IBM and the Holocaust

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pages: 304 words: 82,395

Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think by Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Kenneth Cukier

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Black Swan, book scanning, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, Erik Brynjolfsson, game design, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, obamacare, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Census Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese-Americans in WW II,” Scientific American, March 30, 2007 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=confirmed-the-us-census-b). On data used by Nazis in the Netherlands—William Seltzer and Margo Anderson, “The Dark Side of Numbers: The Role of Population Data Systems in Human Rights Abuses,” Social Research 68 (2001), pp. 481–513. [>] On IBM and the Holocaust—Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust (Crown, 2003). On the amount of data smart meters collect—See Elias Leake Quinn, “Smart Metering and Privacy: Existing Law and Competing Policies; A Report for the Colorado Public Utility Commission,” Spring 2009 (http://www.w4ar.com/Danger_of_Smart_Meters_Colorado_Report.pdf).

“The Candide System for Machine Translation.” Proceedings of the 1994 ARPA Workshop on Human Language Technology (1994) (http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/H/H94/H94-1100.pdf). Berk, Richard. “The Role of Race in Forecasts of Violent Crime.” Race and Social Problems 1 (2009), pp. 231–242. Black, Edwin. IBM and the Holocaust. Crown, 2003. boyd, danah, and Kate Crawford. “Six Provocations for Big Data.” Research paper presented at Oxford Internet Institute’s “A Decade in Internet Time: Symposium on the Dynamics of the Internet and Society,” September 21, 2011 (http://ssrn.com/abstract=1926431). Brown, Brad, Michael Chui, and James Manyika.


pages: 735 words: 214,791

IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black

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card file, computer age, family office, ghettoisation, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, profit motive, Transnistria

IBM AND THE HOLOCAUST THE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE BETWEEN NAZI GERMANY AND AMERICA’S MOST POWERFUL CORPORATION * * * CROWN PUBLISHERS NEW YORK CONTENTS Cover Page Title Page Acknowledgments Introduction PART ONE I NUMBERED PEOPLE II THE IBM-HITLER INTERSECTION III IDENTIFYING THE JEWS IV THE IBM-NAZI ALLIANCE V A NAZI MEDAL FOR WATSON PART TWO VI WAR CARDS VII DEADLY COUNT VIII WITH BLITZKRIEG EFFICIENCY IX THE DEHOMAG REVOLT PART THREE X THE STRUGGLE TO STAY IN THE AXIS XI FRANCE AND HOLLAND XII IBM AND THE WAR XIII EXTERMINATION XIV THE SPOILS OF GENOCIDE, I XV THE SPOILS OF GENOCIDE, II Notes Copyright Page A Dehomag (IBM’s German subsidiary) poster, circa 1934.

Without their courage and stamina, it simply could not have been done. Assembling the facts was ironically only half the struggle. Publishing those facts took a historic bravery and literary fearlessness that many lacked. At the head of the line is Philip Turner, formerly of Times Books, who acquired IBM and the Holocaust for Random House. Then, for almost eight months, I was closely supported—hour to hour—by Crown vice president and senior editor Douglas Pepper, who bonded with the text and the mission to boldly tell this unknown story to the world. During the past thirty years of investigative reporting and publishing, I have learned to quickly identify the genuine pros.

The Holocaust would have proceeded—and often did proceed—with simple bullets, death marches, and massacres based on pen and paper persecution. But there is reason to examine the fantastical numbers Hitler achieved in murdering so many millions so swiftly, and identify the crucial role of automation and technology. Accountability is needed. What made me demand answers to the unasked questions about IBM and the Holocaust? I confronted the reality of IBM’s involvement one day in 1993 in Washington at the United States Holocaust Museum. There, in the very first exhibit, an IBM Hollerith D-11 card sorting machine—riddled with circuits, slots, and wires—was prominently displayed. Clearly affixed to the machine’s front panel glistened an IBM nameplate.


pages: 438 words: 109,306

Tower of Basel: The Shadowy History of the Secret Bank That Runs the World by Adam Lebor

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banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial independence, financial innovation, forensic accounting, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute cuisine, IBM and the Holocaust, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, special drawing rights, V2 rocket

Available online at http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/findaids/html/mss0109.html. 29. Op. cit. 30. “Thomas J. Watson Is Decorated by Hitler,” New York Times, July 2, 1937. 31. Christopher Simpson, The Splendid Blond Beast: Money, Law, And Genocide in the Twentieth Century (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), 73. 32. Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (Westport, CT: Dialogue Press, 2008). 33. Messersmith to Geist, December 8, 1938. Special Collections Department, University of Delaware Library. Available at http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/findaids/html/mss0109.html. 34.

Billstein, Reinhold, Karola Fings, Anita, Kugler, and Nicholas Levis. Working for the Enemy: Ford, General Motors and Forced Labor During the Second World War. Oxford, New York: Berghahn Books, 2004. Bird, Kai. The Chairman: John J. McCloy and the Making of the American Establishment. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Black, Edwin. IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation. Westport, CT: Dialogue Press, 2012. Borkin, Joseph. The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben. New York: Free Press, 1978. Boughton, James M. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund 1979–1989.

The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan

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Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl

Snell, "American Ground Transport: A Proposal for Restructuring the Automobile, Truck, Bus and Rail Industries," report presented to the Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, United States Senate, February 26, 1974 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974), 16-24; Michael Dobbs, "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration," The Washington Post, November 30, 1998. 5. Interview with Edwin Black. Also see Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001). 6. Interviews with Edwin Black and Peter Drucker. Quotes from Dobbs, "Ford and GM Scrutinized," who reports as follows: "Less than three weeks after the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, GM Chairman Alfred P.


pages: 253 words: 80,074

The Man Who Invented the Computer by Jane Smiley

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, British Empire, c2.com, computer age, Fellow of the Royal Society, Henri Poincaré, IBM and the Holocaust, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Karl Jansky, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Turing machine, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture

Since Call had Atanasoff’s letters and documents, all of which corroborated an entirely different story, Call knew that such a defense would hurt Sperry’s case, whatever Mauchly’s motives. Whether he remembered what had really happened and was banking on Atanasoff not retaining the documents, or whether he actually had no memory of his response to the ABC, he would be seriously compromised either way. 1. For more information about this connection, see Edwin Black’s IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation (New York: Crown, 2001). 2. The Whirlwind was another offspring of ENIAC. A man named Perry Crawford was working at MIT, trying to create computerized flight simulators for the navy. They were using analog ideas before Crawford saw ENIAC in 1945.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

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3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Protecting Pensions:Policy Analysis and Examples from OECD Countries, no. 8, Paris: OECD Publications, 2007. Books Antonopoulos, Andreas M. Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies. Sebastopol, Calif. O’Reilly Media, 2014. Belloc, Hillaire. TheServile State. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2008. Black, Edwin. IBM and the Holocaust. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001. Bolier, David. Think Like a Commoner: A Short Introduction to the Life of the Commons. Vancouver: New Society Publishers, 2014. Braudel, Fernand. Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, vol. 1: The Structure of Everyday Life. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Reporters were approached by a stream of people from various human rights groups distributing leaflets and reports documenting the misguided or just plain immoral cooperation that these companies were lending to the regime that had murdered its citizens in Tiananmen Square. (By the end of the day there were enough pages to fill a Russian novel.) Less than five minutes after calling the session to order, Chris Smith was praising a recent book entitled IBM and the Holocaust, which had documented with devastating detail how Big Blue had sold the Germans technology that had allowed them to murder 6 million Jews and other targets more efficiently, including Tom Lantos’s family. “U.S. technology companies today are engaged in a similar sickening collaboration,” Smith said.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

“We will not allow ourselves to be turned into niggers”: Unmasked: Two Confidential Interviews with Hitler, Edouard Calic. Translated by R. H. Barry. Chatto & Windus, 1971. In July 1933: Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring. Enacted on July 14, 1933. Reichsdruckerei, 1935. The law also mandated the creation of Genetic Health Courts: IBM and the Holocaust, Edwin Black. Crown, 2001. more than four hundred thousand men, women, and children: Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis, Robert Proctor. Harvard University Press, 1988. “An entire people goes in a single direction”: “Hans Asperger: His Life and Work.” “talk about autistic!”