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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Randall, and Bryce Glass. Building Web Reputation Systems. O’Reilly Media, 2010. Fenske, Sarah. “After Our Uber Exposé, Their PR Team Tried to Dupe Us.” L.A. Weekly, October 29, 2014. http://www.laweekly.com/news/after-our-uber-expos-their-pr-team-tried-to-dupe-us-5177453. Ferguson, Jordan. “Recent Transportation Network Company Ordinances.” Best Best and Krieger LLP, October 30, 2014. http://www.bbknowledge.com/california-public-utilities-commission-cpuc/recent-transportation-network-company-ordinances-in-austin-houston-and-washington-d-c-display-variety-of-regulatory-approaches/. Fernholtz, Tim. “Is Uber Costing New Yorkers $1.2 Billion Worth of Lost Time?” Quartz, July 10, 2015. http://qz.com/449600/uber-is-slowing-down-new-york-city-but-slowing-down-uber-wont-fix-the-problem/. Fink, Erica.
8 Schor, “Debating the Sharing Economy.” 9 Gannes, “Zimride Turns Regular Cars Into Taxis With New Ride-Sharing App, Lyft.” 10 Gustin, “Lyft-Off: Car-Sharing Start-Up Raises $60 Million Led by Andreessen Horowitz.” 11 Ibid. 12 Gannes, “Zimride Turns Regular Cars Into Taxis With New Ride-Sharing App, Lyft.” 13 Gannes, “Lyft Sells Zimride Carpool Service to Rental-Car Giant Enterprise.” 14 Gannes, “Competition Brings Lyft, Sidecar and Uber Closer to Cloning Each Other.” 15 Lawler, “A Look Inside Lyft’s Financial Forecast For 2015 And Beyond.” 16 D’Onfro, “Uber CEO Founded The Company Because He Wanted To Be A ‘Baller In San Francisco.’” 17 Meelen and Frenken, “Stop Saying Uber Is Part Of The Sharing Economy.” 18 Scola, “The Black Car Company That People Love to Hate.” 19 Kalanick, “Uber Policy White Paper 1.0.” 20 Hall and Krueger, “An Analysis of the Labor Market for Uber’s Driver-Partners in the United States.” 21 Geron, “California Becomes First State To Regulate Ridesharing Services Lyft, Sidecar, UberX.” 22 Ferguson, “Recent Transportation Network Company Ordinances.” 23 California Public Utilities Commission, “Transportation Network Companies.” 24 Hirsch, “Taxi Trouble.” 25 Watters, “The MOOC Revolution That Wasn’t.” 26 Trafford, “Is John Tory Facing an Uber Battle at City Hall?” 27 Paris, “Electric ‘Boris Cars’ Are Coming to London – How Do They Work in Paris?” 28 Biddle, “Here Are the Internal Documents That Prove Uber Is a Money Loser.” 29 Kalanick and Swisher, “Uber CEO: We’re in a Political Battle with an ‘Assh*le.’” 30 Kalanick, “A Leader for the Uber Campaign.” 31 Dempsey, “Taxi Industry Regulation, Deregulation, and Reregulation.” 32 Rosen, “The Knowledge, London’s Legendary Taxi-Driver Test, Puts Up a Fight in the Age of GPS.” 33 Leisy, “TAXICAB DEREGULATION AND REREGULATION IN SEATTLE: LESSONS LEARNED.” 34 Sadlak, “Taxicab Deregulation.” 35 Dubinsky, Gollom, and Rieti, “Cab Driving Riskier than Police Work.” 36 Dale, “Council Votes to Overhaul Toronto Taxi Industry.” 37 Gans, “Is Uber Really in a Fight to the Death?”
When Airbnb ran into business permit problems in Grand Rapids, Michigan or when a neighborhood council threatened to ban Airbnb in Silver Lake, California, it was Peers that rallied Airbnb hosts to lobby councilors on the company’s behalf. When Seattle City Council decided that Lyft and Uber were breaking taxi regulations, it was Peers that mobilized supporters to sign petitions. And these efforts were not in vain: they succeeded in getting councils to back down, and in one of the organization’s most important victories they got the state of California to recognize a new category of transit organization called “Transportation Network Companies,” which created a framework within which Lyft, Uber, Sidecar, and others could operate legally, and which has been imitated in several other states since. In the summer of 2014, Peers listed 75 partner organizations on its web site, and the list gives a snapshot of the Sharing Economy landscape as it hit the mainstream. Spanish company Gudog is “a platform that brings together dog owners and trustworthy dog sitters”; with BoatBound you can “find the perfect boat with or without a captain”; if you prefer eating to boating, you can go to Cookening, a web site where “your host cooks and shares a meal with you, at his or her place.”
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar
First, an SRO must establish credibility early on through its performance. Second, self-regulatory actors must demonstrate strong enforcement capabilities. Third, SROs must be perceived as legitimate and independent. And finally, an SRO must take advantage of participants’ reputational concerns and social capital.26 The state of California has pioneered a self-regulatory approach for one sector of the sharing economy, through the creation of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) in 2013. As described in detail by Catherine Sandoval, the commissioner of the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), at the 2015 Federal Trade Commission workshop about the sharing economy, this represents an interesting partnership between government and sharing economy platforms. Here’s how it works. The CPUC has defined a set of standards that drivers of smartphone-based point-to-point urban transportation vehicles (taxis) need to conform to.
background screening, 50–51 contractor classification and, 160, 161 new social safety net and, 191 platform, 43–44 platform independence, 194 pricing, supply, and merchandizing, 194 TechCrunch, 11 Telang, Rahul, 112 Teran, Dan, 160 “There’s an Uber for Everything” (Fowler), 11 Thierer, Adam, 146 Thin sharing economies, 34 Threadless, 76 ThreeBirdNest, 107, 125, 177 3-D printing, 57–58 Thumbtack, 3, 6, 77, 164 Tiger Global Management, 25 TimeRepublik, 35 TimesFree, 43 Timms, Henry, 23, 136 Tincq, Benjamin, 23–25, 199 Tool libraries, 15 Total factor productivity (TFP), 116–117 Trade School, 43, 82 Traity, 64–65, 98 Transparency, mandated, 157 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), 153 Trust, 4, 6, 12, 28, 35, 39, 47–50 brand-based, 144–146 history of (in world trade), 142–143 digitization of, 60–65 reputation and, 97–98 Tujia, 6, 121 Tumblr, 85 Turkle, Sherry, 45 Turo, 3, 80, 107, 177, 190 Tusk, Bradley, 136 Tuzhilin, Alexander, 112 Twitter, 29, 85 Uber, 2, 3, 6, 10, 19, 48, 154, 161, 186, 197, 203 class-action lawsuit and, 160 consumer behavior changed by “data Darwinism” and, 200–201 data science and, 157, 200–201 driver classifications, 159, 160, 176, 182, 183 driver protests, 200 entrepreneurial nature of, 192, 194 financing of, 25 gift economy aspects, 35 impact on traditional taxis, 122–123 local network effects, 119–120 as microbusiness, 77, 113 new social safety net and, 191 platform, 84 platform independence, 194 pricing, supply, and merchandizing, 194, 195 regulatory challenges, 135 social capital and, 62, 64 trust and, 145 UberPool, 66 “Uber Alles” (Surowecki), 19 Ulbricht, Ross, 86 Union Square Ventures (USV), 17, 23, 25, 85–86, 90, 157, 189 United States Conference of Mayors, 131, 147 Universal Avenue, 77 UnSYSTEM, 85–86 Upwork, 77, 162, 163.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
Competitors like Sidecar (launched January of 2012) and Lyft (founded summer of 2012 as an extension of an earlier city-to-city ridesharing service known as Zimride) noticed the potential upside for a business that could extract revenue from travelers without actually investing in anything as expensive as buses, trains, or even cars; all that they needed were software algorithms and marketing. Though the California Public Utilities Commission, under pressure from existing taxi services, shut them all down, it allowed them to reopen the following year as what the state of California now calls “Transportation Network Companies.” Uber, by far the biggest kid on the ridesharing block, expanded to Paris, Toronto, and London in 2012, and hasn’t looked back. By 2015 you could download the Uber app to your smartphone and request an Uber pickup in more than two hundred cities in forty-five countries.e This kind of growth attracts all sorts of attention. USA Today picked Uber as their “tech company of the year” in 2013, and venture capitalists have invested so much in the company that, as of the end of 2014, it had a valuation somewhere north of $40 billion.
Ferguson, 215 and positive feedback, 213 and racial discrimination, 214–219 redistributive or vertical, 214 return-to-source or horizontal, 214 and TEA-21, SAFETEA, and MAP-21 bills, 213–214, 214n See also Transportation Transportation infrastructure, 228–230 and ASCE Report Card on roads, 206–208 building and maintaining, 229–230 car-centric, future of, 69–70 deficient and obsolete, 228–229 investment in, 228–229 See also Bridges; Roads; Transportation Transportation Network Companies, 199 Transportation network(s) and attractors, 163–164, 166 in Boston, 166, 167, 188 and cars, 180 in Charleston, 166–170 and destination, 164, 165 and geometry, 163 in Houston, 171–173, 220 multimodal/multinodal, 61, 157, 163–165, 169, 180–181 in New York City, 48–63, 212 in Paris, 166–167, 167 (map) and power grid, comparison between, 208 and reliability and frequency, 170–171 and route maps, 170 and routes, 165 in Salt Lake City, 191–195 in San Francisco, 188 and transport modes, 164–165 and trip generation, 163–165 in Vancouver, 160–163, 165, 218 in Zurich, 174–180, 208–209 See also Grids; Transportation; Transportation systems Transportation policy and politics, 224–227 See also Transportation Transportation system(s), 156–158, 213 and connectivity, 159–160 in crisis, 61–63 and efficiency and flexibility, 156–157 and environmental concerns, 62 and gasoline, dependence on, 62 and grid patterns, 158 (see also Grids) and mobile transport devices, 209–210 and peak demand, 206 and smart cities, 208–210 See also Grids; Transportation; Transportation networks TRAX (Utah), 192–193, 194–195 Trevelyan, George Macauley, 94–95 Triborough Bridge, 30 Trip generation, 133, 163–165, 180 Trolley car, 6, 9 Trolleybus, 163, 163n, 169, 174, 175, 176, 179 Trust, 99 Tunnel engineering, 17 Uber (ride-matching/sharing service), 75, 196–205, 198n, 235 complaints against, 199–201 and liability insurance, 202–203 and surge pricing, 200, 201 and VIM, 203–204 See also Ride-matching/sharing services UberX, 199 Underhill, Paco, 143 United Cities Motor Transport, 9n United Kingdom, 116 United States leading cause of death in, 134 walking and cycling in, 150–151 University College London, 239 University of Hawaii, 231 University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, 73, 79 University of West Virginia, 232 Urban heat islands, 118–119 Urban Land Institute, 84 Urban living, 83–85, 84n, 85n and Millennials, 111–112 and public transit, and liberals versus conservatives, 225–226 versus suburban living, 70, 86–88, 110–112 and walking (see Walkability) See also Cities Urban Space for Pedestrians (Zupan and Pushkarev), 147 US Army, Cross-Country Motor Transport Train, 15 US Department of Defense, 183 Advanced Research Projects Agency, 233 US Department of Transportation, 209 USA Today, 199 Utah, 192–195 Utah Transit Authority (UTA), 193–195, 193n Value of a Statistical Life (VSL), 40–42 Vancouver, British Columbia, 167, 180, 218 transportation network in, 160–163, 165, 218 Vanderbilt, William K., 14, 14n Vehicle miles traveled.
Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar
They soon launched Air Mattress Bed & Breakfast, later Airbnb. Airbnb is among the most successful of the shared-economy companies. Unlike many traditional businesses, shared-economy companies have no single base of customers. Rather, these companies provide two-sided markets that connect sellers (or people with something to share) with buyers (who are willing to pay for the product or service)—like the transportation-network company Lyft, which connects passengers who need a ride to drivers who have a car, and TaskRabbit, an errand-outsourcing company that connects people who need something done with “taskers” who will do the job. For Airbnb, it’s connecting local residents with room to spare and travelers who need a place to stay. To grow, shared-economy companies have to keep both sides of the market—sellers and buyers—happy.
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
“Worldwide Revenue of Major Toy Companies in 2012 (in Million U.S. Dollars),” statista.com, 2015. 22. Media Squat, WFMU, June 8, 2009. 23. Megan Rose Dickey, “We Talked to Uber Drivers—Here’s How Much They Really Make,” businessinsider.com, July 18, 2014. 24. Aaron Sankin, “Why New York Taxis Are Powerless Against Uber’s Price War,” dailydot.com, July 8, 2014. 25. Don Jergler, “Transportation Network Companies, Uber Liability Gap Worry Insurers,” insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 26. Tim Bradshaw, “Uber’s Tactics Pay Off as It Goes Head to Head with US Rival,” ft.com, September 11, 2014. 27. Fred Wilson, “Platform Monopolies,” avc.com, July 13, 2014. 28. David Streitfeld, “Amazon, a Friendly Giant as Long as It’s Fed,” nytimes.com, July 12, 2014. 29. Venkatesh Rao, “Why Amazon Is the Best Strategic Player in Tech,” forbes.com, December 14, 2011. 30.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
When a group of Uber drivers assembled outside the company’s headquarters to protest their firing, the company’s general manager said that the drivers weren’t employees and that, when they were fired, it simply amounted to deactivating the drivers’ accounts. The given reason? Low ratings from passengers. This insouciance is built into Uber, which calls itself a software company, or alternatively, a transportation network company, rather than a taxi company. (Sidecar identifies as a peer-to-peer ride-sharing service.) Uber is also known for flouting local laws by setting up business in a new city without speaking to officials responsible for managing the transport sector. There’s a great deal of unacknowledged work involved in the sharing economy. Drivers have to keep their cars clean and insured, with no help from the company nominally employing them.