The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere

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pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The first person to hang out a shingle and serve drinks to paying customers—at some point back in the dawn of civilization—almost certainly had no idea that his or her innovation would ultimately support political and sexual revolutions that would reverberate around the world. A space originally intended for play and leisure became, improbably enough, a hotbed of dangerous new ideas. These kinds of spaces played a defining role in one of the most influential works of sociology published in the twentieth century: Jürgen Habermas’s The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Originally conceived while Habermas was working as a graduate student under the legendary Frankfurt School Marxists Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, the book was actually his doctoral dissertation, though Habermas broke off with his mentors due to their “paralyzing political skepticism.” (With almost fifteen thousand citations tracked in Google Scholar, it stands as one of the most cited dissertations in the history of academia.)

And, like the Black Cat and the Stonewall Inn two centuries later, it was a space that “presupposed the problematization of areas that until then had not been questioned.” For Habermas, the public sphere was not simply architectural; it was also facilitated by new developments in media, particularly the rise of pamphleteering that was so central to Enlightenment discourse. Taverns, salons, and drinking societies play a role in The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. (Had Habermas focused more on the American Revolution, they might have even had a starring role.) But for Habermas, the revolutionary ideas of the eighteenth century were ultimately dependent not on the beer and wine of tavern culture, but on another drug that had just arrived in the cities of Europe: coffee. — The story of how humans developed a taste for coffee—and, indirectly, an addiction to caffeine, now the most popular psychoactive compound on the planet—conventionally dates back to the Ethiopian city of Harar, where it is believed that the coffee plant, Coffea arabica, was first domesticated.

“kissing other men”: Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons, Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians (New York: Basic Books, 2006, Kindle edition), Kindle locations 1864–1872. “paralyzing political skepticism”: Craig Calhoun, Contemporary Sociological Theory (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012), 256. Habermas observed: Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989), 26. “a kind of social intercourse”: Ibid. “When insects feed on caffeine-spiked nectar”: Carl Zimmer, “How Caffeine Evolved to Help Plants Survive and Help People Wake Up,” The New York Times (September 4, 2014). “syrup of soot”: Matthew Green, “The Lost World of the London Coffeehouse,” Public Domain Review 7 (2013).


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, Joi Ito, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

See Man, The Gutenberg Revolution, 113; in detail, see Lee, The Social and Class Structure of Early Chosun. 38. Kilgour, 111. 39. Ibid., 112. 40. Ibid., 99; see also Graff, The Legacies of Literacy, 303–14. 41. Eliot, “Never Mind the Value, What about the Price,” 188. 42. Ibid., 165; Kilgour, 112. 43. The most famous description and analysis of these spaces of public discourse is found in Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. 44. The situation was somewhat different in the United States, where owners of local printing presses often published local newspapers to provide them with a much-needed additional revenue stream. Far away from global news, those living in North America desired newspapers as a connection to the rest of the world. See Febvre and Martin, 211. 45. Starr, The Creation of the Media, 48. 46.

Democracy by Disclosure: The Rise of Technopopulism. Washington, DC: Brookings. 2002. Greenwald, Glenn. “What Does Sarah Palin Have to Hide in Her Yahoo E-mails?” Salon.com. Sept. 18, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2008/09/18/privacy/. Griswold, Charles L. Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. Halderman, J. Alex, Brent R. Waters, and Edward W. Felten. “Privacy Management for Portable Recording Devices.” Workshop on Privacy in Electronic Society, November 2004. Hansell, Saul. “Sellers Give Negative Feedback on eBay Changes.” The New York Times (Jan. 29, 2008). http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/29/sellers-give-negative-feedback-on-ebay-changes/?


Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

See also Jody Greene, The Trouble with Ownership: Literary Property and Authorial Liability in England, 1660–1730 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005). 13. Gallagher, Nobody’s Story, 98. There is a longer history of printed punctuation of which these blanks are part; see, for example, Joan DeJean, The Reinvention of Obscenity: Sex, Lies, and Tabloids in Early Modern France (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), 34–35. 14. Classic accounts include Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1989); Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1991); James Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989), 13–36. 15. Edgar A. Poe, “The Purloined Letter,” in The Gift: A Christmas, New Year, and Birthday Present (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1845) 59, 49, 47.

Identification, Deception, and Surveillance in Early Modern Europe. Translated by Mark Kyburz and John Peck. New York: Zone, 2007. Guillory, John. “Genesis of the Media Concept.” Critical Inquiry 36, no. 2 (2010): 321–63. ———. “The Memo and Modernity.” Critical Inquiry 31, no. 1 (2004): 108–32. Guyer, Jane I. Marginal Gains: Monetary Transactions in Atlantic Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1989. 194 WORKS CITED Hardt, Michael. “Affective Labor.” boundary 2 26, no. 2 (1999): 89–100. Hariman, Robert and John Louis Lucaites. No Caption Needed: Iconic Photographs, Public Culture, and Liberal Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.


pages: 285 words: 86,853

What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing by Ed Finn

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, game design, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, High speed trading, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Lyft, Mother of all demos, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, software studies, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, wage slave

In a rare moment of newsroom justice, the story was broken by the Gawker Media technology blog Gizmodo: Nunez, “Want to Know What Facebook Really Thinks of Journalists?”; for the instruction memo itself, see Thielman, “Facebook News Selection Is in Hands of Editors Not Algorithms, Documents Show.” 36. I borrow these lines from an editorial I wrote on the scandal: Finn, “Facebook Trending Story.” 37. Brian Stelter, “Peter Thiel.” 38. Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. 39. Thiel, “The Education of a Libertarian. 40. Miller, “I’m Maria Popova, and This Is How I Work.” 41. Bourdieu, The Field of Cultural Production. 42. Greenfeld, “Faking Cultural Literacy.” 43. This disparity has created its own arbitrage opportunities, like the Congress-Edits Twitterbot that announces each anonymous edit to Wikipedia made from IP addresses at the U.S.

Greenhow, Christine, and Beth Robelia. “Informal Learning and Identity Formation in Online Social Networks.” Learning, Media and Technology 34 (2) (June 1, 2009): 119–140. doi:10.1080/17439880902923580. Habermas, Jurgen, and Thomas McCarthy. The Theory of Communicative Action: Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. New York: Beacon Press, 1985. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989. Hafner, Katie. “Researchers Yearn to Use AOL Logs, but They Hesitate.” New York Times, August 23, 2006, sec. Technology. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/23/technology/23search.html. Hallinan, Blake, and Ted Striphas. “Recommended for You: The Netflix Prize and the Production of Algorithmic Culture.”


pages: 262 words: 73,439

Roads: An Anthropology of Infrastructure and Expertise (Expertise: Cultures and Technologies of Knowledge) by Penny Harvey, Hannah Knox

BRICs, centre right, dematerialisation, informal economy, Kickstarter, land reform, new economy, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, urban renewal

Prompted by the regular occurrence of these kinds of confrontations, this chapter extends our discussion of the politics of infrastructural projects into a consideration of the status of road construction projects as public works. Since Habermas (1989), the analysis of contemporary political processes has acknowledged that alongside the state there lies a parallel and equally important political formation that we call “the public.” In The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Habermas demonstrated how the development 16 8 Chapter 6 of the modern nation-state was paralleled by the simultaneous development of a public sphere of rational political debate within which issues of politics were constituted as problems that should be debated by the population, whose interests the state represented and in whose name it acted. Recently, a number of anthropologists have built on Habermas to return to the often taken-for-granted figure of the public in contemporary political relations.

“Beyond ‘Culture’: Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference.” Cultural Anthropology 7 (1): 6–23. Guyer, J., N. Khan, J. Obarrio, C. Bledsoe, J. Chu, S. Bachir Diagne, K. Hart, P. Kockelman, J. Lave, C. McLoughlin, B. Maurer, F. Neiburg, D. Nelson, C. Stafford, and H. Verran, eds. 2010. “Special Section: Number as Inventive Frontier.” Anthropological Theory (10): 1–2. Habermas, J. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: Polity. Haraway, D. 1988. “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” Feminist Studies 14 (3): 575–99. ——. 1991. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association. ——. 1997. Modest-Witness@Second-Millennium.Femaleman-Meets- Oncomouse: Feminism and Technoscience.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

The tragedy of the public sphere, Habermas argues, is that its core institutions, such as newspapers and broadcasting, became so rampantly commercialized in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that they failed to support the goals of keeping a republic informed and engaged. When it comes to the Web and the influence of Google on the Web, we can see a case study in which Habermas’s narrative of the collapse of the public sphere has unfolded in a very short time.50 The global network of networks that we call the Internet represents the first major revolution in communications to occur since Habermas’s influential historical work, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, was first published in 1962.51 Habermas described a moment in the social and political history of Europe in which a rising bourgeoisie was able to gather in salons and cafes to discuss matters of public concern. The public sphere represented a set of sites and conventions in the eighteenth century in which (almost exclusively male) members of the bourgeoisie could forge a third space between the domestic sphere and the sphere of formal state power.

Norton, 2006); Gillian Brock and Harry Brighouse, The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Martha Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India’s Future (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007). 49. Jürgen Habermas, “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article,” in Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks, ed. Meenakshi Durham and Douglas Kellner (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2001), 102–7. 50. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989). 51. Ibid. I use the word revolution cautiously. It is far too early to assess the effects of the Internet in a balanced and sober manner. Hyperbole and fear still dominate the discussions of the effects of the Internet on culture, societies, politics, and economics. In addition, the Internet hype may have distracted scholars from another revolution.


pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters

Albert Einstein, American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Davies, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technoutopianism, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine

Michael Gordin, Hellen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash, “Introduction,” in Utopia/Dystopia: Conditions of Historical Possibility, ed. Michael D. Gordin, Helen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 2, see also 1–6. 13. Cat video scholarship exists. See Jody Berland, “Cat and Mouse: Iconographics of Nature and Desire,” Cultural Studies 22 (3–4) (2008): 431–454. 14. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformations of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989). 15. Nicholas John and Benjamin Peters, “Is the End Always Near? An Analysis and Comment on the End of Privacy, 1990–2012,” unpublished manuscript; Daniel J. Solove, “A Taxonomy of Privacy,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 154 (3) (2006): 477–560. 16. George L. Priest, “The Ambiguous Moral Foundations of the Underground Economy,” Faculty Scholarship Series, Paper 626 (1995), accessed April 15, 2015, http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?

Studies in the Second Economy of Communist Countries: A Bibliography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Günther, Gotthard. “Cybernetics and Dialectical Materialism of Marx and Lenin.” In Computing in Russia: The History of Computer Devices and Information Technology Revealed. Edited by Georg Trogemann, Alexander Nitussov, and Wolfgang Ernst, 317–332. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 2001. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformations of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989. Hafner, Katie, and Matthew Lyon. Where the Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Halpern, Orit. “Dreams for Our Perceptual Present: Archives, Interfaces, and Networks in Cybernetics.” Configurations 13 (2007): 283–320. Haraway, Donna. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century.”


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991). 2. Meltem Ahiska, “Occidentalism: The Historical Fantasy of the Modern,” South Atlantic Quarterly 102, nos. 2–3 (2003): 351–79. 3. Anderson, Imagined Communities. 4. Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1990). 5. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989). 6. Gerard A. Hauser, “Vernacular Dialogue and the Rhetoricality of Public Opinion,” Communication Monographs 65, no. 2 (1998): 83–107, doi:10.1080/03637759809376439.86. 7. Nancy Fraser, Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy (Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Center for Twentieth-Century Studies, 1990). 8.

Zuckerman, “Internet’s Original Sin”; Zeynep Tufekci, “Mark Zuckerberg, Let Me Pay for Facebook,” New York Times, June 4, 2015. 15. Leo Mirani, “Millions of Facebook Users Have No Idea They’re Using the Internet,” Quartz, February 9, 2015, http://qz.com/333313/millions-of-facebook-users-have-no-idea-theyre-using-the-internet/. 16. John D. H. Downing, Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements (Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 2000). 17. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989). 18. Aleksandra Gjorgievska, “Google and Facebook Lead Digital Ad Industry to Revenue Record,” Bloomberg.com, April 21, 2016, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-22/google-and-facebook-lead-digital-ad-industry-to-revenue-record. 19. The literature is vast. Two of the most influential articles on social movements and media are William A.


pages: 668 words: 159,523

Coffeeland: One Man's Dark Empire and the Making of Our Favorite Drug by Augustine Sedgewick

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, European colonialism, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, Food sovereignty, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Honoré de Balzac, imperial preference, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Philip Mirowski, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

As reported by John Houghton, a Fellow of the Royal Society, in his “Discourse of Coffee,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 21, no. 256 (September 1699): 311–17; recounted in Ellis, The Coffee-House, 26–41. 14. Cowan, Social Life, 49; Ellis, The Coffee-House, 34–36. 15. For a searchable version, see The Diary of Samuel Pepys, www.pepysdiary.com. 16. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989), 32–33. 17. Cowan, Social Life, 215. 18. Quoted in Habermas, Public Sphere, 59. 19. Cowan, Social Life, 196–99. 20. Cowan, 44–46. 21. Houghton, “Discourse of Coffee.” 22. Cowan, Social Life, 27. 23. Ellis, The Coffee-House, 123–25. 24.

“Losing Labor: Coffee, Migration, and Economic Change in Veracruz.” Culture, Agriculture, Food & Environment 39, no. 1 (June 2017): 35–42. Grindle, Roger. Quarry and Kiln: The Story of Maine’s Lime Industry. Rockland, ME: The Courier-Gazette, 1971. Guidos Véjar, Rafael. El ascenso del militarismo en El Salvador. San Salvador: UCA Editores, 1980. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Haggard, Stephan. “The Institutional Foundations of Hegemony: Explaining the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934.” International Organization 42, no. 1 (Winter 1988): 91–119. Hahamovitch, Cindy. The Fruits of Their Labor: Atlantic Coast Farmworkers and the Making of Migrant Poverty, 1870–1945.


pages: 290 words: 94,968

Writing on the Wall: Social Media - the First 2,000 Years by Tom Standage

Bill Duvall, British Empire, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, New Journalism, packet switching, place-making, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, social intelligence, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, yellow journalism

“D attacks on the corrup coffee to beer Rundfunk als achte Großmacht.” Signale der neuen Zeit. 25 ausgewählte Reden von Dr. Joseph Goebbels. Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP, 1938. Goodman, D. The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994. Gough, H. The Newspaper Press in the French Revolution. London: Routledge, 1988. Habermas, J. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989. Haines-Eitzen, K. Guardians of Letters: Literacy, Power and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Hampton, K. N., L. F. Sessions, and E. J. Her. “Core Networks, Social Isolation, and New Media: How Internet and Mobile Phone Use is Related to Network Size and Diversity.”


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

Berkeley: University of California Press. Gusterson, Hugh. 1998. Nuclear Rites: A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press. Habermas, Jürgen. 1981. The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. London: Beacon Press. 1987. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hadley, Elaine. 2010. Living Liberalism: Practical Citizenship in Mid-Victorian Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hakken, David. 1999. Cyborgs@Cyberspace? An Ethnographer Looks at the Future. London: Routledge. Hall, Jon “maddog.” 2000. My Life and Free Software. Linux Journal (June), 114–18. http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/4047 (accessed July 14, 2011).


pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Moving beyond the basics: Building Chicago for the next century. Chicago: Neighborhood Capital Budget Group. Groth, Paul. 1994. Living Downtown. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Gurley, Jan, Nancy Lum, Merle Sande, Bernard Lo, and Mitchell Katz. 1996. Persons found in their homes helpless or dead. New England Journal of Medicine 334:1710–16. Habermas, Jurgen. 1989. The structural transformation of the public sphere. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Halpern, Robert. 1999. Fragile families, fragile solutions: A history of supportive services for families in poverty. New York: Columbia University Press. Hambleton, Robin. 1990. Future directions for urban government in Britain and America. Journal of Urban Affairs 12:75–94. Hannerz, Ulf. 1969. Soulside: Inquiries into ghetto culture and community.


pages: 476 words: 125,219

Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy by Robert W. McChesney

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, death of newspapers, declining real wages, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of journalism, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, informal economy, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the medium is the message, The Spirit Level, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, yellow journalism

For a more comprehensive yet also somewhat idiosyncratic perspective, I recommend Vincent Mosco, The Political Economy of Communication, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009). 2. I develop this notion of the problem of the media in a book with the same title. For a longer treatment, see Robert W. McChesney, The Problem of the Media (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2004). 3. Raymond Williams, The Existing Alternatives in Communication (London: Fabian Society, 1962). 4. Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989), first published in German in 1962). 5. This Manichaean framing of media options was a function of the Cold War and the nature of Soviet communism; it had nothing to do with Karl Marx or socialist theory. Indeed, for all the tension between liberal and radical thought in other areas, there is considerable confluence in matters of journalism and a free press.


pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

Supplied with 100 papers for 67 cents cash (or 75 cents credit), the boys were guaranteed a nice profit if they could sell out their supply. 4. The theory of a growing “public sphere” in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries belongs to Jürgen Habermas, who premised it on the rise of newspaper reading, coffeehouse discussions, and other places for communications among members of the public. See also Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trans. Thomas Burger (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991); and Robert E. Park, “Sociology and the Social Sciences: The Social Organism and the Collective Mind,” American Journal of Sociology 27 (1921). 5. For more on cognitive models on attention, see Michael I. Posner and Charles R. R. Snyder, “Attention and Cognitive Control,” in Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium, ed.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Money: Understanding and Creating Alternatives to Legal Tender. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2001. Gupta, Shanti. The Economic Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 1994. Haber, Samuel. Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964. Habermas, Jurgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Haidt, Jonathan. The Happiness Hypothesis. New York: Basic Books, 2006. Hannesson, Rognvaldur. The Privatization of the Oceans. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. Hart, Sura and Victoria Kindle Hodson. The Compassionate Classroom: Relationship Based Teaching and Learning. Encinitas, CA: Puddle Dancer Press, 2004. Havelock, Eric A.


pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, post-work, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

Hegel read their work and transcribed it into his own idiom, powerfully transforming it, the same way Habermas, for example, transcribes “public opinion” into “public sphere.” 48 On Jürgen Habermas’s interpretation of Hegel’s concept of civil society as interaction, see “Arbeit und Interaktion: Bemerkungen zu Hegels Jenenser Philosophie des Geiste,” in Habermas, Technik und Wissenschaft als “Ideologie” (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1968). See also Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trans. Thomas Burger (Cambridge: Polity, 1989); and The Theory of Communicative Action, trans. Thomas McCarthy, 2 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 1984, 1987). On Habermas’s notion of the public sphere, see Craig Calhoun, ed., Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992). 49 See Niklas Luhmann, Essays on Self-Reference (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990); and The Reality of Mass Media, trans.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004. Haac, Oscar A., ed. The Correspondence of John Stuart Mill and Auguste Comte. London: Transaction, 1995. Habermas, Jürgen. The Future of Human Nature. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003. Habermas, Jürgen. The Theory of Communicative Action:Volume 1. Reason and the Rationalization of Society.Translated by Thomas McCarthy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004. Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere:An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008. Habermas, Jürgen. Between Facts and Norms. Translated by William Rehg. Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2010. Hajer, Maarten A. and Hendrik Wagenaar, eds. Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society.


pages: 687 words: 189,243

A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy by Joel Mokyr

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Deng Xiaoping, Edmond Halley, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, framing effect, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, hindsight bias, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land tenure, law of one price, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, new economy, phenotype, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, ultimatum game, World Values Survey, Wunderkammern

Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Congress of the European Economic Association. Journal of the European Economic Association, Vol. 6, No. 2/3, pp. 295–320. Gundersheimer, Werner L. 1966. The Life and Works of Louis Le Roy. Geneva: Librairie Droz. Haberman, Jacob. 2007. “Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon.” In Encyclopaedia Judaica, Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik, eds., second ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference Vol. 5, pp. 543–44. Habermas, Jürgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hahn, Roger. 1986. “Laplace and the Mechanistic Universe.” In David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 256–76. ———. 1990. “The Age of Academies.” In Tore Frängsmyr, ed., Solomon’s House Revisited. Canton, MA: Science History Publications, pp. 3–12.