t collectively own the vehicles of Zipcar any more than we collectively own Spotify’s catalogue of music. And as private companies induce us to become sharers, we contribute our own cars, creativity, and couches to a sharing economy that is more extractive than it is circulatory. Our investments of time, place, and materials are exploited by those who have invested money and actually own the platforms. Now that we can see it, however, we can also envision the alternative: we join and form businesses that value our real investments of effort, stuff, and community resources.

See income disparity Welch, Jack, 132 welfare state, 99 Whole Foods, 109 Wiener, Norbert, 52 Wikinomics (Tapscott & Williams), 49n Wikipedia, 49, 207, 215, 219 Williams, Anthony D., 49n Williams, Evan, 7–8 Wilson, Fred, 87, 93, 94 Winklevoss twins, 146, 150 Wired,187 Wörgl, 157–58 worker-owned collectives, 219–20 workweek, reduction of, 58–60 WorldCom, 133 Worlds Fairs, 19, 20 Xerox, 98 Yahoo, 32 Yahoo Finance, 182 Young, Neil, 199 zero marginal cost society, 62 Zipcar, 218 Zobele, 107–8 Zuckerberg, Mark, 92–93, 120, 146 Zynga, 192–93 * Most notably Chris Sacca, in public statements. * Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams’s widely read book Wikinomics points to Wikipedia as a new model for mass collaboration and value creation online. They go on to credit Amazon Mechanical Turk with creating valuable new opportunities for the next generation of digital workers


pages: 519 words: 118,095

Your Money: The Missing Manual by J.D. Roth


Airbnb, asset allocation, bank run, buy low sell high, car-free, Community Supported Agriculture, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, Firefox, fixed income, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, index card, index fund, late fees, mortgage tax deduction, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, Paul Graham, random walk, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, speech recognition, traveling salesman, Vanguard fund, web application, Zipcar

Even if you keep your car, just driving less can save you money. And it may seem old-fashioned, but don't forget walking and biking as ways to get around (and burn a few calories). Or check out the public transportation in your area. If those options won't cut it, look into getting a scooter (you can read about one Get Rich Slowly reader's scooter-based lifestyle at Or check out car-sharing organizations like Zipcar ( Note If the idea of a car-free lifestyle intrigues you, pick up a copy of How to Live Well Without Owning a Car (Ten Speed Press, 2006) by Chris Balish. It includes tips for getting to work without a car, as well as some hints on what do with all the money you'll save! Finding Deals on Vacation and Travel As you learned in Chapter 1, experiences are more likely to make you happy than Stuff.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain


3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk,, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Airbnb, a company based in San Francisco, allows people to rent out accommodation for the night; by the end of 2013 ten million people had used its services, many of them in Europe.553 It now has several European rivals: Wimdu and 9flats, both based in Berlin, and London-based onefinestay, which also offers upmarket services. Car-sharing services have mushroomed too. Some are, in effect, more flexible car-rental companies that allow you to hire a vehicle by the hour off the street. The world’s biggest, America’s Zipcar, snapped up European rivals such as Britain’s Streetcar and Spain’s Avancar, before itself being bought by Avis, a traditional car-rental company, in 2013.554 Others allow people to hire out their own car. One is Paris-based Buzzcar, founded by the founder of Zipcar. Tamyca is a German equivalent. (Whipcar, a British one, closed in 2013.) Still others offer taxi-like services, notably Uber, that can call on additional drivers at peak times. In France, La Machine du Voisin even allows people to rent out the use of their washing machine.555 Such peer-to-peer rental schemes make better use of an economy’s assets, provide extra income for their owners and are often cheaper and more convenient for borrowers.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation,, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

An increasing number of young people belong to car-sharing clubs in which they pay a small membership fee and, in return, are provided access to automobiles when they need them. Their membership comes with smart cards giving them access to vehicles scattered in various car parks across cities. Members reserve cars in advance over the Web or with a smartphone app. While some of the operations, like Zipcar and Chicago’s I-Go, are privately owned, many more are operated by nonprofit organizations, like Philly Car Share, City CarShare in San Francisco, and HourCar in Minneapolis. In 2012, 800,000 people in the United States belonged to car-sharing services. Globally, 1.7 million people are car sharing in 27 countries.2 A recent study by Frost and Sullivan Consultants forecasts more than 200 car-sharing operations across the European Union by 2020, with a car-sharing vehicle fleet expected to increase from 21,000 to 240,000 vehicles.

“Couchsurfing: Sharing Your Life,” Couchsurfing, 2013, (accessed June 19, 2013). 38. Cody Kittle, “Adventures in Couch Surfing.” 39. “Couchsurfing: Statistics.” 40. Katherine Boyle, “Why Buy that Dress, Movie, Car or Bike When You Can Rent?” Washington Post, March 4, 2012, _zipcar-rent-ties (accessed June 15, 2013). 41. “History and Background,” The Freecycle Network, ground (accessed June 27, 2013). 42. Sarah Perez, “Kids’ Clothing Consignment Service ThredUP Prepares to Take on Threadflip, Poshmark & More with Move into Women’s Apparel,” TechCrunch, February 20, 2013, -threadflip-poshmark-more-with-move-into-womens-apparel/ (accessed June 18, 2013). 43.


pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard


air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

How can we show our affection, engage our kids, and amuse ourselves without using more and more resources? Rather than our status being signaled by the clothes we wear, the cars we drive, and the size of our homes, can’t status be based upon kindness, experience, and wisdom? Let’s get creative, people! And we can get back to that essential social activity known as sharing. Car-sharing programs such as Zipcar, tool-lending libraries like the one offered by the City of Berkeley, and good old-fashioned borrowing between neighbors are great strategies for less resource intensive ways to meet our needs. This approach has the added benefit of building community and strengthening interpersonal relationships, which psychologists and social scientists have proven to be an important factor in mental health and happiness.

Shell, 33 Women’s Voices for the Earth, 262 Woods, Tiger, 165 Worker health and safety, 47, 49–50, 59, 60, 62, 68, 84–87, 108, 122–124, 134, 160 Working hours, 246–247 World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), 38, 39, 128–132, 137, 140, 216 World Bank Bonds Boycott (WBBB), 39 World Bank Group, 38–39 World Health Organization, 13, 59, 222, 223 World Trade Organization (WTO), 128–129, 132–136, 140, 255 World War II, 128 World Wildlife Fund, 40 Worldwatch Institute, 67, 149 Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, 41 Xylene, 60 Yasuní rainforest, 30–31 Youth Conservation Corps (YCC), 6 Zambia, 130 Zero waste programs, 216, 234–236 Zinc, 59 Zipcar, 43 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Annie Leonard, born in Seattle in 1964, learned to love nature in the forests of the Pacific Northwest. When as a college student in New York City she saw her beloved trees turned to wastepaper and packaging, she followed them to the world’s largest dump, and found her calling. After a stint doing graduate work at Cornell University in upstate New York, she spent nearly two decades tracking international waste trafficking and fighting incineration around the world, first as an employee of Greenpeace International from 1988–1996.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld


barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, Zipcar

One of our goals through the Startup America Partnership is to support regional startup ecosystems throughout the country where entrepreneurs, investors, local leaders, universities, and other partners foster an environment ripe for startup activity. Brad Feld has been a pioneer in developing regional ecosystems, first with TechStars, and more recently as one of the leaders on the Startup Colorado regional initiative. He has taken what he has learned and created this book to help shape the thinking about best practices for developing startup communities. At America Online (AOL), Zipcar, and LivingSocial, I’ve experienced firsthand the significant contribution that a strong entrepreneurial ecosystem has to a business. While Silicon Valley is the iconic example, we are seeing success and potential in other places as well, like Washington, D.C.; Chicago; Denver; Boston; Seattle; Portland; Austin; Raleigh; and Nashville. But the startup revolution isn’t limited to these cities—any locality in the United States can build a vibrant startup community if it strategically brings together the key partners who support growth.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Shift 17: The Sharing Economy The tipping point: Globally more trips/journeys via car sharing than in private cars By 2025: 67% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred The common understanding of this phenomenon is the usually technology-enabled ability for entities (individuals or organizations) to share the use of a physical good/asset, or share/provide a service, at a level that was not nearly as efficient or perhaps even possible before. This sharing of goods or services is commonly possible through online marketplaces, mobile apps/location services or other technology-enabled platforms. These have reduced the transaction costs and friction in the system to a point where it is an economic gain for all involved, divided in much finer increments. Well-known examples of the sharing economy exist in the transportation sector. Zipcar provides one method for people to share use of a vehicle for shorter periods of time and more reasonably than traditional rental car companies. RelayRides provides a platform to locate and borrow someone’s personal vehicle for a period of time. Uber and Lyft provide much more efficient “taxi-like” services from individuals, but aggregated through a service, enabled by location services and accessed through mobile apps.


pages: 212 words: 70,224

How to Retire the Cheapskate Way by Jeff Yeager


asset allocation, car-free, employer provided health coverage, estate planning, financial independence, fixed income, pez dispenser, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Zipcar

Just take the price you paid for your car and divide it by the total number of miles you expect to drive it during the time you own it (sure, factor in any finance charges and possible resale value if you want to get fancy), to get a cost-per-mile that you can compare to the cost of renting a car for a specific trip. Often in the case of cars purchased new, this works out to twenty cents or more per mile. With rental car rates increasingly competitive—usually including unlimited free miles—on trips when you’ll be driving more than a couple of hundred miles per day, it usually pays to rent. In urban areas, check out car-sharing programs like Zipcar ( for potentially even greater savings. And, remember, the insurance you carry on your own car frequently covers you for rental vehicles, too, so no need to pay extra for the coverage offered by the rental company (check with your insurance agent just to be sure). You might need a Cheapskate Intervention if you complain about the high cost of gas while waiting in line in your SUV to go through the drive-thru at McDonald’s.


pages: 264 words: 79,589

Kingpin: How One Hacker Took Over the Billion-Dollar Cybercrime Underground by Kevin Poulsen


Apple II, Brian Krebs, Burning Man, corporate governance, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, index card, McMansion, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, packet switching, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, traffic fines, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zipcar

On June 7, he picked up the keys at the Oakwood Geary, another corporate apartment building carved out of gleaming marble in the Tenderloin. He was “Daniel Chance” now, just another displaced software drone relocating to the Bay Area. The real Chance was fifty years old and bearded, while Max was clean shaven with long hair—but the fake driver’s license and genuine money order were enough to get him in. The next evening, Max checked out a red Mustang from his neighborhood Zipcar and packed it with his computer gear. For all his paranoia, he didn’t notice the Secret Service agents tailing him on the drive to the Oakwood and watching from the street as he moved into his new safe house. A month later, Max jolted awake, shot upright in bed, and blinked into the darkness of the flat. It was just Charity; she had crawled into bed next to him, trying in vain not to wake him.


pages: 189 words: 64,571

The Cheapskate Next Door: The Surprising Secrets of Americans Living Happily Below Their Means by Jeff Yeager


asset allocation, carbon footprint, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, index card, job satisfaction, late fees, mortgage debt, new economy, payday loans, Skype, upwardly mobile, Zipcar

Since I fill up about once a week, I squirreled away more than $1,200 over the first twelve months after gas prices dropped below $4 a gallon. CHEAP SHOT WHY OWN A WHOLE CAR? I have a terrific idea for a new invention: a car with a detachable derriere. I’m thinking a giant zipper, right behind the driver’s seat. Why tote along an empty backseat and trunk on trips when you don’t need them? Unzip the butt end and leave it parked at home. Until the automotive industry jumps on my idea for zippered cars, Zipcars ( are the next best thing, particularly if you’re an urbanite or live near a college campus. Car-share members pay a nominal annual fee for 24/7 access to a fleet of vehicles parked in lots scattered across their city. Make a reservation by phone or online (last-minute is fine) and use an electronic keycard to access the car. You pay an hourly fee and a per-mile rate, but gas, insurance, maintenance, parking, registration, and taxes—and all the hassles of car ownership—are the company’s responsibility.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele


3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart,, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

More than $2 billion worth of goods and services have been exchanged, without money, on Freecycle has 5.7 million members across 85 countries. (Once, while working on a political campaign and short on cash, I furnished an entire apartment complete with refrigerator and washing machine from Freecycle.) By 2015, more than 10 million people in the United States and Europe will belong to a car-sharing service like Zipcar.41 AirBnB, one of several Web sites that allow people to share their empty guest bedrooms with strangers, now lists more available rooms in New York City than the largest hotel in town. Our economy and our civilization are at a critical juncture. As Bill McKibben related in Rolling Stone magazine: “June [2012] broke or tied 3,215 high-temperature records across the United States. That followed the warmest May on record for the Northern Hemisphere—the 327th consecutive month in which the temperature of the entire globe exceeded the 20th-century average, the odds of which occurring by simple chance were 3.7 × 10-99, a number considerably larger than the number of stars in the universe.”42 We have a moral imperative to move away from oil, and radical connectivity can unlock a range of opportunity in the small—from sharing to more vibrant local economies.


pages: 374 words: 89,725

A More Beautiful Question: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas by Warren Berger


3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, fear of failure, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The idea that would eventually become Airbnb was challenging a basic assumption: that you needed established, reputable hotels to provide accommodation for out-of-town visitors. Those paying close attention might have noticed that just a few years prior to this, lots of people held similar assumptions about cars—you could buy them, you could rent them, but there was no practical way to share them. Then an entrepreneur named Robin Chase asked, Why not?—and subsequently introduced Zipcar. Gebbia told me that part of the reason he and Chesky believed this was a problem worth solving—the reason, he suspects, that they saw what others missed—was that they had been on both sides of the problem. “We knew what it was like to come to town needing a place to stay, and we knew what it was like to have extra space that we needed to rent,” Gebbia said. “So we connected those two dots. In retrospect it makes complete sense—but at the time, no one else had connected those dots.”


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal


A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, complexity theory,, factory automation, Googley, index card, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

In suburban and sparsely-populated rural areas, a car provides you with unlimited mobility and choice. But in a densely populated urban environment, a car quickly becomes more trouble than it’s worth. A permanent parking space in New York costs more than a house in many other areas. Density creates demand for more services, like taxis, limousine services, buses, and subways. It also creates opportunities for new services. For example, Zipcar is a car-sharing service that gives customers shared access to a pool of cars located throughout their city. RelayRide and Whipcar are peer-to-peer services that allow car owners to rent their cars to neighbors by the hour or by the day. Uber connects a network of professional limo drivers with city dwellers, who can order a car by SMS or mobile phone app; orders are routed to the nearest available driver, payments are automated, and driver tips are included, creating a simple, easy, seamless customer experience.


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon


8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

You have major businesses, like Netflix, for example, that didn’t exist a few years ago. Now it’s so big. So new business models shift in value. You know, innovation can come from anywhere, ’cause it’s a digital super-interconnected world. Yourdon: Right. That’s an area that I’ve been trying to explore and I’ve had great trouble doing, but I’ll give you an example: I was hoping to be able to talk to the CIO of, let’s say, Avis or Hertz on one side and Zipcar on the other side—’cause there’s an example where technology has facilitated an entirely different business model. Do you see that kind of disruption taking place in the telecommunications industry? Gurnani: Well, it has and I think we’ve already gone through a couple of waves of disruption. Mobile is huge, and you look at how the ecosystem continues to evolve and change. Like Apple was not in the mobile business until four years ago.


pages: 538 words: 121,670

Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress--And a Plan to Stop It by Lawrence Lessig


asset-backed security, banking crisis, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Edward Glaeser, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Martin Wolf, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, place-making, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Vaccaro 0 9,200 9,200 Federal Realty Investment Trust 0 8,900 8,900 Cetrulo & Capone 0 8,900 8,900 Dimeo Construction 0 8,700 8,700 Airline Pilots’ Assn. 9,500 0 9,500 American Hospital Assn. 7,500 1,000 8,500 Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance 10,000 0 10,000 Palmetto Group 0< Bsiz p/td> 8,000 8,000 O’Neill, Athy & Casey 0 10,750 10,750 Robinson & Cole 1,500 6,150 7,650 Amalgamated Transit Union 7,500 0 7,500 Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 7,500 0 7,500 Amgen Inc. 5,000 2,500 7,500 American College of Emergency Physicians 7,500 0 7,500 American College of Surgeons 7,500 0 7,500 Carpenters & Joiners Union 7,500 0 7,500 Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. 0 7,400 7,400 Alternate Concepts Inc. 0 7,400 7,400 Edwards, Angell et al. 2,400 4,900 7,300 Scansoft Inc. 0 7,200 7,200 Commonwealth of Massachusetts 0 7,060 7,060 International Assn. of Fire Fighters 7,000 0 7,000 Global Companies 0 7,000 7,000 National Air Traffic Controllers’ Assn. 7,000 0 7,000 Sheet Metal Workers’ Union 12,000 0 12,000 Textron Inc. 7,000 0 7,000 Beal Co. 0 5,800 5,800 Manulife Financial 6,50 Bign=" p0 250 6,750 Ads Ventures 0 6,650 6,650 Partners Healthcare 0 15,400 15,400 Rasky/Baerlein Group 0 6,550 6,550 Haleakala National Bank 0 6,100 6,100 Endo Pharmaceuticals 6,000 0 6,000 Metlife Inc. 6,000 0 6,000 RMD 0 6,000 6,000 Roche Holdings 6,000 0 6,000 National Assn. of Home Builders 6,000 0 6,000 Nat’l Assn./Insurance & Financial Advisors 6,000 0 6,000 Marty Meehan for Congress Cmte. 6,000 0 6,000 Boeing Co. 6,000 0 6,000 Zipcar Inc. 0 5,800 5,800 BBH & Co. 0 5,800 5,800 Goodwin Procter LLP 0 5,900 5,900 Comcast Corp. 1,000 5,000 6,000 Century Bank 0 5,300 5,300 Trinity Financial 0 5,300 5,300 CWC Builders 0 5,300 5,300 New England Development 0 5,300 5,3 Bnt> Winn Development 0 5,300 5,300 Boston University 0 5,900 5,900 AECOM Technology Corp. 1,000 4,200 5,200 Kearney, Donovan & McGee 0 5,150 5,150 Credit Union National Assn. 5,000 0 5,000 Bart’s Bridge PAC 5,000 0 5,000 American Optometric Assn. 5,000 0 5,000 KPMG LLP 5,000 0 5,000 American College of Cardiology 5,000 0 5,000 American Assn. of Orthopaedic Surgeons 5,000 0 5,000 Bs-ser p BRIDGE PAC 5,000 0 5,000 National Rural Letter Carriers’ Assn. 5,000 0 5,000 Ocean State PAC 5,000 0 5,000 Maloney Properties 0 5,000 5,000 Marine Engineers Beneficial Assn. 5,000 0 5,000 American Academy of Ophthalmology 5,000 0 5,000 American Council of Life Insurers 3,000 2,000 5,000 Biogen Idec 5,000 0 5,000 Seafarers International Union 5,000 0 5,000 Teamsters’ Union 5,000 550 5,500 Bs-ser p American Federation of Teachers 5,000 0 5,000 Penguin PAC 5,000 0 5,000 Operating Engineers’ Union 10,000 0 10,000 Silk PAC 5,000 0 5,000 Ironworkers’ Union 5,000 0 5,000 Laborers’ Union 5,000 0 5,000 USA Farm Worker PAC 5,000 0 5,000 National Assn. of Letter Carriers 5,000 0 5,000 National Beer Wholesalers’ Assn. 5,000 0 5,000 Donoghue, Barrett & Singal 0 5,000 5,000 Synergy PAC 5,000 0 5,000 United Parcel Service 5,000 0 5,000 What does this list say?


pages: 288 words: 16,556

Finance and the Good Society by Robert J. Shiller


bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, income inequality, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market design, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, profit maximization, quantitative easing, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, young professional, Zipcar

For example, he predicted that some of us will record our entire lives, running video recorders all the time and storing our entire video biographies for future viewing. That idea made for thought-provoking reading, but it hasn’t yet become a reality. What Gates did not predict were numerous other fundamental developments, including the web sites eBay (founded in 1995, the very year his book appeared), Wikipedia,,,,, and a million others that have changed the way we live our lives. He shouldn’t be faulted for failing to predict these—no one could have. Instead we should consider the process through which such innovations happen, and why they happen more in certain environments than in others. That is the real subject of finance. Bill Gates was not presenting a vision of the future of capitalism or of the good society; he was captivated by the engineering details.


pages: 505 words: 127,542

If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan


Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice,, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, Zipcar

Unlike the yardsticks for superiority—like wealth, fame, or power—flow isn’t finite or scarce. That is, one person’s flow doesn’t have to come at the cost of another’s. By contrast, because extrinsic rewards are limited, an increase in one person’s wealth, power, or fame has to come at the cost of another’s.* What Disrupts Flow Think of any invention—from airplanes and computers to Scotch tape and Zipcars—and you can bet that flow was involved in all of them. And yet, many of us are unaware of this fact. Instead, we believe that our achievements are due to our drive to be successful or superior. That is, we tend to attribute our achievements to the desire for worldly success when, in fact, flow is the real hero. The irony is that, far from improving our chances of achieving success, the desire for worldly success often lowers it.