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Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
In this new computational arms race, poor communities will be at the mercy of those who can measure and control them from a distance. Even if there is peace and equality, the smart city may come crashing down under its own weight because it is already buggy, brittle, and bugged, and will only become more so. Smart cities are almost guaranteed to be chock full of bugs, from smart toilets and faucets that won’t operate to public screens sporting Microsoft’s ominous Blue Screen of Death. But even when their code is clean, the innards of smart cities will be so complex that so-called normal accidents will be inevitable. The only questions will be when smart cities fail, and how much damage they cause when they crash. Layered atop the fragile power grid, already prone to overload during crises and open to sabotage, the communications networks that patch the smart city together are as brittle an infrastructure as we’ve ever had.
Miller, “Infrastructure 2011: A Strategic Priority,” Urban Land Institute and Ernst & Young, 2011, http://www.uli.org/ResearchAndPublications/%7E/media/Documents/ ResearchAndPublications/Reports/Infrastructure/Infrastructure2011.ashx. 29Ian Marlow, lecture, “X-Cities 4: Cities-as-Service,” Columbia University Studio-X, New York, April 19, 2012. 30“Global Investment in Smart City Technology Infrastructure,” Pike Research. 31“Smart City Technologies Will Grow Fivefold to Exceed $39 Billion in 2016,” ABI Research, last modified July 6, 2011, http://www.abiresearch.com/press/3715-Smart+City+Technologies+Will+Grow+Fivefold+to+Exceed+$39+Billion+in+2016. 32Colin Harrison, remarks, Ideas Economy: Intelligent Infrastructure, The Economist, New York City, February 16, 2011. 33“Smart Cities: Transforming the 21st century city via the creative use of technology,” ARUP, last modified September 1, 2010, http://www.arup.com/Publications/Smart_Cities.aspx. 34Stephen Graham, “The end of geography or the explosion of place? Conceptualizing space, place and information technology,” Progress in Human Geography 22, no. 2 (1998): 165–85. 35“International Energy Outlook 2011,” DOE/EIA-0484(2011), U.S.
I think the more important and interesting question is, “what do you want a smart city to be?” We need to focus on how we shape the technology we employ in future cities. There are many different visions of what the opportunity is. Ask an IBM engineer and he will tell you about the potential for efficiency and optimization. Ask an app developer and she will paint a vision of novel social interactions and experiences in public places. Ask a mayor and it’s all about participation and democracy. In truth, smart cities should strive for all of these things. There are trade-offs between these competing goals for smart cities. The urgent challenge is weaving together solutions that integrate these aims and mitigate conflicts. Smart cities need to be efficient but also preserve opportunities for spontaneity, serendipity, and sociability.
Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs
The latest incarnation of such an ICT-led vision of urban development is the notion of smart cities, which conceives of places being increasingly composed of and monitored by pervasive and ubiquitous computing and whose economy and governance is driven by innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, enacted by smart people. The smart city is densely instrumented and can be understood and regulated in real-time; it produces, shares, integrates, consumes and acts on big data (Kitchin 2014). Such big data provide a fine-grained, dynamic, cohesive understanding of cities and the inputs for systems that will create more liveable, secure, functional, competitive and sustainable places (Hancke et al. 2013; Townsend 2013). Such a smart city vision is being heavily promoted by a number of the world’s largest software services and hardware companies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, Microsoft, Intel, Siemens, Oracle, SAP) and being enthusiastically adopted by municipal, national and supranational institutions who foresee smart city technologies producing socio-economic progress and renewing urban centres as hubs of innovation and work (Kourtit et al. 2012).
Tolle (eds), The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, pp. xvii–xxxi. Hilbert, M. and López, P. (2011) ‘The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information’, Science, 10(331): 703–05. Hill, D. (2013) ‘On the smart city: or, a “manifesto” for smart citizens instead’, City of Sound, 1 February, http://www.cityofsound.com/blog/2013/02/on-the-smart-city-a-call-for-smart-citizensinstead.html (last accessed 5 February 2013). Hollands, R.G. (2008) ‘Will the real smart city please stand up?’, City, 12(3): 303–20. Hon, W.K., Millard, C. and Walden, I. (2011) The Problem of ‘Personal Data’ in Cloud Computing – What Information is Regulated?, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 75/2011, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?
Such a smart city vision is being heavily promoted by a number of the world’s largest software services and hardware companies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, Microsoft, Intel, Siemens, Oracle, SAP) and being enthusiastically adopted by municipal, national and supranational institutions who foresee smart city technologies producing socio-economic progress and renewing urban centres as hubs of innovation and work (Kourtit et al. 2012). Whilst some smart city projects are being built from the ground up (e.g., Songdo or Masdar City), most are piecemeal and consist of retrofitting existing infrastructure with digital technology and data solutions. The key function of big data in both cases is to provide real-time analytics to manage how aspects of the city function and are regulated. Such real-time surveillance and data analytics have been employed for a number of years in some sectors. For example, many cities have implemented intelligent transport systems, where data concerning the movement of traffic around a system, generated by a network of cameras and transponders, are fed back to a central control hub and are used to monitor and regulate flow, adjusting traffic light sequences and speed limits and automatically administering penalties for traffic violations (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a).
Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
If it’s really true that the use of a simple GPS system for wayfinding might cause changes in the organization of our brains, impoverishing neural systems through lack of use, then what effects would more comprehensive systems envisioned by smart city planners bring about? It’s hard not to imagine that a feeling of helpless dependence and infantilization might be one of them. Just as worrisome to me is the possibility that one-size-fits-all formulas imposed on cities from on high and designed for the generic human being might actually become self-fulfilling. Cushioned by a system of feedback loops that “protects” us from ourselves, it seems entirely possible—likely, in fact—that residents of a smart city, as envisioned by the current generation of smart city technology providers, might regress toward the mean. Though there will always be mavericks and dissidents who will struggle against the status quo and hack their environments to assert their own individuality, the corporate smart city will throw some prodigious new barriers in their way.
What could be more appealing than the idea that we could wire everything together, attach it to a gleaming mission control headquarters filled with gargantuan computing devices that can comprehend and orchestrate all of the city’s business, leaving us free to bask in the care of a city that works automatically and in the best possible way? Nobody has done a better job of outlining the risks of smart city developments as they are currently envisioned than director of New York’s design practice Urbanscale, Adam Greenfield. In his pamphlet Against the Smart City, Greenfield pores through the public relations material offered by the big players in the smart city market—Siemens, Microsoft, and Cisco—to try to deconstruct what these techno-giants might envision for our near future.14 In his incisive analysis, he points out first that the schemes offered by these companies, at least according to the vision that they are trying to sell to the public and to the administrators of cities, appear to consist of one-size-fits-all system software designed to harness the collective power of the Internet of Things to optimize the function of a city using a set of all-encompassing algorithms.
Rather than concerning themselves with the wiring together of a few household appliances to make our morning routines easier, massive corporations like Siemens and Microsoft are pushing hard to develop comprehensive systems that can do for an entire city what a Nest thermostat, which learns to turn down the heat when you leave your house and can talk to you via your phone, does for an individual abode. Indeed, entire cities such as Songdo City in Korea or Masdar in the United Arab Emirates, are beginning to spring from the ground complete with so-called smart city infrastructure. The utopian vision of the smart city is one in which the entire place is networked together to realize every possible efficiency. There is no traffic congestion, there are instant automated responses to emergencies, adaptive HVAC systems manage energy balances in the most efficient way possible, and other systems designed all the way down to the minute details of the lives of individual residents are there to take care of us.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
When ride-matching services like Uber and Lyft treat city streets as a free good, they’re just repeating the same conceptual mistake that the original champions of motordom did during the 1920s—the argument that, while streetcars and trains were responsible for maintenance of “their” right-of-way, streets were free for everyone. Smart cities shouldn’t insist on stupid regulation. But that doesn’t mean they can do without regulation at all. On Alice’s second trip through the looking glass, she meets Humpty Dumpty, who tells her that the word glory means the same thing as “a nice knock-down argument.” When she objects, he tells her, “When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.” Smart city is like that. Ever since the term smart cities started appearing in the early 2000s, it’s been used in a dozen different senses, from describing the sort of place that attracts creative industries like publishing, design, R&D, and advertisingg to one that is able to adapt to changing circumstances, to one that offers a more sustainable quality of life.
This phenomenon illustrates, as well as anything I know, what the Street Smart program is all about. Until very recently, nearly everyone made travel decisions—Shall we walk or ride? Depart this morning or this afternoon?—using a very limited number of tools that were mostly just a combination of habit and guesswork. In many parts of the world, that’s still the case. In smart cities, though, these limits don’t exist anymore. In them, giant oceans of information about schedules, prices, and routes are easily navigated by just about everyone. It’s not that smart cities are filled with nothing but smart people (though it may be that they’re the first to realize the advantages of living in them). It’s that you don’t have to be a genius to get the most out of smart buses, smart streetcars, smart sidewalks, and, of course, smart streets. In August of 2014, I used the car service known as Uber for the first time.
Like the old-fashioned grid, a modern smart grid can shunt power to different portions of the network automatically, but it can also manage consumption. There are dozens of analogies for this kind of data collection and management in a smart city’s transportation grid. The four-thousand-plus sensors that Zurich Public Transport uses to manage automobile and streetcar traffic are one of them. Like an electrical utility adjusting the cycle of an industrial air conditioner because the system is operating at peak demand, Zurich allows only as many cars into its center city as can be accommodated without congestion. Just as important, though, for a smart city’s transportation system is the ever-growing network of hundreds of millions of GPS-enabled smartphones. Those mobile devices aren’t just providing travelers with maps, turn-by-turn directions, and the occasional restaurant review.
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
If this imperative holds at the scale of domestic objects and the smart home, it becomes more urgent still when the same set of techniques and practices is applied to the management of urban experience. At this largest scale, the internet of things appears to us as a body of rhetoric around the performance and behavior of the so-called “smart city.” This is a place where the instrumentation of the urban fabric, and of all the people moving through the city, is driven by the desire to achieve a more efficient use of space, energy and other resources. If the ambition beneath the instrumentation of the body is a nominal self-mastery, and that of the home convenience, the ambition at the heart of the smart city is nothing other than control. Most of us are by now at least distantly aware that our phones, smart or otherwise, are constantly harvesting information about our whereabouts and activities. But we tend to be relatively ignorant of the degree to which the contemporary streetscape itself has also been enabled to collect information.
The most prominent advocates of this approach appear to believe that the contingency of data capture is not an issue, nor is any particular act of interpretation involved in making use of whatever data is retrieved from the world in this way. When discussing their own smart-city venture, senior IBM executives argue,37 in so many words, that “the data is the data”: transcendent, limpid and uncompromised by human frailty. This mystification of “the data” goes unremarked upon and unchallenged in the overwhelming majority of discussions of the smart city. But surely these intelligent and experienced professionals know better. Different values for air pollution in a given location can be produced by varying the height at which a sensor is mounted by a few meters. Perceptions of risk in a neighborhood can be transformed by slightly altering the taxonomy used to classify reported crimes.38 And anyone who’s ever worked in opinion polling knows how sensitive the results are to the precise wording of a survey.
Examples like this counsel us to be wary of claims that any autonomous system will ever be entrusted with the regulation and control of civic resources—just as we ought to be wary of claims that the application of some single master algorithm could result in an Pareto-efficient distribution of resources, or that the complex urban ecology might be sufficiently characterized in data to permit the effective operation of such an algorithm in the first place. As matters now stand, the claim of perfect competence that is implicit in most smart-city rhetoric is incommensurate with everything we know about the way technical systems work. But it also flies in the face of everything we know about how cities work. The architects of the smart city have utterly failed to reckon with the reality of power, and the perennial ability of various elites to suppress policy directions they find uncongenial to—that word again—their interests. At best, the technocratic notion that the analysis of sensor-derived data would ever be permitted to drive resource-allocation decisions and other acts of municipal policy is naive.
The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott
3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, women in the workforce, young professional
In London, the one-million-square-foot Google Campus in King’s Cross is a short walk from Central St Martin’s and will grow to at least 4,500 people. The impact on job creation of smart cities with their highly skilled workers can be significant. In fact, according to Enrico Moretti5 of Berkeley, every one smart job creates five others. Some of these other jobs are highly skilled too, such as lawyers, accountants or consultants. Others are low-paid, such as gardeners, artisanal manufacturers, baristas or yoga teachers. At this rate, smart cities will become a better place to generate employment than the old manufacturing hubs. This growing importance of smart cities is also driven by social phenomena. The last few decades have seen a striking increase in what sociologists call assortative mating. In other words, marriage partners are more alike now in terms of education and income than they were in the past.
The rise of the factory and then the office inevitably led to a more formal separation of work and leisure. As we look forward we see more opportunities for the emerging ecosystems of work to erode this separation and enable work and life to be reintegrated. Flexible, smart cities will rise It is not just who you work for that will change, but also where you work. We are currently witnessing the most extraordinary migration that humanity has ever experienced. This is the migration from the countryside to the city. In 2010, 3.6 billion of the world population lived in cities. By 2050 the number is projected to be 6.3 billion – equivalent to the movement of 1.4 million people every week. Living in a city – and especially a smart city – is growing in importance and seems likely to continue. Why are people moving to cities in such numbers? After all, the great promise of the internet was that distance would become unimportant, freeing people to live wherever they desired.
Part of the story of migration to the cities is that in the emerging markets of the world, people move from the rural sector and agriculture into the cities and industry. However, this is not the only story of migration. In advanced economies, people are also moving to the cities and this reflects the growing importance of proximity on ideas and high-level skills. So while some industrial cities such as Detroit have suffered from decline, other ‘smart cities’ like San Francisco, Seattle and Boston have flourished and their population has risen. These smart cities are becoming a nexus of people who have ideas and high-level skills and who want to be close to other highly skilled people. They know that innovation is occurring at a faster pace, and they want to be close to other smart people to push and challenge one another. These clusters initially formed from groups graduating from universities and specialist colleges.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Source: “Rosie or Jarvis: The future of the smart home is still in the air”, Richard Nieva, 14 January 2015, http://www.cnet.com/news/rosie-or-jarvis-the-future-of-the-smart-home-is-still-in-the-air/ Shift 10: Smart Cities Tipping point: The first city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and no traffic lights By 2025: 64% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred Many cities will connect services, utilities and roads to the internet. These smart cities will manage their energy, material flows, logistics and traffic. Progressive cities, such as Singapore and Barcelona, are already implementing many new data-driven services, including intelligent parking solutions, smart trash collection and intelligent lighting. Smart cities are continuously extending their network of sensor technology and working on their data platforms, which will be the core for connecting the different technology projects and adding future services based on data analytics and predictive modelling.
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Collaborative_Innovation_report_2015.pdf 45 World Economic Forum, Global Information Technology Report 2015: ICTs for Inclusive Growth, Soumitra Dutta, Thierry Geiger and Bruno Lanvin, eds., 2015. 46 World Economic Forum, Data-Driven Development: Pathways for Progress, January 2015 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEFUSA_DataDrivenDevelopment_Report2015.pdf 47 Tom Saunders and Peter Baeck, “Rethinking Smart Cities From The Ground Up”, Nesta, June 2015. https://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/rethinking_smart_cities_from_the_ground_up_2015.pdf 48 Carolina Moreno, “Medellin, Colombia Named ‘Innovative City Of The Year’ In WSJ And Citi Global Competition”, Huffington Post, 2 March 2013 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/02/medellin-named-innovative-city-of-the-year_n_2794425.html 49 World Economic Forum, Top Ten Urban Innovations, Global Agenda Council on the Future of Cities, World Economic Forum, October 2015.
Impact 3.1 Economy 3.1.1 Growth 3.1.2 Employment 3.1.3 The Nature of Work 3.2 Business 3.2.1 Consumer Expectations 3.2.2 Data-Enhanced Products 3.2.3 Collaborative Innovation 3.2.4 New Operating Models 3.3 National and Global 3.3.1 Governments 3.3.2 Countries, Regions and Cities 3.3.3 International Security 3.4 Society 3.4.1 Inequality and the Middle Class 3.4.2 Community 3.5 The Individual 3.5.1 Identity, Morality and Ethics 3.5.2 Human Connection 3.5.3 Managing Public and Private Information The Way Forward Acknowledgements Appendix: Deep Shift 1. Implantable Technologies 2. Our Digital Presence 3. Vision as the New Interface 4. Wearable Internet 5. Ubiquitous Computing 6. A Supercomputer in Your Pocket 7. Storage for All 8. The Internet of and for Things 9. The Connected Home 10. Smart Cities 11. Big Data for Decisions 12. Driverless Cars 13. Artificial Intelligence and Decision-Making 14. AI and White-Collar Jobs 15. Robotics and Services 16. Bitcoin and the Blockchain 17. The Sharing Economy 18. Governments and the Blockchain 19. 3D Printing and Manufacturing 20. 3D Printing and Human Health 21. 3D Printing and Consumer Products 22. Designer Beings 23. Neurotechnologies Notes Introduction Of the many diverse and fascinating challenges we face today, the most intense and important is how to understand and shape the new technology revolution, which entails nothing less than a transformation of humankind.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Thus, when traveling in the territory of Ersilia, you come upon the ruins of abandoned cities, without the walls which do not last, without the bones of the dead which the wind rolls away: spiderwebs of intricate relationships seeking a form. —Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities2 It is not the line that is between two points, but the point that is the intersection of many lines. —Gilles Deleuze, Pourparlers3 Whenever I hear the term smart cities, I reflexively think of Jacques Tati's satires on the follies of automated modern architecture. However dark the humor, for master-controlled megacities and stale visions of bland efficiency, mega-hijinks are sure to follow. The poverty of off-the-shelf smart city strategies is all the more distressing given how important the intelligent composition of computational systems at urban scale actually is, especially for new platform sovereignties. Instead, however, if we view these supposedly futuristic digital technologies in relation to more primordial relationships with territory, we may conclude that our meandering, rootless itinerancy through the surpriseless pathways of junkspace, gripping our mobile Cloud platform tethers (aka “phones” and tablets and so on) scanning, sorting, poking, and choosing as we go, is a far less modern way of being urban than we assume.4 Humans, as a species, have physically evolved very little in the last hundred thousand years, and barely at all since the appearance of writing.
We imagine Cedric Price's Fun Palace (1961) turned inside out by North Korean stadium pageants where the audience itself is the media content, but instead of free to play, each actor is instead rendered into disciplined pixel within a larger choreography of the spectacular image. We could mark an ancestral trace from Yona Friedman's La Ville Spatiale to the new Asian smart cities such as New Songdo City (“a ubiquitous city,” says its brochure) in South Korea's Incheon development, or see Paolo Soleri's Arcology as a first pass at Masdar, the massive “green” smart city in Abu Dhabi. (Both Songdo and Masdar were built with Cisco and IBM as key partners.) Is Situationist cut-and-paste psychogeography reborn or smashed to bits by Minecraft? What binds the hyperlibertarian secessionism of the Seasteading Institute, which would move whole populations offshore to live on massive ships floating from port to port unmolested by regulation and undesired publics (Facebook funder Peter Thiel is a key funder) with Archigram's Walking City project from 1967, which plotted for Star Wars Land Walker–like city machines to get up and amble away to greener pastures as needed?
As such, software may need theory at least as much as theory needs software. As for the geopolitics of computation, we can point to another shift, around 2008 or so. Before this break, the growth of planetary-scale computing systems was seen more generally as a beneficent blossoming. The old order would be swept away and a new day illuminated with the power of networks, iStuff, Twitter revolutions, “Internet freedom,” and smart cities. After this break, however, the sky darkened, and now the Cloud portends instead state surveillance, tax evasion, structural unemployment, troll culture, and flash crashes. Reality, however, is actually more radical in both directions. The thesis of this book holds that the official utopia and the official dystopia are not particularly useful frames of reference, and that neither provide a robust and intelligent program for art, design, economics, or engineering.
City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar
Cities now examine data (or, more accurately, a computer-aided interpretation of it) to anticipate spikes in electricity demand or to synchronize streetlights to prevent traffic snarls. In the urban context, information feedback loops are making it easier for us to optimize the ways our cities work. The so-called smart city we all keep hearing about is being built on a fundamental premise: With enough data and powerful analytical tools, we can make our cities better. Smartphones put this process into overdrive; they’re already collecting and sharing the sort of information that will underpin the future smart city. We can get directions, learn transit times, or find parking thanks to our Internet-equipped mobile phones. As smartphones advance technologically, their owners will become — knowingly or not — integral nodes in this vast and dynamic network. Indeed, the citizen sensor is already reality.
Through visuals in the dashboard and physical cues like seat vibrators, the test cars are able to notify their drivers when they’re veering out of a lane too close to other cars or driving too fast toward stopped cars ahead. The goal of the test is to determine how well this technology can increase road safety, eventually paving the way for a requirement that all automakers install this type of car-to-car communication capability. For now, the sensors of choice for the smart city are our smartphones. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Senseable City Lab have been exploring the potential of various mobile devices for nearly a decade. Through several research projects, the lab has investigated ways to use sensors in the urban environment for understanding the dynamics and patterns of mobility and economics. One effort tapped into anonymized cell phone data to map the movement of people throughout Rome on a given night.
The call to action is always the same: “Better planning, better management!” That call, though, rests on an unquestioned assumption about cities. In this modern age, we think of cities as large institutions or machines. We talk about their failures as failures of management, coordination, governance. We think we could have “better” cities if we could only tune the machine to make it more “efficient.” The machine model is implicit in the popular language around “smart cities.” The promise is that shiny, smart boxes will figure out how to make our cities tick by smoothing traffic flow, monitoring crime, and allocating power through smart grids. Cities will be run by supersized versions of 2001: A Space Odyssey’s HAL crunching continuous streams of big data. As Donald Fagen of Steely Dan sang, “A just machine to make big decisions / Programmed by fellows with compassion and vision.”
1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto
In other circumstances, this data is being ‘opened up’ on the basis that it is a public good. After all, we the public created it by swiping our smart cards, visiting websites, tweeting our thoughts, and so on. Big data should therefore be something available to all of us to analyse. What this more liberal approach tends to ignore is the fact that, even where data is being opened up, the tools to analyse it are not. As the ‘smart cities’ analyst Anthony Townsend has pointed out with regard to New York City’s open data regulations, they judiciously leave out the algorithms which are used by e-government contractors to analyse the data.6 While the liberal left continues to worry about the privatization of knowledge as enacted by intellectual property rights, a new problem of the privatization of theory has arisen, whereby algorithms which spot patterns and trends are shrouded in commercial secrecy.
This is a new type of power dynamic altogether, which is difficult to characterize purely in terms of surveillance and privacy. The accumulation of psychological data occurs unobtrusively in such a society, often thanks to the enthusiastic co-operation of individual consumers and social media users. Its rationale is typically to make life easier, healthier and happier for all. It offers environments, such as smart cities, which are constantly adapting around behaviour and real-time social trends, in ways that most people are scarcely aware of. And in keeping with Bentham’s fear of the ‘tyranny of sounds’, it replaces dialogue with expert management. After all, not everybody can inhabit a laboratory, no matter how big. A powerful minority must play the role of the scientists. We received a glimpse of this future in June 2014, when Facebook published a paper analysing ‘emotional contagion’ in social networks.13 The public response was similar to that of JWT’s survey subjects in Copenhagen and London in 1927: outrage.
Human resource management is one of the latest fields to be swept up in data euphoria, with new techniques known as ‘talent analytics’ now available, which allow managers to evaluate their employees algorithmically, using data produced by workplace email traffic.20 The Boston-based company Sociometric Solutions goes further, producing gadgets to be worn by employees, to make their movements, tone of voice and conversations traceable by management. ‘Smart cities’ and ‘smart homes’, which are constantly reacting to and seeking to alter their inhabitants’ behaviour, are other areas where the new scientific utopia is being built. In an ironic twist in the history of consumerism, it has emerged that we could soon be relieved even of the responsibility for our purchasing decisions thanks to ‘predictive shopping’, in which companies mail products (such as books or groceries) directly to the consumer’s home, without being asked to, purely on the basis of algorithmic analysis or smart-home monitoring.21 The rhetoric of the data merchants is one of enlightenment: of moving from an age of guesswork to one of objective science, echoing how Bentham understood the impact of utilitarianism on law and punishment.
The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight
“Less Energy, More Growth: Prosperity through Efficiency,” Lean Energy Cluster and Monday Morning (www.leanenergy.dk/media/44595/less_energy_ more_growth_lean_energy_publikation_printvenlig.pdf); “Copenhagen, Beyond Green: The Socioeconomic Benefits of Being a Green City,” Green Growth Leaders and Monday Morning (www.sustainia.me/resources/publications/mm/CPH%20 Beyond%20Green.pdf). 10-2151-2 notes.indd 242 5/20/13 7:00 PM NOTES TO PAGES 204–08 243 14. Bruce Katz, “Why the U.S. Government Should Embrace Smart Cities,” Brookings, July 26, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/07/26-cities-katz). See also Boyd Cohen, “Singapore Is on Its Way to Becoming an Icon Smart City,” Fast Company, May 2012 (www.fastcoexist.com/1679819/singapore-is-on-its-wayto-becoming-an-iconic-smart-city); Greg Lindsay, “Cisco’s Big Bet on New Songdo: Creating Cities from Scratch,” Fast Company, February 1, 2010 (www.fastcompany. com/1514547/ciscos-big-bet-new-songdo-creating-cities-scratch). 15. “Latin America’s Bus Rapid Transit Boom: Lessons for U.S. Public Transportation,” panel discussion, Brookings, March 8, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/ events/2011/03/08-bus-rapid-transit). 16.
The center will also work with private industry partners, including IBM, Cisco, ConEdison, National Grid, Siemens, Xerox, AECOM, Arup, IDEO, Lutron, and Microsoft, and government labs, including the Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories. 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 28 5/20/13 6:48 PM NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY 29 NEW YORK CITY’S APPLIED SCIENCES CAMPUSES 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 29 5/20/13 6:48 PM 30 NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY In July 2012 Columbia University’s new Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering, located at its Morningside Heights and Washington Heights campuses in New York City, became the third Applied Sciences campus.37 At Columbia, students and faculty will focus on applications for new media, smart cities, health analytics, cybersecurity, and financial analytics, among other areas. Columbia’s deal, like NYU’s, includes $15 million in various forms from the city. In a rapidly urbanizing world, with more than 6 billion people expected to populate cities and metropolitan areas over the next several years, smart and sustainable municipal services, or what NYU is calling “urban science,” will be in high demand. Thus it’s no surprise to find that a “smart cities” or “built environment” thread runs through all the institutions selected for the Applied Sciences initiative. In particular, innovations in products and processes that use less energy or develop different kinds of energy will be especially sought after in the coming decades.
David King, Michael Manville, and Donald Shoup, “The Political Calculus of Congestion Pricing,” Transport Policy 14, no. 2 (2007), p. 114. 17. Janna Anderson, Jan Lauren Boyles, and Lee Rainie, “The Future of Higher Education” (Washington: Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 2012). 18. See Techonomy website (www.techonomy.com) and Code for America website (www.codeforamerica.org). 19. Bruce Katz, “Why the U.S. Government Should Embrace Smart Cities,” Brookings, July 26, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/07/26-cities-katz). 20. Alan Berube and Carey Anne Nadeau, “Metropolitan Areas and the Next Economy: A 50-State Analysis” (Brookings, 2011). 21. Ibid. 22. In 1776 the United States had a population of about 2.5 million; Philadelphia was the largest city, with 40,000 residents. See Lawrence Yun, “Largest Cities in the United States in 1776, and in 2076,” National Association of Realtors, July 3, 2012 (http://economistsoutlook.blogs.realtor.org/?
50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson
23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional
ISBN 978-1-62365-195-4 Distributed in the United States and Canada by Random House Publisher Services c/o Random House, 1745 Broadway New York, NY 10019 www.quercus.com Contents Introduction POLITICS & POWER 01 Ubiquitous surveillance 02 Digital democracy 03 Cyber & drone warfare 04 Water wars 05 Wane of the West ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 06 Resource depletion 07 Beyond fossil fuels 08 Precision agriculture 09 Population change 10 Geo-engineering THE URBAN LANDSCAPE 11 Megacities 12 Local energy networks 13 Smart cities 14 Next-generation transport 15 Extra-legal & feral slums TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 16 An internet of things 17 Quantum & DNA computing 18 Nanotechnology 19 Gamification 20 Artificial Intelligence HEALTH & WELL-BEING 21 Personalized genomics 22 Regenerative medicine 23 Remote monitoring 24 User-generated medicine 25 Medical data mining SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS 26 Living alone 27 Dematerialization 28 Income polarization 29 What (& where) is work?
the condensed idea Locally produced and distributed energy timeline 1816 First energy company established in USA 1821 First electric motor 1839 Discovery of photovoltaic effect 1882 First hydroelectric power plant 1888 Tesla invents AC alternator 1892 General Electric founded 1980 First US wind farm 2030 Wind farms start to be demolished 2035 Most homes engaged in local energy trading 2040 Personal energy harvesters become mandatory 13 Smart cities Stuff that was once “dumb” is becoming smart. Pipes, roads, buildings and even whole cities are no exception. Whether it’s smart meters for water supply, appliances that work out when it’s best to be switched on, or dynamic tolling for roads, we can expect more efficiency, less waste, faster fixing and more pricing that’s responsive to real-time demand. Back in the 1990s, David Gelernter, a professor of computer science at Yale University, wrote a book called Mirror Worlds.
Anthony Downs, writer Add a few similar ideas and we’ll soon have cities that generate as much electricity as they consume, converting rubbish into energy, diverting heavy traffic automatically and processing sewage to make fuel. Wind cones will help to cool buildings and provide natural lighting, while drinking water will be harvested from rain collected from roofs and walls. “The bias lurking behind every large-scale smart city is a belief that bottom-up complexity can be bottled and put to use for top-down ends.” Greg Lindsay, Rudin center for Transportation Policy and Management, New York University Changing road use As for roads, thanks to GPS, CCTV and other devices it’s easily possible to work out, in real time, how busy roads are and where particular cars are going. This means that vehicles can be charged for entering specific areas or fined for going where they shouldn’t.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Warm thanks to Avner de-Shalit and participants in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem workshop on the “spirit of cities”: Jeremy Adelman, Gilles Campagnolo, Kateri Carmola, and Susan Clarke. From Tianjin Eco-city to Guangzhou Knowledge City, thank you to the many dozens of officials who have hosted me at “smart cities” and special economic zones in China. I am similarly grateful to the managers of many other new urban developments on all continents for sharing their ambitious plans with me. Your projects are not yet on the map but surely will be thanks to your tireless efforts. Thanks also to Tony Reynard and Lincoln Ng of the Singapore Freeport for an insightful tour and conversation. At the Barcelona Smart City Expo 2014, I’d like to thank Ugo Valenti, Álvaro Nicolás, and Folc Lecha Mora. I appreciate learning about the inner workings of the City of London and its global strategy from Mark Boleat, Giles French, Anita Nandi, and Andrew Naylor.
It is yet another sign of the shift from a political to a supply chain world that cities are increasingly named not after people or scenery—think Jefferson or Ocean View—but instead for what role they play in the global economy: Dubai Internet City, Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority, Cayman Enterprise City, Guangzhou Knowledge City, Malaysian Multimedia Super Corridor, and about four thousand more. According to conventional maps, I’ve spent the past half decade visiting dozens of places that don’t exist. Whether industrial parks or “smart cities,” these supply chain nodes are popping up so quickly that most are not yet on our maps. Such zones used to be places where people just went to work; now they are communities in which people live. For hundreds of millions of workers and their dependents, the supply chain has become a way of life, an all-encompassing existence in the service of the global economy and their society’s desire to be connected to it.
China’s mayors and city officials farm out to Copenhagen, Tokyo, and Singapore to learn how to combine innovation with livability to gain an edge on each other. (Indeed, much of the substance of European diplomacy with China today is direct interactions between the business associations of major cities and the trade in commercial technology that increases China’s efficiency and sustainability.) To learn how to get arguably the world’s top priority of sustainable urbanization right, you go to the World Cities Summit in Singapore or the Smart City World Congress in Barcelona—or visit the many online portals where experts, activists, and managers from hundreds of cities share information—not the UN General Assembly. “Diplomacity” is already embodied in organizations such as the United Cities and Local Governments and more than two hundred other inter-city learning networks that together already outnumber all the international organizations in the world.11 Because cities define themselves in part by their connectedness rather than their sovereignty, one can imagine a global society emerging much more readily from intercity relations than international relations
An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, off grid, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize
‘One of the things that is so great about being at a place like MIT and the Media Lab,’ Cynthia tells me later, ‘is that we’re not just a pure engineering group. We have skills and abilities that range from the aesthetic to the highly technical and scientific. That’s unusual and it means we can answer questions that other labs find hard.’ It’s a fair point. Where else, I wonder, will you find research groups with titles like Affective Computing, Biomechatonics, eRationality, Information Ecology, Lifelong Kindergarten, Smart Cities, and, sharing the same lab space as Cynthia’s Personal Robotics Group, Opera of the Future (this last looks at ‘how musical composition, performance, and instrumentation can lead to innovative forms of expression, learning, and health’), all nestled up against one another? It’s bonkers, in all the right ways. It’s also an unholy mess. Cynthia’s lab reminds me of the scene in Blade Runner when genetic designer J.
This technology is going nowhere.”’ The implication is obvious. The days of an electricity system dominated by centrally-generated power are coming to an end, that solar could do for electricity what synthetic biofuels might achieve for gasoline: create a world where our energy sources are hyper-local. While I was at MIT talking to roboticist Cynthia Breazeal I’d taken the opportunity to meet with Bill Mitchell, head of the Smart Cities Group there. ‘We’re clearly going to see a movement away from old-fashioned centralised electrical grids to a much more decentralised system that looks a lot like the Internet,’ he’d said. It’s a nice idea, but there’s still a huge distance to cover. Solar power remains expensive and there’s a lot of inertia in our existing infrastructure. Rick agrees. ‘I won’t say when it’ll happen, that’s for the futurists to think about.
Cynthia tends not to give face-to-face interviews so I’m particularly grateful to her for agreeing to meet and introducing me to her sociable robots and the ideas they unleash. I still think her lab needs a tidy up, though. Do a search for ‘Leo Robot’ on YouTube and be amazed. (Thanks too to Dan Stiehl for showing me the cuddly machines.) While I was at the Media Lab I also spent a fascinating hour and half with Bill Mitchell of the Smart Cities group, a true outback kid now heading up one of the most interesting labs in America. Thanks Bill. Hod Lipson couldn’t have been friendlier, and took it upon himself to keep me up-to-date with his work long after I’d been to see him at Cornell University. His curiosity about curiosity is invigorating. Eric Drexler, like Cynthia Breazeal, gave me a rare face-to-face interview. Beyond that he took extreme care to explain many subtleties concerning nanotechnology in long email exchanges following our meeting.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
Not all attacks are malicious or motivated by financial or personal gain; some are just done for the sake of it. For example, the Godzilla Attack is a perfect example of a potential industrial Internet-type security exploit on a smart city traffic system where the attacker gained access to the traffic lights and digital overhead messaging system. In May 2014, the overhead traffic signs on San Francisco’s Van Ness Avenue were photographed by a passerby showing the flashing traffic warning “Godzilla Attack! Turn Back”. This humorous attack highlights just one of many traffic light hacks that have come about, but it could have serious implications for traffic management systems, in the context of smart cities. If traffic lights are vulnerable and an attacker can easily exploit them, it is only a matter of time before a malicious attacker can take advantage of the vulnerability to bring about massive traffic congestion or create potentially dangerous traffic flows that could lead to injury or even death.
As a typical use of Big Data processing is to extract meaning from unstructured data so that it can be input as structural data into an application and this requires cleaning it up. Sensor data is notoriously dirty as timestamps are often missing or lost in communications and therefore requires considerable tidying up before processing. An example of this real-time insight into Big Data handling of sensor data is found in Smart City projects. For example, if a traffic monitoring system detects congestion or an accident from its roadside sensors, it can instantaneously send control feedback to change traffic lights, thereby easing traffic flows to reduce congestion. Industry 4.0 Veracity The problems with Big Data appear when we go beyond collecting and storing vast amounts of data and analyze the data stores using the 3 Vs and consider, is the data actually true.
If traffic lights are vulnerable and an attacker can easily exploit them, it is only a matter of time before a malicious attacker can take advantage of the vulnerability to bring about massive traffic congestion or create potentially dangerous traffic flows that could lead to injury or even death. It is not just smart cities, and industrial companies and facilities that are appetizing targets. Sometimes the products are so intelligent that they themselves become the object of research and potential exploitation, as both Chrysler and Boeing discovered with the now-famous Jeep and aircraft hacks. Both of these celebrated attacks came about on systems thought to be unsusceptible to cyber-attacks. The manufacturer’s belief of invulnerability came about predominantly based on the technical assurance that both the jeep and the Boeing aircraft had isolated control systems. Both use the vehicle standard CAN (control area network) bus for interconnecting in-car and in-flight systems and modules, that are not connected to any IP networks.
A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh
A. Roger Ekirch, big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, off grid, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning
Despite these hacks and spoofs, the power to control a city’s traffic usually lies firmly in the hands of the police, with their arsenal of blockades, traffic stops, and road closures. Police powers are increasingly woven deep into the fabric of the built environment and will only grow more pervasive as “smart city” technology becomes widespread. Cantankerous Belorussian technology critic Evgeny Morozov has written that the surveillance powers of the state are so dramatically amplified by the ubiquitous sensors, cameras, and remote-control technology associated with the smart city that urban space risks becoming little more than an inhabitable police barricade. “As both cars and roads get ‘smart,’” Morozov wrote in a 2014 op-ed for The Observer, “they promise nearly perfect, real-time law enforcement. Instead of waiting for drivers to break the law, authorities can simply prevent the crime.”
However, if all cities already contain the crimes that will occur there, then, taken to its logical conclusion, this suggests there might be a kind of Moby-Dick of crime, a White Whale of urban burglary: a town or city so badly designed that the entire place can be robbed in one go. The stakes would be massive. I spoke to an urban information technology adviser, for example, who has worked on several new “smart city” projects under construction around the world, primarily in northeast Asia. When I asked him what burglary might look like in these cities of the future, his answer was shocking. Requesting that he remain anonymous due to the nature of his answer, he explained that the operating system of New Songdo City, Korea—or what he described more specifically as the software that supports the technical fabric of the city, allowing communications between buildings, urban infrastructure, and portable devices—was legally required to be backed up and held in a safe-deposit box (alas, he would not tell me where).
Streetlights were one of many new patrol tools implemented by Louis XIV’s lieutenant general of police, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie. De la Reynie’s plan ordered that lanterns be hung over the streets every sixty feet—with the unintended side effect that Paris soon gained its popular moniker, the City of Light. The world’s most romantic city takes its nickname from a police operation. Morozov warns that we are living through a kind of digital upgrade of Haussmann’s universal street-control project: the inauguration of a smart city that will be able to anticipate—and, more important, interrupt or preempt—certain behaviors, whether that means speeding, committing a burglary, or violating curfew. So-called predictive policing has been much discussed over the past few years, whereby authorities use detailed statistics and algorithms—a city’s criminal patterns and rhythms—to “predict” when and where a crime is most likely to occur.
3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar
., 193–194 Frydman, Gilles, 242 Gaia hypothesis, 184 Gandhi, Mahatma, 104–108 Gates, Bill, 171, 174 GDP, 17, 20–22, 54, 74, 123, 129, 240, 266 General Electric (GE), 13, 14, 54, 73–74, 165, 210, 234 General Motors, 53, 54, 228–230 General Public Licenses (GPL), 94, 175–176 Germany and cooperatives, 213–216 flood in, 287 and Google, 201 and renewable energy, 82–83, 101, 141, 253, 257 and 3D printing, 101–102 Gershenfeld, Neil, 94 Gillespie, Tarleton, 203 Girsky, Stephen, 228–229 globalization versus reopening the global commons, 187–192 GM, teams up with RelayRides, 228–229 GNU operating system, 174–176 God of oil. see Hall, Andy Google cashes in on selling Big Data, 199–200 and control of the U.S. media market, 54 and driverless vehicles, 230 energy usage, 85 favors free Wi-Fi connection, 148 market share and revenue generated by, 201 as natural monopoly, 202–205 Ngram Viewer, 18 primary revenue stream is weakening, 251 as tracking tool, 245 Gore, Al, 219 Gorenflo, Neal, 238 Gou, Terry, 124 “The Governing of the Commons” (Ostrom), 158–162 Gram Power, 103–104 Green Button initiative, 146 Great Chain of Being, 30, 58–59, 61 Great Recession, 20, 122–129, 233, 255–262, 281–282 green feed-in tariff(s), 139, 206 Guardian, 104, 116 guilds by trade, 36–37 Gutenberg, Johannes, 35–37 hacker(s) connotations of the term, 93 and cyberterrorists, 291–292 and environmentalist(s), 170–172, 187–188 and the Free Culture Movement, 173–174 and the Makers Movement, 99–104 and 3D printing, 95 Hall, Andy, 87 Hansen, James, 287 Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (Layard), 277 Haque, Umair, 253 Hardin, Garrett, 155–159 Hazen, Paul, 213 healthcare, 13, 74, 130, 240–247 hedonistic treadmill, 276 Hegel, Georg Friedrich, 279, 301 Heilbroner, Robert, 5, 105 Herr, Bill, 129 higher education. see massive open online courses (MOOCs) The High Price of Materialism (Kasser), 277 high-tech Armageddon. see cyber attacks/cyberterrorism Hoch, Dan, 243–244 Hotelling, Harold, 136–137, 150, 206–211 how best to judge economic success, 20–21 Hoyt, Robert, 58 human race empathetic sensibility of, 278–286, 301 and Enlightenment, 60–65 and human nature through a capitalist lens, 57–65 liberating the, 7, 70 and ostracism, 163 rethinking salvation, 58–59 what makes us happy, 276–285 Hume, David, 62, 308 hybrid economy. see capitalism; Collaborative Commons IBM, 13, 14, 80, 130, 234, 250 infofacture vs. manufacture, 90 Infrastructure: The Social Value of Shared Resources (Frischmann), 193–194 Integrated Transportation Provider Services (ITPS), 228 Intel, 79, 148 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 195–196 the Internet of Everything, 14, 73 the Internet generation, 132, 145, 179, 226, 230 the Internet of Things (IoT), 11–16, 65 and Big Data. see Big Data and the chief productivity officer (CPO), 15 as a double-edged sword, 78, 267 and healthcare. see healthcare made up of, 11, 14–15 and near zero marginal cost society, 73–78 negatives associated with, 14 obstacles that slowed the deployment of, 74 and smart cities. see smart cities as source of employment, 267–268 and use of sensors, 11–13, 73–74, 143, 219, 230 Internet of Things European Research Cluster, 11 infrastructure, requirements of, 14 Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Cyber Fighters, 292 Jakubowski, Marcin, 102–103 James, William, 279–280 Jennings, Ken, 130 Jobs, Steve, 305, 308 Jumpstart Our Business Start Ups Act, 257 Kaku, Michio, 79 Kasser, Tim, 277 Keynes, John Maynard, 5–7, 105, 268 Khoshnevis, Dr.
Other sensors track the whereabouts of products shipped to retailers and consumers and keep tabs on the amount of waste being recycled and processed for reuse. The Big Data is analyzed 24/7 to recalibrate supply chain inventories, production and distribution processes, and to initiate new business practices to increase thermodynamic efficiencies and productivity across the value chain. The IoT is also beginning to be used to create smart cities. Sensors measure vibrations and material conditions in buildings, bridges, roads, and other infrastructure to assess the structural health of the built environment and when to make needed repairs. Other sensors track noise pollution from neighborhood to neighborhood, monitor traffic congestion on streets, and pedestrian density on sidewalks to optimize driving and walking routes. Sensors placed along street curbs inform drivers of the availability of parking spaces.
As briefly touched on in chapter 1, to function, every society requires a means of communication, a source of energy, and a form of mobility. The coming together of the Communications Internet, the Energy Internet, and the Logistics Internet in an Internet of Things provides the cognitive nervous system and physical means to integrate all of humanity in an interconnected global Commons that extends across the entirety of society. This is what we mean when we talk about smart cities, smart regions, smart continents, and a smart planet. The linking up of every human activity in an intelligent global network is giving birth to a wholly new economic being. The old being of the First and Second Industrial Revolutions relied on a communication/energy matrix and logistics grid that required huge sums of capital, and therefore had to be organized in vertically integrated enterprises under centralized command and control to achieve economies of scale.
Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan
23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks
The current emerging paradigm for this decade could be the connected world of computing relying on blockchain cryptography. The connected world could usefully include blockchain technology as the economic overlay to what is increasingly becoming a seamlessly connected world of multidevice computing that includes wearable computing, Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors, smartphones, tablets, laptops, quantified self-tracking devices (i.e., Fitbit), smart home, smart car, and smart city. The economy that the blockchain enables is not merely the movement of money, however; it is the transfer of information and the effective allocation of resources that money has enabled in the human- and corporate-scale economy. With revolutionary potential equal to that of the Internet, blockchain technology could be deployed and adopted much more quickly than the Internet was, given the network effects of current widespread global Internet and cellular connectivity.
More unified API development environments will be needed that include the many diverse and growing parts of the blockchain ecosystem (storage, file serving, messaging, wallet interactions, mobile payments, identity confirmation, and reputation). There is also an opportunity to link blockchain development environments out to other major segments like the machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks infrastructure for rapid application development. An example of an advanced integrated application of this kind envisioned for the farther future could be a smartwatch that can interact with smart-city traffic-sensor data to automatically reserve and pay for lane space with a Bitcoin-denominated smart contract. Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation There is a need for a decentralized ecosystem surrounding the blockchain itself for full-solution operations. The blockchain is the decentralized transaction ledger that is part of a larger computing infrastructure that must also include many other functions such as storage, communication, file serving, and archiving.
An example of personalized governance services might be that one resident pays for a higher-tier waste removal service that includes composting, whereas a neighbor pays for a better school package. Personalization in government services, instead of the current one-size-fits-all paradigm, could be orchestrated and delivered via the blockchain. One example of more granular government services could be a situation in which smart cities issue Roadcoin to compensate passing-by drivers for lost #QualityofLife in road construction projects. Likewise, there could be Accidentcoin that those involved in an accident pay to similarly compensate passing-by drivers for lost #QualityofLife; payment could be immediate, and shifted later as insurance companies assess blame. In science-fiction parlance, it could be said that franchulates as envisioned in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash are finally on the horizon.106 Franchulates are the concept of a combination of a franchise and consulate, businesses that provide fee-based quasigovernmental services consumed by individuals as any other product or service, a concept that blockchain governance could make possible.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
Just within academia itself there is a dizzying array of separate departments, centers, and institutes representing a broad spectrum of alternative ways of perceiving cities: urban geography, urban economics, urban planning, urban studies, urbanomics, architectural studies, and many more, each with its own culture, paradigm, and agenda, though rarely interacting with one another. The situation is rapidly changing as new developments are being initiated, many stimulated by the advent of big data and the vision of smart cities, both somewhat naively touted as panaceas for solving all of our urban problems. But tellingly, there are as yet no explicit departments of “urban science” or “urban physics.” These represent a new frontier as the urgency to understand cities from a more scientific perspective emerges. This is the context of what I am presenting here, namely using scale as a powerful tool for opening a window onto the development of a quantitative conceptual integrated systemic framework for understanding cities.
Many of the thinner segments, the “capillaries,” represent noninterstate roads whereas the thicker segments, the main “arteries,” are larger roads. Compare this with the cardiovascular blood transport system shown in chapter 3. Unfortunately, no one has performed a similar analysis within cities, primarily because we don’t have the detailed statistics on traffic flow for every street in the city. The advent of smart cities with the promise of countless detectors on every street corner monitoring traffic will eventually provide sufficient data to carry out similar analyses on all cities to reveal the dynamical structure of their transportation system, much like the map here. This would provide a detailed quantitative valuation of traffic patterns and the attractiveness of specific locations as well as other metrics that are crucial for planning purposes such as in successfully developing new areas of a city or deciding on the placement of new malls or stadiums.
It is no surprise that proportionally the greatest percentage of mobile phone usage occurs in developing countries. So analyzing massive data sets of cell phone calls can potentially provide us with new and testable quantitative insight into the structure and dynamics of social networks and the spatial relationships between place and people and, by extension, into the structure and dynamics of cities. This unforeseen consequence of mobile phones and other IT devices has ushered in the era of big data and smart cities with the somewhat hyperbolic promise that these will provide the tools for solving all of our problems. And not just the infrastructural challenges in cities: the promise extends to all aspects of life from health and pollution to crime and entertainment. This is just one manifestation of the rapid emergence of “smart” industries based on the availability of enormous amounts of data that we ourselves unwittingly generate, whether through our mobile devices, our mobility, or our health records.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
Brasília, of course, was an instant disaster: grandiose, monstrously overscale, and immediately encircled by slums. New Songdo has to be much better, because there’s a lot more riding on it than whether Gale can repay his loans. It has been hailed since conception as the experimental prototype community of tomorrow. A green city, it was LEED certified from the get-go, designed to emit a third of the greenhouse gases of a typical metropolis its size. It’s supposed to be a “smart city” studded with chips talking to one another, running the place by remote control. Its architects borrowed blueprints from Paris, Sydney, Venice, and London, sketching what might become the prettiest square mile in Korea. (Nearby Seoul is a forest of colossally ugly apartment blocks.) New Songdo isn’t so much a Korean city as a Western one floating offshore. Smart, green credentials aside, it was chartered as an “international business district”—a hub for companies working in China.
When Stan Gale looks at a departure board, he sees a treasure map. And when he gazes upon his creation, he sees potentially dozens of new cities, each next to a dot on that map. “There’s a pattern here, repeatable,” he said that summer, stunning his partners with plans to roll out cities across China, using New Songdo as his template. Each will be built faster, better, and more cheaply than the ones that came before. “It’s going to be a cool city, a smart city!” he promised. “We start from here and then we are going to build twenty new cities like this one, using this blueprint. Green! Growth! Export!” Their jaws dropped. “China alone needs five hundred cities the size of New Songdo,” Gale told me, and he is planning to break ground on the next two. How many will be umbilically connected to the nearest airport? “All of them.” To the jaundiced American eye, New Songdo and its clones might appear to be fantasies left over from the Bubble.
If all goes according to plan, New Songdo’s carbon footprint will be a third of a city its size—a big step toward the reductions needed to halt global warming. There is, of course, the environmental absurdity of erecting a sustainable city on former wetlands, but Jamie von Klemperer would counter it’s a better alternative than clear-cutting mountains. Not content to be green and an aerotropolis, it’s meant to be a “smart city” too. As preached by technology companies such as IBM and Cisco, the Internet will be the next big utility, tying the others together. If you hook cities up to the right mix of sensors and software, their thinking goes, who knows what efficiencies might be revealed? When buildings, power lines, gas lines, roadways, cell phones, residential systems, and so on are able to talk to one another, that information can expose hidden patterns of waste and ways to avoid it.
23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
They could be paralyzed by hackers, or by bugs in labyrinthine software.”38 Likewise, in Dave Eggers’s The Circle,40 a fictitious Silicon Valley company representing an evil hybrid of Facebook, Google, and Apple, pulls together personal e-mails, banking information, purchases, social networking, and a universal operating system to portray what extreme loss of privacy can induce, such as placing chips in children to prevent kidnappings.41,42 Anthony Townsend has a more sanguine view in Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia.43 He believes the electronic surveillance is great and that we’re reinventing cities with a smartphone platform. With all the data flowing, there’s big business following. The “data brokers” are the companies that collect and analyze our personal information and sell it without our knowledge.44 Acxiom, using twenty-three thousand computer servers and processing more than fifty trillion data transactions per year, is the largest company in this multibillion dollar industry.
Eggers, The Circle (San Francisco, CA: McSweeney’s Books, 2013). 41. M. Atwood, “When Privacy Is Theft,” New York Review of Books, November 21, 2013, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/nov/21/eggers-circle-when-privacy-is-theft/?pagination=false&printpage=true. 42. J. Nocera, “A World Without Privacy,” New York Times, October 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/opinion/nocera-a-world-without-privacy.html. 43. A. Townsend, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 2013). 44. S. Kroft, “The Data Brokers: Selling Your Personal Information,” CBS News, March 9, 2014, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-data-brokers-selling-your-personal-information/. 45. A. E. Marwick, “How Your Data Are Being Deeply Mined,” New York Review of Books, January 9, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/jan/09/how-your-data-are-being-deeply-mined/?
See also Imaging; Scans Radiation Right campaign, 116 Ramamurthy, Lakshman, 65–66 RAND Corporation, 125(quote), 130–131 Reconstructive surgery after double mastectomy, 58–59 Records, medical Blue Button Initiative, 129–130 human phenome, 82–83 hype in health information technology, 130–132 OpenNotes project, 127–129 patient access to DNA data, 22 patient ownership, 125–126 See also entries beginning with Data Regulatory procedures, 288–289 Reinhardt, Uwe, 139(quote), 142 Religion, 13–14, 17–18, 50, 52 Relman, Arnold “Bud,” 176 Research, personal, 17 Respect, culture of, 20–21, 27–30 Revolution 2.0 (Ghonim), 13 Revolutions, social networks contributing to, 43–44 Rheumatoid arthritis, 144–145, 204 Rifkin, Jeremy, 49 Risk calculation Global Burden of Disease, 258–261 ionized radiation tests, 113–116 leading causes of disease and risk factors for death and disability, 260(table) predictive analysis, 249–250 TBI and gene variants, 94–95 traditional epidemiology, 70–71 RNA, 86, 98, 255–256 Roche, 215 Rosenberg, Tina, 139(quote) Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 140, 142, 148 Rubenstein, David, 37 Rush, Benjamin, 20 Ruthven, David, 189 Sabar, Ariel, 105(quote) Sage Bionetworks, 199–200 Sayfer, Steven, 190–191 Scans alternatives to radiation, 116 miniaturization of, 118–120 MOOMs, 204–205 patient access to test results, 120–121 portable devices for, 118–120 See also Imaging; Lab tests Schekman, Randy, 209–210 Schwamm, Lee, 167–168 Science, modern, 44–46 Seife, Charles, 71–72 Seigler, Mark, 20 Seinfeld (television program), 4 Semmelweis, Ignaz, 275 Sensor Project, 269 The Shallows (Carr), 40 Sharing Clinical Reports Project, 75 Shenkin, Budd, 127 Shortage of physicians, 173(fig.), 270–271 Side effects of drugs, 100–101 Sidereus Nuncius (Galilei), 44–45 The Signal and the Noise (Silver), 40 The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (Katz), 18–19 Silver, Nate, 40 Simon, Elena, 9, 10(fig.), 212 Siri, 164–165, 244 Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (Townsend), 223 Smart patients, 8–10 Smartphones attachment scopes, 122 biosensors, 83 boredom and, 48–49 compared to printing press, 40 conducting a full physical exam with, 121–123 data archiving, 48 declining cost of, 273(fig.) declining doctor visits, 162–163 diagnosis through, 4–7 DIY activities, 47 global health impact, 261–267 iBlueButton apps, 130 imaging and the anatome, 84 lab on a chip, 109–111 medical revolution stemming from, 50–54 nuclear magnetic resonance device, 119 office visits, 165(fig.)
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
Internet companies like Google and Facebook know us particularly well—even more intimately, so they boast, than we know ourselves. No wonder Xochi Birch offers her privileged, wealthy members “privacy” from the data-infested world outside the Battery. In an “Internet of Everything” shadowed by the constant surveillance of an increasingly intelligent network—in a future of smart cars, smart clothing, smart cities, and smart intelligence networks—I’m afraid that the Battery members may be the only people who will be able to afford to escape living in a brightly lit village where nothing is ever hidden or forgotten and where, as data expert Julia Angwin argues, online privacy is already becoming a “luxury good.”23 Winston Churchill was right. We do indeed shape our buildings and thereafter they have the power to shape us.
“The primary business model of the Internet is built on mass surveillance,” notes Bruce Schneier, a leading computer security expert, “and our government’s intelligence-gathering agencies have become addicted to this data.”62 So rather than an aberration, Silicon Valley’s involvement with the NSA’s Prism surveillance program conforms with the Internet’s core identity. Data, as the EU’s Meglena Kuneva reminds us, is the new oil of the digital economy. So whether it’s Google’s attempt to embed tiny cameras in networked contact lenses63 or the networked home with its detailed knowledge of our comings and goings,64 or smart cities that track everything from our driving to our shopping habits,65 surveillance remains the Internet’s main business model. “Cities are our paradises of anonymity, a place for self-erasure and self-invention,” the veteran technology reporter Quentin Hardy reminds us.66 So what becomes of self-erasure and self-invention in today’s digital panopticon, with products like the aptly named Panono ball camera that films everything it sees?
The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K
It can also reduce air pollution. Nearly one-third of locally produced particulate matter in our air comes from heating fuel. Public health can improve quickly as a result of efforts that improve air quality and building efficiency. New York may be looking to learn from others, but it’s also hoping to serve as an example of best practices. Steve Hammer also serves as an adviser to the Energy Smart Cities mayoral training program being developed by the Joint U.S.–China Cooperation on Clean Energy, a nonprofit with offices in Shanghai and Beijing. The training program is a three-year initiative that will introduce Chinese mayors to the best practices of the West, with the goal of helping cities reduce their energy intensity by 20 percent by 2010. Energy intensity, the ratio of energy use to output, is a way to measure the overall energy efficiency of an economy.
See Central Valley, California; Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta Delta fish, 122–24, 131–32 Delta levees, 117–21, 125–27, 140, 146–47 Delta Plan (Delta Works), 238–39 deMenocal, Peter, 263 Denver, hot days in, 293 Desertec-Africa, 85–87 desertification, 67–68 desiccation, 66–67 Detroit, hot days in, 290 deuterium, 187 DeVantier, Lyndon, 91 Dhaka, Bangladesh, 197–225 adaptation strategies, 214–19 climate migration, 204–8 flood forecasting, 200–204, 222–23 forty-year forecast, 219–25 global warming and, 203, 211–14 map, 196 rising sea levels, 208, 211–14 water at the heart of problems, 208–19 Diamond, Jared, 269 dipoles, 198 drought mechanisms, 69–71 droughts, 54–55, 89, 210–11 Central Valley, 137–47 Mesopotamia, 264 New York City, 244–45 Sahel region, 66–68, 69–72 earthquakes, 121–27, 133–34, 146–47 Earth-system Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), 266 Easter Island, 268–69 Eddy, David, 227–28 Eemian, 181–83, 185–87 Egede, Hans, 176, 178 El Niño (EN), xiv–xv, 197, 249 Andes Mountains, 159–60 California, 134, 138–40 Great Barrier Reef, 96, 97, 111 Sahel region, 71 El Niño Advisory, 138–39 emissions reductions (mitigation), 58, 109, 235–36 Energy Smart Cities, 246 equations, 32–33, 35–36, 38–39 equilibrium runs, 39–40, 42 Erik the Red, 173, 175–76 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), 201–2 European heat wave of 2003, 51–53, 281 evolution, 64–66 extinction, 17, 65, 66 Delta fish, 122–23, 132 extreme weather, 50–56 Great Barrier Reef, 98–99 New York City, 233–34 Exxon Mobil, 177 famine, 78–79, 81–87, 204–5 farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR), 77–78 feedback, 21–22 Finding Nemo (movie), 103 Flood Forecasting Warning Center (FFWC), 202–3 floods (flooding), 54–55, 121–22, 221 Bangladesh, 197–204, 208–13, 219–25 Central Valley, 121–22, 124–30 New Orleans, 121–22, 133–34, 249 New York City, 236–44, 255–56, 258 Red River, 3–5, 10 Food Mail, 157 forcings, 21–22, 38, 44–49.
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar
Personal fitness and health will be Peers Inc. People who are watching their weight, improving their sleep and exercise regimens, and following doctor’s orders will contribute their personal data via sophisticated and user-friendly devices, as is already happening today. Some of that will be anonymized and become part of large population databases that will transform public health and the delivery of health care. Smart health, smart cities, and big data (together becoming the Internet of Things) are in fact all grounded in Peers Inc: repurposed data that is collected by all kinds of peers and organized and analyzed by various Incs, empowering individuals and cities to make better decisions, learn faster, evolve more quickly, and have a different relationship with our environment. We can see the transition happening today. Google is wholly a Peers Inc configuration.
“Airbnb Disaster Response,” https://www.airbnb.com/disaster-response. 27. Ibid. 28. Guifi.net website, https://guifi.net/en. 29. Veniam, the company I most recently co-founded, is building the networking fabric for the Internet of Moving Things. Combining cellular, Wi-Fi and vehicle-to-vehicle communications, Veniam turns every vehicle into a hotspot, as well as collector and conveyor of sensor data for smart cities and ports. 30. Noam Cohen, “Red Hook’s Cutting-Edge Wireless Network,” New York Times, August 22, 2014. 31. Ibid. CHAPTER 11: WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? 1. Bill Joy, Linus Torvalds, and Eric Raymond have all been given credit for this observation. 2. Nicholas Gruen articulated this idea to me. 3. David Reed inspired me with this sentence from his blog: “Each member of the Internet who contributed to the mutual enterprise gained connectivity disproportionate to the member’s contribution.”
23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
As the Chinese premier, Wen Jiabao, noted in a speech in August 2009 in the city of Wuxi, “Internet + Internet of Things = Wisdom of the Earth.” The Smart City Operating System Those skilled in war are able to subdue the enemy’s army without battle. They capture his cities without assaulting them and overthrow the state without protracted operations. SUN TZU In 1964, Marshall McLuhan presciently predicted that by “means of electric media … all previous technologies … including cities …[would] be translated into information systems.” It might have taken fifty years, but his forecast was spot-on. The Internet of Things has the full potential to transform cities into living, breathing ecosystems of ambient intelligence and connected sensors, vastly improving the quality of life for their inhabitants. In the utopian vision of smart cities, trash cans with embedded sensors will notify the rubbish collectors when they are full, immediately dispatching the closest GPS-equipped garbage truck to whisk them away.
—the Org Chart The Lean (Criminal) Start-Up A Sophisticated Matrix of Crime Honor Among Thieves: The Criminal Code of Ethics Crime U Innovation from the Underworld From Crowdsourcing to Crime Sourcing CHAPTER 11: INSIDE THE DIGITAL UNDERGROUND Passport to the Dark Web A Journey into the Abyss Dark Coins Crime as a Service Crimeazon.com The Malware-Industrial Complex Net of the Living Dead: When Botnet Zombies Attack Committing Crime Automagically CHAPTER 12: WHEN ALL THINGS ARE HACKABLE Where the Wireless Things Are Imagining the Internet of Things Connecting Everything—Insecurely Obliterating Privacy Hacking Hardware More Connections, More Vulnerabilities CHAPTER 13: HOME HACKED HOME Candid Camera From Carjacking to Car Hacking Home Hacked Home What the Outlet Knows Business Attacks and Building Hacks The Smart City Operating System CHAPTER 14: HACKING YOU “We Are All Cyborgs Now” More Than Meets the Eye: The World of Wearable Computing You’re Breaking My Heart: The Dangers of Implantable Computers When Steve Austin and Jaime Sommers Get a Virus Identity Crisis: Hacking Biometrics Fingers Crossed (and Hacked) Your Password? It’s Written All Over Your Face On Your Best Behavior Augmenting Reality The Rise of Homo virtualis CHAPTER 15: RISE OF THE MACHINES: WHEN CYBER CRIME GOES 3-D We, Robot The Military-Industrial (Robotic) Complex A Robot in Every Home and Office Humans Need Not Apply Robot Rights, Law, Ethics, and Privacy Danger, Will Robinson Hacking Robots Game of Drones Robots Behaving Badly Attack of the Drones The Future of Robotics and Autonomous Machines Printing Crime: When Gutenberg Meets Gotti CHAPTER 16: NEXT-GENERATION SECURITY THREATS: WHY CYBER WAS ONLY THE BEGINNING Nearly Intelligent Talk to My Agent Black-Box Algorithms and the Fallacy of Math Neutrality Al-gorithm Capone and His AI Crime Bots When Watson Turns to a Life of Crime Man’s Last Invention: Artificial General Intelligence The AI-pocalypse How to Build a Brain Tapping Into Genius: Brain-Computer Interface Mind Reading, Brain Warrants, and Neuro-hackers Biology Is Information Technology Bio-computers and DNA Hard Drives Jurassic Park for Reals Invasion of the Bio-snatchers: Genetic Privacy, Bioethics, and DNA Stalkers Bio-cartels and New Opiates for the Masses Hacking the Software of Life: Bio-crime and Bioterrorism The Final Frontier: Space, Nano, and Quantum PART THREE SURVIVING PROGRESS CHAPTER 17: SURVIVING PROGRESS Killer Apps: Bad Software and Its Consequences Software Damages Reducing Data Pollution and Reclaiming Privacy Kill the Password Encryption by Default Taking a Byte out of Cyber Crime: Education Is Essential The Human Factor: The Forgotten Weak Link Bringing Human-Centered Design to Security Mother (Nature) Knows Best: Building an Immune System for the Internet Policing the Twenty-First Century Practicing Safe Techs: The Need for Good Cyber Hygiene The Cyber CDC: The World Health Organization for a Connected Planet CHAPTER 18: THE WAY FORWARD Ghosts in the Machine Building Resilience: Automating Defenses and Scaling for Good Reinventing Government: Jump-Starting Innovation Meaningful Public-Private Partnership We the People Gaming the System Eye on the Prize: Incentive Competitions for Global Security Getting Serious: A Manhattan Project for Cyber Final Thoughts Appendix: Everything’s Connected, Everyone’s Vulnerable: Here’s What You Can Do About It Acknowledgments Notes PROLOGUE The Irrational Optimist: How I Got This Way My entrée into the world of high-tech crime began innocuously in 1995 while working as a twenty-eight-year-old investigator and sergeant at the LAPD’s famed Parker Center police headquarters.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Like much of Africa, Gaborone has suffered terribly from AIDS, but the government’s response to the plague—delivering free antiretroviral drugs to everyone—has been humane and moderately effective, raising the life expectancy substantially for those with HIV. No one is going to confuse Gaborone with Paris, but it is a striking success among African cities, primarily because its government is effective. In the world’s poorest places, success above all reflects decent political institutions and investment in education, and that’s what has made Gaborone a well-functioning city. The Smart City: Boston, Minneapolis, and Milan Singapore and Gaborone are imperfect models for cities that are neither independent states nor national capitals. They also can’t serve as examples for places in regions where decent economic policies are the norm. Singapore succeeded, in part, by investing in education and by choosing economic policies that would positively differentiate itself from its neighbors.
Our schools must focus on getting—and keeping—teachers of those skills, like numeracy, that are increasingly critical for success. For cities, investing in schooling yields two payoffs. Students acquire more skills, which eventually makes the place more productive. Better schools also attract better-educated parents, who make the place more productive right away. The single best way to create a smart city is to create schools that attract and train able people. Help Poor People, Not Poor Places The dearth of education in many postindustrial cities helps explain why these places have had such trouble reinventing themselves. They’ve also suffered because their model of having vast firms in a single industry stunts entrepreneurship and innovation. Throughout American history, older areas have always been supplanted by upstart cities.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
But this is just a shadow of what lifelogging will become. In the future, it will include a video record. Google Glass is the first wearable device that has this potential, but others are not far behind. These are examples of the Internet of Things. Environmental sensors will detect pollution levels. Smart inventory and control systems will reduce waste and save money. Internet-connected computers will be in everything—smart cities, smart toothbrushes, smart lightbulbs, smart sidewalk squares, smart pill bottles, smart clothing—because why not? Estimates put the current number of Internet-connected devices at 10 billion. That’s already more than the number of people on the planet, and I’ve seen predictions that it will reach 30 billion by 2020. The hype level is pretty high, and we don’t yet know which applications will work and which will be duds.
Google Glass is the first wearable device: Jenna Wortham (8 Mar 2013), “Meet Memoto, the lifelogging camera,” New York Times Blogs, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/08/meet-memoto-the-lifelogging-camera. Internet of Things: Ken Hess (10 Jan 2014), “The Internet of Things outlook for 2014: Everything connected and communicating,” ZDNet, http://www.zdnet.com/the-internet-of-things-outlook-for-2014-everything-connected-and-communicating-7000024930. smart cities: Georgina Stylianou (29 Apr 2013), “Idea to have sensors track everything in city,” Press (Christchurch), http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/business/the-rebuild/8606956/Idea-to-have-sensors-track-everything-in-city. Victoria Turk (Jul 2013), “City sensors: the Internet of Things is taking over our cities,” Wired, http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/07/everything-is-connected/city-sensors.
The Flat White Economy by Douglas McWilliams
access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, correlation coefficient, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, George Gilder, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, knowledge economy, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, smart cities, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, working-age population, zero-sum game
During the 1970s there seemed to be evidence in the developed economies of a slowing down in the growth of cities. But since then, many cities have had renewed expansion. Glaeser relates this to two key factors: technology and globalisation. He argues that these have both placed a premium on ‘smartness’ and that your smartness depends on your interactions. He points out that there is a disconnect – in less skilled cities there is little correlation between city size and productivity. But in ‘smart cities’ as much as 45% of productivity is a function of the city size as the increased connections that can be made increase the creativity and economic potential of the employees. The underlying thinking is similar to that of the economics of agglomeration and of clustering. In a modern city – and this is increasingly the case – intelligence based work is improved in its quality of thinking, which is partly a function of connections, by increased numbers of interactions.
The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management
This has significant implications for energy consumption, transportation, and parking, as well as public safety and overall urban logistics. Fortunately, thanks to consistently improving Machine-to-Machine technologies, our cities are becoming smarter, too. Sensors and real-time wireless communication allow for better energy management, traffic optimization, and building automation. Anthony Flint22 wrote on the website The Atlantic Cities that smart cities are not just about helping people find a place to park; they are also designed to help cities in the developing world better manage population growth as it affects energy management, transportation, water supply management, and sanitation services. Says Assaf Biderman: The city is becoming like a computer in the open air. All the networks — telecommunications, transportation, energy — are getting digitized for better management.
barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar
BOULDER AS A LABORATORY Boulder is a small city; as of 2012, there are less than 100,000 actual residents with 250,000 people in the extended metro area, which includes the neighboring towns of Superior, Broomfield, Lafayette, Longmont, and Lyons. Boulder is small enough that you can get your mind around the whole place but big enough to be interesting. As a result, I’ve come to think of Boulder as my laboratory for thinking about startup communities. Boulder is a smart city. The University of Colorado Boulder is located right in the middle of town, and students, faculty, and staff comprise about 30 percent of the population of Boulder. The presence of several national research labs, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) add nicely to the number of PhDs around.
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
It is rather obvious that an energy policy should embrace a sector of energy consumption (transport) that is responsible for 22% of total energy use and that the opportunities offered by spatial planning and accessibility planning to reduce energy consumption as shown in the above table should be fully developed and implemented. This possibility is referred to in the European Commission (2013b, page 80) document: “The key challenges for Smart Cities and Communities are to significantly increase the overall energy efficiency of cities, to exploit better the local resource both in terms of energy supply as well as through the demand side measures.” Sadly, the enormous potential for transport policy, spatial planning and modal shift to increase energy efficiency of cities is absent in the energy policy R&D document. It is remarkable that energy policy does not embrace transport issues in this way and does not embrace urban density and accessibility measures.
The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The meta-data about your product will be as detailed as the product itself.206 Logistics firms have long used scanners to track goods through the distribution chain, with a high degree of success. That same level of knowledge is slowly percolating through public sector transport organizations. We no longer lump like things together without knowing where they came from, where they are going or who bought them. Under monikers such as 'smart cities' and 'civic hacking', the use of centrally available data has made inroads into the urban policy sphere, moving from an e-government tool that aimed to increase public sector transparency into new forms of public-private partnerships or urban laboratories that vest analysis and problem-solving in formal or informal institutional arrangements outside of city agencies.207 For many mobility options,208 we now have instantaneous knowledge of how soon a taxi or ridesharing service will provide a pick up.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
They are also portable tools that can turn AI into IA in remarkable new ways so that so many more people, no matter how educated or dexterous, can live above the average adaptability line—and even thrive there. Consider what it is to be a janitor today at the Qualcomm campus in San Diego. Hint: thanks to intelligent assistants, it’s become a knowledge worker job. Ashok Tipirneni, director of product management for Qualcomm’s Smart Cities project, explained to me why: Qualcomm has created a business in showing companies how they can retrofit wireless sensors to every part of their buildings in order to generate a real-time, nonstop sort of EKG or MRI of what is going on deep inside every one of their buildings’ systems. To create a demonstration model, Tipirneni started with six buildings at Qualcomm’s Pacific Center Campus in San Diego, which included parking garages, office spaces, and food courts; the area was about a million square feet in total and used by about 3,200 people.
.; Armed Services Committee of Senegal sensors; in consumer electronics; in dairy farming; definition of; locomotives and September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Serious Man, A (film) Serra Cafema Camp, Namibia Sevareid, Eric sexism Shankar, Sadasivan Sharef, Eleonora sharing economy, trust and Sharon, Ariel Shehata, Zyad Shimizu, Diana Showtime Silver Shirts Sims, Zach Singapore Singh, Prabhjot Sirosh, Joseph skill sets: basic; college degrees and; intelligent assistance and; intelligent assistants and; social; workforce and Skype Slack (messaging app) Sleiman, Ghada Smart Cities project smart machines smartphones Smith, Lee “SMOP” problems social capital, trust as social media; constructive vs. destructive aspects; flow of information on; see also specific platforms social safety net, portability of Social Security social skills social technologies; in age of accelerations; global flows and; innovation in; technological change and; trust and software; APIs and; function of; networking and; open-source, see open-source software software innovation: big data and; collaboration and; computer memory and; integrated circuits and; Microsoft and; Moore’s law and solar energy Solidarity movement Soloway, Jill Solyndra Somalis: in Minnesota; as pirates Somé, Batamaka “Someone Like You” (song) Sony SourceForge South Africa South Carolina South China Sea Southeast Asia South Korea South Vietnam Soviet Union; collapse of space race Spano, Jake Spengler, Oswald spoofing spread spectrum stability, stasis vs.
Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner
algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K
On social media, we think the future will be about integrating Big Data on your CRM to increase the knowledge of your customers and provide a more personalised experience. This Big Data will come from different sources: conversations on social networks, credit card transactions, social reputations like Klout, etc. Another trend will be the evolution of loyalty programs based on mobile, location and gamification, like the foursquare of banking. For the long term, the concept of smart cities and the internet of things will allow us to attach financial services everywhere, because everything will be connected in all metropolitan areas, making transactions easier for customers, merchants and city services. About Pol Navarro Pol Navarro is a highly qualified digital business, customer service and ecommerce strategist, and recognized thought leader, speaking internationally on several Banking, Mobile and Internet conferences.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Too many cities still think that economic development can occur in a vacuum of golf and giveaways, ignoring the fact that such victories are increasingly rare and don’t always last. After all, the corporation that dumps Philly for Indy thanks to a 5 percent tax cut will happily run off to Cincy for 7.5—and perhaps to Tijuana soon thereafter. Cities whose economic-development strategy is a corporate-capture strategy are typically those whose economic development director and planning director don’t talk to each other. The smart cities, like Lowell, hire a director of planning and development, who is first charged with creating a city where people want to be. Rather than trying to land new office tenants in a shrinking office market, this person understands that future economic growth will take place where the creative people are, and then works to lure more residents downtown. As Adam Baacke suggested, this strategy means building more market-rate housing while also promoting those things that residents want and need: parks and playgrounds, supermarkets and farmers’ markets, cafés and restaurants—and, eventually, good schools—all embraced in a framework of top-notch walkability.
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
Things like knowing exactly when the train will come, being able to go online instead of standing in line to access a government service, and being able to provide real-time feedback that informs how and when city services are delivered. The capability for doing this skews toward very large cities and increasingly involves big data, according to Stephen Goldsmith, a professor and director of the Innovations in American Government Program at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. He directs Data-Smart City Solutions, a project “focused on government efforts to use and blend new technologies, big data analytics and community input.” As cities get tech savvy, this effectively means that global centers with lots of money and the capabilities Goldsmith describes (like New York City, Dubai, London, San Francisco, Tokyo, and Seoul) are those likely to build big data applications that are highly appealing to citizens, and this attracts the “next economy” class.
Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth
3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons
Early pioneers include AXIOM, the open-source video camera for film makers, made by Apertuso (the ‘O’ stands for ‘open’), which uses standardised components so it can be customised, reassembled, and continually reinvented by its user community.40 Look, too, at the fast-evolving OSVehicle – the open-source future of 100% electric cars – whose parts can be quickly assembled to make an airport buggy, a golf cart, or even a smart city car.41 The OSVehicle was developed in Silicon Valley but open-source circular manufacturing is thriving in far more surprising places too. In the Togolese capital of Lomé, architect Sénamé Agbodjinou and colleagues set up Woelab in 2012, a ‘low-high tech’ workshop making its own design of open-source 3D printers using the component parts of defunct computers, printers and scanners that have been dumped in West Africa.
The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce
Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks
The Wall Street Journal found forty-five private equity groups wanting to spend over $2 billion in African agriculture in 2010, with London their biggest center of operations. Or rather London and the cloud of tax havens that the last vestiges of the British Empire have bequeathed to the world: the Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands. I continued my tour of London’s land investors in a mews side street behind the rugby stadium in Twickenham, where I met the “Togo boys.” A group of smart city slickers with nice cars and stubbly chins got lucky with the West African government of tiny Togo. Togo is a generally peaceful country with what looks like elective dynastic rule. When Gnassingbe Eyadema, the victor in a 1960s military coup, died in 2005 after thirty-eight years in the job, his subjects were controversially declared to have elected his son to replace him. The Eyadema clan subsequently gave Philip Peters and Lawrie Smith a ninety-nine-year lease on 6,700 acres of farmland near the town of Agbélouvé, an hour’s drive north of the capital, Lomé.
Pirate Cinema by Cory Doctorow
"Hullo, chicken," he said in his bravest voice, but I could hear the edge in it. Jem was tired, and hurting. "Jem! Where are you? Do you need me to come and get you?" "They just sprung us. Sounds like your girlfriend's old man impressed the magistrate. After her hearing, the old darling started to ask the law some tough questions about just why we were being held. There was a fixer from the film industry there, some smart city boy lawyer, kept trying to say something, but the magistrate told him to sit down or he'd have him chucked out of the court. So we're sprung. Only one problem, son, Rabid Dog --" He breathed a deep breath, and I heard a ragged edge in it. "He's not in such good shape. I don't have money for a taxi, and I don't reckon Chester and me can get him home on our own on the bus." I squeezed my eyes shut as hard as I could and counted under my breath.
3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population
“New Frontiers.” Economist, January 11, 2014. “The New Masters and Commanders.” Economist, June 8, 2013. “The Nuclear Deal’s Other Winner.” Economist, July 25, 2015. Rickards, James. Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Global Crisis. New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2012. “Russia Equity Strategy—Discerning Russia’s Regional Potential.” Deutsche Bank Research, October 4, 2013. Shapiro, Jesse. “Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity, and the Growth Effects of Human Capital.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 11615, September 2005. Sharma, Ruchir. “Europe’s Flying Geese.” Economic Times, November 19, 2007. “The Tricks of Trade: A Structural Change?” UBS Investment Research, November 13, 2013. Zakaria, Fareed. “America’s Prospects Are Promising Indeed.” Washington Post, November 20, 2014.
India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population
It is especially prevalent in the issue of permits at the retail level, the diversion of funds from the government’s transfer programmes, and ‘theft of time’ by government functionaries who are absent when they should be working. Reducing petty corruption will require various methods, including the use of technologies of e-governance. 48. See The Economist (2015). Examples of completely unrealistic targets are: Clean the river Ganges by 2019; eradicate tuberculosis and measles by 2020; build a hundred ‘smart cities’ by 2020; train 500 million people by 2022; roll out broadband in over 600,000 villages by 2017. 49. For a useful commentary on ‘Make in India’, see Sharma (2015). 50. These are very approximate numbers. See Birdsall (2015), Ninan (2015), and Pew Research Centre (2015). 51. See Kapur and Vaishnav (2014b). 52. The effect of the award of the 14th Finance Commission was to increase untied tax devolution from the centre to the states in 2015/16 by approximately 1 per cent of GDP, and untied transfers by 0.1 per cent of GDP, but to reduce tied transfers (centrally sponsored schemes) by 0.6 per cent of GDP.