megacity

87 results back to index


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

According to a recent study, foul air is most deadly in the sprawling megacities of Mexico (300 bad ozone smog days per year), Sao Paulo, Delhi, and Beijing.41 Breathing Mumbai's air, meanwhile, is the 36 El Arabi, "Urban Growth and Environmental Degradation," pp. 392-94; and Oberai, Population Groivth, Employment and Poverty in Third World Mega-Cities, p. 16 (accident rate). 37 Glenn McKenzie, "Psychiatric Tests Required for Traffic Offenders," RedNova, 20 June 2003; and Pell, "Urban Housing and Services in Anglophone West Africa," p. 178. 38 Hindustan Times, 1 February 2004. 39 WHO, "Road Safety Is No Accident!" (November 2003); and Road Traffic Injuries Research Network cited in Detroit Free Press, 24 September 2002. 40 People's Daily (English), 24 June 2003. 41 Asim Khan, "Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World," Green Times (Spring 1997); published by Penn Environmental Group).

However, the populations of sub-Saharan Africa will triple, and of India, double. 6 Although the velocity of global urbanization is not in doubt, the growth rates of specific cities may brake abruptly as they encounter the frictions of size and congestion. A famous instance of such a "polarization reversal" is Mexico City, widely predicted to achieve a population of 25 million during the 1990s (the current population is between 19 and 22 million). See Yue-man Yeung, "Geography in an Age of Mega-Cities," International Social Sciences journal 151 (1997), p. 93. 7 Financial Times, 27 July 2004; David Drakakis-Smith, Third World Cities, 2nd ed., London 2000. SNOITIia R Figure 2 8 Third World Megacities (population in millions) 1950 ' 2004 Mexico City 2.9 22.1 Seoul-Injon 1.0 21.9 (New York 12.3 21.9) 19.9 Sao Paulo 2.4 Mumbai (Bombay) 2.9 19.1 Delhi 1.4 18.6 Jakarta 1.5 16.0 Dhaka 0.4 15.9 Kolkata (Calcutta) 4.4 15.1 Cairo 2.4 15.1 Manila 1.5 14.3 Karachi 1.0 13.5 Lagos 0.3 13.4 Shanghai 5.3 13.2 Buenos Aires 4.6 12.6 Rio de Janeiro 3.0 11.9 Tehran 1.0 11.5 Istanbul 1.1 11.1 Beijing 3.9 10.8 Krung Thep (Bangkok) 1.4 9.1 Gauteng (Witwatersrand) 1.2 9.0 Kinshasa/Brazzaville 0.2 8.9 Lima 0.6 8.2 Bogota 0.7 8.0 8 Composite of UN-HABITAT Urban Indicators Database (2002); Thomas Brinkhoff "The Principal Agglomerations of the World", www.citypopulation. de/World.html (May 2004).

In his study of the Mumbai region, Alain Jacquemin emphasizes the confiscation of local power by urban development authorities, whose role is to build modern infrastructures that allow the wealthier parts of poor cities to plug themselves — and themselves alone — into the world cybereconomy. These authorities, he writes, "have further undermined the 56 Oberai, Population Growth, Employment and Poverty in Third-World Mega-Cities, p. 169. 57 Nick Devas, "Can City Governments in the South Deliver for the Poor?," International Development and Planning Review 25:1 (2003), pp. 6—7. 58 Oberai, Population Growth, Employment and Poverty in Third-World Mega-C'ities, pp. 165, 171. tasks and functions of democratically elected municipal governments already weakened by the loss of sectoral responsibilities and financial and human resources to special ad hoc authorities. No wonder locally expressed needs at the municipal and neighborhood level remain unheard."59 With a handful of exceptions, then, the postcolonial state has comprehensively betrayed its original promises to the urban poor.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

For example, although the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires are long gone, Constantinople—now Istanbul—survives as a center of commerce and culture whose geographic radius of influence stretches far beyond that of its imperial predecessors, even though it is no longer the capital of Turkey. Cities are the truly timeless global form. Cities in the twenty-first century are mankind’s most profound infrastructure; they are the human technology most visible from space, growing from villages to towns to counties to megacities to super-corridors stretching hundreds of kilometers. In 1950, the world had only two megacities of populations larger than 10 million: Tokyo and New York City. By 2025, there will be at least forty such megacities. The population of the greater Mexico City region is larger than that of Australia, as is that of Chongqing, a collection of connected urban enclaves spanning an area the size of Austria. Cities that were once hundreds of kilometers apart have now effectively fused into massive urban archipelagoes, the largest of which is Japan’s Taiheiyo Belt that encompasses two-thirds of Japan’s population in the Tokyo-Nagoya-Osaka megalopolis.

The London-based property developer Stanhope recently contracted with China’s Minsheng Investment and Advanced Business Park to overhaul East London’s Royal Albert Dock near the City Airport as a tax-free bridgehead for Chinese and Asian businesses. Beyond wealthy countries, far more countries have megacities that need Chinese-style thinking. Population growth and urbanization have taken cities to a scale never imagined. The largest cities of the West—New York, London, Moscow—have less than half the population of the developing world’s megacities such as Mumbai and Jakarta. And with the exception of Mexico City and São Paulo in Latin America and Lagos and Cairo in Africa, all of the world’s most populous metropolises are in Asia. Megacities are metabolic ecosystems constantly circulating demographic flows; daytime populations can be millions more than in the evenings. They are so large that major new infrastructures—even cities within the “city”—are needed so they can become less congested polycentric clusters.

Cities that were once hundreds of kilometers apart have now effectively fused into massive urban archipelagoes, the largest of which is Japan’s Taiheiyo Belt that encompasses two-thirds of Japan’s population in the Tokyo-Nagoya-Osaka megalopolis. China’s Pearl River delta, Greater São Paulo, and Mumbai-Pune are also becoming more integrated through infrastructure. At least a dozen such megacity corridors have emerged already. China is in the process of reorganizing itself around two dozen giant megacity clusters of up to 100 million citizens each.*3 And yet by 2030, the second-largest city in the world behind Tokyo is expected not to be in China but to be Manila. America’s rising multi-city clusters are as significant as any of these, even if their populations are smaller. Three in particular stand out. The East Coast corridor from Boston through New York to Washington, D.C., contains America’s academic brain, financial center, and political capital.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

In the United States, a recent market report noted that, while US military ‘operations in urban environments will be more frequent, thus increasing demands for rotorcraft’, the ‘Department of Homeland Security is expected to acquire hundreds of helicopters to support its expanded efforts at US borders.’25 The allure of helicopter-based policing is such that police forces in Global South megacities such as Lagos and Mumbai have announced their ambitions to imitate the Hollywood-style police operations of the LAPD that have been featured – along with their footage of the city below – in a thousand films, police drama shows and reality TV series. Some helicopter TV events, such as the real-time chase of O. J. Simpson in LA in 1994, have in turn become pivotal moments in the cultural history of aerial security. A whole genre of ‘scary police chases’ captured by the digital cameras of TV and police helicopters – as well as those in cars and roadside systems – is a major part of the reality TV and pulp documentary industry. Such systems and deployments fit perfectly into a world where the enemy is deemed to be ‘within’ the domestic megacity; mobilisation is permanent within boundless ‘wars’ against drugs, terrorism, insurgency or political disruption; and the labyrinthine worlds of urbanised terrain sprawls toward, and beyond, the horizon.

In building up a cultural obsession with ‘austerity chic’ and firing up demand among an affluent, design-conscious clientele for the tower’s now-private apartments, the image is used to sell off a great achievement of the socially universal welfare state. It therefore presides over what architecture critic Owen Hatherley calls ‘the literal destruction of the thing it claims to love.’82 Global South Megacities: ‘Heavenly Enclaves Surrounded by Slums’ Further startling examples of the elite domination of contemporary high-rise housing can be drawn from megacities in the Global South. The marketing of such towers is especially striking in Mumbai. ‘Reach for it!’ shouts the real estate billboard surrounding the new Indiabulls Sky Tower complex being built at the end of the new Bandra–Worli Sea Link sky bridge express way as it enters the city core. ‘Consider it a blessing to share the same address as God.’83 The building offers a long list of luxury services, a suite of pools, spas and restaurants, all in the relatively cool air above the twelfth floor; below these is a tall podium of stacked, private parking garages.

In the second example, at least 74 people were killed when construction waste accumulated over two years on a hillside slipped after heavy rain to bury thirty-three buildings in the sprawling megacity of Shenzen, China. One of the first such examples recorded by landslide experts, the Shenzen case demonstrates the risks involved in vertically shifting vast chunks of geology in the often corrupt construction of urban megaprojects. Officials responsible for the waste pile were quickly arrested. Landfill to Landfill The relationship between skyscraper and pit has taken on new implications. – Lucy Lippard Disasters like landfill slides involving the movement of waste ground in and around the world’s megacities are obscured by an almost complete absence of media coverage; by contrast other movements of waste and rubble spark long periods of total media saturation.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

There follows the separation between symbolic meaning, location of functions, and the social appropriation of space in the metropolitan area. This is the trend underlying the most important transformation of urban forms worldwide, with particular force in the newly industrializing areas: the rise of mega-cities. Third millennium urbanization: mega-cities The new global economy and the emerging informational society have indeed a new spatial form, which develops in a variety of social and geographical contexts: mega-cities.70 Mega-cities are, certainly, very large agglomerations of human beings, all of them (13 in the United Nations classification) with over 10 million people in 1992 (see figure 6.4), and four of them projected to be well over 20 million in 2010. But size is not their defining quality. They are the nodes of the global economy, concentrating the directional, productive, and managerial upper functions all over the planet: the control of the media; the real politics of power; and the symbolic capacity to create and diffuse messages.

Current trends point in the direction of another Asian mega-city on an even greater scale when, in the early twenty-first century, the corridor Tokyo–Yokohama–Nagoya (already a functional unit) links up with Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto, creating the largest metropolitan agglomeration in human history, not only in terms of population, but in economic and technological power. Thus, in spite of all their social, urban and environmental problems, mega-cities will continue to grow, both in their size and in their attractiveness for the location of high-level functions and for people’s choice. The ecological dream of small, quasi-rural communes will be pushed away to countercultural marginality by the historical tide of mega-city development. This is because mega-cities are: centers of economic, technological, and social dynamism, in their countries and on a global scale; they are the actual development engines; their countries’ economic fate, be it the United States or China, depends on mega-cities’ performance, in spite of the small-town ideology still pervasive in both countries; centers of cultural and political innovation; connecting points to the global networks of every kind; the Internet cannot bypass mega-cities: it depends on the telecommunications and on the “telecommunicators” located in those centers.

Policies of regional development may be able to diversify the concentration of jobs and population to other areas. And I foresee large-scale epidemics, and disintegration of social control that will make mega-cities less attractive. However, overall, mega-cities will grow in size and dominance, because they keep feeding themselves on population, wealth, power, and innovators, from their extended hinterland. Furthermore, they are the nodal points connecting to the global networks. Thus, in a fundamental sense, the future of humankind, and of each mega-city’s country, is being played out in the evolution and management of these areas. Mega-cities are the nodal points, and the power centers of the new spatial form/process of the Information Age: the space of flows. Having laid out the empirical landscape of new territorial phenomena, we now have to come to grips with the understanding of such a new spatial reality.


pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight

The overwhelming majority of these will be in the burgeoning cities and megacities of Asia, Africa and Latin America. To be sure, many cities in developed nations will still be growing, but their growth will be dwarfed by urban explosion in the global South. As demographic, political, economic and perhaps technological centres of gravity emerge in the South, massive demographic and economic shifts will inexorably continue. As recently as 1980, thirteen of the world’s thirty biggest cities were in the ‘developed world’; by 2010, this number will have dwindled to eight. By 2050, it is likely that only a few of the top thirty megacities will be located in the erstwhile ‘developed’ nations (Figure 1.2). 1.2 World’s largest thirty cities in 1980, 1990, 2000 and (projected) 2010. Table illustrates the growing domination of ‘mega-cities’ in the global South.

Between 2003 and 2008, Urban Resolve served as the basis for a series of massive military simulations across nineteen separate military bases, involving more than fifteen hundred participants and using some of the US military’s most sophisticated supercomputers (Figure 6.6). The simulations projected sites of massive urban wars involving US forces in 2015, complete with a range of imagined new US sensors, surveillance systems, and weapons geared specifically towards the kind of warfare that could unveil the ‘fog of war’ in a megacity. Opposition forces, programmed to fight autonomously within the virtualized megacity, were equipped with technologies projected to be available on the open market in 2015 – including their own robotic vehicles. As part of its mandate to ‘replicate real-world geography, structures and culturally relevant population behaviors’,56 Urban Resolve even simulated the daily rhythms of the virtualized Jakarta and Baghdad: At night the roads were quiet; during the weekday rush hours, traffic clogged the roads.

They tend to see rural or exurban areas as the authentic and pure spaces of white nationalism, associated with Christian and traditional values. Examples here range from US Christian fundamentalists, through the British National Party to Austria’s Freedom Party, the French National Front and Italy’s Forza Italia. The fast-growing and sprawling cosmopolitan neighbourhoods of the West’s cities, meanwhile, are often cast by such groups in the same Orientalist terms as the mega-cities of the Global South, as places radically external to the vulnerable nation – territories every bit as foreign as Baghdad or Gaza. Paradoxically, however, the geographical imagination which underpins the new military urbanism tends to treat colonial frontiers and Western ‘homelands’ as fundamentally separate domains – two sides in a clash of civilizations, in Samuel Huntington’s incendiary and highly controversial hypothesis.10 This imaginative separation coexists uneasily with the ways in which the security, military and intelligence doctrines addressing both increasingly fuse together into a seamless whole.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Singh put it to me as we toured the farms of northern Nigeria, ‘There is no reason why even Africa cannot feed itself.’ 33 Beyond the Clockwork Orange: Why We Can Green Our Cities A HUNDRED YEARS ago, the largest city in the world was London, with a population of 6.5 million. When I was born in 1951, the top dog was the world’s first mega-city, New York, which had just topped 10 million people. Today there are at least twenty cities above that figure, including three each in India and China. Each of these mega-cities contains more people than the entire population of the planet at the end of the last ice age. The new world urban leader, Tokyo, has mushroomed to 34 million people. From mid-2007, for the first time in history, most people will live in cities. And most of the world’s population growth is now happening in cities.

London has spread to create an urban region across south-east England that stretches west towards Reading and Oxford, north towards Cambridge, and now east along the Thames estuary. São Paulo is embracing a ‘golden urban triangle’ that includes Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. The people of Mexico City have fled their congested and polluted mega-city to surrounding cities like Toluca and Cuernavaca. Kolkata has dispersed across west Bengal. Tokyo is extending out to Japan’s second mega-city, Osaka, creating a megalopolis of 70 million people, linked by bullet train. Shanghai is joining hands with Suzhou, Nanjing and Hangzhou, which will soon be just twenty-seven minutes away on a new maglev train with a top speed of more than 400 kilometres an hour. Will megalopolis encourage or destroy the dream of eco-cities?

Alchemy was the great science of the Middle Ages; Isaac Newton spent more time trying to turn base metal into gold than he did researching gravity and the laws of nature. Later, Europeans colonized the New World for gold, and spent decades searching for Eldorado. The gold rushes of California and Australia and South Africa and the Klondike globalized the world’s economy in the nineteenth century. Gold smuggling, more than oil, made the fabulous wealth behind the modern mega-city of Dubai. The Gold Standard was for a long time the guarantor of the world’s currencies; and every national treasury still keeps a store. A third of all the world’s gold is locked up in the vaults of various banks and private investment houses. There is Fort Knox, of course. And vaults beneath the Bank of England in the City of London store the bullion reserves of more than seventy countries – hundreds of times more gold than is contained in the Crown Jewels, on display close by in the Tower of London.


pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

Today Tokyo is the largest urban area the world has ever seen, encompassing around 36 million people. (Metropolitan New York fell behind despite growing to nineteen million.) Tokyo is part of a complex of manufacturing and financial centers along the Pacific Rim—Los Angeles, San Jose, Seattle, Seoul, Shanghai, and Hong Kong, among others. Some are megacities, commonly described as urban areas of ten million or more. Lagos, São Paulo, and Mexico City are also megacities, and vast as they are, such giants do not encompass most of the world’s urban growth. Small cities and even small towns have exploded in size—half a million here, three million there. These smaller cities will encompass most of the world’s urban growth between now and the year 2030. In many cities, migration has brought disparate ethnic, racial, and religious groups into uneasy contact.

Numerous newspapers were for sale on the streets, and while the journalists made a pittance—the publisher of one notable paper, the Daily Times, went at least half a year without paying many reporters at all—they maintained a loud public debate. A few miles away, one of Karachi’s great philanthropists had even opened a horseracing track, with regular Sunday events and all betting creatively reconfigured so that it did not run afoul of Islam’s ban on gambling. Karachi was nothing like Tehran, another Muslim megacity, where many of the richest parts of the culture were samizdat—banned books smuggled in suitcases from outside, banned movies screened secretly in people’s apartments, banned messages shouted from rooftops under the protection of the dark. Much more of Karachi’s culture was still in the open. A few dozen cinemas remained in business. They were easily identified by giant billboards over the doors, typically showing a thirty-foot image of some Bollywood hero and the indescribably beautiful woman he loved.

Just as McCartt was building an entire upscale neighborhood on new land that was largely segregated from the rest of the city, many proposals in other cities seemed to focus less on improving an existing city than on starting fresh. Officials in Mumbai planned to demolish one of the city’s famous slums to make room for upscale towers. They were actually building an entire satellite city of the metropolis, called Navi Mumbai, or New Mumbai, which quickly grew to a population of two million. At Inchon, South Korea, the port for the megacity of Seoul, developers were planning a new city on a man-made island; an American firm was leading the project. Chinese officials brought in a Chilean planner attached to a London firm to help design a satellite city outside the absurdly growing metropolis of Shanghai. However, the global financial crisis was complicating or choking off such projects, including the forty-five towers planned by Emaar.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

Nearly a third of all the magnetic recording heads at the heart of your hard drive and a sixth of all keyboards are made in the city of Dongguan, just up the road from Shenzhen. Twenty years ago, it was another fishing village; today it’s larger than Chicago. These instant megacities were inevitable. They didn’t have to happen here—they did because Deng and his successors willed them to—but they would have sprouted somewhere. The economics make too much sense. Research by the World Bank suggests the reason China’s megacities have grown so big, so fast is that the returns to scale have grown so massive. What has made this growth possible, the bank argued, is cheap transportation. The catalyst is the jet engine, “perhaps the most significant innovation in long-distance transport ever,” in the bank’s estimation.

His theory explains why we have aerotropoli, because “the space of flows is constituted by its nodes and hubs,” the places where the spectral becomes corporeal—where globalization is made flesh in the form of cities. Castells identifies a “new spatial form” emerging: the megacity. His textbook example is the Delta, which he tellingly diagrams with Hong Kong on the edge and Guangzhou at its core. The most striking thing about such cities is that they are “globally connected and locally disconnected.” The Delta may be the world’s factory, but nothing it makes is within reach of the peasants past its fringes, who are uprooting seventy generations of history to find their fortunes here. An estimated 140 million farmers have already left their homes, and the gap between rich and poor, urban and rural, is widening. China’s solution is to build megacities in its interior, like Chongqing, which is officially three times the size of New Jersey and equally dense.

Such massive inequality is the primary source of China’s unrest—an estimated eighty thousand protests each year in rural towns and villages, suppressed and kept (mostly) out of sight. Despite the size of its coastal megacities, China is less urbanized than its peers. Barely half its citizens live in one, far below the developed world’s 80 to 90 percent. The State Council expects another four hundred million peasants—the second wave in the largest migration in history—to move to cities in the next twenty years. In obeisance to Jiang’s edict to “Go West,” they are being herded away from the coast toward new megacities rising inland. The fear of this influx and the slums it might create underlies China’s resolve to export its way out of poverty. The flying geese are migrating again. It used to be that companies like Walmart or Intel outsourced to China; now they’re outsourcing within China, keeping their headquarters and R & D in the Delta while shipping the rest westward as new airports come online.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The terrible prevalence of urban poverty seems to indict cities as places of inequality and deprivation. Many urban analysts see a great crisis in the problem of the megacity, which usually means the vast numbers of poor people living in Mumbai or Mexico City. It seems wise to many to limit the growth of these megacities, whose crowds and squalor doom millions to harsh, dead-end lives. In the developed world, cozy, homogeneous suburbs can appear far more egalitarian than the extraordinary urban gulfs that separate a Fifth Avenue billionaire from a ghetto child. But the preceding paragraph is filled with nonsense. The presence of poverty in cities from Rio to Rotterdam reflects urban strength, not weakness. Megacities are not too big. Limiting their growth would cause significantly more hardship than gain, and urban growth is a great way to reduce rural poverty.

Few readers of this book would want to spend a week, let alone a lifetime, in a favela. Yet urban poverty, despite its terrors, can offer a path toward prosperity both for the poor and for the nation as a whole. Brazil, China, and India are likely to become far wealthier over the next fifty years, and that wealth will be created in cities that are connected to the rest of the world, not in isolated rural areas. It is natural to see the very real problems of poorer megacities and think that the people should go back to their rural villages, but cities, not farms, will save the developing world. Many poor nations suffer from poor soil quality—that’s one reason why they’re poor—so it’s unlikely that they’ll ever be leaders in global agriculture. Improvements in agricultural productivity typically involve new technology that reduces the number of people working on farms.

Life in a rural village might be safer than life in a favela, but it is the safety of unending poverty for generations. The status quo in the world’s poorest places is terrible, which is why the urban roller coaster has so much to offer, especially because cities can transmit the knowledge countries need to take part in the global economy. The vast flow of migrants to cities certainly stresses urban infrastructure; that’s one of the familiar arguments against allowing the growth of megacities. But while an influx of new migrants worsens the quality of roads and water for a city’s longtime residents, the new arrivals go from having virtually no infrastructure to enjoying all the advantages that come from access to decent transport and utilities. It is wrong to keep the quality of urban infrastructure high by preventing people from enjoying that infrastructure. It’s more ethical—and more economically beneficial for the country as a whole—to invest more in urban infrastructure so more people can benefit from it.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

But a far larger force is what’s happening in Asia and Africa, where both cities, and their brethren, megacities, are being built and rebuilt. A very old idea The oldest company in the world is around 700 years old. The oldest university is about 1,000 years old and the oldest living religion is around 3,500 years old. In contrast, the oldest cities include Jerusalem (5,000) and Jericho (10,500). The reason for this longevity is flexibility. Cities are constantly being knocked down and rebuilt (by about 2 percent per year) and people are always coming and going, refreshing their energy and creativity. Cities such as London, New York and Tokyo aren’t going away. Indeed, they are now being remade and recast as city-states that are economically and culturally ahead of many countries. Growth of the megacity In 1975, there were just three global megacities: New York, Mexico City and Tokyo.

While it could be argued that this is part of the problem, in terms of emissions, cities, especially megacities in developing regions—which are being built, or redesigned, from the ground up—also provide a potential solution because they afford opportunities to make housing, transport and infrastructure much more efficient and sustainable. the condensed idea Radically reengineering the planet timeline 2019 Nobel Prize awarded for a geo-solution to climate change 2021 World’s first large-scale ocean fertilization trial begins 2025 Carbon capture technologies widely adopted 2027 Large areas of Venice, Miami and Dhaka abandoned due to flooding 2030 Creation of artificial forests to scrub carbon from the air 2040 Development of cloud whitening above the world’s oceans 2050 The global space mirror project abandoned due to cost 11 Megacities In 1800 about 3 percent of the world’s population was urban.

ISBN 978-1-62365-195-4 Distributed in the United States and Canada by Random House Publisher Services c/o Random House, 1745 Broadway New York, NY 10019 www.quercus.com Contents Introduction POLITICS & POWER 01 Ubiquitous surveillance 02 Digital democracy 03 Cyber & drone warfare 04 Water wars 05 Wane of the West ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 06 Resource depletion 07 Beyond fossil fuels 08 Precision agriculture 09 Population change 10 Geo-engineering THE URBAN LANDSCAPE 11 Megacities 12 Local energy networks 13 Smart cities 14 Next-generation transport 15 Extra-legal & feral slums TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 16 An internet of things 17 Quantum & DNA computing 18 Nanotechnology 19 Gamification 20 Artificial Intelligence HEALTH & WELL-BEING 21 Personalized genomics 22 Regenerative medicine 23 Remote monitoring 24 User-generated medicine 25 Medical data mining SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS 26 Living alone 27 Dematerialization 28 Income polarization 29 What (& where) is work?


pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

The projections may surprise you: World Megacities of Ten Million or More (population in millions) 1950 New York-Newark, USA (12.3) Tokyo, Japan (11.3) 1975 Tokyo, Japan (26.6) New York-Newark, USA (15.9) Mexico City, Mexico (10.7) 2007 Tokyo, Japan (35.7) New York-Newark, USA (19.0) Mexico City, Mexico (19.0) Mumbai, India (19.0) São Paulo, Brazil (18.8) Delhi, India (15.9) Shanghai, China (15.0) Kolkata (Calcutta), India (14.8) Dhaka, Bangladesh (13.5) Buenos Aires, Argentina (12.8) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA (12.5) Karachi, Pakistan (12.1) Al-Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt (11.9) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (11.7) Osaka-Kobe, Japan (11.3) Beijing, China (11.1) Manila, Philippines (11.1) Moskva (Moscow), Russia (10.5) Istanbul, Turkey (10.1) 2025 Tokyo, Japan (36.4) Mumbai, India (26.4) Delhi, India (22.5) Dhaka, Bangladesh (22.0) São Paulo, Brazil (21.4) Mexico City, Mexico (21.0) New York-Newark, USA (20.6) Kolkata (Calcutta), India (20.6) Shanghai, China (19.4) Karachi, Pakistan (19.1) Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (16.8) Lagos, Nigeria (15.8) Al-Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt (15.6) Manila, Philippines (14.8) Beijing, China (14.5) Buenos Aires, Argentina (13.8) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA (13.7) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (13.4) Jakarta, Indonesia (12.4) Istanbul, Turkey (12.1) Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (11.8) Osaka-Kobe, Japan (11.4) Moskva (Moscow), Russia (10.5) Lahore, Pakistan (10.5) Shenzhen, China (10.2) Chennai, India (10.1) Paris, France (10.0) The century of megacities has already begun. From just two in 1950 and three in 1975, we grew to nineteen by 2007 and expect to have twenty-seven by 2025. Furthermore, in sheer size alone our global urban culture is shifting east. Of the eight new megacities anticipated over the next fifteen years, six are in Asia, two in Africa, and just one in Europe. Zero new megacities are anticipated for the Americas. Instead, this massive urbanization is happening in some of our most populous countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan. New York City was the world’s second-largest metropolis in 1977, when Liza Minnelli first sang the hit song “New York, New York” (later popularized by Frank Sinatra) to Robert De Niro in a Martin Scorsese movie.

When combined with its fast population growth rate, this means that Africa will triple the size of its cities over the next forty years.50 At 1.2 billion people, Africa will hold nearly a quarter of the world’s urban population.51 Tucked away in the back of a 2008 report by the United Nations Population Division are some stunning data tables.52 They rank our past, present, and future “megacities”—urban agglomerations with ten million inhabitants or more—for the years 1950, 1975, 2007, and 2025. The projections may surprise you: World Megacities of Ten Million or More (population in millions) 1950 New York-Newark, USA (12.3) Tokyo, Japan (11.3) 1975 Tokyo, Japan (26.6) New York-Newark, USA (15.9) Mexico City, Mexico (10.7) 2007 Tokyo, Japan (35.7) New York-Newark, USA (19.0) Mexico City, Mexico (19.0) Mumbai, India (19.0) São Paulo, Brazil (18.8) Delhi, India (15.9) Shanghai, China (15.0) Kolkata (Calcutta), India (14.8) Dhaka, Bangladesh (13.5) Buenos Aires, Argentina (12.8) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA (12.5) Karachi, Pakistan (12.1) Al-Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt (11.9) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (11.7) Osaka-Kobe, Japan (11.3) Beijing, China (11.1) Manila, Philippines (11.1) Moskva (Moscow), Russia (10.5) Istanbul, Turkey (10.1) 2025 Tokyo, Japan (36.4) Mumbai, India (26.4) Delhi, India (22.5) Dhaka, Bangladesh (22.0) São Paulo, Brazil (21.4) Mexico City, Mexico (21.0) New York-Newark, USA (20.6) Kolkata (Calcutta), India (20.6) Shanghai, China (19.4) Karachi, Pakistan (19.1) Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (16.8) Lagos, Nigeria (15.8) Al-Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt (15.6) Manila, Philippines (14.8) Beijing, China (14.5) Buenos Aires, Argentina (13.8) Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA (13.7) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (13.4) Jakarta, Indonesia (12.4) Istanbul, Turkey (12.1) Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (11.8) Osaka-Kobe, Japan (11.4) Moskva (Moscow), Russia (10.5) Lahore, Pakistan (10.5) Shenzhen, China (10.2) Chennai, India (10.1) Paris, France (10.0) The century of megacities has already begun.

New York City was the world’s second-largest metropolis in 1977, when Liza Minnelli first sang the hit song “New York, New York” (later popularized by Frank Sinatra) to Robert De Niro in a Martin Scorsese movie. By 2050, the “City That Never Sleeps” will be struggling just to stay in the top ten. The story doesn’t end with megacities. People are flocking to towns of all sizes, large and small. Indeed, some of the fastest growth is happening in urban centers with less than five hundred thousand people. According to the United Nations model, the number of “large” cities—those with populations between five and ten million—will increase from thirty in 2007 to forty-eight by 2025. Three-quarters of these will be in developing countries. By 2050 Asia—the world’s most populous continent and still dominated by farmers today—will be nearly as urbanized as Europe.53 What does all this mean for life in the countryside?


pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

One cannot be unduly optimistic about how these megacities will face their potential crises in the coming years. There may be new technologies that enable the squatter communities to concoct public health solutions on their own, but governments will obviously need to play a role as well. It took industrial London a hundred years to mature into a city with clean water and reliable sanitation. The scavenger classes that Mayhew analyzed with such detail no longer exist in London, but even the wealthiest cities in the developed world continue to face problems of homelessness and poverty, particularly in the United States. But the developed cities no longer appear to be on a collision course with themselves, the way London did in the nineteenth century. And so it may take the megacities of the developing world a century to reach that same sense of equilibrium, and during that period there will no doubt be episodes of large-scale human tragedy, including cholera outbreaks that will claim far more lives than were lost in Snow’s time.

It seemed entirely likely to many reasonable citizens of Victorian England—as well as to countless visitors from overseas—that a hundred years from now the whole project of maintaining cities of this scale would have proved a passing fancy. The monster would eat itself. Most of us don’t harbor doubts of this scale today, at least where cities are concerned. We worry about other matters: the epic shanty-towns of Third World megacities; the terror threats; the environmental impact of a planet industrializing at such a dramatic rate. But most of us accept without debate the long-term viability of human settlements with populations in the millions, or tens of millions. We know it can be done. We just haven’t figured out how to ensure that it is done well. And so, in projecting back to the mind-set of a Londoner in 1854, we have to remember this crucial reality: that a sort of existential doubt lingered over the city, a suspicion not that London was flawed, but that the very idea of building cities on the scale of London was a mistake, one that was soon to be corrected.

A strain of V. cholerae known as “El Tor” killed thousands in India and Bangladesh in the 1960s and 1970s. An outbreak in South America in the early 1990s infected more than a million people, killing at least ten thousand. In the summer of 2003, damage to the water-supply system from the Iraq War triggered an outbreak of cholera in Basra. There is a fearful symmetry to these trends. In many ways, the struggles of the developing world mirror the issues that confronted London in 1854. The megacities of the developing world are wrestling with the same problems of uncharted and potentially unsustainable growth that London faced 150 years ago. In 2015, the five largest cities on the planet will be Tokyo, Mumbai, Dhaka, São Paulo, and Delhi—all of them with populations above 20 million. The great preponderance of that growth will be driven by so-called squatter or shantytown developments—entire sprawling cities developed on illegally occupied land, without any traditional infrastructure or civic planning supporting their growth.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, conceptual framework, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket

By 1971 60 per cent of fertiliser production came from small plants; 50 per cent of cement; 16 per cent of hydro-generating capacity; overall around 10 per cent of Chinese factory output.28 Transport The idea that the technologies of the poor world simply lag behind those of the rich world in time is not generally applicable, as the case of the fabric of the poor megacity illustrates. Transport provides a second example, since the poor megacities had different transport patterns from those of the great rich cities of 1900, or even of 1930. These rich cities did not have the bicycle or motorcycle densities of the megacities of late twentieth-century Asia. Indeed bicycle and motor-bicycle production boomed in the world, particularly in the poor world, from the 1970s. For the first time in many decades bicycle production surged ahead of motor-car production. In recent years around 100 million bicycles were produced every year and only about 40 million cars.

Manned hypersonic aeroplanes disappeared in the 1960s. At the end of the twentieth century, nuclear power, once the technology of the future, was set to be phased out in many countries. And in medicine too, many treatments invented in the twentieth century were discontinued, lobotomy and ECT being prominent examples, though the last is still occasionally used. Not Alphaville but bidonville: technology and the poor megacity The story of the poor world (a term preferable to the euphemistic ‘developing world’, and the now irrelevant ‘Third World’) and technology is usually told as one of transfer, resistance, incompetence, lack of maintenance and enforced dependence on rich-world technology. Imperialism, colonialism and dependence were the key concepts, and the transfer of technology from rich to poor, the main process.

In recent years around 100 million bicycles were produced every year and only about 40 million cars. In 1950 there were around 10 million of each, and they remained about equal to 1970. The great change was the expansion in Chinese production to 40–50 million bicycles from a few million in the early 1970s.29 In addition Taiwan and India between them were, at the end of the century, making more bicycles than were produced in the world in 1950. Bicycle-derived technologies of the poor megacity provide an instance of a creole technology. In 2003 it was reported that the city of Calcutta was still trying to get rid of the hand-pulled rickshaw, long gone from most of the rest of Asia. These rickshaws were deemed old-fashioned even by the standards of hand-rickshaws: Calcutta’s had spoked wheels, but not ones derived from bicycle technology; they were made of wood and were rimmed with solid rubber rather than pneumatic tyres.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

In doing so, the chapters pull on threads from different intellectual fabrics and knit them together by following their crisscrossing patterns. These lead from the long-foretold and longer-postponed eclipse of the nation-state to the ascendance of political theology as an existential transnationalism, from the billowing depths of cloud computing and ubiquitous addressability to the logistical modernity of the endlessly itinerant object, and from the return of the city-state in the guise of a multipolar network of megacities and walled megagardens to the permanent emergency of ecological collapse and back again. My conclusions are speculative and meant to inform and support further design of these systems. Like any other good theoretical design research, it handles slippery problems in ways that are provisional, prototypical, and provocative—not necessarily policy (yet). The story arc begins by tracing the political division of earthly territories—land, sea, and air among them.

In the emergence of The Stack, it is not that the state declines per se, but that our contemporary condition is qualified both by a debordering perforation and liquefaction of this system's ability to maintain a monopoly on political geography, and by an overbordering, manifest as an unaccountable proliferation of new lines, endogenous frames, anomalous segments, medieval returns, infomatic interiors, ecological externalities, megacity states, and more. These zones fold and flip-flop on top of one another, interweaving into abstract and violent spatial machines of uncanny jurisdictional intricacy. Borderlines are militarized as they are also punctured or ignored. However, the simultaneity of all this is only contradictory at first blush. Debordering and overbordering both testify to the crisis of the Westphalian geographic design, and indeed of the force of law that would predicate the state's ability to convene and constitute sovereignty only in relation to that particular image.

The Stack discussed in the following chapters is a vast software/hardware formation, a proto-megastructure built of crisscrossed oceans, layered concrete and fiber optics, urban metal and fleshy fingers, abstract identities and the fortified skins of oversubscribed national sovereignty. It is a machine literally circumscribing the planet, which not only pierces and distorts Westphalian models of state territory but also produces new spaces in its own image: clouds, networks, zones, social graphs, ecologies, megacities, formal and informal violence, weird theologies, all superimposed one on the other. This aggregate machine becomes a systematic technology according to the properties and limitations of that very spatial order. The layers of The Stack, some continental in scale and others microscopic, work in specific relation to the layer above and below it. As I have suggested, the fragile complementarity between the layers composing The Stack is discussed both as an idealized model for how platforms may be designed and as a description of some of the ways that they already work now.


pages: 288 words: 76,343

The Plundered Planet: Why We Must--And How We Can--Manage Nature for Global Prosperity by Paul Collier

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, business climate, Doha Development Round, energy security, food miles, megacity, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stewart Brand

Someone working in a city of 10 million is on average going to be 40 percent more productive than someone working in a city of 100,000—and most Africans currently live in places that are much smaller than that. The experience of China is so extraordinary that it might have no relevance for Africa: China’s sheer size enables megacities to have large hinterlands but the same pattern is found in India. Africa needs more megacities. Tony Venables and I compared Africa’s urbanization with that of India and found that Africa is missing out on productivity because it lacks cities like Mumbai. Lagos is Africa’s best chance of a productive megacity. If Nigeria’s economic future lies in Lagos, and if that future could arrive within a generation—so long as the Nigerian government harnesses the nation’s oil revenues—it is not difficult to work out where much of the public investment financed by oil should be located.

Within a generation, Lagos, already the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa, will become a global megacity of over 20 million people. Already, it represents half of the entire non-oil economy of Nigeria, so that in the future, as oil runs down and is replaced by a new economy, most of it will be in Lagos and its environs. Lagos has two key advantages. One is that it is a port, and ports are key sites for global manufacturing. Not only does it help to be a port, it helps even more to be a large port. The larger the city is, the more productive the people in it. The rule of thumb is that each time a city doubles in population, the productivity of its workers increases by around 6 percent. That might not sound a lot but if people move from hamlets to megacities the cumulative consequences can be substantial. Someone working in a city of 10 million is on average going to be 40 percent more productive than someone working in a city of 100,000—and most Africans currently live in places that are much smaller than that.

Yet a return to antiquated technologies simply cannot feed a prospective population of nine billion. Cheap food is going to be increasingly important because the poor will increasingly be unable to grow their own. As populations grow and the Southern climate deteriorates due to global warming, the South will necessarily urbanize. The future populations will live not on quaint little farms but in the slums of coastal megacities. They will not grow their food but buy it, and they will buy it at world prices. The only way it will be affordable is if it is produced in abundance. The technical challenges to producing reliably cheap food are surmountable but political opposition will be intense. Feeding the world will involve three politically difficult steps. Contrary to the romantics, we need more commercial agriculture, not less.


pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile

Perhaps the only people who had the good sense to ignore the term “informal” were the very ones whose lives it purported to describe. Few of the merchants who operate on the roadsides or in the chaotic marketplaces of the developing world have any idea what the informal economy is. I found this out the hard way. My first foray into the world of unlicensed trade was a trip to Lagos, Nigeria. I spent my first few days in the African megacity walking up to merchants in the city’s street markets, introducing myself, and telling them I was writing a book on the informal economy. Without exception, they gawked at me and refused to talk. My words seemed to fill them with terror. Na so trouble plenty. Fortunately, I was working with two locals who were helping me navigate the chaotic and cramped markets of the city. Olayemi Adesanya and his younger brother Taye simply translated my words into English the people in the market would understand.

(this last, which always made me laugh, was a line from a television commercial for a popular orange drink)—and attentive to the local mores of kibitzing. Trade may make Lagos seem frenzied and disorganized, it may sometimes appear aggressive and threatening, but trade built the city and continues to define its culture. Spend enough time there and you come to realize that it is exactly this—the irrepressible hubbub, the hyperentrepreneurial give-and-take, the ceaseless frenzy of talk and exchange—that holds the city together. Lagos is the first megacity in sub-Saharan Africa, and it may well be the first city in the world to be designed, in large part, by System D. According to local officials, 80 percent of the working people in Lagos are in System D. Nationwide, their economic efforts account for a mass of trade and exchange that is worth as much as 70 percent of Nigeria’s gross domestic product—or approximately $145 billion. In itself, this is nothing new.

The owners don’t want to spend because they want the money for their pockets, and the drivers and conductors have no incentive to repair the vehicles because they get less money if the van is off the road while being fixed. The VW, Dodge, Chevy, and Nissan vans that ply the streets, most of them painted school-bus yellow and tricked out with home-welded bench seats, are so banged-up and rusted—or, as they say in Nigeria in a puff of honest doublespeak, “fairly used”—that it seems doubtful that they could go anywhere, particularly on the crowded, cratered roads of the sub-Saharan megacity. The passenger compartments of some of the older danfo and molue are connected to the chassis only with baling wire. What repairs they do get are just enough to push them forward for another day of life. It’s not unusual for a bus to literally come apart—the universal joint breaking, wheel bearings dropping out, the exhaust system flopping to the roadbed in a cloud of black soot, a hose springing loose and spraying strange messages in steam—while passengers are still inside.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

In my own pocket, I carry an iPhone. It is my megacity survival kit, a digital Swiss Army knife that helps me search, navigate, communicate, and coordinate with everyone and everything around me. I have apps for finding restaurants, taxis, and my friends. A networked calendar keeps me in sync with my colleagues and my family. If I’m running late, there are three different ways to send a message and buy some time. But I’m not alone. We’ve all become digital telepaths, hooked on the rush we get as these devices untether us from the tyranny of clocks, fixed schedules, and prearranged meeting points. The addiction started, as all do, slowly at first. But now it governs the metabolism of our urban lives. With our days and nights increasingly stretched across the vastness of megacities, we’ve turned to these smart little gadgets to keep it all synchronized.

Yet as timeless as urban sociability is, we are experiencing it on a new scale. From the hubs of communication and exchange that sprang up in the markets, palaces, and temples of ancient cities, the size of human settlements has grown, and grown, and grown. Today, the largest megacities tie together tens of millions of people who have come together to work and play in countless groupings. New technologies like Meetup (and Foursquare) are vital to helping people navigate the vast sea of opportunities for social interaction that are available in the modern megacity. We focus on the physical aspects of cities because they are the most tangible. But telecommunications networks let us see, increasingly in real time, the vital social processes of cities. As much as they enable urban sociability, they are an indispensable tool for studying this ephemeral layer of the city as well.

The site itself is deeply symbolic. Viewed from the sky, its street grid forms an arrow aimed straight at the heart of coastal China. It is a kind of neoliberal feng shui diagram, drawing energy from the rapidly urbanizing nation just over the western horizon. Massive in its own right, Songdo is merely a test bed for the technology and business models that will underpin the construction of pop-up megacities across Asia. It is the birth of what Michael Joroff of MIT describes as a “new city-building industry,” novel partnerships between real estate developers, institutional investors, national governments, and the information technology industry. This ambition to become the archetype for Asia’s hundreds of new towns is why scale matters so much for Songdo. Begun in 2004 and scheduled for completion in 2015, it is the largest private real estate project in history at some $35 billion.


pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

The UN projects that the share of people living in urban areas worldwide will increase from about half today to two-thirds by 2050. Half the population of Asia will live in urban areas by 2020, and half the population of Africa will do so by 2035. Virtually all of the expected growth in world population between now and 2050 is expected to be concentrated in the urban areas of developing countries. Far more people will live in megacities with populations greater than 10 million people. In 1970 the world had only two megacities: New York and Tokyo. Today there are twenty-two, and sixteen of the twenty new ones are in developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Greater urbanization means more crowded living spaces, more stress on local water sources, increased air and water pollution, new challenges in creating employment for low-skilled urban workers, and major difficulties in providing adequate water, sanitation, and garbage disposal facilities.

Abacha, Sani, 99, 113 Abdullah II, King of Jordan, 187 Abu Dhabi, 159 Abundance (Diamandis and Kotler), 300 Acemoglu, Daron, 13, 129, 140, 249 Achebe, Chinua, 72 Aden, Zheng He’s trip to, 152 Afghanistan, 9, 208, 285 education in, 215 as landlocked, 202, 205 Soviet invasion of, 134, 146 US war in, 8, 10, 118, 119, 141, 146 Africa, 37, 44, 46 agriculture in, 261 climate change and, 284 democracy in, 108, 110–11 GMOs in, 172 Green Revolution and, 170–73 growth in, 50, 189 malaria in, 211–13 megacities in, 277 mobile phones in, 157 pessimism about, 12 protests in, 102 resources in, 261 Africa Betrayed (Ayittey), 140 African National Congress Party (ANC), 143, 182, 185 agricultural productivity, 22, 25, 38, 305 agriculture, 37, 44, 45, 56–57, 166, 258, 283, 293 in Africa, 261 in Asia, 201 in China, 35 geography and, 204–5 Green Revolution and, 38, 79, 170–73, 204 growth in production of, 273–74 improvements in, 194–95 trade in, 273 AIDS, 20, 75, 81–82, 83, 94, 95, 173, 174–75, 182, 205, 214, 221, 246, 266 air defense identification zone (ADIZ), 288 air travel, 168–69, 169 Aker, Jenny, 177 Akuffo, Fred, 189 Albania, 50, 108, 159 Algeria, 114 life expectancy in, 78 poverty in, 36 Allende, Salvador, 143–44 aluminum, 53 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 172, 281–82 American Indians, 112, 142 American Medical Association, 172 Amin, Idi, 127 Andes, University of the, 247 Andropov, Yuri, 134 Angola, 114, 145 forest loss in, 280 war in, 100 antibiotics, 77, 94, 267 antimicrobial resistance, 267 antiretroviral therapy (ART), 174, 214 apartheid, 44, 57, 68, 100, 103, 135, 141, 180, 182 Apple, 46 Aquino, Benigno, 143, 149 Aquino, Cory, 17, 104, 109, 184, 185, 186 Arabian Peninsula, 152 Arab Spring, 255, 263 Aral Sea, 285 Argentina, 100 financial crisis in, 255 slowing of progress in, 250, 262 Arias, Oscar, 18, 149, 184 Armenia, 113 and democracy, 248, 263 economic problems in, 255 Army Air Corps, US, 210 Arndt, Channing, 226, 227 Arnquist, Sarah, 176–77 Arrow, Kenneth, 62–63 artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), 213, 267 Asia, 79 education in, 201 financial crisis in, 38, 39, 126, 144 health in, 201 megacities in, 277 values in, 121, 122–23 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), 259 assassinations, 118 assembly, freedom of, 198–99 Australia, 25, 78, 167, 231, 281, 291 malaria in, 210 Austria, as landlocked, 202 authoritarianism, 3, 8, 22, 99, 101–3, 106, 107, 109, 120, 121–22, 125–29, 141, 146, 149, 188, 222, 224, 249–51, 255, 263–66 Ayittey, George, 140 Azerbaijan, 114 Babangida, Ibrahim, 99 Bali, 286 Bamako, 265 Banerjee, Abhijit, 14, 31 Bangladesh, 18, 37, 45, 127, 144, 159, 271 building collapse in, 162 data entry firms in, 178 democracy in, 124 education in, 87 garments from, 59 growth in, 6, 45, 238, 242, 271 inequality in, 67 jeans from, 56 MAMA in, 178 threats to gains in, 271–72 war in, 145 Zheng He’s trip to, 152 Ban Ki-moon, 284–85 banks, 56, 154, 241, 303 technology for, 175, 179 Bǎè Chuán, 152 bar associations, 110 Barlonyo camp, 287 Barre, Mohammed Siad, 99 Barro, Robert, 87 Bashir, Omar al-, 185 Batavia, 137 Bauer, Peter, 213, 220, 221 Bazzi, Sami, 225 bed nets, 94, 213 Belarus, 114, 185 Belgian Congo, 13, 140 Belize, 56, 69–70 benign dictators, 125–26 Benin, 103, 144, 216 Berlin Wall, fall of, x, 103, 123, 134, 143, 148 Bermeo, Sarah, 223 Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 115 Bhavnani, Rikhil, 225 Bhote Koshi River, 203 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 95, 161, 171, 212 biodiversity loss, 9, 63 biofuels, 281 Birdsall, Nancy, 298 Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal, 122 Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von, 146 Black Death, 276 black markets, 192 Boeing 707, 168 Boğaziçi University, 247 Bokassa, Jean-Bédel, 222 Boko Haram, 287 Bolivia, 162, 202, 205, 280 Bollyky, Thomas, 268 Boone, Peter, 225 border disputes, 288–91 Borlaug, Norman, 170 Botchwey, Kwesi, 189 Botswana, 9, 37, 207 aid to, 214, 216 as democracy, 98, 263 education in, 190 growth in, 5, 7, 15, 50, 126, 128, 141, 236 as landlocked, 202 life expectancy in, 81, 266 Bottom Billion, The (Collier), 118, 188, 202, 205, 217, 303 Bourguignon, François, 25, 27, 28 Brazil, 20, 22, 36, 38, 45, 155, 186 coastal vs. isolated areas in, 201 data entry firms in, 178 democracy in, 123 economic problems in, 186, 255 future of, 234 growth in, 6, 7, 20, 22, 45, 58, 235, 262 household income in, 50 inequality in, 66–67 infrastructure financing in, 259–60 innovation in, 302 natural capital in, 63 protests in, 263 reforms in, 186, 192 trade encouraged by, 155 universities in, 247 breast feeding, 178 British Royal Society, 172 British Shell Transport and Trading Company, 138 British South Africa Company, 180 Brown, Drusilla, 165 Brükner, Markus, 226 Brynjolfsson, Erik, 166, 300 budget deficits, 295 Buenos Aires, 201 Bulgaria, 7, 134, 143 Burkina Faso: demonstrations in, 281 education in, 87 as landlocked, 205 Song-Taaba Yalgré women’s cooperative in, 178 Burnside, Craig, 225 Burundi, 49 inequality in, 69–70 lack of growth in, 50 as landlocked, 202 Buthelezi, Mangosuthu, 185 Cabbages and Kings (O.

Abacha, Sani, 99, 113 Abdullah II, King of Jordan, 187 Abu Dhabi, 159 Abundance (Diamandis and Kotler), 300 Acemoglu, Daron, 13, 129, 140, 249 Achebe, Chinua, 72 Aden, Zheng He’s trip to, 152 Afghanistan, 9, 208, 285 education in, 215 as landlocked, 202, 205 Soviet invasion of, 134, 146 US war in, 8, 10, 118, 119, 141, 146 Africa, 37, 44, 46 agriculture in, 261 climate change and, 284 democracy in, 108, 110–11 GMOs in, 172 Green Revolution and, 170–73 growth in, 50, 189 malaria in, 211–13 megacities in, 277 mobile phones in, 157 pessimism about, 12 protests in, 102 resources in, 261 Africa Betrayed (Ayittey), 140 African National Congress Party (ANC), 143, 182, 185 agricultural productivity, 22, 25, 38, 305 agriculture, 37, 44, 45, 56–57, 166, 258, 283, 293 in Africa, 261 in Asia, 201 in China, 35 geography and, 204–5 Green Revolution and, 38, 79, 170–73, 204 growth in production of, 273–74 improvements in, 194–95 trade in, 273 AIDS, 20, 75, 81–82, 83, 94, 95, 173, 174–75, 182, 205, 214, 221, 246, 266 air defense identification zone (ADIZ), 288 air travel, 168–69, 169 Aker, Jenny, 177 Akuffo, Fred, 189 Albania, 50, 108, 159 Algeria, 114 life expectancy in, 78 poverty in, 36 Allende, Salvador, 143–44 aluminum, 53 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 172, 281–82 American Indians, 112, 142 American Medical Association, 172 Amin, Idi, 127 Andes, University of the, 247 Andropov, Yuri, 134 Angola, 114, 145 forest loss in, 280 war in, 100 antibiotics, 77, 94, 267 antimicrobial resistance, 267 antiretroviral therapy (ART), 174, 214 apartheid, 44, 57, 68, 100, 103, 135, 141, 180, 182 Apple, 46 Aquino, Benigno, 143, 149 Aquino, Cory, 17, 104, 109, 184, 185, 186 Arabian Peninsula, 152 Arab Spring, 255, 263 Aral Sea, 285 Argentina, 100 financial crisis in, 255 slowing of progress in, 250, 262 Arias, Oscar, 18, 149, 184 Armenia, 113 and democracy, 248, 263 economic problems in, 255 Army Air Corps, US, 210 Arndt, Channing, 226, 227 Arnquist, Sarah, 176–77 Arrow, Kenneth, 62–63 artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), 213, 267 Asia, 79 education in, 201 financial crisis in, 38, 39, 126, 144 health in, 201 megacities in, 277 values in, 121, 122–23 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), 259 assassinations, 118 assembly, freedom of, 198–99 Australia, 25, 78, 167, 231, 281, 291 malaria in, 210 Austria, as landlocked, 202 authoritarianism, 3, 8, 22, 99, 101–3, 106, 107, 109, 120, 121–22, 125–29, 141, 146, 149, 188, 222, 224, 249–51, 255, 263–66 Ayittey, George, 140 Azerbaijan, 114 Babangida, Ibrahim, 99 Bali, 286 Bamako, 265 Banerjee, Abhijit, 14, 31 Bangladesh, 18, 37, 45, 127, 144, 159, 271 building collapse in, 162 data entry firms in, 178 democracy in, 124 education in, 87 garments from, 59 growth in, 6, 45, 238, 242, 271 inequality in, 67 jeans from, 56 MAMA in, 178 threats to gains in, 271–72 war in, 145 Zheng He’s trip to, 152 Ban Ki-moon, 284–85 banks, 56, 154, 241, 303 technology for, 175, 179 Bǎè Chuán, 152 bar associations, 110 Barlonyo camp, 287 Barre, Mohammed Siad, 99 Barro, Robert, 87 Bashir, Omar al-, 185 Batavia, 137 Bauer, Peter, 213, 220, 221 Bazzi, Sami, 225 bed nets, 94, 213 Belarus, 114, 185 Belgian Congo, 13, 140 Belize, 56, 69–70 benign dictators, 125–26 Benin, 103, 144, 216 Berlin Wall, fall of, x, 103, 123, 134, 143, 148 Bermeo, Sarah, 223 Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 115 Bhavnani, Rikhil, 225 Bhote Koshi River, 203 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 95, 161, 171, 212 biodiversity loss, 9, 63 biofuels, 281 Birdsall, Nancy, 298 Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal, 122 Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von, 146 Black Death, 276 black markets, 192 Boeing 707, 168 Boğaziçi University, 247 Bokassa, Jean-Bédel, 222 Boko Haram, 287 Bolivia, 162, 202, 205, 280 Bollyky, Thomas, 268 Boone, Peter, 225 border disputes, 288–91 Borlaug, Norman, 170 Botchwey, Kwesi, 189 Botswana, 9, 37, 207 aid to, 214, 216 as democracy, 98, 263 education in, 190 growth in, 5, 7, 15, 50, 126, 128, 141, 236 as landlocked, 202 life expectancy in, 81, 266 Bottom Billion, The (Collier), 118, 188, 202, 205, 217, 303 Bourguignon, François, 25, 27, 28 Brazil, 20, 22, 36, 38, 45, 155, 186 coastal vs. isolated areas in, 201 data entry firms in, 178 democracy in, 123 economic problems in, 186, 255 future of, 234 growth in, 6, 7, 20, 22, 45, 58, 235, 262 household income in, 50 inequality in, 66–67 infrastructure financing in, 259–60 innovation in, 302 natural capital in, 63 protests in, 263 reforms in, 186, 192 trade encouraged by, 155 universities in, 247 breast feeding, 178 British Royal Society, 172 British Shell Transport and Trading Company, 138 British South Africa Company, 180 Brown, Drusilla, 165 Brükner, Markus, 226 Brynjolfsson, Erik, 166, 300 budget deficits, 295 Buenos Aires, 201 Bulgaria, 7, 134, 143 Burkina Faso: demonstrations in, 281 education in, 87 as landlocked, 205 Song-Taaba Yalgré women’s cooperative in, 178 Burnside, Craig, 225 Burundi, 49 inequality in, 69–70 lack of growth in, 50 as landlocked, 202 Buthelezi, Mangosuthu, 185 Cabbages and Kings (O.


pages: 369 words: 98,776

The God Species: Saving the Planet in the Age of Humans by Mark Lynas

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Haber-Bosch Process, ice-free Arctic, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, planetary scale, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

If batteries can be designed that charge faster and last longer, most of us could simply plug in our cars at home or while parked in town—a much better option than driving to a gas station and having to line up to pay afterward. Electric is clearly the way to go for the majority of surface transportation. This includes mopeds and bikes as well as large trucks. With oil prices rising and local air pollution worsening in developing-world megacities, the tipping point may come even sooner than many pundits think and be driven by demand in fast-growing countries like China. All the major automotive companies are now positioning themselves to exploit this massive future market: Nissan, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, Honda, Ford, BMW, Tesla Motors, and Daimler are already or soon will be offering affordable electric vehicles. Tesla’s Roadster is a far cry from the electric vehicle’s caricature: This all-electric sports car can race from 0 to 60 miles an hour in under four seconds and has a top speed of 125 mph.

SEX AND THE CITY As a general rule—and making an exception for indigenous people and other communities who have demonstrated a long-term commitment to the sustainable use of their local environments—the fewer people who live in or close to rain forests and other important ecological biomes the better. Rural depopulation and urbanization in developing countries are often decried by those who are concerned about the relentless expansion of megacities, which seem terribly unsustainable because of their noise, sprawling slums, congestion, and pollution. But from the perspective of sustainable land use and habitat protection, the more that growing numbers of people can be persuaded to herd themselves into relatively small areas of urban land, the better for the environment. Village life, particularly in extremely poor developing countries, should not be romanticized by outsiders.

Whenever they are given the chance, younger generations tend to flee to the cities, where they have many more livelihood options and can escape the cultural oppression that is often a hallmark of traditional societies. In many parts of the world, if you want to marry the person you choose, be openly gay, be female and have a career, or avoid daily backbreaking labor carrying water or fetching firewood, then you probably need to move to the city. In 1975 there were just three megacities of over 10 million people. Today there are 21. It sounds scary, but this unstoppable shift toward urbanization actually ranks as one of the most environmentally beneficial trends of the last few decades. As the UN Population Fund wrote in a recent report: “Density is potentially useful. With world population at 6.7 billion people in 2007 and growing at over 75 million a year, demographic concentration gives sustainability a better chance.


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

After twenty years of “growth,” 60 percent of India’s workforce is self-employed, and 90 percent of India’s labor force works in the unorganized sector.11 Post-Independence, right up to the 1980s, people’s movements, ranging from the Naxalites to Jayaprakash Narayan’s Sampoorna Kranti, were fighting for land reforms, for the redistribution of land from feudal landlords to landless peasants. Today any talk of redistribution of land or wealth would be considered not just undemocratic but lunatic. Even the most militant movements have been reduced to a fight to hold on to what little land people still have. The millions of landless people, the majority of them Dalits and Adivasis, driven from their villages, living in slums and shanty colonies in small towns and megacities, do not figure even in the radical discourse. As Gush-Up concentrates wealth onto the tip of a shining pin on which our billionaires pirouette, tidal waves of money crash through the institutions of democracy—the courts, the parliament—as well as the media, seriously compromising their ability to function in the ways they are meant to. The noisier the carnival around elections, the less sure we are that democracy really exists.

The Kalpasar dam, which would raise the sea level and alter the ecology of hundreds of kilometers of coastline, was the cause of serious concerns amongst scientists in a 2007 report.23 It has made a sudden comeback in order to supply water to the Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR) in one of the most water-stressed zones not just in India but in the world. SIR is another name for a SEZ, a self-governed corporate dystopia of industrial parks, townships, and megacities. The Dholera SIR is going to be connected to Gujarat’s other cities by a network of ten-lane highways. Where will the money for all this come from? In January 2011 in the Mahatma (Gandhi) Mandir, Gujarat’s Chief Minister Narendra Modi presided over a meeting of ten thousand international businessmen from one hundred countries. According to media reports, they pledged to invest $450 billion in Gujarat.


pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

Evangelical Christianity and populist Islam were the fastest-growing religions here, and they were of a piece with the worldly grime and grit. They offered a path to higher ground, a spiritual elevation from the omnipresent squalor and constant threat of scam. Higher yet, I could picture the boundaries of Lagos, those edges where creeping urban settlement met with field and forest. Roads connected the megacity to smaller ones, but this megacity was hardly alone: Lagos is “simply the biggest node in the shantytown corridor of 70 million people that stretches from Abidjan to Ibadan,” as Mike Davis has observed. At night, from space, you’d be able to see an amazing band of lights across the coast of West Africa. At least, if the power was on. EPILOGUE ONE OF THE GREAT CHALLENGES in writing a book about roads is to avoid the inadvertent use of road metaphors.

They may not be as wealthy or advanced as celebrated world capitals like London, Paris, Moscow, Montreal, Sydney, and New York, but they are quickly becoming larger. The world’s population of 6 billion will increase by 2 billion over the next thirty years (it is tentatively expected to peak around 10 billion), and almost all of that increase will be in cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. By virtue of their sheer size these megacities will be, in certain ways, the most important in the coming century. I chose to end my travel in Lagos for a number of reasons. One was its extremity: of all those fast-growing cities, its growth has for years been projected to be the fastest. In 1950 Lagos had 288,000 people; as I write it is estimated to have 14 million; by 2015, predicts the Population Reference Bureau, it will be the third largest city in the world, with over 23 million souls.

As the largest city in the region, Lagos attracted a mix of returning expatriates, migrants from the various neighboring countries, many fleeing rural famine and drought, and refugees from the Biafran war (1967-70), in which a southeastern province, Biafra, attempted to secede from Nigeria. The continuing popularity of Lagos, and its ability to assimilate new arrivals, whether foreign-born or native, surprises not only foreigners but Nigerians themselves. The growth of Third World megacities repeats patterns seen in nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century Europe and North America but also “confounds” these precedents, writes Mike Davis. It’s the confounding parts that interest Koolhaas and others. Are these cities moving toward a robust, vibrant future, or into the apocalypse? Either way, Lagos represents the future for perhaps the majority of people on the planet, a compelling example of what happens when the track through the wilderness comes to the center of society.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

The wholesale price is now 32 pesos per kilo—approaching once again its 2008 high of 35 pesos. Ten years ago it was half that. So, without a government subsidy to fix the retail price, Len-len would go hungry. Soon, she will do what tens of millions of the rural poor have done already: leave the land and move to a mega-city to live in a slum and look for work. She will live in a shack just like this, but it will be more cramped, wedged in by others like it. Instead of the viridian and lime of the paddy fields, she will live in a landscape whose colours are predominantly rust and grey. For, horrific as they are, the slums of Manila—as in all the mega-cities of the world—are a makeshift solution to rural poverty. The tunnel dwellers of San Miguel Estero de San Miguel, Manila. There is a long curve of grey water and, along both sides, as far as the eye can see, shacks, trash, washing and grey tin, bits of wood and scraps of cloth, rats and children.

Many dwell in the hidden modern slum—a.k.a. the ‘student house’—where every room contains a bed, or in flats rented in the terraced streets and inner-city neighbourhoods where the unemployed and the ethnic minorities live. Once the housing and jobs markets collapsed, the student house became the young accountant house, the young lawyer, teacher and other struggling professional’s house. At the dance clubs students frequent there’s always some urban poor youth: this is true even in smart American college towns. But in the mega-cities of youth culture—London, Paris, Los Angeles, New York—the cultural proximity is more organic. And in no-hope towns where the college is the only modern thing in the landscape, everyone rubs shoulders in the laundromat, the fast-food joint, the cramped carriages of late-night trains. In North Africa, though many of the college students who led the revolutions were drawn from the elite, you find this same blurring of the edges between the educated youth and the poor.

You cannot go to the toilet without standing in a queue; sex between man and wife has to take place within breathing distance of their kids, and earshot of twenty other families. This is the classic twenty-first-century slum. Across the globe, one billion people live in slums: that is, one in seven human beings. By the year 2050, for all the same reasons that are pushing people like Len-len off the land, that number is set to double. The slum is the filthy secret of the modern mega-city, the hidden consequence of twenty years of untrammelled market forces, greed, neglect and graft. Yet Mena, at my elbow, is feeding me this constant stream of verbal PR-copy: ‘We are happy; there is social cohesion here; only we can organize it like this.’ She’s all too conscious that the Estero de San Miguel has been condemned. The left-liberal government of Benigno ‘NoyNoy’ Aquino has decided to forcibly relocate half a million slum dwellers back to the countryside, and the Estero is at the top of the list.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

In only the past hundred years, we’ve become an urban species. Today, more than half of humanity, 3.5 billion people, cluster in cities, and scientists predict that by 2050 our cities will enthrall 70 percent of the world’s citizens. The trend is undeniable as the moon, unstoppable as an avalanche. Between 2005 and 2013, China’s urban population skyrocketed from 13 percent to 40 percent, with most people moving from very rural locales to huddled megacities whose streets jingle with chance and temptation. At that pace, by 2030, over half of China’s citizens will live in cities, and instead of farming food locally they’ll import much of it from other nations, paying with the fruits of industry, invention, and manufacturing. That’s already the case in the U.K., where by 1950 a checkerboard of cities embraced 79 percent of the population. By 2030, when the U.K.’s city-dwellers reach 92 percent, it will be a truly urban nation, joining a zodiac of others.

Climate change has become so visible, and wildlife and fresh water so much scarcer, that fewer people are foolish enough to deny the evidence. As we wade into the Anthropocene, we’re trying to reinsert ourselves back into the planet’s ecosystem and good graces. Unlovely as the word “sustainability” may be, it’s sashaying through the media, taking root in schools, and hitting home in all sorts of domiciles, entering the mainstream in both hamlets and megacities. We’re undergoing a revolution in thinking that isn’t a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, nor is it a back-to-the-land movement of the sort that became popular during the Great Depression and again in the 1970s. We might sometimes resemble startled deer in the headlights as we face Earth’s dwindling resources, yet at the same time we’re opening a door to a full-scale sustainability revolution.

As Arctic seam ice shrinks to a record low, undulating orca shipping lanes open up across the pole via the once-fabled Northwest Passage, changing the ecology of the northern ocean. The melt allows the orcas to widen their range and catch more of the white “singing” beluga whales, the canaries of the ocean, and the unicorn-tusked narwhals, two of the orca’s favorite meals. But both the belugas and the narwhals are endangered. How astonishing it is that just one warm-blooded species is causing all this commotion. Creating hives of great megacities and concrete nests that tower into the sky is impressive enough. But removing, relocating, redesigning, and generally vexing and bothering an entire planet full of plants and animals is another magnitude of mischief beyond anything the planet has ever known. The first is just brilliant niche building, something other animals do on a much more modest scale. For instance, beavers fell trees and dam up streams to create ideal ponds for their underwater huts, and in the process some flora and fauna are dislodged.


pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

Many will end up in the slums of Dhaka. In the end, of course, it’s always the economy. In rural Bangladesh, the weather is the economy. And if you believe the climate models, the weather will get worse. By 2050, the population of Bangladesh will have grown from about 162 million people today to more than 220 million.6 Today, more than 13 million people live in Dhaka. It’s the fastest-growing megacity in the world. And every year, slightly more than 400,000 people in Bangladesh move to the capital, hoping to find a better life. Nearly 15,000 new cars were sold in Dhaka in 2008, a record high. There may be plenty of people and cars, but there are acute shortages of just about everything else. There are no sidewalks. There is no mass transit system. And right now, there is enough power for only about 35 percent of the population.

When I spoke with Omar Rahman on the telephone, he had been without power for eight hours that day. As he said, comparison with the developed world is detrimental. But nonetheless, when people along the coast who are unable to grow rice or work the nets to catch shrimp fry make the comparison between Dhaka and their own situation, they will still decide that Dhaka holds the keys to a better life. And by 2050, this megacity with very little energy, transportation, and water infrastructure is expected to be the home of more than 40 million people.7 Experts like Rahman worry about how Dhaka will cope with the rapid and unplanned urbanization in Bangladesh. Dhaka is not immune from the problems of geography that plague the rest of Bangladesh. The city is located in the coastal zone and is just as vulnerable as the rest of the zone to floods, storms, and tropical cyclones.

The average Bangladeshi emits about one-third ton of carbon dioxide each year—a lot less than the roughly 20 tons emitted annually by the average American. At the global level, Bangladesh emits less than 0.2 percent of world total. To put that in perspective, the city of New York alone emits about 0.25 percent of the world’s total greenhouse gases. As Rahman says, “Cooking stoves account for almost 20 percent of emissions in Bangladesh. Cooking stoves. This is the level of industrialization we’re talking about.” Rahman still has hopes for megacities; he says that leaders need to start viewing land use and other aspects of city planning as critical components of preparing for climate change. “Properly managed, urbanization can be a good thing,” he said. “Improving urban management is itself an adaptation strategy.” For people in Bangladesh, climate change is not a theoretical, academic, or distant concern. It is a question of survival. It is a question of infrastructure.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World by Tim Marshall

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

The South African National Defense Force has a brigade in the DRC officially under the command of the UN, but it was sent there by its political masters to ensure that South Africa is not left out from the spoils of war in that mineral-rich country. This has brought it into competition with Uganda, Burundi, and Rwanda, which have their own ideas about who should be in charge in the DRC. The Africa of the past was given no choice—its geography shaped it—and then the Europeans engineered most of today’s borders. Now, with its booming populations and developing megacities, it has no choice but to embrace the modern globalized world to which it is so connected. In this, despite all the problems we have seen, it is making huge strides. The same rivers that hampered trade are now harnessed for hydroelectric power. From the earth that struggled to sustain large-scale food production come minerals and oil, making some countries rich even if little of the wealth reaches the people.

North Korea’s ability to successfully miniaturize its nuclear technology and create warheads that could be launched is uncertain, but it is definitely capable, as it already showed in 1950, of a surprise, first-strike, conventional attack. A major concern for South Korea is how close Seoul and the surrounding urban areas are to the border with North Korea. Seoul’s position makes it vulnerable to surprise attacks from its neighbor, whose capital is much farther away and partially protected by mountainous terrain. South Korea’s capital, the megacity of Seoul, lies just thirty-five miles south of the 38th parallel and the DMZ. Almost half of South Korea’s 50 million people live in the greater Seoul region, which is home to much of its industry and financial centers, and it is all within range of North Korean artillery. In the hills above the 148-mile-long DMZ, the North Korean military has an estimated ten thousand artillery pieces. They are well dug in, some in fortified bunkers and caves.

Japan’s history is very different to that of Korea, and the reason for this is partly due to its geography. The Japanese are an island race, with the majority of the 127 million population living mostly on the four large islands that face Korea and Russia across the Sea of Japan, and a minority inhabiting some of the 6,848 smaller islands. The largest of the main islands is Honshu, which includes the biggest megacity in the world, Tokyo, and its 39 million people. At its closest point, Japan is 120 miles from the Eurasian land-mass, which is among the reasons why it has never been successfully invaded. The Chinese are some five hundred miles away across the East China Sea; and although there is Russian territory much closer, the Russian forces are usually far away because of the extremely inhospitable climate and sparse population located across the Sea of Okhotsk.


pages: 692 words: 167,950

The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, Chance favours the prepared mind, clean water, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl

See also the History Channel, “Sandhogs”: http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/shows/tunnellers/episode-guide.html. 123 tunnel-boring machines: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/tbmfactsheet.pdf. See also Sewell Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big: A Milestone,” New York Times, August 10, 2006. 123 corruption plagued the Board of Water Supply: Grann, “City of Water.” This was confirmed to me by a source who asked not to be identified. 123 $4 billion to the new tunnel: Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big.” 124 the world had 18 “megacities”: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megacity. 124 In 2007, 336 cities worldwide: Ibid., and Thomas Brinkhof, “The Principal Agglomerations of the World,” www.citypopulation.de. 124 in 2008, for the first time in history: UN Population Fund (UNFPA): State of World Population 2007: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html. 124 As of 2010, China alone had 43 cities: Christina Larson, “Chicago on the Yangtze,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2010. 125 Bruce Rolen: “As supplies dry up, growers pass on farming and sell water,” US Water News Online, February 2008. 125 Perth, Australia: Patrick Barta, “Amid Water Shortage, Australia Looks to the Sea,” Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2008. 125 America’s total water use: Susan S.

As we stepped out of the cage, a fresh crew of sandhogs trooped aboard. There was some jovial shouting, one man made a quick sign of the cross, the cage door slammed shut, and within minutes the men had disappeared down the giant hole. THE URBANIZATION OF WATER While the fragility of its water system is a pressing concern to New York, other large cities face even greater and more immediate hydrological challenges. In 2000, the world had 18 “megacities,” with populations of 5 million to 10 million (depending on different definitions), or more. In 2007, 336 cities worldwide had populations of 1 million or more. According to the UN, in 2008, for the first time in history, more people lived in urban areas than in rural ones. As of 2010, China alone had at least 43 cities with populations greater than 1 million; by 2025, according to Foreign Policy, that number will grow to 221.

But California was in its second year of drought, and questions were being raised about the necessity of LADWP’s dust-mitigation efforts. The project had suffered cost overruns and used sixty thousand acre-feet of water a year, which was worth some $54 million and was enough to supply sixty thousand households. Critics thought the money and water could be better spent elsewhere. By 2009, Los Angeles had become a megacity with 3.8 million residents, in a broad combined statistical area that had swelled to 17.8 million people—thanks in good part to the water drained from Mono County. The city is also hydrated by water from the Sacramento Delta, channeled south by the California Aqueduct, and by the Colorado River, channeled west by the Colorado River Aqueduct. If current growth rates continue, it is estimated that Los Angeles’s population will reach 33 million by 2020.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Even where the population explosion is expected to be the largest, in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the birthrate has been falling, for several reasons. First, you have the rapid urbanization of the peasant population, as farmers leave their ancestral lands to try their luck in the megacities. In 1800, only 3 percent of the population lived in cities. By the end of the twentieth century, that figure rose to 47 percent, and it is expected to soar above that in the coming decades. The expense of child rearing in the city drastically reduces the number of children in a family. With rents, food, and expenses being so high, workers in the slums of the megacities perform the same calculus and conclude that each child reduces their wealth. Second, as countries industrialize, as in China and India, this creates a middle class that wants fewer children, as in the industrialized West.

People flock to foreign sites in record numbers, making tourism one of the fastest-growing industries on the planet. Shoppers flood the stores, in spite of economic hard times. Instead of proliferating cyberclassrooms, universities are still registering record numbers of students. To be sure, there are more people deciding to work from their homes or teleconference with their coworkers, but cities have not emptied at all. Instead, they have morphed into sprawling megacities. Today, it is easy to carry on video conversations on the Internet, but most people tend to be reluctant to be filmed, preferring face-to-face meetings. And of course, the Internet has changed the entire media landscape, as media giants puzzle over how to earn revenue on the Internet. But it is not even close to wiping out TV, radio, and live theater. The lights of Broadway still glow as brightly as before.

The stars are not twinkling, as they appear from the earth, but staring brightly, as they have for billions of years. The elevator slowly comes to a stop about 100 miles from the surface of the earth. From space, you see a dazzling sight that you previously saw only in pictures. Looking down, you suddenly see the earth in an entirely new light. You see the oceans, the continents, and the lights of megacities that shine into outer space. From space, the earth appears so serene that it’s hard to believe people once spilled blood fighting wars over silly borders. These nations still exist, but they seem so quaint, less relevant today, in an age when communication is instantaneous and ubiquitous. As Karen puts her head on your shoulder, you begin to realize that you are witnessing the birth of a new planetary civilization.


pages: 326 words: 48,727

Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning

Three feet of sea level rise will gravely affect an estimated 145 million people around the world, most of them in Asia. The world's chief financial capitals—New York, London, and Tokyo—are all highly vulnerable, thanks to their low-lying waterfront locations. I visited each of those cities for this book, as well as Shanghai, the epicenter of Chinese capitalism, where three feet of sea level rise would put a third of the city underwater. Mega-cities located in poor countries would be equally pressed and much less able to adapt; Manila, Jakarta, and Dhaka are the three considered most at risk in Asia. In the United States, a mere two feet of sea level rise would put 2,200 miles of roads in Washington, DC, Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina at risk of regular inundation, according to a 2009 report by the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Transportation.

John Holmes, the UN's coordinator of emergency disaster relief, reported that fourteen of the fifteen major relief operations that his team mounted in 2007 were in response to floods, storms, and other climate-related events. In 2008, nine out of ten major disasters were weather-related, causing up to $200 billion of damage. Yet neither governments, businesses, nor citizens were heeding the warnings, said Holmes, who added, "The risks of mega-disasters in some ... mega-cities is rising all the time." The humanitarian organization Oxfam has projected that extreme weather could affect 375 million people a year by 2015, and the international relief system "could be overwhelmed." As always with climate change, it is the poor and vulnerable who figure to be hurt most. The human suffering and social havoc that engulfed New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina show what can happen when a community's defenses against mega-storms are inadequate, which many are, especially in poor countries.

Perhaps the most vivid—and economically reckless—example is in Shanghai, where a combination of sea level rise and fiercer river and ocean flooding threatens the business capital of China with a disaster that a senior government scientist warned would be as bad as or worse than what New Orleans suffered from Katrina. Not until the morning I left Shanghai did I fully grasp how vulnerable the city is to climate change. Shanghai is the one Chinese mega-city I had missed while visiting in 1997 for Earth Odyssey, so it was a revelation to see it now. Shanghai was even richer than I had imagined—its streets choked with traffic jams of Mercedeses and BMWs, its shopping districts boasting top-end brands from Europe and the States, its downtown crowded with skyscrapers housing some of the world's biggest companies, all of them intent on riding the magic carpet of endless economic growth that is modern China.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

The average lifespan in Brazil’s north is a full seventeen years less than in the south. Human trafficking flourishes amid such economic disparity, with rural women serving as sex slaves in cities and urban men working as bonded laborers in Amazonian gold mines. Most schools do not have phone lines, let alone Internet connections. In a country that is three-quarters urban, São Paulo has grown into something beyond mega-city sprawl: it is a well-nigh infinite city, with a population that can neither be contained nor measured. Its countless steel-gated apartment complexes are, in effect, high-rise favelas for those who can afford housing. São Paulo’s Rua Oscar Freire has been rated one of the world’s top luxury shopping streets, and wealthy Paulistanos boast the highest rate of private helicopter usage in the world—but at chic restaurants, women make sure to have their purses bound with wire to their chairs.

.*43 This Saudi social apotheosis is occurring just as the country is getting a second chance to climb into the first world. During the 1970s oil boom, no Gulf states created significant manufacturing or service sectors to employ the growing ranks of city dwellers who became what Fouad Ajami called the “angry sons of a failed generation.”23 And if high Saudi birthrates continue, Riyadh could become a megacity of ten million mostly underutilized citizens. Riyadh’s ministry buildings are still dilapidated, and the city is but a cleaner version of Cairo. But this time around, Saudi Arabia is globalization-savvy, bringing in international banks and consultants to modernize smartly.24 It has the space, labor, and money to construct four entirely new industrial cities as tax-free reexport zones that create jobs while spreading the population away from dense Riyadh and Jeddah to reverse the inward migration that also plagues third-world countries.

Each is so powerful that they are better understood as “region-states,” cities that operate like business units, as connected to the global economy as their own countries, while increasingly linked into a growing Asian network of economic nodes irrespective of political and cultural distinctions.23 Asia also has more than half the world’s megalopolises, which are home to most of Southeast Asia’s five hundred million people. Third-world mega-cities in Africa and India contain bustling downtowns surrounded by rings and pockets of residential and squatter neighborhoods as far as the eye can see. As villages rapidly depopulate, urbanization means not modernization and development but squalor and depravity. Southeast Asia today is rising out of this third-world scenario as its per capita income rises above $3,000 and the poverty rate falls below 25 percent.


pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey

The technological and social changes that have given us a globalized and weightless economy are placing immense new pressures on social ties, and I describe what some of these pressures are. The structural changes in the economy resulting from new technologies have increased the importance of trust. A high value economy is a high trust one. At the same time, though, the structural changes taking place in the global economy make building trust difficult and indeed create some social fragility. The simultaneous strengths and social tensions are apparent for example in the megacities that are hubs of the global economy. Trust is built by and expressed in the institutions that govern the economy and society. As I go on to describe, many of the institutions we have at present, in all their variety right up to the international organizations responsible for the global economy, are not up to bearing the new pressures. This book isn’t the place for a thorough exploration of the role and inadequacies of economic governance, a huge subject.

Most have pockets of seemingly intractable poverty and crime, while some seem to be irredeemably scarred by social disorder and crime. They are the hubs of global multinational enterprises, centers of the drugs and people trafficking trades. Yet other parts of many huge global cities are astonishingly peaceful and civilized given the number and variety of people living and working in them, and the strains of urban life in a megacity. The level of trust prevailing is a marker of the city’s economic success. A face-to-face city at the leading edge of the economy can only function if there is a high level of trust or social capital. Take my home city, London. Its population has increased from 6.8 million in 1981 to 7.6 million today. Twenty five years ago, 18 percent of the population were immigrants to the United Kingdom, mainly (three-quarters) from former colonies.

There are ghettos of poverty, unemployment, and drugs. The global mafia operates through the global cities, just as legitimate multinational businesses do. But in contrast to those who are nostalgic for a supposedly gentler and kinder past, I would strongly argue that the “average” trust level can be higher now than it was twenty years ago and indeed is higher in certain cities such as New York and London.31 These megacities are the successful hubs of the global economy. The higher value activities in which they now specialize are higher trust activities, albeit with clear fragility such as the collapses we’ve seen in the financial sector in both cases. Others which are low-trust places, such as Mumbai or Sao Paolo, still have to cement their role in the global economy; it’s not yet clear whether or how well they’ll succeed.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

The Peers Inc organization can produce previously impossible growth, unprecedented acceleration of learning and innovation, and the powerful joining of human experience, adaptability, and pattern recognition with supercomputing. The three miracles potentially provide us a way forward through climate change, resource scarcity, and explosive population growth. They also produce some rewarding business opportunities along the way. We can, in fact, make megacities livable and address the needs of the more than seven billion people now on the planet (a figure expected to grow to eleven billion by 2050) through more efficient use of our resources. We can enable people to build satisfying lives in which their individuality is valued. We can quickly build resilient cities with the localized responses required to deflect the worst effects of global warming.

I recently talked to a CEO of a telecommunications company that had been sitting on a technology improvement that would not only dramatically reduce the company’s costs and improve customer service but do so by reducing the company’s workforce by 40,000 people. Self-driving vehicles, which are coming much faster than people realize, will take away the need for drivers around the world. This will be painful everywhere, but devastating in megacities such as Mumbai and Lagos, where millions of people earn their living from driving. The least skilled and the least educated will likely not find new full-time employment. Even with the optimistic and inevitable forecasts that new technologies will open up new economic frontiers, we all know the difficult truth: In real time in defined geographies, job losses do not equal job gains one for one.

Together we can engage millions of people to accomplish very big things, providing significant public benefits while retaining the rule-making governance and even ownership of the platforms within the creator communities. TEN Addressing Our Biggest Challenges Climate Change and Sustainability Need Peers Inc THE PEERS INC PARADIGM fascinates me not just because it’s shaping the future of business. What is more important is that we’ve figured out what this model is and how it works exactly at our time of greatest need. The earth currently has 7 billion inhabitants, thirty megacities whose populations exceed 10 million, hundreds of cities harboring over a million inhabitants, and all the problems that come with urbanization—poverty, homelessness, congestion, and pollution. Add to this projections of a global average temperature increase of 4°C (7°F) by 2100 and population estimates as high as 11 billion.1 If we continue with business as usual and leave these problems unaddressed, the future looks bleak.


pages: 239 words: 68,598

The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning by James E. Lovelock

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Ada Lovelace, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, discovery of DNA, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Henri Poincaré, mandelbrot fractal, megacity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, planetary scale, short selling, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

Air and light pollution have dimmed them so that only the Moon and Venus are visible through the night‐time glare. Our great‐grandparents often saw the constellations of stars and used Polaris to guide their way; on clear nights they even saw the Milky Way, that faint white band that crosses the sky and is a sideways view of our home galaxy. Apart from a few sailors and farmers miles away from any settlement, who still see the dark depths of the sky, we are all lost in the hazy air of that mega‐city that globalization has made of the human world. In a similar way scientists have become urbanized and have only recently taken the idea of a live Earth into their thinking. Most of them have still to digest the idea of Gaia and make it part of their practice. We are trying to undo some of the harm we have done, and as climate change worsens we will try harder, even desperately, but until we see that the Earth is more than a mere ball of rock we are unlikely to succeed.

Nuclear energy is by far the most effective way to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, but that is not the most important reason for us to emulate France and make electricity from uranium. What is important is that cities demand a constant and economic supply of electricity which until recently has come from coal and gas but these are now declining and leave no alternative to nuclear energy. Huge flows of electricity will be demanded by the mega‐cities that are starting to emerge and this can only be met in the near term by a vigorous and rapid expansion of nuclear energy. This need is intensified by the fact that we have little land on which to grow food and intensive agriculture needs abundant energy. As oil runs out we will need to synthesize fuel for the mobile machinery of construction, transport and agriculture. This is not difficult to do from coal or nuclear energy but we need to start preparing for it now.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Today, just forty city-regions account for two-thirds of the world economy. Their power lies in money, knowledge, and stability. New York City’s economy alone is larger than most of sub-Saharan Africa’s. Port cities and entrepôts such as Dubai act like twenty-first-century Venice: They are “free zones” where products are efficiently re-exported without the hassles of government red tape. Such mega-cities as Rio, Istanbul, Cairo, Mumbai, Nairobi, and Manila are the leading urban centers of their countries and regions, yet each teems with hundreds of thousands of new urban squatters each year. The migrant underclass lives not in chaos and “shadow economies” but often in functional, self-organizing ecosystems, the typical physical stratification of medieval cities. Whether rich or poor, cities, more than nations, are the building blocks of global activity today.

Like China, India’s challenge is to generate enough power for its people, but to do so in a way that reflects the ecologically conscious spirit of the times. India has an Energy Conservation Act that mandates that states set aside funds for clean energy. New Delhi has enforced strong regulations requiring buses and scooters to run on natural gas, while planting thousands of trees to make the city’s air breathable again—a rare success for a poor-country mega-city. Its accomplishments are the results of both a progressive high court and a persistent lobbying from India’s rambunctious civil society, particularly the Center for Science and the Environment, which sends representatives from village to village to teach people to harvest as much as 60 percent of the rainwater that falls on their properties using a system of rooftop gutters and ground trenches.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

The tension between free speech, shared space, and civic stability has continued to inform urban design ever since. Shape-Shifting As philosophies about happiness shift, so does urban form. The Romans, like the Athenians, were so deeply attached to their city that Rome itself was a spiritual project. Civic pride drove heroic feats of engineering and architecture—from aqueducts, highways, sewers, and massive ports to muscular temples and basilicas—which helped Rome grow into the world’s first megacity, with a peak population of more than one million.* As Rome grew fat on the fruits of its vast empire, its citizens adopted a new god of happiness. In 44 B.C. Julius Caesar approved construction of a temple to Felicitas, the god of pleasure, fortune, and fertility, not far from the Curia Hostilia, the meeting place of the Senate. But when it came to city building, the Roman elite increasingly focused on creating monuments to their own glory.

Repton’s manipulations appear in the drawings he made for his landed clientele, in which he would move trees from forest edges into open space, add herds of grazing animals, and create watering hole–like lakes to mimic savanna-like vistas. His contemporaries even built ditches, or haw-haws, to keep animals in without interrupting the naturalistic scenes with fencing. These views have been reproduced complete with shade trees, broad meadows, and lakes in the heart of some megacities, from London’s Hyde Park to Mexico City’s Bosque de Chapultepec to Frederick Law Olmsted’s New York masterpieces, Central and Prospect parks. In many ways, our landscape preferences support the lingering nineteenth-century idea that the city itself is a toxic and unnatural environment, and that dispersal is the natural response to biological truths. Indeed, the Repo Home Tour through the neighborhoods at the urban edge in San Joaquin County felt like a safari through a vast biophilic compromise.

While the elder proselytized: Peñalosa has influenced more than a hundred cities. On his advice, cities such as Jakarta, Delhi, and Manila have reclaimed streets from their usurpation by private cars, creating vast linear parks or handing the space to rapid bus systems modeled on Bogotá’s own. “Peñalosa’s philosophy on public spaces had a great impact on our perception of model cities,” Moji Rhodes, an assistant to the mayor in the seething megacity of Lagos, Nigeria, told me after Peñalosa convinced Lagos to start building sidewalks along new roads. Americans used to get by: U.S. Census Bureau, “Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009,” Washington, DC, 2009; The World Bank, “Motor Vehicles (per 1,000 People),” http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/is.veh.nveh.p3/countries (accessed April 28, 2013); U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Table 1-37: U.S.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

We are an urban animal now, and although our habitat trends vary locally, in net global terms all future population growth will be in cities. By 2050, humanity’s urban population may grow by another 2.5 billion people; our rural population is expected to shrink by 150 million.46 The city is the center of things, and as a species we are rushing to be there. New crossroads are again emerging. Mega-cities like Tokyo, New York, London, Toronto, Paris, Delhi, São Paulo, Mumbai, Mexico City, Shanghai and Dhaka command the world’s headlines, but the real story—at least so far as urban growth is concerned—will play out in the more than 700 developing-world cities with populations that exceed 500,000 today and the more than 350 new cities that will reach that threshold by 2030. They will add 1.3 billion inhabitants through 2030—compared with an increase of just 100 million dwellers in existing big cities.47 We know these new crossroads only vaguely, if at all.

Business groups such as the B Team, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the UN Global Compact offer industry a similar opportunity to challenge indolence and do good. Leading companies need to lead. Much of what needs to be done can be done by “coalitions of the working”—groups of influential citizens, companies, cities or countries that get the issue and get the urgency, and by their coordinated actions generate momentum that pulls the laggards along.70 The C40 cities initiative (c40.org), originally comprising 40 megacities (now 69) around the world, is a good template. Member cities commit to taking practical actions to cut greenhouse gases and share best practices among themselves. Many global challenges can be met when a few big players get together like this. These challenges include climate change—over half of the world’s carbon emissions are produced by just four countries (China, US, India and Russia)—and finance, in which the top thirty-odd banks can make or break the health of the global banking system.

See da Vinci, Leonardo Levchin, Max, 152 libraries, 26, 29, 33, 143–5 Lintott, Chris, 147–8 Luther, Martin, 2, 30, 55, 65, 215–18, 224–5, 260–1 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 6, 11, 160, 168, 229, 246, 256, 259 The Prince, 108, 266 Magellan, Ferdinand, 19–20, 39–40, 68 Manutius, Aldus, 143–4 maps and Mercator, 20–1, 61, 252 new maps, 15–25, 33, 40, 45, 53, 60, 62, 251–2 political world circa 1980, 22 political world circa 2015, 23 and Ptolemy, 15 world according to the Bible, 16 world according to Ptolemy, 17 world according to Mercator, 20 market economies, 25, 68. See also capitalism medicine. See health and medicine mega-cities, 54 Mehmed II, 18 Mendel, Gregor, 114 Mercator, Gerard, 20, 61, 252 Metcalfe, Robert, 159 Mexico, 19, 29, 43, 54, 93, 144 Michelangelo. See Buonarroti, Michelangelo middle class, 73–5, 93, 178, 186, 241 Middle East, 40–1, 93 Arab Spring, 24, 36, 211, 222–4, 228 and economic divergence, 211 and development, 161 and health care, 98 and life expectancy, 76 See also Islam migration benefits of, 86–8 challenges of, 230–1 drivers of, 59 economic migration, 56–7 and innovation, 59 international migration flows, 58 and labor, 57–9 long-term, 52–60 and policy, 249–51, 254 in the Renaissance, 55–6 and selected capital inflows to developing world, 87 and urbanization, 53–5, 249–50 See also refugees Milner, Yuri, 156 modernity, 152, 207–10, 212, 229 Moore, Gordon, 31 Moore, Michael, 227 Moore’s Law, 31–2, 117, 123, 136 More, Thomas, 75, 261 Mosteghanemi, Ahlam, 212 Musk, Elon, 243 Myanmar, 24, 206, 252 9/11, 4, 166, 207, 219, 227, 242 nanotechnology, 125–31, 157, 162 National Security Agency (NSA), 24 nationalism, 65, 230 new media, 25–37 New Renaissance, 7–10, 139, 235–67 beginning of, 10 breadth of achievement, 101 and collaboration, 145 and democracy, 230 and life sciences, 121 and progress, 11, 98–9 and protest, 223 Newton, Isaac, 107, 124, 237 Nigeria, 43, 94, 146, 182 Nobel Prize, 137, 158, 238 Nokia, 43 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 25 North Korea, 25, 98, 111, 197–9, 223 Occupy movement, 36, 220–1, 224 offshoring, 44, 249 open-source movement, 145, 241 Open Tree of Life, 36 Ottoman Empire, 2, 10–11, 18, 30, 40–1, 51, 55, 60–1, 72–3, 135, 194–5, 204, 209, 213, 230 Oweidat, Nadia, 213 pandemics, 137, 185–7 Black Death, 1, 70, 72–3, 93, 143, 173–5, 177, 184 defined, 179 Ebola, 181–3 H5N1 (bird flu), 165, 183–5, 186, 237, 253 HIV/AIDS, 76, 83, 98, 101, 154, 158, 185–6 SARS, 180–1 Spanish flu, 165 paradigm shifts and Copernicus, 105–8, 110–12, and genius, 107 in life science, 112–21 in physical science, 121–31 in the Renaissance, 105–11 See also genius Paris Climate Accord, 36, 67 patents, 136–7, 159, 227, 244–5 PayPal, 59, 153, 243 perspective, need for, 4–7 Peru, 29, 93 Petrarch, 80, 133, 256 Peurbach, Georg von, 105, 133 PewDiePie, 138 pharmaceutical industry, 83–4, 113, 183, 245 3D-printed drugs, 119 and diminishing returns, 154–5 gene therapy, 119–20, 158 and nanotechnology, 131 and pace of discovery, 162–3 R&D spending, 154 Phelps, Edmund, 240–1 physics, 121–5 quantum mechanics, 123–8 and random motion, 128 and scale, 121–8 scanning tunneling microscope (STM), 128 and stickiness, 128 plague.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

Castañeda and Douglas S. Massey, “Do-it-Yourself Immigration Reform,” New York Times, June 1, 2012. 11. The figures on remittances are quoted from the World Bank Development Indicators Database (2011 edition). 12. Dean Yang, “Migrant Remittances,” in Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, no. 3 (Summer 2011), pp. 129–152 at p. 130. 13. Richard Dobbs, “Megacities,” Foreign Policy, September–October 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/08/16/prime_numbers_megacities. 14. The National Intelligence Council, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, “Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds” (Washington, DC, 2012). 15. Saxenian, The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. 16. The figures on tourist arrivals are from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators Database (2011 edition). 17.

In short, workers who live outside their home country—and who are often very poor themselves—send more money to their country than foreign investors, and more than rich countries send as financial aid.12 Indeed, for many countries, remittances have become the biggest source of hard currency and, in effect, the largest sector of the economy, thereby transforming traditional economic and social structures as well as the business landscape. the Mobility revolution is urbanization. What was already the fastest process of urbanization in history is accelerating, especially in Asia. More people have moved, and continue to move, from farms to cities than ever before. In 2007, for the first time in history, more people lived in cities than in rural areas. Richard Dobbs describes the immense scale of this transformation as follows: “The megacity will be home to China’s and India’s growing middle classes—creating consumer markets larger than today’s Japan and Spain, respectively.” 13 The US National Intelligence Council reckons that “every year 65 million people are added to the world’s urban population, equivalent to adding seven cities the size of Chicago or five the size of London annually.” 14 The consequences of this revolution for the distribution of power are just as intense internally; indeed, an increasing number of people are spending and investing in two (or more) countries at the same time.


pages: 407 words: 100,512

The Menopause Thyroid Solution by Mary J. Shomon

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

clean water, Gary Taubes, life extension, megacity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial

For women who still have a uterus and are taking any estrogen treatment, progestogens help prevent endometrial hyperplasia (overgrowth of the uterine lining), a condition that can increase the risk of endometrial and uterine cancer. The most commonly prescribed form of progestogen therapy is the progestin known as medroxyprogesterone. The brand name of the oral form is Provera, and it is also available in a generic form. Other oral progestins are Micronor and Nor-QD and generic norethindrone Aygestin and generic norethindrone acetate Ovrette and generic norgestrel Megace and generic megestrol acetate Mirena is an intrauterine device (IUD) that delivers levonorgestrel, a synthesized progestin. Progestin-only contraceptive pills (“mini-pills”) are also available, including Micronor, Nora-BE, and Nor-QD. Norplant is a high-dose contraceptive progestin implant; Depo-Provera is a high-dose contraceptive delivered by injection. The other key type of progestogen therapy is bioidentical progesterone, which is available in several manufactured forms: Prometrium, an oral micronized progesterone capsule, suspended in peanut oil Prochieve and Crinone, vaginal progesterone gels Compounding pharmacies offer a variety of forms and strengths of bioidentical progesterone, including Oral capsules Transdermal creams, to be rubbed into the skin Vaginal creams Vaginal suppositories Sublingual pills or drops, to dissolve under the tongue Troches (lozenges that dissolve between the cheek and gum) Implantable pellets With oral micronized progesterone, keep in mind that higher doses may be necessary to help regulate the menstrual cycle, or to cause bleeding.

., 344 Le Guin, Ursula, 289 Leptin, 17, 74 Levonorgestrel, 145 Levothroid, 21, 110, 343 Levothyroxine, 21, 103, 109–11, 114–15, 118, 119, 121–23, 312 Levoxyl, 21, 110, 114, 121, 342 Libido, 180, 229 low, 42, 77, 186, 204, 207, 307 (see also Sexual dysfunction) Lid lag, 48, 86 Life energy, redirecting and rebalancing, 276–78 Life Extension Foundation, 192, 350 Lightheadedness, 50, 82 Lighthearted Medicine, 354 Lignans, 194 Limbitrol, 292 Linoleic acid, 129 Linolenic acid, 129, 179 Liotrix, 110 Lithium, 34, 123, 295 Liver disease, 38, 158, 203 Living Well with Autoimmune Disease (Shomon), 339–40 Living Well with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia (Shomon), 340 Living Well with Graves’ Disease and Hyperthyroidism (Shomon), 339 Living Well with Hypothyroidism (Shomon), 338 Living Well with Menopause (Clark), 344 Loratidine, 306 Lorazepam, 292, 303 Low Dog, Tieraona, 8, 174–75, 197, 202–4, 209, 270–72, 276–77, 280–81, 290, 336, 356 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 150 Low-glycemic diet, 296–97 L-theanine, 206 Lugol’s solution, 131 Luminal, 306 Lupus, 27 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 16, 53, 54, 60, 185, 188, 208 blood tests for, 139–41 Luvox, 292 Lymphatic function, 230–31, 237 Lymph nodes, 87, 107 Lyothyronine, 111 Lysine, 314 Maca, 179–84, 308, 310 Magnesium, 128, 179, 291 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 95, 141, 286 Malabsorption syndrome, 38 Mammograms, 154, 158 Maprotiline, 123 Marsh mallow, 310 Massage, family, 282 Medical history, 26 Meditation, 279, 286–87, 326, 352–53 Meditation for Beginners (Kornfield), 287, 353 Meditation in a New York Minute (Thornton), 287, 353 Medroxyprogesterone, 144, 147, 156 Megace, 144 Megestrol acetate, 144 Melasma, 155 Melatonin, 15, 184–93, 291, 351 Melatonin Miracle, The (Pierpaoli), 186, 351 Memory problems, 1, 3, 11, 46–47, 72, 73, 81–82 Menest, 150, 171 Menopausal transition, see Perimenopause Menopause, see Perimenopause/menopause Menopause (journal), 189 Menopause Guidebook (North American Menopause Society), 344 Menopause Practice (North American Menopause Society), 344 Menorrhagia, 39, 308–10 Menostar, 151, 164, 347 Menstrual cycle, 17, 52–57, 271 irregularities of, 2, 3, 10, 11, 39, 143, 145–46, 308–11 during perimenopause, 60–62, 67, 68–70, 135–36 supplements and, 180, 184, 186, 188–89, 200, 209 Mercury, 31, 132, 215 Metabolic syndrome, 38 Metabolism, 3, 11, 13, 14, 18, 214, 284 diet and, 301 exercise and, 230, 233, 235, 236, 300 in perimenopause/menopause, 74, 230 supplements and, 128–30 in thyroid dysfunction, 40, 42–44, 47, 294 Metamucil, 45 Metesto, 149 Metformin, 296 Methimazone, 21, 105, 113 Methitest, 149 Methylcobalamin, 125–26 Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), 314 Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), 32 Methyltestosterone, 149 Metoclorpramide, 36 Metrorrhagia, 39 Micronor, 144, 145 Midler, Bette, 1 Migraines, 47, 82, 147, 155, 158, 165 Milaria bumps, 86 Mind-body medicine, 14, 269–70 Mindful Movement for Menopause Management (DVD), 238 Minerals, 127–28, 214–15 Mineral water, 223, 226 Minnie Pauz, 70, 287–88, 335, 345 Minoxidil, 313 Miracle of Natural Hormones, The (Brownstein), 343 Mirena intrauterine device, 145, 309, 347 Mirtazapine, 292, 303 Miscarriage, 28, 39, 69, 70 Mitral valve prolapse, 38, 86 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 303 Monoclonal antibody, 35 Monodeiodination, 18 Monoiodotyronine (T1), 16, 112 Mononucleosis, 37 Mood changes, 2, 41–42, 72, 74–76, 209, 217–72, 274 as hormone therapy side effect, 142, 143, 147 Mood-stabilizing drugs, 295 Moore, Elaine, 341, 342 Moore, Lisa, 341 Mouth, dryness of, 45–46, 80–81 Mulders, Martin, 116, 217, 356 Muller, Viana, 179–83, 357 Multiple sclerosis, 27, 35 Multivitamins, 125–26 Muscle relaxants, 292 Myasthenia gravis, 39 Myeth Pharmaceuticals, 152 Mylanta, 120 MyMedLab, 104, 141, 346 Mysloine, 306 Nails, 50, 82, 86 Naparstek, Belleruth, 273 Nardil, 303 Nasal radium therapy, 32–33 National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB), 89 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 158, 202 National Library of Medicine PubMed service, 334 National Osteoporosis Foundation, 79 National Sleep Foundation, 289 Native American healers, 201 Natural dessicated thyroid, 112–13, 115–16, 118 Natural Gourmet (Colbin), 353 Natural Gourmet Institute, 219 Natural Hormone Balance for Women (Reiss and Zucker), 344 Natural Superwoman, The (Reiss and Gendell), 144, 344 Nature-Thyroid, 21, 112–13, 115, 343 Naturopathy, 112, 178, 179, 228, 231, 326, 328 Neck, 48–49 self-check for thyroid problems, 83–84 trauma to, 36 Nefazodone, 303 NeoMercazole, 113 Nettles, 310, 314 Neuroendocrinology, 269–70 Neurontin, 317 Neuropeptide Y, 17 Nevada Nuclear Test Site, 33 New York Times, 329, 334 Niacin, 125 Nicholas Piramal India Ltd., 113 Nicholson, Jan, 277, 279, 280, 283 Nicotine patch, 311 Night sweats, 2, 6, 61, 70–73, 75, 135, 136, 153, 272, 274, 316–18, 329 alcohol and, 224 exercise and, 229 natural treatments for, 182, 184, 201, 202, 206 sleep problems and, 291 Nodules, thyroid, 20–22, 84, 95, 98, 107, 108 Nora-BE, 145 Noradrenaline, 16 Norepinephrine, 16, 304 Norethindrone, 144, 156 Norgestrel, 144 Norplant, 145 Norpramin, 121, 303, 292 Nor-QD, 144, 145 North American Menopause Society (NAMS), 74, 81, 153, 161, 169, 171, 199, 202, 270, 278, 291, 334 Credentialed practitioners of, 328, 350 Web site of, 345 Novartis Pharmceuticals Corporation, 347 Nortriptyline, 292 Novo Nordisk Inc., 348 Nuclear exposure, 33 Nuclear scans, 94–95 Nutrasweet, 37 Nutritional supplements, see Supplements Nystagmus, 48 Oak Ridge (Tennessee) nuclear facility, 33 Oleic acid, 179 Oligomenorrhea, 39 Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, 129–30, 195, 297–98 Onycholysis, 50, 87 Oophorectomy, 65 Ophthalmopathy, 48 Oreton Methyl, 149 Organ donation, 35 Organic foods, 221–22, 324 Ornish, Dean, 287, 352 Orthocept, 156 Ortho-Est, 150 Ortho Novum, 156 Ortho Tricyclen, 156 Osteopathy, 112, 211–12, 273, 281 Osteoporosis, 44, 79, 103, 119, 153, 327 drugs for, 35, 152 Ovaries, 5, 16, 17, 52–54, 59, 60, 76, 137, 180, 189, 214 at birth, 52, 60 cancer of, 154, 199 polycistic, 26, 38, 65, 327 premature decline or failure of, 26, 64 surgical removal of, 61, 65 Overactive thyroid, see Hyperthyroidism Overcoming Thyroid Disorders (Blanchard), 340 Ovrette, 144 Ovulation, 54, 55, 69 Oxcarbazepine, 35, 36 Oxybutynin, 316 Oxycise, 283 Oxytocin, 270 Oxytrol, 316 Pacewalk, 234 Pain during intercourse, 76 muscle and joint, 21, 44–45, 80, 147 Palmitic acid, 179 Palpitations, 11, 23, 38, 42, 46, 72, 81, 86, 142, 143, 188 Pamelor, 292 Pancreas, 16, 180 Pancreatic polypeptide, 16 Panic attacks, 39, 42 Para-aminosalicylic acid, 35, 36 Parathyroid gland, 16 Parathyroid hormone (PH), 16 Park, Steven, 294, 354 Parker, Dorothy, 83 Parker-Pope, Tara, 160, 162–63, 167, 329, 331–34 344 Parkinson’s disease, 189 Parnate, 303 Paroxetine, 121, 292, 303, 317 Partner, communicating with, 282–83 Passion flower, 205–6, 304 Paxil, 121, 178, 292, 296, 303, 306, 317 Pelvic inflammatory disease, 137 Perchlorate, 31–32, 132 Percutaneous ethanol injections, 107 Perimenopause/menopause, 2–9, 12, 13, 60–82, 103, 324 adrenal function and, 213–14 age at, 62, 64 blood tests for, 138–41 body aches during, 80 bone loss during, 79 breast changes in, 81 clinical examination for, 137–38 clinical test for, 62 cholesterol and, 79 complementary medicine for, 209–12 concentration and memory problems during, 81–82 decreasing fertility and infertility during, 70 depression and anxiety during, 302–5 diagnosing, 141–42 diet and, 216–18, 297 digestive disorders during, 80 early, risk factors for, 64–66 exercise and, 228–30, 234, 238 eye dryness during, 80 fatigue during, 79–80 finding right practitioner for, 326–33 hair loss during, 78, 311–14 heart-related problems during, 81 headaches and migraines during, 82 hormone therapy for, see Hormone therapy imaging and diagnostic tests for, 141 menstrual irregularities and, 39, 68–70, 143, 146, 308–11 mind-body connection in, 269–88 mineral imbalances and, 214–15 mood changes during, 74–75 mouth dryness during, 80–81 natural supplements for, 177–209 process of, 60–62 self-checks for, 135–36 sexual dysfunction during, 77, 305–8 skin changes during, 78 sleep problems during, 73, 289–94 smoking and, 322 terminology of, 66–67 thyroid dosage requirements and, 134 urinary problems during, 76–77, 315–16 vaginal dryness during, 75–76, 314–15 vasomotor symptoms of, see Hot flashes; Night sweats weight gain during, 73–74, 294–302 Pernicious anemia, 39 Pesticides, 32 Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 348 PharmaDerm, 347 Phenelzine, 303 Phenobarbital, 306 Phenytoin, 123 Phobias, 39 Photosensitivity, 48 Phytoestrogens, 133, 182, 193–201, 227, 316 PhytoPharmica/Enzymatic Therapies, 205 Pierpaoli, Walter, 186–92, 351, 357 Pilates, 235–37 Pineal gland, 15, 180, 184–85, 187–89, 311 Pituitary gland, 15–17, 19–20, 53, 60, 126, 180, 211, 311 failure of, 38 tumors of, 26, 138 Placenta, 17 Plantar fasciitis, 37, 43 Plummer’s nails, 50, 86 Polycistic ovary syndrome, 26, 38, 65, 327 Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, 38 Polymenorrhea, 39 Portion size, reducing, 218–19, 324 Positive attitude, benefits of, 270–72 Power-Surge, 175, 334, 335, 345 Pranayama, 283 Precursor hormones, see specific hormones Prednisone, 34, 36, 295 Prefest, 156 Pregnancy, 55, 60, 64 during perimenopause, 69, 70, 137 thyroid problems and, 27–28 Pregnenolone, 6, 59, 142, 182 Premarin, 3, 8, 150, 152, 164, 165, 168, 171, 217, 329, 346 Premenopause, see Perimenopause Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 55, 61, 68, 179, 206, 271 Premphase, 8, 156, 163, 346 Prempro, 3, 8, 147, 152, 156, 158, 163, 164, 168, 169, 171, 329, 346 Pretibial myxedema, 43–44, 86 Prevention magazine, 273, 334 Prior, Jerilynn, 61–62, 72–73, 308–9, 318, 357 Probiotics, 126–27 Processed foods, 220–21, 324 Prochieve, 145, 347 ProGest Cream, 146 Progesterone, 4–6, 14, 16, 59, 182, 185, 302 blood tests for, 139–41 in menstrual cycle, 54, 55 in perimenopause/menopause, 60–62, 75, 77, 80 therapy, 144–48, 152, 156–61, 165, 173, 295, 309, 312 Prolactin, 16 Prolapse, 76, 137 Promensil, 195, 197 Prometrium, 8, 145, 148, 164, 169, 348 Propecia, 313 Propranolol, 34, 36, 105, 303 Propylthiouracil (PTU), 21, 105, 113, 205 ProSom, 293 Protein, 297 low-fat sources of, 220, 296 Provera, 144, 165, 217, 348 Prozac, 121, 292, 295, 296, 303, 306, 317 Psoriasis, 27, 43 Psychotherapy, 304, 307 Puberty, 53, 60, 175, 271 Puffiness, 50 Pulmonary embolism, 154, 158 Pycnogenol, 207 Pygeum, 314 Pyridoxine, 125 Quazepam, 293 Questran, 122 Radiation therapy, 32, 65, 67, 107 Radioactive iodine (RAI), 21, 22, 25, 65, 105–8, 132, 227 Radioactive iodine uptake (RAI-U) scan, 94–95, 97, 98 Radium therapy, 32–33 Raloxifene, 35, 36, 153, 306 Ranitidine, 35, 306 Raynaud’s disease, 27 Red clover, 181–82, 194, 195 Red Hot Mamas, 305, 345 Red raspberry leaf tea, 310 Reflexes, 21, 85 Regelson, Walter, 351 Reglan, 36 Reiss, Uzzi, 144, 147, 172, 174, 178, 190, 344, 357 Religious beliefs, 286, 326 Remeron, 292, 303 Remifemin, 202, 203 Replens, 315 Reproductive hormone pathway, 58–60 Resmethrin, 32 Restoril, 293 Reversal of Aging (Pierpaoli), 351 Reverse T3 test, 92 Rheumatoid arthritis, 27 Riboflavin, 125 Rifampin, 123 Robert, Teri, 82, 357 Roberts, Bruce, 354 Roberts, Molly, 166, 190, 191, 198, 224, 277, 278, 280, 320–21, 354, 357 Rogaine, 313 Rotsaert, Stefanie, 272, 334–35 Royal Maca, 180–84, 308, 310, 351 Safe, 206 St.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

The world looks the way it did a thousand years ago, when the ten largest cities were Córdoba, in Spain; Kaifeng, in China; Constantinople; Angkor, in Cambodia; Kyoto; Cairo; Baghdad; Nishapur, in Iran; Al-Hasa, in Saudi Arabia; and Patan, in India. As Swedish statistician Hans Rosling says, “The world will be normal again; it will be an Asian world, as it always was except for these last thousand years. They are working like hell to make that happen, whereas we are consuming like hell.” • It may be distracting, though, to focus just on the world’s twenty-four megacities—those with a population over 10 million. The real action is in what the United Nations calls small cities (fewer than 500,000 inhabitants; home to half of the world’s city dwellers) and intermediate cities (1 million to 5 million, where 22 percent of urbanites live). A UN report points out: “They are often the first places where the social urban transformation of families and individuals occurs; by offering economic linkages between rural and urban environments, they can provide a ‘first step’ out of poverty for impoverished rural populations and a gateway to opportunities in larger cities.”

When defense against raids by nomadic Apaches and Navajos became irrelevant after the conquest by whites, the Pueblos all dispersed into scattered buildings (except where high-rise density is maintained partly for tourists, as at Taos and Acoma). “The earliest meaning of ‘town,’ said the urban scholar Lewis Mumford, “is an enclosed or fortified place.” Agriculture, it appears, was an early invention by the dwellers of walled towns to allow their settlements to keep growing, as in Geoffrey West’s formulation. Today’s megacities rely on the same flow of innovation. A 2006 UN-HABITAT report proposed thatCities are engines of rural development. . . . Improved infrastructure between rural areas and cities increases rural productivity and enhances rural residents’ access to education, health care, markets, credit, information and other services. On the other hand, enhanced urban-rural linkages benefit cities through increased rural demand for urban goods and services and added value derived from agricultural produce.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

The ruins of the Yuanming Yuan – largely ignored if not viewed with suspicion as remnants of a feudal past between 1949 and 1978 – are now used to whip up nationalist, and sometimes xenophobic, sentiment, in order to forge a nation state based on those very nineteenth-century European ideals that led to the destruction of the palace in the first place. The cruel irony that the most visible of its remains are Western buildings has not been lost on Chinese observers, although the possibility that they might be inappropriate touchstones for a supposedly socialist country is very rarely suggested. And today, Beijing, Shanghai and the other mega-cities of China are filled with modern buildings that meld Western and Chinese characteristics. The so-called Bird’s Nest stadium in Beijing, for example, was the result of a collaboration between Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron and Chinese artist Ai Wei Wei. Like the Olympic opening ceremony that took place there in 2008, it’s a bizarre confection of Soviet and consumerist spectacle. Similarly, the new HQ of the Chinese national broadcaster, a heavily censored propaganda outlet going by the sinister acronym of CCTV, was designed by erstwhile enfant terrible Rem Koolhaas as a kind of gigantic character 口 (pronounced ‘kou’ meaning mouth – of the party?)

These come in many forms, whether peripheral accretions like Rocinha or older enclaves such as Cairo’s City of the Dead, a Mameluke cemetery the tombs of which are inhabited by over half a million people. Slumification is not the only problem facing architecture: in 2010 the proportion of the world’s people living in cities passed 50 per cent for the first time. The majority of urbanites live in the megacities of the developing world, such as Shanghai, Mexico City or even prodigious new forms like the endless sprawl of the Rio/Sao Paulo Extended Metropolitan Region, which has a combined population of 45 million. While cities swell and fuse to become regional megalopolises, the countryside is also urbanising. In China, as Mike Davis wrote in his staggering book Planet of Slums, ‘in many cases, rural people no longer have to migrate to the city: it migrates to them’.4 He concluded, ‘The cities of the future, rather than being made out of glass and steel as envisioned by earlier generations of urbanists, are instead largely constructed out of crude brick, straw, recycled plastic, cement blocks, and scrap wood.


pages: 102 words: 33,345

24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep by Jonathan Crary

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

augmented reality, Berlin Wall, dematerialisation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invention of movable type, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, megacity, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, V2 rocket

In many ways the uncertain status of sleep has to be understood in relation to the particular dynamic of modernity which has invalidated any organization of reality into binary complementaries. The homogenizing force of capitalism is incompatible with any inherent structure of differentiation: sacred-profane, carnival-workday, nature-culture, machine-organism, and so on. Thus any persisting notions of sleep as somehow “natural” are rendered unacceptable. Of course, people will continue to sleep, and even sprawling megacities will still have nocturnal intervals of relative quiescence. Nonetheless, sleep is now an experience cut loose from notions of necessity or nature. Instead, like so much else, it is conceptualized as a variable but managed function that can only be defined instrumentally and physiologically. Recent research has shown that the number of people who wake themselves up once or more at night to check their messages or data is growing exponentially.


pages: 614 words: 176,458

Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce

Concerns arise when the pace of change in the livestock sector exceeds the capacity of the rest of the economy to provide alternative employment opportunities.13 There is no shortage of reasons for challenging the trajectory laid down by the FAO. Why, we may ask, should the rest of the world follow the path we have trodden, can they not learn from our mistakes? What is to be gained by dispossessing peasants – the only people on this earth whose environmental footprint does not extend into other people’s space – and herding them into megacities of jaw-dropping unsustainability? When the world is already facing a resource crisis, how can it make sense to promote a centralized food economy that pours good human food down animals’ gullets and that relies so heavily upon fossil fuels for its fertility, processing, transport, refrigeration, packaging and commercialisation? These are all crucial questions, but they cannot be posed with much integrity by those who enjoy a diet that is unattainable for others on the lower rungs of the FAO’s ladder of urbanization.

As the FAO acknowledges ‘it will be difficult to apply the [polluter pays] principle to methane emissions from single cows owned on an Indian mixed farm of half a hectare.’76 On the macro scale, a major shift from ruminants to monogastrics, again favoured by the FAO, would also require intensified production methods, involving increased reliance on fossil fuel dependent, N2O-emitting arable crops, and the loss of soil carbon through the ploughing up of pasture. As the FAO remarks ‘ruminant production, both meat and milk, tends to be much more rural-based’, because of the need for bulky fibrous feeds. If large numbers of ‘inefficient’ cows were culled, millions of poor rural dwellers would lose the ability to harness their local biomass and add to the swell of refugees flocking into megacities. There is a very good case for reducing the numbers of feedlot cattle and of rainforest cattle, which are extravagant and destructive in other respects; but beyond that, large scale reductions in ruminants would have uncertain returns in terms of methane emission because we cannot be sure how the biosphere will respond, would increase pressure for fossil fuel consumption, and would have severe social repercussions.

This means that about 0.2 hectares of such agriculture can support one individual without HEAP effects, provided that the nutrient-containing residues are returned to the agriculture’.77 HEAPs are also an area of concern for the FAO, who observe: There is growing concentration of livestock activities in certain favoured locations … This concentration is driven by the newly gained independence of industrial livestock from the specific natural endowments of given locations which have previously determined the location of livestock production (as they still do for most of crop agriculture).78 The FAO’s term for this problem is ‘nutrient loading’ which, it explains, is due to the ‘urbanization of livestock’: Geographic concentration or what could be called the ‘urbanization of livestock’ is in many ways a response to the rapid urbanization of human populations … The separation of livestock production and the growing of feed crops is a defining characteristic of the industrialization of livestock production. Nutrient loading is caused by high animal densities, particularly on the periphery of cities and by inadequate animal waste treatment.79 The FAO’s solution is to ruralize ‘confined animal feeding operations’, or factory farms, which it considers should no longer be sited like satellites around megacities, but should be more widely distributed throughout the countryside. Since the SARS and swine flu epidemics, the FAO also cites the risk of disease as another reason for dispersal.80 This is a move in the right direction, but unless these factories are subdivided back into smaller farms, the nutrients will still end up in a huge methane generating HEAP (though in a more bucolic location) and still require fossil-fuel powered transport to take them back to the land from which they came.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Then, about 18,000 years ago, global warming sent those glaciers into fast recession, so fast that whole regions rapidly emerged EARTH'S CHANGEABLE ENVIRONMENTS 73 from under the ice, huge ice sheets shd into the oceans, the sealevel rose, the margins of the continents were submerged, land bridges between continents and islands were inundated, and the map of the physical world began to look similar to the one we know today. Twelve thousand years ago, cold conditions made a brief comeback, but that did not last. From about 10,000 years ago until today, humanity has thrived in the warmth of a prolonged interglacial we call the Holocene, but unlike the Eemian, the Holocene has witnessed the emergence of complex cultures and civilizations, the population explosion, the formation of states and empires, the growth of megacities, and the burgeoning of technology in countless forms. It has also seen wars and destruction on an unprecedented scale. With our human numbers approaching 7 billion and global warming opening the last niches for habitation, the question is: what happens when the ice returns, as it has more than two dozen times during the Pleistocene? CLIMATE AND CIVILIZATION When the long dominance of the Wisconsinan Glaciation finally came to an end and the vast, thick glaciers that had covered all of Canada and most of the United States Midwest began to recede, planet Earth embarked on an environmental transformation not seen for more than a hundred thousand years.

Sooner or later we will face extremes that come upon us quickly and will give us little time to find ways to cope with the consequences. For all our technological prowess, we still depend on nature to sustain us. We are living, in the words of the geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer, in the autumn of the interglacial Holocene, the brief epoch that has witnessed the transformation of our human world from small villages to megacities and from simple to complex cultures, from isolated communities to intercon- 86 WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS nected empires and from stone tools to spacecraft. On the scale of our lifetimes, it has all happened in the past few seconds, and our modern experience with the kinds of challenges nature can pose—from meteor impacts to glacia-tions—is virtually nil. We will never be able to control climate change, but we may be able to mitigate it somewhat by limiting our greenhouse-gas emanations.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Though the once all-powerful government in Delhi has in recent decades ceded significant spending authority to chief ministers in India’s twenty-nine states, that power has not filtered down to the mayoral level, and it shows. Smaller cities struggle to grow, and when rural Indians do move to urban areas, they tend to choose the four megacities, with populations of over ten million: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Bangalore. If China is a nation of boom cities, India is a land of creaking megacities, surrounded by small towns and not enough vibrant second cities. The Service Cities The rise of cities along trade routes that carry hard goods is today accompanied by the rise of cities at the center of various service industries. When the Internet first started to revolutionize communications in the 1990s, experts thought it would allow people to do most service jobs just about anywhere, dispersing these businesses to all corners of every country and making location irrelevant.


pages: 182 words: 56,961

The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right by Atul Gawande

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Atul Gawande, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, index card, John Snow's cholera map, megacity, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster

And the interventions proved to have widely transmissible benefits—what business types would term a large ROI (return on investment) or what Archimedes would have called, merely, leverage. Thinking of these essential requirements—simple, measurable, transmissible—I recalled one of my favorite public health studies. It was a joint public health program conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and HOPE, a charitable organization in Pakistan, to address the perilous rates of premature death among children in the slums of Karachi. The squatter settlements surrounding the megacity contained more than four million people living under some of the most crowded and squalid conditions in the world. Sewage ran in the streets. Chronic poverty and food shortages left 30 to 40 percent of the children malnourished. Virtually all drinking water sources were contaminated. One child in ten died before age five—usually from diarrhea or acute respiratory infections. The roots of these problems were deep and multifactorial.


pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

In 2007 he started working within the company on mobility solutions and urban transport options beyond cars. “The idea that we are going to create a middle class in BRIC economies doesn’t make sense. Not everyone wants or should have 2.2 cars.” In the future, Berdish imagines a world where cars are more of a shared resource and more functional. “Cars will have to be more stripped down. In a sharing economy or mega-city, you don’t need satellite radio and fancy navigation systems; you just need cars to serve a function.” Berdish helped develop mobility solutions at Ford, which meant showing the company the value of business models built around car sharing and mass urban transport options like rail, metro, buses, and bicycles. He encountered a lot of frustration, as the focus of the company was still on cars and trucks, but his vice president at the time offered support.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

It is clear that neither countries nor regions can flourish if their cities (innovation ecosystems) are not being continually nourished. Cities have been the engines of economic growth, prosperity and social progress throughout history, and will be essential to the future competitiveness of nations and regions. Today, more than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, ranging from mid-size cities to megacities, and the number of city dwellers worldwide keeps rising. Many factors that affect the competitiveness of countries and regions – from innovation and education to infrastructure and public administration – are under the purview of cities. The speed and breadth by which cities absorb and deploy technology, supported by agile policy frameworks, will determine their ability to compete in attracting talent.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

The creators of the Internet envisioned something bigger and more important than a global system for sharing pictures of pets. The manifesto that helped launch the Electronic Frontier Foundation in the early nineties championed a “civilization of Mind in cyberspace”—a kind of worldwide metabrain. But personalized filters sever the synapses in that brain. Without knowing it, we may be giving ourselves a kind of global lobotomy instead. From megacities to nanotech, we’re creating a global society whose complexity has passed the limits of individual comprehension. The problems we’ll face in the next twenty years—energy shortages, terrorism, climate change, and disease—are enormous in scope. They’re problems that we can only solve together. Early Internet enthusiasts like Web creator Tim Berners-Lee hoped it would be a new platform for tackling those problems.


pages: 256 words: 76,433

Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion by Elizabeth L. Cline

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, clean water, East Village, feminist movement, income inequality, informal economy, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, megacity, race to the bottom, Skype, special economic zone, trade liberalization, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile

I looked it up on the Internet and a wave of panic rippled through me. Panyu is a city in Guangdong Province. In fact, Panyu is a city of more than 1 million people located within the boundaries of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province, and the location of several of the factory meetings I had set up. I was finally connecting China’s very large dots. The three cities I was planning to zip back and forth between by cab form a single megacity bigger than any metropolis in the United States. Shenzhen has a population of around 14 million people. Dongguan, located between Shenzhen and Guangzhou, has more than 8 million, and Guangzhou has roughly 13 million. All told, Guangdong Province has at least 100 million inhabitants, almost a third of the United States’ population crammed into a space the size of Missouri. I went into recon mode and made sure I wasn’t spending a single unguided moment in southern China.


pages: 241 words: 83,523

A Swamp Full of Dollars: Pipelines and Paramilitaries at Nigeria's Oil Frontier by Michael Peel

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, energy security, informal economy, megacity, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, trade route, UNCLOS, wage slave

In this warped system where wealth springs from the ground and the till rings without fail every day, there is a much bigger return to be had in putting obstacles in people’s way than in removing them. One of the boys’ sources of income is spurious ‘taxes’ that they apply to the trucks passing through their domains, bearing consumer goods bought with the proceeds of crude. As my friend puts it, ‘Everyone must have a pinch of that money. It’s just like a game.’ That contest, played for the stakes of oil cash, is at its hardest and most vital in Nigeria’s seething mega-city. On one level, Lagos is a macrocosm of the social forces that have pitilessly impoverished huge numbers of Nigerians and diminished their chances of survival. The World Bank estimated that in 2006 the country had a 10 per cent infant mortality rate. Nigeria ranked a lowly 154th out of 179 countries in the United Nations’ annual index of human development published in 2008. The UN said Nigerians’ average life expectancy was just 46.6 years, while almost a third of adults were illiterate.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve

Finally—and as if I needed to convince you further of the challenges—politics around the world also needs to play catch-up with a number of consequential secular and structural transformations in society; these meaningful challenges face governments that find it inherently hard to disrupt themselves for the better (it is difficult enough for business and individuals to do so; for governments it is infinitely more so). These include wide-scale urbanization and the emergence of megacities, which render even more important the effective devolution of some power to cities and municipalities. Meanwhile, and perhaps more important, rapid technological innovations have enabled and empowered individuals like never before (something that we will return to later in the book). Today, so many more people in so many more places are enabled to connect and participate, and, soon, they will also be able to make a lot more things.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

And, while we’re at it, let’s also get rid of the fallacy that a higher salary is automatically a reflection of societal value. Then we might realize that in terms of value creation, it just doesn’t pay to be a banker. New York City, 50 Years Later Half a century after the strike, the Big Apple seems to have learned its lesson. “Everyone in NYC wants to be garbage collector,” read a recent newspaper headline. These days, the people who pick up after the megacity earn an enviable salary. After five years on the payroll, they can take home as much as $70,000 plus overtime and perks. “They keep the city running,” a Sanitation Department spokesperson explained in the article. “If they were to stop working, however briefly, all of New York City would come to a standstill.”20 The paper also interviewed a city sanitation worker. In 2006, Joseph Lerman, then 20, got a call from the city informing him he could report for duty as a collector.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

China and India have demonstrated that they can mobilise funds and political initiative for sustainable transport projects and projects that genuinely improve conditions for those not owning or using cars. After describing 3 strategies in China for encouraging motorised transport Gao et al (2014) discuss measures that are intended to restrain car use: “More strictly, strategies restricting purchase and use of private vehicles are now emerging in the megacities of China. For instance, the Beijing municipal government initiated the rationing of road space for the 2008 Olympics. Car use was curtailed according to the number on the license plates. Another example is limiting quota of new car registration in an attempt to curb unsustainable levels of automobile ownership (Song, 2013). This has since been further tightened by 37.5% to 150,000 per year in 2017.

Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

The existence of the new lake is still a matter of intense speculation, and many experts remain unconvinced by the geological science underlying el-Baz’s claims.23 While only time will tell whether water for Darfur’s desperate millions will help end the conflict there, we shouldn’t underestimate the power of water in dousing violence in Africa. 135 Chapter Six ½ Death by a Thousand Small Cuts M A Gruesome Calculus urders, kidnappings, and car-jackings are part of daily life in the sprawling megacities of the developing world, causing the rich and privileged to retreat to lives behind high, barbed wire-topped walls. Kenya’s capital got the nickname “Nairobbery” for a reason. While civil war is violence played out on a grand and tragic scale, countries spared large-scale conflict can still suffer death by a thousand small cuts in the form of violent crime. Some of these personal tragedies have obvious economic underpinnings—the hungry and destitute naturally covet their neighbors’ possessions.


pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

Any golden rule is fallible when it comes to predicting or deterring burglary. To say that walkable, nongridded urban environments are somehow resistant to crime would make absolutely no sense in England. England is hardly a global hot spot for rationally gridded, car-centric towns, yet it boasts the highest rate of burglary in the entire European Union. Italy, another nation not known for its automobile-dependent, gridded megacities, is a close second for residential burglaries (in some years, it is actually worse than England). On paper, they should be nearly burglary-free. When seen through the eyes of a burglar, many architectural features take on an unexpected dual role. Such things as back doors and side windows often double as potential getaway routes, for example, and experienced burglars will often only target houses with at least two points of exit.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

Every day 340,000 people are born on Earth. The human population is expected to increase to nine billion by 2042, most living in dense urban areas.20 The year 2007 marked a great tipping point in the history of human settlement, similar in magnitude to the agricultural era. For the first time in history, a majority of human beings live in vast urban areas, according to the United Nations—many in mega-cities with suburban extensions—some with populations of ten million people or more. We have become “Homo urbanus.” The urbanization of the world has been made possible by a tremendous increase in entropic flow. Urban societal structures maintain human life far away from equilibrium by pumping more and more of the Earth’s available energy and material through their arteries, to support ever more sumptuous lifestyles at the core of the infrastructure, while dumping ever more entropic waste at the margins and in the external environment.

Macpherson, Crawford Maddux, William Madonna Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds, The (Bowlby) Making of a Counter Culture, The (Roszak) Making of the Modern Mind, The (Randall) male sensitivity Man of Feeling, The (Mackenzie) Managed Heart, The (Hochschild) Mandela, Nelson Manifesto of the Communist Party, The (Engels and Marx) Margulis, Lynn market model market sector marriage companionate intermarriage Romantic movement and same-sex Martin, Gerry Marx, Karl Mask (film) Maslow, Abraham mass audiences mass collaboration mass extinction mass literacy Masson, Jeffrey materialism Matteucci, Carlo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology May, Rollo Mayans MBA curriculum McDermott, Michael McEwen, Robert McGregor, Holly McKee, Annie McKenna, Katelyn McLuhan, Marshall McNeill, David McNeill, William Mead, George Herbert meaning beyond survival mechanistic approach media mediated association Meeks, Wayne A. mega-bands mega-cities Meltzoff, Andrew, Dr. Mencius mercantilism merchant capitalists Mercier, Louis-Sébastien Mesopotamia meta narrative metaphors dramaturgical electricity psychological methane method acting. See deep acting Mexico Michelangelo Middle Ages agriculture in birth of humanism in childhood in consciousness in energy revolution in entropy crisis in family life in guilds in print revolution in Middle East migration Milgram, Stanley Mill, John Stuart Millennial Generation Millennial Makeover (Winograd and Hais) Miller, G.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

A UN estimate of ‘world migrant stock’ suggests that roughly one in every 30 people has moved to a new country of residence within a single lifetime.11 A Vatican document describes this as ‘the vastest movement of people of all times’.12 Ours is now a city planet. In 2014, more than half the world’s population already lived in cities, and UN projections suggest that the world’s cities will add another 2.5 billion people by 2020.13 These will be men, women and children from everywhere, especially in the ‘megacities’ with more than 10 million inhabitants. There are already at least 25 world cities where more than one out of every four residents was born abroad, and the 2011 Canadian census revealed that an astonishing 51 percent of the population of Toronto was foreign-born.14 This is before you even get to ‘postmigrants’, the children and grandchildren of migrants. In such cities, you routinely rub shoulders with men and women from every country, culture, faith and ethnicity.

., 48, 189–90, 193, 194–95 Liechtenstein, 293 lifeblood, 77, 119–28 Lilburne, John (‘Free-Born John’), 372–73, 374 Lincoln, Abraham, 74 linguistic challenges, 95–96 Link, Perry, 45 Lippmann, Walter, 202 Lipstadt, Deborah, 158 Li Qiang, 106 literacy rates worldwide, 13, 15f Liu Xiaobo, 43, 46, 95, 373–74, 378 Lives On, 317 Lloyd, John, 191 Locke, John, 78, 84 Long Walk to Freedom (Mandela), 47 Lukashenko, Aleksander, 124 Lukes, Steven, 24 lumendatabase.org/chillingeffects.org, 53, 55, 168 Luther, Martin, 20, 278, 316, 376–78 Macao, 105 Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 47, 224 MacCullough, Diarmaid, 272, 277 Machiavelli, 208, 210 ‘machine speech’/algorithms, 17, 364–67 machine translation, 95, 172, 175–76 MacKinnon, Catherine, 89, 247–48 MacKinnon, Rebecca, 48, 72 MacMaster, Tom, 314 Madison, James, 78 Mahabharata, 109 Mahmood, Syed, 72, 73–74, 239 Malamuth, Neil, 248 Malaysia, 67, 278, 281 Malcolm, Noel, 133 Malema, Julius, 136 malicious truth, 305–6 Malik, Kenan, 219, 224 Malik, Zubeida, 70 Mancini, Paolo, 197 Mandela, Nelson, 47, 89, 91, 110–11 Manji, Irshad, 274, 314 Mann, Heinrich, 96 Mann, Thomas, 246 Manning, Bradley (Chelsea), 337, 343 Mao Tse-tung, 38, 99, 160 Mapplethorpe, Robert, 247 Marat, Jean-Paul, 144 Margalit, Avishai, 209, 217–18 ‘marketplace of communities,’ 211 ‘marketplace of ideas,’ 75–76 Marks & Spencer, 312 Marsden, Christopher, 348 Mary (mother of Jesus), 269 masks and truth-telling, 316 Master Switch, The (Wu), 52 May, Erskine, 85 Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor, 162, 305, 309, 313 McGrath, Alister, 256 McLuhan, Marshall, 18 McNealy, Scott, 284 Mead, Walter Russell, 32 media, 182, 337; ‘baseline private,’ 188; convergence of, 187; criticising one’s own, 236–37; defined, 181, 342; diverse, 189–200; ‘ethical private,’ 188; ‘media literacy,’ 199–200; monopoly-owned, 190–95; need for diversity in and by, 235; ownership and control of, 189–94; pluralism of, 36, 144, 182, 189–97, 235–36, 389n91; political orientation of, 196; ‘premium standard,’ 188; public service, 196; systems of, 182; ‘totally unregulated,’ 188; trustworthiness of, 200–205, 343–44; uncensored within limits, 183–89 Media Standards Trust, 188 ‘megacities,’ 9 Mehta, Pratap Bhanu, 225 Meiklejohn, Alexander, 77 Mencken, H. L., 243–44 Mendes, Chico, 129 Merkel, Angela, 213, 231 mesomnesia, 305 Mexico, 334, 354 Michnik, Adam, 251, 288 Mickiewicz, Adam, 286 microphone-lurking, 311 Middle East, 45 Middleton, Kate, 295 Milani, Abbas, 185 Mill, John Stuart, 51, 75, 77, 80–81, 87, 88, 95–108, 114, 154, 156, 259, 371, 373; on grains of truth, 154 Miller, Judith, 344–45 Milošević, Slobodan, 133 Milton, John, 8, 26, 75, 80, 155, 181, 268, 373 ‘mindbugs,’ 232 minority voices, 189 Moldova, 334 Molnár, Péter, 220 Mondrian, Piet, 97, 223 money, distorting power of, 48–50, 59, 121, 169–70, 189–95, 296, 302, 367–69 Mongolia, 104f Montaigne, Michel de, 230 Montesquieu, 98, 208–10 Mooney, Randi, 56 Moore, Charles, 225–26 Moore, Gordon/Moore’s Law, 12 (12f) Moore, Suzanne, 92 ‘moral globalisation,’ 4 moralism, 86–87, 89, 218, 247 Morgenstern, Christian, 154 Morin, Edgar, 219 Mormonism, 259–60 Morocco, 19 Moroni (angel), 259 Morrisons, 312 Morsi, Mohammad, 64, 66, 69 Mortimer, Edward, 277 Mosley, Max, 288, 294–96 Mountain Language (Pinter), 122 movable type, 11 MoveOn.org, 60 movie ratings, 186 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 324 MSNBC, 197 Mubarak, Hosni, 183, 257, 315, 330, 363 Mugabe, Robert, 124 Muhammad, 19, 63, 67, 125–26, 134, 143–46, 160, 226, 244, 254, 266, 273, 275.


pages: 258 words: 83,303

Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller: Oil and the End of Globalization by Jeff Rubin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization

But that is going to change. During the 1990s, the American economy lost two acres of farmland every minute. Tomorrow’s farm sector may be regaining those acres at the same pace. And you may run into your long-lost barista selling heirloom tomatoes at the local farmers’ market. If you believe in markets, you may be surprised by what the future looks like. Not personal spacecraft or gleaming megacities—those are the daydreams of the era of cheap energy. The future will look a lot like the past. And that means more farms. We have already seen that soaring transport costs and the subsequent collapse of commuter traffic will depopulate the suburbs. The farther they are from where people work, the emptier they will get. Half-built subdivisions are already being abandoned. Without the steady cash flow from new home sales, developers will bail, leaving muddy fields with a few foundations poking out of the ground.


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Fan recognises the challenges of running such a system, so he has suggested it be started on an experimental scale with relatively small reserves.8 Unlike China’s Great Famine of 1958–1962, when the burden was borne most acutely by rural peasants, urban food security is the big challenge today. There are now more than 400 cities in the world with a population above 1 million, including 160 in China alone and 45 in India. That compares with less than 20 such cities globally 100 years ago. In the emerging world, megacities such as Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka, Manila, Sao Paulo, Jakarta, Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran, Mexico City, Lagos, Karachi, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires all have populations of 10 million or more. By 2050, when the world’s population reaches 9 billion, 6 billion people will live in cities. According to agricultural scientist Professor M. S. Swaminathan, the father of India’s first Green Revolution of the 1960s–1970s, the rapid urbanisation of the Third World has brought food security front and centre of global concerns.


pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Were they worse off in the city, they would move back to the countryside.39 Polèse also observes that it “should thus come as no surprise that attempts to slow down or to stop urbanization have failed miserably” and that in places like China where political authorities were able to do so temporarily, the result was “even greater rural-urban income disparities and an explosion of urbanization once the measures [were] lifted.”40 People should be given the alternatives that only large and prosperous, if chaotic and unsettling, cities can offer. As the economist Edward Glaeser observes: “Megacities are not too big. Limiting their growth would cause significantly more hardship than gain, and urban growth is a great way to reduce rural poverty.”41 And reducing rural poverty, we suggest, is a great way to improve social capital. Higher Food Prices and Humanistic Pursuits The greatest social blow delivered by locavorism, however, is ultimately much reduced food diversity (for no location can produce more than a fraction of the world’s offering) and higher food prices that will either force people to cut down on overall consumption or switch to less interesting alternatives.


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

The uneven geographical development that results is as infinitely varied as it is volatile: a deindustrialised city in northern China; a shrinking city in what was once East Germany; the booming industrial cities in the Pearl River delta; an IT concentration in Bangalore; a Special Economic Zone in India where dispossessed peasants revolt; indigenous populations under pressure in Amazonia or New Guinea; the affluent neighbourhoods in Greenwich, Connecticut (until recently, at least, hedge fund capital of the world); the conflict-ridden oil fields in the Ogoni region of Nigeria; the autonomous zones carved out by a militant movement such as the Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico; the vast soy bean production zones in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina; the rural regions of Darfur or the Congo where civil wars relentlessly rage; the staid middle-class suburbs of London, Los Angeles or Munich; the shanty towns of South Africa; the garment factories of Sri Lanka or the call centres of Barbados and Bangalore ‘manned’ entirely by women; the new megacities in the Gulf States with their star-architect-designed buildings – all of this (and of course much more) when taken together constitutes a world of geographical difference that has been made by human action. At first blush, this world would appear to be so geographically diverse as to escape principled understanding, let alone rationalised control. How on earth does it all relate? That there are intertwinings and inter-relationships is obvious.


pages: 297 words: 89,206

Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, precariat, psychological pricing, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

Figure 8.2 shows the percentage change in GVA between 2007 and 2011 relative to London, showing a pronounced decline in all major provincial urban centres. Every city lost ground to the capital during this period. Nascent nationalist identities in Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland are partly a response to this urban centrality. Within England, Evan Davis has argued that northern cities needed to overcome their parochial cultural differences for the greater good in the formation of a mega-city which could truly rival London in economic terms. This has fed into arguments about the need for a ‘northern powerhouse’. In fact, adding the value of Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and Sheffield together (by, for example, running high-speed trains between them) would create an urban core with only half the power of London – hardly a major rival.7 With such developments it is little wonder that The Economist argued that ‘economically, socially and politically, the north is becoming another country’.8 But in fact, it would be erroneous to see this as predominantly a north–south divide.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Some estimate 170,000, others say upward of a million.16 Whatever the real number is, it is an enormous area and a blank spot on the map until 2009. In fact, many government maps still identify Kibera as a forest. Even Google Maps reveals few details for one of the most crowded and impoverished slums on the planet. By itself Nairobi has some two hundred slums, few of which are on government maps. Some poor districts of the world’s megacities, like Nairobi, become what Bob Neuwirth calls “marquee slums”: they attract all the big nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and charity projects.17 Most of them were not on maps, until Primož Kovačič arrived. Kovačič decided to help launch a collective project to, at the very least, map the area.18 Gathering a group of volunteer “trackers” equipped with some basic consumer electronics, including cheap GPS devices and mobile phones, Kovačič and his colleagues “found” Kibera.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Landlord's Game, lone genius, megacity, Minecraft, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

Just as Louis Sullivan’s original skyscrapers had defined the urban skylines of the first half of the twentieth century, Gruen’s shopping mall proliferated around the globe, first in suburban American towns newly populated by white flight émigrés from metropolitan centers. Shopping meccas like L.A.’s Beverly Center became cultural landmarks, and the default leisure activity of hanging at the mall would define an entire generation of “Valley girls.” But as mall culture went global, Gruen’s design became increasingly prominent in the downtown centers of new megacities. Originally conceived as a way to escape the harsh winters of Minnesota, Gruen’s enclosed public space accelerated the mass migration to desert or tropical climates made possible by the invention of air-conditioning. Today, the ten largest shopping malls in the world are all located in non-U.S. or European countries with tropical or desert climates, such as China, the Philippines, Iran, and Thailand.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

None of us have to worry about these utopia paradoxes, because utopias never work. Every utopian scenario contains self-corrupting flaws. My aversion to utopias goes even deeper. I have not met a speculative utopia I would want to live in. I’d be bored in utopia. Dystopias, their dark opposites, are a lot more entertaining. They are also much easier to envision. Who can’t imagine an apocalyptic last-person-on-earth finale, or a world run by robot overlords, or a megacity planet slowly disintegrating into slums, or, easiest of all, a simple nuclear Armageddon? There are endless possibilities of how the modern civilization collapses. But just because dystopias are cinematic and dramatic, and much easier to imagine, that does not make them likely. The flaw in most dystopian narratives is that they are not sustainable. Shutting down civilization is actually hard.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

It further projects that by 2050, 66% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. It is worth noting, however, that in many parts of the world, we’ve already exceeded this projected number. In North America, 82% of people live in urban areas. Latin America and the Caribbean are not far behind at 80%. In Europe, 73% of people live in urban areas. It is precisely in these urban areas, and especially in the world’s megacities (urban areas with 10 million residents or more), that the promise of crowd-based capitalism seems most salient. Cities are sharing economies. When you live in a city, you share public parks. You share transportation using taxis, buses, and the subway. You share common areas in your apartment building. As a city resident you are naturally accustomed to a world of asset sharing rather than exclusive ownership.


pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

In the north-east, south-west and west, China is surrounded by the most isolated countries of South-east Asia, the ’stans of central Asia, Afghanistan, Bhutan, India and Pakistan, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea and Russia. They are some of the most unpredictable states on the planet, and the conflicts that rage within them inevitably spill across the frontiers. To explore the border regions is to enter a very different China from the glittering mega-cities of Beijing and Shanghai, one that is often lawless and prone to violence. Now they are areas where some of the world’s most pressing problems confront China directly. The war against terrorism and on drugs, people smuggling and the exploitation of the environment all have their own unique Chinese aspect. Twisting history, the CCP does its best to insist that the borderlands have long been part of China.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

They depart when travelers are ready, rather than when vehicles are. They’re just hugely inefficient. A properly designed system needs the benefits of efficiency and flexibility, which means it needs to be, as we noted in the Prologue, what engineers call multimodal, offering many different ways of getting from place to place, and multinodal, with routes that incorporate the maximum number of connection points. Whether small towns or megacities, the first key to multimodal/multinodal transportation is space: the two- and three-dimensional map of the transportation system—not just the roads and tracks, but the surrounding buildings and other structures and how they relate to one another. When the activities where people interact with one another—working, buying, selling, and so on—are largely in one place, the places where they live surround that one place, the center.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

., chief R&D officer, Unilever, interview with Jaideep Prabhu, February 20th 2014. 2Schumacher, E.F., Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered, Harper & Row, 1973. 3Ehrenfeld, J. and Hoffman, A.J., Flourishing: A Frank Conversation about Sustainability, Stanford Business Books, 2013. 4Ibid. 5MIT’s SENSEable City Lab research team, interview with Navi Radjou, May 13th 2014. 6Ratti, C. and Kloeckl, K., “Rise of the Asian Megacity”, BBC, June 20th 2011. 7“Health and appiness”, The Economist, February 1st 2014. 8Wilby, P., “Moocs, and the man leading the UK’s charge”, Guardian, August 18th 2014. 9Subramanian, P., founder, CoLearnr, interview with Jaideep Prabhu, May 1st 2014. 10Bordoff, J. and Pascal, N., Pay-As-You-Drive Auto Insurance: A Simple Way to Reduce Driving-Related Harms and Increase Equity, Brookings Institution, July 2008. 11Verbaken, J., co-founder, gThrive, interview with Navi Radjou, August 18th 2014. 12Laskey, A., CEO, Opower, “How behavioral science can lower your energy bill”, talk at TED 2013. 13Rebours, C., CEO, InProcess, interview with Navi Radjou, March 14th 2014. 14“Philips Introduces ‘Lighting as a Service’”, SustainableBusiness.com, January 23rd 2014. 15“Meet Simple; A Worry-Free Alternative To Traditional Banking”, TraxonTech, March 14th 2013. 6Principle five: co-create value with prosumers 1Von Hippel, E., Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press, 2006. 2“Samsung ranks second in R&D spending for 2013”, GS Marena Blog, October 24th 2013. 3Dunn, E. and Norton, M., Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending, Simon & Schuster, 2013. 4Norton, M., Ariely, D. and Mochon, D., “The IKEA effect: When labor leads to love”, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 453–60. 5Coase, R., “The Nature of the Firm”, Economica (Blackwell Publishing), Vol. 4, Issue 16, 1937, pp. 386–405. 6White House, “Remarks by the President at the White House Maker Faire”, Office of the Press Secretary, June 18th 2014. 7Dutcher, J., “Massimo Banzi: How Arduino is Open-Sourcing Imagination”, DataScience@Berkeley, April 22nd 2014. 8European Commission, “The Sharing Economy: Accessibility Based Business Models for Peer-to-Peer Markets”, Business Innovation Observatory, September 2013. 9Cortese, A., Locavesting: The Revolution in Local Investing and How to Profit from It, John Wiley, 2011. 10Nussbaum, B., Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire, HarperBusiness, 2013. 11“Giffgaff”, World Heritage Encyclopedia, November 25th 2009. 7Principle six: make innovative friends 1Safian, R., “Generation Flux: Beth Comstock”, Fast Company, January 2012. 2Comstock, B., senior vice-president and chief marketing officer, GE, interview with Navi Radjou, April 7th 2014. 3Groth, O., “Hacking Wicked Social Problems With Renaissance Thinkers and Gamers”, Huffington Post, February 18th 2014. 4Martin, T., “The (Un)examined Organization”, The Alpine Review, Issue No. 2, 2014. 5Martin, T., CEO, Unboundary, e-mail exchange with Navi Radjou, August 18th 2014. 6“Four Disruption Themes for Business”, The Altimeter Group, April 2013. 7Groth, op. cit. 8Marks & Spencer’s Plan A Report, 2014. 9Mulcahy, S., senior vice-president and managing director of financial services industry, Salesforce.com, interview with Navi Radjou, March 6th 2014. 10Rebours, C., CEO, InProcess, interview with Navi Radjou, March 14th 2014. 11Gertler, N., “Industrial Ecosystems: Developing Sustainable Industrial Structures”, MIT master’s thesis, Smart Communities Network, 1995. 12Corkery, M., and Silver-Greenberg, J., “Lenders Offer Low-Cost Services for the Unbanked”, New York Times Dealbook, July 22nd 2014. 13Fera, R.A., “American Express Spotlights the Issue of Financial Exclusion in Davis Guggenheim Doc ‘Spent’”, Fast Company, March 2014. 14Birol, J., serial entrepreneur and strategy consultant, interview with Navi Radjou, August 25th 2014. 15Wiseman, L., Thinkers50-ranked leadership expert, interview with Navi Radjou, August 18th 2014. 16“Pearson debuts new global accelerator class”, Pearson News, June 16th 2014. 17Coughlin, B., CEO, Ford Global Technologies, e-mail exchange with Navi Radjou, August 2014. 18Radjou, N., “Innovation Networks: Global Progress Report 2006,” Forrester Report, June 2006. 19Vandebroek, S., chief technology officer, Xerox, interview with Navi Radjou, August 25th 2014. 20Musk, E., “All Our Patent Are Belong To You”, Tesla Blog, June 12th 2014. 21Litzler, J-B., “Sébastien Bazin divise Accor en deux pour mieux le réveiller”, Le Figaro, November 27th 2013. 22Lacheret, Y., senior vice-president, entrepreneurship advocacy, Accor Group, interview with Navi Radjou, July 7th 2014. 8Fostering a frugal culture 1Hall, J., “Sir Stuart Rose on the ethical spirit of Marks & Spencer”, Daily Telegraph, February 1st 2009. 2Vasanthakumar, V., Senior Associate, Office of the Chief Education Adviser at Pearson, interview with Jaideep Pradhu, August 28th 2014. 3Datta, M., head of Plan A delivery, Marks & Spencer’s worldwide properties, interview with Jaideep Prabhu, May 9th 2014. 4Marks & Spencer’s Plan A Report, 2014. 5Faber, E., CEO, Danone, e-mail exchange with Navi Radjou, August 2014. 6Lawrence, J., senior sustainability adviser and in-house counsel to Kingfisher Group’s Net Positive strategy, interview with Jaideep Prabhu, February 21st 2014. 7Kingfisher, Net Positive Report, 2013/14. 8Ibid. 9Marks & Spencer, op. cit. 10Radjou, N., Prabhu, J. and Ahuja, S., L’Innovation Jugaad: Redevenons Ingénieux!


pages: 541 words: 146,445

Spin by Robert Charles Wilson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, Colonization of Mars, invention of writing, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, rolodex, Stephen Hawking

* * * * * It was a nuanced courtship, slow, old-fashioned (or semi-Martian, perhaps), during which Diane and I discovered each other in wholly new ways. We were no longer straitjacketed by the Spin nor were we children blindly seeking solace. We fell in love, finally, as adults. These were the years when the global population topped out at eight billion. Most of that growth had been funneled into the expanding megacities: Shanghai, Jakarta, Manila, coastal China; Lagos, Kinshasa, Nairobi, Maputo; Caracas, La Paz, Tegucigalpa—all the firelit, smog-shrouded warrens of the world. It would have taken a dozen Archways to dent that population growth, but crowding drove a steady wave of emigrants, refugees, and "pioneers," many of them packed into the cargo compartments of illegal vessels and more than a few of them delivered to the shores of Port Magellan already dead or dying.


pages: 651 words: 135,818

China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, labour market flexibility, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, out of africa, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus

Five out of eight reported difficulties with electrical power supplies, and six out of eight cited Lagos’s massive transportation woes as a problem, including traffic jams 13-7561-4 ch13.qxd 9/16/08 4:23 PM Page 283 China’s Expanding Relations with Nigeria 283 Figure 13-2. Chinese Businesspeople: What Sort of Difficulties Have You Had in Doing Business in Lagos? Number responding 6 5 4 3 2 1 Power failure Insecurity Transport infrastructure Source: See note to figure 13-1. and poor transportation modes. Three respondents worried about “insecurity” and the “security problem” in Lagos, referring to the growing criminality in the megacity as well as to occasional political unrest. Another important clue toward a fuller understanding of the Chinese community in Lagos came in response to a question about how and why Chinese businesspeople decided to come to Nigeria. Personal ties seem to be the dominant link through which the Chinese are coming to work in Lagos: four of the eight indicated that family members had brought them to Nigeria, while an additional two said that friends had persuaded them to come.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

If present rates persist, China’s economy could surpass America’s in 2014 in terms of domestic purchasing power and by 2020 in current dollar terms.22 Indeed, in some ways the Asian century has already arrived. China is on the brink of surpassing the American share of global manufacturing, having overtaken Germany and Japan since the new century began. China’s biggest city, Shanghai, is already far larger than any American city and sits atop a new league table of non-Western megacities. In sheer numbers, of course, Asia has long been the world’s most populous region. But the rapid growth of Africa’s population makes the decline of the West a near certainty. In 1950 the West as defined by Samuel Huntington – Western Europe, North America and Australasia – accounted for 20 per cent of the world’s population. By 2050, according to the United Nations, the figure will be 10 per cent.23 Huntington’s own data point to Western decline in a number of different dimensions: language (Western share down by 3 percentage points between 1958 and 1992); religion (down by just under 1 percentage point between 1970 and 2000); territory controlled (down fractionally between 1971 and 1993); population (down by 3 percentage points since 1971); gross domestic product (down by more than 4 percentage points between 1970 and 1992);* and military manpower (down by nearly 6 percentage points between 1970 and 1991).


pages: 476 words: 132,042

What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

The city as a whole is a wonderful technological invention that concentrates the flow of energy and minds into computer chip-like density. In a relatively small footprint, a city not only provides living quarters and occupations in a minimum of space, but it also generates a maximum of ideas and inventions. Stewart Brand notes in the “City Planet” chapter of his book Whole Earth Discipline, “Cities are wealth creators; they have always been.” He quotes urban theorist Richard Florida, who claims that forty of the largest megacities in the world, home to 18 percent of the world’s population, “produce two-thirds of global economic output and nearly 9 in 10 new patented innovations.” A Canadian demographer calculated that “80 to 90 percent of GNP growth occurs in cities.” The raggedy new part of each city, its squats and encampments, often house the most productive citizens. As Mike Davis points out in Planet of Slums, “The traditional stereotype of the Indian pavement-dweller is a destitute peasant, newly arrived from the countryside, who survives by parasitic begging, but as research in Mumbai has revealed, almost all [families] (97 percent) have at least one breadwinner, and 70 percent have been in the city at least six years.”


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, megacity, microcredit, new economy, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

Many of the most desirable neighborhoods in New York, London, Paris, and Toronto began as arrival cities, and there are arrival cities that have become fully middle class in Rio de Janeiro, Istanbul, and other successful capitals of the developing world; if managed well, many of this generation’s villager enclaves will end this way. There is another, even more damaging popular myth about the arrival city, which holds its cluttered streets responsible for spiraling urban growth, overcrowding, and sprawl. People look at the new shantytowns covering the hillsides, the migrant neighborhoods being ploughed into forest, and they imagine that the tide of people from the countryside is creating unmanageable megacities. In fact, rural-to-urban migration, in spite of its huge scope, is not the major cause of urban growth. For each 60 million new city-dwellers in the developing world, 36 million are born to established city-dwellers. Only 24 million come from villages, and only half of these have actually migrated; the rest become urbanites because their village, like Liu Gong Li, has been incorporated into the city.8 Arrival cities are not causing population growth; in fact, they are ending it.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

In the United States, approximately 50.1 percent of total energy and 74.5 percent of electricity is consumed by buildings, which constitutes 49.1 percent of all US carbon-dioxide emissions.2 The extent of the habitat problem came home to us in 2007. The year marked a great milestone in the human journey. According to the UN State of the World’s Cities Report 2008/2009, for the first time in history, a majority of human beings were living in urban areas, many in megacities and suburban extensions with populations of 10 million or more.3 We have become Homo urbanus. Millions of people huddled together, stacked on top of each other in gigantic urban/suburban centers is a new phenomenon. Five hundred years ago, the average person on Earth might have met a thousand people in an entire lifetime. Today, a resident of New York City can live and work among 220,000 people within a ten-minute radius of their home or office in midtown Manhattan.


pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information retrieval, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, yield management

With mass media approaches, such as print and television, one has to canvas all the people who are the audience of that outlet to target the relatively small set of potential customers. However, with sponsored search, advertisers can specifically target individual consumers. What does the power law tell us? The power law describes phenomena where large events are rare, but small events are quite common. For example, there are a few very large earthquakes, but there are many small earthquakes. There are a few megacities, but there are many small towns. Within the English language, there are a few words (e.g., a, as, and, the) that occur very frequently, but there are many words that rarely occur (e.g. obdormition, tanquam). A power law is much different than the normal distribution, which many people are used to dealing with in statistics. A comparison of a normal and power law distribution is shown in Figure 3.8.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

Abdul Taib Mahmud, who is old enough to remember the Japanese landing in Borneo during the Second World War, was undaunted by fears of a new land invasion. He returned with a promise of a billion dollars from Perigon Advisory, an investment fund based in Bahrain. For a while in 2009, Gulf investors showed signs of getting cold feet, as the credit crunch created the debt crisis that almost engulfed the region’s most visible totem of wealth, the desert megacity of Dubai. Some deals were quietly put on hold or dropped. Abu Dhabi’s Al Qudra Holding had promised in 2008 to acquire 1 million acres in a host of countries from Australia to Eritrea, Croatia to Thailand, and Ukraine to Pakistan. The first harvests, said CEO Mahmood Ebrahim Al Mahmood, would be shipped during 2011. But in 2011 there were no firm sightings of either land or harvest. Likewise, there was no subsequent trace of Qatar’s plan to buy the Pakistani government’s giant Kollurkar farm in Punjab, which farm leaders said threatened the homes of twenty-five thousand people.


pages: 526 words: 155,174

Sixty Days and Counting by Kim Stanley Robinson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

dumpster diving, energy security, full employment, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, urban decay, Works Progress Administration

It was the impact of all the other economic activity that was the danger, including strip-mining, coal power generation, deforestation, urbanization of river valleys, cement production and steel manufacturing, and use of dangerous pesticides banned elsewhere. All these factors were combining downstream, in the eastern half of the country, impacting the big river valleys and the coasts, and the many megacities that were covering what farmland they had. Fengzhen said many were seeing signs of a disaster unfolding. Cumulative impacts, Anna thought with a sigh. That was one of the most complex and vexing subjects in her own world of biostatistics. And the Chinese problem was an exercise in macrobiostatistics. What Anna’s correspondent Fengzhen talked about in his e-mails was what he called a “general system crash,” and he spoke of indicator species already extinct, and other signs that such a crash might be in its early stages.


pages: 413 words: 119,379

The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Source ISBN: 9780007523085 Ebook Edition © February 2015 ISBN: 9780007523115 Version: 2015-01-22 Dedication FOR MY MOTHER AND FATHER, FAND THEIR KITCHEN TABLE Author’s Note IN LATE 2010 I started to feel sick. At first I put the constant nausea down to a bout of malaria and a stomach bug I’d picked up during a trip a few months earlier to cover an election in Guinea, but the sickness persisted. I went back to the UK for what was meant to be a week’s break before wrapping up in Lagos, the Nigerian megacity where I was based as the Financial Times’s west Africa correspondent. A doctor put a camera down my throat and found nothing. I stopped sleeping. I jumped at noises and found myself bursting into tears. At the end of the week I was walking to a shop to buy a newspaper for the train ride to the airport when my legs gave way. I postponed my flight and went to another doctor, who sent me to a psychiatrist.


pages: 475 words: 155,554

The Default Line: The Inside Story of People, Banks and Entire Nations on the Edge by Faisal Islam

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, capital controls, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, dark matter, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, energy security, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, full employment, ghettoisation, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Just-in-time delivery, labour market flexibility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two tier labour market, unorthodox policies, uranium enrichment, urban planning, value at risk, working-age population

It is the first of its kind in western Europe and includes space for Chinese manufacturers to use local labour for final assembly that would officially count as ‘made in Britain’, and therefore offer free access to the whole European Union. The Atlantic Gateway is just the start. If this project goes to plan and overcomes local planning concerns in Liverpool, there is a remarkable prize. The developers happen to own the Manchester Ship Canal, and are tilting the marketing of their project to meet the appetite for Chinese-style mega-investments of tens of billions of pounds. Think Chinese funding for a mega-city connecting Liverpool and Manchester, and you might begin to understand the ambition and the spoils that are up for grabs. This is the sort of scale of project that is required by Chinese financiers used to funding ports built on artificial islands, 30-kilometre bridges, and entire new cities. When I asked Jin Liqun of the China Investment Corporation if China was going to pay for Britain’s infrastructure, he giggled like one of the more avuncular Bond villains.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

With total output of just four thousand megawatts a year, the country generates as much electricity as Bradford, a postindustrial town in the north of England. In fact Nigeria generates just 162 kilowatt hours per year per person, ranking 175th in the world; by comparison Mexico generates fourteen times more power per person, and Kazakhstan generates thirty times more. Economists who look at these factors call Nigeria “underinvested,” but visitors encounter it as just plain chaos; Lagos, one of the fastest-growing megacities in the world, has ten million people and counting. Visitors are jostled everywhere and constantly have to work around the power failures, which are likely to shut out the lights in the middle of meetings or trap the unprepared in elevators. Those in the know always take the stairs. The luxurious Federal Palace Hotel in Lagos has multiple backup generators, but the lights still go out for five to ten minutes a couple of times a day while the generators crank into operation.

Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Indonesia Highlights Surfing by day, partying at night and absorbing amazing culture in Bali (Click here) Ascending the ancient Buddhist stupa of Borobudur (Click here) before trawling the batik markets of bustling Yogyakarta (Click here) Peeking at komodo dragons at Komodo (Click here) in Nusa Tenggara Paying primate-to-primate respects to the ‘man of the jungle’, the orang-utans (Click here) native to Sumatra and Kalimantan Diving the pristine walls and coral canyons beneath seas of dimpled glass at Pulau Bunaken (Click here) in Sulawesi Exploring the lovely time capsule that is Maluku’s Banda Islands (Click here) Hiking along raging rivers and scaling exposed ridges to reach interior Papua’s remote tribal villages in the Baliem Valley (Click here) JAVA The heart of the nation, Java is an island of megacities and mesmerising natural beauty. It’s the economic powerhouse of Indonesia, as well as the political epicentre, an island with complex, profound cultural traditions in art, dance, spiritualism and learning. Many of the cities are pretty uninspiring; pollution levels are high and they’re plagued by environmental issues. That said, the cities are where Javanese art and culture are at their most radiant and daring, and along with Bali, Javanese cities rock with vibrant nightlife and an exciting music scene.

Buses to/from Bandung (14,000/20,000Rp, 1¾ hours) run every half-hour. There are buses to Bogor from Cianjur (without/with air-con 14,000/20,000Rp, two hours) and the highway by Cipanas every 20 minutes; angkot ply the route on Sundays. * * * BANDUNG Big, burly Bandung is like a bat to the back of the head after the verdant mountains around Cibodas. Once dubbed the ‘Paris of Java’, this is one of Indonesia’s megacities (the Bandung conurbation has over seven million inhabitants), with a city centre that’s prone to Jakarta-style congestion. Few travellers make a concerted effort to come here, but rummage through the concrete sprawl and odd pockets of interest remain, including some Dutch art-deco monuments, the quirky fibreglass statues of Jeans St, and some cool cafes popular with the thousands of students who call this city home.

Philippines Highlights Drift among the limestone cathedrals and azure lagoons of the Bacuit Archipelago around El Nido (Click here) Trek through the skyscraping rice terraces around Banaue (Click here)and Bontoc (Click here) in North Luzon’s Cordillera Mountains Have a night out in Manila (Click here), a city that never sleeps Explore sunken WWII wrecks and kayak amid the myriad islands around Coron (Click here) Sun, sea sports and dancing till dawn on the stunning beaches of Boracay (Click here) Hop from natural spring to coral reef, to volcano, to waterfall around lush Camiguin Island (Click here) Discover unheralded Dumaguete (Click here), in range of an enviable mix of adventures and getaways Take Cebu (Click here) by storm: partying in Cebu City, then detoxing on idyllic Malapascua Island MANILA 02 / POP 11.5 MILLION Manila’s moniker, the ‘Pearl of the Orient’, couldn’t be more apt – its cantankerous shell reveals its jewel only to those resolute enough to pry. No stranger to hardship, the city has endured every disaster both man and nature could throw at it, and yet today the chaotic 600-sq-km metropolis thrives as a true Asian megacity. Skyscrapers pierce the hazy sky, mushrooming from the grinding poverty of expansive shantytowns, while gleaming malls foreshadow Manila’s brave new air-conditioned world. The congested roads snarl with traffic, but like the overworked arteries of a sweating giant, they are what keep this modern metropolis alive. The determined will discover Manila’s tender soul, perhaps among the leafy courtyards and cobbled streets of serene Intramuros, where little has changed since the Spanish left.


pages: 746 words: 221,583

The Children of the Sky by Vernor Vinge

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

combinatorial explosion, epigenetics, indoor plumbing, megacity, random walk, risk tolerance, technological singularity, the scientific method, Vernor Vinge

The Tropics had been in the whole disk images only, and there had been only a few breaks in the jungle cloud cover, but, “What we saw back then was not so crowded and somehow—well, it looked simpler.” She watched silently for a moment, wondering. Down Here there was no possibility that the Choir itself was super-intelligent. For that matter, there wasn’t even the communication technology to support wide-area cognition: Mindsounds would take minutes to percolate across the megacity. And yet, there was some form of group activity. The mob seemed to have greater and lesser densities, and not just where Tines gathered around the piles of rotting vegetation that filled many of the smaller plazas. There were places where she could see the ground, where members were separated by meters of empty space. Such open areas couldn’t be for coherent thought, though, since there was no pack-like clustering.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

There are exciting developments in the arts today, such as how arts organizations are embracing collaboration through the invention of new art forms. Our faith and religion are moving into a period of change and smart leaders know this. Sunlight has exposed Catholic priests and bishops around the world and churches everywhere are coming to grips with concepts of transparency and integrity. The world’s cities are also under stress, with megacities such as São Paulo and Johannesburg paralyzed by population influx, lack of infrastructure, traffic congestion, pollution, and crime. In the United States and elsewhere, many cities built up since the Second World War are dysfunctional and getting worse as the industrial economy collapses. Detroit has lost more than half its population from its heyday, with large swaths of the city now wasteland, populated by wild animals.20 Yet everywhere there are bold new collaborative initiatives for reinvention.


pages: 686 words: 201,972

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol by Iain Gately

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haight Ashbury, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, megacity, music of the spheres, Peace of Westphalia, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, working poor

The donations it gathered from its supporters were spent on propaganda, and its publishing arm spewed out over 250 million pages of temperance writing each month. This blizzard of print was directed at white Protestant men and women in the old western and northeastern states. These people were believed to resent the changes that were occurring in America and to be ready to accept that drunkenness might be behind such phenomena as industrialization, the rise of megacities, and their population with hordes of Roman Catholic immigrants. In consequence, ASL periodicals, pamphlets, and its touring speakers made eugenics a central theme in their case against drink. The speakers peppered their discourses with racism and images of the decline of the breed. According, for example, to Richmond Pearson Hobson, the ASL’s star orator, “In America we are making the last stand of the great white race, and substantially of the human race.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

This race of elegant mutants was the creation of a twenty-first-century biologist named Samuel Lann, who began his project by experimenting on his own children. The conceptual breakthrough of Slan was portraying “normal” human beings not as saviors but as the enemy. As the story opens, the book’s genetically modified protagonist, Jommy Cross, and his kind are being hunted to extinction in the decaying streets of a sprawling megacity called Centropolis. Jommy’s mother is forced to sacrifice her own life so that Jommy may live; with the help of a crafty old homeless woman, the boy takes shelter in an underground society surviving in the nooks and crannies of the urban landscape. Reprinted as a stand-alone novel after World War II, Slan caused a sensation. Its tropes echo through later generations of science fiction: the political machinations in Dune, Star Trek’s half-Betazoid counselor Deanna Troi, the hunt for rogue replicants in Blade Runner, the mutant superpowers of the X-Men.


pages: 1,318 words: 403,894

Reamde: A Novel by Neal Stephenson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

air freight, airport security, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, industrial robot, informal economy, large denomination, megacity, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, ransomware, side project, Skype, slashdot, South China Sea, the built environment, the scientific method, young professional

The movement finally drew the Egyptian’s notice. He looked down at Richard. At the same time he was beginning to lower the pistol. Not fast enough to make a difference. “Sorry,” Richard said, as they were making eye contact. Then he pulled the trigger and blew Jabari’s head off. SEAMUS HAD DEVELOPED a set of instincts around timing and schedule that owed a lot to his upbringing in Boston and his postings in teeming Third World megacities such as Manila, which was to say that he always expected it would take hours to get anywhere. Those habits led him comically astray in Coeur d’Alene at six thirty in the morning. They reached the municipal airport in less time than it took the SUV’s windows to defog. The chopper place was just inside the entrance. Two helicopters, a big one and a small one, were parked on the apron outside a portable office.


pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

Today, we are so dependent on oil, and oil is so embedded in our daily doings, that we hardly stop to comprehend its pervasive significance. It is oil that makes possible where we live, how we live, how we commute to work, how we travel—even where we conduct our courtships. It is the lifeblood of suburban communities. Oil (and natural gas) are the essential components in the fertilizer on which world agriculture depends; oil makes it possible to transport food to the totally non-self-sufficient megacities of the world. Oil also provides the plastics and chemicals that are the bricks and mortar of contemporary civilization, a civilization that would collapse if the world's oil wells suddenly went dry. For most of this century, growing reliance on petroleum was almost universally celebrated as a good, a symbol of human progress. But no longer. With the rise of the environmental movement, the basic tenets of industrial society are being challenged; and the oil industry in all its dimensions is at the top of the list to be scrutinized, criticized, and opposed.