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The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
Joel Kotkin, “Richard Florida Concedes the Limits of the Creative Class,” Daily Beast, March 20, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/20/richard-florida-concedes-the-limits-of-the-creative-class.html; Richard Florida, “Did I Abandon My Creative Class Theory? Not So Fast, Joel Kotkin,” Daily Beast, March 21, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/21/did-i-abandon-my-creative-class-theory-not-so-fast-joel-kotkin.html. 6. Richard Florida, “How Rob Ford’s Pride Snub Hurts the City of Toronto,” Toronto Star, April 23, 2012, www.thestar.com/opinion/editorialopinion/2012/04/23/how_rob_fords_pride_snub_hurts_the_city_of_toronto.html; Richard Florida, “Toronto Needs a Muscular Mayor,” Globe and Mail, November 30, 2012, www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/richard-florida-toronto-needs-a-muscular-mayor/article5822048; Richard Florida, “What Toronto Needs Now: Richard Florida Offers a Manifesto for a New Model of Leadership,” Toronto Life, October 22, 2012, www.torontolife.com/informer/features/2012/10/22/what-toronto-needs-now.
Knight Frank, The Wealth Report—2015, www.knightfrank.com/research/the-wealth-report-2015-2716.aspx. 13. Richard Florida and Martin Kenney, “Venture Capital, High Technology, and Regional Development,” Regional Studies 22, no. 1 (1988): 33–48; Richard Florida and Martin Kenney, “Venture Capital–Financed Innovation in the U.S.,” Research Policy 17 (1988): 119–137; Richard Florida and Donald Smith, “Venture Capital Formation, Investment, and Regional Industrialization,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83, no. 3 (September 1993): 434–451. 14. Richard Florida, “The Joys of Urban Tech,” Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2012, www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390444914904577619441778073340; Richard Florida, “The Urban Tech Revolution,” Urban Land, October 7, 2013, http://urbanland.uli.org/economy-markets-trends/the-urban-tech-revolution; Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander, Rise of the Startup City: The Changing Geography of the Venture Capital Financed Innovation (Toronto: Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, 2014), http://martinprosperity.org/media/StartupCity-CMR-FINAL-formatted.pdf. 15.
Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996). 2. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002); Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class Revisited (New York: Basic Books, 2012). 3. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013); Richard Florida, “The New American Dream,” Washington Monthly, March 2003; Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). 4. Richard Florida, “More Losers Than Winners in America’s New Economic Geography,” CityLab, January 30, 2013, www.citylab.com/work/2013/01/more-losers-winners-americas-new-economic-geography/4465. 5. Joel Kotkin, “Richard Florida Concedes the Limits of the Creative Class,” Daily Beast, March 20, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/20/richard-florida-concedes-the-limits-of-the-creative-class.html; Richard Florida, “Did I Abandon My Creative Class Theory?
The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida
banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour mobility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Conference of Mayors. 3. Richard Florida, “A Creative Crossroads,” Washington Post, May 7, 2006, retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/05/AR2006050501750.html; Florida, “Where the Brains Are,” Atlantic, October 2006. 4. Richard Florida, Who’s Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life (New York: Basic Books, 2008). 5. Richard Florida, Who’s Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life, Canadian edition (Toronto: Random House Canada, 2008). 6. Kelly Evans, “Why College Towns Are Looking Smart,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2009. 7. I provide figures on these trends in Richard Florida, “Town, Gown, and Unemployment,” Atlantic, May 20, 2009, retrieved from http://correspondents.theatlantic.com/ richard_florida/2009/05. 8.
She’s the love of my life and fills every day with fun, passion, and boundless energy. About the Author RICHARD FLORIDA is the author of the national and international bestsellers The Rise of the Creative Class and Who’s Your City? He is the director of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management and the founder of the Creative Class Group. www.creativeclass.com Visit www.AuthorTracker.com for exclusive information on your favorite HarperCollins author. ALSO BY RICHARD FLORIDA Who’s Your City? The Flight of the Creative Class The Rise of the Creative Class The Breakthrough Illusion Beyond Mass Production Copyright THE GREAT RESET. Copyright © 2010 by Richard Florida. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.
Eva Jacobs and Stephanie Shipp, “How Family Spending Has Changed in the U.S.,” Monthly Labor Review (March 1990), 24. 4. I’ve been studying the role of housing policy in postwar suburbanization since my twenties. I wrote my undergraduate honors thesis at Rutgers and my doctoral dissertation at Columbia on this, as well as several of my earliest published papers. See Richard Florida and Marshall Feldman, “Housing in U.S. Fordism,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 12, no. 2 (1988): 187–210; Richard Florida and Andrew Jonas, “U.S. Urban Policy: The Postwar State and Capitalist Regulation,” Antipode 23, no. 4 (1991): 349–384. 5. Data on average travel speeds are from Randal O’Toole as cited in Neil Reynolds, “America’s Fast Track to Wealth,” Globe and Mail, October 9, 2009. 6. Jacobs and Shipp, “How Family Spending Has Changed in the U.S.,” 23. 7.
The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce
3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
The number of unoccupied apartments in New York rose by almost three-quarters at the turn of the century to thirty-four thousand in 2011.49 London has witnessed similar growth. The new residents then lock in their gains by restricting land use, which keeps values high. Richard Florida calls them the ‘new urban Luddites’, who exploit an ‘enormous and complex thicket of zoning laws and other land use regulations’ to keep the others out. Tyler Cowen has coined a new acronym to replace Nimbys (Not in My Backyard): Bananas (Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything).50 Such risk aversion breeds its own failure. So deeply rooted is gentrification that Richard Florida has now modified his widely acclaimed thesis about the rise of the creative classes. Cities are becoming too successful for their own good. Until recently, he believed they would be the engine rooms of the new economy, embracing the diversity necessary to attract talent.
, New York Magazine, 25 February 2014, <http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2014/02/spike-lee-amazing-rant-against-gentrification.html>. 39 Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class – and What We Can Do About It (Basic Books, New York, 2017), p. 132. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid., p. 191. 42 Ibid., p. 159. 43 Mark Muro and Sifan Liu, ‘Another Clinton-Trump divide: high-output America versus low-output America’, Brookings, 29 November 2016, <https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2016/11/29/another-clinton-trump-divide-high-output-america-vs-low-output-america/>. 44 I draw this insightful point from Richard C. Longworth’s cogent ‘On Global Cities’, Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 21 May 2005, <https://www.thechicagocouncil.org/publication/global-cities>. 45 Findings are throughout Richard Florida’s The New Urban Crisis. 46 Melkorka Licea, ‘“Poor door” tenants of luxury tower reveal the financial apartheid within’, New York Post, 17 January 2016, <http://nypost.com/2016/01/17/poor-door-tenants-reveal-luxury-towers-financial-apartheid/>. 47 Milanovic, Global Inequality. 48 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 41. 49 Ibid, p. 38. 50 Cowen, The Complacent Class, p. 7. 51 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 216. 52 Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (Basic Books, New York, 2015 (ebook)). 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Lawrence Mishel, ‘Entry-level workers’ wages fell in lost decade’, Economic Policy Institute report, 7 March 2012, <http://www.epi.org/publication/ib327-young-workers-wages/>. 56 Baldwin, The Great Convergence. 57 William J.
This physical segregation matches the labour market’s bifurcation. The rich and the poor no longer live near each other, and the middle class is hollowing out. In 1970 only about one in seven American families lived in neighbourhoods that were unambiguously ‘affluent’ or ‘poor’.40 By 2007 that number had risen to almost one in three. ‘When all is said and done, the suburban crisis reflects the end of the era of cheap growth,’ says Richard Florida, a leading scholar of urban revival.41 Sprawl no longer means growth, as it once did in the US. It spells isolation. It should come as little surprise, therefore, that the murder rate has fallen by 16.7 per cent in the US cities since the turn of the century, while rising by 16.9 per cent in the suburbs – almost an exact mirror image.42 Slumburbia has also given rise to a new form of poverty: the amount of time people have to spend in their cars driving from one part-time job to another.
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey
We would decide on a question we wanted to answer, and Bob would begin clicking, programming, and calculating. Often in the middle of the night, a new set of charts and Excel files would arrive in my e-mail in box, and I'd see that Bob had made another remarkable discovery. Our interest initially was why a small group of cities, Austin among them, were growing so fast and so rich. In 2002, we began working with a band of researchers, including Richard Florida and Kevin Stolarick, then at Carnegie Mellon University; Gary Gates at the Urban Institute; Joe Cortright in Portland, Oregon; and Terry Nichols Clark at the University of Chicago. What we found was that these tech-rich and innovative cities were benefiting from a special kind of migration. There have always been patterns to migration and development. Southern blacks moved to Chicago in the 1950s.
Wages in different parts of the country began to converge. People with college degrees were "remarkably evenly distributed" among America's cities, according to Harvard University economist Edward Glaeser.3 If such economic, partisan, and educational balance was the American way, by 1980 a decidedly un-American trend began. Places stopped becoming more alike and began to diverge. The economic landscape stopped growing flatter, and, in Richard Florida's description, it got spikier.4 The country got particularly spiky after 1980 as Americans segregated by education. In the last thirty years of the twentieth century, education levels surged nationally. In 1970, 11.2 percent of the population had at least a college degree. That figure increased to 16.4 percent in 1980, nearly 19 percent in 1990, and 27 percent in 2004. But as the national totals of college-educated people grew, education differentials between cities widened with each decade.
By 2000, Michael Porter found "striking variation in average wages" across economic regions, with average pay ranging from just over $19,000 a year in western Nebraska to over $52,000 in San Francisco.14 Wages during the 1990s increased 7.1 percent a year in Austin, but only 1.8 percent a year in Wheeling, West Virginia.15 Growing wage inequality tracked increasing political polarization, according to political scientists Nolan McCarty, Keith Poole, and Howard Rosenthal. The nation's income distribution grew more unequal in parallel with the rising partisanship in Congress.16 Occupation Richard Florida was a professor of regional development at Carnegie Mellon University when he noticed a switch in the way businesses went about hiring new workers. Instead of people moving to corporations, corporations had begun moving to where pools of talent were deepening. Florida, Kevin Stolarick, and a group of researchers at Carnegie Mellon identified a new class of workers. They called them "creatives."
The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef
big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
But what does its popularity say about shifting attitudes towards social status and leisure? In some ways, brunch and other forms of conspicuous consumption have blinded us to ever-more-precarious employment conditions. For award-winning writer and urbanist Shawn Micallef, brunch is a way to look more closely at the nature of work itself and a catalyst for solidarity among the so-called creative class. Drawing on theories from Thorstein Veblen to Richard Florida, Micallef traces his own journey from the rust belt to a cosmopolitan city where the evolving middle class he joined was oblivious to its own instability and insularity. The Trouble with Brunch is a provocative analysis of foodie obsession and status anxiety, but it’s also a call to reset our class consciousness. The real trouble with brunch isn’t so much bad service and outsized portions of bacon, it’s that brunch could be so much more.
There are unpaid interns and freelance writers worried about a work-life/work-pay/work-stability balance who join unions that haven’t really worked yet in part because it’s difficult to collectively represent people with extremely individualized working and earning habits with multiple clients. And who has the time to organize? Remember how busy everybody says they are? If such a state wasn’t so readily accepted as our collective identity, we might stop talking about it and do something meaningful to change it. This creative-class socio-economic subset of the middle class was identified and brought into popular thought by the academic Richard Florida in his 2002 book The Rise of the Creative Class. Published just over one hundred years after Veblen published Theory of the Leisure Class, Florida’s book came at a time when modern Western society had undergone major shifts since Veblen’s era with deindustrialization and the emergence of a service-based economy. The commonality of the creative class is creative work, with human creativity being the ‘ultimate economic resource,’ according to Florida, and one that has a broad spectrum of people toiling away in professions and vocations that include scientists, engineers, artists, musicians, designers and knowledge-based professionals.
In 2007 he left Pittsburgh for a high-profile job heading up the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management. Already a star in academic and urban circles, Florida’s arrival in Toronto was met with typical Canadian enthusiasm when an American of note pays attention to us, and he was feted and given ample coverage. The Globe and Mail newspaper even awarded him a monthly column called ‘Richard Florida Visits,’ where he offered an outsider’s first impressions of Toronto, awkwardly packaged with a strong whiff of Canadian desperation (akin to Sally Field’s ‘You like me, right now, you like me’ Oscar speech) that set Florida up for some blowback, particularly from the would-be creative class itself. A group of critical artists and writers in Toronto even started a group called Creative Class Struggle, which did not hide their antipathy to Florida and his large salary at a public university, but they also engaged in activism examining who gets left out of the much-touted ‘creative city’ and who gets to participate, all of which are worthy and necessary investigations.
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
But with people spending so much time in their cars and in their houses, and with many communities lacking a walkable town center or pleasantly walkable residential streets, the spontaneous interaction that comes from, for example, walking down a Main Street or a central square or even down the block is harder to come by. And that spontaneous interaction is important, as a growing body of research has shown. Researchers have found that when people bump into each other, good things happen. Both the Harvard economist and urban scholar Edward Glaeser and the urban theorist Richard Florida have linked higher-density or pedestrian-friendly places to higher levels of innovation. Tony Hsieh, the CEO of Zappos.com, is moving his company from suburban Henderson, Nevada, to downtown Las Vegas precisely because he believes the “serendipitous collisions” that happen when people are freer to walk between the office and local cafés, restaurants, and other public places will make his employees happier, help them forge closer relationships with one another, and lead to the faster cultivation of new ideas.
El Paso recently became the first city in the United States to require that architects working on city projects be accredited in New Urbanism, while the Texas Department of Transportation has adopted the rule book that guides New Urbanism street design as recommended practice. “The dynamic is changing,” says Benjamin Schulman, former communications director for CNU who is now with the Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Delivering the closing night keynote speech at the CNU conference in West Palm Beach, celebrity author and urban theorist Richard Florida acknowledges these recent successes. “Isn’t it interesting,” he says, “that the world has come to us?” Perhaps the biggest proof of the growing adoption of New Urbanism theories is that the large home builders, who don’t tend to care much for the social aspect of the movement or the well-intended principles behind it, are starting to build New Urbanism–style communities themselves. They’re not calling them that, of course, and many may not even be familiar with New Urbanism, but there are by some estimates as many as four hundred “city replicas” already built or going up in suburban America, ranging from small-scale, intimate walkable villages to giant, ambitious “lifestyle centers” that combine retail, apartments, restaurants, and sometimes high-rise apartment buildings.
Across the nation, everything from store retail chains to sports stadiums to corporate headquarters to young families have been moving into cities and leaving the suburbs behind. • • • To see that cities are resurgent centers of wealth and culture, all you need to do is set foot in one. Or you can simply set foot in a bookstore. A litany of volumes have come out in the past few years praising cities and urbanism, titles like Richard Florida’s popular The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life and The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work; Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next by John Kasarda and Greg Lindsay; The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt; and Edward Glaeser’s love letter to cities, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier.
3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
New York Times, March 14, 2009, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/ 03/15/business/15school.html. 180 Courses in entrepreneurialism are among: Personal interviews with deans of a number of business schools in North America. 180 Harvard Business School, a longtime: http://www.hbs.edu/entrepreneurship/, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Richard Florida has long discussed: Richard Florida’s website, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.creativeclass.com/ richard_florida/books/the_rise_ of_the_creative_class; Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 181 A 2012 study for the Center: http://nycfuture.org/content/articles/ article_view.cfm?article_id=1306, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Since 2007, local venture capital: http://www.crunchbase.com/company/ia-ventures, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Tumblr CEO David Karp describes: Dana Rubinstein, “On Bloomberg’s Alley Versus Valley Designs, Tumblr’s David Karp Explains That the Flavors Are Different,” Capital New York, February 16, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.capitalnewyork.com/ article/politics/2012/02/5280012/ bloombergs-alley-versus-valley-designs-tumblrs-david-karp-explains-. 181 There were around a dozen tech incubators: http://www.quora.com/What-are-the-top -startup-incubators-accelerators-and-startup-coworking-spaces-in-NYC, accessed September 4, 2012. 181 Go to a meeting of NY Creative Interns: personal interview with Emily Miethner, who presented in my class; http://nycreativeinterns.com/about/, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Even New York Mayor: William Glaberson, “Life After Salomon Brothers,” New York Times, October 11, 1987, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/1987/10/11/business/ life-after-salomon-brothers.html. 181 and whose financial data company: http://www.bloomberg.com/company/, accessed September 5, 2012. 182 In 2011, he set up a contest: Oliver Staley and Henry Goldman, “Cornell, Technion Are Chosen by New York City to Create Engineering Campus,” http://Bloomberg.com, December 19, 2011, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-12-19/ cornell-university-said-to-be-chosen-by-new-york-for-engineering-campus.html. 182 The word “pivot” is often: Lizette Chapman, “’Pivoting’ Pays Off for Tech Entrepreneurs,” Wall Street Journal, April 26, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240 52702303592404577364171598999252.html; Adam Tratt, “Our Startup’s Pivot: Three Important Lessons We Learned,” GeekWire, July 19, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.geekwire.com/2012/ pivot-boss-3-lessons-learned/. 182 Instagram, for example, started: M.
Harvard Business School, a longtime training ground for the corporate elite and consultancies, recently opened the $25 million “i-lab” or Arthur Rock Center for Entrepreneurship (named after an HBS alum who invested in Intel and Apple). Where in previous decades graduate-level business programs focused on how to use capital efficiently, more and more courses now focus on how to harness creativity. The widespread pivoting from product concept to business creation is beginning to revive and remake cities. Richard Florida has long discussed the role of the “creative class”—the 40 million or so working in the fields of design and architecture, art, media, entertainment, science and technology, education, and health care—in driving the innovation and economic growth in cities. But even Florida might be surprised at how fast creatives are transforming such giant cities as New York, Berlin, and, perhaps, even staid Singapore.
The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal
A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
I have also had the privilege to receive help and advice from true luminaries, such as Richard Saul Wurman, Saul Kaplan, Kevin Kelly, Jared Spool, Peter Vander Auwera, Dan Roam, Thor Muller, Paul Pangaro, Lane Becker, Peter Morville, Lou Rosenfeld, Nilofer Merchant, John Hagel III, JP Rangaswami, Doc Searls, Stowe Boyd, Jay Cross, Marcia Conner, Ben Cerveny, Chris Brogan, Bob Logan, David Armano, Alex Osterwalder, and Don Norman. Although I don’t know them personally, for the ideas in this book, I owe a deep debt of gratitude to the works of Gary Hamel, Clayton Christensen, Arie de Geus, Ricardo Semler, Eric Beinhocker, Daniel Pink, Richard Florida, Stewart Brand, Bill McKelvey, Stafford Beer, Herbert Simon, John Boyd, and perhaps most of all, Dr. W. Edwards Deming, many of whose groundbreaking ideas are only now being realized. For the access they provided to connected companies and their inner workings, I must thank Ray LaDriere, Kevin Kernan, Michael Bonamassa, Jerry Rudisin, Sunny Gupta, Adrian Cockcroft, Harry Max, Mary Walker, Mark Interrante, Ben Hart, Livia Labate, Sherri Maxson, and Sharif Renno.
Manufactured goods often can be evaluated before the completion of a transaction. Service providers, on the other hand, usually can offer only their reputations. — Alan Greenspan Industrialization is a phase, and in developed nations that phase is ending. Growth in developed economies will increasingly come from services. The Great Reset In The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity, Richard Florida points to a shift from an economy based on making things to one that is increasingly powered by knowledge, creativity, and ideas: Great Resets are broad and fundamental transformations of the economic and social order and involve much more than strictly economic or financial events. A true Reset transforms not simply the way we innovate and produce but also ushers in a whole new economic landscape.
While workers are being laid off in many industries, technology companies like Facebook and Google are suffering from critical shortages, struggling to fill their ranks and depending heavily on talent imported from other countries that place a higher priority on technical education: The whole approach of throwing trillions of public dollars at the old economy is shortsighted, aimed at restoring our collective comfort level. Meaningful recovery will require a lot more than government bailouts, stimuli, and other patchwork measures designed to resuscitate the old system or to create illusory, short-term upticks in the stock market, housing market, or car sales. –Richard Florida We no longer live in an industrial economy. We live in a service economy. And to succeed in a service economy, we will need to develop new habits and behaviors. And we will need new organizational structures. An Emerging Service Economy Since 1960, services have dominated US employment. Today’s services sector makes up about 80% of the US economy. Services are integrated into everything we buy and use.
The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
Believing that distinct social environments shaped disparate social outcomes, they worried that the depravity of urban life might breed generations of social misfits.11 They feared that absent the warmth and comity of small-town America, the children of urban factory workers would mature without the decency required to sustain a modern, civilized society. The American Dream might eventually be extinguished amid the crime-ridden and poverty-stricken streets of America’s overcrowded cities. By the end of the 1900s, with cities awash in the affluent crowd Richard Florida termed the “creative class” seeming safer and more prosperous, a look back might have concluded that the Chicago School’s concerns were absurd.12 But a snapshot of life back then reveals the roots of their worry. America’s big turn-of-the-century metropolises were nasty places. The nation’s new mills and factories polluted the surrounding areas. Crime was rampant—at least by the imagined standards of idyllic small-town life.13 The political issues of the day were largely understood through that prism: the push for prohibition, for example, was at heart an effort by the nation’s more staid rural population to impose a sense of decorum on raucous and unhinged masses.14 As New York University historian Thomas Bender noted in an important book published decades later, a subtler change was also at work: the growing separation between home and neighborhood.
That’s not the model at work in the Bay Area, where engineers and programmers have congregated because of their similar interests. It’s not that one model is better than the other—but they’re different, and the shift marks a new model of growth, both for good and for bad. It’s worth noting that there’s movement afoot to return to the model of innovation through diversity, as evidenced by the pull of what Richard Florida has termed the “creative class.”33 The big suburban campuses that defined the exodus of businesses from urban areas—the sprawling, isolated facilities that were in vogue during the 1970s and 1980s in particular—are being abandoned by firms eager to capture the vitality of urban America. The so-called Platinum Mile in Westchester County, a stretch of highway north of Manhattan that was once dotted with big corporate office parks, has seen its vacancy rate rise to nearly 20 percent as firms have migrated back into New York City.34 And UBS, the financial giant that moved its offices out of Manhattan for Stamford, Connecticut, in 1996 has since considered a move back.35 It seems clear that two central tensions define the way American community life bears on economic innovation.
The source of the phrase is Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835, 1840, reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 275. 8Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1995). 9Thomas Bender, Community and Social Change in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 65–71, 75, 81. 10Lewis Mumford, “The Fourth Migration,” Survey Graphic, May 1, 1925: 130–33. 11Louis Wirth, “Urbanism as a Way of Life,” American Journal of Sociology 44, no. 1 (July 1938). 12Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002); Barry Wellman, “The Community Question: The Intimate Network of East Yorkers,” American Journal of Sociology 84, no. 5 (March 1979): 1201–31. 13Robert Park, “The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment,” The American Journal of Sociology 20 (1915), in Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities, ed.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Prescott, “Why Do Americans Work So Much More Than Europeans,” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review 28, no. 1 (July 2004): 2–13, www.minneapolisfed.org/research/QR/QR2811.pdf; and Robert B. Reich, “Totally Spent,” New York Times, February 13, 2008. 25. Robert Reich, “Unjust Spoils,” The Nation, July 19, 2010. 26. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 77; ibid., 37. 27. Ibid., 191. 28. Richard Florida, “The Future of the American Workforce in the Global Creative Economy,” Cato Unbound, June 4, 2006, www.cato-unbound.org/2006/06/04/richard-florida/future-american-workforce-global-creative-economy. 29. Ross Perlin, Intern Nation: How to Earn Nothing and Learn Little in the Brave New Economy (New York: Verso Books, 2012), 125. 30. James Mulholland, “Neither a Trap Nor a Lie,” Chronicle of Higher Education, March 12, 2010. 31.
However, past experience shows that the receding of institutions does not necessarily make space for a more authentic, egalitarian existence: if work and life have been made more flexible, people have also become unmoored, blown about by the winds of the market; if old hierarchies and divisions have been overthrown, the price has been greater economic inequality and instability; if the new system emphasizes potential and novelty, past achievement and experience have been discounted; if life has become less predictable and predetermined, it has also become more precarious as liability has shifted from business and government to the individual. It turns out that what we need is not to eliminate institutions but to reinvent them, to make them more democratic, accountable, inclusive, and just. More than anyone else, urbanist Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class, has built his career as a flag-bearer for the idea that individual ingenuity can fill the void left by declining institutions. Like new-media thinkers, with whom he shares a boundless admiration for all things high tech and Silicon Valley, he also shuns “organizational or institutional directives” while embracing the values meritocracy and openness.
Many of us believe that art and culture should not succumb to the dictates of the market, and one way to do this is to act as though the market doesn’t exist, to devise a shield to deflect its distorting influence, and uphold the lack of compensation as virtuous. This stance can provide vital breathing room, but it can also perpetuate inequality. “I consistently come across people valiantly trying to defy an economic class into which they were born,” Richard Florida writes. “This is particularly true of the young descendants of the truly wealthy—the capitalist class—who frequently describe themselves as just ‘ordinary’ creative people working on music, film or intellectual endeavors of one sort or another.” How valiant to deny the importance of money when it is had in abundance. “Economic power is first and foremost a power to keep necessity at arm’s length,” the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu observed.
3D printing, assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War
They decried it as a municipal shame on a city that purported to be the capital of art and culture in the Western Hemisphere. The strike never materialized, but the artists won their battle anyway. By the end of the 1970s, “loft conversions” outpaced new housing construction in New York.20 And of course today, the marriage of art and commerce is seen as the lifeblood of urban economic revitalization. At least since Richard Florida published The Rise of the Creative Class to describe the emergence of a new, powerful group of intellectual workers, ICE— as in intellectuals, culture, and education, a term coined by John Sexton, the president of New York University, to promote the university’s role in the city—is seen by developers and urban planners as a necessary complement to FIRE—finance, insurance, and real estate—in any thriving, post-industrial metropolitan economy.
While individual artists themselves probably attained or retained little power (though, had they purchased their loft conversions, they would have made millions), they spawned a whole new economy. Not only do places like Richmond, Virginia, and even Princeton, New Jersey, now brag that they offer “downtown lofts” (even if some of these are, in fact, new constructions made to look like old industrial conversions), a bohemian-type lifestyle has come to dominate the upper echelons of the new economy. By this I don’t just mean that—as Richard Florida asserts—“creativity” is now cherished and rewarded in a growing sector of the high-wage economy. I mean that the very rhythms of work of most professionals today could be clearly seen in the natural light of the artist live-work lofts of 1960: an integration of home and work; odd hours; individualized, nonsalaried work; status insecurity; social networking; and so on. We are all artists now.
(Ironic in that it begs the question, How dangerous can a manual for fun be?) A whole new slew of books tell us that we have overprogrammed our children. Let kids be kids, they tell us. Just as quickly they add that children, these days, don’t have enough creative time for imaginative play. We are stunting their creative growth by scheduling them so much. And, of course, the new elite wants to fashion their offspring into visionary thinkers to lead Richard Florida’s Creative Class. But parents respond ambivalently: It is a high-risk strategy, after all, to just let your kids do what they please and hope that your supersmart genes shine through—especially in an era with so many “lowbrow” temptations all around us. Some parents try to solve both problems—the potential of overscheduling to kill creativity and the temptations of brain-numbing diversions—in one fell swoop by subscribing to the Waldorf approach to schooling, which bans plastic toys, television, fast food, and the rest of popular culture in an effort to protect young ones so that their minds can develop naturally and purely18 The irony in this anti-structure backlash movement is that lying just underneath all the rhetoric about “allowing kids just to be kids” is the argument that we are going to do this so that they will be stronger, faster, smarter, better (when it comes time to apply to college, of course).
The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton
active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game
Although such views are intended for domestic consumption, governments in afﬂuent economies bought into the corporate rhetoric of the global war for talent and the idea that competitive advantage cannot be sustained by relying on the talents of the national workforce. Upgrading the skills of the existing workforce needed to extend to attracting the most highly skilled and talented workers from around the world. Richard Florida is a leading proponent of this line of argument. He states that the United States now confronts its biggest challenge since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, “the new global competition for talent, a phenomenon that promises to radically reshape the world in the coming decades.” Gone are the days when the economic might of nations depended on their natural resources, manufacturing excellence, military dominance, or scientiﬁc and technological prowess.
Richard Rosecrance, The Rise of the Virtual State: Wealth and Power in the Coming Century (New York: Basic Books, 1999), xi. 17. R. Reich, The Next American Frontier (New York: Penguin, 1983), 127, taken from D. Coates, Models of Capitalism, Growth and Stagnation in the Modern Era Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000). 18. Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder, Capitalism and Social Progress: The Future of Society in a Global Economy (New York: Palgrave, 2001). 19. Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Harper Business, 2005); Phillip Brown and Stuart Tannock, “Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent,” Journal of Education Policy, 24, no. 4 (2009): 377–392. 20. AnnaLee Saxenian, The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006). 21. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Penguin, 2005), 230. 22.
Raﬁq Dossani and Martin Kenney, “Went for Cost, Stayed for Quality? Moving the Back Ofﬁce to India,” Asia-Paciﬁc Research Center, Stanford University, Working Paper (2003), 29. http://APARC.stanford.edu. See also Stephen Cohen, Bradford De Long, and John Zysman, “Tools for Thought: What Is New and Important about the E-economy?” Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, BRIE Working Paper 138 (January 1, 2000); Martin Kenney and Richard Florida (eds.), Locating Global Advantage (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 2003). The WTO superseded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATTS) established following World War II. See United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalization of R&D, 88–89. www.unctad.org/wir Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Information Technology Outlook (Paris: OECD, 2006), 8.
The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey
Eventually, we will see the latent tensions building and begin to understand that changes can be postponed but not avoided. Ultimately that means that our current dilemmas will continue until they reach their breaking points. Sadly, there isn’t any “fix” above and beyond waiting for some parts of our current institutions to crumble away and eventually be replaced. I argue that in the longer term, social change will boil over once again, in uncontrollable ways, or, to borrow a phrase from urban economist Richard Florida, America is headed for a “Great Reset.” A Great Reset is what happens when you postpone change for too long, and it is like opening up a valve on an overheating engine; there is a sudden rush of outward force, and not always in a pleasant or orderly manner. In medieval times, for instance, the Catholic Church sought to shut down a lot of theological dissent. For a while this worked, but eventually the result was a far-reaching and fundamental process known as the Reformation, which had major political, economic, and religious ramifications for centuries.
What are some other ways in which individual decisions are limiting the physical mixing across different groups of people? The reality is that the breaking of America into different groups, while often driven by money, is in fact not about money alone. Education and social class are also very important as segregators and dividers. The most heavily segregated cities, across a variety of metrics, including education, social class, and sometimes race, tend to be what urban researchers Richard Florida and Charlotta Melander label “high-tech, knowledge-based metros.” That is again a sign of the complacent class at work. For instance, we can look at where the working class is least segregated from the non–working class as one metric for the mixing of social classes. That list of least class-segregated cities is Hartford, Providence, Buffalo, Virginia Beach, Orlando, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Rochester, Las Vegas, and Cincinnati, in that order.
It has created a new set of entry barriers, as if only the right kind of “tolerant” people are supposed to be living in particular neighborhoods, or maybe only they can afford it or only they feel comfortable there by fitting in. The college culture sounds tolerant when you talk about it at a cocktail party, but on the ground, the reality is less rather than more mixing and again the cementing of America’s social and also economic stasis.11 Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander have ranked the most and least segregated areas in the United States, using metrics of income, education, and also occupation. By these measures, the most segregated area is Austin, Texas, where wealthy, college-educated professionals are least likely to live near their less-educated counterparts in the area. But if you know Austin a bit, this makes some sense. There is a yuppie downtown Austin, with America’s biggest Whole Foods branch, tech start-ups, women wearing Loft clothes, and some of the most expensive real estate in Texas.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
This leaves the burgeoning and pivotal cities of the South categorized as a mere Other, outside of Western culture, a status which makes it all but impossible for theorists to grasp how both sets of cities mutually constitute each other within imperial, neo-colonial or postcolonial geographies.27 The field of urban studies has been particularly slow to address the central role of cities within the new imperialism – the resurgence of aggressive, colonial militarism focusing on the violent appropriation of land and resources in the South.28 Indeed, the prosperous cities of the North are today often idealized by liberal commentators and theorists as centres of migration and laboratories of cosmopolitan integration, characteristics construed as vital to their high-tech economic futures as the key nodes of the ‘global knowledge economy’. Such integration is deemed by influential urban policy gurus, such as Richard Florida, to be a key engine of economic creativity within technologically advanced capitalism.29 These perspectives, however, systematically ignore the way the North’s global cities often act as economic or ecological parasites, preying on the South, violently appropriating energy, water, land and mineral resources, relying on exploitative labour conditions in offshore manufacturing, driving damaging processes of climate change, and generating an often highly damaging flow of tourism and waste.
See Kaplan, ‘The Coming Anarchy,’ Atlantic Monthly, February 1994; Kaplan The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post–Cold War World, New York: Random House, 2000. 26 Fredric Jameson, ‘The End of Temporality’, Critical Inquiry, 29(4), 2003, 700, cited in Kipfer and Goonewardena ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism’. 27 Jenny Robinson, ‘Cities Between Modernity and Development’, paper presented to the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 2003, New Orleans, unpublished paper. See also her Ordinary Cities, London: Routledge, 2006. 28 See Kanishka Goonewardena and Stefan Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide: New Imperialism, Global Cities and the Damned of the Earth’, New Formations, 59, Autumn 2006, 23–33. 29 See Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, New York: Basic Books, 2002. 30 See, for example, Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton: Princeton University Press, (2nd Edition) 2002; Peter Taylor, World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis, London: Routledge, 2003. 31 For an excellent discussion of this, see Kipfer and Goonewardena ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism’; and Goonewardena and Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide’.
Indeed, the burgeoning industrial complex within which the industries of security, technology, biotechnology, corrections, prison, torture, electronics, military, entertainment and surveillance are melding yields large chunks of the lucrative core economies of cities like London and New York. Yet the centrality of war and imperial power to the economic dynamics of contemporary world cities is continually obscured by the suggestion that such cities, in these post-colonial times, are defined by their cosmopolitan and ‘hybrid’ mixing – a mixing viewed by such policy gurus as Richard Florida as a key competitive feature of the creative hubs, the ‘foundries’, of the ‘knowledge-based economy.’67 To define cities ‘generically and one-sidedly as endogenous “engines of growth” and laboratories of cosmopolitanism’, write Stefan Kipfer and Kanishka Goonewardena, ‘is to ignore other formative aspects of urban history: economic and ecological parasitism, forms of socio-political exclusion (against non-city-zens as well as residents) and a dependence of commercial exchange on militarism, imperial expansion, and other forms of primitive accumulation’.68 COSMOPOLITANISM AND HOMELAND Are fear and urbanism at war?
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
Multiculturalism is both a lived reality and an ideal of social life in times of global flows and universal rights. These propositions will illuminate the search for patterns in multicultural cities in the chapters to come. The diversity of people, activities, and roles has been the strength of cities. Peter Hall traces diversity as the source of creativity even in ancient and medieval cities.45 Jane Jacobs has identified diversity as the driving force of urban economy and social life.46 Richard Florida offers the theory that “regional economic growth is powered by creative people who prefer places that are diverse, tolerant and open.”47 Yet this diversity is sustained by the city serving as the common ground. Its collective life, shared space, services, and institutions contribute to the formation of values, beliefs, and behaviours. The bonds of citizenship promote a shared civic culture.
They are further finding that a lot of opportunities are turning into contractual self-employment, many of which turn into ethnic niches, for example, Latino limo drivers in New York and Taiwanese computer-game designers in Los Angeles. The economic base of cities is increasingly determined by their infrastructure, educational and research institutions, community services, and cultural life. The talent and creativity of a city’s workforce is its resource base. Richard Florida may be overplaying the role of the creative class in economic growth, but the education, skill, and diversity of a city’s population are undoubtedly strong determinants of economic prosperity.81 Cultural pluralism and its associated ethnic diversity are marks of cosmopolitanism that attract global capital and talent. They are the resources of the new urban economy. In this economic order, ethnic economies and enclaves have a significant role.
A Time for Reconciliation, Report of the Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles, (Quebec, 2008), 19. 43 Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Baha Abu-Laban, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 30. 44 Julius Grey, “The Paradox of Reasonable Accommodation,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 34–5. Notes to pages 36–44 279 45 Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), 6. 46 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 14. 47 Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2005), 62. 48 William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, act 3, scene 1. 49 Janet Abu-Lughod, Changing Cities: Urban Sociology (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 140. 50 James Holston and Arjun Appadurai, “Cities and Citizenship,” Public Culture 8 (1996),188–9. 51 Ibid., 200. 52 Ash Amin, “The Good City,” Urban Studies 43, nos. 5/6 (May 2006),1012. 53 Susan S, Fainstein, The Just City (Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 2010), 3. 54 Ibid., 43. 55 Leonie Sandercock, Mongreal Cities (London: Continuum, 2003), 87. 56 Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, trans.
barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Information can be quickly sent and received by anyone from almost anywhere. In theory, expanding access to resources and information from anywhere might decouple the relationship between place and innovation. Economic geographers, however, observe the opposite effect. Evidence suggests that location, rather than being irrelevant, is more important than ever. Innovation tilts heavily toward certain locations and, as scholar Richard Florida (professor at Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto and author of The Rise of the Creative Class (2002)) says, is “spiky” with great concentration of creative, innovative people in tightly clustered geographies. Location clearly matters. Three prominent frameworks explain why some locales are hotbeds of entrepreneurship whereas others are the innovation equivalent of a twenty-first century economic mirage.
Meanwhile, vertical integration and closed systems disadvantaged many Route 128 companies during periods of technological upheaval. Saxenian highlights the role of a densely networked culture in explaining Silicon Valley’s successful industrial adaptation as compared to Route 128. Finally, the third explanation of startup communities, the notion of the creative class, comes from geography. Richard Florida describes the tie between innovation and creative-class individuals. The creative class is composed of individuals such as entrepreneurs, engineers, professors, and artists who create “meaningful new forms.” Creative-class individuals, Florida argues, want to live in nice places, enjoy a culture with a tolerance for new ideas and weirdness, and—most of all—want to be around other creative-class individuals.
There are gems everywhere, often undiscovered, that appear when everyone becomes a mentor. EMBRACE WEIRDNESS Boulder is a weird place. In the 1960s when the hippies were driving to the Bay Area from the East Coast, some of them ran out of gas near Boulder. They looked around, liked the mountains, and decided to stay. Boulder’s reputation of 25 square miles surrounded by reality is well earned. In his book The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida talks about weirdness as a key attribute of innovative communities. He’s gone on to state, “You cannot get a technologically innovative place unless it’s open to weirdness, eccentricity and difference” (New York Times, June 1, 2002). The Boulder startup community embraces weirdness. You don’t have to look a certain way, dress a certain way, or act a certain way. People can simply be themselves and are accepted for who they are and what they do.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
It goes without saying that the phenomenon will not apply in the same way or at the same pace in every big city in America. It will not come to Detroit or Buffalo in the way it is coming to Chicago, New York, and Washington, D.C. Some cities will lack the central job base to generate a large-scale affluent urban revival, and will lag behind their more fortunate counterparts by a long period of years, if they ever get there at all. This is the argument of scholars such as Edward Glaeser and Richard Florida, who see an increasing bifurcation between cities economically equipped to regenerate themselves in the twenty-first century and those whose obsolete industrial economies will leave them mired in the downtown blight and exurban outward pressures of an earlier era. They have a point. There is no evidence that Detroit will produce a large cohort of downtown dwellers anytime soon. But despite the unevenness, demographic inversion will apply in more cities than many critics have imagined thus far.
More specifically, it wanted a place with a sophisticated urban scene that would appeal to the bright young college graduates it hoped to employ. This was a common refrain across the big Sun Belt cities. In the words of Michael Smith, Charlotte’s director of downtown development, the bankers who dominated the town’s economic strategy felt that they had to have downtown amenities “to attract hip young professionals.” Virtually all of these Sun Belt cities agreed with the geographer Richard Florida’s argument that future prosperity depended on the ability to lure the “creative class,” and that this could be done only with a thriving urban culture. More broadly, though, there was a perception that the twenty-first-century world was dividing rapidly into global cities and cities that were second-tier, no matter what their metropolitan size, and that rebuilding (or creating) a downtown was the only way to move into the first rank.
Susan Urahn and Lori Grange of the Pew Center on the States provided a challenging and rewarding work environment upon my arrival there early in 2010. As this process was unfolding, several urban scholars published work on the same subjects I was pursuing, and I have benefited from the opportunity to read the books and articles they have produced. In no particular order, I would like to single out Christopher Leinberger and William Frey of the Brookings Institution, Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, Witold Rybczynski of the University of Pennsylvania, and Edward Glaeser of Harvard University. While none of these authors would agree with everything I say in this book, each has been a source of new ideas and provocative arguments. It is customary at the end of acknowledgment pages to thank the members of one’s family, and I would be delinquent in not doing so now.
Stuffocation by James Wallman
3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar
By 1990, less than 40% of the global population lived in a city, but as of 2010, more than half of all people live in an urban area. By 2030, 6 out of every 10 people will live in a city, and by 2050, this proportion will increase to 7 out of 10 people.” Source: World Health Organization Also, Ariel Schwartz, “We Are Approaching Peak Car Use”, Fast Company, 5 July 2011, and Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (New York: HarperBusiness, 2011). For a quick introduction, read Richard Florida, “The Fading Differentiation between City and Suburb”, Urban Land Magazine (urbanland.uli.org), January 2013. For Ruth Milkman’s view on why people are disillusioned with capitalism, see Ruth Milkman, Stephanie Luce and Penny Lewis, Changing the Subject: A Bottom-up Account of Occupy Wall Street in New York City (City University of New York).
, The Atlantic, 25 March 2012; and John Arlidge, “Baby, you can share my car”, Sunday Times, 10 March 2013, which states that: in 2008, only 30% of 16-year-old Americans held driving licences, down from 50% a generation ago, that 80% of under-25s in Tokyo do not have a car, and that in Germany, the share of young households without cars rose from 20% to 28% from 1998 to 2008. Millennials choosing to live in small, city-centre apartments See Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (New York: HarperBusiness, 2011). For a rigorous analysis of the millennials’ housing aspirations, read Nathan Morris, “Why Generation Y is Causing the Great Migration of the 21st Century”, on the website of a design firm called Placemakers (www.placemakers.com), 9 April 2012. “Rather than owning a thing”: millennials not so interested in material objects Various sources, including Tammy Erickson, “Meaning Is the New Money”, HBR Blog Network, 23 March 2011; and David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011.
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra
On El Paso and Juarez, see Andrew Rice, “Life on the Line,” The New York Times Magazine, July 31, 2011. On the vulnerability of women, see Gregory Acs, “Downward Mobility from the Middle Class: Waking up from the American Dream,” Pew Charitable Trusts, Economic Mobility Project, 2011. That is also the source for the insights about individuals falling out of the middle class. The Richard Florida quotation is from Richard Florida, “The Conservative States of America,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2011. Acknowledgments For useful discussions and comments I wish to thank Nelson Hernandez, Anson Williams, Kenneth Regan, Jason Fichtner, Erik Brynolfsson, Andrew McGee, Don Peck, Derek Thompson, Michelle Dawson, Peter Snow, Veronique de Rugy, Garett Jones, Robin Hanson, Bryan Caplan, Alex Tabarrok, Natasha Cowen, Garry Kasparov, Vasik Rajlich, Stephen Morrow, David Brooks, Peter Thiel, Michael Mandel, and Larry Kaufman, with apologies to anyone I may have left out.
It’s again worth seeing what is happening, politically speaking, in the parts of the United States with relatively stagnant incomes. Political conservatism is strongest in the least well-off, least educated, most blue collar, and most economically hard-hit states. If you doubt it, know that as of 2011, the most politically conservative states are, as measured by self-identification, Mississippi, Idaho, Alabama, Wyoming, Utah, Arkansas, South Carolina, North Dakota, Louisiana, and South Dakota. As Richard Florida puts it, “Conservatism, more and more, is the ideology of the economically left behind.” Those states have become outposts of Tea Party support. Their electorates are not out there leading the charge for higher rates of progressive taxation or trying to revive the memory of George McGovern. The most liberal areas tend to be urban or suburban, with lots of high-earning professionals. My own residence—in Fairfax County, Virginia—was strongly conservative in the early 1980s when I first lived there.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
“Industrial and warehouse workers rarely demand specialty retail, high-end services, cloth-napkin restaurants, hotels, and bookstores,” he wrote. The ascendency of distribution has sparked a philosophical debate in Memphis: Is the city content to be a hub where goods are moved and sorted instead of created or invented? Kasarda and his allies say yes; local members of the “creative class” say no. Their champion is Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class, whose prescription for economic growth boils down to the “three Ts” of technology, talent, and tolerance. If Memphis can attract the designers, musicians, and biomedi-cal researchers who crave Whole Foods and gentrified juke joints, he argues, then companies desirous of their talents will soon follow. The city’s future lies in brains, not boxes. Cargo doesn’t need quality of life.
Suburbs were the spatial fix of the Industrial Age, when there were cars to be made and sold, and workers wanted to put some distance between their families and the factory. Edge cities like Las Colinas sprouted the moment work shifted to the office, when most of us began trafficking in ideas and didn’t mind living closer to our workplace. Our Instant Age is the product of the Jet Age and the Net Age, of global reach and always-on connectivity, of aggregation and dispersal. As Richard Florida and others have asserted, we need both velocity and density in our daily lives, for the production and transmission of ideas as well as goods. Postrecession, we need a new spatial fix that is locally dense and globally connected. Kasarda believes he holds the blueprints to a fix that is beautiful, efficient, and ultimately sustainable—a far cry from the hideous, haphaz-ard, and polluted messes most cities have inherited.
Business centers strewn throughout the community—all within a short walk or electric-cart ride—will offer rent-by-the-hour support staff plus state-of-the-art meeting rooms and seamless video-conference hookups to China and India. With the Albuquerque airport only six minutes and one stoplight away, a former regular of the big-city airport crush can leave for meetings in other cities after breakfast and still be home for dinner. Mesa del Sol is an aerotropolis in the mold of the “no-collar workplace” imagined by Richard Florida: the twilight zone of multitasking knowledge workers drifting between home, cafés, the airport, and clients’ conferences and back. Like Florida—who once switched academic posts to be closer to Dulles—the Ratner clan believes the future of work belongs to those of us who do it wherever we want, whenever we want, so long as we do it longer and harder than anyone else. They aim to give us the city we deserve, a hub enabling our dispersal.
Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population
In 2006, foreign nationals living in the United States were inventors or coinventors in 40 percent of all international patent applications filed by the U.S. government.34 Migrants file the majority of patents by leading science firms: 72 percent of the total at Qualcomm, 65 percent at Merck, 64 percent at General Electric, and 60 percent at Cisco.35 Higher rates of immigration also have second-order effects on innovation. Ethnic diversity plays a key role in attracting and retaining creative and talented people to cities. Economic geographer Richard Florida argues that diversity increases a region or city's ability to compete for talent: To support high-technology industries or a wide range of economic activity in general, regions compete for a variety of talent across a variety of fields and disciplines. Regions that are open to diversity are thus able to attract a wider range of talent by nationality, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation than are those that are relatively closed.36 Diversity becomes a stimulant to further innovation and growth.
Integration requires policies that extend settlement services, assistance with labor market access, language training, and the removal of barriers that prevent the involvement of migrants in society.76 Expanding opportunities for migrants to fully participate in their host societies in the short run is a valuable investment, given the long-run benefits of social diversity. Citing a study by Pascal Zachary, Richard Florida notes that “the United States' economic competitiveness in high-technology fields is directly linked to its openness to outsiders, while the relative stagnation of Japan and Germany is tied to “closedness” and relative homogeneity.”77 Openness to migrants pays dividends in the long run. At a local or group level, Scott E. Page argues that the cognitive diversity brought by immigration assists with problem solving and productivity: Interacting with a large number of diverse people should be more cognitively taxing than hanging out with your closest friends who look, think and act just like you.
“International Migration Trends since 1980,” presented at International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, Marrakech, Morocco, 11–12 May 2005, p. 24. 12. Gail McLaughlan and John Salt. 2002. “Migration Policies toward Highly Skilled Foreign Workers,” Report to the UK Home Office, March 2002, p. 4. 13. Lindsay Lowell. 2008. “Highly Skilled Migration,” in World Migration 2008: Managing Labour Mobility in the Evolving Global Economy. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, p. 52. 14. Richard Florida, Charlotta Mellander, and Kevin Stolarick. 2008. “Inside the Black Box of Regional Development—Human Capital, the Creative Class and Tolerance,” Journal of Economic Geography 8(5): 615–649. 15. Lowell, 2008: 53. 16. Demetrios Papademetriou. 2003. “Managing Rapid and Deep Change in the Newest Age of Migration,” Political Quarterly 74(1): 39–58. 17. Lowell, 2008: 54. 18. Ibid.: 54. 19. Ibid.: 54. 20.
The Fissured Workplace by David Weil
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business process, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield management
From Widgets to Digits: Employment Regulation for the Changing Workplace. New York: Cambridge University Press. ______. 2006. “Legal Protections for Atypical Employees: Employment Law for Workers without Workplaces and Employees without Employers.” Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 27, no. 2: 251–281. Sturgeon, Timothy, and Richard Florida. 2004. “Globalization, Deverticalization, and Employment in the Motor Vehicle Industry.” In Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by Martin Kenney and Richard Florida. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 52–81. Sum, Andrew, and Joseph McLaughlin. 2011. “Who Has Benefited from the Post–Great Recession Recovery?” Working paper, Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University (July). Sunstein, Cass, Daniel Kahnemann, David Schkade, and Ilana Ritov.
“Hiding behind the Corporate Veil: Employer Abuse of the Corporate Form to Avoid or Deny Workers’ Collectively Bargained and Statutory Rights.” West Virginia Law Review 100: 537–599. Curry, James, and Martin Kenney. 2004. “The Organizational and Geographic Configuration of the Personal Computer Value Chain.” In Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by Martin Kenney and Richard Florida. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 113–141. Dalzell, Robert. 1987. Enterprising Elite: The Boston Associates and the World They Made. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Davidov, Guy. 2004. “Joint Employer Status in Triangular Employment Relationships.” British Journal of Industrial Relations 42: 727–746. ______. 2006. “The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated”: “Employee” as a Viable (though Overly-Used) Legal Concept.”
Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson / Prentice Hall. Kelling, George, and Catherine Coles. 1996. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. New York: Martin Kessler Books / The Free Press. Kelling, George, and James Q. Wilson. 1982. “The Police and Neighborhood Safety.” The Atlantic, March, 29–38. Kenney, Martin, and Richard Florida. 2004. Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Kerr, Clark. 1977. Labor Markets and Wage Determination: The Balkanization of Labor Markets and Other Essays. Berkeley: University of California Press, Institute of Industrial Relations. Kleiner, Morris, and David Weil. 2012. “Evaluating the Efficacy of NLRA Remedies—Analysis and Comparison with Other Workplace Penalty Policies.”
Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson
Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar
We will still want our time on Earth to have made a difference. We will still want to achieve something and we will still crave recognition and respect. We will also still want to know whether our collective existence is anything more than a cosmic accident. Like Joyce Vincent, alone in her London apartment, we will still want to love and be loved. Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose. Update I was reading The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida again recently. In the opening pages he makes the point that people living between 1900 and 1950 witnessed greater technological change than those living between 1950 and 2000. He then goes on to explain that in terms of societal values, the reverse was the case. I would argue that something similar, albeit on a much smaller scale, has happened over the last couple of years. Technologically speaking there have been periods of greater upheaval but, from the point of view of values, the change that we have witnessed since 2007 has been significant.
It can also mean an appreciation of aesthetics, which bring us back to right-brain thinkers. There are some future-proof jobs that cannot be done by a machine or outsourced to Asia. These include what I’d call hightouch jobs such as nursing and teaching, which involve a high level of emotional intelligence. They also include occupations that involve the application of creativity and imagination. But, as Richard Florida points out in The Rise of the Creative Class, these types of jobs don’t work just anywhere. Cities become attractive to right-brained entrepreneurs and innovators when they score highly on the Three Ts: technology, talent and tolerance. Technology refers to the proximity of world-class research facilities; talent is the clustering of bright, like-minded people from varied backgrounds; and tolerance is an open, progressive culture that embraces “outsiders” and difference.
If people stay in the workforce for longer, in theory the final transition from work to retirement will also be more complex and traumatic, which could drive the need for further counseling and consulting. Whatever happens, the world of work will not be the same in the future. 292 FUTURE FILES Update In the original edition of Future Files, I quoted Thomas Friedman saying that the world was becoming flat, in the sense that there was now a level playing field where everyone competed with everyone else. Everyone was now a potential player. This is still somewhat true, but as Richard Florida (in The Rise of the Creative Class) has pointed out, the world is actually rather spiky. What he means by this, I think, is that only a handful of regions or cities are driving the global economy; if you do not live in one of these places, life can be very difficult indeed. This sounds somewhat illogical. Surely, in an era of digitalized services and global connectivity, geography is irrelevant?
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, index fund, intangible asset, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zipcar
—Jonathan Alter, author of The Promise and columnist for Bloomberg View “Yes, the United States took a huge hit from economic crisis, but talk of its long-run decline is overdone and premature. In Better, Stronger, Faster, Daniel Gross rebuts the declinists and documents the enduring strengths that power America’s ability to transform and reset itself in dynamic ways. The United States is poised to emerge from the crisis in better shape than any of its commonly touted old and new competitors.” —Richard Florida, author of The Great Reset and The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited, and director of the University of Toronto’s Martin Prosperity Institute “Daniel Gross is an author and journalist who is not afraid to challenge the conventional wisdom. His latest book does this with tremendous style, by directly attacking the ‘America is doomed’ camp, to paint a portrait of America that is far more vibrant than critics usually acknowledge.
It will be by choice. CHAPTER 3 Faster: Policy After an economic downturn and financial crisis that were the worst in at least three generations, the United States avoided tough, swift decisions. Instead of dealing with reality and confronting problems head-on, policymakers, companies, and consumers kicked the can down the road. Faced with a glaring need for what the sociologist Richard Florida called a “Great Reset,” America chose to hit the pause button. When the policy efforts came, they were too little (or too much, depending on where you sit ideologically), too late, too slow, and too ineffective. The bailouts and stimulus efforts were expensive, poorly designed failures. Economic setbacks may be nothing new in American history. But the failure to react, bounce back, and improve certainly seems to be.
An environment for networking and hanging out, Facebook has also enabled the creation of large, highly scaled businesses that were not imagined during the creation of the system. Zynga, the social gaming business founded in 2007, was created essentially to exist within Facebook; in late 2011 its initial public offering endowed it with a $7 billion market value. Creating entirely new ecosystems is another discipline at which the United States has excelled. “In a reset, we get great individual innovation,” notes the sociologist Richard Florida, the author of The Great Reset. “More importantly, we get the rise of systems innovation,” like Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse turning electricity from a science experiment into a utility. “That leads to new models of infrastructure and new kinds of consumption.” The United States has demonstrated a unique ability to develop such working models. When you have a large installed user base, a product or service rolled out on it can gain scale more quickly, and its value can grow exponentially.
3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs
In either case, the platform amplifies the effort and teaches skills in the process of using it. Is it any wonder that nearly two-thirds of the patents filed over the last three decades came from twenty metropolitan areas with only one-third of the US population? More innovation, creativity, and art per person happens in large metro areas than other places; what Jonah Lehrer calls “urban friction” and Richard Florida calls the “creative class” turns cities into higher platforms for success-seekers.* Platforms are why so many aspiring actors migrate to Los Angeles and why budding fashion bloggers move to New York. Platforms are why Harvard Law graduates have easier times finding jobs than those from other schools. Though it’s much more difficult to get into Harvard than other law schools, you will get more leverage with a degree from Harvard.
This means that in Finland, students’ learning in school is less affected by their family backgrounds than in most other countries.” 95 coined the term “lateral thinking” in 1967: Edward de Bono expounds on this and other terminology on his official website: “Lateral Thinking,” http://edwdebono.com/lateral.htm (accessed February 16, 2014). 98 Is it any wonder: Big cities are epicenters for invention, according to patent filings as collected and reported by Jonathan Rothwell, José Lobo, Deborah Strumsky, and Mark Muro, “Patenting Prosperity: Invention and Economic Performance in the United States and Its Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2013/02/patenting prosperity rothwell/patenting prosperity rothwell.pdf (accessed February 15, 2014). The authors write that “Sixty-three percent of U.S. patents are developed by people living in just 20 metro areas, which are home to 34 percent of the U.S. population.” Richard Florida writes about the benefits of city living for creative people in The Rise of the Creative Class—Revisited: 10th Anniversary Edition—Revised and Expanded, 2nd edition (Basic Books, 2012) and argues that creative people may actually boost the economics of cities, though many have debated whether this is causation or correlation. Jonah Lehrer writes about “urban friction” as a key reason for creativity and invention in big cities in Imagine: How Creativity Works (Houghton Mifflin, 2012).
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, assortative mating, Claude Shannon: information theory, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, New Economic Geography, Norbert Wiener, p-value, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, price mechanism, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, working-age population
,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 14, no. 2 : 7–17), and more recent attempts to find evidence have generated more discussion than answers (see, for example, Stephen J. Redding, “The Empirics of the New Economic Geography,” Journal of Regional Science 50, no. 1 : 297–311). Another approach that hinges on individuals, albeit differently from the approach followed by the new economic geographers, is the work of urban theorist Richard Florida. Florida has argued forcefully that the competitiveness of urban agglomerations hinges largely on their ability to attract creative individuals (Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002]). Other approaches focus not on the role of individuals but on the properties of regions or of the networks of firms that locate in these regions. One strand of this literature focuses on industrial clusters associated mostly with the Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter (see, for example, Michael E.
Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray
affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional
They defended tradition and middle-class values. They worked for corporations and went to church. Meanwhile, the bohemians were the free spirits who flouted convention.” But by the 1990s, everything had gotten mixed up. “It was now impossible to tell an espresso-sipping artist from a cappuccino-gulping banker,”3 Brooks wrote. Bobos belonged to what Brooks labeled “the educated class.” In 2002, Richard Florida, a professor of public policy at George Mason University, identified “the creative class,” telling his readers, “If you are a scientist or engineer, an architect or designer, a writer, artist, or musician, or if you use your creativity as a key factor in your work in business, education, health care, law or some other profession, you are a member.”4 He celebrated the changes in the workplace, lifestyle, and social capital that accompanied the ascendancy of the creative class.
The best I can do is use the DDB Life Style data that were provided to Robert Putnam in the research for Bowling Alone and are now available to other scholars.11 That database does not permit us to isolate the top few centiles—the highest income code is $100,000—but it does give a quantitative measure of the relationship between income, education, and a wide variety of tastes and preferences. I also continue to draw heavily on the work of David Brooks and Richard Florida. Both Bobos in Paradise and The Rise of the Creative Class, along with their other books, have extensive documentation, some quantitative and some qualitative, for the generalizations they draw about the tastes and preferences of their Bobos and Creative Class, respectively, and my endnotes contain references to their discussions. My generalizations are consistent with theirs. There is one other way to verify or reject the account you are about to read: your own experience.
I have given only the barest outline of the tribal customs and rites of the new upper class. I spent a paragraph on new-upper-class vacations, while David Brooks devotes eight pages of Bobos in Paradise to them. I didn’t even mention sex; Brooks has another eight pages about that. I didn’t mention religion; see all thirty-seven pages of his chapter 6. I gave a few pages to changes in the world of work; Richard Florida devotes the better part of an entire book to them. But the lacuna that is likely to be at the top of your mind is politics. The new upper class tends to be liberal, right? There’s no getting around it: Every way of answering that question produces a yes. In chapter 3, I give politics a longer discussion, because it relates to the isolation of the new upper class. But that reality need not obscure another one: Most of the description of the elite culture in this chapter cuts across ideological lines.
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
The British ghettos are up: U.K. white population from the Office for National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273. Fact about people in high-rises is from an op-ed by the British geographer Daniel Dorling, published in the Observer, September 25, 2005. The original unedited version is at sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/publications/2005/ Ghettos_observer_25_9_05.pdf. Many of the eager consumers: For an exploration of the gays-as-pioneers thesis, see Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander, “There Goes the Neighborhood,” working paper, March 2007, creativeclass.typepad.com/thecreativityexchange/files/Florida_Mellander_Housing_Values_1.pdf. Hammond’s computer creates: Ross Hammond, “Endogenous Transition Dynamics in Corruption: An Agent-Based Computer Model,” CSED Working Paper 19, December 2000, www.brookings.edu/es/dynamics/ papers/ross/ross.htm. Anyone who doubts this: For Booth’s map, see, for instance, Peter Whitfield, London: A Life in Maps (London: British Library, 2006).
Lessons from Immigrant Segregation in the United States,” working paper, June 2006, trinity.aas.duke.edu/~jvigdor/cgv2006a.pdf. The sociologist Mark Granovetter: Mark Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6(May 1973): 1360–80, www.stanford.edu/dept/soc/people/faculty/granovetter/documents/TheStrengthof WeakTies.pdf. 7. THE WORLD IS SPIKY The World is Spiky: I stole this delightful title from Richard Florida’s article with Tim Gulden in The Atlantic, October 2005. “Our dollar looks the same”: Daniel Gross, “The Value of a New York Dollar,” New York, November 6, 2006. The bottom line: Gross, “The Value of a New York Dollar.” Ed Glaeser, the Harvard-based economist: Edward Glaeser, “Are Cities Dying?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, no. 2(spring 1998): 139–60. “Who needs a network?”
Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, creative destruction, future of journalism, George Akerlof, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Louis Daguerre, new economy, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, software patent, transaction costs
Thus, as we'll see more clearly in the chapters below, the law's role is less and less to support creativity, and more and more to protect certain industries against competition. Just at the time digital technology could unleash an extraordinary range of commercial and noncommercial creativity, the law burdens this creativity with insanely complex and vague rules and with the threat of obscenely severe penalties. We may be seeing, as Richard Florida writes, the "Rise of the Creative Class." Unfortunately, we are also seeing an extraordinary rise of regulation of this creative class. These burdens make no sense in our tradition. We should begin by understanding that tradition a bit more and by placing in their proper context the current battles about behavior labeled "piracy." Chapter 1 Creators In 1928, a cartoon character was born.
 See Rochelle Dreyfuss, "Expressive Genericity: Trademarks as Language in the Pepsi Generation," Notre Dame Law Review 65 (1990): 397.  Lisa Bannon, "The Birds May Sing, but Campers Can't Unless They Pay Up," Wall Street Journal, 21 August 1996, available at link #3; Jonathan Zittrain, "Calling Off the Copyright War: In Battle of Property vs. Free Speech, No One Wins," Boston Globe, 24 November 2002.  In The Rise of the Creative Class (New York: Basic Books, 2002), Richard Florida documents a shift in the nature of labor toward a labor of creativity. His work, however, doesn't directly address the legal conditions under which that creativity is enabled or stifled. I certainly agree with him about the importance and significance of this change, but I also believe the conditions under which it will be enabled are much more tenuous.  Leonard Maltin, Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons (New York: Penguin Books, 1987), 34¬35
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The number of nineteen-year-olds who have opted out of earning driver’s licenses has almost tripled since the late seventies, from 8 percent to 23 percent.1 This statistic is particularly meaningful when one considers how the American landscape has changed since the seventies, when most American teens could walk to school, to the store, and to the soccer field, in stark contrast to the realities of today’s autocentric sprawl. This trend began well before the recession of 2008 and subsequent fuel spikes, and is seen as cultural, not economic. Market researchers J. D. Power—hardly part of the anticar lobby—report that “online discussions by teens indicate shifts in perceptions regarding the necessity of and desire to have cars.”2 In “The Great Car Reset,” Richard Florida observes: “Younger people today … no longer see the car as a necessary expense or a source of personal freedom. In fact, it is increasingly just the opposite: not owning a car and not owning a house are seen by more and more as a path to greater flexibility, choice, and personal autonomy.”3 These driving trends are only a small part of a larger picture that has less to do with cars and more to do with cities, and specifically with how young professionals today view themselves in relation to the city, especially in comparison to previous generations.
Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 164. 2. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 10.7. I: WHY WALKABILITY? 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 217. WALKING, THE URBAN ADVANTAGE 1. Jack Neff, “Is Digital Revolution Driving Decline in U.S. Car Culture?” 2. J. D. Power press release, October 8, 2009. 3. Richard Florida, “The Great Car Reset.” 4. The Segmentation Company, “Attracting College-Educated, Young Adults to Cities,” 7. 5. Patrick C. Doherty and Christopher B. Leinberger, “The Next Real Estate Boom.” 6. Ibid. 7. Christopher B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism, 89. 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid., 90. 10. David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries, 283. 11. Carol Morello, Dan Keating, and Steve Hendrix, “Census: Young Adults Are Responsible for Most of D.C.’s Growth in Past Decade.” 12.
The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight
Communities in Ohio, Kentucky, and Michigan were suddenly mired in their own foreclosure crises, compounded by another deep slide in the auto industry as General Motors and Chrysler wobbled on the precipice of bankruptcy. There was broad agreement that the postrecession economy needed to be very different from the real estate– and consumption-driven economy that had run aground. The United States needed, as Richard Florida calls his book about life after the crash, a “great reset.” There was also general consensus on the key elements of that reset or new strategy: innovation in science and technology, exports, and sustainability and new energy. For example, Jeffrey Immelt, the chairman 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 19 5/20/13 6:48 PM 20 NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY and CEO of General Electric, told an audience in Detroit in June 2009 that the United States should have three priorities: “become a country that is good at manufacturing and exports,” “win where it counts in clean energy,” and “invest in new technology.”6 Lawrence Summers, the director of the National Economic Council, said one month later, “The rebuilt American Economy must be more export-oriented and less consumption-oriented, more environmentally-oriented and less fossilenergy-oriented, more bio- and software-engineering-oriented and less financial-engineering-oriented.”7 In its meetings with business, civic, and academic leaders, the NYCEDC gleaned more than 100 ideas about how to move the city’s economy forward, covering everything from generating electricity from subway turnstiles to immigration reform to better waterfront access.
Alan Berube and others, “State of Metropolitan America: On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation” (Brookings, 2010), p. 93. 23. According to Chris Nelson, “Between 2010 and 2030, households with children will account for about 13 percent of the total change in households; households without children will represent the rest.” Arthur C. Nelson, Reshaping Metropolitan America, p. 27. 24. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 25. Joseph Cortright, “Young and Restless 2011” (Washington: CEOs for Cities, 2011). 26. Robert Puentes, “Have Americans Hit Peak Travel? A Discussion of the Changes in U.S. Driving Habits,” Discussion Paper 14 (Washington: International Transport Forum, 2012). 27. Nelson, Reshaping Metropolitan America, p. 3. 28.
Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity by Currid
barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Donald Trump, income inequality, index card, industrial cluster, labour mobility, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, place-making, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, slashdot, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy
Along with her help as a researcher, she toiled away on last-minute work for the book, from reformatting notes (a task I wouldn’t give my worst enemy) to looking up references. Vivian is a doctoral student at USC, and her attention to detail, intelligence, and ability to work under pressure are impressive and bode well for her own future career as a scholar. My scholarly colleagues and mentors Harvey Molotch, Susan Fainstein, Richard Florida, Lance Freeman, David Galenson, Tyler Cowen, Michael Storper, Allen Scott, and Dalton Conley were thoughtful and generous in the time they gave me to talk about my ideas for this book. I am fortunate to have Leo Braudy as my colleague at USC. His The Frenzy of Renown is the original treatise on the topic of fame, and his insights into my own work have been essential. Lisa Hacken was a terrific outside reader of my manuscript.
Additionally, because so many entertainers are “freelance” and essentially work on contract rather than on retainer, their employment numbers are not often picked up in firm employee numbers. 4. As not all workers within the broadly defined support and prepping industries (e.g., fitness trainers, nutritionists, hairstylists, and so-forth) are working strictly for celebrities, I took a percentage of the overall prep and support industries. I computed this number by incorporating Richard Florida’s methodology for approximating the “creative class,” or those members of the workforce who “generate meaningful new forms.” Florida makes the point that members of the creative class depend on multiple service workers to support them. I extend this argument to include the identified “support” industries and occupations more generally that work within the celebrity economy. I computed the percentage of the creative class comprised of celebrity-driven occupations.
Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional
Going to a university located in the centre of a city; enjoying a life which does not depend on the car; staying around for the first job or perhaps moving to another city centre; postponing learning to drive because the need is not pressing, insurance expensive and parking space hard to find; being frugal with money on account of student loan repayments; using a bike or walking for exercise and convenience, and public transport for the bigger distances; finding cheap rail fares through student discounts and online advance booking, bus arrival times via apps and delays from twitter feeds; wanting not to worry about drink‑driving on a Friday night; taking pride in software skills, rather than car mechanics; perhaps even preferring video games such as Grand Theft Auto (‘drive somewhere, shoot something, drive back’) to real‑life driving—all of these factors seem increasingly common in many developed countries and contribute to the decline in driving amongst younger people. There is growing recognition of the economic and cultural importance of cities, even in a world in which digital technologies allow us to be dispersed geographically yet interact continuously. It is in cities that we attain critical mass. Persuasive arguments, both economic and cultural, in favour of cities are articulated by two prominent US academics. Richard Florida maintains that metropolitan regions with high concentrations of technology workers, artists and musicians exhibit a higher level of economic development. This well‑educated ‘creative class’ fosters an environment that attracts more creative people and the businesses where they work. Edward Glaeser emphasises ‘agglomeration economics’, which refers to increases in productivity associated with urban proximity: larger pools of skilled staff to draw upon, suppliers and customers close to hand, and spillovers of technical know‑how so that ideas diffuse rapidly—both through organised discussion amongst those with similar expertise and in gossip.
3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar
Such a person is more prone to question traditions, rules, and boundaries – and to search for answers where others may not think to.”614 People who are fluent in several languages also tend to be more creative. “Languages codify concepts differently, and the ability to draw upon these varied perspectives during a creative process generates a wider range of associations,” Johansson notes. Diversity can also act as a magnet for the innovative, entrepreneurial talents of what Richard Florida calls the “creative class”. “A great city has two hallmarks: tolerance for strangers and intolerance for mediocrity. These are precisely the qualities that appeal to members of the creative class – and they also happen to be qualities conducive to innovation, risk-taking, and the formation of new businesses.”615 The boost to innovation from diversity in general and immigration in particular is potentially huge.
Quoted in http://www.economist.com/node/21564536. 605 Edward Glaeser and Matthew Resseger, "The complementarity between cities and skills", National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper #15103, June 2009 606 James Manyika, Jaana Remes, Richard Dobbs, Javier Orellana and Fabian Schaer, "Urban America: US cities in the global economy", McKinsey Global Institute, April 2012 607 Paul Cheshire and Christian Hilber, "Office space supply restrictions in Britain: The political economy of market revenge", Economic Journal, 2008 608 Frans Johansson, The Medici Effect: Breakthrough Insights at the Intersection of Ideas, Concepts, and Cultures, Harvard Business School: 2004 609 Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: 2012 610 http://www.economist.com/node/21550235 611 http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-08/22/20-percent-time-here-to-stay 612 Scott Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton: 2007 613 Donald Campbell, “Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes”, Psychological Review 67, no. 6 (1960): 380–400. 614 Dean Simonton, Origins of Genius, Oxford: 1999 615 Richard Florida, The Rise Of The Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community And Everyday Life, Basic Books: 2002 616 Richard B. Freeman and Wei Huang, "Collaborating with People Like Me: Ethnic co-authorship within the US", NBER working paper #19905, February 2014 http://www.nber.org/papers/w19905 617 Chiara Franzonia, Giuseppe Scellatob and Paula Stephand, “The mover’s advantage: The superior performance of migrant scientists”, Economics Letters, Volume 122, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 89–93 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176513004874 618 http://www.renewoureconomy.org/research/patent-pending-how-immigrants-are-reinventing-the-american-economy-2/ 76 per cent of patents, to be precise. 619 54 per cent of all patents, to be exact. 620 A 10 per cent increase in international graduate students would raise patent applications by 3.3 per cent, university patent grants by 6.0 per cent and non-university patent grants by 4.0 per cent.
The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin
banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
At GMFramingham it took nearly thirty-one hours in 8.15 square feet with 1.3 defects."24 Toyota was able to build a car quicker, in less space, with fewer defects, and with half the labor. In recent years, Japanese manufacturers have combined the new lean-management techniques with increasingly sophisticated computer and other information technologies to create the "factory of the future" -automated production facilities with few workers, which more nearly resemble a laboratory than a factory. Social scientists Martin Kenney and Richard Florida talk of the new lean factories that are more cerebral than physical in appearance: "Under past forms of industrial production, including mass-production Fordism, much of work was physical.... The emergence of digitization increases the importance of abstract intelligence in production and thus requires that workers actively undertake what were previously thought of as intellectual activities.
America enjoyed pre-eminence in steel production by dint of its superior technologies and organizational methods and its access to cheap raw materials and continent-wide markets. Today, that competitive edge has been seriously eroded, in large part because of the failure of U.S. companies to keep up with the new technologies of the information revolution that have remade the steel industry. Authors Martin Kenney and Richard Florida contrast two very different steel factories located within an hour of each other in America's rust belt. The first is a sprawling complex of old rusted buildings and sheds housing hundreds of workers toiling in near-Dickensian Hanging Up the Blue Collar 133 conditions. Caked with grease and grime, they tend aged steel furnaces, transforming molten metal into steel slabs. The muddied floors are cluttered with rusted-out parts, abandoned tools, and chemical containers.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
The writer Po Bronson notes that a “crisis can actually take people from thinking about what’s next to thinking about what is first.” Many of us grew up with the aspiration to own our homes. We hoped that when we retired we would have a place to live without having to pay housing costs. In recent years, home equity was also a lucrative place to invest. As home prices increased, so too did the equity. But the continued recession, or “reset,” as author Richard Florida calls it, has forced us to revisit childhood assumptions. Why is home ownership desirable? Does it ensure a less stressful, happier old age? Does the increased stress and high cost of buying, insuring, and maintaining a home for decades justify the anticipated stress reduction later in life? Perhaps we are moving into an era when feeling secure and happy will be uncoupled from what we individually own.
50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson
23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional
Thus, migration has significant implications for innovation policy because the close proximity of likeminded individuals tends to create a multiplier effect. In other words, what drives economic value and productivity is not where most people live, but where most bright, ambitious and energetic people live, and this tends to be in large global cities. Creative cities According to Professor Richard Florida (author of The Rise of the Creative Class), economic progress is primarily driven by ideas, and ideas tend to cluster in large cities that are open and tolerant of diversity. If cities want to become economic powerhouses, they must therefore attract artists, writers, sculptors, musicians, immigrants and assorted oddballs, eccentrics and misfits from other places. In other words, taking a fairly long-term view of urban development, no rock bands, no bohemians and no “weirdos” equals no significant intellectual property, no scientific breakthroughs, no cutting-edge arts culture and no business model-busting young entrepreneurs.
Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning
I have tried to include a broad survey of these works in the bibliography, but several works have been disproportionately influential on my argument and method in this book. Dean Keith Simonton’s Origins of Genius and Howard Gruber’s Darwin on Man both explicitly take a Darwinian approach to innovation, and use that approach to make sense of Darwin’s own distinct genius. Arthur Koestler’s Act of Creation and Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions remain essential platforms for the understanding of new ideas. Richard Florida’s Rise of the Creative Class looks at creativity in an urban context. Richard Ogle’s Smart World explores the intellectual and physical context of idea formation, as does Howard Gardner’s Creating Minds. Everett M. Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations is the canonical study of the way good ideas spread through organizations and society. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow and Creativity explore the psychological states of intense creativity.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
This is a repeat of the earlier trend of increased productivity in agriculture, leading to plummeting numbers of jobs over the past century (agricultural jobs were down to less than two percent of all jobs in 2000 from, as mentioned in chapter 1, forty percent in 1900 and twenty-seven percent in 1920). The agricultural economy transitioned to the industrial economy, and now the industrial is transitioning to the knowledge economy. The economic driver of how the American Dream is implemented on the ground is changing once again. Dr. Richard Florida’s assertion in his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, that future economic growth depends on the retention and attraction of the highly educated has become accepted wisdom of many economic development officials in cities throughout the country. The breeding and attraction of young, highly educated people to start new companies, attract similar entrepreneurs, build the local tax base, and become more “hip” is driving many urban and suburban economic development strategies in the 2000s.
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration
May 2007, www.economicmobility.org. 32 Since the recession began: Darlene Superville, “Obama: Jobs Bill Will Help Small Business Owners,” 13 Mar. 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com. 33 Over 2 million of those: Christopher Rugaber, “Millions of Jobs That Were Cut Won’t Likely Return,” 13 May 2010, www.bostonglobe.com. 34 We lost 1.2 million: Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Irwin Stelzer, and John Weicher, “Hudson Institute Economic Report,” 8 Jan. 2010, www.hudson.org. 35 In 1950, manufacturing accounted: Richard Florida, “How the Crash Will Reshape America,” Mar. 2009, www.theatlantic.com. 36 Indeed, one-third of all: Richard McCormack, “The Plight of American Manufacturing,” 21 Dec. 2009, www.prospect.org. 37 According to Thomas Philippon: Thomas Philippon, “The Future of the Financial Industry,” 16 Oct. 2008, www.sternfinance.blogspot.com. 38 As MIT professor Simon Johnson recounted: Simon Johnson, “The Quiet Coup,” May 2009, www.theatlantic.com. 39 That’s right—over 40: Ibid. 40 James Kwak, coauthor of: James Kwak, “ ‘13 Bankers’ in 4 Pictures: Why Wall Street Profits Are Out of Whack,” 15 Apr. 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com. 41 According to New York Times columnist Paul Krugman: Paul Krugman, “Don’t Cry for Wall Street,” 22 Apr. 2010, www.nytimes.com. 42 But the data points: Sandra Pianalto, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, “Forecasting in Uncertain Times,” 18 May 2010, www.clevelandfed.org. 43 Her conclusion: “Many people …”: Ibid. 44 At a D.C. jobs fair: Laura Bassett, “D.C.
3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
In short, Ace Hotel has turned a regular hotel lobby into a communal work space. Nobody is there trying to shuttle you to a room and there is no hustling from the wait staff to buy drinks or food. People come to the hotel (the majority of them are not guests, but native New Yorkers) to plug in, connect to the Internet, and run their businesses. This is one hotel that is encouraging people to come, squat, and work. And it’s cool. You can feel the energy. This is what Richard Florida was describing in 2004 when he released his bestselling book The Rise of the Creative Class. Creativity in our economy has not only become one of the key growth areas (as Florida predicted), but it is increasingly becoming the core unique selling proposition to everything. The challenge with creativity is that it does not align with how our work spaces have been planned and urbanized to date.
Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
Anderson, “Wall Street Winners Get Billion-Dollar Paydays,” New York Times, April 16, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2008/04/16/business/16wall.html. 7 See Stacey Schreft, Aarti Singh, and Ashley Hodgson, “Jobless Recoveries and the Wait-and-See Hypothesis,” Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (4th quarter, 2005): 81–99. 8 Ibid. Chapter One. Let Them Eat Credit 1 See, for example, Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2004). 2 See Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz, The Race between Education and Technology (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2009), 231. 3 Ibid., 330–31. 4 On educational attainment, see U.S. Census Bureau, “Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008,” www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2008.html, accessed March 5, 2010. 5 Brink Lindsey, “Paul Krugman’s Nostalgianomics: Economic Policies, Social Norms, and Income Inequality,” Cato Institute working paper, Washington, DC, 2009. 6 Author’s calculations based on Goldin and Katz, The Race between Education and Technology, 52. 7 U.S.
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K
In some developing countries where the national government has been discredited, everybody just works around it. Aid organizations go straight to the cities, where the need is; and multinational corporations go straight to where the workers and emerging markets are, in the cities. “The world’s forty largest megaregions, which are home to some 18 percent of the world’s population,” writes urban theorist Richard Florida, “produce two-thirds of global economic output and nearly 9 in 10 new patented innovations.” Whereas nations are defined by their boundaries, cities are densely connected nodes, making every city a world city to some degree, with the accompanying multipliers of cultural diversity, financial flow, and population flow. In the vast worldwide migration toward jobs, the poor hardly limit their travels to cities in their own countries.
Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford
Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game
Officer, ‘Purchasing power of British pounds from 1264 to present’, MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.measuring-worth.com/ppoweruk/ 83 ‘Positive black swans’: Nassim Nicholas Taleb, The Black Swan (New York: Random House, 2007). 85 We should now build: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 12. 86 He soon discovered some remarkable examples: Richard Dawkins, The Greatest Show on Earth (London: Bantam, 2009), pp. 254–73. 87 Bright ideas emerge from the swirling mix of other ideas: See also Richard Florida, ‘The world is spiky’, The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005, my The Logic of Life (2008), Matt Ridley’s The Rational Optimist (2010) and Steven Johnson’s Where Good Ideas Come From (2010). 87 A playboy politician most famous as a campaigner against lesbianism: McKinstry, Spitfire, pp.17–18. 88 ‘Bloody good cup of tea, Mitchell’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 20. 88 ‘It’s either him or me!’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 31. 88 ‘Freak machines’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 29. 89 England’s pride was intact: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 32. 89 ‘The Battle of Britain was won by Chamberlain’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p.194. 89 One might think that there is no problem enouraging innovation: as this book was going to press, Tyler Cowen’s book The Great Stagnation (Dutton, 2011) appeared.
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
., p. 14. 84.ILO, Global Employment Trends 2014, pp. 11–12; Bureau of Labor Statistics, ‘Of Total Unemployed, Percent Unemployed 27 Weeks and Over’, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, 1 January 1948; Eurostat, ‘Long-Term Unemployment Rate’, Eurostat, 2015, at ec.europa.eu. 85.Alan Krueger, Judd Cramer and David Cho, ‘Are the Long-Term Unemployed on the Margins of the Labor Market?’, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2014. 86.Loïc Wacquant, ‘The Rise of Advanced Marginality: Notes on Its Nature and Implications’, Acta Sociologica 39: 2 (1996), p. 125; Richard Florida, Zara Matheson, Patrick Adler and Taylor Brydges, The Divided City and the Shape of the New Metropolis, Martin Prosperity Institute, 2014, at martinprosperity.org. 87.William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), p. 15. 88.Loïc Wacquant, ‘Class, Race and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America’, Socialism and Democracy 28: 3 (2014), p. 46. 89.Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 191. 90.Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (New York: New Press, 2012), p. 218. 91.The number of black males working in manufacturing was nearly cut in half between 1973 and 1987.
Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom
autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl
In no particular order I’d like to thank: Tony Tsieh, Jeff Weiner, Ryan Holmes, Deepak Chopra, Danny Sullivan, Tim Ferriss, Gary Vanyerchuk, Martin Shervington, Sarah Hill, Michelle Killebrew, Muhammad Yunus, David Edelman, Meg Whitman, Denis Labelle, Dr. Jane Goodall, Dharmesh Shah, Beth Comstock, Thomas Friedman, David Sable, Chris Brogan, Michael Hyatt, Jeff Bullas, Don Peppers, Charlene Li, Rand Fishkin, Pam Moore, Nicolas Bordas, Peter Shankman, Steven Pinker, Richard Florida, Mike Allton, Jay Baer, Brian Solis, Steve Rubel, Neil Patel, Mark Schaefer, Jonah Berger, Chad Dickerson, Josh Leibowitz, Erica Hill, Niall Ferguson, Lee Odden, Jonathan Becher, John Jantsch, Yifat Cohen, Robert Cialdini, Andrew Hunt, Matt Heinz, Joe Pulizzi, Joseph Stiglitz, Michael Brenner, Michael Gold, John Rampton, Shawn Collins, Chris Ducker, David Skok, John Lee Dumas, Lee Odden, Jonathan Salem Baskin, Brent Csutoras, Heidi Cohen, Bill Tancer, Anita Newton, Matthew Barby, Craig Rosenberg, Brian Massey, Jon Haidt, Tom Fishburne, Roger Dooley, Pamela Wilson.
The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott
3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, women in the workforce, young professional
The macroeconomic effects of ageing and falling birth rates are significant: upward pressure on wages, downward pressure on rates of return, falls in savings and investment and changes in current account deficits. See Magnus, G., The Age of Aging: How Demographics are Changing the Global Economy and Our World (Wiley, 2008). 2Gratton, L., The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems (Collins Business, 2015). 3See for example Richard Florida’s view of the rise of the city, Who is your City? How the creative economy is making where you live the most important decision in your life and The Rise of the Creative Class (Basic Books, 2002). 4Deloitte, London Futures: London crowned business capital of Europe (UK Futures, 2015). 5Moretti, E., The New Geography of Jobs (Mariner Books, 2013). 6Costa, D. and Kahn, M. E., ‘Power Couples: Changes in the Locational Choice of the College Educated 1940–1990’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (4) (2000): 1287–315. 7Johns, T. and Gratton, L., ‘The Third Wave of Virtual Work’, Harvard Business Review (2013). 8The fears over robots and artificial intelligence (AI) are much broader than just employment.
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar
Some of the others that were especially notable and/or frequent were with Bhavish Aggarwal, Alisha Ali, Douglas Atkin, Michel Avital, Emily Badger, Mara Balestrini, Yochai Benkler, Rachel Botsman, danah boyd, Nathan Blecharczyk, Jennifer Bradley, Erik Brynjolfsson, Valentina Carbone, Emily Castor, David Chiu, Marc-David Chokrun, Sonal Choksi, Peter Coles, Chip Conley, Ariane Conrad, Arnab Das, Cristian Fleming (and his team at the Public Society), Richard Florida, Natalie Foster, Justin Fox, Liz Gannes, Lisa Gansky, Marina Gorbis, Neal Gorenflo, Alison Griswold, Vijay Gurbaxani, Tanner Hackett, Aassia Haroon Haq, Scott Heiferman, Jeremy Heimans, Sara Horowitz, Sam Hodges, Milicent Johnson, Noah Karesh, Stephane Kasriel, Sarah Kessler, David Kirkpatrick, Marjo Koivisto, Karim Lakhani, Kevin Laws, Michael Luca, Benita Matofska, Andrew McAfee, Ryan McKillen, Lesa Mitchell, Amy Nelson, Jeff Nickerson, Melissa O’Young, Janelle Orsi, Jeremy Osborn, Jeremiah Owyang (to whom I owe a special debt of gratitude for his remarkably selfless sharing of ideas and data), Wrede Petersmeyer, Ai-Jen Poo, Andrew Rasiej, Simone Ross, Anita Roth, Chelsea Rustrum, Carolyn Said, Marcela Sapone, Marie Schneegans, Trebor Scholz, Swati Sharma, Clay Shirky, Dane Stangler, Alex Stephany, James Surowiecki, Jason Tanz, Marie Ternes, Henry Timms, Viv Wang, Cheng Wei, Adam Werbach, Jamie Wong, Caroline Woolard, and numerous members of the OuiShare collective (including Flore Berlingen, Julie Braka, Albert Cañigueral, Simone Cicero, Javier Creus, Arthur De Grave, Elena Denaro, Diana Fillipova, Marguerite Grandjean, Asmaa Guedira, Ana Manzanedo, Bernie Mitchell, Edwin Mootoosamy, Ruhi Shamim, Maeva Tordo and especially Francesca Pick).
The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus
Since coordinating international production requires international movements of firm-specific knowledge, North-to-South offshoring was accompanied by an absolutely massive North-to-South flow of know-how. In other words, the knowledge sluice-gate is wide open and know-how is flowing abundantly to a handful of devel oping nations. As a result of high technology from G7 firms fusing with low wages in developing nations, almost a fifth of world manufacturing value added has shifted from North to South. Yet despite the relaxation of the goods and ideas constraints, “the world is spiky,” as Richard Florida argued in his eponymous 2005 article in the Atlantic. Most international production networks and value chains are regional not global. They are inside Factory Asia, Factory Europe, or Factory North America. Moreover, as far as people-clustering is concerned, ongoing urbanization suggests distance is getting more important, not less. Both trends seem to be linked to the benefits of face-to-face interactions.
Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane, John Muellbauer
agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population
Fairbairn, Madeleine. 2014. ‘“Like Gold with Yield”: Evolving Intersections between Farmland and Finance’. Journal of Peasant Studies 41 (5): 777–95. Falk, Nicholas. 2014. Funding Housing and Local Growth. London: The Smith Institute. http://media.urbed.coop.ccc.cdn.faelix.net/sites/default/files/Funding%20Housing%20and%20Local%20Growth%2C%20The%20Smith%20Institute.pdf. Feldman, Maryann P., and Richard Florida. 1994. ‘The Geographic Sources of Innovation: Technological Infrastructure and Product Innovation in the United States’. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84 (2): 210–29. Feldstein, Martin. 2008. ‘How to Help People Whose Home Values Are Underwater’. The Wall Street Journal, 18 November, A21. Fernandez-Corugedo, Emilio, and John Muellbauer. 2006. ‘Consumer Credit Conditions in the United Kingdom’.
Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
In part, their theory was based on earlier work by Philip Zimbardo in an article titled “The Human Choice: Individuation, Reason, and Order Versus Deindividuation, Impulse, and Chaos,” in the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (1969, Volume 17, pages 237–307). 13A report on the Eurobarometer analysis of the fear of crime, produced by the European Commission, titled “Analysis of Public Attitudes to Insecurity, Fear of Crime and Crime Prevention,” can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_181_sum_en.pdf 14A digest of results from a 2010 Gallup poll assessing fear of crime in the United States, titled “Nearly 4 in 10 Americans Still Fear Walking Alone at Night,” can be found at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/144272/nearly-americans-fear-walking-alone-night.aspx 15This Robert Ornstein quote comes from his 1992 book The Evolution of Consciousness: The Origins of the Way We Think (Simon and Schuster, New York, page 262). 16The official Viennese government description of gender mainstreaming may be found here: https://www.wien.gv.at/english/administration/gendermainstreaming/ A good discussion by Clare Foran of the Viennese policies titled “How to Design a City for Women,” can be found in the Atlantic City Lab blog at: http://www.citylab.com/commute/2013/09/how-design-city-women/6739/ 17The proportion of unmarried adults in U.S. rose to more than 50 percent according to a widely reported survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2014. The Martin Prosperity Institute published a regional analysis of the trend in an article written by Richard Florida on September 15, 2014 in the CityLab online magazine, titled “Singles Now Make Up More Than Half the U.S. Adult Population. Here’s Where They All Live.” Available at: http://www.citylab.com/housing/2014/09/singles-now-make-up-more-than-half-the-us-adult-population-heres-where-they-all-live/380137/ 18Statistics from Britain’s Office of National Statistics can be found at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/households-and-household-composition-in-england-and-wales-2001-2011/households-and-household-composition-in-england-and-wales-2001-11.html 19Statistics on changes in discussion networks in the United States were reported in an article by Miller McPherson, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Matthew Brashears in an article titled “Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks Over Two Decades,” in the journal American Sociological Review (2006, Volume 71, pages 353–375). 20Findings on loneliness and engagement in Vancouver were reported by the Vancouver Foundation in a 2012 study titled Connections and Engagement.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
There is every reason to think that an increasingly prosperous world will continue to place more value on the innovative enjoyments that cities can provide. The bottom-up nature of urban innovation suggests that the best economic development strategy may be to attract smart people and get out of their way. But how can places become consumer cities and attract skilled residents? One vision, espoused by urbanist Richard Florida, emphasizes the arts, toleration for alternative lifestyles, and a fun, happening downtown. A second vision focuses on better providing the core public services that have always been the province of cities: safe streets, fast commutes, good schools. City leaders typically have scarce resources; they can’t do everything for everybody. Even if one believes, as I do, that every city should subscribe to a bit of each vision, there will always be the question of where to invest the revenues of city government and the energy of its leaders.
What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
The city as a whole is a wonderful technological invention that concentrates the flow of energy and minds into computer chip-like density. In a relatively small footprint, a city not only provides living quarters and occupations in a minimum of space, but it also generates a maximum of ideas and inventions. Stewart Brand notes in the “City Planet” chapter of his book Whole Earth Discipline, “Cities are wealth creators; they have always been.” He quotes urban theorist Richard Florida, who claims that forty of the largest megacities in the world, home to 18 percent of the world’s population, “produce two-thirds of global economic output and nearly 9 in 10 new patented innovations.” A Canadian demographer calculated that “80 to 90 percent of GNP growth occurs in cities.” The raggedy new part of each city, its squats and encampments, often house the most productive citizens.
The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank
affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty
John Rees, interview with Danford Sawyer, Review of the NEWS, July 7, 1982, pp. 39–50. 5. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991), p. 351. Washington seems to exert a magnetic attraction on celebrators of suburbia. David Brooks’s rosy meditations on suburbia in his 2004 book, On Paradise Drive, instantly mark him as an inhabitant of the D.C. metro area. The latest priest of this faith is Richard Florida, a professor at a university located in the Virginia suburbs, who finds the city “a booming, far-flung region that’s a key node in what [he] call[s] the Creative Economy.” Florida, “A Creative Crossroads,” Washington Post, May 7, 2006. 6. Oliver McKee Jr., “Washington as a Boom Town,” North American Review, February 1935. 7. New Dealers’ stories: See Katie Louchheim, The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983).
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama
active measures, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K
College graduates wanted to become doctors, lawyers, and government bureaucrats. Today, mere financial security has lost its sheen. The most ambitious IIT graduates are leaving large corporations to start their own companies. They’re aspiring for greater esteem, achievement, and self-actualization. Self-Actualizing Creative Class Inglehart’s analysis tapered off with the service sector, and that’s where the sociologist Richard Florida picked things up. He extended the analysis with investigations of what he popularized as the creative class.30 These are “scientists, engineers, artists, musicians, designers and knowledge-based professionals” who are “paid principally to do creative work for a living.”31 The rise of the creative class is an international phenomenon led by developed-world cities. Florida estimated that in the United States the creative class grew from 3 million to 38 million people between 1900 and 2000, or from 10 percent to 30 percent of the working population.
Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall
Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, lump of labour, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor
And more important, members of the educated class can never be secure about their children’s future. The kids have some domestic and educational advantages—all those tutors and developmental toys—but they still have to work through school and ace the SATs just to achieve the same social rank as their parents. Compared to past elites, little is guaranteed.13 In another best-selling book on this subject, The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida asserts that the United States has a creative class composed of two major occupational categories: the supercreative core, which consists of occupations in computer science; mathematics; architecture; engineering; the life, physical, and social sciences; education; the arts; and the media; and the creative professions, which are occupations in management, business, finance, law, health care, and high-end sales.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
See his ‘Figures of Destructuration: Terrorism, Architecture, Social Form’, November 2009, available at bratton.info. 67Ibid. 68Darton, ‘Janus Face of Architectural Terrorism’. 69It must be stressed here that there is no evidence that Atta and his colleagues had any way of predicting, let alone planning, the final collapse of the buildings once they had been struck by the two aircraft. 8. Housing: Luxified Skies 1Edward Glaeser, ‘How Skyscrapers Can Save the City’, Atlantic, March 2011. See also his Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier, New York: Penguin, 2012. 2Ibid. 3See Richard Florida, ‘The Rise of the Creative Class’, Washington Monthly 34:5, 2002, pp. 15–25. 4Jamie Peck, ‘Edward Glaeser’s City: A Triumph of Economism’, unpublished paper, 2014. 5Glaeser is affiliated with the neoconservative Manhattan Institute, which was a key intellectual player behind George W. Bush’s two presidential tenancies. See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 . 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 , p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940.
The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game
David Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011). Jessica Livingston, “Max Levchin,” in Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (New York: Apress, 2008). Ben Mezrich, The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook (New York: Anchor, 2010). David O. Sacks and Peter A. Thiel, The Diversity Myth: Multiculturalism and Political Intolerance on Campus (Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 1998). TAMPA Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity (New York: HarperCollins, 2010). Alyssa Katz, Our Lot: How Real Estate Came to Own Us (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010). Robert J. Kerstein, Politics and Growth in Twentieth-Century Tampa (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001). Paul Reyes, Exiles in Eden: Life Among the Ruins of Florida’s Great Recession (New York: Henry Holt, 2010).
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
A pluralistic country that embraces pluralism has the potential to be much more innovative, because it can draw the best talent from anywhere in the world and mix together many more diverse perspectives; oftentimes the best ideas emerge from that combustion. Even countries that are not ethnically or religiously diverse—think Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and China—can enjoy the fruits of pluralism if they have a pluralistic outlook; that is, if they develop the habits of reaching out to the best ideas anywhere in the world to adapt and adopt them. As the social scientist Richard Florida observed in a December 12, 2011, essay on this subject on CityLab.com: Economic growth and development has long been seen to turn on natural resources, technological innovation and human capital. But a growing number of studies, including my own research, suggest that geographic proximity and cultural diversity—a place’s openness to different cultures, religions, sexual orientations—also play key roles in economic growth.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
Almost fifty years after Jane’s hypotheses about the primacy of cities in national economies were articulated, many of us who have come to study cities from a variety of perspectives have arrived at some version of her conclusions. We live in the age of the Urbanocene, and globally the fate of the cities is the fate of the planet. Jane understood this truth more than fifty years ago, and only now are some of the experts beginning to recognize her extraordinary foresight. Many writers have picked up this theme, including the urban economists Edward Glaeser and Richard Florida, but none has been as forthright and bold as Benjamin Barber in his book with the provocative title If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities.5 These are indicative of a rising consciousness that cities are where the action is—where challenges have to be addressed in real time and where governance seems to work, at least relative to the increasing dysfunctionality of the nation-state. 3.