Menlo Park

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pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff


Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

From his platform behind the audience, English served as the link between Engelbart onstage and the laboratory researchers who were connected from Menlo Park to the auditorium by two video microwave links and two modem lines. English served as the director, talking by telephone to Menlo Park and by a communication link to a speaker in Engelbart’s ear, cuing each part of the demonstration and controlling the camera views. The researchers had placed a truck at a strategic point on Skyline Boulevard, high above the Peninsula, to relay the microwave links to the city, and they had built two homebrew high-speed modems—1200 baud was high speed in 1968, and each modem carried data in only a single direction—to connect Engelbart’s keyboard, mouse, and key set to the SDS-940 in Menlo Park. It required a complicated choreography to mix the images from the display screen, a camera that was pointed at Engelbart’s keyboard, and a second camera in Menlo Park to show demonstrations by members of the laboratory research team.

It was the second time the Silicon Valley pioneer missed an opportunity to define the future of computing. 8.Ibid. 9.Jack Goldberg, Stanford Research Institute, e-mail to author. 10.Author interview, Charles Rosen, Menlo Park, Calif., October 10, 2001. 11.Douglas C. Engelbart Collection, Stanford Special Libraries, Stanford University. 12.Author interview, Don Allen, Menlo Park, Calif., August 31, 2001. 13.Myron Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros, 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration (Berlin: VWB, 1994), p. 18. 14.Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros, p. 19. 15.Ibid. 16.Ibid, p. 20. 17.Jay Stevens, Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream (New York: Grove Press, 1987), p. 53. 18.Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros, p. 23. 19.Ibid., p. 25. 20.Kary Mullis, Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, New York: Pantheon Books, 1998. 21.Author interview, Don Allen, Menlo Park, Calif., August 22, 2001. 22.Vic Lovell, “The Perry Lane Papers (III): How It Was,” in One Lord, One Faith, One Cornbread, eds.

Doing so by long distance was a laborious process, but he tried. He had one programmer at the time, who wrote code in Menlo Park and then traveled to Santa Monica to run and debug it, and sometimes Engelbart himself flew down to work on the machines. But SDC had set up only a tiny display with a keyboard to provide access to the SRI programmers, and to make matters worse, the terminal was a long way from the computer itself, which was kept in a secure area. The machine was in time-sharing mode for only several hours each day, and it was so unstable that it crashed repeatedly. A frustrated Engelbart began to explore the idea of remotely connecting to the SDC computer from the Control Data minicomputer in Menlo Park using an early modem. Unfortunately his engineers were never able to make the system communicate reliably.


pages: 782 words: 245,875

The Power Makers by Maury Klein


Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, British Empire, business climate, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, luminiferous ether, margin call, Menlo Park, price stability, railway mania, the scientific method, trade route, transcontinental railway, working poor

The building at 255 housed offices, storage, testing and measuring facilities, and sleeping quarters for the workers.28 The Edison Machine Works set up shop at 104 Goerck Street and plunged into the task of developing a suitable generator. Edison soon realized that for his central station he needed a bigger dynamo and a better steam engine than the Porter-Allen version he had used for the Menlo Park demonstration. A Menlo Park veteran, Charles Dean, took charge of the work. For months experiments went on to improve the original large Menlo Park dynamo. The armature posed the thorniest problem; Jehl recalled that to reshape it took fifty-five men working eight solid days and nights. From their labors emerged the giant “C” model dynamo.29 The first tests took place in January 1881; a month later the machine succeeded in powering all 426 lamps at Menlo Park. Gleefully Edison led a late-night parade to the neighborhood saloon for a round or three of drinks. Further tests led to more improvements until Edison was satisfied.

When Jehl received orders in May 1881 to move himself and his testing instruments to Goerck Street, it hit him like a bombshell. “I had always thought,” he recalled, “that Edison would never give up Menlo Park, that he would return when the urgencies of affairs in New York were over.”49 More than half a century later, through the mists of memory, Menlo Park’s image still evoked in Jehl a mixture of sorrow and pride. “Menlo Park with its laboratory was a shrine,” he wrote, “Edison was the high priest, and we ‘boys’ were his followers. I had devoted all my energies in loyal obedience to the cause.”50 Menlo Park faded into the realm between history and myth because Edison had outgrown it. Despite the demands of business, he never stopped being an inventor. Between 1881 and 1883 he produced an amazing 259 successful patents and a host of unsuccessful ones, nearly all of them related to things electrical.

Here, as elsewhere, he conveniently rearranged the past to suit his needs.4 After Edison gave his first public demonstrations in December 1879, Schuyler ordered Maxim to develop an incandescent lamp. During the summer of 1880 Maxim visited Menlo Park, where Edison devoted an entire day and evening to showing him the lamp and the works. It was a courtesy he showed any electrician who came to learn, but Maxim took more than the usual advantage of it. He sent an emissary back to Menlo Park to persuade Ludwig Boehm, Edison’s glassblower, to visit him secretly at his New York shop. When these trips were discovered by Edison’s men, Boehm abruptly left Menlo Park and turned up in the employment of Maxim. Humorless and forever the butt of practical jokes, Boehm had never been happy at Menlo Park. At United States Electric Lighting he became the invaluable informant that Maxim needed to emulate Edison’s lamp.5 In October 1880 Maxim announced his new lamp, which bore a striking resemblance to Edison’s 1879 version.


AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War by Tom McNichol


computer age, experimental subject, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, popular electronics

c04.qxp 7/15/06 8:39 PM Page 53 LET THERE BE LIGHT 53 The news of Edison’s lamp reverberated around the world. In the week following Christmas 1889, hundreds of visitors made a pilgrimage to Menlo Park to see the marvel for themselves, so many that the railroad had to run extra trains to Menlo Park. On New Year’s Eve, the throng grew to several thousand, including a New York Tribune reporter, who described the scene: “By eight o’clock the laboratory was so crowded that it was almost impossible for the assistants to pass through. The exclamation, ‘There is Edison!’ invariably caused a rush that more than once threatened to break down the timbers of the building.” Those who came to Menlo Park never forgot the sight of the glowing lamps, even if many didn’t understand how they worked. More than one visitor asked Edison how he had gotten the red-hot horseshoe into the glass globe without burning his hands.

Had he been born twenty years earlier, he would have found few opportunities as an inventor; had he come along twenty years later, he might have ended up a frustrated researcher at one of the large industrial corporations. Edison was at the right place at the right time with the right mind. In 1876, Edison built a state-of-the-art “invention factory” where he could continue his work. He set up shop in Menlo Park, New Jersey, about twenty miles outside New York City, constructing what could be considered the first modern research and development center in the world. The Menlo Park laboratory employed dozens of workers, and later hundreds, all toiling on various Edison projects. His men soon learned to adapt themselves to their boss’s trial-and-error methods. As one of his workers recalls, “Edison seemed pleased when he used to run up against a serious difficulty. It would seem to stiffen his backbone and make him more prolific of new ideas.”

Morgan, and the directors of Western Union (Edison’s one-time employer) put up a total of $300,000 to create a new company, the Edison Electric Light Company. Edison received the money in installments to fund his experiments at Menlo Park; in return he agreed to assign to the newly formed company all his inventions in the lighting field for the next five years. With funding secured, Edison had everything he needed to begin producing incandescent lamps—everything, that is, but the c04.qxp 7/15/06 46 8:39 PM Page 46 AC/DC design of the lamp itself. Edison’s initial prediction of producing a reliable, long-lasting incandescent bulb “in a few weeks” would prove to be wildly optimistic, sorely testing the inventor’s spirit. Edison plunged into the task of improving his platinum wire lamp with a world-class laboratory at his disposal. His Menlo Park workshop steadily expanded, growing to a staff of as many as sixty machinists, carpenters, and lab workers.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner


1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Brand, Stewart, Joe Bonner, and Ann Helmuth, eds. The Difficult but Possible Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, January 1969. ———, eds. The Difficult but Possible Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, July 1969. Brand, Stewart, Ann Helmuth, Joe Bonner, Tom Duckworth, Lois Brand, and Hal Hershey, eds. The Difficult but Possible Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, March 1969. Brand, Stewart, Lloyd Kahn, and Sarah Kahn, eds. Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, Spring 1970. Brand, Stewart, Cappy McClure, Hal Hershey, Mary McCabe, and Fred Richardson, eds. Whole Earth Catalog $1. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, January 1970. Branwyn, Gareth. Whole Earth Review. A Web site available at bcp/BCPgraf/CyberCulture/wholeearthreview.html (accessed August 6, 2004).

“We Owe It All to the Hippies.” Time 145, special issue, Spring 1995. ———, ed. Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, Spring 1969. B i b l i o g ra p h y [ 295 ] ———, ed. Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, Fall 1969. ———, ed. Whole Earth Catalog One Dollar. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, January 1971. ———, ed. Whole Earth Epilog: Access to Tools. San Francisco: Point Foundation, 1974. ———. Whole Earth Software Catalog. Garden City, NY: Quantum Press/Doubleday, 1984. ———. Whole Earth Software Catalog for 1986. Garden City, NY: Quantum Press/Doubleday, 1985. Brand, Stewart, Joe Bonner, Jan Ford, Diana Shugart, and Annie Helmuth, eds. The Difficult but Possible Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, September 1969. Brand, Stewart, Joe Bonner, and Ann Helmuth, eds.

., Domebook One, 46 – 47. Albright, Thomas, and Charles Perry. “The Last Twelve Hours of the Whole Earth.” In The Seven Laws of Money, edited by Michael Phillips, 121–27. Menlo Park, CA: Word Wheel; New York: Random House, 1974. Anderson, Philip W., Kenneth Joseph Arrow, David Pines, and Santa Fe Institute. The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, Held September, 1987, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1988. Aneesh, A. Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006. Ashby, Gordon, ed. Whole Earth Catalog $1. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, July 1970. Aufderheide, Patricia. Communications Policy and the Public Interest: The Telecommunications Act of 1996. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.


pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon


air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

The engineers at BBN relished opportunities to spook the telephone company repair people with their ability to detect, and eventually predict, line trouble from afar. By examining the data, BBN could sometimes predict that a line was about to go down. The phone company’s repair offices had never heard of such a thing and didn’t take to it well. When BBN’s loopback tests determined there was trouble on a line, say, between Menlo Park (Stanford) and Santa Barbara, one of Heart’s engineers in Cambridge picked up the phone and called Pacific Bell. ”You’re having trouble with your line between Menlo Park and Santa Barbara,” he’d say. “Are you calling from Menlo Park or Santa Barbara?” the Pacific Bell technician would ask. ”I’m in Cambridge, Massachusetts.” “Yeah, right.” Eventually, when BBN’s calls proved absolutely correct, the telephone company began sending repair teams out to fix whatever trouble BBN had spotted. Due to the difficulty of remotely detecting component failures in the geographically dispersed system, the network software grew more complicated with time.

ARPA Network Information Center, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. “Scenarios for Using the ARPANET.” Booklet. Prepared for the International Conference on Computer Communication, Washington, D.C., October 1972. Baran, Paul. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 5 March 1990. Barlow, John Perry. “Crime and Puzzlement.” Pinedale, Wyo., June 1990. BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation. “Annual Report of the Science Development Program.” Cambridge, Mass., 1988. Bhushan, A. K. “Comments on the File Transfer Protocol.” Request for Comments 385. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., August 1972. ———.“The File Transfer Protocol.”

Engelbart also saw NLS as a natural way to support an information clearinghouse for the ARPA network. After all, if people were going to share resources, it was important to let everyone know what was available. At the Michigan meeting, Engelbart volunteered to put together the Network Information Center, which came to be known as the NIC (pronounced “nick”). Engelbart also knew that his research group back home in Menlo Park would be equally enthusiastic about the network. His colleagues were talented programmers who would recognize an interesting project when they saw it. The conversation with Scantlebury had clarified several points for Roberts. The Briton’s comments about packet-switching in particular helped steer Roberts closer to a detailed design. In specifying the network requirements, Roberts was guided by a few basic principles.


pages: 559 words: 155,372

Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez


Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, éminence grise

As such, the hard-core cyclists hung their ridiculous Spandex nut-huggers on the towel racks, intentionally inside out to air the sweaty crotches (blech!). My sailboat living situation was unusual. The company was made up of about half suburban stiffs (older, married, childrened) who lived on the Peninsula, in “bedroom communities” like Menlo Park or Mountain View, depending on how early they had joined and how wealthy they were. The other half (young, hipster, fresh out of school) lived in the trendy and expensive parts of San Francisco. The latter were trucked in on company buses. That’s right, Facebook ran a pool of shuttles that carted people either the thirty miles from SF to Menlo Park, or from downtown Palo Alto.* These buses were a metaphor for what was happening in the Bay Area (and, I’d venture, the entire economy), a symbolism not lost on the antitechie protesters, given their penchant for smashing the buses’ windows occasionally.

IPA > IPO The more one limits oneself, the closer one is to the infinite; these people, as unworldly as they seem, burrow like termites into their own particular material to construct, in miniature, a strange and utterly individual image of the world. —Stefan Zweig, Chess Story MAY 17, 2012 Time to call Jimmy. Jimmy was my exotic beer dealer at Willows, the local family-owned grocery store in Menlo Park, which had survived the chain-store assault of Whole Foods by developing a thriving sideline in craft beer. The market was on Willow Road, which started just outside 24-karat Palo Alto, then wended its way through equally gold-plated Menlo Park and past the VA hospital that Ken Kesey once worked in and that inspired One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Almost as if on an exotic safari, Willow Road then traversed East Palo Alto, the local slum that once had the highest murder rate in the Bay Area (two of the local schools are named after César Chávez and Ron McNair, an African American astronaut), before ending at Facebook’s entrance gate, complete with Like sign ringed by an ever-present scrum of tourists.

Following the YC playbook, we’d do boot camp close to YC headquarters, isolated from the beguiling distractions of San Francisco. I found us a cheap one-bedroom apartment to serve as an office three blocks west of Castro Street, the main drag in Mountain View. Other than serving as Google’s hometown, Mountain View is just one more in the string of towns dotting the 101 and the Caltrain line from San Francisco to San Jose. More down-market and working-class than posh Palo Alto or Menlo Park, it housed a couple of startups, as well as the law firm Fenwick & West, an entity we would, sadly, come to know well. Smack in the middle of downtown was Red Rock Coffee, about the most hacker and startup-y café on the Peninsula, whose weaponized sugar-and-caffeine mochas would keep us going through the coming weeks.* I had just moved out of my Mission bachelor pad in SF and in with British Trader and little Zoë (at this point our relationship situation was tenuous but hopeful), and had furniture to spare.


pages: 501 words: 145,097

The Men Who United the States: America's Explorers, Inventors, Eccentrics and Mavericks, and the Creation of One Nation, Indivisible by Simon Winchester


British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, Donner party, estate planning, Etonian, full employment, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, James Watt: steam engine, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Plutocrats, plutocrats, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

The filament would be fragile, of course; but its lifetime could perhaps be extended and preserved by enclosing it in a vacuum in a specially blown glass bulb. Thus was born—allegedly, supposedly—the idea of the incandescent lightbulb, in the up-country wilds of Carbon County, Wyoming Territory, in the summer of 1878. But skeptics abound. Most suggest that the nation’s inventor-in-chief experimented in his laboratory in Menlo Park with scores of potential illuminating candidates—strands of burned baywood, boxwood, hickory, cedar, flax, and bamboo among them—before finally settling on the carbonized cotton thread from which he made his famous first-ever patented lightbulb in 1879. Bamboo was but one of some six thousand vegetable products that he tried. To find the longest-lasting filament, “I ransacked the world,” he said.

Huge loudspeakers set into the concrete then crackle during the daytime with recordings of Edison’s words or else with barely discernible music, mostly sounding like wasps trapped in a milk bottle, spun from his early gramophone recordings. On his birthday each February, the speakers sound with encomiums to the man who, as they say in these parts, “invented today.” The motto of Edison Township is “Let there be light,” and not without reason. During the summer of 1879 he saw to it that lamps were erected along the byways of the township’s thirty-six acres of Menlo Park, where he had sited his laboratory. They were an exhibition of his abilities and his vision, an exhibition he would employ to persuade those who mattered in New York to allow him to use the city as his first test market for lightbulbs and for the generation and distribution of the electricity to illuminate them. Not that Manhattan was exactly wanting for electric light. For the previous decade, many of the city’s streets, parks, docks, and factories had been lit by thousands of arc lights, devices which poured cascades of brilliant, unforgiving, harsh white light from between a pair of pointed carbon electrodes.

Although everyone agreed that the security the lights offered to businesses and people late at night promoted the twenty-four-hour economy that still defines Manhattan today, no one liked arc lighting, not one bit. Edison hoped New Yorkers would turn instead to his smaller, softer, more human-scale incandescent vacuum-tube illuminations—bulbs his company promised would offer “milder” light. He consequently invited all manner of grandees over to Menlo Park to demonstrate what he had in mind. It was quite a show. On his thirty-six-acre spread, he had laid out whole streets, each lined with wooden poles topped with glass lanterns, inside each of which was an incandescent bulb. Imaginary houses, designed to look like those in lower Manhattan, were also staked out, and they were lighted, too, and this whole unreal New York City was connected to an array of batteries with feeder cables (which took the power to the streets), mains wires (which took it into the houses), and service wires (which went to the individual house lamps).


pages: 224 words: 91,918

The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test by Tom Wolfe


Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, edge city, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, Menlo Park, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen

He introduced Kesey to Freudian psychology. Kesey had never run into a system of thought like this before. Lovell could point out in the most persuasive way how mundane character traits and minor hassles around Perry Lane fit into the richest, most complex metaphor of life ever devised, namely, Freud's... . And a little experimental gas . . . Yes. Lovell told him about some experiments the Veterans Hospital in Menlo Park was running with "psychomimetic" drugs, drugs that brought on temporary states resembling psychoses. They were paying volunteers $75 a day. Kesey volunteered. It was all nicely calcimined and clinical. They would put him on a bed in a white room and give him a series of capsules without saying what they were. One would be nothing, a placebo. One would be Ditran, which always brought on a terrible experience.

—see each muscle fiber decussate, pulling the poor jelly of his lip to the left and the fibers one by one leading back into infrared caverns of the body, through transistor-radio innards of nerve tangles, each one on Red Alert, the poor ninny's inner hooks desperately trying to make the little writhing bastards keep still in there, I am Doctor, this is a human specimen before me—the poor ninny has his own desert movie going on inside, only each horsehair A-rab is a threat—if only his lip, his face, would stay level, level like the honey bubble of the Official Plaster Man assured him it would— Miraculous! He could truly see into people for the first time— And yes, that little capsule sliding blissly down the gullet was LSD. VERY SOON IT WAS ALREADY TIME TO PUSH ON BEYOND another fantasy, the fantasy of the Menlo Park clinicians. The clinicians' fantasy was that the volunteers were laboratory animals that had to be dealt with objectively, quantitatively. It was well known that people who volunteered for drug experiments tended to be unstable anyway. So the doctors would come in in white smocks, with the clipboards, taking blood pressures and heart rates and urine specimens and having them try to solve simple problems in logic and mathematics, such as adding up columns of figures, and having them judge time and distances, although they did have them talk into tape recorders, too.

Humphry Osmond had invented the term "psychodelic," which was later amended to "psychedelic" to get rid of the nuthouse connotation of "psycho" ... LSD! It was quite a little secret to have stumbled onto, a hulking supersecret, in fact—the triumph of the guinea pigs! In a short time he and Lovell had tried the whole range of the drugs, LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, IT-290 the superamphetamine, Ditran the bummer, morning-glory seeds. They were onto a discovery that the Menlo Park clinicians themselves never—mighty fine irony here: the White Smocks were supposedly using them. Instead the White Smocks had handed them the very key itself. And you don't even know, bub . .. with these drugs your perception is altered enough that you find yourself looking out of completely strange eyeholes. All of us have a great deal of our minds locked shut. We're shut off from our own world.


pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler


Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

See also: [137], p. 61 and [151], p. 5. 27 For material on the delay between invention and application, see [291], pp. 47-48. 27 The reference to Appert is drawn from "Radiation Preservation of Food" by S. A. Goldblith, Science Journal, January, 1966, p. 41. 28 The Lynn study is reported briefly in "Our Accelerating Technological Change" by Frank Lynn, Management Review, March, 1967, pp. 67-70. See also: [64], pp. 3-4. 28 Young's work is found in "Product Growth Cycles—A Key to Growth Planning" by Robert B. Young, Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute. Undated. 30 Data on book production are drawn from [206], p. 21, [200], p. 74, and [207], article on Incunabuli. 31 The rate of discovery of new elements is given in [146], Document I, p, 21. 34 Erikson's statement appears in [105], p. 197. CHAPTER THREE 38 Data on the brain drain is from "Motivation Underlying the Brain Drain" [131], pp. 438, 447. 39 The passage of time as experienced by different age groups is discussed in "Subjective Time" by John Cohen in [342], p. 262. 40 Author's interviews with F.

US Department of Commerce, August 14, 1969. 79 French data from "A Cohort Analysis of Geographical and Occupational Mobility" by Guy Pourcher in Population, March-April, 1966. See also: Supplement to Chapter Five, "Les Moyens de Regulation de la Politique de l'Emploi" by Thérèse Join-Lambert and François Lagrange in Review Française du Travail, January-March, 1966, pp. 305-307. 81 Intra-US brain drain is examined in "An Exploratory Study of the Structure and Dynamics of the R&D Industry" by Albert Shapero, Richard P. Howell, and James R. Tombaugh. Menlo Park, California: Stanford Research Institute, June, 1964. 82 Whyte is quoted from [197], p. 269. 82 Jacobson story from Wall Street Journal, April 26, 1966. A more recent study of executive mobility has found that a middle manager can anticipate being moved once every two to five years. One executive reported moving 19 times in 25 years. Eighty percent of the companies surveyed were increasing the rate of transfer.

by Nathan Keyfitz in Demography, 1966, vol 3, #2, p. 581. 104 Integrator concept and Gutman quote from "Population Mobility in the American Middle Class" by Robert Gutman in [241], pp. 175-182. 106 Crestwood Heights material is from [236], p. 365. 107 Barth quote from [216], pp. 13-14. 109 Fortune survey in [84], pp. 136-155. 110 I am indebted to Marvin Adelson, formerly Principal Scientist, System Development Corp., for the idea of occupational trajectories. 110 The quote from Rice is from "An Examination of the Boundaries of Part-Institutions" by A. K. Rice in Human Relations, vol. 4, #4, 1951, p. 400. 112 Job turnover among scientists and engineers discussed in "An Exploratory Study of the Structure and Dynamics of the R&D Industry" by Albert Shapero, Richard P. Howell, and James R. Tombaugh. Menlo Park, California: Stanford Research Institute, 1966, p. 117. 112 Westinghouse data from "Creativity: A Major Business Challenge" by Thomas J. Watson, Jr., Columbia Journal of World Business, Fall, 1965, p. 32. 112 British advertising turnover rates from "The Rat Race" by W. W. Daniel in New Society, April 14, 1966, p. 7. 112 Leavitt quoted from "Are Managers Becoming Obsolete?" by Harold F. Leavitt in Carnegie Tech Quarterly, November, 1963. 113 Company officials' quotes from "The Churning Market for Executives," by Seymour Freedgood in Fortune, September, 1965, pp. 152, 236.


pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum


air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks

But beneath all that was an unmet mechanical need, an unbuilt room in the Internet’s basement: Where could all the networks connect? They came up with the answer down the road, in the heart of Silicon Valley—in a basement, in fact. Only Connect For a couple of years at the beginning of the millennium—during the quiet time after the Internet bubble burst but before it inflated again—I lived in Menlo Park, California, a supremely tidy suburb in the heart of Silicon Valley. Menlo Park is a place rich in a lot of things, Internet history among them. When Leonard Kleinrock recorded his first “host-to-host” communication—what he likes to call “the first breath of the Internet’s life”—the computer on the other end of the line was at the Stanford Research Institute, barely a mile from our apartment. A few blocks past there is the garage where Larry Page and Sergey Brin first housed Google, before they moved into real offices above a Persian rug store in nearby Palo Alto.

It wasn’t big news at the time—the only person I knew on Facebook then was my sister-in-law, still in college—but it was clear that it made perfect sense. As E. B. White said of New York, this was the place you came if you were willing to be lucky. Just as Wall Street, Broadway, or Sunset Boulevard each contain a dream, so too does this corner of Silicon Valley. Most often, that dream is to build a new piece of the Internet, preferably one worth a billion dollars. (Facebook, by the way, recently moved into a fifty-seven-acre campus, back in Menlo Park.) An economic geographer would describe all this as a “a business cluster.” Silicon Valley’s unique combination of talent, expertise, and money has created an atmosphere of astounding innovation—as well as what the local venture capitalist John Doerr once described as the “greatest legal accumulation of wealth in human history.” Indeed, this place, perhaps more than anywhere else in the world, oozes with a collective belief in the limitless potential of technology, and that technology’s potential to turn into limitless money.

See Deutscher Commercial Internet Exchange Gates, Bill, 57 Gilbert, John, 174–75, 176, 177–78, 179–80 Global Crossing, 125, 153, 183, 202–3, 208, 209–10, 253 Global Internet Geography “GIG” (TeleGeography), 14, 27 Global Switch, 183 globalization of “peering,” 125–26 undersea cables and, 197 Goldman Sachs, 261 Google Cerf at, 45 in China, 257 as content provider, 79 data centers/storage for, 229, 231, 234–35, 237–50, 254, 255, 257, 258, 261 and Internet as series of tubes, 5 invisibility of political borders and, 147 IPO for, 69–70 Menlo Park location of, 69 mission statement of, 248 as most-visited website, 127 NANOGers at, 120 New York City location of, 163–64, 172 number of daily searches on, 231 peering and, 122–23, 125–26 privacy issues at, 258 secrecy/security at, 242–50, 254, 257 Gore, Al, 63 government, Dutch, AMS–IX and, 147 government, US, role at MAE-East of, 62–63. See also military, US; specific department or agency Great Eastern (cable ship), 203, 253 Great Western Railway, 203 Greenpeace, 230, 261 Hafner, Katie, 51 Halifax, Canada: cable station near, 211 Hankins, Greg, 157, 159 HEPnet, 52 Hewlett-Packard, 74 Hibernia-Atlantic, 199 High Performance Computing and Communications Act (“Gore Bill”), 63 High Rise (Ballard), 181–82 Homeland Security, US Department of, 238 Honeywell DDP–516 minicomputer, 39, 44 Hong Kong, 128, 194, 198, 200 How to Lie with Maps (Monmonier), 15 hubs, 64, 109–10.


pages: 313 words: 93,214

Girls & Sex: Navigating the Complicated New Landscape by Peggy Orenstein


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Golden Gate Park, index card, Menlo Park, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Snapchat, software studies

Gender and Society 23 (2009): 589–616. Harris, Michelle. “Shaved Paradise: A Sociological Study of Pubic Hair Removal Among Lehigh University Undergraduates.” Senior thesis, 2009, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. “Teen Sexual Activity.” Fact Sheet, December 2002. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation/YM Magazine. National Survey of Teens: Teens Talk About Dating, Intimacy, and Their Sexual Experiences. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, March 27, 1998. Herbenick, Debby, et al. “Sexual Behavior in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample of Men and Women Ages 14–94.” Journal of Sexual Medicine 7, suppl. 5 (2010): 255–65. Hirschman, Celeste, Emily A. Impett, and Deborah Schooler.

Impett, and Deborah Schooler. “Dis/Embodied Voices: What Late-Adolescent Girls Can Teach Us About Objectification and Sexuality.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 3, no. 4 (2006): 8–20. Hoff, Tina, Liberty Green, and Julia Davis. “National Survey of Adolescents and Young Adults: Sexual Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences,” 2004. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA, p. 14. Horan, Patricia F., Jennifer Phillips, and Nancy E. Hagan. “The Meaning of Abstinence for College Students.” Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education for Adolescents and Children 2, no. 2 (1998): 51–66. Human Rights Campaign. Growing Up LGBT in America. Human Rights Campaign, Washington, DC, 2012. Impett, Emily, Deborah Schooler, and Deborah Tolman. “To Be Seen and Not Heard: Femininity Ideology and Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Health.”

Lafferty. “Abstinence-Only and Comprehensive Sex Education and the Initiation of Sexual Activity and Teen Pregnancy.” Journal of Adolescent Health 42 (2008): 334–51. Krebs, Christopher P., Christine H. Lindquist, and Tara D. Warner. The Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) Study Final Report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2007. Kunkel, D., Keren Eyal, Keli Finnerty, et al. Sex on TV 4. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005. Lamb, Sharon. “Feminist Ideals for a Healthy Female Adolescent Sexuality: A Critique.” Sex Roles 62 (2010): 294–306. Laumann, Edward O., Robert T. Michael, Gina Kolata, et al. Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1995. Lefkowitz, Bernard. Our Guys: The Glen Ridge Rape and the Secret Life of the Perfect Suburb.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management

In September, Shriram was asked to join Page and Brin as one of three Google directors, a seat he continues to hold on a board that now consists of ten members. For $1,700 a month, the just-formed company sublet new office space: the two-car Menlo Park garage and two downstairs spare rooms of an 1,800-square-foot house in Menlo Park. The owners were friends: Susan Wojcicki, an engineer at Intel, and her husband Dennis Troper, a product manager at a tech company. The newly constituted Google had found its way to them because Sergey had dated Susan’s roommate at Stanford Business School. The house was not located in the upscale sections of Menlo Park, near the Sand Hill Road offices made famous by the venture capitalists whose offices are there, or in nearby Atherton, where many of these venture capitalists live and in 2008 an acre of land could sell for $3 million.

A computer was Quincy’s childhood pet. He enjoyed a privileged childhood—Collegiate, Phillips Exeter, Yale philosophy major—that suggested a life on Wall Street, or the CIA. His ponytail did not. He cut it, though, for his first job as an analyst for Morgan Stanley’s Capital Markets group, in 1994. But computers and technology were what really inspired him. He moved the next year to the technology group in Menlo Park, under Frank Quattrone. He worked on the 1995 Netscape IPO, going on the road with cofounders Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, and with CEO James Barksdale. In October 1995, he joined Netscape as their chief deal maker and Wall Street liaison. He helplessly watched as Microsoft bundled the free Internet Explorer browser in with its dominant operating system, weakening Netscape. Andreessen’s company was profitable, but Netscape was sold to AOL for $4.2 billion in 1999, where the browser lives as the open-source Firefox.

Likewise, most traditional media companies in the Google era concentrated more on defending their turf rather than extending it. Belatedly, most have begun to dip their toes, and in some cases entire feet, into new media efforts, hoping that technology could also be their friend. In the summer of 2008, CBS became the first full-scale traditional media company to open a Silicon Valley office in Menlo Park. Quincy Smith, who had been promoted to CEO of CBS Interactive, supervised the office and averaged two days a week there. Under his prodding, CBS made a number of digital acquisitions. The biggest was the $1.8 billion CBS spent to acquire CNET, whose online networks generated revenues of $400 million. It was a pricey acquisition—three times what Murdoch spent for MySpace in 2005—but CEO Moonves said he hoped the digital acquisition would add “at least two percentage points” to CBS profits and growth rates.


pages: 478 words: 131,657

Tesla: Man Out of Time by Margaret Cheney


AltaVista, dematerialisation, fudge factor, invention of radio, luminiferous ether, Menlo Park

At first glance his plain face might have seemed unremarkable, but it never took visitors long to be impressed by the light of fierce intelligence and relentless energy that shone in his eyes. At the time, Edison was spread uncomfortably thin, even for a genius. He had opened the Edison Machine Works on Goerck Street and the Edison Electric Light Company at 65 Fifth Avenue. His generating station at 255–57 Pearl Street was serving the whole Wall Street and East River area. And he had a big research laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey, where a large number of men were employed and where the most astonishing things could happen. Sometimes Edison himself could be seen there, dancing around “a little iron monster of a locomotive” that got its direct current from a generating station behind the laboratory, and which had once flown off the rails at a speed of forty miles per hour to the delight of its creator.1 To this laboratory, also, Sarah Bernhardt had come to have her voice immortalized on Edison’s phonograph.

In addition to redesigning the twenty-four dynamos completely and making major improvements to them, he installed automatic controls, using an original concept for which patents were obtained. The personality differences between the two men doomed their relationship from the start. Edison disliked Tesla for being an egghead, a theoretician, and cultured. Ninety-nine percent of genius, according to the Wizard of Menlo Park, was “knowing the things that would not work.” Hence he himself approached each problem with an elaborate process of elimination. Of these “empirical dragnets” Tesla later would say amusedly, “If Edison had a needle to find in a haystack, he would proceed at once with the diligence of the bee to examine straw after straw until he found the object of his search. I was a sorry witness of such doings, knowing that a little theory and calculation would have saved him ninety percent of his labor.”7 The well-known editor and engineer Thomas Commerford Martin recorded that Edison, unable to find Tesla’s obscure birthplace in Croatia on a map, once seriously asked him whether he had ever eaten human flesh.

Of the circumstances in which his widowed mother then lived or whether he ever contributed to her support once he began to earn money in America, unfortunately no records have been found. That she often dominated his thoughts, however, future events were to disclose. Edison felt a flood of outrage when he first heard the news of Tesla’s deal with Westinghouse for his alternating-current system. At last the lines were clearly drawn. Soon his propaganda machine at Menlo Park began grinding out a barrage of alarmist material about the alleged dangers of alternating current.4 As Edison saw it, accidents caused by AC must, if they could not be found, be manufactured, and the public alerted to the hazards. Not only were fortunes at stake in the War of the Currents but also the personal pride of an egocentric genius. By now the bad times had turned to boom. The country was expansion-minded.


pages: 482 words: 147,281

A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906 by Simon Winchester


Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, California gold rush, Golden Gate Park, index card, indoor plumbing, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, place-making, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, supervolcano, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

Once the rock had ruptured the shocks then travelled, and at a fantastic speed, in a north-westerly direction, disturbing people – Mr Miller and Miss Gieseke among them – in the myriad ways that a shock as impressive as this one can. The formal classifying number of the event (or the eq, as such happenings are generally known in the seismological community) was NC51147892, with the NC being the internationally recognized two-letter code for the Northern California Regional Seismic Network, based at the USGS headquarters at Menlo Park, at the upper end of Silicon Valley. The regional moment magnitude of the quake, which is what is usually calculated and released to the press, was 6.0.* No one was hurt by it, nor was there any but the most mildly inconvenient damage. In normal circumstances, and in most places, this would merely have been a moderately significant event. But the circumstances, and the place, were anything but normal – and, as it happens, the event of 28 September 2004 was probably more measured a sesmic happening than any that had ever been recorded in the history of this planet.

A photocopied guide handed to visitors relates the kind of thing: ‘on your right, look for a 4' × 4' × 4' structure… this contains a seismometer’, ‘on the south side of the road there is a piece of PVC pipe sticking out of the ground with the letters JPL-GPS – this belong to the Jet Propulsion Lab’, ‘on the left side is a USGS creep-meter… do not touch the thin metal wire’. The information gathered by the machines is broadcast to thousands out in the seismically fascinated world. Some is sent via tiny satellite aerials over to Colorado, some goes to a university near San Diego, still more to the Geological Survey’s regional headquarters at Menlo Park, while other parcels of information are 12. Drilling equipment in a rancher’s field outside Parkfield, California. Measuring devices being placed at the base of the drill hole are expected to give vital information about what exactly happens at the very edge of the earthquake-triggering San Andreas Fault. flashed to monitors in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Oxford, London and Brisbane. Parkfield may be a town very little known in most of the rest of lay California; but to members of the geological priesthood with a keen interest in how the world is believed to work, it is the centre of the seismic universe.

New York: HarperCollins, 2001 Leach, Frank A. Recollections of a Mint Director. Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers and Marina Galleries, 1987 Lockwood, Charles. Suddenly San Francisco: The Early Years of an Instant City. San Francisco: The San Francisco Examiner Division of the Hearst Corporation, 1978 Longstreet, Stephen. The Wilder Shore. New York: Doubleday, 1968 McDowell, Jack (ed.). San Francisco. Menlo Park, CA: Lane Publishing, 1977 McGroarty, John S. California: Its History and Romance. Los Angeles: Grafton Publishing, 1911 McLeod, Alexander. Pigtails and Gold Dust. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, 1947 McPhee, John. Assembling California. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1993 —Annals of the Former World. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998 Mader, George G., et al. Geology and Planning: The Portola Valley Experience.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Despite the war on drugs, despite the constantly reconstituting government drug advisory panels and moral panics over designer drugs with implausible names, these days drugs like acid, ecstasy, dope and speed are classified as “recreational”, with all the easy hedonism that nomenclature implies. So it’s important to remember that psychedelics were once invested with the hopes of a generation as a serious, mind-expanding, “technology”. In 1968, Brand had been one of over 150 test subjects detailed in the first-ever published research into the effects of LSD produced by the International Foundation for Advanced Study (IFAS), Myron Stolaroff’s Menlo Park-based research centre. But it was a different kind of research that was going on in sixties West Coast America that ultimately turned Brand’s head. “The difference between drugs and computers,” Brand tells me, “was that drugs levelled off and computers didn’t. I mean, technology is supposed to come in S-curves. They develop gradually and then they get steep and then they level off. Computer technology has not done that yet.

Today, you can watch the 100-minute demonstration online, on the Stanford University website. Engelbart’s voice echoes across the fuzz of the broadcast audio, giving him an Orson Welles quality which is only augmented by the vision of his disembodied head, cradled in a headset and microphone, fading in and out of the main camera shot which is pointed directly at the computer screen he has projected in front of the audience. Shots too, of his team, including Brand, stationed live at Menlo Park, orchestrating parts of the demonstration, fade in and out. Because it’s the sixties, the whole film has a sci-fi quality to it, a feeling which must have been shared by the audience at the time, but for opposite reasons. On occasion, the film shows only a flat blinking cursor, awaiting commands while a second green-on-black dot flits around the screen, controlled by Engelbart’s mechanical mouse, which he directs with his right hand.

At about the same time, James Lovelock was engaged in similar thinking, thinking that would eventually lead him to formulate his famous Gaia Theory. For Brand, and for the hippies who bought into his “Whole Earth” enthusiasm, the idea of the earth as a system was a powerful one. And it was also seductive: it certainly looked like a better system than the military industrial complex they had fled back to the land from. Later in 1968, back in Menlo Park, Brand began preparations for the first print run of the Whole Earth Catalog, a Sears catalogue for hippy communards that juxtaposed practical advice and tools for back-to-the-landers with intellectual stimulation in the form of reviews of books Brand and his fellow editors thought should be informing the ideals of their peers. The first edition ran to 66 pages, and was published in the autumn.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

For the young computer hacker, Stanford Research Institute, soon after renamed SRI International, was an entry point into a world that allowed skilled programmers to create elegant and elaborate software machines. During the 1950s SRI pioneered the first check-processing computers. Duvall arrived to work on an SRI contract to automate an English bank’s operations, but the bank had been merged into a larger bank, and the project was put on an indefinite hold. He used the time for his first European vacation and then headed back to Menlo Park to renew his romance with computing, joining the team of artificial intelligence researchers building Shakey. Like many hackers, Duvall was something of a loner. In high school, a decade before the movie Breaking Away, he joined a local cycling club and rode his bike in the hills behind Stanford. In the 1970s the movie would transform the American perception of bike racing, but in the 1960s cycling was still a bohemian sport, attracting a ragtag assortment of individualists, loners, and outsiders.

Before long he switched his allegiance and moved down the hall to work in Engelbart’s lab. In the space of less than a year he went from struggling to program the first useful robot to writing the software code for the two computers that first connected over a network to demonstrate what would evolve to become the Internet. Late in the evening on October 29, 1969, Duvall connected Engelbart’s NLS software in Menlo Park to a computer in Los Angeles controlled by another young hacker via a data line leased from the phone company. Bill Duvall would become the first to make the leap from research to replace humans with computers to using computing to augment the human intellect, and one of the first to stand on both sides of an invisible line that even today divides two rival, insular engineering communities. Significantly, what started in the 1960s was then accelerated in the 1970s at a third laboratory also located near Stanford.

He integrated a documentation system into the editor the programmers were using to design their expert systems. That update made it possible to simply click on any function or command to view a related online manual. Having easy access to the software documentation made it simpler for developers to program the computers and reduce the number of bugs. At the time, however, he was unfamiliar with the history of Doug Engelbart’s Augmentation Research Center in Menlo Park during the 1960s and 1970s. He had moved to California to get a master’s degree in computer science, with a plan to move back to France after graduation. It had been a fun sojourn in California, but the French computer firm would pay for his schooling only if he returned to Europe. Not long before he was scheduled to return, however, he stumbled across a small blurb advertising a job in an artificial intelligence research laboratory at SRI.


pages: 250 words: 73,574

Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today's Computers by John MacCormick, Chris Bishop


Ada Lovelace, AltaVista, Claude Shannon: information theory, fault tolerance, information retrieval, Menlo Park, PageRank, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush

They soon ran out of space and moved into the garage.) But perhaps even more remarkable than the HP and Apple success stories is the launch of a search engine called Google, which operated out of a garage in Menlo Park, California, when first incorporated as a company in September 1998. By that time, Google had in fact already been running its web search service for well over a year—initially from servers at Stanford University, where both of the cofounders were Ph.D. students. It wasn't until the bandwidth requirements of the increasingly popular service became too much for Stanford that the two students, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, moved the operation into the now-famous Menlo Park garage. They must have been doing something right, because only three months after its legal incorporation as a company, Google was named by PC Magazine as one of the top 100 websites for 1998.

See compression Lovelace, Ada Love's Labour's Lost low-density parity-check code Lycos LZ77 Machine Learning (book) machine learning. See pattern recognition MacKay, David Manasse, Mark master. See replica matching mathematician Mathematician's Apology, A mathematics; ancient problems in; beauty in; certainty in; history of; pretend McCorduck, Pamela MD5 medicine megapixel memex memory: computer; flash Menlo Park metaword; in HTML metaword trick; definition of. See also indexing Metzler, Donald Meyer, Carl D. Microsoft Microsoft Excel Microsoft Office Microsoft Research Microsoft Word mind MIT Mitchell, Tom MNIST mobile phone. See phone monitor MP3 MSN multiplicative padlock trick MySpace Najork, Marc NameSize.exe NEAR keyword in search query; for ranking nearest-neighbor classifier nearest-neighbor trick Netix network: computer; equipment; neural (see neural network); protocol; social (see social network) neural network; artificial; biological; convolutional; for sunglasses problem; for umbrella problem; training neuron neuroscience New York New York University nine algorithms Nobel Prize Norberg, Arthur Ntoulas, Alexandras number-mixing trick object recognition one-way action online banking.


pages: 270 words: 75,803

Wall Street Meat by Andy Kessler


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, banking crisis, George Gilder, index fund, Jeff Bezos, market bubble, Menlo Park,, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, Y2K

I suspect there was some standoffclause in their departure agreement with Morgan Stanley that said they couldn’t recruit anyone to work for them, but, as word spread, people found them and interviewed to be part of the Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Technology group. Notice that this was not the “Technology Banking group,” or “Technology Research group,” or “Technology Trading group.” Instead, the umbrella was held high over all of them. They hired more that 150 people within a week, to work in the old EF Hutton building in New York, or in Menlo Park, California, so as to be near venture capitalists who were directing the IPOs of their investments. Frankie had analysts, bankers and traders—everything that was needed to create that “boutique within a bulge bracket” firm. · · · While all this was going on in 1996, Fred Kittler, my old client from JP Morgan, and I started our very own firm, Velocity 170 Netscape IPO Capital Management. Fred insisted the name start with a V, something about being Pynchon-esque.

Once again, Frank had a huge incentive to grow revenues at all cost. And he did. No Morgan Stanley-esque filter needed. If there was a deal to be done, they did it. They also had a fund on the side to invest in private deals. There was a digital camera operating system company we were looking at, and Frankie was going to throw some cash in the deal as well. He told Fred and me to come in and talk to him about it. Their offices on El Camino in Menlo Park were two minutes from my house. When you walked in, Frankie’s office was the first one by the door. He could see everyone who was coming and going. Frank’s clothing budget hadn’t kept up with his compensation. As we walked to a conference room, I noticed a big rip in the back of his pin-stripe suit pants, and his wallet falling out. “Hey Frankie, your wallet is so fat that it’s ripped your pants.”

Eventually, we just took them from the mailman and immediately tossed them out. Not five years earlier, Morgan Stanley had four technology 187 Wall Street Meat analysts with Frank Quattrone and a small crew as technology investment bankers. Now they had over fifty analysts covering every technology industry segment, including “periph-reeals,” and over one hundred investment bankers in their Sand Hill Road office in Menlo Park, California, alone. I struggled with what made this whole system tick. I had friends who had growth funds with $10 billion, $20 billion, even $40 billion in assets. They did absolutely no fundamental research. No Hank Hermann-like Piranha tactics to figure out what analysts were saying and how the market would react to the next piece of news. They just sat in conference rooms and had IPOs pitched to them.


pages: 39 words: 4,665

Data Source Handbook by Pete Warden

Amazon:, Menlo Park, openstreetmap, phenotype, social graph

You can use a simple REST interface with no authentication required, or you can download the entire database under a Creative Commons license if you want to run your own analysis and processing on it. There’s some unusual data available, including weather, ocean names, and elevation: curl "" {"address":{"postalcode":"94025","adminCode2":"081","adminCode1":"CA", "street":"Roble Ave","countryCode":"US","lng":"-122.18032", "placename":"Menlo Park","adminName2":"San Mateo", "distance":"0.04","streetNumber":"671", "mtfcc":"S1400","lat":"37.45127","adminName1":"California"}} US Census If you’re interested in American locations, the Census site is a mother lode of freely downloadable information. The only problem is that it can be very hard to find what you’re looking for on the site. A good place to start for large data sets is the Summary File 100-Percent Data download interface.


From Satori to Silicon Valley: San Francisco and the American Counterculture by Theodore Roszak


Buckminster Fuller, germ theory of disease, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Marshall McLuhan, megastructure, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

In 7 any case, the Governor and the Regents quashed the experiment before it had the chance to fail, leaving it as another emblematic gesture along the way. The history of the period is mainly a collection of such emblems and symbols, evocative but ephemeral. There were those, however, more ing of the wild asparagus who took the stalk- seriously and put a deal of inventive thought and practical energy into the skills of postindustrial survival. There was, for example, the Portola Institute in Menlo Park, which From dates from 1966. it, along a number of routes, one can trace the origins of several ingenious projects in the Bay Area whose aim was to scale- down, democratize, and humanize our hypertrophic technological society. These included the Briarpatch Network, the Farallones Institute, Urban House, the Simple Living tional scene, the most the Project. Integral On the na- visible of these efforts was the Whole Earth Catalog of 1968, a landmark publication of the period.


pages: 51 words: 8,543

Dear Data by Giorgia Lupi, Stefanie Posavec, Maria Popova


Menlo Park STEFANIE POSAVEC is a data designer whose work focuses on non-traditional representations of data derived from language, literature or scientific topics. Often using a hand-crafted approach, her work has been exhibited at, among others, MoMA in New York, CCB in Rio de Janeiro, the Science Gallery in Dublin and the V&A in London. In 2013 she was Facebook’s first data-artist-in-residence at their Menlo Park campus.


pages: 744 words: 142,748

Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley


air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott:, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Snell gave Perrin a four-page typeset technical document that Sheridan had gotten from Draper titled “AUTOVON Access Info.” Sheridan even offered to demonstrate the techniques described in the document for the FBI and AT&T if they wanted. Sheridan also told the FBI that Draper had a small assembly line going for red boxes that were to be sold in the near future. He was actively using a blue box from the house across the street from People’s Computer Company, or PCC, a small nonprofit in Menlo Park dedicated to teaching people about computers. And Draper was also red boxing from a pay phone just down the street from PCC, Sheridan reported. The AUTOVON document caused quite a stir. It described, in detail, how to use a blue box to access the military’s phone system from the civilian telephone network via a phreaking technique called guard banding. Guard banding added a higher-pitched tone—usually 3,200 Hz, or seventh octave G—into the 2,600 Hz normally used by a blue box to reset a trunk line.

Perrin wasn’t surprised. Despite Sheridan’s failure to hack into AUTOVON earlier in the day, Perrin had developed a certain confidence in Sheridan’s claims ever since getting the White House on the phone. “What the hell are you calling me about? I already knew that,” Perrin recalls telling them. He hung up and went back to sleep. Just two miles from Stanford University, the 1900 block of Menalto Avenue in Menlo Park was a collection of small storefronts on a tree-lined street in a mostly residential neighborhood. You wouldn’t have thought so from a casual glance but it was a nexus of nerdly activity. A fixture on the block was the electric vehicle pioneer Roy Kaylor. Kaylor was an inveterate tinkerer, a Stanford electrical engineer, an odd blend of hippie and West Point graduate. He had been building electric vehicles since 1965; his “Kaylor Kits” converted Volkswagen Bugs to run on electric motors and batteries.

Three representatives from Pacific Telephone attended. The Pacific Telephone people said they would need to talk to their attorneys to figure out how they could help. For its part, the FBI started spot surveillances on Draper’s known haunts to get a handle on his activities. Agents were assigned to check two locations on a random basis. The first was Draper’s apartment in Mountain View. The second was the People’s Computer Company in Menlo Park. Draperism. That was John Draper’s term for what he viewed as the persistent bad luck that seemed to follow him around like a rain cloud. Draperism was never his fault, never the result of anything he had done. Like the weather, it was a purely external phenomenon, something that just happened. Whatever it was, the Wall Street Journal did Draper no favors when the newspaper ran a front-page story that same day—January 27, 1976—titled “Blue Boxes Spread from Phone Freaks to the Well-Heeled.”


pages: 559 words: 157,112

Dealers of Lightning by Michael A. Hiltzik


Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, Dynabook, El Camino Real, index card, Jeff Rulifson, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, oil shock, popular electronics, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

Toward the end of 1970 Taylor called in some of his old chits to stage a pair of dazzling heists. The first was a raid on the only laboratory on the West Coast—possibly the country—whose work on interactive computing met his stern standards. The lab belonged to the legendary engineer Douglas C. bart, an adamantine visionary who held court out of a small think tank called SRI, or the Stanford Research Institute, a couple of miles north of Palo Alto in the community of Menlo Park. There Engelbart had established his “Augmentation Research Center.” The name derived from his conviction that the computer was not only capable of assisting the human thought process, but reinventing it on a higher plane. The “augmentation of human intellect,” as he defined it, meant that the computer’s ability to store, classify, and retrieve information would someday alter the very way people thought, wrote, and figured.

Love at first sight is perhaps the wrong term to use, but it was as close to that as you can get.” One other individual entranced by Engelbart’s work was Bob Taylor. At NASA in 1963 Taylor had saved Engelbart’s lab by scrounging enough money to overcome a budget crisis. After moving on to ARPA he turned the trickle of funding into a flood. By the end of the decade the Augmentation Research Center, fueled by ARPA’s half-million-dollar annual grant and occupying one entire wing of SRI’s Menlo Park headquarters, reigned as the think tank’s dominant research program. What it produced was nothing short of astonishing. Obsessed with developing new ways for man and computer to interact, Engelbart linked video terminals to mainframes by cable and communicated with the machines via televised images. To allow the user to move the insertion point, or cursor, from place to place in a block of text instantaneously, he outfitted a hollowed-out block of wood with two small wheels fixed at right angles so it could be rolled smoothly over a flat surface.

It cost money…The nice people at ARPA and NASA, who were funding us, effectively had to say, ‘Don’t tell me!’” The effort was worth every penny. The audience was riveted, as Engelbart in his subdued drone described and demonstrated a fully operational system of interactive video conferencing, multimedia displays, and split-screen technology. At one point half of a twenty-foot-tall projection screen was occupied by a live video image of Engelbart on stage, the other half by text transmitted live from Menlo Park (it was a shopping list including apples, oranges, bean soup, and French bread). Minutes later the screen carried a live video image of a hand rolling the unusual “mouse” around a desktop while a superimposed computer display showed how the cursor simultaneously and obediently followed its path. The piece de resistance was Engelbart’s implementation of the memex. The screen showed how a user could select a single word in a text document and be instantly transported to the relevant portion of a second document—the essence of hypertext, found today, some thirty years later, on every World Wide Web page and countless word-processed documents.


pages: 464 words: 155,696

Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender, Rick Tetzeli


Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, computer age, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Isaac Newton, Jony Ive, market design, McMansion, Menlo Park, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

I was thoroughly fascinated, and equally wary; I didn’t want to get taken in by the notoriously charismatic Mr. Jobs. THE DRIVE SOUTH to Palo Alto is a trip through the history of Silicon Valley. From Route 92 in San Mateo over to Interstate 280, a “bucolic” eight-laner skirting San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs Reservoir, which store drinking water for San Francisco piped in from the Sierras; past the blandly ostentatious venture-capitalist habitat along Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park and traversing the oblique, mile-long Stanford Linear Accelerator, which slashes like a hairline fracture through the landscape and beneath the freeway; past the “Stanford Dish” radio telescope, and the white-faced Herefords and ornate oak trees dotting the expansive greenbelt behind the university campus. The winter and spring rains had resurrected the prairie grass on the hills, turning them briefly as green as a golf course from their usual dull yellow, and peppering them with patches of orange, purple, and yellow wildflowers.

But for months afterward, Steve denied he was Lisa’s father and refused to pay child support. He even resisted when a court-ordered paternity test established the likelihood that he was the father at 94.4 percent; it was as if the mere fact of his denial would negate the proof. When he finally starting paying child support of $385 a month, he continued to protest that he might well not be Lisa’s father. He saw her rarely, letting Chrisann raise Lisa on her own in a small house in Menlo Park. It would take years for Steve to bring Lisa into his life in any significant way, and later he would repeatedly express deep regret over his behavior. He knew he had made a terrible mistake. The event obviously crossed the line of what anyone would consider acceptable behavior. Lisa has spoken about the distance she felt from her father, and the confusion and instability she felt as a child.

EARLY ON AT NeXT, Steve said the most important thing he could do was “architect a great company.” This potentially noble sentiment became a half-baked and confused endeavor, and yet another distraction. Sometimes Steve’s good intentions could lead to a deep intellectual self-deception, in which trivial issues loomed larger than life and fundamental realities were swept under the rug. He did try to be a good boss. For example, Steve hosted annual “family picnics” for his employees in Menlo Park. They were kid-oriented Saturday affairs, featuring clowns, volleyball, burgers and hot dogs, and even hokey events like sack races. At his invitation, I attended one in 1989 with my daughter, Greta, who was five years old at the time. Steve, who was barefoot, sat with me on a hay bale and chatted for an hour or so while Greta wandered off to watch the Pickle Family Circus, a Bay Area comedic troupe of acrobats and jugglers that Steve had hired.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway


Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Department of Defense started the ARPAnet, the first network to use Baran’s packet-switching technology. The ARPAnet allowed academics to share resources and transfer files. In its early years, the ARPAnet (later renamed DARPAnet) existed unnoticed by the outside world, with only a few hundred participating computers, or “hosts.” All addressing for this network was maintained by a single machine located at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California. By 1984 the network had grown larger. Paul Mockapetris invented a new addressing scheme, this one decentralized, called the Domain Name System (DNS). The computers had changed also. By the late 1970s and early 1980s personal computers were coming to market and appearing in homes and offices. In 1977, researchers at Berkeley released the highly influential “BSD” flavor of the UNIX operating system, which was available to other institutions at Magazine in 1957, “that a great despotism is now armed with rockets of enormous thrust, and guidance systems that could deliver a hydrogen warhead of one or more megatons to any spot in the United States.”

Prior to the introduction of DNS in 1984, a single computer, called a name server, held all the name-to-number conversions. They were contained in a single text file. There was one column for all the names and another for all the numbers—like a simple reference table. This document, called HOSTS.TXT, 23. Ted Byfield, “DNS: A Short History and a Short Future,” Nettime, October 13, 1998. Physical Media 47 lived in Menlo Park, California, at the Network Information Center of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI-NIC).24 Other computers on the Internet would consult this document periodically, downloading its information so that their local reference tables would carry the most up-to-date data. The entire system of naming referred to in this file was called the name space. This early system was a centralized network, par excellence, with SRI-NIC at the center.

See Layer, link Linz, Austria, 214, 227 Ljubljana, 212 Lovelace, Ada, 185, 188–189 Lovink, Geert, 17–18, 175–176 Lyon, Matthew, 122 Madness and Civilization (Foucault), 21 Malraux, André, 113 Mann, Omri, 179 Manovich, Lev, 19, 40, 52n29, 73–74 Mandel, Ernst, 23–24 Marx, Karl, 4, 87–102, 110, 113, 160 and “species being,” 13 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 151, 169, 182 Masters of Deception (Slatalla and Quittner), 164 Mattelart, Armand, 241–242 Max Planck Institute, 112 McKinsey & Company, 159 McLuhan, Marshall, 10, 18, 106n84, 212 McNamara, Robert, 205n72 Media, dead, 68 Mediation, 68 Melissa (virus), 184, 187 Memex (Bush), 59 Menlo Park (California), 48 Mentor, The, 156, 213 LambdaMOO, 191 Language, 50, 75, 164, 165, 195. See also Code; Programming, language Layer, 39–41, 129–130 application, 40, 130 Internet, 41, 130 link, 41, 130 transport, 41, 130 Lazzarato, Maurizio, 61 Leopoldseder, Hannes, 88, 103 Lessig, Lawrence, 40, 120, 141 Lévy, Pierre, 60, 169 Levy, Steven, 151–153, 169–170 LeWitt, Sol, 164–165 Lialina, Olia, 219, 224–225 Licklider, J.


pages: 342 words: 94,762

Wait: The Art and Science of Delay by Frank Partnoy


algorithmic trading, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, blood diamonds, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, impulse control, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nick Leeson, paper trading, Paul Graham, payday loans, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, six sigma, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, upwardly mobile, Walter Mischel

The story originates from a passage in a biography of Newton, Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life, written by one of his contemporaries, William Stukeley, and published more than two decades after Newton’s death. The relevant passages from the book are available online at The Royal Society, “Newton’s Apple,” 10. Thomas Edison Center at Menlo Park, “Young Edison,” (excerpted from Westfield Architects and Preservation Consultants, Preservation Master Plan, Edison Memorial Tower, Museum, and Site (2007). 11. “Answers for Young People,”; Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web (HarperOne, 1999). 12. “Answers for Young People.”

Fry was fascinated, but he didn’t think those applications made sense, and at that moment he couldn’t come up with any others.8 We like eureka stories. Popular lore is filled with this kind of thing. One warm evening, Isaac Newton is sitting under an apple tree in his garden when an apple falls and bonks him on the head; he instantly discovers gravity.9 Thomas Edison is staying up all night at Menlo Park, frantically experimenting, when suddenly he creates a new lightbulb that glows continuously for thirteen-and-a-half hours.10 Tim Berners-Lee is helping some scientists share data when out of the blue an idea hits him and he invents the World Wide Web.11 But these stories are rarely accurate. Newton had been working on the problem of gravity for years, and neither he nor his biographer said an apple hit him on the head.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater


1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics,, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Werner Heisenberg’s conversations with Neils Bohr and other physicists in Copenhagen in the 1920s paved the way for quantum mechanics and other theories that led not just to the nuclear bomb but to many advances in modern electronics. Even Thomas Edison, the most famous lone inventor, owed his success to his being a great collaborator, a skill he picked up as an itinerant telegraph operator, rarely staying in one place, constantly mixing and mingling with different people. Edison’s laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, which opened in 1876 to be a ‘factory for invention’, produced the phonograph and the light bulb. The mythology surrounding the Menlo Park lab enshrined the idea that innovation came from specially talented people working in special conditions, cut off from the rest of the world. Yet Edison acknowledged that without his team of unsung engineers – Charles Batchelor, James Adam, John Kuresi, Charles Wurth – he would never have come up with many of the inventions that made him famous.

WikiHistory INDEX 42 Entertainment 10, 11 A ABC 173 academia, academics 6, 27, 48, 59 Acquisti, Alessandro 210 Adam, James 95 adaptation 109, 110, 121 advertising 104, 105, 129, 173, 180, 219 Aegwynn US Alliance server 99 Afghanistan 237 Africa broadband connections 189 mobile phones 185, 207 science 196 use of Wikipedia 18 Aids 193, 206, 237 al-Qaeda 237 Alka-Seltzer 105 Allen, Paul 46 Altair BASIC 46 Amadeu, Sérgio 202 amateurism 105 Amazon 86 America Speaks 184 American Chemical Society 159 anarchy cultural 5 Wikipedia 16 Anderson, Chris: The Long Tail 216 Apache program 68 Apple 42, 103, 104, 135, 182 iPhone 134 iPods 46 Arendt, Hannah 174, 176 Argentina 203 Arrayo, Gloria 186 Arseblog 29, 30 Arsenal Football Club 29, 30 29 arXiv 160 Asia access to the web 5, 190 attitude to open-source 203 and democracy 189 mobile phones 166, 185 and open-source design communities 166–7 Ask a Ninja 57, 219 assembly line 93, 130 assets 224 astronomy 155, 162–3 authority 110, 115, 233 authorship and folk culture 57, 58 and mapping of the human genome 62 Azerbaijan 190 B bacteria, custom-made 164 Baker, Steve 148 Banco do Brazil 201 Bangladesh 205–6 banking 115, 205–6 Barber, Benjamin: Strong Democracy 174 Barbie, Klaus 17 Barbie dolls 17 Barefoot College 205 barefoot thinking 205–6 Barthes, Roland 45 Batchelor, Charles 95 Bath University 137 BBC 4, 17, 127, 142 news website 15 beach, public 49, 50, 51 Beach, The (think-tank) xi Bebo 34, 85, 86 Bedell, Geraldine x, xii–xiii Beekeepers 11, 15 Benkler, Yochai 174 The Wealth of Networks 194 Berger, Jorn 33 Bermuda principles 160 Billimoria, Jeroo 206 BioBrick Foundation 164 biology 163 open-source 165 synthetic 164–5 BioMedCentral 159 biotechnology 154, 163–4, 196–7, 199 black fever (visceral leishmaniasis) 200 Blackburn Rovers Football Club 29 Blades, Joan 188 Blizzard Entertainment 100 Bloc 8406 191 33 blogs, blogging 1, 3, 20, 29–35, 57, 59, 74, 75, 78, 86, 115, 159, 170, 171, 176, 179, 181–2, 183, 191, 192, 214, 219, 229 BMW 140 Bohr, Neils 93 bookshops 2 Boulton, Matthew 54–5 Bowyer, Adrian 139, 140, 232 Boyd, Danah 213, 214 Bradley, Bill 180 Brand, Stewart 39–40, 43, 63 brands 104, 109 Brazil 201–2 Brenner, Sydney 62–5, 70, 77, 118, 231 Brief History of Time, A (Hawking) 163 Brindley, Lynne 141, 142, 144–5 British Library, London 141, 142, 144, 145 British Medical Journal 159 British National Party 169 Brooks, Fred 77–8 Brooks Hall, San Francisco 38 BT 112 bugs, software 70, 72, 165 bulletin boards 34, 40, 68, 77 Burma 190, 191 Bush, President George W. 18, 33–4, 180, 183 business services 130, 132, 166 C C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans) 62–5 Cambia 197 Cambridge University Press 159 camcorders 11 Campbell, Anne 176 Cancer Genome Atlas 160 capital 224 capitalism 224 commune 121, 125 managerial 24 modern 91, 121 social dimension of 90 Carlson, Rob 164 Carnegie Mellon University 210 cars manufacture 135–6 sharing 153 CBS 173 Center for Bits and Atoms, MIT 139 CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) 30–31, 159 Chan, Timothy 106, 107 chat rooms 165 Chavez, President Hugo 203 Cheney, Dick 180 Chevrolet 105 Chicago: Full Circle council project 184 China based on privileged access to information 236 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 hackers 234 Internet connection 190, 204 makes available genetic data 199 motor-cycle production 136–7 online games market 106 open-access scientific data 159–60 open-source designs 141 politics 171, 192 power struggle in 235 spending on R & D 96, 159 web censorship 190–91 Chinese Communist Party 171, 235 Chongquing, China 136 Cisco 190 Citibank 207 Citizendium 14 climate change 170, 239 Clinton, Bill 174, 188 Clinton, Senator Hillary 181, 182, 183 CNN 15 co-operatives 121, 122, 123, 188 co-ordination 109, 110–11 coffee houses, London 95 Coke 109–10, 239 Cold War 169, 235 Coles, Polly xiii collaboration 9, 22, 31, 32, 36, 67, 79–80, 81, 82 collaborative innovation 65, 70, 75 and commerce 227 computer game 99, 100 Cornish tin-mining 55 and healthcare 150 and the library of the future 145 new technologies for 227–8 open 126, 128 peer 239 public services 145, 146, 152, 153 scientific 154, 155–6 We-Think 21, 23, 24, 146 Collis, Charles 134 Columbia University 212 commerce 25, 38, 48, 52, 57, 98, 227 commons 49, 50, 51–3, 79, 80, 124, 191, 226 communes 39–40, 46, 90, 121, 122, 128 communication(s) 130, 168, 174, 206, 239 mobile 186 Communism, collapse of 6 communities collaborative 117 and commerce 48 and commons 52 conversational 63 Cornish tin-mining 55 creative 70, 95 diverse 79–80 egalitarian 27, 48, 59, 63, 64 hacker 232 healthcare 151, 152 independence of 23 of innovation 54 libertarian, voluntaristic 45 Linux 65, 227 and loss of market for local newspapers 3 meritocratic 63 open-source 45, 68, 75, 80, 83, 95–6, 102, 109, 110, 111 open-source design 166–7 of scientists 53, 228 self-governing 59, 79, 80, 97, 104, 232 sharing and developing ideas 25 web 21, 23 worm-genome researchers 62–5 community councils 77, 80, 82 Community Memory project 42–3 companies computer-games 128 employee-owned 121, 122 shareholder-owned 122, 123, 125 see also corporations; organisations computer games 60, 127, 218 children and 147 created by groups on the web 7, 23, 87 modularity 78 multi-player 7, 204 success of World of Warcraft 98–9 tools for creating content 74 and We-Think 23 computer-aided design 134 computers democratising how information is accessed 139 distrust of 39 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 laptop 5, 36, 82, 155 mini- 135 personal 39, 46, 203 punch-cards 38 and science 154, 155 viruses 3, 4 connect 67, 75–9 Connectiva 201 consumer spending 131 consumers 98–108 consumer innovators 101–3 consumption constraints 25–6 engaging 89 fans 103–4 freedom 218 and innovation risk 100–101 participant 98–108 urban 124 contribute 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74–5 conversation 53, 54, 63, 69, 77, 93, 95, 113, 118, 174 Copernicus, Nicolaus 162 copyright 124, 157, 196 core 66, 67, 68–9, 70 Cornell University 233 ‘Cornish’ engines 55–6, 136, 229 Cornish tin-mining industry 54–6, 63, 125, 136 corporations centralisation of power 110 closed 128 and collaborative approaches to work 109 the cost of corporate efficiency 89–90 difficulty in making money from the web 7 hierarchies 88, 110 industrial-era 88 leadership 115, 117–19 loss of stability 122 restructuring and downsizing 88–9 see also companies; organisations counter-culture (1960s) 6, 27, 39, 45, 46, 59 Counts, David 183 Craigslist 3, 40, 118, 128, 218 Creative Commons 124 creative sector 129–30 creativity 1–2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 67, 82–3 collaborative 7, 20, 58, 86, 154 collective 39, 57–8 consumers 89 corporate 91–2 emergence of 93, 96 enabled by the web 1–2, 3, 5, 19, 26, 218–21, 222, 227 freedom to create 218–21 and interaction 119 and open innovation 93 origin of 112–13 social 5, 7, 58, 59, 82, 83, 86 tools for 218, 219 Crick, Francis 52, 62, 76 crime 153, 169, 183 criminality 1, 3 crowds 23, 61, 70, 72, 77 Crowdspirit 134 cultural élite 2 cultural sector 129–30 culture academic 38 anti-industrial 27, 28 basis of 4 collaborative 135 consumerist 172 corrosion of 4 cultural anarchy 5 folk 6, 27, 56–9, 220, 226 hippie 38 individual participation 6 political 171 popular 102 post-industrial 27, 28 pre-industrial 27, 28 We-Think 28, 59, 62, 169, 194, 230, 232–3, 238 Web 2.0 45 web-inflected 27 Western 239 wiki 14 work 114 YouTube cultural revolution 3 Cunningham, Ward 35–6 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Cyworld 34, 85, 86 D Dali, Salvador 105 Darby, Newman 102 Darpa 164 David, Paul 53 de Soto, Hernando 224–5 The Mystery of Capital 224 de Vellis, Phil 182 Dean, Howard 176–7, 178, 180, 185 Dean Corps 177 Debian 66 Debord, Guy 45, 46 decentralisation 7, 13, 39, 46, 59, 78, 226, 232 decision-making 78, 82, 84, 115, 173, 174 del.i.cious 86 democracy 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 16, 24, 170–74, 175, 176–92 basis of 174 conversational democracy at a national level 184 ‘craftsmen of democracy’ 174 Dean campaign 178 democratic advances 184 depends on public sovereignty 172 formal 195 geek 65 Homebrew 176 public debate 170, 171 and We-Think 170, 221, 239 Department for International Development (DFID) 207 Descartes, René 19–20 design 166 modular 136–7 open-source 133–5, 140, 141, 162–3, 166–7 developing world Fab Labs in 166 government attitudes to the Internet 190 impact of the web on 166 mobile phones 185–6 and open-access publishing 166 and open-source design communities 166–7 and open-source software 200–203 research and development 196 and We-Think’s style of organisation 204 diabetes 150 Digg 33 discussion forums 77 diversity 9, 23, 72, 76, 77, 79–80, 112, 121 division of labour 111 DNA description of the double helix (Watson and Crick) 52, 62, 76 DNA-sequencing 164–5 Dobson, John 102, 162–3 Doritos 105 boom 106 Dupral 68 Dyson (household-goods company) 134 Dyson, Freeman 163, 164 E 186 Eaton, Brigitte 33 Eatonweb 33 eBay 40, 44, 102, 128, 152, 165, 216–18, 221, 229, 235 Ebola virus 165 Eccles, Nigel xi economies of scale 137 economy digital 124, 131, 216 gift 91, 226 global 192 global knowledge 239 of ideas 6 individual participation 6 industrial 122 market 91, 221 a mass innovation economy 7 networked 227 of things 6 UK 129, 130 and We-Think 129 Edison, Thomas 72, 93, 95 EditMe 36 education 130, 146–50, 167, 183, 194, 239 among the poorest people in the world 2, 193 civic 174 a more convivial system 44 Edwards, John 181 efficiency 109, 110 Einstein, Albert: theory of relativity 52 elderly, care of 170 Electronic Arts 105, 106, 128, 177 Electronic Frontier Foundation 40 electronics 93, 135 Eli Lilly (drugs company) 77 Ellis, Mark: The Coffee House: a social history 95 enclosures 124 Encyclopaedia Britannica, The 15–18, 126 encyclopaedias 1, 4, 7, 12–19, 21, 23, 36, 53, 60, 61, 79, 161, 231 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) 161, 226 Endy, Drew 164, 165 energy 166, 232, 238 Engelbart, Doug 38–9, 59 engineering 133, 166 Environmental Protection Agency 152 epic poems 58, 60 equality 2, 24, 192–7, 198, 199–208 eScholarship repository, University of California 160 Estonia 184, 234 Estrada, President Joseph 186 ETA (Basque terrorist group) 187 European Union (EU) 130 Evans, Lilly x Evolt 68, 108 F Fab Labs 139, 166, 232 fabricators 139 Facebook 2, 34–5, 53, 142, 152, 191, 193, 210 factories 7, 8, 24 families, and education 147 Fanton, Jonathan 161 Fark 33 Feinstein, Diane 176 Felsenstein, Lee 42, 43, 44 fertilisers 123 Field Museum of Natural History, Harvard University 161 file-sharing 51, 58, 135, 144, 233 film 2, 3, 4, 47, 86, 129, 216, 218, 220–21 film industry 56 filters, collaborative 36, 86 financial services 130, 132 Financial Times 118 First International Computer (FIC), Inc. 136, 141 flash mobbing 10, 11 Flickr 34, 85, 86, 210, 218–19 Food and Drug Administration (US) 92 Ford, Henry 24, 93, 96 Fortune 500 company list 122 Frank, Ze (Hosea Jan Frank) 57, 219 freedom 1, 2, 6, 24, 208, 209, 210–21, 226 French, Gordon 41, 42 friendly societies 188 Friends Reunited 34 friendship 5, 233 combinatorial 95 Friendster 34, 35 fundamentalists 232 G Gaia Online 35 Galileo Galilei 154 gambling 169 GarageBand software 57, 135, 148 Gates, Bill 46, 47, 51, 227 Gates Foundation 160 geeks 27, 29–36, 37, 38, 48, 59, 65, 179 gene-sequencing machines, automated 64 genetic engineering 164, 196–7, 235 Georgia: ’colour revolution’ 187 Gershenfeld, Neil 139–40, 166, 232 GetFrank 108 Ghana, Fab Lab in 139 Gil, Gilberto 202 Gjertsen, Lasse 56, 218 Gland Pharma 200 global warming 238 globalisation 202, 228, 239 Gloriad 155 GM 135 Goa School Computers Project 200–201 Goffman, Erving 103–4 Goldcorp Inc. 132–3, 153 Golden Toad 40 GoLoco scheme 153 Google x, 1, 29, 32, 33, 47, 66, 97, 104, 113–14, 128, 141, 142, 144, 212 Google Earth 161 Gore, Al 64 governments in developing countries 190 difficulty in controlling the web 7 GPS systems 11 Grameen Bank 205–6, 208 ‘grey’ sciences 163 grid computing 155 Gross, Ralph 210 group-think 23, 210–11 groups 230–31 of clever people with the same outlook and skills 72 decision-making 78 diverse 72, 80, 231 and tools 76–7 Guthrie, Woody 58 H Habermas, Jurgen 174 hackers 48, 74, 104, 140, 232, 234 Hale, Victoria 199 Halo 2 science fiction computer game 8 Hamilton, Alexander 17–18 Hampton, Keith 183–4 Hanson, Matt xi health 130, 132, 146, 150–52, 167, 183, 239 Heisenberg, Werner 93 Henry, Thierry 29 Hewlett Packard 47 hierarchies 88, 110, 115 hippies 27, 48, 59, 61 HIV 193 Homebrew Computer Club 42, 46–7, 51, 227 Homebrew Mobile Phone Club 136 Homer Iliad 58 Odyssey 58 Homer-Dixon, Thomas: The Upside of Down 238–9 Hubble, Edwin 162 Human Genome Project 62, 64, 78, 155, 160, 161, 226 human rights 206 Hurricane Katrina 184 Hyde, Lewis: The Gift 226 hypertext 35, 39 I I Love Bees game 8, 10–12, 15–16, 19, 20, 69, 231 IBM 47, 66, 97 System/360 computer 77 idea-sharing 37, 94, 237, 239 as the biggest change the web will bring about 6 with colleagues 27 and consumer innovators 103 dual character of 226 gamers 106 Laboratory of Molecular Biology 63 through websites and bulletin boards 68 tools 222 We-Think-style approach to 97 and the web’s underlying culture 7 ideas combining 77 and creative thinking 87 from creative conversations 93, 95 gifts of 226 growth of 222, 239 and the new breed of leaders 117–18 ratifying 84 separating good from bad 84, 86 testing 74 the web’s growing domination 1 identity sense of 229 thieves 213–14 Illich, Ivan 43–5, 48 Deschooling Society 43, 44, 150 Disabling Professions 43 The Limits to Medicine 43, 152 Tools for Conviviality 44 independence 9, 72, 231 India Barefoot College 205 creative and cultural sectors 129–30 Fab Lab in 139 Internet connection 190, 204 mobile phones 207 and One World Health 200 spending on R & D 96 telephone service for street children 206 individuality 210, 211, 215, 216, 233 industrialisation 48, 150, 188 information barriers falling fast 2 computers democratise how it is accessed 139 effect of We-Think 129 large quantities on the web 31–2 libraries 141, 142, 143, 145 looking for 8 privileged access to 236 sharing 94, 136 the web’s growing domination 1 Wikipedia 19 Innocentive 77 innovation 5, 6, 91–3, 94, 95–8, 109 among the poorest people in the world 2 biological 194 collaborative 65, 70, 75, 90, 119, 146, 195 collective 170, 238 and competition/co-operation mix 137 Cornish mine engines 54–6 corporate 89, 109, 110 and creative conversations 93, 95 creative interaction with customers 113 cumulative 125, 238 decentralised 78 and distributed testing 74 and diverse thinking 79 and education 147 independent but interconnected 78 and interaction 119 and Linux 66 local 139 a mass innovation economy 7 medical 194 open 93, 96–7, 125, 195 in open-source communities 95–6 and patents 124 pipeline model 92, 93, 97 R & D 92, 96 risks of 100–101 social 170, 238 successful 69 user-driven 101 and We-Think 89, 93, 95, 125, 126 the web 2, 5, 7, 225 Institute for One World Health 199–200 Institute for Politics, Democracy & the Internet (IPDI) 179 Institute of Fiscal Studies 131 institutions convivial 44 industrial-era 234 and knowledge 103 and professionals 3, 5 public 142, 145 Instructables site 134 Intel 97 intellectual property 75, 122, 124, 125, 234 law 124–5 intelligence, collective bloggers 33 getting the mix right 23 Google’s search system 32 I Love Bees and Wikipedia examples 8, 10–19 milked by Google 47 the need to collaborate 32 self-organisation of 8 and social-networking sites 35 the web’s potential 3, 5 International Polar Year (IPY) 156, 226 Internet broadband connection 178, 189, 192 combined with personal computers (mid-1990s) 39 cyber cafés 107, 190, 192, 201, 204 Dean campaign 177 in developing countries 190 draws young people into politics 179, 180 an early demonstration (1968) 38 and Linux 66 news source 178–9 open-source software 68 openness 233 and political funding 180 pro-am astronomers 163 used by groups with a grievance 168 in Vietnam 189–90, 191 investment 119, 121, 133, 135 Iran 190, 191 Iraq war 18, 134, 191 Israel 18 Ito, Joi 99 J Japan politics 171 technology 171 JBoss 68 Jefferson, Richard 197, 199 Jodrell Bank Observatory, Macclesfield, Cheshire 162 JotSpot 36 journalism 3, 74, 115, 170–71 Junker, Margrethe 206 K Kampala, Uganda 206 Kazaa music file-sharing system 144 Keen, Andrew 208 The Cult of the Amateur 208 Kelly, Kevin 211 Kennedy, John F. 176 Kenya 207 Kepler, Johannes 162 Kerry, John 180 Khun, Thomas 69 knowledge access to 194, 196 agricultural 194 barriers falling fast 2 collaborative approach to 14, 69 encyclopaedia 79 expanding 94 gifts of 226 individual donation of 25 and institutions 103 and networking 193 and pro-ams 103 professional, authoritative sources of 222 sharing 27, 44, 63, 70, 199 spread by the web 2, 3 Wikipedia 16, 18, 19, 195 Korean War 203 Kotecki, James (’EmergencyCheese’) 182 Kraus, Joe 36 Kravitz, Ben 13 Kuresi, John 95 Kyrgyzstan: ’colour revolution’ 187 L Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge 62–3, 77 labour movement 188 language 52–3 Lanier, Jaron 16, 210–11, 213 laptop computers 5, 36, 82, 155 lateral thinking 113 leadership 89, 115, 116, 117–19 Lean, Joel 55 Lean’s Engine Reporter 55, 63, 77 Lee, Tim Berners 30–31 Lego: Mindstorms products 97, 104, 140 Lewandowska, Marysia 220, 221 libraries 2, 141–2, 143, 144–5, 227 life-insurance industry (US) 123 limited liability 121 Linked.In 35 Linux 65–6, 68, 70, 74, 80, 85, 86, 97, 98, 126, 127, 128, 136, 201, 203, 227 Lipson Community College, Plymouth 148 literacy 194 media 236 Lloyd, Edward 95 SMS messaging (texting)"/>London coffee houses 95 terrorist bombings (July 2005) 17 Lott, Trent 181–2 Lula da Silva, President Luiz Inacio 201 M M-PESA 207, 208 MacArthur Foundation 161 McCain, John 180 MacDonald’s 239 McGonigal, Jane 11, 69 McHenry, Robert 17 McKewan, Rob 132–3, 153 McLuhan, Marshall: Understanding the Media 45 Madrid bombings (March 2004) 186–7 Make magazine 165 management authoritative style of 117 and creative conversation 118 hierarchies 110 manufacturing 130, 132, 133–7, 138, 139–41, 166, 232 niche 139 Marcuse, Herbert 43 Marin 101 Mark, Paul xi market research 101 market(s) 77, 90, 93, 102, 123, 216, 226–7 Marsburg virus 165 Marx, Karl 224 mass production 7, 8, 24, 56, 96, 227, 232, 238 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 139, 164, 233 Matsushita 135 media 129, 130, 156, 172, 173, 182, 211 literacy 236 Meetup 179, 185 Menlo Park laboratory, New Jersey 95 Merholz, Peter 33 meritocracy 16, 63 Microsoft 46, 47, 51, 56, 75, 109–10, 126, 127, 144, 202, 203, 204, 239 Office 201 Windows 200 Windows XP 66 Middle East 170, 189, 190, 192 Milovich, Dimitry 102 ‘minihompy’ (mini homepage) 204 Minnesota Mining and Materials 121 mobile phones 5 in Africa 185, 207 in Asia 166, 185 camera phones 74, 115, 210 children and 147 in developing-world markets 207–8 with digital cameras 36 flash mobs 10 I Love Bees 11 in India 207 open-source 136, 203 politics 185–9 SMS messaging (texting) 101–2, 185, 187, 214, 215 mobs 23, 61 flash 10, 11 modularity 77, 84 Moore, Fred 41–2, 43, 46, 47, 59, 227 More, Thomas: Utopia 208 Morris, Dick 174 Morris, Robert Tappan 233 Mosaic 33 motivation 109–12, 148 Mount Wilson Observatory, California 162 mountain bikes 101 MoveOn 188–9 Mowbray, Miranda xi music 1, 3, 4, 47, 51, 52, 57, 102, 135, 144, 218, 219, 221 publishing 130 social networking test 212–13 mutual societies 90, 121 MySpace 34, 44, 57, 85, 86, 152, 187, 193, 214, 219 MySQL 68 N National Football League (US) 105 National Health Service (NHS) 150, 151 National Public Radio (NPR) 188 Natural History Museum, London 161 Nature magazine 17 NBC 173 neo-Nazis 168 Netflix 216, 218 Netherlands 238 networking by geeks 27 post-industrial networks 27 social 2–7, 20, 23, 34–5, 36, 53, 57, 86, 95, 147, 149, 153, 159, 171, 183–4, 187, 193, 208, 210, 212, 213–15, 230, 233 New Economy 40 New Orleans 184 New York Magazine 214 New York Review of Books 164 New York Stock Exchange 95 New York Times 15, 182, 191 New Yorker magazine 149 Newmark, Craig 118 news services 60, 61, 171, 173, 178–9 newspapers 2, 3, 30, 32, 34, 171, 172, 173 Newton, Sir Isaac 25, 154 niche markets 216 Nixon, Richard 176 NLS (Online System) 39 Nokia 97, 104, 119, 140 non-profits 123 Nooteboom, Bart 74 Noronha, Alwyn 200–201 Norris, Pippa 189 North Africa, and democracy 189 Nosamo 35, 186 Noyes, Dorothy 58 Nupedia 13, 14 Nussbaum, Emily 214–15 O Obama, Barack 181, 191 Ofcom (Office of Communications) 31 OhmyNews 34, 87, 204, 231 oil companies 115 Oldenburg, Henry 25, 53–4, 156 Ollila, Jorma 119 Online System (NLS) 39 Open Architecture Network (OAN) 133–4 Open Net Initiative 190 Open Office programme 201 Open Prosthetics 134 Open Source Foundation 97 OpenMoko project 136 OpenWiki 36 O’Reilly, Tim 31 organisation commons as a system of organisation 51 pre-industrial ideas of 27, 48 social 20, 64, 165 We-Think’s organisational recipe 21 collaboration 21, 23 participation 21, 23 recognition 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 196 organisations civic 189 open/collaborative vs. closed/hierarchical models 89, 126, 127, 128 public 152 successful 228 see also companies; corporations Orwell, George: 1984 182 Ostrom, Elinor 51–2, 80 ownership 6, 119, 120, 121–6, 127, 128, 225 Oxford University 234 P paedophiles 3, 168, 213–14 Page, Scott xi, 72 Pakistan 237 Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco 40 parallel universes 7 participation 23, 216, 223, 230, 232 consumers 98, 100 public services 145, 146, 150, 152, 153 a We-Think ingredient 21, 24 Partido Populaire (PP) (Spain) 187 patents 55, 56, 92, 97, 102, 124, 154, 196, 197, 199 Paul, Ron 185 Pawson, Dave x–xi Pax, Salam 57 peasants 27, 48, 59 peer recognition 54, 106, 111, 156, 228–9 peer review 53, 54, 156, 165, 236 peer-to-peer activity 53–4, 135, 148, 151 People’s Computer Company 41 People’s Democratic Party (Vietnam) 191 performance art/artists 2, 10 performance management 110 Perl 68 Peruvian Congress 202 Pew Internet & American Life 31, 179 pharmaceutical industry 92–3, 195–6, 197, 199, 200 Phelps, Edmund 114–15, 220 Philippines: mobile phones 185–6 Philips, Weston 105 photographs, sharing of 34, 75, 86, 218–19 33 Plastic 33 Playahead 35 podcasts 142 Poland 220–21 polar research 156 politics bloggers able to act as public watchdog 181–2, 183 decline in political engagement 171–2 democratic 173 donations 179 funding 180–81 and journalism 170–71 and mobile phones 185–9 online 183 the online political class 179 and online social networks 35, 86 political advocates of the web 173–4 racist groups on the web 169 and television 173, 183 ultra-local 183, 184 US presidential elections 173, 179 videos 182 the web enters mainstream politics 176 young people drawn into politics by the Internet 179 Popper, Karl 155 Popular Science magazine 102 pornography 169, 214 Post-it notes 121 Potter, Seb 108–9 Powell, Debbie ix power and networking 193 technological 236 of the We-Think culture 230 of the web 24–5, 185, 233 PowerPoint presentations 140, 142, 219 privacy 210, 211 private property 224, 225 Procter and Gamble (P & G) 96–7, 98 productivity 112, 119, 121, 151, 227, 232 agricultural 124 professionals, and institutions 3, 5 property rights 224 public administration 130 Public Broadcasting Service 188 Public Intellectual Property Research for Agriculture initiative 199 Public Library of Science 159 public services 132, 141–2, 143, 144–53, 183 public spending 146 publishing 130, 166 science 156–7, 159–60 Putnam, Robert 173, 184 Python 68 Q quantum mechanics 93 ‘quick-web’ 35 R racism 169, 181–2 radio 173, 176 RapRep (Rapid Replicator) machines 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 232 Rawls, John: A Theory of Justice 194 Raymond, Eric 64 recognition 21, 223 peer 54, 106, 111, 156 record industry 56, 102 recycling 111 Red Hat 66, 227 Red Lake, Ontario 132, 133 research 166 market 101 pharmaceutical 195–6 research and development (R & D) 92, 96, 119, 196 scientific 154–7, 159–65 retailing 130, 132 Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 201 Roh Moo-hyun, President of South Korea 35, 186 Roosevelt, Franklin 176 Roy, Bunker 205 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey 161 Royal Society 54 Philosophical Transactions 25, 156 34 S Sacca, Chris 113, 114 Safaricom 207 St Louis world fair (1904) 75–6 Samsung xi, 203 Sanger, Larry 13, 14, 16 Sanger Centre, Cambridge 155 Sao Paolo, Brazil 201 SARS virus 165 Sass, Larry 139 satellite phones 11 Saudi Arabia 190 scanners 11 Schumacher, E.


pages: 323 words: 92,135

Running Money by Andy Kessler


Andy Kessler, Apple II, bioinformatics, British Empire, business intelligence, buy low sell high, call centre, Corn Laws, family office, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, interest rate swap, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, margin call, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition,, railway mania, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Toyota Production System

Doug led a group of researchers at the Stanford Research Institute and had been working since 1962 on a topic they called “Augmented Human Intellect.” Doug got a slot at the AFIPS conference to present his group’s findings. Ho hum, a real snoozer, right? But his team had put together a huge surprise. They had microwave links on the roof and phone lines hooked up to connect the Convention Center to their labs in Menlo Park. What Doug showed off was a system called NLS or oN Line System. On a computer screen with both graphics and text were multiple windows, a text editor with cut and paste, and an outline processor. A wooden-looking mouse controlled an on-screen pointer as a cursor. Multiple users could connect remotely. There was hypertext to be able to “link” to information anywhere on the computer or network.

Of course, a message processor is pretty worthless on its own. The second one was installed at the Stanford Research Institute.” “Doug Engelbart’s group?” “That’s it. Did I tell you this story already?” “Nope. Go on.” “With two, you can tango. These two machines talked via NCP, Network Control Protocol. We get AT&T to provide a 50 186 Running Money kilobit per second private line between LA and Menlo Park up north.” “Yeah.” “So we hook up the two IMPs, and ARPANET was born.” “But what was the first packet?” I asked. “Oh, yeah. I called them up on a regular phone line and said, ‘OK, we are about to send an L, let me know when you see it.’ “They told me, ‘There it is, we got an L,’ and I heard a lot of applause in the background. “I got excited. ‘OK, OK, just a second, hold on, we are going to send an O.’

I’ve never seen so many pickup trucks in one parking lot.” “The tour starts at three, so we’d better figure out which door, quick,” I pleaded. Phil opened one of the doors in front of us and almost got trampled as a mass of people flowed out. We tried another door and were ushered into a lobby and told to step aside, a shift change was taking place. “You guys with the school?” some guy in a rent-a-cop uniform asked. “Yes, Menlo Park.” “OK, the tour has started, but you haven’t missed the tram. Walk this way.” I knew what was coming. I looked at Phil, who said, “If I could walk that way . . .” Nyuk-nyuk. Maybe this won’t be such a bad afternoon after all. It was the middle of the summer, and there were a few too Sweating at the NUMMI 241 many kids hanging around our house, so my wife had insisted I take our two older boys on the tour of NUMMI.


pages: 397 words: 109,631

Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking by Richard E. Nisbett


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, endowment effect, experimental subject, feminist movement, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, William of Occam, Zipcar

Which do you prefer: Coca-Cola, Caffeine-free Coca-Cola, Caffeine-free Diet Coke, cherry Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, Vanilla Coke, Vanilla Coke Zero, Diet cherry Coke, Diet Coke, Diet Coke with Lime, or Diet Coke with Stevia (in a green can!)? Or perhaps you’d rather just have a Dr Pepper. Coke is not alone in assuming that the sky’s the limit when it comes to choice. There’s an upscale grocery store in Menlo Park, California, that offers 75 types of olive oil, 250 varieties of mustard, and 300 types of jams. But are more choices always better than fewer? You would be hard-pressed to find an economist who would tell you that fewer choices are better. But it’s becoming clear that more choices are not always desirable—either for the purveyor of goods or for the consumer. The social psychologists Sheena Iyengar and Mark Lepper set up a booth at that Menlo Park grocery store where they displayed a variety of jams.13 Half the time during the day there were six jams on the table and half the time there were twenty-four jams. People who stopped at the booth were given a coupon good for one dollar off any jam they purchased in the store.

Man Who statistics Martin, Steve Marx, Karl Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Masserman, Jules Masuda, Takahiko mathematics; correlation of test scores in; in Eastern versus Western cultures; economics and; in statistics; unconscious mental processes in Mayo Clinic Mazda McKinsey & Company McPhee, John mean; distribution around; regression to; standard deviation from, see standard deviation mechanics, Newtonian median Menlo Park (California) mental illness mental modules mere familiarity effect metaphysics methodologies; difficulties of, in measuring human variables Michigan, University of; department of psychology microeconomics Microsoft Middle Ages Midwestern Prevention Project Milkman, Katherine Mill, John Stuart Missionaries and Cannibals problem modesty bias modus ponens molecular biology Molière Morgan, James Mo-tzu Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus Mullainathan, Sendhil multiple regression analysis (MRA); in medicine; in psychology Na, Jinkyung Nagashima, Nobuhiro National Football League (NFL) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) National Institutes of Health natural experiments negative correlation negative externalities neuroscience Newell, Allen New Hampshire New Jersey Newton, Isaac New York City, September 11 (9/11) terrorist attack on New Yorker, The New York Times, The New York University nihilism Nobel Prize Norenzayan, Ara normative prescription North Carolina Obama, Barack obligation schemas observations; correlation of; as natural experiments; standard deviation of; weaknesses of conclusions based on Occam’s razor Oedipus complex Ohio State University opportunity costs opt-in versus opt-out policies organizational psychology Orwell, George Oswald, Lee Harvey Ottoman Empire outcomes; of choices; costs and benefits of; educational; of family conflicts; tracking outcome variables; see also dependent variables overgeneralization Oxford University paradigm shifts Park, Denise Parmenides parsimony, principle of particle physics Pascal, Blaise Pavlov, Ivan payoff matrix Peace Corps Pearson, Karl Pearson product moment correlation peer pressure Peng, Kaiping Pennebaker, James percentage estimates perceptions; extrasensory; subliminal; unconscious permission schema Perry, Rick Perry Preschool Program persuasion phenomena; influence of context in; simplest hypothesis possible for philosophy; see also names of individual philosophers physics Piaget, Jean Picasso, Pablo Pietromonaco, Paula Plato platykurtic curve plausibility; of causal links; of conclusions; of correlations; of hypotheses; of unconscious processes Poincaré, Henri Polanyi, Michael Popper, Karl postformalism post hoc ergo propter hoc heuristic post hoc explanations postmodernism preferences prescriptive microeconomics price heuristic prime numbers Princeton University probability; in cost-benefit analysis; decision theory and; schemas for problem solving; decision theory for; formal logic for; unconscious mind’s capacity for psychoanalytic theory psychology; clinical; cognitive, see cognitive psychology; developmental; organizational; postformalist; reinforcement theory; social, see social psychology Ptolemy, Claudius public policy quantum theory Rahway State Prison (New Jersey) randomized studies; design of; multiple regression analysis versus range, definition of Rasmussen polling firm Reagan, Ronald reality reasoning; categorical; causal; circular; conditional; cultural differences in; deductive; deontic; dialectical, see dialectical reasoning; inductive; pragmatic schemas; syllogistic, see syllogisms; teachability of; see also logic Reckman, Richard reductionism Reeves, Keanu reference group effect regression; to the mean; see also multiple regression analysis reinforcement learning theory relationships, principle of; see also correlation relativity theory reliability Renaissance representativeness heuristic Republican Party revealed preferences revolutions, scientific Riegel, Klaus Rogers, Todd Rohn, Jim Romans, ancient Romney, Mitt Roosevelt, Franklin Rorschach inkblot test Ross, Lee Russell, Bertrand Russia Russian language Saab Sachs, Jeffrey samples; biased Santorum, Rick satisficing Saudi Arabia Save More Tomorrow plan scarcity heuristic Scared Straight program scatterplots schemas; pragmatic reasoning Schmidt, Eric Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Science magazine scientific revolutions Sears Secrets of Adulthood (Chast) self-enhancement bias self-esteem self-selection Seligman, Martin September 11 (9/11) terrorist attacks Shafir, Eldar Shepard, Roger significance; causal Simon, Herbert Siroker, Dan Skinner, B.


pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo


Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, market bubble, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

The only durable institutions in our future will be those that evenhandedly regard ideas and skills, no matter where they come from. This is our dilemma: Old, network-blinded leaders (and the young people who think like them) pull us from Washington and other capitals and traditional power centers into a world in which their ideas and policies constantly fail. We trust them less and less as a result. At the same time, a rising generation lashes us into amazing meshes. We welcome this connection. Centered in places such as Menlo Park or Seattle or Zhongguancun or Tel Aviv, these figures understand networks perfectly, but—so far—not yet much else. Old and new, each group works anyhow on our freedom. We are pulled dangerously between these forces. Problems seem to get worse. What we need to find is a way out of this trap. A fusion. A blended sensibility of both the edgiest ideas of connection and the most unshakable requirements of power. 5.

Or are mystery, inscrutability, and opacity the nature of truth, as the rabbis said? We are children of the Enlightenment, after all, so we want to know what goes on inside the machines. We want them, at least, to be accountable to us. This tension is one reason why places such as Silicon Valley often leave a visitor with an uneasy feeling. Go drive along the anodyne strip of asphalt that runs in front of Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, home of the greatest venture capital funds of our age. Inside those offices, revolutions are dreamed up, debated, and funded. You might expect to see, as a result, something as magnificent as the Vatican for these high priests of technology. But what you pass in that two-mile strip resembles nothing so much as a row of mildly prosperous dental practices. Black boxes. Perhaps you’ve heard of this famous manufacturing trilemma, that you can have something made with two of these three characteristics: good, fast, and cheap.

In traditional economic terms this would be insane, but with network logic the strategy is clear: The more people who use TensorFlow, the smarter it gets, which in turn attracts still more users. Dense and self-learning fusions of mind and data such as TensorFlow and other soon-to-be-arriving AI systems are all gated universes. 5. The topological charm of these explosively growing clusters was first teased apart by the electrical engineer Bob Metcalfe in the 1970s. Metcalfe was hunting for a better way to send data—say, grocery lists to his wife—through Menlo Park, and he perfected a connection protocol called Ethernet, which soon became a standard for linking machines. What Metcalfe noticed as more and more users piled into the gateland of Stanford’s Ethernet-connected machines was that the reach of the system was growing exponentially. A system with one phone, for example, is really not very useful. Whom would you call? A system with two phones means that there is one possible connection—we can call each other.


pages: 207 words: 63,071

My Start-Up Life: What A by Ben Casnocha, Marc Benioff


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, call centre, David Brooks, don't be evil, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index fund, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, Menlo Park, Paul Graham, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technology bubble, traffic fines

Most kids would ask for help on their homework or organizing their schedules. I asked Mom to drop off a suit during lunch and mail Comcate tax documents. All this amounted to a professional relationship similar to the one I had with Dad. One day my olfactory senses yanked me into the kitchen as fresh chocolate chip cookies were warming in the oven. As she baked, Mom whistled along with the classical music on the radio. I told her, casually, that the City of Menlo Park had just agreed to be a beta tester of our product. A wide smile erupted on her face. She wiped her hand off and extended it out for a firm, enthusiastic shake. Our kind of embrace. 16 MY START-UP LIFE Brainstorm: All the Fuss About “Passion”— and How to Tap into Yours “Find your passion and follow it,” countless advice books instruct. It sounds so easy! Nearly every college admissions application asks about your passion in life.

I later earned the top honor in my eighth-grade yearbook: “Most Popular.” (I also received “Most Likely to Be U.S. President,” but who cares about that?) CHAPTER 5.0 First Meeting with a VC (It’s All About the Network) My chief want in life is someone who shall make me do what I can. RALPH WALDO EMERSON For entrepreneurs, getting a meeting with a venture capitalist on the fabled Sand Hill Road, which runs through Menlo Park, and along the northern edge of the Stanford University campus, is a worthy accomplishment. If you don’t know a VC personally, it can take dozens of calls and emails to secure a meeting with someone who could fund your start-up. And dozens of calls and emails are no guarantee of an audience. For me, as lady luck would have it, I met with a venture capitalist early on: my very first meeting with an adult businessperson. >> The value of obtaining advice from experienced people in the field is one I cherished from the start and continue to hold as essential to successful entrepreneurship.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel


Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

Israel does not adopt technology as early as Scoble does, although he is usually a few steps ahead of the mainstream. He worries about unintended consequences and loss of privacy as well as lesser matters such as the paucity of apps. Immediate Want Israel got to see Glass firsthand for the first time in May 2013. He was scheduled to spend the day with Scoble, at SRI International, the venerable and prolific independent research and development facility in Menlo Park, to interview researchers for this book. Early in the day, he tried on Scoble’s device for about 60 seconds. His concerns evaporated. He immediately wanted one. He might not vow to wear it every day, but knew he wanted one and would find many uses for it. It took only that single minute for him to understand how such a device would improve his productivity, give him access to information and enable new forms of communication.

Viewers watch the driverless vehicle crawl up a garage ramp, find a snug spot and into it. Later she uses the same app to summon it back. As she waits, she watches the car approach on her app. The car knows where its owner is via a location sensor in the phone. Annie Lien, is an independent automated driving consultant who was formerly program manager at Volkswagen Group Electronics Research Lab in Menlo Park, California, where she was in charge of product and marketing for conceptual cars under the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche and Volkswagen brands. She played a key role in the development of experimental cars such as the driverless Audi in the video. Lien prefers to call them automatic or auto-piloted rather than self-driving, because “it will be a very long time before cars operate without a driver who can take over the controls, except for limited, low-speed activities such as self-parking,” she says.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow


3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

The Grail Gesture Recognition System on a tablet that was invented the same year as the mouse—1964—and the conventions of making arrows, windows, and so on, including moving and resizing them. All of this was happening at that time: Seymour Papert with his Logo programming language and Turtle graphics; Simula; and some of our own stuff as well, such as the Arpanet, the Flex Machine and its first object-oriented operating system, the idea of Dynabook, and much, much more. It was an exciting time. The Whole Earth Catalog and its folks were nearby in Menlo Park thinking big thoughts about universal access to tools. Not just physical, but especially mental. This was the first book in the PARC library, and it had a big influence on how we thought things should be. We loved the idea of lots of different tools being available with explanations and comments, and we could see that it would be just wonderful if such media could be brought to life as one found and made it.

On the Internet, Amazon, Google, Facebook and Bank of America operate outstanding websites that are flexible, capable and a pleasure to use. This is huge. There are still bad websites and bad software, some of it spectacularly bad, but the example of the good ones will drive out the bad ones. 8.3 Interactivity David Albrecht of People’s Computer Company (PCC: what a radical name!) discovered and promoted Computer Lib. People’s Computer Company operated a timesharing BASIC computer lab in Menlo Park, and published a newsletter on interactive computing. The newsletter told me how to get the book. PCC also published a big book of computer games in BASIC, called What to Do After You Hit Return. One guessing game was called “Hunt the Wumpus.” It was lucky for Ted that Bob Albrecht knew about Computer Lib, because Hugo’s Book Service had few contacts among computer enthusiasts. Ted also chose only interactive interpreted languages to explain programming: TRAC, APL and BASIC.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

After the Bechtolsheim meeting, Shriram invited them to his house to meet his boss Jeff Bezos, who was enthralled with their passion and “healthy stubbornness,” as they explained why they would never put display ads on their home page. Bezos joined Bechtolsheim, Cheriton, and Shriram as investors, making for a total of a million dollars of angel money. On September 4, 1998, Page and Brin filed for incorporation and finally moved off campus. Sergey’s girlfriend at the time was friendly with a manager at Intel named Susan Wojcicki, who had just purchased a house on Santa Margarita Street in Menlo Park with her husband for $615,000. To help meet the mortgage, the couple charged Google $1,700 a month to rent the garage and several rooms in the house. At that point they’d taken on their first employee, fellow Stanford student Craig Silverstein. He’d originally connected with them by offering to show them a way to compress all the crawled links so they could be stored in memory and run faster.

That was Google’s secret weapon to lure world-class computer scientists: in a world where corporate research labs were shutting down, this small start-up offered an opportunity to break ground in computer science. Hölzle, still wary, accepted the offer but kept his position at UCSB by taking a yearlong leave. He would never return. In April he arrived at Google with Yoshka, a big floppy Leonberger dog, in tow, and dived right in to help shore up Google’s overwhelmed infrastructure. (By then Google had moved from Wojcicki’s Menlo Park house to a second-floor office over a bicycle shop in downtown Palo Alto.) Though Google had a hundred computers at that point—it was buying them as quickly as it could—it could not handle the load of queries. Hundreds of thousands of queries a day were coming in. The average search at that time, Hölzle recalls, took three and a half seconds. Considering that speed was one of the core values of Page and Brin—it was like motherhood, and scale was apple pie—this was a source of distress for the founders.

Doing a Google search for “World Trade Center” that November or December, you would have found no links to the event. Instead, you’d have results that suggested a fine-dining experience at Windows on the World, on the 107th floor of the now-nonexistent North Tower. A half-dozen engineers moved their computers into a conference room. Thus Google created its first war room. (By then—less than a year after moving from the house in Menlo Park to the downtown Palo Alto office—Google had moved once again, to a roomier office-park facility on Bayshore Road in nearby Mountain View. Employees dubbed it the Googleplex, a pun on the mathematical term googolplex, meaning an unthinkably large number.) When people came to work, they’d go to the war room instead of the office. And they’d stay late. Dean was in there with Craig Silverstein, Sanjay Ghemawat, and some others.


pages: 218 words: 63,471

How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler


Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

So he put the filament inside a glass tube and created a vacuum, basically by sucking the air out of the tube. Now when he hooked it up to a battery the filament would glow and not burn out. Swan didn’t consider it much of an invention and never patented the idea. In October of 1879, Charles Batchelor, who was one of Thomas Alva Edison’s assistants, demonstrated the same principle at his lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Once again, we had almost simultaneous inventions. Turns out that in 1876, Edison had bought out a patent by a Canadian named Woodward, but no matter, he had his light bulb and took out a his own patent. John Pierpont Morgan and the Vanderbilts put up $300,000 in exchange for patent rights and capitalized the Edison Electric Light Company. Share prices of gas light companies would go up and down based on Edison’s press releases.

Engelbart got up and demonstrated a few things his team was playing with, built onto something called NLS or oN Line System. On a computer screen with both graphics and text were multiple windows, a text editor with cut and paste, and an outline processor. A “mouse” 134 HOW WE GOT HERE controlled an on screen pointer as a cursor. Multiple users could connect remotely – in fact the demo was connected live to Menlo Park, 45 miles to the south. There was hypertext to be able to “link” to information anywhere on the computer or network. If you were stuck, a help system would provide assistance based on the context of what you were looking for. The 1,000-plus attendees were stunned. This was 1968, with hippies roaming aimlessly through San Francisco. Yet here was this guy who laid out the map for the personal computer industry and Internet that would unfold over the next 35-plus years.


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher


Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Nowhere is this more obvious than in San Francisco, where some of the hottest tech start-ups are forgoing Silicon Valley for the city itself. Twitter, Zynga, Airbnb, Dropbox, Uber, Pinterest, and Yelp are among those that have opted to build new headquarters in San Franciscos proper instead of the stretch of suburbs that make up the Bay Area peninsula. Several venture capital firms, too, longtime fixtures of Menlo Park’s Sand Hill Road, have recently announced plans to either relocate or open satellite offices in San Francisco. In the mornings, the traffic on the 101, the main commuting freeway out of San Francisco toward the Valley, is now heavier heading out of the city than the reverse. One of the more interesting company relocations these days is happening in Las Vegas, where Zappos, the online shoe giant, is getting ready to move from a cookie-cutter suburban office park off a highway interchange in Henderson, Nevada, to a brand-new headquarters in Las Vegas’s old city hall.

Twitter, Zynga, Airbnb, Dropbox: A notable exception to the tech moguls’ fascination with cities is Steve Jobs, who lived and worked his whole life in the suburbs (he lived in a Tudor house in Palo Alto, and Apple’s headquarters were in nearby Cupertino). But when Apple-owned Pixar moved to a new headquarters in Emeryville, California, Jobs pushed the designers to emphasize central locations where employees could mingle with one another with the hope of fostering creativity. Another exception is Mark Zuckerberg, who has built Facebook’s headquarters into a massive campus in Menlo Park, but one that attempts to approximate urbanism, with a walkable commercial strip that includes a dry cleaner, gym, doctor’s office, and various eateries. Zappos, the online shoe giant: Leigh Gallagher, “Tony Hsieh’s New $350 Million Startup,”, January 23, 2012. In keeping with the findings of: Glaeser found that, for example, that innovation happens faster in cities because proximity to others breeds creativity.


pages: 262 words: 65,959

The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh


Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, cognitive dissonance, Erdős number, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, Paul Erdős, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Wolfskehl Prize, women in the workforce

Springfield’s chiropractors, who are outraged that Homer might steal their patients, threaten to destroy Homer’s invention. This would allow them once again to corner the market in back problems and happily promote their own bogus treatments. Homer’s inventing exploits reach a peak in “The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace” (1998). The title is a play on the Wizard of Menlo Park, the nickname given to Thomas Edison by a newspaper reporter after he established his main laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. By the time he died in 1931, Edison had 1,093 U.S. patents in his name and had become an inventing legend. The episode focuses on Homer’s determination to follow in Edison’s footsteps. He constructs various gadgets, ranging from an alarm that beeps every three seconds just to let you know that everything is all right to a shotgun that applies makeup by shooting it directly onto the face.


pages: 371 words: 36,271

Libertarian Idea by Jan Narveson


centre right, invisible hand, means of production, Menlo Park, night-watchman state, Peter Singer: altruism, prisoner's dilemma, psychological pricing, rent-seeking

The idea that property ownership is actually a complex “bundle” of rights is now widely accepted. One of its main originators is A. M. Honorssee, for example, “Property, Title, and Redistribution” from Equality and Freedom: Past, Present and Future, ed. by Carl Wellman, ARSP Archives for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy: Beiheft Neue Folge nr. 10 (Wiesbaden: Steiner-Verlag, 1977), pp. 107-115. 7. Murray Rothbard, Power and Market (Menlo Park, Calif.: Institute for Humane Studies, 1970), p. 76. 8. In connection with freedom of speech, see Narveson, “Rights and Utilitarianism,” in W. E. Cooper, K. Nielsen, and S. C. Patten, eds.. New Essays on John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism, Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supplementary Vol. 5 (1979): 148; for the general thesis, see “Human Rights: Which, If Any, Are There?” in J. R. Pennock and J.

David Braybrooke, “Justice and Injustice in Business” in Tom Regan, ed., Just Business (New York: Random House, 1984), pp. 167-201. See esp. p. 174, where he argues that persons having extraordinary wealth are “in a position to restrict other people‟s freedom and exercise power over them, in any of a number of ways, from hiring henchmen to beat them up to influencing politicians to disregard their claims.” 3. Murray Rothbard, Power & Market (Menlo Park, Calif.: Institute for Humane Studies, 1970), p. 99. 4. Kai Nielsen, Equality and Liberty (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Allenheld, 1983), discusses this idea at some length, giving no apparent credit to its utter disconnection from the libertarian theory even though he takes it to be the archetypal defense of property. 1. 103 PART TWO: Foundations: Is Libertarianism Rational? 104 CHAPTER 9: Introduction On “Foundations” Why should we accept the libertarian view?

A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. Ripstein, Arthur. “Foundationalism in Political Theory.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 16, no. 2 (Spring 1987): 115-137. Rosenberg, Alexander. “Prospects for the Elimination of Tastes from Economics and Ethics.” In J. Paul, F. Miller, and E. F. Paul, eds., Ethics and Economics. London. Blackwell, 1985. Pp. 48-68. Rothbard, Murray. Power & Market. Menlo Park, Calif: Institute for Humane Studies, 1970. Scanlon, Thomas. “Utiliarianism and Contractualism.” In A. Sen and B. Williams, eds.. Utilitarianism and Beyotui. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. Scruton, Roger. The Meaning of Conservatism. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, 1977. Sen, Amartya. “The Moral Standing of the Market.” In J. Paul, F. Miller, and E. F, Paul, eds.. Ethics and Economics.


pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten


1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor

A strapping athlete with literary aspirations, eighteen-year-old Ken Kesey enrolled in the University of Oregon in 1953 and earned a bachelor’s degree in journalism. In 1959 he received a creative writing fellowship from Stanford to study with Wallace Stegner. Kesey wrote during the day and worked the night shift at a psychiatric hospital in nearby Menlo Park. He lived on Perry Lane, a small Palo Alto bohemian enclave adjacent to the Stanford golf course, where he discussed literature and politics with the group of artists and writers that had settled into the placid rhythms of the place. His first exposure to hallucinogens occurred at the Menlo Park hospital when he volunteered to take part in experiments with LSD for scientific research. Kesey’s initiations into the world of psychoactive drugs and mental illness provided the raw material for Cuckoo’s Nest (Kesey wrote sections of Cuckoo’s Nest while on peyote and LSD).

Strange mobiles hung from tree branches; abstract art was nailed to the trunks. Inside Kesey’s vast log cabin, tape recorders and 8 mm cameras and projectors were strewn about. These were the documentary tools for the Pranksters’ experiments in all-in-one consciousness, the Acid Tests. A few Pranksters made some halfhearted attempts to rattle Wolfe. One afternoon George Walker took the writer for a spin in his Lotus, taking the curves around Menlo Park at ninety miles per hour. By the joy ride’s end, Wolfe was ashen and visibly shaken; Walker was amused but admired Wolfe’s stoic professionalism. When Kesey moved the Pranksters’ operations to La Honda from Harriet Street, Wolfe tagged along with Ed McClanahan in his sports car. As McClanahan negotiated mountain roads “that were as crooked as a goat’s hind leg,” Wolfe interviewed him, scribbling shorthand on a legal pad situated between them.


pages: 303 words: 67,891

Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms: Proceedings of the Agi Workshop 2006 by Ben Goertzel, Pei Wang


AI winter, artificial general intelligence, bioinformatics, brain emulation, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, epigenetics, friendly AI, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, John Conway, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Occam's razor, p-value, pattern recognition, performance metric, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, semantic web, statistical model, strong AI, theory of mind, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

AAAI-05 Workshop on Modular Construction of Human-Like Intelligence, Pittsburg, PA, July 10. AAAI Technical Report, vol. WS-05-08, pp. 71- 78. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [3] Samsonovich, A. V., Ascoli, G. A., De Jong, K. A., & Coletti, M. A. (2006). Integrated hybrid cognitive architecture for a virtual roboscout. In Beetz, M., Rajan, K, Thielscher, M., & Rusu, R.B. (Eds.). Cognitive Robotics: Papers from the AAAI Workshop. AAAI Technical Report, vol. WS-06-03, pp. 129-134. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [4] Samsonovich, A. V. (2006). Biologically inspired cognitive architecture for socially competent agents. In Upal, M. A., & Sun, R. (Eds.). Cognitive Modeling and Agent-Based Social Simulation: Papers from the AAAI Workshop. AAAI Technical Report, vol. WS-06-02, pp. 36-48. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [5] Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and man. Psychological Review 55 (4): 189-208. [6] Downs, R.


pages: 538 words: 147,612

All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Venture capitalist John Doerr (2006 net worth: $1 billion) describes the Valley as the site responsible for the “greatest legal accumulation of wealth in the history of the planet.” Aside from its stunning scenery, the Valley does not advertise its riches. With the country’s top venture-capital firms and its thriving high-tech companies, Sand Hill Road, the Valley’s main strip, is a sort of New Economy version of Wall Street. The four-lane highway runs through a hilly landscape from the town of Menlo Park past the mission-style buildings of Stanford University’s campus to the edge of Palo Alto. There are no iconic financial towers dominating the surrounding landscape; nor are there legions of briefcase-toting workers rushing by. Instead, there are views of the mountains and the Horse Park at Woodside, an enormous facility devoted to a variety of equestrian events. Many of the companies are based in anonymous office parks, where the low-rise buildings have oversize picture windows to take in the dramatic vistas.

Khosla’s portfolio of twenty-four clean tech start-ups also includes companies experimenting with fuel from waste cellulose and electricity from solar thermal sources: For example, Range Fuels of Colorado, which he founded, plans to turn wood chips, agricultural waste, municipal sewage, and pig manure into ethanol. “I’m going after green and ‘cheaper than fossil’ technologies,” Khosla argues from his Menlo Park, California, office, “because it’s the only way to solve the scale problem and to attract the hundreds of billions—or even trillions—of dollars necessary to make a difference in global warming.” Biofuels could be a $50 billion market by 2015 and could retool Detroit, some predict. In 2006 VCs poured $727 million57 into thirty-nine alternative energy start-ups, according to the National Venture Capital Association.

Coffee, professor of law, Columbia University Law School; Steven Drobny, author, Inside the House of Money (2006), and cofounder and partner of Drobny Global Advisors, an international macro research firm; Ted Forstmann (Forbes 400); Charles Geisst, professor of finance, School of Business, Manhattan College, New York, and author, Wall Street: A History (1997); Vinod Khosla (Forbes 400); Jerome Kohlberg (Forbes 400); Bruce Kovner (Forbes 400); Dick Kramlich, cofounder and general partner of New Enterprise Associates, Menlo Park, Calif., and former chairman and president of the National Venture Capital Association; Steven Pearlstein, business columnist, Washington Post; Michael Peltz, executive editor, Institutional Investor and Alpha; Julian Robertson (Forbes 400); Arthur Rock (Forbes 400); David Skeel, professor of corporate law, University of Pennsylvania Law School, and author, Icarus in the Boardroom (2005); Roy Smith, professor of entrepreneurship and finance, New York University, and author, The Wealth Creators (2001); Charles Taylor, National Venture Capital Association; David B.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

They moved into a modest ranch house in Tracy, as the passage to adulthood seemed to demand. They had bills to pay, but in the dispersed city, it was not as though they could just work around the corner. Kim got a job as an administrative assistant at the Hewlett Foundation in Menlo Park, fifty miles west. That’s how she found herself crawling out of bed at five each morning, dropping her toddler, Justin, at day care, then hitting the highway for two hours, up over the Diablo Range, down through the Castro Valley, across the shallow south end of San Francisco Bay, up to the 280, through the hills above Redwood City, and down into Menlo Park. When she could, she’d catch a ride with her grandmother, Nancy, who also worked for the foundation. Otherwise, she’d go solo in her Chevy Malibu. Two hours in, two hours home. She was living the long-distance life, just like her mother and father, her grandmother, and her husband, too.

Not slowing down for chitchat with the gym crowd, he would crank the Van Halen on his old Walkman and sweat out his aggression. Then it was back home for a shower and bed. For now, we will forget Randy’s road-induced back pain. We will put aside his irritation with other drivers and his general bitterness at having to spend so much time on the highway. (After all, not everyone minds a long commute. Randy’s mother, Nancy, told me she enjoyed the two-hour drive to Menlo Park, near Palo Alto, in her gold Lexus.) It was Randy’s relationships with the people around him that were hurt most by his long-distance life. Randy disliked his neighborhood intensely. He couldn’t wait to get out of Mountain House. The problem had nothing to do with the aesthetics of the place. It was still as pristine and manicured as the day he and his wife moved in. It was the people who bothered him.


pages: 485 words: 143,790

The Race Underground: Boston, New York, and the Incredible Rivalry That Built America's First Subway by Doug Most


Menlo Park, place-making, RAND corporation, transcontinental railway

Beside, he is not one who can endure it long. He is very anxious to get to work.” Finally, Edison wrote back. “I received your favor of the 11th this morning and at once called you ‘Send Sprague.’” Johnson, it turned out, was not the only one nudging Edison. Electrical World, a publication that closely monitored the progress in electricity, made a boast in 1883 that seemed like a pointed attack on the wizard from Menlo Park. Electrical World said that while Edison’s incandescent light was impressive, it was time to move on and discover other ways the power of electricity could be applied. “The electric light has long ceased to be a curiosity or even a novelty,” the publication proclaimed. “It has become a common, every-day affair. To the scientist, to the electrician, it looms up even as a thing of the past. The question to which he now turns is: What shall we do next?”

* * * MAY 24, 1883, WAS A sunny day in New York City and one of America’s brightest days in history. But as Sprague, now a twenty-six-year-old former U.S. Navy ensign, stepped off his steamship in New York’s harbor after journeying across from England, he paid little attention to the crowd of excited people making their way east through the city’s streets. He was thinking only about the job that was waiting for him across the Hudson River in Menlo Park, New Jersey, with Thomas Edison. There was a marching band and police escorts on horses, followed by twenty-five carriages, all moving down Fifth Avenue to Fourteenth Street, where they turned east and made their way down to City Hall. The festivities were all part of a celebration New Yorkers had been anticipating for more than a decade, much as they’d been waiting for a subway. After fourteen years of construction, and two dozen deaths, President Chester A.

In general, however, it was only late at night that Sprague was able to focus on what he wanted: building an electric motor. The next year only reinforced in Sprague’s mind how badly he wanted to be a pioneer in designing the perfect electric motor. In April 1884, when Edison finally asked Sprague to step away from lighting and turn his attention to using electricity to create power, it was too late. Sprague had decided he no longer wanted to report to Edison or have to rely on Menlo Park’s resources. He told Edison he had made such progress on his own that he wanted to be recognized for what he achieved independently, and not as an Edison apprentice. “You will surely understand me when I say that I desire to identify myself with the successful solution to this problem,” Sprague wrote to Edison on April 24, 1884. He said he wanted to pursue electric traction with the “same spirit with which you attacked the electric light, with the result of making yourself world-famous.”


pages: 404 words: 124,705

The Village Effect: How Face-To-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter by Susan Pinker


Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra

., “Literacy Promotion for Hispanic Families in a Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Pediatrics 103 (1998); Barry Zuckerman, “Promoting Early Literacy in Pediatric Practice: Twenty Years of Reach Out and Read,” Pediatrics 124, no. 6 (2009). 3. C. E. Huebner and A. N. Meltzoff, “Intervention to Change Parent–Child Reading Style: A Comparison of Instructional Methods,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 26, no. 3 (2005). 4. V. J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, and Donald F. Roberts, Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds, (Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010); Matt Richtel, “Wasting Time Is the New Divide in the Digital Era,” New York Times, May 29, 2012. 5. These children lived in a downtrodden part of Chicago where only 16 percent of the elementary school population had met the local low-ball No Child Left Behind standards. Dan Hurley, “Can You Build a Better Brain? A New Working Memory Game Has Revived the Tantalizing Notion that People Can Make Themselves Smarter,” New York Times Magazine, April 22, 2012. 6.

, “Influencing Factors of Screen Time in Preschool Children: An Exploration of Parents’ Perceptions Through Focus Groups in Six European Countries,” Obesity Reviews 13, no. 1 (2012); Aric Sigman, “Time for a View on Screen Time,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 97, no. 11 (2012). 13. V. J. Rideout, Donald F. Roberts, and Ulla G. Foehr, Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds (Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). 14. Suzy Tomopoulous et al., “Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development,” Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 164, no. 12 (2010); Alan Mendelsohn et al., “Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated with Limited Parent–Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households,” Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine 162, no. 5 (2008). 15.

Ari Brown, “Media Use by Children Younger than 2 Years,” Pediatrics 128, no. 5 (2011); D. A. Christakis, “The Effects of Infant Media Usage: What Do We Know and What Should We Learn?” Acta Paediatrica 98 (2009); Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff, “Television and DVD/Video Viewing”; V. J. Rideout and E. Hamel, The Media Family: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Their Parents (Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006); Pooja S. Tandon et al., “Preschoolers’ Total Daily Screen Time at Home and by Type of Child Care,” Pediatrics 124, no. 6 (2009); Susan Lamontagne, Rakesh Singh, and Craig Palosky, “Daily Media Use Among Children and Teens Up Dramatically from Five Years Ago,” Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (website), January 2010. 28. Kamila B. Mistry et al., “Children’s Television Exposure and Behavioral and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter?”


Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak


Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism,, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

Retrieved from Beschastnikh, I., Kriplean, T., & McDonald, D. W. (2008). Wikipedian self-governance in action: Motivating the policy lens. In E. Adar, M. Hurst, T. Finin, N. S. Glance, R e f e r e n c e s    2 4 1 N. Nicolov, & B. L. Tseng (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (pp. 27–35). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. Bianchi, A. J., Kang, S. M., & Stewart, D. (2010). The organizational selection of status characteristics: Status evaluations in an open source community. Organization Science. doi:10.1287/orsc.1100.0580 Billings, M., & Watts, L. A. (2010). Understanding dispute resolution online: Using text to reflect personal and substantive issues in conflict. In CHI ’10: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1447–1456).

Co-authorship 2.0: Patterns of collaboration in Wikipedia. In HT ’11: Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (pp. 201–210). New York: ACM. Laniado, D., Tasso, R., Volkovich, Y., & Kaltenbrunner, A. (2011). When the Wikipedians talk: Network and tree structure of Wikipedia discussion pages. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (pp. 177–184). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. Retrieved from ICWSM11/paper/viewFile/2764/3301 Lanier, J. (2006, May 29). Digital Maoism: The hazards of the new online collectivism. The Edge. Retrieved from _index.html Latour, B. (1986). The powers of association. In J. Law (Ed.), Power, action and belief: A new sociology of knowledge?

The Sociological Quarterly, 46(2), 385–403. Lerner, J., & Tirole, J. (2002). Some simple economics of open source. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(2), 197–234. Leskovec, J., Huttenlocher, D., & Kleinberg, J. (2010). Governance in social media: A case study of the Wikipedia promotion process. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (pp. 98–105). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. Retrieved from File/1485/1841 Lesser, E., Fontaine, M., & Slusher, J. (Eds.). (2012). Knowledge and communities. London: Routledge. Lessig, L. (1999). Code: And other laws of cyberspace. New York: Perseus. Lessig, L. (2001). The future of ideas. The fate of the commons in the connected world. New York: Random House. Lessig, L. (2004).


pages: 506 words: 152,049

The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene by Richard Dawkins


Alfred Russel Wallace, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, epigenetics, Gödel, Escher, Bach, impulse control, Menlo Park, Necker cube, p-value, phenotype, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, stem cell

A critical review of the models of group selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 53, 101–114. Waldman, B. & Adler, K. (1979). Toad tadpoles associate preferentially with siblings. Nature 282, 611–613. Wallace, A. R. (1866). Letter to Charles Darwin dated 2 July. In J. Marchant (1916) Alfred Russel Wallace Letters and Reminiscences, Vol. 1, pp. 170–174. London: Cassell. Watson, J. D. (1976). Molecular Biology of the Gene. Menlo Park: Benjamin. Weinrich, J. D. (1976). Human reproductive strategy: the importance of income unpredictability, and the evolution of non-reproduction. PhD dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Weizenbaum, J. (1976). Computer Power and Human Reason. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Wenner, A. M. (1971). The Bee Language Controversy: An Experience in Science. Boulder: Educational Programs Improvement Corporation.

Williams, G. C. (1979). The question of adaptive sex ratio in outcrossed vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 205, 567–580. Williams, G. C. (1980). Kin selection and the paradox of sexuality. In Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/Nurture? (eds G. W. Barlow & J. Silverberg), pp. 371–384. Boulder: Westview Press. Wilson, D. S. (1980). The Natural Selection of Populations and Communities. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings. Wilson, E. O. (1971). The Insect Societies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: the New Synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Wilson, E. O. (1978). On Human Nature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Winograd, T. (1972). Understanding Natural Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Witt, P.

The return of the gene. Journal of Philosophy 85, 339–361. Sterelny, K., Smith, K. C. & Dickison, M. (1996). The extended replicator. Biology and Philosophy 11, 377–403. Stone, G. N. & Cook, J. M. (1998). The structure of cynipid oak galls: patterns in the evolution of an extended phenotype. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265, 979–988. Trivers, R. L. (1985). Social Evolution. Menlo Park, N.J.: Benjamin/Cummings. Vermeij, G. J. (1987). Evolution and Escalation: An Ecological History of Life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Vollrath, F. (1988). Untangling the spider’s web. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3, 331–335. Weiner, J. (1994). The Beak of the Finch. London: Cape. Werren, J. H., Nur, U. & Wu, C.-I. (1988). Selfish genetic elements. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 3, 297–302.


pages: 598 words: 183,531

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition by Steven Levy


air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, El Camino Real, game design, Hacker Ethic, hacker house, Haight Ashbury, John Conway, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, non-fiction novel, Paul Graham, popular electronics, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, software patent, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

He met a teacher from Woodside High School on the peninsula, named LeRoy Finkel, who shared his enthusiasm about teaching kids computers; with Finkel he began a computer-book publishing company named Dymax, in honor of Buckminster Fuller’s trademarked word “dymaxion,” combining dynamism and maximum. The for-profit company was funded by Albrecht’s substantial stock holdings (he had been lucky enough to get into DEC’s first stock offering), and soon the company had a contract to write a series of instructional books on BASIC. Albrecht and the Dymax crowd got hold of a DEC PDP-8 minicomputer. To house this marvelous machine, they moved the company to new headquarters in Menlo Park. According to his deal with DEC, Bob would get a computer and a couple of terminals in exchange for writing a book for DEC called My Computer Likes Me, shrewdly keeping the copyright (it would sell over a quarter of a million copies). The equipment was packed into a VW bus, and Bob revived the medicine show days, taking his PDP-8 road show to schools. More equipment came, and in 1971 Dymax became a popular hangout for young computerists, budding hackers, would-be gurus of computer education, and techno-social malcontents.

So on crucial billboards in the area—at PCC, at Lawrence Hall, at a few schools and high-tech corporations—Fred Moore tacked up a sign that read: AMATEUR COMPUTER USERS GROUP HOMEBREW COMPUTER CLUB . . . you name it Are you building your own computer? Terminal? TV Typewriter? I/O device? or some other digital black magic box? Or are you buying time on a time-sharing service? If so, you might like to come to a gathering of people with likeminded interests. Exchange information, swap ideas, help work on a project, whatever . . . The meeting was called for March 5, 1975, at Gordon’s Menlo Park address. Fred Moore and Gordon French had just set the stage for the latest flowering of the hacker dream. Chapter 10. The Homebrew Computer Club The fifth of March was a rainy night in Silicon Valley. All thirty-two participants in the first meeting of the yet unnamed group could hear the rain while sitting on the hard cement floor of Gordon French’s two-car garage. Some of the people at the meeting knew each other; others had come into random contact through the flier that Fred Moore had posted.

In true hacker spirit the club had no membership requirement, asked no minimum dues (though French’s suggestion that anyone who wanted to should give a dollar to cover meeting notice and newsletter expenses had netted $52.63 by the third meeting), and had no elections of officers. By the fourth meeting, it was clear that the Homebrew Computer Club was going to be a hacker haven. Well over a hundred people received the mailing, which announced the meeting would be held that week at the Peninsula School, an isolated private school nestled in a wooded area of Menlo Park. Steve Dompier had built his Altair by then: he had received the final shipment of parts at 10 one morning, and spent the next thirty hours putting it together, only to find that the 256-byte memory wasn’t working. Six hours later he figured out the bug was caused by a scratch on a printed circuit. He patched that up, and then tried to figure out what to do with it. It seems that the only option supplied by MITS for those who actually finished building the machine was a machine language program that you could key into the machine only by the row of tiny switches on the front panel.


The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin


Apple II, collective bargaining, computer age, George Gilder, informal economy, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, open economy, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Of the firms engaged in this now half- Invention 119 billion-dollar business, nearly two-thirds were less than a decade old. A test equipment company was born in Palo Alto, a printed circuit firm in Menlo Park. A new Palo Alto-based technical services operation designed and fabbed prototype components, while a crystal-growing facility in Mountain View (founded by another refugee from Shockley) specialized in the manufacture of pure silicon ingots. The number of tenants in the Stanford Industrial Park increased sixfold in five years.62 The concentration of firms benefited Fairchild Semiconductor, which could use the mass spectrometer at Lockheed and ask the Bay Area Pollution Control Lab to perform a series of important experiments on silicon oxide. Fairchild could have a Menlo Park firm deliver de-mineralized water, purified to the precise standards the lab required for washing components and mixing chemicals.

Gordon Moore has jokingly called the desire not to move “the entrepreneurial spirit that drove the formation of Fairchild Semiconductor.” Gordon Moore interview by Alan Chen. 92. Not going to give away the store: Fairchild Founder A, interview by Christophe Lécuyer. 93. Chickening out: Gordon Moore, interview by Alan Chen, IA. Noyce’s concerns: John W. Wilson, The New Venturers: Inside the High-Stakes World of Venture Capital, (Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1985): 32. 94. Two primary reasons: Betty and Bob Noyce to Family, 11 July 1957. 95. Nice to have you here: Julius Blank, interview by author. 96. Some kind of leader: Arthur Rock, interview by author. Big talker: Fairchild Founder A, interview by author. 97. Dollar bill ceremony: Fairchild Founder A, interview by author. Chapter 4: Breakaway 1. Companies approached by group: List reprinted in “Founding Documents.” 2.

Youth and education of new arrivals: in Palo Alto, for example, median age decreased by three years and median family income increased by 50 percent between 1950 and 1960, Findlay, Magic Lands, 147. 61. IBM Building 25: Alan Hess, “A 45-Year-Old Building Worth Saving,” San Jose Mercury News, 16 Nov. 2003. 62. Electronics sales surpassed $500 million, nearly two-thirds: Western Electronics Manufacturers Association 1961 report, reprinted in Leadwire, Oct. 1961. New startups: “Printed Circuits Firm Formed in Menlo Park,” Electronic News, Oct. 1960; “Diotran Pacific Formed by Four In Palo Alto, Cal,” Electronic News, 6 March 1961; “Firm Established in Palo Alto to Service Producers,” 18 Sept. 1961. Stanford Industrial Park tenants: Findlay, Magic Lands, 140. 330 Notes to Pages 119–123 63. Resources available to Fairchild Semiconductor: “Progress Report, Chemistry Section, 1 Feb. 1960,” Box 5, File 1, Fairchild R&D Reports, M1055, SSC; “Progress Report, Micrologic Section, 1 July 1960,” Box 5, File 2, ibid.; Box 6, File 1, ibid. 64.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser,, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management

Subsequent chapters trace the improvements that are omitted from GDP across the many dimensions of the home and its equipment, public and personal transformation, information, communication, entertainment, and public health and medicine and, in the most novel part of the book, treat in detail of improvements in working conditions for adult males on the job, adult women in the home, and youth during the gradual transition from child labor to schooling. Inventions and Inventors. The major inventions of the late nineteenth century were the creations of individual inventors rather than large corporations. We go behind the scenes to Thomas Edison’s laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where on the epochal night of October 10, 1879, a particular variety of cotton filament finally made possible an electric light bulb that would last not just for an hour but for days and weeks. We also visit Karl Benz’s lab, where, just ten weeks after Edison’s discovery, he took the last step in developing a reliable internal combustion engine. Although this book is about the United States, many of the inventions were made by foreigners in their own lands or by foreigners who had recently transplanted to America.

Thomas Edison did not invent the electric light, but he was responsible for making it commercially viable in the United States, partly because he combined a practical electric lamp with the development of electric power generation, starting with the Pearl Street station in New York City in 1882.81 Edison’s unique contribution was his solution of the double problem of inventing an efficient light bulb that could be manufactured in bulk while also establishing electric generating stations to bring power into the individual home. Compared with the international celebration of the golden spike in 1869 (see chapter 2), the moment when electric light became commercially viable was a much quieter affair. Throughout 1879, Edison’s laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, had been focused on the search for the best material for the filament in the electric light bulb. Finally, it all came together, on the night of October 22, 1879: At 1:30 in the morning, Batchelor and Jehl, watched by Edison, began on the ninth fiber, a plain carbonized cotton-thread filament … set up in a vacuum glass bulb. They attached the batteries, and the bulb’s soft incandescent glow lit up the dark laboratory, the bottles lining the shelves reflecting its gleam.

But this time, the lamp still shone hour after hour through that night. The morning came and went, and still the cotton-thread filament radiated its incandescent light. Lunchtime passed and the carbonized cotton fiber still glowed. At 4:00 pm the glass bulb cracked and the light went out. Fourteen and a half hours!82 Few, if any inventions, have been more enthusiastically welcomed than electric light. Throughout the winter of 1879–1880, thousands traveled to Menlo Park to see the “light of the future,” including farmers whose houses would never be electrified in their lifetimes. Travelers on the nearby Pennsylvania Railroad could see the brilliant lights glowing in the Edison offices. The news was announced to the world on December 21, 1879, with a full-page story in the New York Herald, opened by this dramatic and long-winded headline: EDISON’S LIGHT—THE GREAT INVENTOR’S TRIUMPH IN ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION—A SCRAP OF PAPER—IT MAKES A LIGHT, WITHOUT GAS OR FLAME, CHEAPER THAN OIL—SUCCESS IN A COTTON THREAD.83 On New Year’s Eve of 1879, 3,000 people converged by train, carriage, and farm wagon on the Edison laboratory to witness the brilliant display, a planned laboratory open house of dazzling modernity to launch the new decade.


The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process

So, bowing to reality, Engelbart wrote a disserta- tion on bistable gaseous plasma digital devices, a worthy topic that was solidly centered in the mainstream. Then, with Ph.D. in hand-along with half a dozen patents on the plasma devices-he went out looking for a more congenial atmo- sphere in private industry. In October 1957 he accepted an offer from a think tank known as SRI, the Stanford Research Institute, a university spin-off located just north of Palo Alto, in Menlo Park, California. He very quickly learned to keep a low profile even there. ("Don't tell anybody else," urged one colleague when he heard about Engelbart's ambitions. "It will prejudice people against yoU.")8 Engelbart continued to do conventional work at SRI for another year and a half, in the process earning a dozen more patents. Only in 1959 was he able officially to work on augmentation, thanks to a small THE PHENOMENA SURROUNDING COMPUTERS 213 grant from the air force's office of scientific research, plus some reluctant sup- port wrangled out of the SRI higher-ups.

But it was worth a try: Engelbart had a formal proposal and a copy of his manifesto waiting on Lick's desk the day he arrived at the Pentagon. After all, he later wrote, "there the unlucky fellow was, having advertised that 'man-computer symbiosis,' computer time-sharing, and man-computer inter- faces were the new directions. How could he in reasonable consistency turn this down, even if it was way out there in Menlo Park?"!! He couldn't. Although Lick never publicly described his first response to "Framework," it must have included a strong component of deja VUe Here was the entire idea of human-computer symbiosis, re-created by a complete un- known out in the middle of nowhere. Lick had to admire that-even though En- gelbart had been quite right in anticipating some skepticism on his part ("Later," says Engelbart, "a couple of his friends told me that his reaction was, 'Well, he's way out there'-meaning far from MIT-'in Palo Alto, so we probably can't ex- pect much.

Across his lap-pivoting from the arm of his chair, actually-he had a kind of console that featured a built-in keyboard in the middle, a tray on the right for holding an odd little box with some buttons on top and a cord coming out the end, and an identical tray on the left for holding an equally odd gadget with five metal keys. Looming over Engelbart's right shoulder, dominating the stage, was a twenty-two-by-eighteen-foot display screen that magnified his every expression to the proportions of the Jolly Green Giant. And behind that, invisible to the au- dience but very much a part of the show, was a jury-rigged chain of cameras and video links and telephone lines stretching thirty miles down the peninsula to Menlo Park. With a setup like this, no one knew quite what to expect. But Engelbart defi- nitely had their attention. "The research program that I'm going to describe to you," he began in that soft, strangely compelling baritone, "is quickly character- izable by saying, '1£ in your office, you as an intellectual worker were supplied with a computer display backed up by a computer that was alive for you all day, and that was instantly responsive to every action you had, how much value could you derive from that?'


pages: 309 words: 101,190

Climbing Mount Improbable by Richard Dawkins, Lalla Ward


Buckminster Fuller, computer age, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, industrial robot, invention of radio, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, phenotype, Robert X Cringely, stem cell, trade route

Thompson, D’A. (1942) On Growth and Form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trivers, R. L. (1985) Social Evolution. Menlo Park: Benjamin/ Cummings. Vermeij, G. J. (1993) A Natural History of Shells. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Vollrath, F. (1988) ‘Untangling the spider’s web’. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 331–5. Vollrath, F. (1992) ‘Analysis and interpretation of orb spider exploration and web-building behavior’. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 21, 147–99. Vollrath, F. (1992) ‘Spider webs and silks’. Scientific American, 266, 70–76. Watson, J. D., Hopkins, N. H., Roberts, J. W., Steitz, J. A., and Weiner, A. M. (1987) Molecular Biology of the Gene (4th edn). Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings. Weiner, J. (1994) The Beak of the Finch. London: Jonathan Cape. Williams, G.


pages: 355 words: 92,571

Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender


Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

He even discovered the original Falconbridge iron ore body in Canada, though he failed to bring it into successful commercial production, and abandoned his claim. This setback was remedied by others at a later date. Part of the key to his success was that he was one of the first to see the potential for applying mass production techniques and teamwork to the process of invention. His laboratory at Menlo Park in New Jersey is generally reckoned to have been the first industrial research laboratory. Others made a substantial contribution to his innovations, which he acknowledged, saying, ‘I am quite correctly described as more of a sponge than an inventor.’ This probably overstates the case, but it contains a large grain of truth. Edison’s ability to translate such inventiveness into business success is surely unparalleled.

Thompson) 1 Manchester 1 Manchester School 1 Mandeville, Bernard 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Manuel I, King of Portugal 1 manufacturing 1 market makers 1 Marriage of Figaro (Mozart) 1 Marsh, Peter 1 Marshall Plan 1 Marx, Karl 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 involvement in speculation 1 mathematical models 1 Mayfair economy 1 Meade, James 1 Medici family 1, 2 Meiji restoration 1, 2 Mellon, Andrew 1, 2, 3, 4 Melville, Herman 1 Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions 1 Memoirs of Herbert Hoover 1 Mencken, H. L. 1, 2 Menlo Park 1 Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare) 1, 2, 3 Meriwether, John 1 Merton, Robert 1 Michelangelo 1, 2 Micklethwait, John 1 Midas myth 1, 2, 3 Milton, John 1 Minsky, Hyman 1, 2 Miró, Joan 1 Mississippi Bubble 1, 2 Misunderstanding Financial Crises (Gary B. Gorton) 1 Moby-Dick (Herman Melville) 1 Molière 1, 2 Moll Flanders (Daniel Defoe) 1 Mond, Alfred 1, 2 money motive 1 Moneychangers, The (Upton Sinclair) 1 Montesquieu 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Moore, G.


pages: 398 words: 108,889

The Paypal Wars: Battles With Ebay, the Media, the Mafia, and the Rest of Planet Earth by Eric M. Jackson


bank run, business process, call centre, disintermediation, Elon Musk, index fund, Internet Archive, iterative process, Joseph Schumpeter, market design, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, telemarketer, The Chicago School, Turing test

If “world domination” was to be the eventual outcome, Peter realized camaraderie and teamwork were necessary ingredients. He scheduled an afternoon for the company’s holiday offsite party so employees could relax and bond away from the office before making a final pre-holiday push. Employees caravanned over from the office to the party, held at a meeting facility on Sand Hill Road in adjacent Menlo Park. For anyone not familiar with the reference, Sand Hill is to venture capital what Wall Street is to the stock market. A broad, ambling road in the undeveloped foothills behind Stanford University, Sand Hill houses many of Silicon Valley’s top venture capital firms and provided four-fifths of the funds that poured into California startups during the late 1990s. This might be hard to guess just by looking at the road itself; most of the buildings nestled along it could not be called noteworthy.

See also legal actions against PayPal regulatory risks with PayPal, 121 less than banks with gaming, 214 need for clarification, 168 robot bidder, 55–60 Rockower, JoAnne background, 135 discovery about Billpoint listings, 206 life after PayPal, 312 role at eBay Live, 271 transfer to marketing, 234 “turn off Checkout” tool, 232 Rowe, Amy, 119, 124, 155 Ruckstuhl, Ann, 209 Sacks, David attempt to retain Paul Martin, 266 attitude towards competition, 56–57 cashflow crisis approach, 136–137 collaboration with Elon Musk, 110–111 continuation at PayPal under eBay, 295–296 debate over fee transactions, 149–150 deferral to Elton Musk production halt, 154 departure from PayPal, 303 The Diversity Myth, 7 eBay Live plan, 269–270 employee relations, 23 Eric’s concern about reporting to, 114 fight to keep PayPal name, 155 handwriting on wall, 301–302 hiring by Confinity, 15 life after PayPal, 312 management strength, 311 management style, 126, 184, 269 meeting with employees about eBay buyout, 287–288 Meg Whitman’s thanks to, 285 message board proposal, 100–101, 107 move to oust Elon Musk, 157–159 nickname, 32 PayPal banner ads innovation, 46–48 PayPal expenses reduction effort, 170 position at (PayPal), 75 product team meeting at P/X, 117–119 reaction to Eric’s first day, 18 refusal to stop brands survey, 156 response to Eric’s call to break Billpoint, 261–262 “Scotty” promotion suggestion, 30 signoff on Palm application termination, 146 temperament, 46, 184 transaction guarantee rollout, 137–138 “turn off Checkout” tool order, 232 sales. See promotions; upselling Salomon Smith Barney, 236, 239, 244 Sand Hill Road (Menlo Park), 31 scalability problems. See customer service at (PayPal); Oracle/Windows schism at (PayPal) Schumpeter, Joseph, 2, 3 . See also “creative destruction” “Scotty” (James Doohan), 30, 33–34 reason promotion failed, 52 secret weapon. See charity robot SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) accusation of PayPal violation, 242–243, 251 delay of PayPal IPO, 240, 241 . See also PayPal IPO Selby, Jack, 91, 303 seller protection policy of PayPal, 169 Billpoint copycat, 262 selling.


pages: 336 words: 92,056

The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution by Henry Schlesinger


Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, British Empire, Copley Medal, Fellow of the Royal Society, index card, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Livingstone, I presume, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Yogi Berra

In many respects, Edison didn’t want to reinvent the wheel, just build a better wheel, and then sell it in quantity. In the popular media, Edison fashioned for himself an image as the humble tinkerer, the hard worker whose gift of genius did not crush his folksy ways. He spoke plainly, not burdened by an oversized ego or entranced by arcane scientific mumbo-jumbo. Far from the otherworldly absentminded professor, he carried with him all the plainspoken credibility of the common man. The Wizard of Menlo Park would leave the obscure glories of science, theories, and publication in scholarly journals to the scientists. He was a simple man, simply making products ordinary people could use and enjoy. What most of the public didn’t see was his unrelenting drive and business savvy. Edison had come of age in the nascent corporate worlds of the telegraph and the railroad. There could be no better place or time for an ambitious young man to learn the basic principles of technology and business.

Not about to let those years of research go to waste, Edison set about finding new uses for his alkaline battery, designing a wide array of devices it could power, from railroad signals and switches to ship lighting and miner’s lights. Eventually, it became one of the most profitable divisions of Edison’s empire. However, the long years spent in battery development may have also distracted the Wizard of Menlo Park from other inventions coming on line at the time. He rejected radio, calling it a “craze” and took special pains to explain that “…there are several laws of nature which cannot be overcome when attempts are made to make the radio a musical instrument.” For years he resisted building a phonograph with a radio integrated into the unit, seeing the two technologies in competition for consumers’ attention, even as his distributors and customers demanded just such a product. 10 Victorian Age of Discovery “To the electron—may it never be of any use to anybody!”


pages: 313 words: 94,490

Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die by Chip Heath, Dan Heath


affirmative action, availability heuristic, Barry Marshall: ulcers, correlation does not imply causation, desegregation, Menlo Park, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, telemarketer

What capabilities do we need in order to grow? What skills will our employees need to successfully please customers, and how will we get better at serving our customers over time? An example of strategic language that speaks to internal capabilities comes from Thomas Alva Edison, the inventor of the phonograph and the lightbulb. Edison was not a lone inventor; he created the first industrial R&D lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey. The researchers in his labs were called “muckers.” The term comes from two slang phrases of the time—“to muck in” was to work together as mates, and “to muck around” was to fool around. Why was this a good way for Edison’s researchers to talk strategy? In any entrepreneurial organization, there’s a natural tension between efficiency and experimentation. Innovation requires experimentation and freedom, and it necessarily involves dead ends and wasted time and errors—all of which, in turn, will reduce efficiency.

., “Is it okay to spend the next hour of my time fooling around in the lab?”) The term “muckers” is a strategy statement masquerading as a nickname. It makes it clear that, given the tough choice between efficiency and experimentation, you choose experimentation. Why? Because you’re a mucker. Muckers don’t obsess over Gantt charts. Muckers muck. And muckers muck because that is precisely the organizational capability that will make Menlo Park successful. Talking strategy in a thoughtful way can relieve the burden of decision paralysis. Barrier 3: Lack of a common language In the classic 1950s models of communication, a “sender” communicates with a “receiver.” The metaphor suggests that the message passed is a kind of package—wrapped up on one side and unwrapped on the other. There is certainly a lot of communication that operates in this way—professors lecturing to their students, ministers preaching to their congregations, etc.


pages: 336 words: 113,519

The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds by Michael Lewis


Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, endowment effect, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, John von Neumann, loss aversion, medical residency, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, New Journalism, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, statistical model, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

For instance, any person’s assessment of probabilities of a killer storm making landfall in 1973 was bound to be warped by the ease with which they recalled the fresh experience of Hurricane Camille. But how, exactly, was that judgment warped? “We thought decision analysis would conquer the world and we would help,” said Danny. The leading decision analysts were clustered around Ron Howard in Menlo Park, California, at a place called the Stanford Research Institute. In the fall of 1973 Danny and Amos flew to meet with them. But before they could figure out exactly how they were going to bring their ideas about uncertainty into the real world, uncertainty intervened. On October 6, the armies of Egypt and Syria—with troops and planes and money from as many as nine other Arab countries—launched an attack on Israel.

Israeli intelligence analysts had dramatically misjudged the odds of an attack of any sort, much less a coordinated one. The army was caught off guard. On the Golan Heights, a hundred or so Israeli tanks faced fourteen hundred Syrian tanks. Along the Suez Canal, a garrison of five hundred Israeli troops and three tanks were quickly overrun by two thousand Egyptian tanks and one hundred thousand Egyptian soldiers. On a cool, cloudless, perfect morning in Menlo Park, Amos and Danny heard the news of the shocking Israeli losses. They raced to the airport for the first flight back home, so that they might fight in yet another war. * * * * By the time they were finished with the project, they had dreamed up an array of hysterically bland characters for people to evaluate and judge to be more likely lawyers or engineers. Paul, for example. “Paul is 36 years old, married, with 2 children.


pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters


Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technoutopianism, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine

., esp. chaps. 2 and 3; Stuart W. Leslie, The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 203–231. 37. Kristie Mackrasis, Seduced by Secrets: Inside the Stasi’s Spy-Tech World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 23, 133, 139, esp. 112–140. 38. Judy O’Neill, “Interview with Paul Baran,” Charles Babbage Institute, OH 182, March 5, 1990, Menlo Park, CA, accessed April 15, 2015, 39. Ibid.; see also Stewart Brand, “Founding Father,” Wired 9 (3) (1991), accessed April 15, 2015, 40. Brand, “Founding Father.” 41. Ibid. 42. Bradley Voytek, “Are There Really as Many Neurons in the Human Brain as Stars in the Milky Way?

New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Nove, Alec. An Economic History of the USSR, 1917–1991. 3rd ed. New York: Penguin Group, 1992. Odom, William E. The Collapse of the Soviet Military. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998. O’Hearn, Dennis. “The Consumer Second Economy: Size and Effects.” Soviet Studies 32 (2) (April 1980): 218–234. O’Neill, Judy. “Interview with Paul Baran.” Charles Babbage Institute, OH 182, Menlo Park, CA, March 5, 1990. Accessed April 15, 2015, Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy. New York: Routledge, 1972. O’Shea, Michael. The Brain: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Osokina, Elena. Our Daily Bread: Socialist Distribution and the Art of Survival in Stalin’s Russia, 1927–1941. New York: Routledge, 2003.


pages: 284 words: 92,688

Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons


Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Soon come the scandals and lawsuits and criminal cases, with tales of sleazy founders sexually harassing female employees or, in one extreme case, allegedly beating up a girlfriend. These are the people who now run tech companies, who have been entrusted with huge sums of other people’s money. It would be nice to think that when everything falls apart, the only ones who get hurt will be venture capitalists on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park. But a lot of the money being thrown at these kids originally came from pension funds. The pain, when it comes, will not be confined to Sand Hill Road. Walking around San Francisco, it strikes me that this cannot end well, that the combination of magical thinking, easy money, greedy investors, and amoral founders represents a recipe for disaster. My first response is to feel the same kind of righteous indignation that I felt back in the late 1990s.

Forming the Glass Collective in 2013 was just another attempt to latch on to something trendy. In the end Doerr got nothing out of Google Glass except some publicity, but maybe that was the point all along. In the old days, Silicon Valley venture capitalists embraced a California version of clubby East Coast white-shoe culture. All of the top VC firms literally sit beside one another on the same street, a big boulevard called Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park. For decades these firms resembled snooty private gentlemen’s clubs—in the British upper class sense of the word. They were almost exclusively male and were run by former engineers who shunned publicity and quietly voted Republican. Today generating hype has become a central part of the venture capital business. There are so many new firms and so much new money floating around that VC firms feel pressure to raise their profile.


pages: 350 words: 96,803

Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test

,” Interpretation 27 (2000): 129–160; and Larry Arnhart, “Defending Darwinian Natural Right,” Interpretation 27 (2000): 263–277. 18 Arnhart (1998), pp. 31–36. 19 Donald Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), p. 77. 20 See, for example, Steven Pinker and Paul Bloom, “Natural Language and Natural Selection,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1990): 707–784; and Pinker, The Language Instinct (New York: HarperCollins, 1994). 21 For a critique, see Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) pp. 57–60. 22 The argument about time was made by Benjamin Lee Whorf with regard to the Hopi, while the argument about color was a commonplace in anthropology textbooks. See Brown (1991), pp. 10–11. 23 John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Book I, chapter 3, section 7 (Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books, 1995), p. 30. 24 Ibid., Book I, chapter 3, section 9, pp. 30–31. 25 Robert Trivers, “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism,” Quarterly Review of Biology 46 (1971): 35–56; see also Trivers, Social Evolution (Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin /Cummings, 1985). 26 Sarah B. Hrdy and Glenn Hausfater, Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives (New York: Aldine Publishing, 1984); R. Muthulakshmi, Female Infanticide: Its Causes and Solutions (New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House, 1997); Lalita Panigrahi, British Social Policy and Female Infanticide in India (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1972); and Maria W.

.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Taylor, Sarah E. “FDA Approval Process Ensures Biotech Safety.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, no. 10 (2000): 3. Tribe, Laurence H. “Second Thoughts on Cloning.” The New York Times, December 5, 1997. Trivers, Robert. “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology 46 (1971): 35–56. ———. Social Evolution. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings, 1985. Uchtmann, Donald L., and Gerald C. Nelson. “US Regulatory Oversight of Agricultural and Food-Related Biotechnology.” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (2000): 350–377. Varma, Jay K. “Eugenics and Immigration Restriction: Lessons for Tomorrow.” Journal of the American Medical Association 275 (1996): 734. Venter, J. Craig, et al. “The Sequence of the Genome.”


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler


A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Rather, it was artificially as­ sembled, as it were, out of bits and pieces, and given an artificial name that neatly evoked the two primary elements of a bygone American landscape: green fields and villages. Henry I made a kind of fetish of collecting historical buildings­ especially the boyhood homes and workshops of his fellow genius­ inventor-entrepreneur-industrialists. Beginning in the 1920s, he 1 9 8 ... T H R E E C I T I E S acquired the Wright Brothers' boyhood home and the old bike shop in Dayton, Ohio, where they first tinkered with gliders; Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey, research lab; the Ohio birthplace of pickle king H.J. Heinz; the Michigan boyhood farmstead of tire mogul Harvey Firestone; and much more, including Ford's own modest birthplace. All were moved to the Dearborn site-along with other miscellaneous pe­ riod buildings : a gristmill, a covered bridge, a stagecoach inn, a one­ room schoolhouse, barns-and reassembled into a sort of village.

. , 258-59 Massachusetts, 21-22, 23, 263-64 Massachusetts, University of, library at, 266-67 Massachusetts Bay Company, 19, 22 Massachusetts State House, 154 mass merchandising, 166-68 mass production, 151-52, 163-66 mass transportation, 86-92 automobiles and, 90-92 decline of, 90-92 Robert Moses and, 99, 100 see also light rail Mayflower, 18-19 Mead, William Rutherford, 63, 64 megalopolis, 15 Mencken, H. L., 207, 210 Menlo Park, N.J. , 199 Mennonites, 23-24 Metesky, George, 12, 13 Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y. ), 13 Metropolitan Service District (Portland, Oreg. ), 204-5 Mettowee River Valley, Vt. , 271-72 Mettowee Valley Project, 272 Mexico, 214 Miami, Fla., 126-27, 254 Miami Beach, Fla. , 229 Michigan, 161-62 Midwest, 29, 180 national grid and, 30 Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 73 Mills, Robert, 154 Minuit, Peter, 22 Modernism, 57, 59-84, 121, 239, 245 Bauhaus and, 70-71, 76-77 Beaux Arts style and, 62-67 discontinuity and, 250 factory architecture and, 67-69 industrialism and, 60-61 International Style and, 73-81 Postmodernism and, 81-84 Purism and, 72-73 Radiant City concept and, 78-80 and refugees from Nazis, 76-77 relationships and, 250 skyscrapers and, 75 Moholy-Nagy, Lazlo, 77 Moline, Ill., 114 monoculture, 94 "Monopoly" (game), 231 Montesquieu, 152 Monticello ( Virginia), 151, 154 Montreal, Canada, 134, 180, 181, 187 I N D E X Moore Farm ( Vermont), 272 Morgan, J.


pages: 146 words: 43,446

The New New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story by Michael Lewis


Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, business climate, Chance favours the prepared mind, data acquisition, family office, high net worth, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, pre–internet, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Thorstein Veblen, Y2K

Jan Bocksum was the beleaguered Dutch fellow at the Huisman Shipyard assigned by Wolter Huisman to help the sailing novices from Silicon Valley gain sufficient understanding of the boat that they could control it. He'd quit, or threatened to, several times over the past two and a half years. He kept saying that he knew how software should be written because he knew how Microsoft wrote software. Microsoft deployed thousands of programmers in human waves whenever it sought to create something new. Jim Clark had deployed three young men on top of a Jenny Craig weight loss center in Menlo Park, California. But Jan Bocksum was given no choice. By edict from Wolter Huisman, he and four or five other stout and sturdy Dutch workers had acquired a working knowledge of Clark's new computer system. None of them actually knew how to program the boat, but all of them knew how to use the computer. More to the point, they knew the password to gain entry to the system. Any one might have ordered a movie in the galley.

Finally, at four o' clock one morning in January 1999, or three months after Healtheon canceled its IPO, we boarded Clark's plane in Palm Beach, Florida, and flew to the Canary Islands: I, Clark, and Hyperion's chef, Tina Braddock, whom Clark had decided to take with him wherever he went. The rest of its crew and the software engineer Steve Hague were already on board. (Lance and Tim had been sent back to the room on top of the Jenny Craig weight loss center in Menlo Park, California.) Hyperion had just passed Spain on its way to a dock in Grand Canary, where it planned to collect us the next day. Clark's jet was fired up and ready to go. His luggage compartment was crammed with food and wine for the crossing. After seven years of writing software that could sail a boat, Clark, at last, had the chance to watch his program guide his boat across an ocean. Even so, no one on his jet could predict what would happen next.


pages: 125 words: 28,222

Growth Hacking Techniques, Disruptive Technology - How 40 Companies Made It BIG – Online Growth Hacker Marketing Strategy by Robert Peters


Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit

It is a social network like Facebook in that users can follow one another, comment on video content, create playlists, and publish their own channels. At the same time, channels can be used as an advertising platform or for the pure delivery of content. A YouTube channel is an “everyman’s” venue to publishing video content that, if it goes viral, can be a ticket to a music career, acting roles, or television or movie contracts. For some, YouTube has literally been a place where dreams come true. It began, however, in a garage in Menlo Park, California. Three former PayPal employees wanted to share some video of a party the night before. They weren’t sure how to do it, so they started brainstorming, bought a domain name, spent some months developing the site, and released a public beta in May 2005 populated with videos of PJ, a cat that belonged to one of the founders. Initially they tried to create buzz by giving away an iPod Nano to a random user every day for two months, but in the end, their connections may have been their greatest asset.


pages: 1,758 words: 342,766

Code Complete (Developer Best Practices) by Steve McConnell


Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, choice architecture, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, fault tolerance, Grace Hopper, haute cuisine, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, inventory management, iterative process, late fees, loose coupling, Menlo Park, place-making, premature optimization, revision control, slashdot, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine, web application

This older book contains an exhaustive treatment of software-project estimation considered more generally than in Boehm's newer book. Humphrey, Watts S. A Discipline for Software Engineering. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995. Chapter 5 of this book describes Humphrey's Probe method, which is a technique for estimating work at the individual developer level. Conte, S. D., H. E. Dunsmore, and V. Y. Shen. Software Engineering Metrics and Models. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1986. Chapter 6 contains a good survey of estimation techniques, including a history of estimation, statistical models, theoretically based models, and composite models. The book also demonstrates the use of each estimation technique on a database of projects and compares the estimates to the projects' actual lengths. Gilb, Tom. Principles of Software Engineering Management.

Grady, Robert B. Practical Software Metrics for Project Management and Process Improvement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1992. Grady describes lessons learned from establishing a software-measurement program at Hewlett-Packard and tells you how to establish a software-measurement program in your organization. Conte, S. D., H. E. Dunsmore, and V. Y. Shen. Software Engineering Metrics and Models. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1986. This book catalogs current knowledge of software measurement circa 1986, including commonly used measurements, experimental techniques, and criteria for evaluating experimental results. Basili, Victor R., et al. 2002. "Lessons learned from 25 years of process improvement: The Rise and Fall of the NASA Software Engineering Laboratory," Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Software Engineering.

Boehm-Davis, Deborah , Sylvia Sheppard, and John Bailey. 1987. "Program Design Languages: How Much Detail Should They Include?" International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 27, no. 4: 337–47. Böhm, C., and G. Jacopini. 1966. "Flow Diagrams, Turing Machines and Languages with Only Two Formation Rules." Communications of the ACM 9, no. 5 (5): 366–71. Booch, Grady. 1987. Software Engineering with Ada, 2d ed. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Booch, Grady. 1994. Object Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, 2d ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Booth, Rick. 1997. Inner Loops : A Sourcebook for Fast 32-bit Software Development. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Boundy, David. 1991. "A Taxonomy of Programmers." ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 16, no. 4 (4): 23–30. Brand, Stewart. 1995. How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They're Built.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells


Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

In 1975, Ed Roberts, an engineer who had created a small calculator company, MITS, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, built a computing box with the improbable name of Altair, after a character in the Star Trek TV series, that was the object of admiration of the inventor’s young daughter. The machine was a primitive object, but it was built as a small-scale computer around a microprocessor. It was the basis for the design of Apple I, then of Apple II, the first commercially successful micro-computer, realized in the garage of their parents’ home by two young school drop-outs, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, in Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, in a truly extraordinary saga that has by now become the founding legend of the Information Age. Launched in 1976, with three partners and $91,000 capital, Apple Computers had by 1982 reached $583 million in sales, ushering in the age of diffusion of computer power. IBM reacted quickly: in 1981 it introduced its own version of the microcomputer, with a brilliant name: the Personal Computer (PC), which became in fact the generic name for microcomputers.

One such gathering was the Home Brew Computer Club, whose young visionaries (including Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak) would go on to create in the following years up to 22 companies, including Microsoft, Apple, Comenco, and North Star. It was the club’s reading, in Popular Electronics, of an article reporting Ed Roberts’s Altair machine which inspired Wozniak to design a microcomputer, Apple I, in his Menlo Park garage in the summer of 1976. Steve Jobs saw the potential, and together they founded Apple, with a $91,000 loan from an Intel executive, Mike Markkula, who came in as a partner. At about the same time Bill Gates founded Microsoft to provide the operating system for microcomputers, although he located his company in 1978 in Seattle to take advantage of the social contacts of his family. A parallel story could be told about the growth of genetic engineering, with leading scientists at Stanford, UC San Francisco and Berkeley bridging into companies, first located in the Bay area.

Keck, Margaret E. and Sikkink, Kathryn (1998) Activists beyond Borders, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Kelley, Maryellen (1986) “Programmable automation and the skill question: a re-interpretation of the cross-national evidence”, Human Systems Management, 6. —— (1990) “New process technology, job design and work organization: a contingency model”, American Sociological Review, 55 (April): 191–208. Kelly, Kevin (1995) Out of Control: the Rise of Neo-biological Civilization, Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. Kendrick, John W. (1961) Productivity Trends in the United States, National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. —— (1973) Postwar Productivity Trends in the United States, 1948–69, National Bureau of Economic Research New York: Columbia University Press. —— (1984) International Comparisons of Productivity and Causes of the Slowdown, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. —— and Grossman, E. (1980) Productivity in the United States: Trends and Cycles, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.


pages: 455 words: 133,322

The Facebook Effect by David Kirkpatrick


Andy Kessler, Burning Man, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, Peter Thiel, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Whole Earth Review, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

“We had done a couple of real pitches for Wirehog, but our theory was that no one cared about that,” says Zuckerberg. “They just wanted to do Facebook.” Sequoia, for its part, was so eager to get close to them that partner Roelof Botha willingly accepted the idea. The boys hatched a plan. On the appointed day, they overslept. They were supposed to meet at 8 A.M. Botha called at 8:05—“Where are you guys?” Zuckerberg and Andrew McCollum, his Wirehog partner, rushed over to Sequoia’s swanky offices on Menlo Park’s Sand Hill Road in pajama bottoms and T-shirts. Though they said they’d overslept, it was deliberate. “It was actually supposed to be worse,” says Zuckerberg. “We won’t even go there.” Then, as the stiff but attentive partners of Sequoia looked on, Zuckerberg made his presentation. He showed ten slides. He didn’t even make a pitch for Wirehog. It was a David Letterman–style list of “The Top Ten Reasons You Should Not Invest in Wirehog.”

His role, as he later put it, was to be Zuckerberg’s “consigliere.” 5 Investors “I’ve got to invest in this company.” One of Chris Hughes’s friends at Harvard’s Kirkland House was Olivia Ma, whose father, Chris, was a senior manager for acquisitions and investments at the Washington Post Company. Ma’s daughter urged him to take a look at Thefacebook, and between Christmas and New Year’s of 2004 he took Zuckerberg to a Sunday lunch in Menlo Park, near Facebook’s offices in Palo Alto. The Post was already an investor in, and Ma found Thefacebook enticing because of its focus on a promising demographic—college students. He also immediately found himself impressed with Zuckerberg. “I concluded in that first lunch that the key to Mark is that he is a psychologist,” says Ma. “His central thought was that kids have a deep-seated desire to have certain kinds of social interactions in college and that what drives them is their extreme interest in their friends—what they are doing, what they are thinking, and where they are going.


pages: 696 words: 143,736

The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil


Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, fudge factor, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, information retrieval, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

Hameroff, Stuart R., Alfred W Kaszniak, and Alwyn C. Scott, eds. Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Hamming, R. W Introduction to Applied Numerical Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Hankins, Thomas L. Science and the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Harel, David. Algorithmics: The Spirit of Computing. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1987. Harman, Willis. Global Mind Change: The New Age Revolution in the Way We Think. New York: Warner Books, 1988. Harmon, Paul and David King. Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence in Business. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1985. Harre, Rom, ed. American Behaviorial Scientist: Computation and the Mind. Vol. 40, no. 6, May 1997. Harrington, Steven. Computer Graphics: A Programming Approach.

The Cognitive Computer: On Language, Learning, and Artificial Intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984. Schilpp, P. A., ed. The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1944. Schön, Donald A. Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987. Schorr, Herbert and Alain Rappaport, eds. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1989. Schrödinger, Erwin. What Is Life? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. Schull, Jonathan. “Are Species Intelligent?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:1 (1990). Schulmeyer, G. Gordon. Zero Defect Software. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. Schwartz, Lillian E The Computer Artist’s Handbook: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications. New York: W W Norton and Company, 1992.


pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce


Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping,, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog

In 1882, Edison’s state-of-the-art machinery converted less than 2.5 percent of the heat energy in the coal into electricity.5 For comparison, some modern coal-fired power plants, using “ultra-supercritical” technology, can convert nearly half of the coal’s heat energy into electric power.6 As for its size, the Pearl Street plant was a midget by modern standards. Edison’s first power plant produced 600,000 watts, or the equivalent of about 804 horsepower.7 That’s only a bit more output than a 2009 Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano, which comes screaming out of the factory with a 620-horsepower engine.8 PHOTO 4 The Wizard of Menlo Park next to his original dynamo at Orange, New Jersey, 1906 Source: Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-93698. Though the scale of what happened at 255–257 Pearl Street may seem downright puny, the conveniences and necessities of the modern world—lights, air conditioning, television, heart monitors, cell phones, iPods, and a panoply of other gizmos—were all made possible by the work that Edison pioneered at those two long-gone buildings near the southern tip of Manhattan.

If Edison wanted to supply that same amount of power using the Briggs and Stratton generators, he could simply buy sixty of them. His total cost for that power capacity (in late 2009, the Briggs and Stratton units cost $1,999.99 each) would be about $120,000.55 That works out to about $0.20 per watt. The result: a 105-fold improvement over the costs Edison faced when he built the Pearl Street station. Indeed, if the Wizard of Menlo Park were still around, he could buy all the cheap generating capacity he wanted. And with an Internet connection and a credit card, he could even get free shipping. CHAPTER 6 If Oil Didn’t Exist, We’d Have to Invent It AMIDST ALL THE RHETORIC about the evils of oil, the evils of OPEC, the claims that we are “addicted” to oil, that oil fosters terrorism, that we can “win the oil endgame,” or that oil is killing the planet, the simple, unavoidable truth is that using oil makes us rich.


pages: 474 words: 136,787

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley


affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce

., 1991, Human Universals, MacGraw-Hill, New York —and Hotra, D., 1988, ‘Are Prescriptively Monogamous Societies Effectively Monogamous?’, Human Reproductive Behavior, ed. L. Betzig, M. Borgehoff Mulder and P. Turke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 153–60 Budiansky, S., 1992, The Covenant of the Wild: Why Animals Chose Domestication, William Morrow, New York Bull, J. J., 1983, The Evolution of Sex-determining Mechanisms, Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park, California —1987, ‘Sex-determining mechanisms: an Evolutionary Perspective’, The Evolution of Sex and its Consequences, ed. S. C. Stearns, Birkhauser, Basel, pp. 93–115 Bull, J. J., and Bulmer, M. G., 1981, ‘The Evolution of XY Females in Mammals’, Heredity, 47:347–65 —and Charnov, E. L., 1985, ‘On Irreversible Evolution’, Evolution, 39:1149–55 Burley, N., 1981, ‘Sex Ratio Manipulation and Selection for Attractiveness’, Science, 211:721:–2 Burt, A. and Bell, G., 1987, ‘Mammalian Chiasma Frequencies as a Test of Two Theories of Recombination’, Nature, 326:803–5 Buss, D., 1989, ‘Sex Differences in Human Mate Preferences: Evolutionary Hypotheses Tested in 37 Cultures’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12:1–49 —1992, ‘Mate Preference Mechanisms: Consequences for Partner Choice and Intrasexual Competition’, The Adapted Mind, ed.

‘Why Should Lek Breeders be Monomorphic?’, Evolution, 44:1837–52 Tripp, C. A., 1975, The Homosexual Matrix, Signet, New York Trivers, R. L., 1971, ‘The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism’, Quarterly Review of Biology, 46:35–57 —1972, ‘Parental Investment and Sexual Selection’, Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, ed. B. Campbell, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago, pp. 136–79 —1985, Social Evolution, Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park, California —1991, ‘Deceit and Self-deception: The Relationship between Communication and Consciousness’, Man and Beast Revisited, ed. M. H. Robinson and L. Tiger, Smithsonian, Washington, DC, pp. 175–91 —and Willard, D., 1973, ‘Natural Selection of Parental Ability to Vary the Sex-ratio of Offspring’, Science, 179:90–91 Troy, S. and Elgar, M. A., 1991, ‘Brush Turkey Incubation Mounds: Mate Attraction in a Promiscuous Mating System’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6:202–3 Unterberger, F. and Kirsch, W., 1932, ‘Bericht über Versuche zur Beeinflussung des Geschlechtsverhältnisses bei Kaninchen nach Unterberger’, Monatsschrift für Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie, 91:17–27 van Schaik, C.


pages: 440 words: 117,978

Cuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll


affirmative action, call centre, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Menlo Park, Paul Graham, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley

Indeed, any Arpanet user can connect to any Milnet computer without so much as an invitation. Together, the Arpanet, Milnet, and a hundred other networks make up the Internet. There are thousands of university, commercial, and military computers connected through the Internet. Like buildings in a city, each has a unique address; most of these addresses are registered at the Network Information Center (NIC) in Menlo Park, California. Any one computer may have dozens or hundreds of people using it, so individuals as well as computers are registered in the NIC. The NIC’s computers provide a directory: just connect to the NIC and ask for someone, and it’ll tell you where they’re located. They don’t have much luck keeping their database up to date (computer people change jobs often), but the NIC still serves as a good phone directory of computer people.

Remember, keep this out of electronic mail. And find out who the cops are.” “Yessir.” It took only one phone call to find out that the FBI wasn’t policing the Internet. “Look, kid, did you lose more than a half million dollars?” “Uh, no.” “Any classified information?” “Uh, no.” “Then go away, kid.” Another attempt at rousing the feds had failed. Maybe the Network Information Center would know who policed their net. I called Menlo Park and eventually found Nancy Fischer. To her, the Internet wasn’t just a collection of cables and software. It was a living creature, a brain with neurons extending around the world, into which ten thousand computer users breathed life every hour. Nancy was fatalistic: “It’s a miniature of the society around us. Sooner or later, some vandal’s going to try to kill it.” It seemed that there were no network police.


pages: 574 words: 164,509

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom


agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey

Time, March 25, no. 13. Kaufman, Jeff. 2011. “Whole Brain Emulation and Nematodes.” Jeff Kaufman’s Blog (blog), November 2. Keim, G. A., Shazeer, N. M., Littman, M. L., Agarwal, S., Cheves, C. M., Fitzgerald, J., Grosland, J., Jiang, F., Pollard, S., and Weinmeister, K. 1999. “Proverb: The Probabilistic Cruciverbalist.” In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 710–17. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. Kell, Harrison J., Lubinski, David, and Benbow, Camilla P. 2013. “Who Rises to the Top? Early Indicators.” Psychological Science 24 (5): 648–59. Keller, Wolfgang. 2004. “International Technology Diffusion.” Journal of Economic Literature 42 (3): 752–82. KGS Go Server. 2012. “KGS Game Archives: Games of KGS player zen19.” Retrieved July 22, 2013. Available at

“Report on a General Problem-Solving Program: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing.” In Information Processing, 256–64. Paris: UNESCO. Nicolelis, Miguel A. L., and Lebedev, Mikhail A. 2009. “Principles of Neural Ensemble Physiology Underlying the Operation of Brain–Machine Interfaces.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10 (7): 530–40. Nilsson, Nils J. 1984. Shakey the Robot, Technical Note 323. Menlo Park, CA: AI Center, SRI International, April. Nilsson, Nils J. 2009. The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern, D. F., and Turkheimer, E. 2012. “Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments.” American Psychologist 67 (2): 130–59. Niven, Larry. 1973.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain


8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

Just as Tony Robbins’s aggressive upselling is OK with his fans because spreading helpful ideas is part of being a good person, and just as HBS expects its students to be talkers because this is seen as a prerequisite of leadership, so have many evangelicals come to associate godliness with sociability. 3 WHEN COLLABORATION KILLS CREATIVITY The Rise of the New Groupthink and the Power of Working Alone I am a horse for a single harness, not cut out for tandem or teamwork … for well I know that in order to attain any definite goal, it is imperative that one person do the thinking and the commanding. —ALBERT EINSTEIN March 5, 1975. A cold and drizzly evening in Menlo Park, California. Thirty unprepossessing-looking engineers gather in the garage of an unemployed colleague named Gordon French. They call themselves the Homebrew Computer Club, and this is their first meeting. Their mission: to make computers accessible to regular people—no small task at a time when most computers are temperamental SUV-sized machines that only universities and corporations can afford.

So if you wanted to replicate the conditions that made Woz so productive, you might point to Homebrew, with its collection of like-minded souls. You might decide that Wozniak’s achievement was a shining example of the collaborative approach to creativity. You might conclude that people who hope to be innovative should work in highly social workplaces. And you might be wrong. Consider what Wozniak did right after the meeting in Menlo Park. Did he huddle with fellow club members to work on computer design? No. (Although he did keep attending the meetings, every other Wednesday.) Did he seek out a big, open office space full of cheerful pandemonium in which ideas would cross-pollinate? No. When you read his account of his work process on that first PC, the most striking thing is that he was always by himself. Wozniak did most of the work inside his cubicle at Hewlett-Packard.


pages: 390 words: 114,538

Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur


AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil,, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, upwardly mobile

Larry Page, Sergey Brin and Google In 1998, around the time Cringely and Gates were meeting, things were happening in Silicon Valley – the 1,500 square miles stretching south-east of San Francisco bay, from Palo Alto at its northerly point down to Santa Clara. It was the dot-com boom, and two people who had recently decided to give up their postgraduate studies were running their company from a garage in Menlo Park. Larry Page and Sergey Brin, both 25 (both were born in 1973, 18 years after both Gates and Jobs), had become friends at Stanford University while doing their doctorates. They fitted Gladwell’s template perfectly: brilliant thinkers who had honed their computing skills through endless hours of study. But that 18-year gap between them and Gates and Jobs meant they had come of age in a world where the internet was already a background hum, and computing resources and mobile connectivity were becoming ubiquitous.

As an example of the latter, Page and Brin pointed in the second paper to the results of a search for ‘Bill Clinton’, the then US president: one search engine returned ‘Bill Clinton Joke of the Day’ as the top result. (The PageRank patent is owned by Stanford University, where it was developed; Google is the exclusive licensee.) They became a classic Silicon Valley start-up in summer 1998, maxing out their credit cards to buy equipment, spending almost nothing on office furniture (the tables in their first offices at 232 Santa Margarita Avenue, Menlo Park were doors balanced on carpenters’ timber-sawing stands), and operating in what is commonly known as ‘stealth mode’. Renamed from ‘BackRub’, and almost named ‘The Whatbox’ (they decided it sounded a bit too much like ‘wetbox’, which sounded vaguely porn related), the Google web page first went live in August 1997. They brought a particular focus to what they thought mattered about the experience of using their site.


Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini


Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

"The Grail Project: An Experiment in Man-Machine Communication." RM-5999-ARPA. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND. Engelbart, D. C. 196 I. "Special Considerations of the Individual as a User, Genera- tor, and Retriever of Information." AmerIcan Documentation I 2, no. 2: I2I- 2 5. . 1962. "AugmentIng Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework." Report to the Director of Information SCIences, Air Force Office of ScientIfic Re- search. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October. . I963. "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." In V,stas in Information Handling, edited by P. W. Howerton and D. C. Weeks, I: 1-29. Washington, D.C.: Spartan. . 1973. "Design Considerations for Knowledge Workshop Terminals." In Pro- ceedings of the AFIPS I973 NatIonal Computer Conference, pp. 221- 2 7. Montvale, N.J.: AFIPS Press. . 1982.

"Toward HIgh-Performance Knowledge Workers." In OAC '82 D,- gest. Proceedings of the AFIPS Office Automation Conference. San Fran- cisco, April 5 -7: 279-90. . I988. "The Augmented Knowledge Workshop." In A HIstory of Personal Workstations, edited by A. Goldberg, pp. 187-232. New York: ACM Press. , et al. 1970. Advanced Intel/ect-Augmentation TechnIques. Final report to NASA (Contract NASI-7897). Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI. Works C,ted 267 , and W. K. English. 1968. "A Research Center for Augmenting Human In- tellect." In Proceedings of the AFIPS I968 Fal/ Joint Computer Conference 33, pp. 395-4 10 . Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books. , R. W. Watson, and J. C. Norton. 1973. "The Augmented Knowledge Work- shop." AFIPS Conference Proceedings, vol. 42. National Computer Con- ference, June 4-8, pp. 9-21.


pages: 420 words: 143,881

The Blind Watchmaker; Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design by Richard Dawkins


epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Menlo Park, pattern recognition, phenotype, random walk, silicon-based life, Steven Pinker

American Scientist, 55: 63–8. Stebbins, G. L. (1982) Darwin to DNA, Molecules to Humanity. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Thompson, S. P. (1910) Calculus Made Easy. London: Macmillan. Trivers, R. L. (1985) Social Evolution. Menlo Park: Benjamin-Cummings. Turner, J. R. G. (1983) ‘The hypothesis that explains mimetic resemblance explains evolution’: the gradualist-saltationist schism. In M. Grene (ed.) Dimensions of Darwinism, pp. 129–69. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Van Valen, L. (1973) A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory, 1: 1–30. Watson, J. D. (1976) Molecular Biology of the Gene. Menlo Park: Benjamin-Cummings. Williams, G. C. (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Wilson, E. O. (1971) The Insect Societies. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid


1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

On top of all that, Brand’s first version of the cult catalog included Brautigan’s famous poem “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” next to a picture of a nude couple with libertarian amounts of pubic hair on display. The concept worked, and the Whole Earth Catalog became a runaway success. Brand and his wife, Lois, had started off selling a print run of a thousand copies out of their Menlo Park home. Version one retailed for $5. They hired staff as their readership, and the subscriptions to the catalog and its supplements, grew exponentially. Brand produced six different editions of the catalog, published every half year, and nine quarterly supplements in total that were much shorter. In 1971 he announced the final issue, which sprawled over 449 pages, listing well more than a thousand items.

., 28–29. 23.Quoted in Joseph Durso, “The Secret Weapon,” New York Times, July 15, 1968, L37. 24.Maltz, Psycho-Cybernetics (1960), x. 25.Kelly, Out of Control, 379. 26.For a detailed version of this remarkable rise, see Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006). 27.Richard Brautigan, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” in The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster (San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation, 1967), reproduced here with permission of Sarah Lazin Books. 28.Brand, quoted and interviewed by Fred Turner in From Counterculture to Cyberculture, 69. 29.Ibid. 30.Ibid. 31.Brand recounts the story in detail in Stewart Brand, “Photography Changes Our Relationship to Our Planet,” Smithsonian Photography Initiative,, cached on May 30, 2008. 32.Quoted in Katherine Fulton, “How Stewart Brand Learns,” Los Angeles Times Magazine, November 30, 1994, 40. 33.Quoted in Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture, 79. 34.Whole Earth Catalog, Fall 1968, 34. 35.Ibid., 35. 36.The Last Whole Earth Catalog: Access to Tools (Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, 1971), 316. 37.See the preface of every Whole Earth publication, all catalogs and supplements. 38.Michael Rossman, On Learning and Social Change (New York: Random House, 1972), 109. 39.Ibid., 203. 40.Ibid., 113. 41.Ibid., 260–61. 42.Ibid., 262. 43.Stewart Brand, “Both Sides of the Necessary Paradox,” Harper’s 247, no. 1482 (November 1973): 20. 44.For more details, see Bateson’s short biography in Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature (New York: Dutton, 1978), xiii. 45.Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1972), xi. 46.Ibid., 481.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

During the next two years, literally hundreds of small firms entered the microcomputer software business, and Microsoft was by no means the most prominent. The Altair 8800, and the add-on boards and software that were soon available for it, transformed hobby electronics in a way not seen since the heyday of radio. In the spring of 1975, for example, the “Homebrew Computer Club” was established in Menlo Park, on the edge of Silicon Valley. Besides acting as a swap shop for computer components and programming tips, it provided a forum for the computer-hobbyist and computer-liberation cultures to meld. During the first quarter of 1975, MITS received over $1 million in orders for the Altair 8800 and launched its first “worldwide” conference. Speakers at the conference included Ed Roberts, Gates and Allen as the developers of Altair BASIC, and the computer-liberation guru Ted Nelson.

Brin misspelled the term as google, but the Internet address for googol was already taken so the catchy misspelling stuck. While just a silly made-up word to most users, the original term was indicative of the complex math behind Page and Brin’s creation, as well as of the large numbers (in terms of web indexing and searches) that their search tool would later attain. In 1998 Page and Brin launched Google Inc. in a friend’s Menlo Park garage. Early the following year, they moved the small company to offices in Palo Alto. By the early 2000s Google had gained a loyal following, and thereafter it rapidly rose to become the leading web search service. Taking $25 million in loans from leading Silicon Valley venture-capital firms to refine the technology, hire more staff, and greatly extend the infrastructure (the ever-expanding number of servers), the two founders were forced to hire a professional CEO, Eric Schmidt, early in 2001.


From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly


Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Grace Hopper, inventory management, John von Neumann, linear programming, Menlo Park, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

A typical Microsoft product sells 10 million copies at $200; Oracle is more likely to earn the same revenue by selling 10,000 copies at $200,000. It is the difference between consumer goods and capital goods. Oracle (founded in Belmont, California, in 1977) was the most successful of three relational database firms that emerged around that time in Northern California. The other two were Relational Technology Inc., in Alameda, and Relational Database Systems, in Menlo Park. All three were near IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory, where the pioneering research on relational databases had been done in the early 1970s. The technology had diffused from IBM through the University of California at Berkeley to the new firms. As time went on, Northern California fostered other producers of relational database software (including Sybase, Illustra, and Unify) and makers of complementary products (e.g., Gupta Technologies).

Indeed, by the early 1990s Quicken had emerged as the best-selling consumer software product of all time, far exceeding the sales of any other software package, computer game, or multimedia product.38 Intuit was established in 1983 by Scott Cook, a former sales executive. Cook’s undergraduate education was in economics and mathematics. After receiving an MBA degree from Harvard in 1976, Cook got his formative professional experience at Procter & Gamble, where he spent 4 years as a marketer for Crisco cooking fat—an experience to which he later attributed his strong customer focus.39 After a 3-year spell in the Menlo Park office of the management consultancy Bain and Company, he resigned to form a software company. Cook credits his decision to go into personal finance software to the experience of seeing his wife struggle to pay household bills. In 1983, home accounting software was already a well-established software category with dozens of packages on the market, including the market leader, Continental Software’s Home Accountant.


pages: 433 words: 127,171

The Grid: The Fraying Wires Between Americans and Our Energy Future by Gretchen Bakke


Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, demand response, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, full employment, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, laissez-faire capitalism, Menlo Park, Negawatt, new economy, post-oil, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, the built environment, too big to fail, washing machines reduced drudgery, Whole Earth Catalog

other paths remain open: As resistance in a parallel circuit system increases—when, for example, you plug five power strips, each containing five power cords, into one power strip and plug that into a single wall outlet—current actually increases. This can lead to unexpected conflagrations! This is why, when you were eight and attending mandatory fire safety classes, they urged you not to plug too much stuff into a single outlet. flickered to light in 1882: Technically, his first actual grid was the one he built to light his Menlo Park laboratory, but Pearl Street was the first public installation. contemporary 15-watt bulb: If you have seen a vintage “Edison” incandescent in a store or hanging in your favorite bar, you know the relative brightness of these bulbs fairly well. They were dim enough that building codes demanding lightwells were not changed until well into the 1940s, when fluorescent bulbs became more readily available.

competing streetcar lines: According to Munson (2005, p. 32), in 1887 Edison had sold 121 DC central stations, and George Westinghouse, in his first year of business and Edison’s main competitor, was working on 68. A year later, in 1888, Edison had installed a total of 44,000 new bulbs, while Westinghouse had installed more than that number (48,000) in October 1888 alone. By 1889, a mere decade after Edison’s first viewing of electric bulbs strung in parallel at Menlo Park, Westinghouse had generators running more than 350,000 AC-powered bulbs. 125 cycles per second: Hughes (1983), 128. machines that used it: Munson (2005), 43, and Schroeder (1986), 530–31. “polyphase and then the reverse”: Hughes (1983), 122. One remarkable thing about Hughes’s account of the early processes of electrification is his care in showing the effects that things, rather than people, have on systems design and infrastructural trajectories, including things like business structures, previous investments, little machines, and materials.


The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, centre right, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer

This is what Eric said a few weeks before he was captured. "Have you ever wondered why they can't figure out a way to take people with your talents and supervise you and have you fix things?" "I dunno," Mitnick mumbles, dubious of the idea. "I think they tried that with Poulsen, didn't they?" "Almost but not quite." "I thought he was damn lucky to get a job with SRI [SRI International, a think tank and defense contractor in Menlo Park, California]. If I got a job at that bank [Security Pacific], I wouldn't be here now. I'd probably be rich. I'd probably be driving my Mercedes on the 405 [freeway]." Mitnick starts to say good night. "I just wanted to let you know about that U.S. News & World Report." "This week's edition?" "Yep. I'm walking by the newsstand and there's this big badge and it says 'Cybercop.' I start going whoa!

Shimomura finds it puzzling. So does Markoff. The reporter tries to make sense of it. Mitnick seems to have a secret communication channel with Jon Liftman, a journalist Markoff happens to know. "We all thought it was interesting," says Chen. "It was out of the ordinary. We all said, however, that we shouldn't look at it." ■ ■ ■ Markoff calls Robert Berger, chief technology officer of Internex Securities, a tiny Menlo Park, California, Internet provider, and tells him he has a security problem. Markoff explains that Mitnick has broken into his Internex e-mail account, and that "Tsutomu" is working "on tracking it down." Markoff would later say that Shimomura phoned Berger first, and that Markoff phoned as a reporter, and out of concern for his own e-mail. Berger, when reinterviewed, said, "I think the person I first actually talked to was Markoff, but Tsutomu might have left a voice mail originally."


pages: 675 words: 141,667

Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell


barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

Roberts, “The Evolution of Packet Switching,” Proceedings of the IEEE 66 (1978): 1307–1313; Stephen J. Lukasik, “Why the Arpanet Was Built,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 33 (2011): 4–21. 16 Paul Baran, electrical engineer, oral history interview by David Hochfelder, 1999, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. See also Paul Baran, oral history interview by Judy O’Neill, March 5, 1990, Menlo Park, California. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 17 Baran interview, IEEE History Center, 1999. 18 In this era, a “small” computer was about the size of a refrigerator. 19 Abbate, Inventing the Internet, 59–69. 20 See Nathan Ensmenger, The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2010); Thomas Haigh, “Software in the 1960s as Concept, Service, and Product,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (2002): 5–13; Martin Campbell-Kelly, “The History of the History of Software,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 29 (2007): 40–51. 21 Stephen D.

Oral History Interviews Bachman, Charles. Oral history interview by Andrew L. Russell, April 9, 2011, IEEE Computer Society History Committee, available from–03-russell.pdf. Baran, Paul. Oral history interview by David Hochfelder, October 24, 1999, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Baran, Paul. Oral history interview by Judy E. O’Neill, March 5, 1990, Menlo Park, California. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Cerf, Vinton. Oral history interview by Judy E. O’Neill, April 24, 1990, Reston, Virginia. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Crocker, Steve. Oral history interview by Judy E. O’Neill, October 24, 1991, Glenwood, Maryland. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.


Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns


anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Whether this set of ideas transcends or represents yet another iteration of what Donald Worster called the dialectic of “arcadian” and “imperialist” ecology is an important question to explore. Worster, Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977/1994). 47. Stewart Brand, diary entries dated July 9, 1968 and August 16, 1968, Stewart Brand Papers, Stanford University Special Collections. 48. The Last Whole Earth Catalog (Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, 1971), 185. The catalogue included only books deemed either “useful as a tool” or “relevant to independent education,” making mention tantamount to endorsement. It also recommended the A Is A Directory and Milton Friedman’s Capitalism and Freedom (344). The Atlas Shrugged excerpt was from a speech by Rand villain Floyd Ferris, in which he tells Hank Rearden, “One declares so many things to be a crime that it becomes impossible for men to live without breaking laws.”

Kuklick, Bruce. The Rise of American Philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977. Kyle, Richard. The New Age Movement in American Culture. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995. Lassiter, Matthew. The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006. The Last Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, 1971. Lerner, Abba P. “Capitalism and Freedom.” American Economic Review 53, no. 3 (1963): 458–60. Lichtenstein, Nelson, ed. American Capitalism: Social Thought and Political Economy in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. Loomis, Mildred J. Alternative Americas. New York: Universe Books, 1982. Lowndes, Joseph. From the New Deal to the New Right: Race and the Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism.


pages: 141 words: 46,879

River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life by Richard Dawkins


double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, job satisfaction, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, out of africa, phenotype

Ridley, Mark, Evolution (Boston: Blackwell Scientific. 1993). Ridley, Matt, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Macmillan, 1994). Sagan, Carl, Cosmos (New York: Random House, 1980). and Ann Druyan, Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (New York: Random House, 1992). Tinbergen, Nike, The Herring Gull's World (New York: Harper & Row, 1960). , Curious Naturalists (London: Penguin, 1974). Trivers, Robert, Social Evolution (Menlo Park, Calif.: BenjaminCummings, 1985). Watson, James D., The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA (New York: Athenewn, 1968). Weiner, Jonathan, The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time (New York: Knopf, 1994). Wickler. Wolfgang, Mimicry in Plants and Animals, R. D. Martin, trans. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968). Williams, George C., Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).


pages: 176 words: 55,819

The Start-Up of You by Reid Hoffman


Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, Donald Trump,, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs

Catherine concurred, so she started looking at jobs at established organizations like the Red Cross. At the same time, Hale introduced Catherine to friend and venture capitalist Tim Draper with the hope that Tim could identify local not-for-profit opportunities. Turned out Tim did indeed know of a good opportunity—his own organization. A couple years earlier, Tim had set up a small foundation called BizWorld in the bottom floor of his venture capital firm in Menlo Park. BizWorld aimed to spread the passion for entrepreneurship curriculum to elementary school students around the world. It was a powerful vision, but Tim didn’t have time to run it. He wanted Catherine to become the foundation’s chief executive officer. Catherine loved the concept—business, personal finance, and entrepreneurship were all topics she was passionate about. Plus, heading up a small foundation already in existence would mean she could have the responsibility she’d envisioned when she’d thought about starting her own organization, while learning from an operation that was already in place.


pages: 212 words: 64,724

The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment by Eckhart Tolle


fear of failure, Menlo Park

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply thankful to Connie Kellough for her loving support and her vital part in transforming the manuscript into this book and bringing it out into the world. It is a joy to work with her. I extend my gratitude to Corea Ladner and those wonderful people who have contributed to this book by giving me space, that most precious of gifts — space to write and space to be. Thank you to Adrienne Bradley in Vancouver, to Margaret Miller in London and Angie Francesco in Glastonbury, England, Richard in Menlo Park and Rennie Frumkin in Sausalito, California. I am also thankful to Shirley Spaxman and Howard Kellough for their early review of the manuscript and helpful feedback, as well as to those individuals who were kind enough to review the manuscript at a later stage and provide additional input. Thank you to Rose Dendewich for word-processing the manuscript in her unique cheerful and professional manner.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian


Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing,, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

A quality Internet connection is a public utility that should be accessible to all people, regardless of how much money they have and where they live. If we believe every American has a right to electricity, why would we withhold humanity’s greatest omnidirectional flow of information? The Internet (called ARPANET back in its infancy) was born in America with a connection between two computers, one at UCLA and the other in Menlo Park, California. Yet today, “nineteen million Americans, many in rural areas… can’t get access to a high-speed connection at any price, it’s just not there. And for a third of all Americans… it’s just too expensive.”3 That’s research from Susan Crawford, law professor and technology expert, who has done tremendous work bringing this reality to light and letting us know that we should all take action to give Americans the access they deserve.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by C. Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell


airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Another pioneer in the 1960s who was inspired by Bush was Douglas En glebart, who founded a research lab with the goal of “augmenting human intellect.” His lab developed a hypermedia groupware system called Augment (originally called NLS). Augment supported bookmarks, hyperlinks, recording of e-mail, a journal, and more. Engelbart, Douglas C. “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. Summary Report AFOSR-3223 Under Contract AF 49(638)- 1024,” SRI Project 3578 for Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October 1962. ———. “Authorship Provisions in AUGMENT.” COMPCON ’84 Digest: Proceedings of the COMPCON Conference, San Francisco, California, February 27-March 1, 1984, 465-72. Many others besides us have noted the inadequacy of conventional computer file systems. Here are a few representative works. Adar, Eytan, David Karger, and Lynn Andrea Stein. “Haystack: Per-User Information Environments,” 1999 Proceedings of the Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Kansas City, Mo., 1999, 413-422.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers


Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation,, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Within four months after the launch, BIXI had attracted more than seventy-seven thousand resident users, and more than 2.2 million miles had been traveled on the bikes, more than eighty-seven times the circumference of the earth. On October 29, 2009, the millionth ride was taken.9 The city can now add two thousand more bikes over one hundred stations, a year earlier than was expected. No universal magic formula can determine the right point of critical mass for different types of Collaborative Consumption. It varies depending on the context, the needs being met, and user expectations. TechShop in Menlo Park, California, founded in the summer of 2006 by Jim Newton, sells itself as a fifteen-thousand-square-foot “world-class workshop” where inventors, hobbyists, artists, automotive fanatics, mechanical engineers, and model makers can access equipment, supplies, and expert support to work on projects. Newton came up with the idea for TechShop when he realized that there are a lot of people who want to build things but can’t afford to buy or do not have the space to store the required tools and equipment.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson


3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

It is also the opportunity for smaller, nimbler companies that have emerged from the very markets they serve, enabled by the new tools of democratized manufacturing to route around the old retail and production barriers. Even better, some of those companies that start with niche markets may graduate to huge ones. The ultimate combination of atoms and bits In early 2009, if you had visited the TechShop makerspace in Menlo Park, California, south of San Francisco, you would have seen a tall, somewhat gangly guy named Jim McKelvey at a bench, fiddling with a little block of plastic. For all anyone could tell, he was just another guy trying to learn how to use a CNC machine, albeit with a particularly unimpressive little project. What no one knew was what that little block of plastic might someday do. McKelvey, then forty-three, was a technology entrepreneur from St.


pages: 259 words: 67,456

The Mythical Man-Month by Brooks, Jr. Frederick P.


finite state, HyperCard, Menlo Park, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Turing machine

Chapter 16 The essay entitled "No Silver Bullet" is from Information Processing 1986, the Proceedings of the IFIP Tenth World Computing Conference, edited by H.-J. Kugler (1986), pp. 1069-76. Reprinted with the kind permission of IFIP and Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Parnas, D. L., "Designing software for ease of extension and contraction," IEEE Trans, on SE, 5,2 (March, 1979), pp. 128-138. Booch, G., "Object-oriented design," in Software Engineering with Ada. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings, 1983. Mostow, J., ed., Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering, /£££ Trans, on SE, 11, 11 (Nov., 1985). Parnas, D. L., "Software aspects of strategic defense systems," Communications of the ACM, 28, 12 (Dec., 1985), pp. 1326-1335. Also in American Scientist, 73, 5 (Sept.-Oct., 1985), pp. 432-440. Balzer, R., "A 15-year perspective on automatic programming," in Mostow, op. cit.


pages: 271 words: 82,159

David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants by Malcolm Gladwell


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, RAND corporation, school choice, Silicon Valley

Why, then, did weak teams play in a way that made it easy for good teams to do the very things that they were so good at? Ranadivé looked at his girls. Morgan and Julia were serious basketball players. But Nicky, Angela, Dani, Holly, Annika, and his own daughter, Anjali, had never played the game before. They weren’t all that tall. They couldn’t shoot. They weren’t particularly adept at dribbling. They were not the sort who played pickup games at the playground every evening. Ranadivé lives in Menlo Park, in the heart of California’s Silicon Valley. His team was made up of, as Ranadivé put it, “little blond girls.” These were the daughters of nerds and computer programmers. They worked on science projects and read long and complicated books and dreamed about growing up to be marine biologists. Ranadivé knew that if they played the conventional way—if they let their opponents dribble the ball up the court without opposition—they would almost certainly lose to the girls for whom basketball was a passion.


pages: 304 words: 82,395

Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think by Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Kenneth Cukier


23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Black Swan, book scanning, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, Erik Brynjolfsson, game design, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, obamacare, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy! highlights how an entity that does not collect or control information flows, like a search engine or big retailer, can still obtain and use data to create value. Valuing the priceless Whether open to the public or locked away in corporate vaults, data’s value is hard to measure. Consider the events of Friday, May 18, 2012. On that day, Facebook’s 28-year-old founder Mark Zuckerberg symbolically rang NASDAQ’s opening bell from the company’s headquarters in Menlo Park, California. The world’s biggest social network—which boasted around one out of every ten people on the planet as a member—began its new life as a public company. The stock immediately jumped 11 percent, as many new technology stocks do on their first day of trading. However, then something odd happened. Facebook shares began to fall. It didn’t help that there was a technical glitch with NASDAQ’s computers that temporarily halted trading.


pages: 283 words: 81,163

How Capitalism Saved America: The Untold History of Our Country, From the Pilgrims to the Present by Thomas J. Dilorenzo


banking crisis, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, working poor, Works Progress Administration

A classic defense of the philosophy of liberty and its importance to a free and prosperous society. Rothbard also explains in great detail why government intervention is the enemy of liberty and economic progress. ———. Man, Economy, and State. Mission, KS: Sheed, Andrews and McMeel, 1962. A treatise on economic theory by one of the twentieth century’s preeminent Austrian School, free-market economists. ———. 1977. Power and Market: Government and the Economy. Menlo Park, CA: Institute for Humane Studies. An excellent and comprehensive exposition of the economics of government interventionism. ———. What Has Government Done to Our Money? Santa Ana, CA: Rampart College, 1974. An explanation of why the gold standard is consistent with free-market capitalism but fractional reserve banking is not. Schweichart, Larry. The Entrepreneurial Adventure: A History of Business in the United States.


pages: 257 words: 68,143

Waiting for Superman: How We Can Save America's Failing Public Schools by Participant Media, Karl Weber


collective bargaining, feminist movement, hiring and firing, index card, knowledge economy, Menlo Park, Robert Gordon, school choice, Silicon Valley, Upton Sinclair

Ginder, Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2008; Graduation Rates, 2002 & 2005 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2008 (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, April 2010). Note: Graduation rates are for first-time, full-time students graduating in 150 percent normal time. 10 Becky Smerdon, Barbara Means, et al., Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s High School Grants Initiative: 2001-2005 Final Report (Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research; Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 2006). 11 Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,” Econometrica 73, no. 2 (March 2005): 417-458. 12 Robert Gordon, Thomas J. Kane, and Douglas O. Staiger, Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job (Washington, DC: Hamilton Project, Brookings Institution, 2006). 13 Stephen Newton, “Stull Evaluations and Student Performance,” Los Angeles Unified School District, 14 Kim Marshall, “It’s Time to Rethink Teacher Supervision and Evaluation,” Phi Delta Kappan, June 2005. 15 Scholastic and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Primary Sources: America’s Teachers on America’s Schools (New York: Scholastic Inc., 2010). 16 Marguerite Roza, Frozen Assets: Rethinking Teacher Contracts Could Free Billions for School Reform (Washington, DC: Education Sector, 2007). 17 Valerie Russ, “Teachers, School District Approve Contract,” Philadelphia Daily News, January 23, 2010. 18 Scholastic and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Primary Sources. 19 “Rocketship Education 2009 Academic Results Highest Performing in San Jose and Santa Clara County, Tops Palo Alto Unified,” 20 Mike Feinberg, personal communications, 2010.


pages: 229 words: 67,869

So You've Been Publicly Shamed by Jon Ronson


4chan, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, Clive Stafford Smith, cognitive dissonance, Desert Island Discs, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, PageRank, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, urban planning, WikiLeaks

It was miserable that 99 per cent of us could never afford a service like Metal Rabbit, intriguing and scandalous that people like Bryce Tom went about their business in such a shadowy manner. Metal Rabbit deserved exposure. But Phineas Upham had been cleared of all charges. Surely he had a right to be forgotten? Didn’t he? I emailed Bryce Tom. ‘Is Metal Rabbit Media still operational?’ He emailed back. ‘What can I help you with?’ I emailed him back. ‘I’m a journalist …’ I never heard from him again. * The Village Pub in Woodside, near Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, looks like no big deal from the outside, but when you get inside you realize it’s massively upmarket and filled with tech billionaires - the restaurant version of the nonthreatening clothes the tech billionaires were wearing. I told my dining companion, Michael Fertik, that he was the only person from the mysterious reputation-management world who had returned my email. ‘That’s because this is a really easy sector in which to be an unappealing, scurrilous operation,’ he said.


pages: 246 words: 81,843

David and Goliath: The Triumph of the Underdog by Malcolm Gladwell


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, RAND corporation, school choice, Silicon Valley

Why, then, did weak teams play in a way that made it easy for good teams to do the very things that they were so good at? Ranadivé looked at his girls. Morgan and Julia were serious basketball players. But Nicky, Angela, Dani, Holly, Annika, and his own daughter, Anjali, had never played the game before. They weren’t all that tall. They couldn’t shoot. They weren’t particularly adept at dribbling. They were not the sort who played pickup games at the playground every evening. Ranadivé lives in Menlo Park, in the heart of California’s Silicon Valley. His team was made up of, as Ranadivé put it, “little blond girls.” These were the daughters of nerds and computer programmers. They worked on science projects and read long and complicated books and dreamed about growing up to be marine biologists. Ranadivé knew that if they played the conventional way—if they let their opponents dribble the ball up the court without opposition—they would almost certainly lose to the girls for whom basketball was a passion.


Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama


Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

Kash, “Innovation Policy for Complex Technologies,” Issues in Science and Technology (Fall 1999) ( (innovation requires “collaborative networks”). 3. These and the following details are from the biography of Loomis by Jennet Conant, Tuxedo Park (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002). 4. The norms of the Rad Lab’s “great groups” are common to other innovations— both before and after—including the lightbulb at Edison’s Menlo Park “Invention Factory,” the transistor at Bell Labs, the integrated circuit and microchip efforts at Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel, the personal computer at Xerox PARC and Apple, and biotech advances at Genentech and Craig Venter’s genomics projects. Venture capitalists typically try to find groups with similar characteristics. See, generally, Bennis and Biederman, Organizing Genius, pp. 196-218. 5.


Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman


collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

The husband and wife together drink the whole in 10 days, so they drink 1/10 of the whole in one day. The Procrustean Marxism and Subjective Rigor wife drinks the barrel in an unknown number of days, “w,” so she drinks 1/w in one day. Therefore 1/14 + 1/w = 1/10; solve for w, which turns out to be 35 days. 10. L. Carey Bolster et al., Invitation to Mathematics (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1987), 82–83. 11. Randall I. Charles et al., Scott Foresman-AddisonWesley Math (Menlo Park, CA: Scott ForesmanAddison Wesley, 1998), 186–187. 12. Timothy J. Reiss, Knowledge, Discovery and Imagination in Early Modern Europe: The Rise of Aesthetic Rationalism (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 143–144. Reiss quotes terminology from Erwin Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form, trans. Christopher S. Wood (New York: Zone, 1991), originally published as “Die Perspektive als ‘symbolische Form,’” Vorträge der Bibliothek Warburg 4 (1924–1925): 258–330.


pages: 270 words: 79,180

The Middleman Economy: How Brokers, Agents, Dealers, and Everyday Matchmakers Create Value and Profit by Marina Krakovsky


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Al Roth, Black Swan, buy low sell high, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, experimental economics, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, income inequality, index fund, Jean Tirole, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market microstructure, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Menlo Park, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Network effects, patent troll, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social graph, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, ultimatum game, Y Combinator

The cost of starting a tech company has plunged in recent years, thanks to free and low-cost development tools and an distribution methods. Anybody with an idea, a laptop, and an Internet connection can give it a go, and many do, leading to an abundance of entrants, many of them still living in college dorm rooms. Although these founders do eventually need to raise money to fuel growth, they have many more sources of funding beyond the big firms with posh offices along Menlo Park’s Sand Hill Road. Some need expert guidance and trusted connections as much as they need capital. VC firms have always provided a combination of all these services, but these services are increasingly becoming unbundled: as the competition among investors to back the next Facebook or Dropbox has intensified, the most promising entrepreneurs can pick and choose what they most want in an investor.


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet


augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

Princeton: Princeton University Press. Engelbart, Douglas. 1962a. ‘Letter to Vannevar Bush and Program on Human Effectiveness’. In From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine, edited by James Nyce and Paul Kahn, 235–44. London: Academic Press. . 1962b. ‘Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework’. Report to the Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Menlo Park, CA, Stanford Research Institute. Online: engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html (accessed April 2013). . 1963. ‘A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man’s Intellect’. In Vistas in Information Handling, Volume 1: The Augmentation of Man’s Intellect By Machine, edited by Paul W. Howerton and David C. Weeks, 1–29. Washington: Spartan Books. . 1986.


pages: 654 words: 204,260

A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson


Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, Arthur Eddington, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Brownian motion, California gold rush, Cepheid variable, clean water, Copley Medal, cosmological constant, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Attenborough, double helix, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kuiper Belt, Louis Pasteur, luminiferous ether, Magellanic Cloud, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, Thomas Malthus, Wilhelm Olbers

The YVO is not actually a thing, but more an idea—an agreement to coordinate efforts at studying and analyzing the park's diverse geology. One of their first tasks, Doss told me, was to draw up an “earthquake and volcano hazards plan”—a plan of action in the event of a crisis. “There isn't one already?” I said. “No. Afraid not. But there will be soon.” “Isn't that just a little tardy?” He smiled. “Well, let's just say that it's not any too soon.” Once it is in place, the idea is that three people—Christiansen in Menlo Park, California, Professor Robert B. Smith at the University of Utah, and Doss in the park—would assess the degree of danger of any potential cataclysm and advise the park superintendent. The superintendent would take the decision whether to evacuate the park. As for surrounding areas, there are no plans. If Yellowstone were going to blow in a really big way, you would be on your own once you left the park gates.

Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England, 1500–1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Thompson, Dick. Volcano Cowboys: The Rocky Evolution of a Dangerous Science. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Thorne, Kip S. Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Tortora, Gerard J., and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley, 1996. Trepil, James. The Unexpected Vista: A Physicist's View of Nature. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. ———. Meditations at Sunset: A Scientist Looks at the Sky. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1987. ———. Meditations at 10,000 Feet: A Scientist in the Mountains. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1987. ———. 101 Things You Don't Know About Science and No One Else Does Either.


pages: 554 words: 167,247

Money, Politics, Back-Room Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System by Steven Brill


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, business process, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, obamacare, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, the payments system, young professional

However, although the more complicated and arguably less important (though politically easier to market) MLR rules that Stephanie Cutter blogged about had been completed, these hospital billing regulations still had not been written when Steven D. fell ill, nearly ten months after the East Room signing ceremony. A PAKISTANI RUG MARKET Four months into her husband’s illness, Alice by chance got the name of Patricia Stone of Menlo Park, California. Stone was one of fifty to a hundred “medical billing advocates” who by 2011 had made a cottage industry out of helping people deal with one of the abiding ironies of America’s largest consumer product: completely inscrutable healthcare bills and equally opaque insurance company Explanations of Benefits. In talking to a half dozen of them while researching the Time article, I discovered that the advocates had settled on two basic strategies, neither of which spoke well for the sophistication of the biggest industry in the world’s most celebrated free market economy.

The team went home at about 2:30 A.M. on Saturday, October 19. CALLING SILICON VALLEY At the White House, the decision had still not been made whether to save or scrap Jeffrey Zients wanted still more eyes from Silicon Valley on the problem. At about six in the morning on Saturday, October 19, 2013, he emailed John Doerr, a senior partner at Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers, the Menlo Park–based venture capital powerhouse whose investments include Amazon, Google, Sun, Intuit, and Twitter. Could Doerr call him when he awoke to talk about the healthcare website? Zients asked. When Doerr quickly called back, Zients said, “We’re pulling together this surge of people to do this assessment to see if the site’s fixable or not. We’ve got to do it incredibly quickly. Do you know anyone?”


pages: 589 words: 197,971

A Fiery Peace in a Cold War: Bernard Schriever and the Ultimate Weapon by Neil Sheehan


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, double helix, European colonialism, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment

Schriever impressed Kenney, who noted on his efficiency report a year later in July 1941 that he was graduating from the Engineering School with an academic rating of “Superior.” He had done so well, in fact, that he was one of those selected to go on to Stanford University in September 1941 for a master’s degree in more advanced aeronautical engineering studies. Bennie moved his young family out to Menlo Park, California, right near the university. That June, Dora had given birth to their second child, a daughter, Dodie (after the nickname of Dora’s maternal grandmother) Elizabeth (for Bennie’s mother). When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December, he assumed he would receive immediate orders to drop his courses and go. He heard nothing and after a while grew worried that he had been forgotten in the rush to fight.

Someone up above had apparently decided, however, that there would be war enough for everybody and that his special knowledge would be put to good use. 9. “LET’S DIVE-BOMB THE BASTARDS” He left for Australia from Hamilton Field in the predawn of June 20, 1942, flying west in the diminishing darkness out over the Golden Gate Bridge bound for the first stop in Hawaii. He had not been able to tell Dora, who was staying behind with the two children in the rented house at Menlo Park, when he would return because he had no way of knowing. Bennie did not bid farewell to the great span across the entrance to San Francisco Bay. He was wrapped in a sleeping bag in the back of one of the new B-24 Liberators, the second of the strategic bombers that was entering the inventory of the U.S. Army Air Forces as an alternative to the B-17. Bennie was not saying a sentimental adieu to the Golden Gate because he had stayed up most of the night drinking and playing poker.


pages: 554 words: 167,247

America's Bitter Pill: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System by Steven Brill


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, business process, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, obamacare, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, the payments system, young professional

However, although the more complicated and arguably less important (though politically easier to market) MLR rules that Stephanie Cutter blogged about had been completed, these hospital billing regulations still had not been written when Steven D. fell ill, nearly ten months after the East Room signing ceremony. A PAKISTANI RUG MARKET Four months into her husband’s illness, Alice by chance got the name of Patricia Stone of Menlo Park, California. Stone was one of fifty to a hundred “medical billing advocates” who by 2011 had made a cottage industry out of helping people deal with one of the abiding ironies of America’s largest consumer product: completely inscrutable healthcare bills and equally opaque insurance company Explanations of Benefits. In talking to a half dozen of them while researching the Time article, I discovered that the advocates had settled on two basic strategies, neither of which spoke well for the sophistication of the biggest industry in the world’s most celebrated free market economy.

The team went home at about 2:30 A.M. on Saturday, October 19. CALLING SILICON VALLEY At the White House, the decision had still not been made whether to save or scrap Jeffrey Zients wanted still more eyes from Silicon Valley on the problem. At about six in the morning on Saturday, October 19, 2013, he emailed John Doerr, a senior partner at Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers, the Menlo Park–based venture capital powerhouse whose investments include Amazon, Google, Sun, Intuit, and Twitter. Could Doerr call him when he awoke to talk about the healthcare website? Zients asked. When Doerr quickly called back, Zients said, “We’re pulling together this surge of people to do this assessment to see if the site’s fixable or not. We’ve got to do it incredibly quickly. Do you know anyone?”


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton


1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

For a characteristically misinformed contemporary take on Google, see Shoshanna Zuboff's “Dark Google” in Frankfurther Allgemeine, April 30, 2014, For those unfamiliar, Survival Research Laboratories is a Bay Area-based “industrial performing arts” collective famous for its pyrotechnic displays of machinic mayhem and which might typify a DIY engineering ethic often associated with the “California Ideology,” whereas Page Mill Road in Palo Alto (and Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park) have housed important clusters of important Silicon Valley venture capital firms. 21.  Nick Whitford-Dyer, “Red Plenty Platforms,” Culture Machine 14 (2013): 1–27, and Tiziana Terranova, “Red Stack Attack!” in #Accelerate: The Accelerationist Reader, ed. Robin Mackay and Armen Avanessian (Falmouth, Cornwall: Urbanomic and Merve Verlag, 2014), 379–400, both make explicit connections between Spufford's version of cybernetic planning, contemporary computing platforms, and my Stack thesis.

If the campus is a sort of utopian idealization of the Google Cloud Polis itself, this version, unlike some others, at least makes some gestures toward including the outside User in its model. The project is still to be approved, if at all, by Mountain View city council, and so we shall have to wait and see what is actually built to compare the real environmental platform to that proposed.58 By contrast, looking at Frank Gehry's early proposals for a new Facebook headquarters in Menlo Park (nicknamed “Zee Town” after company founder, Mark Zuckerberg) we see a plan for a more traditional corporate campus, designed, it appears, to ensure the managed serendipitous contact between employees in motion. In this encapsulated “company town” winding pathways and strategic lines of sight connecting interior and exterior views are embedded in a multilevel landscape where sub- and superterranean greenery twists and turns onto and under the collection of buildings.59 At their desks, the aggregate social graph of the on-site employee/resident population is framed and displayed to itself as it moves and involves itself within itself in airplane hangar–scale open-plan work space.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss


Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Stop drinking right now and patent all your ideas . . . and exercise compassion every day.” * * * James Fadiman James Fadiman, PhD (,, has been involved with psychedelic research since the 1960s. He did his undergraduate work at Harvard and his graduate work at Stanford, where he collaborated with the Harvard Group, the West Coast Research Group in Menlo Park, and Ken Kesey. He is the author of The Psychedelic Explorer’s Guide and is often referred to as America’s wisest and most respected authority on psychedelics and their use. Preface Some of my loved ones would insist that the most important work I’ve done in the last 4 years has involved studying and judiciously using psychedelics. As just one example, ~90% of the latent anger and resentment I’d had for more than 25 years was eradicated after 48 hours of “medicine work” 2 years ago, for reasons still not entirely clear, and my hair-trigger habits of decades have not returned.

Dubner) Amoruso, Sophia: The Richest Man in Babylon (George Samuel Clason), No Man’s Land: Where Growing Companies Fail (Doug Tatum), Venture Deals (Brad Feld and Jason Mendelson), Rilke on Love and Other Difficulties (Rainer Maria Rilke) Andreessen, Marc: High Output Management; Only the Paranoid Survive (Andrew S. Grove), Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future (Peter Thiel with Blake Masters), Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination (Neal Gabler), Schulz and Peanuts: A Biography (David Michaelis), The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World (Randall E. Stross), Born Standing Up: A Comic’s Life (Steve Martin), The Hard Thing About Hard Things (Ben Horowitz) Arnold, Patrick: Jack Kennedy: Elusive Hero (Chris Matthews), From Chocolate to Morphine: Everything You Need to Know About Mind-Altering Drugs (Andrew Weil), Guns, Germs, and Steel (Jared Diamond) Attia, Peter: Mistakes Were Made (but Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts (Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson), Surely You’re Joking, Mr.


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Skowronek, Building a New American State, pp. 124–25; Kolko, Railroads and Regulation, pp. 7–20; Ari Hoogenboom and Olive Hoogenboom, A History of the ICC: From Panacea to Palliative (New York: Norton, 1976), pp. 1–6. 5. Robin A. Prager, “Using Stock Price Data to Measure the Effects of Regulation: The Interstate Commerce Act and the Railroad Industry,” RAND Journal of Economics 20, no. 2 (1989). 6. Kaiser Family Foundation, Health Care Costs: A Primer. Key Information on Health Care Costs and Their Impact (Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012). 7. Munn concerned the regulation of grain elevators but was soon extended to include railroads. 8. Alfred Marshall’s Principles of Economics, on which much of modern neoclassical economics is based, was only published in 1890. 9. Skowronek, Building a New American State, pp. 135–37. 10. For example, pooling traffic and earnings was made illegal, but collective rate making was neither legalized nor outlawed.

“The Ungreat Washed: Why Democracy Must Remain America’s Goal Abroad.” New Republic (July 7 and 14):27–37. Kagan, Robert A. 1997. “Should Europe Worry About Adversarial Legalism?” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 17(2):165–83. ______. 2001. Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2012. Health Care Costs: A Primer. Key Information on Health Care Costs and Their Impact. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaplan, H. Eliot. 1937. “Accomplishments of the Civil Service Reform Movement.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 189:142–47. Kaplan, Robert D. 2000. The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York: Random House. Katz, Richard S., and William J. Crotty, eds. 2006. Handbook of Party Politics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


pages: 781 words: 226,928

Commodore: A Company on the Edge by Brian Bagnall


Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Douglas Engelbart, Firefox, game design, index card, inventory management, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson

Instead, Tomczyk went to Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake, who had previously founded the People’s Computer Company and wrote their newsletter. “Some of the people who were ex-People’s Computer Company guys collaborated with Commodore on the original manual because we wanted something really friendly,” says Finkel. “That was an interesting experience because those guys go way back.” Tomczyk sent the rough translation of the Japanese user manual to the writers in Menlo Park. They already owned several PET computers which helped then write the BASIC sections of their book, but Commodore also gave them an early VIC-20 computer. The PCC founders began the process of making computers easy for ordinary people. A month later, Tomczyk reviewed the early manuscript and was not happy with the results. The manual was too user friendly, to the point of uselessness. Tomczyk asked permission from Hollandsworth to hire programmers to refine the manual.

“So we basically had to beg, borrow or steal equipment to get anything done.” Soon, Harris and Finkel got their first look at the new VIC-20 computer. “They were always in my possession in the early days,” says Robert Russell. “When there got to be a few more we gave some to Tomczyk and Andy [Finkel] and guys like that.” The team continued working with Bob Albrecht and the ex-PCC writers at Menlo Park. “The manuscripts travelled back and forth with several iterations and phone calls discussing various changes and various arguments about what should go where,” recalls Finkel. “It was fun trying to get a manual that was consumer oriented rather than technical oriented at that time.” Early parts of the book dealt with setting up the computer, but much of the material was programming instruction.


pages: 403 words: 105,431

The death and life of the great American school system: how testing and choice are undermining education by Diane Ravitch


David Brooks, desegregation, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

.: How Two Inspired Teachers Created the Most Promising Schools in America (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2009). 35 James Vaznis, “Charter Schools Lag in Serving the Neediest,” Boston Globe, August 12, 2009. 36 Jeffrey R. Henig, What Do We Know About the Outcomes of KIPP Schools? (Boulder, CO, and Tempe, AZ: Education and the Public Interest Center & Education Policy Research Unit, 2008), 13; Katrina R. Woodworth et al., San Francisco Bay Area KIPP Schools: A Study of Early Implementation and Achievement, Final Report (Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 2008), ix, 26-29, 33-34, 63. 37 F. Howard Nelson, Bella Rosenberg, and Nancy Van Meter, Charter School Achievement on the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Teachers, August 2004); Diana Jean Schemo, “Charter Schools Trail in Results, U.S. Data Reveals,” New York Times, August 17, 2004; National Center for Education Statistics, America’s Charter Schools: Results from the NAEP 2003 Pilot Study (Washington, D.C.: U.S.


pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris


back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

From there, he went on to study biology at Stanford, graduating in 1960. In the US Army, he was a parachutist and taught infantry skills; he was later to express that his experience in the military fostered his competence in organizing. In 1962 he studied design at San Francisco Art Institute, photography at San Francisco State College, and took part in a scientific study of the then-legal drug LSD in Menlo Park. In 1966, Brand conceived and sold buttons which read,“Why Haven’t We Seen A Photograph of the Whole Earth Yet?” He thought the image of our planet might be a powerful symbol. In a 2003 interview, Brand explained that the image “gave the sense that Earth is an island, surrounded by a lot of inhospitable space. And it’s so graphic, this little blue, white, green and brown jewel-like icon amongst a quite featureless black vacuum.”


pages: 624 words: 104,923

QI: The Book of General Ignorance - The Noticeably Stouter Edition by Lloyd, John, Mitchinson, John


Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Barry Marshall: ulcers, British Empire, discovery of penicillin, Dmitri Mendeleev, Fellow of the Royal Society, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invention of the telephone, James Watt: steam engine, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Olbers’ paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, placebo effect, Pluto: dwarf planet, trade route, V2 rocket, Vesna Vulović

The first written use of hello spelt with an ‘e’ is in a letter of Edison’s in August 1877 suggesting that the best way of starting a conversation by telephone was to say ‘hello’ because it ‘can be heard ten to twenty feet away’. Edison discovered this while testing Alexander Graham Bell’s prototype telephone. Bell himself preferred the rather nautical ‘Ahoy, hoy!’ Edison used to shout ‘hello!’ into telephone receivers at Menlo Park Labs while he was working on improvements to Bell’s design. His habit spread to the rest of his co-workers and then to telephone exchanges until it became common usage. Before ‘hello’ was used, telephone operators used to say, ‘Are you there?’ or ‘Who are you?’ or ‘Are you ready to talk?’ Once ‘hello’ became standard the operators were called ‘hello girls’. ‘Hullo’ was used at the time purely to express surprise.


pages: 342 words: 99,390

The greatest trade ever: the behind-the-scenes story of how John Paulson defied Wall Street and made financial history by Gregory Zuckerman


1960s counterculture, banking crisis, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, financial innovation, fixed income, index fund, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, short selling, Silicon Valley, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, technology bubble

Subprime mortgages finally were falling, as he predicted, but Michael Burry was having difficulty just keeping himself, and his company, together. 12. ONCE AGAIN, THE PHONE RANG IN ALAN ZAFRAN’'S OFFICE. IT WAS late morning and the caller identification flashing on his assistant’'s keyboard showed a Los Angeles number. Zafran already knew who it was: Jeffrey Greene, with yet another urgent, angry call. Months earlier, Zafran had moved from Beverly Hills to Menlo Park, in Northern California’'s San Mateo County, to steer his children away from the neuroses so prevalent in the Hollywood scene. Zafran still enjoyed dealing with Greene, though. The hefty trading commissions were a big part of it, of course. But the more Zafran understood Greene’'s trade, the more he pulled for it to succeed. To him, Greene was a lone individual challenging an industry of cockeyed optimists and cynical charlatans, a modern-day David fighting Goliath.


pages: 509 words: 92,141

The Pragmatic Programmer by Andrew Hunt, Dave Thomas


A Pattern Language, Broken windows theory, business process, buy low sell high,, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, loose coupling, Menlo Park, MVC pattern, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, revision control, Schrödinger's Cat, slashdot, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, traveling salesman, urban decay, Y2K

This should be a desktop reference for everyone who works with code for a living." • Jared Richardson, Senior Software Developer, iRenaissance, Inc. "I would like to see this issued to every new employee at my company. . . ." • Chris Cleeland, Senior Software Engineer, Object Computing, Inc. The Pragmatic Programmer From Journeyman to Master Andrew Hunt David Thomas Reading, Massachusetts Harlow, England Menlo Park, California Berkeley, California Don Mills, Ontario Sydney Bonn Amsterdam Tokyo Mexico City Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and Addison-Wesley was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial capital letters or in all capitals. Lyrics from the song "The Boxer" on page 157 are Copyright © 1968 Paul Simon.


pages: 307 words: 97,677

The Evolution of Useful Things by Henry Petroski


Buckminster Fuller, card file, industrial robot, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman

He then had to test thousands of materials before finding a successful bulb filament to make a practicable model of his idea. Next he had to go through the process of patenting it and, finally, setting up the infrastructure to distribute and sell his invention. Only then was the electric light bulb truly a successful innovation, and it was the long process of going from idea to acceptable product that Edison referred to as the “perspiration” part. Thus when the Wizard of Menlo Park called invention 10 percent inspiration and 90 percent perspiration, he was speaking not only about the creative act of inventing but also about the whole inventive process needed to bring more than intellectual success. Edison warned against discouragement during the perspiration phase in the following way, reminding us that we get things to work by the successive removal of bugs: Genius? Nothing!


pages: 291 words: 87,296

Lethal Passage by Erik Larson


Menlo Park, pez dispenser, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, The Great Moderation

It shifted emphasis from promoting the shooting sports to battling firearm regulations, a shift made official in 1977 when the association amended its New York State charter to include the goal of promoting “the right of the individual of good repute to keep and bear arms as a common law and constitutional right both of the individual citizen and of the collective militia.” A study conducted a few years earlier by the Institute for the Future, Menlo Park, California, for Remington Arms Company, warned that the NRA’s “right-wingers are becoming increasingly isolated from the society of today.” The report continued: “Dismissing unpleasant information about guns in society and denying integrity to those who are concerned about guns, they manage to survive in a bunker decorated with white hats and black hats, in a make-believe world of American ‘sacred rights,’ ancient skills, and coonskins.”


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter


Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism,, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional

“[W]e believe these projects provide a unique and exciting opportunity for artists to display their work in front of millions of people,” Google said. Melinda Beck, an illustrator in Brooklyn, sent Google an e-mail in response to the offer. She noted that she had worked for high-profile clients like Target and Nickelodeon, which had given her work lots of exposure. Still, she pointed out, “Both clients still paid me.” The Google spirit is catching, though, as could be seen in an ad in the fall of 2009 for a law firm in Menlo Park, California, on the free classifieds service Craigslist. “The current economic climate has made it difficult for young lawyers to find paid positions,” it read. “Good experience with a top notch firm is what we offer. If you can realistically make a six to twelve month commitment and can get by without compensation (other than billable travel, mileage, parking and related expenses), this is an excellent opportunity.”


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock


Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Central Asia: Border Disputes and Conflict Potential. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 4 April 2002. Chaze, Aaron. India: An Investor’s Guide to the Next Economic Superpower. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia), 2006, 321 pp. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment. Santa Monica, RAND Corporation, 22 August 2011. Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle. Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Geological Service, 2008. Conflict with China: Prospects, Consequences and Strategies for Deterrence. Santa Monica, RAND Corporation, October 2011. Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Berlin: Transparency International, 26 October 2011. Cunningham, Fiona, and Rory Medcalf. The Dangers of Denial: Nuclear Weapons in China-India Relations. Sydney: Lowy Institute, 18 October 2011. Diamond, Jared.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Just, “Altering Cortical Connectivity: Remediation-Induced Changes in the White Matter of Poor Readers,” Neuron 64 (2009): 624–31. * T. F. Oberlander et al., “Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression, Neonatal Methylation of Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene (NR3C1) and Infant Cortisol Stress Responses,” Epigenetics 3, 2 (2008): 97–106. * D. C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” Summary Report AFOSR-3233, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., October 1962. * “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes,” Psychological Review 84, 3 (1977): 231–59.


pages: 193 words: 98,671

The Inmates Are Running the Asylum by Alan Cooper


Albert Einstein, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, natural language processing, new economy,, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, urban planning

There is a colossal opportunity for companies to break this logjam and organize around customer satisfaction instead of around software, around personas instead of around technology, around profit instead of around programmers. I eagerly await the enlightened executive who seizes this chance and forever alters the way software is built by providing the industry with a bold and successful example. Alan Cooper Menlo Park, California October 2003 What Do You Get When You Cross a Computer with an Airplane? In December 1995, American Airlines Flight 965 departed from Miami on a regularly scheduled trip to Cali, Columbia. On the landing approach, the pilot of the 757 needed to select the next radio-navigation fix, named "ROZO." He entered an "R" into his navigation computer.


pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford


Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley,, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize

Supermarkets can and do randomise their price offerings, their shelf placement, the vouchers they send to customers with loyalty cards, or the design of the advertisements they place in local newspapers. Fast-moving consumer goods companies play with the packaging of key brands. Publishers sometimes offer several different covers to a magazine or a book and see what sells. Experiments have been going on in corporations behind the scenes for over a century. Thomas Edison may have been known as the Wizard of Menlo Park, but his experimentation hit a systematic, industrial scale in 1887 after he built large laboratories a few miles north in West Orange, New Jersey. He employed thousands of people in an ‘invention factory’ and made sure the storerooms were well stocked and that the physical layout of the laboratories allowed the largest number of experiments in the shortest possible time. He was the father of industrial research.


pages: 274 words: 93,758

Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller, Stanley B Resor Professor Of Economics Robert J Shiller


Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, David Brooks,, endowment effect, equity premium, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, loss aversion, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, wage slave

His law practice continued; but he turned to the bottle after lunch on Friday and continued the weekend bender through Sunday, oft-times explaining away Monday absences. We do not view Vaillant’s point of view as proved. The evidence, necessarily, must be subjective. But another smidgeon of evidence yields a similar picture. In 2006, Oakland Tribune reporter Dave Newhouse went to the fiftieth reunion of his high school class at MenloAtherton High School. Back in 1956, before it had become the center of “Silicon Valley,” Menlo Park / Atherton was Leave It to Beaver country: modest suburbia. For the reunion Newhouse interviewed twenty-eight classmates, publishing their reminiscences in a book titled Old Bears.49 These old grads tell their tales of joys and sadness with what seems like remarkable honesty. At this point in their lives they seem to want to set the record straight. For the bulk of the Old Bears, the focal point of their well-fulfilled lives came from their love for their husbands and wives.


pages: 370 words: 94,968

The Most Human Human: What Talking With Computers Teaches Us About What It Means to Be Alive by Brian Christian


4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, job automation, l'esprit de l'escalier, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

.: Copper Canyon Press, 2002). 15 Milan Kundera, The Unbearable Lightness of Being (New York: Harper & Row, 1984). 16 David Shields, quoted in Bond Huberman, “I Could Go On Like This Forever,” City Arts, July 1, 2008. 17 Roger Ebert, review of Quantum of Solace, November 12, 2008, at 18 Matt Mahoney, “Text Compression as a Test for Artificial Intelligence,” Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the Eleventh Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (Menlo Park, Calif.: American Association for Artificial Intelligence, 1999). See also Matt Mahoney, Data Compression Explained (San Jose, Calif.: Ocarina Networks, 2010), 19 Annie Dillard, An American Childhood (New York: Harper & Row, 1987). 20 Eric Hayot, in “Somewhere Out There,” episode 374 of This American Life, February 13, 2009. 21 Three Colors: White, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski (Miramax, 1994). 22 David Bellos, “I, Translator,” New York Times, March 20, 2010. 23 Douglas R.


pages: 362 words: 86,195

Fatal System Error: The Hunt for the New Crime Lords Who Are Bringing Down the Internet by Joseph Menn


Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day

Barrett started off with $250,000 worth of equipment, for which he paid nothing upfront. Barrett and Rachelle moved back to Northern California. They settled in the Bay Area town of Pacifica, picking a condo with a view of the best surf break within half an hour of San Francisco. Barrett’s departure could not have come at a worse time for Prolexic. The company was about to take on its most unusual client, an anti-spam firm based in Haifa, Israel, and in Silicon Valley’s Menlo Park, where venture capital firms had invested $4 million in it. Blue Security Inc. had a radical idea for stopping spam. Over the course of a year, it compiled a list of 450,000 email addresses of people who wanted to be protected. Blue Security then contacted major spammers, telling them to purge Blue Security’s clients from their target lists. If they refused, the security company warned, the free software on its clients’ machines would send “opt out” requests simultaneously to the spammers, in effect launching a vigilante denial-of-service attack on the mass-mailers.


Pearls of Functional Algorithm Design by Richard Bird


bioinformatics, Menlo Park, sorting algorithm

What is more, the restriction to lists is not necessary either; one can solve maximum marking problems about a whole variety of data types in a similar way. References Bentley, J. R. (1987). Programming Pearls. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Bird, R. S. (1989). Algebraic identities for program calculation. Computer Journal 32 (2), 122–6. Gries, D. (1990). The maximum segment sum problem. In Formal Development of Programs and Proofs, ed. E. W. Dijkstra et al. University of Texas at Austin Year of Programming Series. Menlo Park. Addison-Wesley, pp. 43–5. Mu, S.-C. (2008). The maximum segment sum is back. Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation (PEPM ’08), pp. 31–9. 12 Ranking suffixes Introduction The idea of ranking the elements of a list crops up frequently. An element x is assigned rank r if there are exactly r elements of the list less than x . For example, rank [51, 38, 29, 51, 63, 38] = [3, 1, 0, 3, 5, 1].


pages: 292 words: 94,324

How Doctors Think by Jerome Groopman


affirmative action, Atul Gawande, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, fear of failure, framing effect, index card, iterative process, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, pattern recognition, placebo effect, stem cell, theory of mind

Publications relevant to their remarks in this chapter include "Task versus socioemotional behaviors in physicians," Medical Care 25 (1987); "Physicians' psychosocial belief correlate with their patient communication skills," Journal of General Internal Medicine 10 (1995), pp. 375–379; "Communication patterns of primary care physicians," JAMA 277 (1997), pp. 350–356; "Relations between physicians' behaviors and analogue patients' satisfaction, recall, and impressions," Medical Care 25 (1987), pp. 437–451; "Liking in the physician-patient relationship," Patient Education and Counseling48 (2002), pp. 69–77; "Physician gender and patient-centered communication: A critical review of empirical research," Annual Review of Public Health 25 (2004), pp. 497–519. Other useful sources include E. J. Emanuel and L. L. Emanuel, "Four models of the physician-patient relationship," JAMA 267 (1992), pp. 2221–2226; G. L. Engel, "How much longer must medicine's science be bound by a seventeenth-century world view?," in The Task of Medicine: Dialogue at Wickenburg. Menlo Park, California, ed. K. White Donald (Henry J. Kaiser Foundation, 1988). Redelmeier has also examined the importance of clinical dialogue. See "Problems for clinical judgment: Eliciting an insightful history of present illness," Canadian Medical Association Journal 164 (2001), pp. 647–651; "Problems for clinical judgment: Obtaining a reliable past medical history," Canadian Medical Association Journal 164 (2001), pp. 809–813.


pages: 404 words: 113,514

Atrocity Archives by Stross, Charles


airport security, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, defense in depth, disintermediation, experimental subject, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, hypertext link, Khyber Pass, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, NP-complete, the medium is the message, Y2K, yield curve

The text message says, MGR LVNG 5 MINS. I don't ask how they know that, I'm just grateful that there's only five more minutes of standing here among the waterlogged trees, trying not to stamp my feet too loudly, wondering what I'm going to say if the local snouts come calling. Five more minutes of hiding round the back of the QA department of Memetix (UK) Ltd.--subsidiary of a multinational based in Menlo Park, California--then I can do the job and go home. Five more minutes spent hiding in the bushes down on an industrial estate where the white heat of technology keeps the lights burning far into the night, in a place where the nameless horrors don't suck your brains out and throw you to the Human Resources department--unless you show a deficit in the third quarter, or forget to make a blood sacrifice before the altar of Total Quality Management.


pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power


air freight, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, double helix, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, Kevin Kelly, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

Few involved in the early days of the internet could ever have imagined how central to billions of people’s lives it was to become, but some of them dreamed of it. A year before the ARPANET came online, on 9 December 1968, Doug Engelbart, the ultimate unsung conceptual, philosophical and practical pioneer of modern computing, addressed a crowd of 1,000 programmers at Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California. It was an event that was to become known as the Mother of All Demos, and during it Engelbart displayed publicly, in one gargantuan techno-splurge, many of the concepts of computing that are so ubiquitous today: the mouse (‘I don’t know why we call it a mouse. It started that way and we never changed it,’ Engelbart said that day), video conferencing, hypertext, teleconferencing, word processing and collaborative real-time editing.


pages: 290 words: 94,968

Writing on the Wall: Social Media - the First 2,000 Years by Tom Standage


Bill Duvall, British Empire, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, New Journalism, packet switching, place-making, Republic of Letters, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind

Several people sitting at separate terminals could use this giant computer at the same time, and Kline could be found writing code on it at all hours of the day and night. That evening Leonard Kleinrock, the professor in charge of the computer lab, asked Kline to help him test a new device that would link the Sigma 7 to another computer at the Stanford Research Institute, four hundred miles away in Menlo Park, California. The project to link computers in this way had begun when Bob Taylor, an official at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the research arm of the U.S. Department of Defense, became frustrated by the proliferation of computer terminals in his office. ARPA was funding computer projects at the University of California, Berkeley; at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); and at the System Development Corporation, a pioneering software company based in Santa Monica.


pages: 325 words: 110,330

Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration by Ed Catmull, Amy Wallace


Albert Einstein, business climate, buy low sell high, complexity theory, fear of failure, Golden Gate Park, iterative process, Menlo Park, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Wall-E

He not only planned to displace me in the day-to-day management of the company, he expected me to think it was a great idea! Steve was hard-charging—relentless, even—but a conversation with him took you places you didn’t expect. It forced you not just to defend but also to engage. And that in itself, I came to believe, had value. The next day, several of us drove out to meet with Steve at his place in Woodside, a lovely neighborhood near Menlo Park. The house was almost empty but for a motorcycle, a grand piano, and two personal chefs who had once worked at Chez Panisse. Sitting on the grass looking out over his seven-acre lawn, he formally proposed that he buy the graphics group from Lucasfilm and showed us a proposed organizational chart for the new company. As he spoke, it became clear to us that his goal was not to build an animation studio; his goal was to build the next generation of home computers to compete with Apple.


pages: 290 words: 98,699

Wealth Without a Job: The Entrepreneur's Guide to Freedom and Security Beyond the 9 to 5 Lifestyle by Phil Laut, Andy Fuehl


British Empire, business process, declining real wages, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index card, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce

You are about to learn a method that will build a “moving-toward” motivation into your neurology and take you beyond survival to peak performance and contribution. 41 ccc_laut_ch04_31-60.qxd 7/8/04 12:23 PM Page 42 42 The Emotional Dynamics of Change Physiology and Psychology of Excellence To achieve our desired results, we must run our minds and bodies in a peak state. If you are depressed or lethargic, you will not achieve your goals unless, of course, your goals are minuscule. Your goals should be big and worth pursuing. Since your goals are big, you must be in a peak mental and physical state in order to produce the desired results. Thomas Edison was a person who knew and used the five principles for achieving success. Known as the Wizard of Menlo Park, he set the record with 1,300 patents registered in his name. He was an entrepreneur. While in his 20s, he set up a laboratory employing 50 engineers. His best-known inventions include the phonograph, an automatic telegraphy machine, the stock ticker machine, the kinetoscope motion picture machine, and the incandescent light bulb, all of which owed their success to his work in the storage and transfer of electricity.


pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler


3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush

Systematic research and development itself was a product of industry, because industrial corporations established the first R&D laboratories. Some of the earliest laboratories appeared in Germany during the late 1800s. The very first, established by Krupp, studied the metallurgy of alloyed steels; other laboratories developed methods for atomically precise fabrication of sub-nanometer structures (which is to say, methods for organic chemical synthesis). In the United States, Thomas Edison’s “invention factory” at Menlo Park provided another early model for organized research, and during the early twentieth century industrial R&D labs proliferated (established, for example, by General Electric, Westinghouse, Bell Telephone, and DuPont). During World War II, the US federal government greatly expanded other dimensions of research support, establishing a series of National Laboratories, and in 1950, the National Science Foundation.


pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr


Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

It is the technologists who shall lead us. Cyberspace, with its disembodied voices and ethereal avatars, seemed mystical from the start, its unearthly vastness a receptacle for America’s spiritual yearnings and tropes. “What better way,” wrote Cal State philosopher Michael Heim in 1991, “to emulate God’s knowledge than to generate a virtual world constituted by bits of information?” In 1999, the year Google moved from a Menlo Park garage to a Palo Alto office, the Yale computer scientist David Gelernter wrote a manifesto predicting “the second coming of the computer,” replete with gauzy images of “cyberbodies drift[ing] in the computational cosmos” and “beautifully-laid-out collections of information, like immaculate giant gardens.” The millenarian rhetoric swelled with the arrival of Web 2.0. “Behold,” proclaimed Wired in an August 2005 cover story: We are entering a “new world,” powered not by God’s grace but by the web’s “electricity of participation.”


pages: 264 words: 90,379

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell


affirmative action, airport security, Albert Einstein, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, haute couture, Kevin Kelly, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, young professional

In both cases, Hoving and Zeri brushed aside a thousand other considerations about the way the sculpture looked and zeroed in on a specific feature that told them everything they needed to know. I think we get in trouble when this process of editing is disrupted—when we can’t edit, or we don’t know what to edit, or our environment doesn’t let us edit. Remember Sheena Iyengar, who did the research on speed-dating? She once conducted another experiment in which she set up a tasting booth with a variety of exotic gourmet jams at the upscale grocery store Draeger’s in Menlo Park, California. Sometimes the booth had six different jams, and sometimes Iyengar had twenty-four different jams on display. She wanted to see whether the number of jam choices made any difference in the number of jams sold. Conventional economic wisdom, of course, says that the more choices consumers have, the more likely they are to buy, because it is easier for consumers to find the jam that perfectly fits their needs.


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford


affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay

A closer look at the history of Google’s headquarters suggests a closer resemblance to MIT’s Building 20 than to Chiat/Day’s hot-lipped theme park. For the first two years of Google’s gestation, while Sergey Brin and Larry Page were making some of the foundational breakthroughs, there were no headquarters at all: Brin and Page were studying at Stanford University.23 In September 1998, Google moved to the clichéd start-up location: a garage. They rented some rooms, too, in a house on Santa Margarita Street in Menlo Park. One room contained Sergey, Larry, and two other engineers. The garage itself was packed with servers. Desks were the simplest possible design: a door placed horizontally across a pair of sawhorses. Nothing could be cruder or easier to put together and take apart, or easier to hack about. One day the house’s owner, Susan Wojcicki, was expecting delivery of a refrigerator. She returned home to find that the Googlers had commandeered it, moved it to their part of the house, and filled it with drinks and snacks.


Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television by Jerry Mander


Alistair Cooke, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, full employment, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, music of the spheres, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 120 (1954), pp. 290-91. Mulholland, Thomas B., "Training Visual Attention." Aca- demic Therapy, Fall 1974, pp. 5-17. Murchie, Guy, Music of the Spheres. New York: Dover, 1961. The Network Project, Notebook, Vols. I-VII. 101 Earl Hal1, Columbia University, New York, 1973. 367 BIBLIOGRAPHY "New Insights Into Buying Explored," Investments in To- morrow, No. 16. Menlo Park, Ca1.: Stanford Research Institute, Summer 1975. Niehardt, John G., Black Elk Speaks. New York: William Morrow, 1932. Nielsen Television, 1975. Chicago: A. C. Nielsen, 1975. Olson, David and Richard Parker, "Why Prices Go Up When Jobs Go Down." Mother Jones, February 1977, pp. 11-12. "One Hundred Leading Advertisers." Advertising Age, Au- gust 18,1975, pp. 156-57. "One Hundred Leading Advertisers."


pages: 310 words: 89,838

Massive: The Missing Particle That Sparked the Greatest Hunt in Science by Ian Sample


Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, Donald Trump, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, uranium enrichment, Yogi Berra

These were exquisite pieces of engineering in their own right and could take years to plan and build. Across the Atlantic, there was no let-up in building more powerful accelerators. As CERN was finding its feet, the first multimillion-dollar laboratories, with accelerators measured in miles and kilometers rather than feet and meters, went into operation. The 3-kilometer-long Stanford Linear Accelerator was built at Menlo Park; another major facility, the National Accelerator Laboratory, went into construction on 6,800 acres of prairie land about 40 miles west of Chicago. At Brookhaven National Laboratory, engineers built the huge Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, for a time the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, with beams running at an energy of 33 GeV. The machine earned scientists three Nobel Prizes.


pages: 641 words: 153,921

Eon by Greg Bear


dematerialisation, Menlo Park, Ralph Nader, urban renewal

He had flown the famous Charlie Baker Delta route over Florida, Cuba and Bermuda during the Little Death, refueling the planes of the Atlantic Watch whose vigilance had played such a crucial role in limiting thee war. After the armistice, he had received an OK from the Navy to take his expertise in aerospace engineering over to Orbi-corn, which was tuning up its world-wide civilian Mononet. There had been a few calls at first to Orbicom headquarters in Menlo Park, California, then requests for help on position papers, then an abrupt and unexpected transfer to the Orbi-eom building in Washington, which he later learned had been engineered by Homan. There was no question of romance —how often had he quelled that rumor?—but their ability to work together was remarkable in a Washington atmosphere of perpetual partisan bickering and funding squabbles. “Why the secrecy?”


The Global Citizen: A Guide to Creating an International Life and Career by Elizabeth Kruempelmann


Berlin Wall, business climate, corporate governance, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, global village, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, young professional

S H O R T-T E R M W O R K A N D A U - PA I R P R O G R A M S Working for the summer or for a short period of time is an excellent way to get your feet wet without making a long-term international commitment. Summer and shortterm work mostly consists of jobs in the service, tourism, or agricultural industries, such as bartending or working on a farm or kibbutz. I NTERNATIONAL C OOPERATIVE E DUCATION 15 Spiros Way Menlo Park, CA 94025 Phone: 650-323-4944 Fax: 650-323-1104 International Cooperative Education arranges two- to three-month paid work and internships in retail sales, hotels, restaurants, au-pair situations, agriculture, education, banking, and business. Students must be under the age of thirty and some programs require a language background. Check the Web site’s database of job listings. Au-pair work is essentially a nanny job that lasts a few months to a year or longer.


pages: 490 words: 150,172

The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance by Henry Petroski


business climate, Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, Menlo Park, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen

Thomas Edison certainly knew that not every material was suited for the filament of an incandescent light bulb, but he did know in his technological heart that his idea should work in principle—if he could only locate a material with the correct properties. Edison tried numerous different materials until he hit upon the right one, and when asked if the long quest ever discouraged him, he reportedly replied that it had not, for every failed filament taught him something—namely, one more material to exclude from further consideration. Charles Batchelor, Edison’s co-worker at Menlo Park, described the failure of one such experiment: “Made hemp fibres with clamps of plumbago, graphite such as used in lead pencils—they have got too much stuff mixed with them for us—seem to swell up and form gases or arcs which bust up the lamps.” The lead pencils that Batchelor found too adulterated as a source of graphite were dear to Edison for other reasons, however, and they were not beneath his attention, for “Edison liked short pencils and he persuaded a pencil factory to turn out short pencils especially for him.”


pages: 568 words: 162,366

The Oil and the Glory: The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea by Steve Levine


Berlin Wall, California gold rush, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, indoor plumbing, Khyber Pass, megastructure, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, Potemkin village, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, trade route

The oilmen needed not only to find crude, but needed to find it in sufficient volumes to justify tens of billions of dollars in probable development spending. In short, they had to select the precise location, in a thousand-square-mile field, where there was the greatest likelihood of an extremely rich find. If the consortium did not quickly strike paydirt, its members might walk away from Kashagan rather than pony up millions more for additional test wells. Enter Harry Cook, a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey office in Menlo Park, California. A local newspaper characterized the dressed-down, bearded Cook as the “Indiana Jones” of rocks, and the sixty-year-old Santa Barbara native did in fact bear some resemblance, both physically and professionally, to the film character. Cook combined adventurousness, geological skill, and a flair for relating his exploits to audiences. Cook’s specialty was “outcrops,” or rock oddities.


pages: 443 words: 51,804

Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance by Frederi G. Viens, Maria C. Mariani, Ionut Florescu


algorithmic trading, asset allocation, automated trading system, backtesting, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, business process, continuous integration, corporate governance, discrete time, distributed generation, fixed income, Flash crash, housing crisis, implied volatility, incomplete markets, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, market friction, market microstructure, martingale, Menlo Park, p-value, pattern recognition, performance metric, principal–agent problem, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, short selling, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, transaction costs, value at risk, volatility smile, Wiener process

In search of excess: the overcompensation of American executives. New York: W. W. Norton Company; 1991. Deboeck GJ, editor.. Trading on the edge: neural, genetic, and fuzzy systems for chaotic financial markets. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994. Decker K, Sycara K, Zeng D. Designing a multi-agent portfolio management system. Proceedings of the AAAI workshop on internet information systems. AAI Press, Menlo Park, CA; 1996. Dempster M, Leemans V. An automated FX trading system using adaptive reinforcement learning. Expert Systems with Applications (Special issue on financial engineering) 2006;30:534–552. Dempster M, Romahi Y. Intraday FX trading: an evolutionary reinforcement learning approach. Proceedings of the Third International conference on intelligent data engineering and automated learning IDEAL 02, Manchester, UK, August 12–14, 2002, Volume 2412 of Lecture notes in computer science.


pages: 404 words: 131,034

Cosmos by Carl Sagan


Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, clockwork universe, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, germ theory of disease, invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Magellanic Cloud, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, music of the spheres, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, spice trade, Tunguska event

Egyptian Language: Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics. New York: Dover Publications, 1976. de Laguna, Frederica. Under Mount St. Elias: History and Culture of Yacutat Tlingit. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972. Emmons, G.T. The Chilkat Blanket. New York: Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, 1907. Goldsmith, D. and Owen, T. The Search for Life in the Universe. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings, 1980. Klass, Philip. UFO’s Explained. New York: Vintage, 1976. Krause, Aurel. The Tlingit Indians. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1956. La Pérouse, Jean F. de G., comte de. Voyage de la Pérouse Autour du Monde (four volumes). Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, 1797. Mallove, E., Forward, R.L., Paprotny, Z., and Lehmann, J. “Interstellar Travel and Communication: A Bibliography.”


pages: 446 words: 138,827

What Should I Do With My Life? by Po Bronson


back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, high net worth, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, telemarketer, traffic fines, young professional

“That’s okay. I can wait.” 52 Twenty Thousand Lives a Year BUSINESS IS A TOOL TO SUPPORT WHAT YOU BELIEVE Joe Belanoff’s Big Picture came into focus in the last couple of years. He’s forty-four. If you don’t know where you’re headed when you begin, it can take that long, easily. But it’s worth it. Joe is an easygoing, amiable guy. We met the first time at his office, which was inside a law firm in Menlo Park, but I’ll reveal later what his office is for and what he’s doing there. He’s not a lawyer. Ironically, Joe worked at this very law firm the summer after college, 1979. He was an English major at Amherst and figured he might go to law school, but one summer in the xerography department cured him of that idea. He drove back East to look for a job. Early in his trip, he stopped at Lake Tahoe and gambled for four days.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg


A Pattern Language, Berlin Wall,, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook,, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Its goal was to allow users to “store ideas, study them, relate them structurally, and cross-reference them.” It provided what a computer user today would call an outliner—a program with expandable and collapsible nodes of hierarchically structured lines of information. But this outliner could be shared across a network—not only within a single office but remotely, between the downtown San Francisco auditorium and the SRI office in Menlo Park, thirty miles away, as Engelbart showed his suitably impressed 1968 crowd. Today the NLS’s flickery monochrome screens and blurry typography look antediluvian, but its capabilities and design remain a benchmark for collaboration that modern systems have a tough time matching. Engelbart showed the 1968 audience how easy it was to use NLS to make and store and share a grocery list. But the real purpose of NLS was to help Engelbart’s programmers program better.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey


3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending,, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

* * * While it can feel as if everyone in the Valley is into bitcoin—just as it can feel as if everyone outside the Valley is against it or has little interest—the truth is that the clique of fervent believers is still relatively small. Some in the VC community have serious doubts—they just don’t seem to express them often. In a post on the StrictlyVC blog by Connie Loizos titled “A Bitcoin Bear in Silicon Valley, It’s True,” Josh Stein, the managing director at Tim Draper’s Menlo Park firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson, is quoted describing himself as a “bitcoin bear.” Stein, whose firm has invested in Twitter, Skype, and Tesla, argued that transaction-cost savings on bitcoin weren’t much more competitive than electronic wires or new dollar-based payment technologies, and that bitcoin, unlike gold, had no “intrinsic value.” In a telling turn, however, Loizos wrote that Stein quickly cut his comments short, claiming that publicly revealing his views would “cue the trolls.”


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

He would create a workstation for organizing all of the information and communications needed for any given project.”5 Engelbart’s ideas were similar to Licklider’s, if a bit further along in their development. But neither was as yet close to describing how one might practically wed human and computer capacities. Eventually Engelbart’s work caught Licklider’s attention, and with that, ARPA funding flowed to Engelbart to create the “Augmentation Reseach Center” at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California. His immediate objective was finding better ways to connect the human brain to the power of a computer—what we now call “interfaces.” It’s easy to forget that computers once took all of their questions and delivered all of their answers in numerical form. The basic ideas of a screen, a keyboard, and, most famously, a mouse are owed to Engelbart, who was the first to model those concepts, however crudely.


pages: 435 words: 127,403

Panderer to Power by Frederick Sheehan


Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, reserve currency, rising living standards, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, VA Linux, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Silicon Valley is a tribute both to American ingenuity and to the financial system’s ever-increasing ability to supply venture capital to the entrepreneurs who are such a dynamic force in our economy.”16 Wall Street firms that had opened offices in Silicon Valley during the IPO mania could not have hired a better public relations representative. Their behavior was often scandalous (that, we knew at the time) and criminal (as the courts would decide, in due course). Greenspan capped off his ode to the venture capitalists who lined Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California, in a stellar summation: “More recent evidence remains consistent with the view that this capital spending has contributed to a noticeable pickup in productivity.”17 Within weeks, Michael Wolff, an entrepreneur who had taken full advantage of the pickup in productivity, published his memoir. He described Silicon Valley companies that had nothing to sell, other than common stock. In Burn Rate: How I Survived the Gold Rush Years on the Internet, Wolff admitted: “Optimism is our bank account; fantasy is our product; press releases are our good name.”


pages: 421 words: 128,094

King of Capital: The Remarkable Rise, Fall, and Rise Again of Steve Schwarzman and Blackstone by David Carey; John E. Morris; John Morris


asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, margin call, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, risk tolerance, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Sand Hill Road, sealed-bid auction, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, The Predators' Ball, éminence grise

The scale of the takeovers—made possible by Drexel and the mammoth new fund KKR raised in 1987—propelled the firm into the public light. With $8 or $10 of debt for every dollar of equity in its fund, KKR could now contemplate a portfolio of companies together worth $50 billion or $60 billion. The media took to calling Kravis “King” Henry, and he quickly came to personify the buyout business. (Kravis’s press-shy cousin Roberts lived and worked in faraway Menlo Park, California, off the New York media and social radar. Jerry Kohlberg resigned from KKR in 1987, after clashing with his former protégés over strategy and lines of authority.) When KKR chased by far the biggest buyout of all time, that of RJR Nabisco in 1988, that too was largely with Drexel money. At bottom, Kravis’s power and celebrity, like the deals KKR did, were magnified by the billions put up by Drexel


pages: 380 words: 118,675

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone


3D printing, airport security, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition,, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?

Defense Department–developed predecessor to the Internet. In high school, Kaphan met Stewart Brand, the writer and counterculture organizer, and the summer after he graduated, Kaphan took a job at the Whole Earth Catalog, Brand’s seminal guide to the tools and books of the enlightened new information age. Sporting long hippie-ish hair and a bushy beard, Kaphan worked at Brand’s Whole Earth Truck Store in Menlo Park, a mobile lending library and roving education service. He tended the cash register, filled subscriptions, and packed books and catalogs for shipment to customers. After earning a bachelor’s degree in mathematics in an on-again, off-again decade at the University of California at Santa Cruz, Kaphan logged time at a number of Bay Area companies, including the ill-fated Apple-IBM joint venture called Kaleida Labs, which developed media-player software for personal computers.


pages: 496 words: 154,363

I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59 by Douglas Edwards


Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, book scanning, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Googley, gravity well, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, Menlo Park, microcredit, music of the spheres, Network effects, P = NP, PageRank, performance metric,, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, second-price auction, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, stem cell, Superbowl ad, Y2K

In 1997, they changed the name to Google, which played to their love of math and scale (a googol is 10100). They chose the variant spelling for two reasons: the web domain was taken, and Larry thought they wouldn't be able to trademark a number. Larry was a very shrewd businessman—but we'll get to that. Within a year, Larry and Sergey had taken leave from Stanford and set up in the Menlo Park garage of Susan Wojcicki, the college roommate of Sergey's girlfriend. Google's traffic began climbing and the company began hiring. They incorporated in September 1998, and when they outgrew Susan's garage in early 1999, they moved to an office at 165 University Avenue in Palo Alto. Six months later, having talked two venture capital firms out of $25 million, they moved into an industrial park at 2400 Bayshore Parkway in Mountain View.


pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman


Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K

The robot uses a technology pioneered in Microsoft’s Kinect motion sensing system for its Xbox video game system. Such robots will put automation within range of companies like Federal Express and United Parcel Service that now employ tens of thousands of workers doing such tasks. The start-up behind the robot, Industrial Perception Inc., is the first spinoff of Willow Garage, an ambitious robotics research firm based in Menlo Park, Calif. The first customer is likely to be a company that now employs thousands of workers to load and unload its trucks. The workers can move one box every six seconds on average. But each box can weigh more than 130 pounds, so the workers tire easily and sometimes hurt their backs. Industrial Perception will win its contract if its machine can reliably move one box every four seconds. The engineers are confident that the robot will soon do much better than that, picking up and setting down one box per second.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig


AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, computer age, dark matter, disintermediation, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, linked data, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs

For other interviews of Baran, see Stewart Brand, “Founding Father,” Wired (March 2001), available at; interview by David Hochfelder with Paul Baran, electrical engineer, Newark, New Jersey (October 24, 1999), available at baran.html; interview by J. O'Neill with Paul Baran, Menlo Park, California (March 5, 1990); George Gilder, “Inventing the Internet Again,” Forbes (June 2, 1997), 106 (lengthy article about Baran); Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, “Casting the Net,” The Sciences (September 1, 1996), 32. 15 American Telephone & Telegraphy Co., Telephone Almanac, foreword (1941). 16 Interview with Paul Baran. 17 Ibid. 18 Peter Huber, Orwell's Revenge: The 1984 Palimpsest (New York: Free Press; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994), 268-69; Huber, Kellogg, and Thorne, 416. 19 And the decision was reversed by the D.C. circuit.


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, crowdsourcing, deskilling,, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine,, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

If the headache worsens over the next two weeks—particularly if it is now accompanied by additional symptoms such as weakness or nausea—that’s an entirely different story. McAfee listened sympathetically—he’s obviously heard scores of versions of the You just don’t understand; my work is different argument—and then said, “I imagine there are a bunch of really smart geeks at IBM taking notes as guys like you describe this situation. In their heads, they’re asking, ‘How do I model that?’” Undaunted, I tried another tack on Khosla when we met in his office in Menlo Park. “Vinod,” I said, “in medicine we have something we call the ‘eyeball test.’ That means I can see two patients whose numbers look the same”—things like temperature, heart rate, and blood counts—“and my training allows me to say, ‘That guy is sick [I pointed to an imaginary person across the imposing conference table] and the other is okay.’” And good doctors are usually right, I told him, as we possess a kind of sixth sense that we acquire from our training, our role models, and a thousand cases of trial and error.


pages: 465 words: 134,575

Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces by Radley Balko


anti-communist, call centre, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, desegregation, edge city, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan

Police Chief Pierce Brooks wanted a department that looked more like it was part of the community than an outside force charged with keeping the community in line. So the cops wore slacks and blazers instead of military-like uniforms. Instead of using Army ranks like sergeant or lieutenant, they took titles like “field advisor.” Rank-and-file cops were called “agents.” The Lakewood experiment was short-lived: by 1973, they were back to using traditional titles and the conventional police blues. Similar efforts in Menlo Park and Beverly Hills, California, hadn’t gone quite as far, but had been somewhat more successful. Stamper’s proposal was relatively mild by comparison. As he writes in his book Breaking Rank: I knew there’d be a shit-rain of opposition—military titles are a cultural icon in civilian policing, as much a part of the cop culture as mustaches, sidearms, and doughnuts. But, win or lose, I thought it was important to air the rationale behind “demilitarization.”


pages: 478 words: 142,608

The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins


Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Brownian motion, cosmological principle, David Attenborough, Desert Island Discs, double helix,, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, gravity well, invisible hand, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, unbiased observer

Swinburne, R. (2004). The Existence of God. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taverne, R. (2005). The March of Unreason: Science, Democracy and the New Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tiger, L. (1979). Optimism: The Biology of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster. Toland, J. (1991). Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography. New York: Anchor. Trivers, R. L. (1985). Social Evolution. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Unwin, S. (2003). The Probability of God: A Simple Calculation that Proves the Ultimate Truth. New York: Crown Forum. Vermes, G. (2000). The Changing Faces of Jesus. London: Allen Lane. Ward, K. (1996). God, Chance and Necessity. Oxford: Oneworld. Warraq, I. (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim. New York: Prometheus. Weinberg, S. (1993). Dreams of a Final Theory.


Investment: A History by Norton Reamer, Jesse Downing


Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, backtesting, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Brownian motion, buttonwood tree, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, colonial rule, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, equity premium, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, land tenure, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, margin call, means of production, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Own Your Own Home, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, statistical arbitrage, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Vanguard fund, working poor, yield curve

More New Investment Forms 279 table 8.2 Venture Capital Firms 1991 2001 2011 No. of VC Firms in Existence 362 917 842 No. of VC Funds in Existence 640 1,850 1,274 3,475 8,620 6,125 4 45 45 40 325 173 No. of Professionals No. of First Time VC Funds Raised No. of VC Funds Raising Money This Year VC Capital Raised this Year ($B) 1.9 39.0 18.7 VC Capital Under Management ($B) 26.8 261.7 196.9 Avg VC Capital Under Mgt per Firm ($M) 74.0 285.4 233.8 Avg VC Fund Size to Date ($M) 37.4 95.4 110.6 Avg VC Fund Raised this Year ($M) 47.5 120.0 108.1 1,775.0 6,300.0 6,300.0 Largest VC Fund Raised to Date ($M) Source: “2012 National Venture Capital Association Yearbook,” National Venture Capital Asso ciation and Thomson Reuters, last modified 2012, /2012/08/NVCA-Yearbook-2012.pdf, 9. technology. The first Silicon Valley initial public offerings were of Varian in 1956, HP in 1957, and Ampex in 1958. Sand Hill Road, in Menlo Park, California, became the hub for venture capital institutions, with today’s quite recognizable firms (Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers) coming to life in 1972. Furthermore, California has almost four times more venture capital–backed companies than any other state, with a focus in all sectors, but especially consumer Internet.42 Compared to venture capital investment in the United States, the amount of venture capital funds invested in other areas of the world does not reach the same level.


pages: 426 words: 115,150

Your Money or Your Life: 9 Steps to Transforming Your Relationship With Money and Achieving Financial Independence: Revised and Updated for the 21st Century by Vicki Robin, Joe Dominguez, Monique Tilford


asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, buy low sell high, credit crunch, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, fiat currency, financial independence, fudge factor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, index card, index fund, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, Parkinson's law, passive income, passive investing, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, strikebreaker, Thorstein Veblen, Vanguard fund, zero-coupon bond

Job Satisfaction Keeps Falling, the Conference Board Reports Today,” The Conference Board Press Release, February 28, 2005, 14 New American Dream Time Day poll, August 2003, 15 16 Amy Saltzman, Downshifting: Reinventing Success on a Slower Track (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), op. cit., p. 16. 17 Ibid., p. 200. 18 Michael Phillips, The Seven Laws of Money (Menlo Park: Word Wheel, 1974), p. 8. 19 At the Crossroads (Spokane: Communications Era Task Force, 1983), p. 22. 20 Desmond Morris, The Biology of Art (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), pp. 158–59. 21 Willis Harman, “Work,” in Alberto Villoldo and Ken Dychtwald, editors, Millennium: Glimpses into the 21st Century (Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, Inc., 1981). 22 Richard Nelson Bolles, What Color Is Your Parachute?


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson


3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser,, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth,