Richard Florida

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pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

Joel Kotkin, “Richard Florida Concedes the Limits of the Creative Class,” Daily Beast, March 20, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/20/richard-florida-concedes-the-limits-of-the-creative-class.html; Richard Florida, “Did I Abandon My Creative Class Theory? Not So Fast, Joel Kotkin,” Daily Beast, March 21, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/21/did-i-abandon-my-creative-class-theory-not-so-fast-joel-kotkin.html. 6. Richard Florida, “How Rob Ford’s Pride Snub Hurts the City of Toronto,” Toronto Star, April 23, 2012, www.thestar.com/opinion/editorialopinion/2012/04/23/how_rob_fords_pride_snub_hurts_the_city_of_toronto.html; Richard Florida, “Toronto Needs a Muscular Mayor,” Globe and Mail, November 30, 2012, www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/richard-florida-toronto-needs-a-muscular-mayor/article5822048; Richard Florida, “What Toronto Needs Now: Richard Florida Offers a Manifesto for a New Model of Leadership,” Toronto Life, October 22, 2012, www.torontolife.com/informer/features/2012/10/22/what-toronto-needs-now.

Knight Frank, The Wealth Report—2015, www.knightfrank.com/research/the-wealth-report-2015-2716.aspx. 13. Richard Florida and Martin Kenney, “Venture Capital, High Technology, and Regional Development,” Regional Studies 22, no. 1 (1988): 33–48; Richard Florida and Martin Kenney, “Venture Capital–Financed Innovation in the U.S.,” Research Policy 17 (1988): 119–137; Richard Florida and Donald Smith, “Venture Capital Formation, Investment, and Regional Industrialization,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83, no. 3 (September 1993): 434–451. 14. Richard Florida, “The Joys of Urban Tech,” Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2012, www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390444914904577619441778073340; Richard Florida, “The Urban Tech Revolution,” Urban Land, October 7, 2013, http://urbanland.uli.org/economy-markets-trends/the-urban-tech-revolution; Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander, Rise of the Startup City: The Changing Geography of the Venture Capital Financed Innovation (Toronto: Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, 2014), http://martinprosperity.org/media/StartupCity-CMR-FINAL-formatted.pdf. 15.

Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996). 2. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002); Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class Revisited (New York: Basic Books, 2012). 3. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013); Richard Florida, “The New American Dream,” Washington Monthly, March 2003; Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). 4. Richard Florida, “More Losers Than Winners in America’s New Economic Geography,” CityLab, January 30, 2013, www.citylab.com/work/2013/01/more-losers-winners-americas-new-economic-geography/4465. 5. Joel Kotkin, “Richard Florida Concedes the Limits of the Creative Class,” Daily Beast, March 20, 2013, www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/03/20/richard-florida-concedes-the-limits-of-the-creative-class.html; Richard Florida, “Did I Abandon My Creative Class Theory?


pages: 265 words: 74,941

The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Conference of Mayors. 3. Richard Florida, “A Creative Crossroads,” Washington Post, May 7, 2006, retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/05/AR2006050501750.html; Florida, “Where the Brains Are,” Atlantic, October 2006. 4. Richard Florida, Who’s Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life (New York: Basic Books, 2008). 5. Richard Florida, Who’s Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life, Canadian edition (Toronto: Random House Canada, 2008). 6. Kelly Evans, “Why College Towns Are Looking Smart,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2009. 7. I provide figures on these trends in Richard Florida, “Town, Gown, and Unemployment,” Atlantic, May 20, 2009, retrieved from http://correspondents.theatlantic.com/ richard_florida/2009/05. 8.

She’s the love of my life and fills every day with fun, passion, and boundless energy. About the Author RICHARD FLORIDA is the author of the national and international bestsellers The Rise of the Creative Class and Who’s Your City? He is the director of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management and the founder of the Creative Class Group. www.creativeclass.com Visit www.AuthorTracker.com for exclusive information on your favorite HarperCollins author. ALSO BY RICHARD FLORIDA Who’s Your City? The Flight of the Creative Class The Rise of the Creative Class The Breakthrough Illusion Beyond Mass Production Copyright THE GREAT RESET. Copyright © 2010 by Richard Florida. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.

Eva Jacobs and Stephanie Shipp, “How Family Spending Has Changed in the U.S.,” Monthly Labor Review (March 1990), 24. 4. I’ve been studying the role of housing policy in postwar suburbanization since my twenties. I wrote my undergraduate honors thesis at Rutgers and my doctoral dissertation at Columbia on this, as well as several of my earliest published papers. See Richard Florida and Marshall Feldman, “Housing in U.S. Fordism,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 12, no. 2 (1988): 187–210; Richard Florida and Andrew Jonas, “U.S. Urban Policy: The Postwar State and Capitalist Regulation,” Antipode 23, no. 4 (1991): 349–384. 5. Data on average travel speeds are from Randal O’Toole as cited in Neil Reynolds, “America’s Fast Track to Wealth,” Globe and Mail, October 9, 2009. 6. Jacobs and Shipp, “How Family Spending Has Changed in the U.S.,” 23. 7.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

As he says, “step by step we develop our society from the citizens [up], first at the city level and then up to other levels, civil society and [the] culture of local democracy, which is missing in so many countries.” 12. Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001, p. 9. 13. See Benjamin R. Barber, on the Mailer campaign, “Birthday Party Politics,” Dissent, Summer 1973. 14. Richard Florida, “It’s Up to the Cities to Bring America Back,” BusinessInsider.com, February 3, 2012, http://www.businessinsider.com/richard-florida-its-upto-the-cities-to-bring-america-back-2012-2. 15. Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City, New York: Penguin, 2011, p. 15. 16. Max Weber, The City, Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1985, p. 25. 17. Edward C. Banfield, The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, New York: Free Press, 1958. 18. Pelu Awofeso, “One Out of Every Two Nigerians Now Lives in a City,” World Policy Journal, Winter 2010–2011, p. 68. 19.

Florida, Rise of the Creative Class, 2004 ed., p. 285. 12. Richard Florida, “For Creative Cities, the Sky Has Its Limits,” Wall Street Journal, July 28, 2012. The American Planning Association published a paper called “Growing Cities Sustainably” that debated the benefits and costs of the so-called “Compact City” model. Density is by itself not necessarily an urban virtue. On the Sustainable Cities Collective website, see Aafrin Kidwai, “For Cities: To Be Dense or Not to Be Dense, That is (not) the Question,” Sustainable Cities Collective, August 8, 2012, http://sustainablecitiescollective.com/sustainable-cities/55401/cities-be-dense-or-not-be-dense-not-question. 13. Julianne Pepitone@CNNMoneyTech, tweet, February 25, 2013. 14. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited, new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 2012, p. xi. 15.

A GLOBAL PARLIAMENT OF MAYORS Bottom-up Democracy and the Road to Interdependence Notes Index ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book builds on an encompassing corpus of work undertaken earlier by a host of scholars who, knowing the urban field far better than I ever will, have made the city their subject and sometimes their lifework. Much of what I do here is merely to hold up a megaphone before them so that their measured and persistent voices on behalf of the redemptive potential of the urban can be widely heard. Tom Bender, Manuel Castells, Eric Corijn, Mike Davis, Richard Florida, Edward Glaeser, David Harvey, Peter Marcuse, Saskia Sassen, Richard Sennett, and Ronald van Kempen—and before them Lewis Mumford, Max Weber, Jane Jacobs, and the many others who are cited below—have built a scholarly edifice I feel lucky to have been able to inhabit and explore. My task has been to apply the results of their work to the challenge of establishing a form of constructive interdependence—global democratic governance—in which cities are prime actors.


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

According to Florida, this class of people accounted for 24 percent: Richard Florida, Rise of the Creative Class Revisited (New York: Basic Books, 2012), 45. How exactly this would be done remains a mystery: Lisa Baugh, “Five Ways the Freelance Economy Fails the Poor and the Middle Class,” Salon, June 5, 2015. Millennials… are on a never-ending “quest for experience”: Florida, Rise of the Creative Class, 134, 135–136, 245. technology, talent, and tolerance: For a good summary of Florida’s “technology, talent, and tolerance” approach to economic development, see Hazel Borys, “Richard Florida on Technology, Talent, and Tolerance,” Place Makers, November 18, 2013. The original edition sold 300,000 copies: Andres Viglucci, “Miami Now Winter Home to ‘Creative-Class’ Thinker Richard Florida,” Miami Herald, August 19, 2012. The Congress for New Urbanism held its 2016 conference: 24th Annual Congress for the New Urbanism, June 8–11, 2016, Detroit, Michigan, www.cnu.org/cnu24/schedule.

He did not mention that most people in the city, especially those not involved in its creative rebirth, still think it’s a hard place to live: a full third of Detroiters say they plan on leaving within the next five years. But that’s Richard Florida’s business: convincing cities that gentrification is their only choice for an economic reboot. Ever since his landmark book The Rise of the Creative Class was published in 2002, Florida, who is also the director of cities at the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto and a senior editor at The Atlantic, has been urging broke cities to attract the “creative class” in order to revive themselves. And since there’s quite literally almost no US city more broke than Detroit, maybe it’s no surprise that, as one activist told me, “they love some Richard Florida here.” Florida’s 2002 book provided a beacon of hope to cities struggling to rebuild their economies in the wake of a national shift away from industrialized urban centers.

So with little money in municipal coffers and little hope for a better future, it seems that politicians and planners (and in the case of Detroit, the corporations and nonprofits that have replaced them) have managed to turn a blind eye to the warnings of the profession’s foundational texts. Cities have pursued whole-hog Richard Florida’s strategies for wooing millennials without considering the serious limitations of those strategies and the profound effects they may have on everyone else. They ignore that Richard Florida has admitted that the creative class is not a silver bullet, and they forget that Jane Jacobs, the other most famous urbanist in America, talked not only about what makes city blocks cute and community-oriented but also about all the ways in which governments encourage the destruction of places for the middle class.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

Chapter 6 1 “The World Goes to Town,” The Economist, May 3, 2007. 2 Alfonso Hernandez Marin, “Cultural Changes: From the Rural World to Urban Environment,” United Nations Chronicle, November 4, 2006. 3 Kenneth Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, Oxford University Press, 1987; Robert Bruegmann, Sprawl: A Compact History, University of Chicago Press, 2005. 4 Joel Garreau, Edge City, Anchor, 1992. 5 Alan Ehrenhalt, “Trading Places: The Demographic Inversion of the American City,” The New Republic, August 13, 2008. 6 David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 2001; Brooks, On Paradise Drive, Simon & Schuster, 2004. 7 Edward Glaeser and Christopher Berry, The Divergence of Human Capital Levels Across Cities, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, August 2005. 8 Richard Florida, “Where the Brains Are,” Atlantic Monthly, October 2006, p. 34. 9 Joseph Gyourko, Christopher Mayer, and Todd Sinai, “Superstar Cities,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 12355, July 2006. Chapter 7 1 Dan Pink, Free Agent Nation, Warner Books, 2001. 2 Peter Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society, Harper Business, 1993; Drucker, “Beyond the Information Revolution,” Atlantic Monthly, October 1999, pp. 47-57; Drucker, “The Next Society,” The Economist, November 1, 2001, pp. 1-20. Fritz Machlup is often credited with the term “knowledge worker” from his 1962 book The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, Princeton University Press, 1962. 3 See Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, Basic Books, 2002.

Friedman, The World Is Flat,” Journal of Economic Literature 45, 1, 2007, pp. 83-126. 4 Urbanization data are from “World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database,” Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations 2007, esa.un.org/unpp. 5 “Q&A with Michael Porter,” Business Week, August 21, 2006, www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_34/b3998460.htm. 6 Richard Florida, “The World is Spiky,” Atlantic Monthly, October 2005. 7 Gulden used the light that is visible from space at night as a basis for estimating economic activity. He calibrated the light data using estimates of gross regional product (GRP) compiled for the lower forty-eight U.S. states. He translated this physical economic activity into standard units by renormalizing the total for each nation to agree with that nation’s 2000 GDP in 2000 U.S. dollars at current market exchange rates.

He translated this physical economic activity into standard units by renormalizing the total for each nation to agree with that nation’s 2000 GDP in 2000 U.S. dollars at current market exchange rates. He then overlaid the light maps with detailed population maps from the Land-Scan 2005 population grid, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The result consistently estimates economic activity for every 30 arc-second grid cell (less than 1 square kilometer) in the world. For more on this methodology, see Richard Florida, Timothy Gulden, and Charlotta Mellander, “The Rise of the Mega-region,” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and Society 1, 1, 2008. See also William Nordhaus et al., “The G-Econ Database on Gridded Output: Methods and Data,” Yale University, May 12, 2006; Nordhaus, “Geography and Macroeconomics: New Data and New Findings,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, March 7, 2006, pp. 3510-3517.


pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Richard Morrill, “The Emerging Geography of Inequality,” New Geography, September 4, 2013, http://www.newgeography.com/content/003912-the-emerging-geography-inequality. 110. David King, “Sprawl and Economic Mobility: A Comment,” Getting from Here to There (blog), July 29, 2013, http://davidaking.blogspot.com/2013/07/sprawl-and-economic-mobility-comment.html. 111. Jim Russell, “Richard Florida Explains Why Density Doesn’t Impact Innovation,” Pacific Standard, January 11, 2014, http://www.psmag.com/navigation/business-economics/richard-florida-explains-density-doesnt-impact-innovation-72679; Wendell Cox, “Density is Not the Issue: The Urban Scaling Research,” New Geography, July 30, 2012, http://www.newgeography.com/content/002987-density-not-issue-the-urban-scaling-research; Bruce Katz, “Big Idea 2014: Goodbye Silicon Valley, Hello Silicon Cities,” Brookings Institution, December 30, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/12/30-silicon-cities-katz. 112.

Indeed, when average urban incomes are adjusted for the higher rent and costs, the middle classes in metropolitan areas such as New York, Los Angeles, Portland, Miami, and San Francisco have among the lowest real earnings of any metropolitan area.32 Core cities have also not been too kind to the working-class minorities and immigrants who historically migrate to the metropolitan area in search of economic opportunity. Advocates of the creative class, including Richard Florida, worship mightily at the altar of ethnic diversity.33 Yet as the Urban League points out, the very cities most praised as exemplars of urban revival—San Francisco, Chicago, and Minneapolis—also suffer the largest gaps between black and white incomes.34 Indeed, in some of the most heralded “creative class” cities, both struggling ethnic newcomers and African Americans not only are economically marginalized but are becoming a smaller percentage of the population as costs have risen and good job opportunities have shrunk.

Church affiliation, if not in free fall, is clearly on the downward trend, particularly among the working class and the young, although interest in spiritual values does not seem to be waning. Secularism, singleness, and childlessness have gained particular social cache for over a generation, especially among the well-educated. Contemporary social thinking, as epitomized by “creative class” theorist Richard Florida, essentially links “advanced” society to the absence of religious values. Indeed, the current fashions in urbanism not only disdain religiosity but often give remarkably short shrift to issues involving families.99 The question is not whether there should be a debate or, if you will, a “war” over culture, but on what terms this struggle should be waged. History does not move backwards, and trying to inspire the next generations to live or think like their parents or grandparents simply lacks any serious appeal and is profoundly ahistorical.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

mod=ITP_opinion_0&tesla=y. 7 Jan Woronoff, Japan: The Coming Social Crisis (Tokyo: Lotus Press, 1984), 312; Alex Martin, “Japan’s Glut of Abandoned Homes: Hard to sell but bargains when opportunity knocks,” Japan Times, December 26, 2017, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/12/26/national/japans-glut-abandoned-homes-hard-sell-bargains-opportunity-knocks/#.W_Ap7OhKiUk; Jonathan Soble, “A Sprawl of Ghost Homes in Aging Tokyo Suburbs,” New York Times, August 24, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/24/world/a-sprawl-of-abandoned-homes-in-tokyo-suburbs.html; Hiroko Tabuchi, “For Some in Japan, Home Is a Tiny Plastic Bunk,” New York Times, January 1, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/02/business/global/02capsule.html. 8 Nate Berg, “Why China’s Urbanization Isn’t Creating a Middle Class,” City Lab, February 29, 2012, https://www.citylab.com/life/2012/02/why-chinas-urbanization-isnt-creating-middle-class/1357/; “City Chickens and Country Eggs,” Economist, August 4, 2013, https://www-economist-com.stanford.idm.oclc.org/analects/2013/08/04/city-chickens-and-country-eggs; Eva Dou and Dominique Fong, “Homeward Bound: Beijing Boots Migrant Workers to Trim Its Population,” Wall Street Journal, November 29, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/beijing-evictions-of-migrant-workers-sparks-outrage-1511962464. 9 Kai-Fu Lee, AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2018), 141; Hao Jingfang, “Folding Beijing,” in Invisible Planets: Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction in Translation, trans. Ken Liu (New York: Tor, 2016), 221–62. 10 Richard Florida, “The Problem of Urbanization Without Economic Growth,” City Lab, June 12 2015, https://www.citylab.com/life/2015/06/the-problem-of-urbanization-without-economic-growth/395648/; Richard Florida, “When Urbanization Doesn’t Help,” City Lab, June 22, 2016, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2016/06/disparities-of-urbanization-global-china-india/487625/; Susanne Frick, and Andres Rodriguez-Pose, “Big or Small Cities: On City Size and Economic Growth,” VoxEU, October 20, 2017, https://voxeu.org/article/city-size-and-economic-growth. 11 Ivette Saldaña, “Estados del norte, los mas atractivos para la IED,” El Financiero, April 7, 2008, http://biblioteca.iiec.unam.mx/index.php?

Maggie Shen King’s novel An Excess Male, set a few years in the future, has a longtime Beijing resident remembering the brutal razing of the old blocks of hutong, or courtyard houses, once common in the capital, and the displacement of residents: Stately eight- and ten-lane boulevards crisscross the city, and we rarely walk down one without … pointing out that countless properties were seized and lives disrupted and, in the most egregious cases, cut short to make possible their construction. Relegated to tiny stacked boxes, ordinary citizens pour into parks and scenic streets, thirsting for open air and elbowroom, so that our leaders could have their show of grandeur.50 From “Creative Class” to a “New Urban Crisis” The principal concern of many city leaders around the world has been to attract the young, educated professionals identified by the urban theorist Richard Florida as “the creative class.”51 To be sure, these people bring wealth and economic advantage to cities, but they are mostly single or childless, and not likely to recreate the stable, family-oriented neighborhoods of the historic city, with a thriving middle class and working class. The most favored cities naturally draw the very rich, but they also attract many young people in the “creative class” who cannot afford to stay very long, particularly if they want to buy property or have children.52 The average millennial with college debt would need twenty-seven years to save up for a down payment in the San Francisco metro area, according to one study.53 Most of the young people who move to elite cities are likely to be short-timers indulging the “urban phase” of their life before heading elsewhere.

Decades ago, the National Urban Coalition noted that urban revitalization programs generally produced some overall economic benefit for cities, but at the cost of “the deprivation, frustration and anger of those who are becoming the new urban serfs.”56 Today, big cities continue to draw the wealthy and the well-educated, with impoverished residents pushed to the margins, and little in between.57 The result is “rising inequality, deepening economic segregation, and increasingly unaffordable housing,” which Richard Florida describes as a “new urban crisis.”58 Some of those living in the cities outside the “glamour zone” feel trapped—victims of an urban system that doesn’t provide opportunity for them. A backlash against gentrification has appeared in many cities, such as Ontario, Berlin, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Atlanta, and New Orleans.59 Tactics for repelling gentrifiers have included vandalism and even arson.60 Jawanza Malone, executive director of Chicago’s Kenwood-Oakland Community Organization, says that city leaders purposely neglect some neighborhoods while giving priority to the high-end economy and real estate speculation.


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

We would decide on a question we wanted to answer, and Bob would begin clicking, programming, and calculating. Often in the middle of the night, a new set of charts and Excel files would arrive in my e-mail in box, and I'd see that Bob had made another remarkable discovery. Our interest initially was why a small group of cities, Austin among them, were growing so fast and so rich. In 2002, we began working with a band of researchers, including Richard Florida and Kevin Stolarick, then at Carnegie Mellon University; Gary Gates at the Urban Institute; Joe Cortright in Portland, Oregon; and Terry Nichols Clark at the University of Chicago. What we found was that these tech-rich and innovative cities were benefiting from a special kind of migration. There have always been patterns to migration and development. Southern blacks moved to Chicago in the 1950s.

Wages in different parts of the country began to converge. People with college degrees were "remarkably evenly distributed" among America's cities, according to Harvard University economist Edward Glaeser.3 If such economic, partisan, and educational balance was the American way, by 1980 a decidedly un-American trend began. Places stopped becoming more alike and began to diverge. The economic landscape stopped growing flatter, and, in Richard Florida's description, it got spikier.4 The country got particularly spiky after 1980 as Americans segregated by education. In the last thirty years of the twentieth century, education levels surged nationally. In 1970, 11.2 percent of the population had at least a college degree. That figure increased to 16.4 percent in 1980, nearly 19 percent in 1990, and 27 percent in 2004. But as the national totals of college-educated people grew, education differentials between cities widened with each decade.

By 2000, Michael Porter found "striking variation in average wages" across economic regions, with average pay ranging from just over $19,000 a year in western Nebraska to over $52,000 in San Francisco.14 Wages during the 1990s increased 7.1 percent a year in Austin, but only 1.8 percent a year in Wheeling, West Virginia.15 Growing wage inequality tracked increasing political polarization, according to political scientists Nolan McCarty, Keith Poole, and Howard Rosenthal. The nation's income distribution grew more unequal in parallel with the rising partisanship in Congress.16 Occupation Richard Florida was a professor of regional development at Carnegie Mellon University when he noticed a switch in the way businesses went about hiring new workers. Instead of people moving to corporations, corporations had begun moving to where pools of talent were deepening. Florida, Kevin Stolarick, and a group of researchers at Carnegie Mellon identified a new class of workers. They called them "creatives."


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

The number of unoccupied apartments in New York rose by almost three-quarters at the turn of the century to thirty-four thousand in 2011.49 London has witnessed similar growth. The new residents then lock in their gains by restricting land use, which keeps values high. Richard Florida calls them the ‘new urban Luddites’, who exploit an ‘enormous and complex thicket of zoning laws and other land use regulations’ to keep the others out. Tyler Cowen has coined a new acronym to replace Nimbys (Not in My Backyard): Bananas (Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything).50 Such risk aversion breeds its own failure. So deeply rooted is gentrification that Richard Florida has now modified his widely acclaimed thesis about the rise of the creative classes. Cities are becoming too successful for their own good. Until recently, he believed they would be the engine rooms of the new economy, embracing the diversity necessary to attract talent.

, New York Magazine, 25 February 2014, <http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2014/02/spike-lee-amazing-rant-against-gentrification.html>. 39 Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class – and What We Can Do About It (Basic Books, New York, 2017), p. 132. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid., p. 191. 42 Ibid., p. 159. 43 Mark Muro and Sifan Liu, ‘Another Clinton-Trump divide: high-output America versus low-output America’, Brookings, 29 November 2016, <https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2016/11/29/another-clinton-trump-divide-high-output-america-vs-low-output-america/>. 44 I draw this insightful point from Richard C. Longworth’s cogent ‘On Global Cities’, Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 21 May 2005, <https://www.thechicagocouncil.org/publication/global-cities>. 45 Findings are throughout Richard Florida’s The New Urban Crisis. 46 Melkorka Licea, ‘“Poor door” tenants of luxury tower reveal the financial apartheid within’, New York Post, 17 January 2016, <http://nypost.com/2016/01/17/poor-door-tenants-reveal-luxury-towers-financial-apartheid/>. 47 Milanovic, Global Inequality. 48 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 41. 49 Ibid, p. 38. 50 Cowen, The Complacent Class, p. 7. 51 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 216. 52 Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (Basic Books, New York, 2015 (ebook)). 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Lawrence Mishel, ‘Entry-level workers’ wages fell in lost decade’, Economic Policy Institute report, 7 March 2012, <http://www.epi.org/publication/ib327-young-workers-wages/>. 56 Baldwin, The Great Convergence. 57 William J.

This physical segregation matches the labour market’s bifurcation. The rich and the poor no longer live near each other, and the middle class is hollowing out. In 1970 only about one in seven American families lived in neighbourhoods that were unambiguously ‘affluent’ or ‘poor’.40 By 2007 that number had risen to almost one in three. ‘When all is said and done, the suburban crisis reflects the end of the era of cheap growth,’ says Richard Florida, a leading scholar of urban revival.41 Sprawl no longer means growth, as it once did in the US. It spells isolation. It should come as little surprise, therefore, that the murder rate has fallen by 16.7 per cent in the US cities since the turn of the century, while rising by 16.9 per cent in the suburbs – almost an exact mirror image.42 Slumburbia has also given rise to a new form of poverty: the amount of time people have to spend in their cars driving from one part-time job to another.


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Making such people feel welcome, in turn, was the way to achieve prosperity, as we could clearly see from successful cities like Austin and San Francisco. This idea, which raged through the Bush years and which rages still, was given memorable expression by a professor of economic development named Richard Florida, specifically in his 2002 bestseller, The Rise of the Creative Class. Yes, the “creative class.” We’ve heard several flattering ways of describing the professional cohort, and now we come to the most obsequious designation of them all. According to Richard Florida, “creatives” were “the dominant class in America,” because the thing they controlled—“creativity”—had become “the decisive source of competitive advantage”; “new technologies, new industries, new wealth and all other good economic things flow from it.”13 In Florida’s reasoning, this “creative class” included traditional artists and intellectuals, but the creatives who really mattered were people who worked in tech, people who worked in offices, people with advanced degrees.

The ones who ingratiated the most were Democrats, who saw in the “creative class” strategy a way to revitalize struggling cities that were left behind when manufacturing departed for other climes. The many, many bike paths that were built in hopes that professionals would show up and ride upon them? By and large, those were built by Democrats. All those art districts and street fairs? Democrats. Indeed, Republicans were excluded from competing for the favor of the new dominant class almost by definition, since one of Richard Florida’s requirements was that cities perform well on what he called the “Gay Index.” Sure, those vulgar Republicans could offer crass inducements like low taxes, but in the age of creativity it was supposed to be your town’s theatrical performances and its carefully handmade cupcakes that truly opened the door to prosperity. Prosperity was a laudable goal, of course, and supporting culture was a laudable means.

Bush’s administration was not that it favored the rich; it was that it favored the wrong rich—the “old-economy” rich. Similarly, the problem with the intense Republican partisanship of those years was that it turned a deaf ear to the voices of the country’s most important and creative industries (such as Wall Street and Silicon Valley), since such places chose Democrats as a matter of course. Richard Florida wept for unfairly ignored industries, but he expressed little sympathy for the working people whose issues were now ignored by both parties. In fact, he sometimes seemed to regard these people as part of the problem. In the summer of 2008, Florida told a British newspaper that “the creative class anticipates the future, while the working class tends to seek protection from it.” The only lesson we really needed to learn from the working-class experience was how they pulled off their political triumph in the 1930s, which Florida thought the creative class now needed to replicate: “Just as Franklin Delano Roosevelt forged a new majority on the swelling ranks of blue-collar workers, so must the party that hopes to win this presidential election earn the enthusiastic support of today’s ascending economic and political force—the creative class.”16 Florida spoke those words in June of 2008.


pages: 104 words: 34,784

The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef

big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

But what does its popularity say about shifting attitudes towards social status and leisure? In some ways, brunch and other forms of conspicuous consumption have blinded us to ever-more-precarious employment conditions. For award-winning writer and urbanist Shawn Micallef, brunch is a way to look more closely at the nature of work itself and a catalyst for solidarity among the so-called creative class. Drawing on theories from Thorstein Veblen to Richard Florida, Micallef traces his own journey from the rust belt to a cosmopolitan city where the evolving middle class he joined was oblivious to its own instability and insularity. The Trouble with Brunch is a provocative analysis of foodie obsession and status anxiety, but it’s also a call to reset our class consciousness. The real trouble with brunch isn’t so much bad service and outsized portions of bacon, it’s that brunch could be so much more.

There are unpaid interns and freelance writers worried about a work-life/work-pay/work-stability balance who join unions that haven’t really worked yet in part because it’s difficult to collectively represent people with extremely individualized working and earning habits with multiple clients. And who has the time to organize? Remember how busy everybody says they are? If such a state wasn’t so readily accepted as our collective identity, we might stop talking about it and do something meaningful to change it. This creative-class socio-economic subset of the middle class was identified and brought into popular thought by the academic Richard Florida in his 2002 book The Rise of the Creative Class. Published just over one hundred years after Veblen published Theory of the Leisure Class, Florida’s book came at a time when modern Western society had undergone major shifts since Veblen’s era with deindustrialization and the emergence of a service-based economy. The commonality of the creative class is creative work, with human creativity being the ‘ultimate economic resource,’ according to Florida, and one that has a broad spectrum of people toiling away in professions and vocations that include scientists, engineers, artists, musicians, designers and knowledge-based professionals.

In 2007 he left Pittsburgh for a high-profile job heading up the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management. Already a star in academic and urban circles, Florida’s arrival in Toronto was met with typical Canadian enthusiasm when an American of note pays attention to us, and he was feted and given ample coverage. The Globe and Mail newspaper even awarded him a monthly column called ‘Richard Florida Visits,’ where he offered an outsider’s first impressions of Toronto, awkwardly packaged with a strong whiff of Canadian desperation (akin to Sally Field’s ‘You like me, right now, you like me’ Oscar speech) that set Florida up for some blowback, particularly from the would-be creative class itself. A group of critical artists and writers in Toronto even started a group called Creative Class Struggle, which did not hide their antipathy to Florida and his large salary at a public university, but they also engaged in activism examining who gets left out of the much-touted ‘creative city’ and who gets to participate, all of which are worthy and necessary investigations.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

As John Howkins, who coined the phrase ‘creative economy’, states: ‘Creativity is not new and neither is economics, but what is new is the nature and the extent of the relationship between creativity and economics.’8 In 2001 Howkins predicted that the creativity business was worth $2.2 trillion worldwide and was set to grow 5 per cent a year; he was almost right. This sector was the one area of the global economy that was least affected by the credit crunch; in 2008 it generated $592 billion, more than double its turnover in 2002, which suggests an annual growth of 14 per cent. The knowledge economy forces us to think again about how we work, and what we do; it could also allow us to think about the city anew. According to Richard Florida, the extent of the creative classes is having a profound impact on the success of cities. Using the broadest definition of the knowledge economy as possible – ‘science and technology, arts and design, entertainment and media, law, finance, management, healthcare and education’9 – Florida shows that since the decline of industry in the west, this new class of worker has risen at a gallop: 5 per cent of all employment in 1900, 10 per cent in 1950, 15 per cent in 1980 and more than 30 per cent by 2005.

Why, for example, should one try and develop a microprocessor industry from scratch when it is easier to invest and trade in the latest technology from Incheon or Seoul in South Korea, where the scale of production is unbeatable, and there is a level of expertise and infrastructure that is hard to compete with? Similarly, why go anywhere other than Bangalore for your end-to-end software problems? This inequality amongst cities gives people more choice about where they want to live. As urban economist Richard Florida observes, ‘The place we choose to live can determine the income we earn, the people we meet, the friends we make, the partners we choose, and the options available to our children and families.’11 An 2008 survey of 8,500 people in fourteen major cities showed that 75 per cent of residents had ‘chosen’ their city. As the world’s population becomes ever more fluid, the personalities of the world’s cities, and the question of how they can attract the best workers, is going to become more urgent.

The creative city needs creative people, and this is becoming an increasingly mobile marketplace that has to cope with many changing dimensions. With all this passion for newness and mobility, it is often easy to forget what is already there. This brand new, hypermobile vision of the future comes with a warning: things are not as fluid, open and fresh as the economists would have us believe. Richard Florida was the first to coin ‘the creative class’ as a new, dynamic social and economic group who were having a profound impact on urban regeneration. The new human economy, he proposes, will be split between those who are mobile and those who are stuck. Knowledge workers will move around the world in search of places of excellence: ‘The mobile possess the means, resources and inclination to seek out and move to locations where they can leverage their talents.’12 It was this creative class that David Cameron had in mind when he launched Tech City in 2010.


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

But with people spending so much time in their cars and in their houses, and with many communities lacking a walkable town center or pleasantly walkable residential streets, the spontaneous interaction that comes from, for example, walking down a Main Street or a central square or even down the block is harder to come by. And that spontaneous interaction is important, as a growing body of research has shown. Researchers have found that when people bump into each other, good things happen. Both the Harvard economist and urban scholar Edward Glaeser and the urban theorist Richard Florida have linked higher-density or pedestrian-friendly places to higher levels of innovation. Tony Hsieh, the CEO of Zappos.com, is moving his company from suburban Henderson, Nevada, to downtown Las Vegas precisely because he believes the “serendipitous collisions” that happen when people are freer to walk between the office and local cafés, restaurants, and other public places will make his employees happier, help them forge closer relationships with one another, and lead to the faster cultivation of new ideas.

El Paso recently became the first city in the United States to require that architects working on city projects be accredited in New Urbanism, while the Texas Department of Transportation has adopted the rule book that guides New Urbanism street design as recommended practice. “The dynamic is changing,” says Benjamin Schulman, former communications director for CNU who is now with the Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Delivering the closing night keynote speech at the CNU conference in West Palm Beach, celebrity author and urban theorist Richard Florida acknowledges these recent successes. “Isn’t it interesting,” he says, “that the world has come to us?” Perhaps the biggest proof of the growing adoption of New Urbanism theories is that the large home builders, who don’t tend to care much for the social aspect of the movement or the well-intended principles behind it, are starting to build New Urbanism–style communities themselves. They’re not calling them that, of course, and many may not even be familiar with New Urbanism, but there are by some estimates as many as four hundred “city replicas” already built or going up in suburban America, ranging from small-scale, intimate walkable villages to giant, ambitious “lifestyle centers” that combine retail, apartments, restaurants, and sometimes high-rise apartment buildings.

Across the nation, everything from store retail chains to sports stadiums to corporate headquarters to young families have been moving into cities and leaving the suburbs behind. • • • To see that cities are resurgent centers of wealth and culture, all you need to do is set foot in one. Or you can simply set foot in a bookstore. A litany of volumes have come out in the past few years praising cities and urbanism, titles like Richard Florida’s popular The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life and The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work; Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next by John Kasarda and Greg Lindsay; The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt; and Edward Glaeser’s love letter to cities, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Prescott, “Why Do Americans Work So Much More Than Europeans,” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review 28, no. 1 (July 2004): 2–13, www.minneapolisfed.org/research/QR/QR2811.pdf; and Robert B. Reich, “Totally Spent,” New York Times, February 13, 2008. 25. Robert Reich, “Unjust Spoils,” The Nation, July 19, 2010. 26. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 77; ibid., 37. 27. Ibid., 191. 28. Richard Florida, “The Future of the American Workforce in the Global Creative Economy,” Cato Unbound, June 4, 2006, www.cato-unbound.org/2006/06/04/richard-florida/future-american-workforce-global-creative-economy. 29. Ross Perlin, Intern Nation: How to Earn Nothing and Learn Little in the Brave New Economy (New York: Verso Books, 2012), 125. 30. James Mulholland, “Neither a Trap Nor a Lie,” Chronicle of Higher Education, March 12, 2010. 31.

However, past experience shows that the receding of institutions does not necessarily make space for a more authentic, egalitarian existence: if work and life have been made more flexible, people have also become unmoored, blown about by the winds of the market; if old hierarchies and divisions have been overthrown, the price has been greater economic inequality and instability; if the new system emphasizes potential and novelty, past achievement and experience have been discounted; if life has become less predictable and predetermined, it has also become more precarious as liability has shifted from business and government to the individual. It turns out that what we need is not to eliminate institutions but to reinvent them, to make them more democratic, accountable, inclusive, and just. More than anyone else, urbanist Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class, has built his career as a flag-bearer for the idea that individual ingenuity can fill the void left by declining institutions. Like new-media thinkers, with whom he shares a boundless admiration for all things high tech and Silicon Valley, he also shuns “organizational or institutional directives” while embracing the values meritocracy and openness.

Many of us believe that art and culture should not succumb to the dictates of the market, and one way to do this is to act as though the market doesn’t exist, to devise a shield to deflect its distorting influence, and uphold the lack of compensation as virtuous. This stance can provide vital breathing room, but it can also perpetuate inequality. “I consistently come across people valiantly trying to defy an economic class into which they were born,” Richard Florida writes. “This is particularly true of the young descendants of the truly wealthy—the capitalist class—who frequently describe themselves as just ‘ordinary’ creative people working on music, film or intellectual endeavors of one sort or another.” How valiant to deny the importance of money when it is had in abundance. “Economic power is first and foremost a power to keep necessity at arm’s length,” the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu observed.


Fortunes of Change: The Rise of the Liberal Rich and the Remaking of America by David Callahan

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, automated trading system, Bernie Sanders, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, carried interest, clean water, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Thorp, financial deregulation, financial independence, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, income inequality, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, medical malpractice, mega-rich, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, NetJets, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, working poor, World Values Survey

Still, it is crucial to recognize a paradox: wealthy liberals have emerged as a larger force in political life, even as they have remained a small minority of their class and affluent voters overall have backed the Republican Party. As political scientist Larry Bartels reminds us, “traditional class politics is alive and well.”6 Yet although rich liberals remain a small minority of their class, their ranks are growing—along with their influence. This shift reflects the changing sources of wealth creation, with the rise of the knowledge economy and what Richard Florida calls the “creative class.” People who already trend liberal—like super-educated coastal professionals—make up an ever larger slice of the rich. Most of the big money is being made these days in blue states, not in red states. There are other trends at work, too, such as rising pressures on the upper class and corporations to become more socially responsible; the growing liberalism of elite schools where the rich and the future rich are educated; the cintro.indd 4 5/11/10 6:29:10 AM introduction 5 radicalization of the Republican Party; and the changing priorities of longtime wealthy people who are turning their focus away from making money to solving social or global problems.

In earlier times, a concentration of smarts and sophistication often only meant local coffeehouses with better folk singers and poets, not to mention cab drivers who could quote Nietzsche. Think of Cambridge or San Francisco in the 1970s. Now it means entrepreneurs with a knack for inventing new products and services. The more that people like this congregate in one place, the more economic dynamism there is—as “creative class” guru Richard Florida argues in his book Who’s Your City. In a knowledge economy, the breakthroughs that produce wealth emerge from social processes: the exchanging and synthesizing of ideas or discoveries. “The more smart people, and denser the connections among them, the faster it all goes,” wrote Florida. In turn, the growth that comes from a concentration of highly educated people draws yet more educated people in search of opportunity.

For that matter, why is that creative leaders in other fields—theater, literature, the fine arts—also trend heavily left? One answer would seem to lie in the very nature of creative work. Those involved in culture and art rely on their imagination, rather than on their competence in practical affairs, to succeed. Often, they are nonconformists whose originality comes from taking a critical or untraditional look at the world and pushing the boundaries of acceptable expression. As Richard Florida wrote in The Rise of the Creative Class, “the new lifestyle favors individuality, self-statement, acceptance of difference, and the desire for rich multidimensional experiences.”12 The lifestyle of cultural workers also tends to reinforce a bohemian outlook, given that the pay can be low and sporadic, and the working hours can be erratic. It is a rare filmmaker, screenwriter, novelist, or artist—if they are at all successful, anyway—who dresses up every day and reports to an office.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, low cost airline, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

I have also had the privilege to receive help and advice from true luminaries, such as Richard Saul Wurman, Saul Kaplan, Kevin Kelly, Jared Spool, Peter Vander Auwera, Dan Roam, Thor Muller, Paul Pangaro, Lane Becker, Peter Morville, Lou Rosenfeld, Nilofer Merchant, John Hagel III, JP Rangaswami, Doc Searls, Stowe Boyd, Jay Cross, Marcia Conner, Ben Cerveny, Chris Brogan, Bob Logan, David Armano, Alex Osterwalder, and Don Norman. Although I don’t know them personally, for the ideas in this book, I owe a deep debt of gratitude to the works of Gary Hamel, Clayton Christensen, Arie de Geus, Ricardo Semler, Eric Beinhocker, Daniel Pink, Richard Florida, Stewart Brand, Bill McKelvey, Stafford Beer, Herbert Simon, John Boyd, and perhaps most of all, Dr. W. Edwards Deming, many of whose groundbreaking ideas are only now being realized. For the access they provided to connected companies and their inner workings, I must thank Ray LaDriere, Kevin Kernan, Michael Bonamassa, Jerry Rudisin, Sunny Gupta, Adrian Cockcroft, Harry Max, Mary Walker, Mark Interrante, Ben Hart, Livia Labate, Sherri Maxson, and Sharif Renno.

Manufactured goods often can be evaluated before the completion of a transaction. Service providers, on the other hand, usually can offer only their reputations. — Alan Greenspan Industrialization is a phase, and in developed nations that phase is ending. Growth in developed economies will increasingly come from services. The Great Reset In The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity, Richard Florida points to a shift from an economy based on making things to one that is increasingly powered by knowledge, creativity, and ideas: Great Resets are broad and fundamental transformations of the economic and social order and involve much more than strictly economic or financial events. A true Reset transforms not simply the way we innovate and produce but also ushers in a whole new economic landscape.

While workers are being laid off in many industries, technology companies like Facebook and Google are suffering from critical shortages, struggling to fill their ranks and depending heavily on talent imported from other countries that place a higher priority on technical education: The whole approach of throwing trillions of public dollars at the old economy is shortsighted, aimed at restoring our collective comfort level. Meaningful recovery will require a lot more than government bailouts, stimuli, and other patchwork measures designed to resuscitate the old system or to create illusory, short-term upticks in the stock market, housing market, or car sales. –Richard Florida We no longer live in an industrial economy. We live in a service economy. And to succeed in a service economy, we will need to develop new habits and behaviors. And we will need new organizational structures. An Emerging Service Economy Since 1960, services have dominated US employment. Today’s services sector makes up about 80% of the US economy. Services are integrated into everything we buy and use.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

They decried it as a municipal shame on a city that purported to be the capital of art and culture in the Western Hemisphere. The strike never materialized, but the artists won their battle anyway. By the end of the 1970s, “loft conversions” outpaced new housing construction in New York.20 And of course today, the marriage of art and commerce is seen as the lifeblood of urban economic revitalization. At least since Richard Florida published The Rise of the Creative Class to describe the emergence of a new, powerful group of intellectual workers, ICE— as in intellectuals, culture, and education, a term coined by John Sexton, the president of New York University, to promote the university’s role in the city—is seen by developers and urban planners as a necessary complement to FIRE—finance, insurance, and real estate—in any thriving, post-industrial metropolitan economy.

While individual artists themselves probably attained or retained little power (though, had they purchased their loft conversions, they would have made millions), they spawned a whole new economy. Not only do places like Richmond, Virginia, and even Princeton, New Jersey, now brag that they offer “downtown lofts” (even if some of these are, in fact, new constructions made to look like old industrial conversions), a bohemian-type lifestyle has come to dominate the upper echelons of the new economy. By this I don’t just mean that—as Richard Florida asserts—“creativity” is now cherished and rewarded in a growing sector of the high-wage economy. I mean that the very rhythms of work of most professionals today could be clearly seen in the natural light of the artist live-work lofts of 1960: an integration of home and work; odd hours; individualized, nonsalaried work; status insecurity; social networking; and so on. We are all artists now.

(Ironic in that it begs the question, How dangerous can a manual for fun be?) A whole new slew of books tell us that we have overprogrammed our children. Let kids be kids, they tell us. Just as quickly they add that children, these days, don’t have enough creative time for imaginative play. We are stunting their creative growth by scheduling them so much. And, of course, the new elite wants to fashion their offspring into visionary thinkers to lead Richard Florida’s Creative Class. But parents respond ambivalently: It is a high-risk strategy, after all, to just let your kids do what they please and hope that your supersmart genes shine through—especially in an era with so many “lowbrow” temptations all around us. Some parents try to solve both problems—the potential of overscheduling to kill creativity and the temptations of brain-numbing diversions—in one fell swoop by subscribing to the Waldorf approach to schooling, which bans plastic toys, television, fast food, and the rest of popular culture in an effort to protect young ones so that their minds can develop naturally and purely18 The irony in this anti-structure backlash movement is that lying just underneath all the rhetoric about “allowing kids just to be kids” is the argument that we are going to do this so that they will be stronger, faster, smarter, better (when it comes time to apply to college, of course).


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

Multiculturalism is both a lived reality and an ideal of social life in times of global flows and universal rights. These propositions will illuminate the search for patterns in multicultural cities in the chapters to come. The diversity of people, activities, and roles has been the strength of cities. Peter Hall traces diversity as the source of creativity even in ancient and medieval cities.45 Jane Jacobs has identified diversity as the driving force of urban economy and social life.46 Richard Florida offers the theory that “regional economic growth is powered by creative people who prefer places that are diverse, tolerant and open.”47 Yet this diversity is sustained by the city serving as the common ground. Its collective life, shared space, services, and institutions contribute to the formation of values, beliefs, and behaviours. The bonds of citizenship promote a shared civic culture.

They are further finding that a lot of opportunities are turning into contractual self-employment, many of which turn into ethnic niches, for example, Latino limo drivers in New York and Taiwanese computer-game designers in Los Angeles. The economic base of cities is increasingly determined by their infrastructure, educational and research institutions, community services, and cultural life. The talent and creativity of a city’s workforce is its resource base. Richard Florida may be overplaying the role of the creative class in economic growth, but the education, skill, and diversity of a city’s population are undoubtedly strong determinants of economic prosperity.81 Cultural pluralism and its associated ethnic diversity are marks of cosmopolitanism that attract global capital and talent. They are the resources of the new urban economy. In this economic order, ethnic economies and enclaves have a significant role.

A Time for Reconciliation, Report of the Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles, (Quebec, 2008), 19. 43 Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Baha Abu-Laban, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 30. 44 Julius Grey, “The Paradox of Reasonable Accommodation,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 34–5. Notes to pages 36–44 279 45 Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), 6. 46 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 14. 47 Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2005), 62. 48 William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, act 3, scene 1. 49 Janet Abu-Lughod, Changing Cities: Urban Sociology (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 140. 50 James Holston and Arjun Appadurai, “Cities and Citizenship,” Public Culture 8 (1996),188–9. 51 Ibid., 200. 52 Ash Amin, “The Good City,” Urban Studies 43, nos. 5/6 (May 2006),1012. 53 Susan S, Fainstein, The Just City (Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 2010), 3. 54 Ibid., 43. 55 Leonie Sandercock, Mongreal Cities (London: Continuum, 2003), 87. 56 Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, trans.


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game

Although such views are intended for domestic consumption, governments in affluent economies bought into the corporate rhetoric of the global war for talent and the idea that competitive advantage cannot be sustained by relying on the talents of the national workforce. Upgrading the skills of the existing workforce needed to extend to attracting the most highly skilled and talented workers from around the world. Richard Florida is a leading proponent of this line of argument. He states that the United States now confronts its biggest challenge since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, “the new global competition for talent, a phenomenon that promises to radically reshape the world in the coming decades.” Gone are the days when the economic might of nations depended on their natural resources, manufacturing excellence, military dominance, or scientific and technological prowess.

Richard Rosecrance, The Rise of the Virtual State: Wealth and Power in the Coming Century (New York: Basic Books, 1999), xi. 17. R. Reich, The Next American Frontier (New York: Penguin, 1983), 127, taken from D. Coates, Models of Capitalism, Growth and Stagnation in the Modern Era Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000). 18. Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder, Capitalism and Social Progress: The Future of Society in a Global Economy (New York: Palgrave, 2001). 19. Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Harper Business, 2005); Phillip Brown and Stuart Tannock, “Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent,” Journal of Education Policy, 24, no. 4 (2009): 377–392. 20. AnnaLee Saxenian, The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006). 21. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Penguin, 2005), 230. 22.

Rafiq Dossani and Martin Kenney, “Went for Cost, Stayed for Quality? Moving the Back Office to India,” Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Working Paper (2003), 29. http://APARC.stanford.edu. See also Stephen Cohen, Bradford De Long, and John Zysman, “Tools for Thought: What Is New and Important about the E-economy?” Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, BRIE Working Paper 138 (January 1, 2000); Martin Kenney and Richard Florida (eds.), Locating Global Advantage (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 2003). The WTO superseded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATTS) established following World War II. See United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalization of R&D, 88–89. www.unctad.org/wir Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Information Technology Outlook (Paris: OECD, 2006), 8.


pages: 460 words: 131,579

Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

Peter Drucker (chapter three) is the father of modern management and a natural introduction to most of the big debates of our time. Tom Peters (chapter four) has been the most influential guru of the past two decades, not just because of what he has said, interesting though that is, but also because of the way that he has said it. In recent years the subject has been redefined by a group of journalists (such as Tom Friedman and Malcolm Gladwell) and non–business school academics (such as Richard Florida and Robert Reich) who have jumped on the bandwagon. They are the subject of chapter five. Part three examines the forces that are shaping the current management revolution. Chapter six looks at the way that traditional corporate structures, particularly top-down systems of command and control, have been reconfigured in the past three decades. Chapter seven traces the rise of a new kind of entrepreneurial capitalism, first in the United States and now in most of the rest of the world, that puts much more emphasis on startups, venture capital, and risk-taking than the old model of managed capitalism.

The other four were journalists (Thomas Friedman and Malcolm Gladwell), a retired CEO (Bill Gates), and an academic from a department of education rather than business (Howard Gardner).2 Bill Gates’s position on the list is hardly surprising: he is arguably the world’s most thoughtful businessman as well as one of its most successful entrepreneurs. It is impossible to listen to him talk about one of his many passions—healthcare, say, or energy—without being impressed by his combination of expertise and originality. But what about Tom Friedman and Howard Gardner? And what about people lower down the list, such as Robert Reich and Richard Florida? Since 2000, the management theory business has been revolutionized by the arrival of two new kinds of practitioners: journo-gurus from the world of “big media” and academic entrepreneurs from what business school professors might well regard as the wrong side of the tracks (or, in the case of Harvard, the river Charles). If Tom Peters discovered that it is possible to sell management theory to the masses, Tom Friedman and company discovered that it is possible to reach the lucrative business market through bypassing the conventional suppliers, the business schools, and consultancies.

They also share his enthusiasm for education and training: a succession of blue-ribbon business panels has echoed the basic argument of The Work of Nations. The Florida Option The most irritating thing about Reich is not his tendency to turn his nose up at business but his willingness to prostrate himself before what he calls “symbolic analysts.” Yet Reich is restrained about these übermensch compared with Richard Florida, a specialist on urban studies who currently teaches at the University of Toronto. Florida has gone two better than Reich. He has given the symbolic analysts a sexier name—the creative class—and he has given them the starring role in everything he writes. Florida’s career-making book, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure and Everyday Life (2002), is an odd mixture of Michael Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy (1958) and Candace Bushnell’s Sex in the City.


pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

New York Times, March 14, 2009, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/ 03/15/business/15school.html. 180 Courses in entrepreneurialism are among: Personal interviews with deans of a number of business schools in North America. 180 Harvard Business School, a longtime: http://www.hbs.edu/entrepreneurship/, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Richard Florida has long discussed: Richard Florida’s website, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.creativeclass.com/ richard_florida/books/the_rise_ of_the_creative_class; Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 181 A 2012 study for the Center: http://nycfuture.org/content/articles/ article_view.cfm?article_id=1306, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Since 2007, local venture capital: http://www.crunchbase.com/company/ia-ventures, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Tumblr CEO David Karp describes: Dana Rubinstein, “On Bloomberg’s Alley Versus Valley Designs, Tumblr’s David Karp Explains That the Flavors Are Different,” Capital New York, February 16, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.capitalnewyork.com/ article/politics/2012/02/5280012/ bloombergs-alley-versus-valley-designs-tumblrs-david-karp-explains-. 181 There were around a dozen tech incubators: http://www.quora.com/What-are-the-top -startup-incubators-accelerators-and-startup-coworking-spaces-in-NYC, accessed September 4, 2012. 181 Go to a meeting of NY Creative Interns: personal interview with Emily Miethner, who presented in my class; http://nycreativeinterns.com/about/, accessed September 5, 2012. 181 Even New York Mayor: William Glaberson, “Life After Salomon Brothers,” New York Times, October 11, 1987, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/1987/10/11/business/ life-after-salomon-brothers.html. 181 and whose financial data company: http://www.bloomberg.com/company/, accessed September 5, 2012. 182 In 2011, he set up a contest: Oliver Staley and Henry Goldman, “Cornell, Technion Are Chosen by New York City to Create Engineering Campus,” http://Bloomberg.com, December 19, 2011, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-12-19/ cornell-university-said-to-be-chosen-by-new-york-for-engineering-campus.html. 182 The word “pivot” is often: Lizette Chapman, “’Pivoting’ Pays Off for Tech Entrepreneurs,” Wall Street Journal, April 26, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240 52702303592404577364171598999252.html; Adam Tratt, “Our Startup’s Pivot: Three Important Lessons We Learned,” GeekWire, July 19, 2012, accessed September 5, 2012, http://www.geekwire.com/2012/ pivot-boss-3-lessons-learned/. 182 Instagram, for example, started: M.

Harvard Business School, a longtime training ground for the corporate elite and consultancies, recently opened the $25 million “i-lab” or Arthur Rock Center for Entrepreneurship (named after an HBS alum who invested in Intel and Apple). Where in previous decades graduate-level business programs focused on how to use capital efficiently, more and more courses now focus on how to harness creativity. The widespread pivoting from product concept to business creation is beginning to revive and remake cities. Richard Florida has long discussed the role of the “creative class”—the 40 million or so working in the fields of design and architecture, art, media, entertainment, science and technology, education, and health care—in driving the innovation and economic growth in cities. But even Florida might be surprised at how fast creatives are transforming such giant cities as New York, Berlin, and, perhaps, even staid Singapore.


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The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

It goes without saying that the phenomenon will not apply in the same way or at the same pace in every big city in America. It will not come to Detroit or Buffalo in the way it is coming to Chicago, New York, and Washington, D.C. Some cities will lack the central job base to generate a large-scale affluent urban revival, and will lag behind their more fortunate counterparts by a long period of years, if they ever get there at all. This is the argument of scholars such as Edward Glaeser and Richard Florida, who see an increasing bifurcation between cities economically equipped to regenerate themselves in the twenty-first century and those whose obsolete industrial economies will leave them mired in the downtown blight and exurban outward pressures of an earlier era. They have a point. There is no evidence that Detroit will produce a large cohort of downtown dwellers anytime soon. But despite the unevenness, demographic inversion will apply in more cities than many critics have imagined thus far.

More specifically, it wanted a place with a sophisticated urban scene that would appeal to the bright young college graduates it hoped to employ. This was a common refrain across the big Sun Belt cities. In the words of Michael Smith, Charlotte’s director of downtown development, the bankers who dominated the town’s economic strategy felt that they had to have downtown amenities “to attract hip young professionals.” Virtually all of these Sun Belt cities agreed with the geographer Richard Florida’s argument that future prosperity depended on the ability to lure the “creative class,” and that this could be done only with a thriving urban culture. More broadly, though, there was a perception that the twenty-first-century world was dividing rapidly into global cities and cities that were second-tier, no matter what their metropolitan size, and that rebuilding (or creating) a downtown was the only way to move into the first rank.

Susan Urahn and Lori Grange of the Pew Center on the States provided a challenging and rewarding work environment upon my arrival there early in 2010. As this process was unfolding, several urban scholars published work on the same subjects I was pursuing, and I have benefited from the opportunity to read the books and articles they have produced. In no particular order, I would like to single out Christopher Leinberger and William Frey of the Brookings Institution, Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, Witold Rybczynski of the University of Pennsylvania, and Edward Glaeser of Harvard University. While none of these authors would agree with everything I say in this book, each has been a source of new ideas and provocative arguments. It is customary at the end of acknowledgment pages to thank the members of one’s family, and I would be delinquent in not doing so now.


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The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, business cycle, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

Eventually, we will see the latent tensions building and begin to understand that changes can be postponed but not avoided. Ultimately that means that our current dilemmas will continue until they reach their breaking points. Sadly, there isn’t any “fix” above and beyond waiting for some parts of our current institutions to crumble away and eventually be replaced. I argue that in the longer term, social change will boil over once again, in uncontrollable ways, or, to borrow a phrase from urban economist Richard Florida, America is headed for a “Great Reset.” A Great Reset is what happens when you postpone change for too long, and it is like opening up a valve on an overheating engine; there is a sudden rush of outward force, and not always in a pleasant or orderly manner. In medieval times, for instance, the Catholic Church sought to shut down a lot of theological dissent. For a while this worked, but eventually the result was a far-reaching and fundamental process known as the Reformation, which had major political, economic, and religious ramifications for centuries.

What are some other ways in which individual decisions are limiting the physical mixing across different groups of people? The reality is that the breaking of America into different groups, while often driven by money, is in fact not about money alone. Education and social class are also very important as segregators and dividers. The most heavily segregated cities, across a variety of metrics, including education, social class, and sometimes race, tend to be what urban researchers Richard Florida and Charlotta Melander label “high-tech, knowledge-based metros.” That is again a sign of the complacent class at work. For instance, we can look at where the working class is least segregated from the non–working class as one metric for the mixing of social classes. That list of least class-segregated cities is Hartford, Providence, Buffalo, Virginia Beach, Orlando, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Rochester, Las Vegas, and Cincinnati, in that order.

It has created a new set of entry barriers, as if only the right kind of “tolerant” people are supposed to be living in particular neighborhoods, or maybe only they can afford it or only they feel comfortable there by fitting in. The college culture sounds tolerant when you talk about it at a cocktail party, but on the ground, the reality is less rather than more mixing and again the cementing of America’s social and also economic stasis.11 Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander have ranked the most and least segregated areas in the United States, using metrics of income, education, and also occupation. By these measures, the most segregated area is Austin, Texas, where wealthy, college-educated professionals are least likely to live near their less-educated counterparts in the area. But if you know Austin a bit, this makes some sense. There is a yuppie downtown Austin, with America’s biggest Whole Foods branch, tech start-ups, women wearing Loft clothes, and some of the most expensive real estate in Texas.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

Urban Relocations Three hundred years ago: UN Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2001 Revision (New York, 2002). 11 million Americans: David Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen, The American Pageant: A History of the American People, 15th (AP) edition (Cengage Learning, 2013), pp. 539–540. The rest of the world wasn’t far behind: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums (Verso, 2006). “hyper-city,” a locale with a population above 20 million: Ibid, p. 5. By 2050: UN Population Division, World Urbanization. professor Richard Florida: Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis (Basic Books, 2017). See also: Richard Florida, “The Roots of the New Urban Crisis,” Citylab, April 9, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2017/04/the-roots-of-the-new-urban-crisis/521028/. In 2016, the Brookings Institute: Jesus Leal Trijullo and Joseph Parilla, “Redefining Global Cities: The Seven Types of Global Metro Economies,” Global Cities Initiative, 2016. See: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/metro_20160928_gcitypes.pdf.

And China out-urbanizes India, adding three hundred new million-plus cities and two mega-cities. Africa just explodes. From Cairo through the Congo, the continent’s urban population grows 90 percent by 2050. By century’s end, Lagos, Nigeria, could be home to 100 million. Add it all together, every week from now until 2050, a million people move downtown. University of Toronto urban studies professor Richard Florida calls this the “central crisis of our time.” Like any crisis, this one brings both opportunity and danger. First the upside. From an economic perspective, cities are good for business. In 2016, the Brookings Institute examined the 123 largest metro economies in the world. While housing only 13 percent of the planet’s population, they produced almost one-third of its economic output. The following year, the National Bureau of Economic Research took a second look at this relationship between productivity and population density.

See: https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/travel-time.html. there were a hundred plus automotive brands: You can find an aggregated list of car brands, both in service and retired, at this Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_car_brands. the average car owner: Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking (Routledge, 2011), p. 624. America has almost half-a-million parking spaces: Richard Florida, “Parking Has Eaten American Cities,” CityLab, July 24, 2018. MIT professor of urban planning: Eran Ben-Joseph, ReThinking a Lot (MIT Press, 2012), pp. xi–xix. Hyperloop is the brainchild: For the original whitepaper: https://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha.pdf. Robert Goddard: Malcolm Browne, “New Funds Fuel Magnet Power for Trains,” New York Times, March 3, 1992. RAND corporation: Robert Salter, “The Very High Speed Transit,” Rand Corporation, 1972.


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Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

This leaves the burgeoning and pivotal cities of the South categorized as a mere Other, outside of Western culture, a status which makes it all but impossible for theorists to grasp how both sets of cities mutually constitute each other within imperial, neo-colonial or postcolonial geographies.27 The field of urban studies has been particularly slow to address the central role of cities within the new imperialism – the resurgence of aggressive, colonial militarism focusing on the violent appropriation of land and resources in the South.28 Indeed, the prosperous cities of the North are today often idealized by liberal commentators and theorists as centres of migration and laboratories of cosmopolitan integration, characteristics construed as vital to their high-tech economic futures as the key nodes of the ‘global knowledge economy’. Such integration is deemed by influential urban policy gurus, such as Richard Florida, to be a key engine of economic creativity within technologically advanced capitalism.29 These perspectives, however, systematically ignore the way the North’s global cities often act as economic or ecological parasites, preying on the South, violently appropriating energy, water, land and mineral resources, relying on exploitative labour conditions in offshore manufacturing, driving damaging processes of climate change, and generating an often highly damaging flow of tourism and waste.

See Kaplan, ‘The Coming Anarchy,’ Atlantic Monthly, February 1994; Kaplan The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post–Cold War World, New York: Random House, 2000. 26 Fredric Jameson, ‘The End of Temporality’, Critical Inquiry, 29(4), 2003, 700, cited in Kipfer and Goonewardena ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism’. 27 Jenny Robinson, ‘Cities Between Modernity and Development’, paper presented to the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 2003, New Orleans, unpublished paper. See also her Ordinary Cities, London: Routledge, 2006. 28 See Kanishka Goonewardena and Stefan Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide: New Imperialism, Global Cities and the Damned of the Earth’, New Formations, 59, Autumn 2006, 23–33. 29 See Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, New York: Basic Books, 2002. 30 See, for example, Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton: Princeton University Press, (2nd Edition) 2002; Peter Taylor, World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis, London: Routledge, 2003. 31 For an excellent discussion of this, see Kipfer and Goonewardena ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism’; and Goonewardena and Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide’.

Indeed, the burgeoning industrial complex within which the industries of security, technology, biotechnology, corrections, prison, torture, electronics, military, entertainment and surveillance are melding yields large chunks of the lucrative core economies of cities like London and New York. Yet the centrality of war and imperial power to the economic dynamics of contemporary world cities is continually obscured by the suggestion that such cities, in these post-colonial times, are defined by their cosmopolitan and ‘hybrid’ mixing – a mixing viewed by such policy gurus as Richard Florida as a key competitive feature of the creative hubs, the ‘foundries’, of the ‘knowledge-based economy.’67 To define cities ‘generically and one-sidedly as endogenous “engines of growth” and laboratories of cosmopolitanism’, write Stefan Kipfer and Kanishka Goonewardena, ‘is to ignore other formative aspects of urban history: economic and ecological parasitism, forms of socio-political exclusion (against non-city-zens as well as residents) and a dependence of commercial exchange on militarism, imperial expansion, and other forms of primitive accumulation’.68 COSMOPOLITANISM AND HOMELAND Are fear and urbanism at war?


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Little Bets: How Breakthrough Ideas Emerge From Small Discoveries by Peter Sims

Amazon Web Services, Black Swan, Clayton Christensen, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, discovery of penicillin, endowment effect, fear of failure, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, Lean Startup, longitudinal study, loss aversion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, PageRank, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, Toyota Production System, urban planning, Wall-E

Societal level: Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Harvard University Press (1994) by AnnaLee Saxnian, a University of California, Berkeley professor, describes her fascinating research, which argues that Silicon Valley entrepreneurs are innovative because they interact with more diverse types of people than those working around Boston’s Route 128. The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida, Basic Books (2002), lays out research and an argument for how diverse cultures are more innovative than homogenous ones. For a good synopsis, see “The Rise of the Creative Class” by Richard Florida, Washington Monthly, May 2002, which can be found at: http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0205.florida.html. Tim Russert secondary sources: “In the Hot Seat: Tim Russert on His Ego, His Bias, His Father Worship and What He Really Thinks about Tax Cuts,” by Howard Kurtz, the Washington Post, May 23, 2004.

We see this pattern at the individual, organizational, and societal level. Professor Keith Sawyer of Washington University summarized the topic well in his book Group Genius. Meanwhile, Frans Johansson’s book, The Medici Effect, builds on major pillars of psychology research to demonstrate how diverse teams are more likely to be innovative. University of California Berkeley Professor AnnaLee Saxnian and author Richard Florida have produced compelling analyses about how cities and regions with diverse workforces (from a functional standpoint) and frequent interpersonal interactions are more innovative. Here I want to focus on the very specific, yet oft-neglected, value of learning from people who have different perspectives. One person in particular came to my mind repeatedly. Before passing away suddenly (and shockingly) June 13, 2008, Tim Russert was one of the most prominent American political journalists and commentators of his generation, including as the moderator of NBC’s weekly Meet the Press.


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Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, G4S, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Information can be quickly sent and received by anyone from almost anywhere. In theory, expanding access to resources and information from anywhere might decouple the relationship between place and innovation. Economic geographers, however, observe the opposite effect. Evidence suggests that location, rather than being irrelevant, is more important than ever. Innovation tilts heavily toward certain locations and, as scholar Richard Florida (professor at Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto and author of The Rise of the Creative Class (2002)) says, is “spiky” with great concentration of creative, innovative people in tightly clustered geographies. Location clearly matters. Three prominent frameworks explain why some locales are hotbeds of entrepreneurship whereas others are the innovation equivalent of a twenty-first century economic mirage.

Meanwhile, vertical integration and closed systems disadvantaged many Route 128 companies during periods of technological upheaval. Saxenian highlights the role of a densely networked culture in explaining Silicon Valley’s successful industrial adaptation as compared to Route 128. Finally, the third explanation of startup communities, the notion of the creative class, comes from geography. Richard Florida describes the tie between innovation and creative-class individuals. The creative class is composed of individuals such as entrepreneurs, engineers, professors, and artists who create “meaningful new forms.” Creative-class individuals, Florida argues, want to live in nice places, enjoy a culture with a tolerance for new ideas and weirdness, and—most of all—want to be around other creative-class individuals.

There are gems everywhere, often undiscovered, that appear when everyone becomes a mentor. EMBRACE WEIRDNESS Boulder is a weird place. In the 1960s when the hippies were driving to the Bay Area from the East Coast, some of them ran out of gas near Boulder. They looked around, liked the mountains, and decided to stay. Boulder’s reputation of 25 square miles surrounded by reality is well earned. In his book The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida talks about weirdness as a key attribute of innovative communities. He’s gone on to state, “You cannot get a technologically innovative place unless it’s open to weirdness, eccentricity and difference” (New York Times, June 1, 2002). The Boulder startup community embraces weirdness. You don’t have to look a certain way, dress a certain way, or act a certain way. People can simply be themselves and are accepted for who they are and what they do.


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Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

“Industrial and warehouse workers rarely demand specialty retail, high-end services, cloth-napkin restaurants, hotels, and bookstores,” he wrote. The ascendency of distribution has sparked a philosophical debate in Memphis: Is the city content to be a hub where goods are moved and sorted instead of created or invented? Kasarda and his allies say yes; local members of the “creative class” say no. Their champion is Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class, whose prescription for economic growth boils down to the “three Ts” of technology, talent, and tolerance. If Memphis can attract the designers, musicians, and biomedi-cal researchers who crave Whole Foods and gentrified juke joints, he argues, then companies desirous of their talents will soon follow. The city’s future lies in brains, not boxes. Cargo doesn’t need quality of life.

Suburbs were the spatial fix of the Industrial Age, when there were cars to be made and sold, and workers wanted to put some distance between their families and the factory. Edge cities like Las Colinas sprouted the moment work shifted to the office, when most of us began trafficking in ideas and didn’t mind living closer to our workplace. Our Instant Age is the product of the Jet Age and the Net Age, of global reach and always-on connectivity, of aggregation and dispersal. As Richard Florida and others have asserted, we need both velocity and density in our daily lives, for the production and transmission of ideas as well as goods. Postrecession, we need a new spatial fix that is locally dense and globally connected. Kasarda believes he holds the blueprints to a fix that is beautiful, efficient, and ultimately sustainable—a far cry from the hideous, haphaz-ard, and polluted messes most cities have inherited.

Business centers strewn throughout the community—all within a short walk or electric-cart ride—will offer rent-by-the-hour support staff plus state-of-the-art meeting rooms and seamless video-conference hookups to China and India. With the Albuquerque airport only six minutes and one stoplight away, a former regular of the big-city airport crush can leave for meetings in other cities after breakfast and still be home for dinner. Mesa del Sol is an aerotropolis in the mold of the “no-collar workplace” imagined by Richard Florida: the twilight zone of multitasking knowledge workers drifting between home, cafés, the airport, and clients’ conferences and back. Like Florida—who once switched academic posts to be closer to Dulles—the Ratner clan believes the future of work belongs to those of us who do it wherever we want, whenever we want, so long as we do it longer and harder than anyone else. They aim to give us the city we deserve, a hub enabling our dispersal.


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Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

In 2006, foreign nationals living in the United States were inventors or coinventors in 40 percent of all international patent applications filed by the U.S. government.34 Migrants file the majority of patents by leading science firms: 72 percent of the total at Qualcomm, 65 percent at Merck, 64 percent at General Electric, and 60 percent at Cisco.35 Higher rates of immigration also have second-order effects on innovation. Ethnic diversity plays a key role in attracting and retaining creative and talented people to cities. Economic geographer Richard Florida argues that diversity increases a region or city's ability to compete for talent: To support high-technology industries or a wide range of economic activity in general, regions compete for a variety of talent across a variety of fields and disciplines. Regions that are open to diversity are thus able to attract a wider range of talent by nationality, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation than are those that are relatively closed.36 Diversity becomes a stimulant to further innovation and growth.

Integration requires policies that extend settlement services, assistance with labor market access, language training, and the removal of barriers that prevent the involvement of migrants in society.76 Expanding opportunities for migrants to fully participate in their host societies in the short run is a valuable investment, given the long-run benefits of social diversity. Citing a study by Pascal Zachary, Richard Florida notes that “the United States' economic competitiveness in high-technology fields is directly linked to its openness to outsiders, while the relative stagnation of Japan and Germany is tied to “closedness” and relative homogeneity.”77 Openness to migrants pays dividends in the long run. At a local or group level, Scott E. Page argues that the cognitive diversity brought by immigration assists with problem solving and productivity: Interacting with a large number of diverse people should be more cognitively taxing than hanging out with your closest friends who look, think and act just like you.

“International Migration Trends since 1980,” presented at International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, Marrakech, Morocco, 11–12 May 2005, p. 24. 12. Gail McLaughlan and John Salt. 2002. “Migration Policies toward Highly Skilled Foreign Workers,” Report to the UK Home Office, March 2002, p. 4. 13. Lindsay Lowell. 2008. “Highly Skilled Migration,” in World Migration 2008: Managing Labour Mobility in the Evolving Global Economy. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, p. 52. 14. Richard Florida, Charlotta Mellander, and Kevin Stolarick. 2008. “Inside the Black Box of Regional Development—Human Capital, the Creative Class and Tolerance,” Journal of Economic Geography 8(5): 615–649. 15. Lowell, 2008: 53. 16. Demetrios Papademetriou. 2003. “Managing Rapid and Deep Change in the Newest Age of Migration,” Political Quarterly 74(1): 39–58. 17. Lowell, 2008: 54. 18. Ibid.: 54. 19. Ibid.: 54. 20.


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Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

On El Paso and Juarez, see Andrew Rice, “Life on the Line,” The New York Times Magazine, July 31, 2011. On the vulnerability of women, see Gregory Acs, “Downward Mobility from the Middle Class: Waking up from the American Dream,” Pew Charitable Trusts, Economic Mobility Project, 2011. That is also the source for the insights about individuals falling out of the middle class. The Richard Florida quotation is from Richard Florida, “The Conservative States of America,” The Atlantic, March 29, 2011. Acknowledgments For useful discussions and comments I wish to thank Nelson Hernandez, Anson Williams, Kenneth Regan, Jason Fichtner, Erik Brynolfsson, Andrew McGee, Don Peck, Derek Thompson, Michelle Dawson, Peter Snow, Veronique de Rugy, Garett Jones, Robin Hanson, Bryan Caplan, Alex Tabarrok, Natasha Cowen, Garry Kasparov, Vasik Rajlich, Stephen Morrow, David Brooks, Peter Thiel, Michael Mandel, and Larry Kaufman, with apologies to anyone I may have left out.

It’s again worth seeing what is happening, politically speaking, in the parts of the United States with relatively stagnant incomes. Political conservatism is strongest in the least well-off, least educated, most blue collar, and most economically hard-hit states. If you doubt it, know that as of 2011, the most politically conservative states are, as measured by self-identification, Mississippi, Idaho, Alabama, Wyoming, Utah, Arkansas, South Carolina, North Dakota, Louisiana, and South Dakota. As Richard Florida puts it, “Conservatism, more and more, is the ideology of the economically left behind.” Those states have become outposts of Tea Party support. Their electorates are not out there leading the charge for higher rates of progressive taxation or trying to revive the memory of George McGovern. The most liberal areas tend to be urban or suburban, with lots of high-earning professionals. My own residence—in Fairfax County, Virginia—was strongly conservative in the early 1980s when I first lived there.


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Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

By 1990, less than 40% of the global population lived in a city, but as of 2010, more than half of all people live in an urban area. By 2030, 6 out of every 10 people will live in a city, and by 2050, this proportion will increase to 7 out of 10 people.” Source: World Health Organization Also, Ariel Schwartz, “We Are Approaching Peak Car Use”, Fast Company, 5 July 2011, and Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (New York: HarperBusiness, 2011). For a quick introduction, read Richard Florida, “The Fading Differentiation between City and Suburb”, Urban Land Magazine (urbanland.uli.org), January 2013. For Ruth Milkman’s view on why people are disillusioned with capitalism, see Ruth Milkman, Stephanie Luce and Penny Lewis, Changing the Subject: A Bottom-up Account of Occupy Wall Street in New York City (City University of New York).

, The Atlantic, 25 March 2012; and John Arlidge, “Baby, you can share my car”, Sunday Times, 10 March 2013, which states that: in 2008, only 30% of 16-year-old Americans held driving licences, down from 50% a generation ago, that 80% of under-25s in Tokyo do not have a car, and that in Germany, the share of young households without cars rose from 20% to 28% from 1998 to 2008. Millennials choosing to live in small, city-centre apartments See Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (New York: HarperBusiness, 2011). For a rigorous analysis of the millennials’ housing aspirations, read Nathan Morris, “Why Generation Y is Causing the Great Migration of the 21st Century”, on the website of a design firm called Placemakers (www.placemakers.com), 9 April 2012. “Rather than owning a thing”: millennials not so interested in material objects Various sources, including Tammy Erickson, “Meaning Is the New Money”, HBR Blog Network, 23 March 2011; and David Brooks, “The Experience Economy”, New York Times, 14 February 2011.


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The New Geography of Jobs by Enrico Moretti

assortative mating, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business climate, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate raider, creative destruction, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, global village, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Wall-E, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

The other, which I will call the supply side approach, tries to attract workers with the hope that employers will follow. It involves improving a city’s local amenities to lure talented workers. In essence, the first strategy is about bribing businesses, while the second is about bribing people. Ten years ago, the idea of revitalization through amenities suddenly became very fashionable. Richard Florida’s influential books publicized the notion that the “creative class” is particularly sensitive to the quality of life and that local economic growth hinges on making a city interesting and exciting for its members. He writes, “Seattle was the home of Jimi Hendrix and later Nirvana and Pearl Jam as well as Microsoft and Amazon. Austin was home to Willie Nelson and its fabulous Sixth Street music scene before Michael Dell ever stepped into his now famous University of Texas fraternity house.”

Richer states such as Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg have been subsidizing employment in Berlin for decades. This stands in contrast to Washington, D.C., which over the past twenty years has created a deep and self-sustaining high-tech cluster of private companies over and above its public institutions. It is hard to think of a better place than Berlin to test the notion that innovation hubs can be grown simply by catering to the creative class. Richard Florida’s argument is that increasing amenities for the creative class leads to an increase in the supply of labor, and this ultimately lifts a city’s economy. But after twenty years of Berlin coolness, the supply of well-educated creatives vastly exceeds the demand. According to one study, 30 percent of social scientists and 40 percent of artists are jobless. Germany has a thriving high-tech sector and a thriving advanced manufacturing sector, but only a tiny part of those is located in Berlin.

The importance of stars to the locations of innovation clusters is evident in most high-tech industries, with the effect largest for pharmaceutical/biotech and computing/IT, smaller in nanotechnology, and smallest in semiconductors. See Zucker and Darby, “Movement of Star Scientists and Engineers and High-Tech Firm Entry.” [>] In 1913, the year before World War I began: All the figures are from Scott, “Origins and Growth of the Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry.” [>] In 2006, the UCLA geographer Allen Scott proposed: Ibid. [>] “Seattle was the home”: Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class, p.206. [>] “The arts have become”: Jacobs, “Made in Brooklyn.” [>] According to one study: See “The Cost of Cool,” Economist, September 17, 2011. [>] “Our location has helped us”: Jon Swartz, “San Francisco’s Charm Lures High-Tech Workers,” USA Today, December 6, 2010. [>] “We’re able to attract”: Ibid. [>] “I try to find partners”: “The Revolution on Batteries,” Boston Globe, May 22, 2011. [>] A study by Adam Jaffe: Jaffe, “Real Effects of Academic Research.” [>] Between 1933 and 1958: The $30 billion are measured in 2010 dollars. [>] “in practice, they work miserably”: Jacobs, “Why TVA Failed.” [>] My colleague Pat Kline and I: Kline and Moretti, “Local Economic Development, Agglomeration Economies and the Big Push.” [>] Consider Portland: These three cases are described in detail in Mayer, “Bootstrapping High-Tech.” [>] As pointed out in a recent Brookings Institution study: Ibid.


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Better, Stronger, Faster: The Myth of American Decline . . . And the Rise of a New Economy by Daniel Gross

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, index fund, intangible asset, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zipcar

—Jonathan Alter, author of The Promise and columnist for Bloomberg View “Yes, the United States took a huge hit from economic crisis, but talk of its long-run decline is overdone and premature. In Better, Stronger, Faster, Daniel Gross rebuts the declinists and documents the enduring strengths that power America’s ability to transform and reset itself in dynamic ways. The United States is poised to emerge from the crisis in better shape than any of its commonly touted old and new competitors.” —Richard Florida, author of The Great Reset and The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited, and director of the University of Toronto’s Martin Prosperity Institute “Daniel Gross is an author and journalist who is not afraid to challenge the conventional wisdom. His latest book does this with tremendous style, by directly attacking the ‘America is doomed’ camp, to paint a portrait of America that is far more vibrant than critics usually acknowledge.

It will be by choice. CHAPTER 3 Faster: Policy After an economic downturn and financial crisis that were the worst in at least three generations, the United States avoided tough, swift decisions. Instead of dealing with reality and confronting problems head-on, policymakers, companies, and consumers kicked the can down the road. Faced with a glaring need for what the sociologist Richard Florida called a “Great Reset,” America chose to hit the pause button. When the policy efforts came, they were too little (or too much, depending on where you sit ideologically), too late, too slow, and too ineffective. The bailouts and stimulus efforts were expensive, poorly designed failures. Economic setbacks may be nothing new in American history. But the failure to react, bounce back, and improve certainly seems to be.

An environment for networking and hanging out, Facebook has also enabled the creation of large, highly scaled businesses that were not imagined during the creation of the system. Zynga, the social gaming business founded in 2007, was created essentially to exist within Facebook; in late 2011 its initial public offering endowed it with a $7 billion market value. Creating entirely new ecosystems is another discipline at which the United States has excelled. “In a reset, we get great individual innovation,” notes the sociologist Richard Florida, the author of The Great Reset. “More importantly, we get the rise of systems innovation,” like Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse turning electricity from a science experiment into a utility. “That leads to new models of infrastructure and new kinds of consumption.” The United States has demonstrated a unique ability to develop such working models. When you have a large installed user base, a product or service rolled out on it can gain scale more quickly, and its value can grow exponentially.


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

We will still want our time on Earth to have made a difference. We will still want to achieve something and we will still crave recognition and respect. We will also still want to know whether our collective existence is anything more than a cosmic accident. Like Joyce Vincent, alone in her London apartment, we will still want to love and be loved. Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose. Update I was reading The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida again recently. In the opening pages he makes the point that people living between 1900 and 1950 witnessed greater technological change than those living between 1950 and 2000. He then goes on to explain that in terms of societal values, the reverse was the case. I would argue that something similar, albeit on a much smaller scale, has happened over the last couple of years. Technologically speaking there have been periods of greater upheaval but, from the point of view of values, the change that we have witnessed since 2007 has been significant.

It can also mean an appreciation of aesthetics, which bring us back to right-brain thinkers. There are some future-proof jobs that cannot be done by a machine or outsourced to Asia. These include what I’d call hightouch jobs such as nursing and teaching, which involve a high level of emotional intelligence. They also include occupations that involve the application of creativity and imagination. But, as Richard Florida points out in The Rise of the Creative Class, these types of jobs don’t work just anywhere. Cities become attractive to right-brained entrepreneurs and innovators when they score highly on the Three Ts: technology, talent and tolerance. Technology refers to the proximity of world-class research facilities; talent is the clustering of bright, like-minded people from varied backgrounds; and tolerance is an open, progressive culture that embraces “outsiders” and difference.

If people stay in the workforce for longer, in theory the final transition from work to retirement will also be more complex and traumatic, which could drive the need for further counseling and consulting. Whatever happens, the world of work will not be the same in the future. 292 FUTURE FILES Update In the original edition of Future Files, I quoted Thomas Friedman saying that the world was becoming flat, in the sense that there was now a level playing field where everyone competed with everyone else. Everyone was now a potential player. This is still somewhat true, but as Richard Florida (in The Rise of the Creative Class) has pointed out, the world is actually rather spiky. What he means by this, I think, is that only a handful of regions or cities are driving the global economy; if you do not live in one of these places, life can be very difficult indeed. This sounds somewhat illogical. Surely, in an era of digitalized services and global connectivity, geography is irrelevant?


pages: 518 words: 147,036

The Fissured Workplace by David Weil

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, yield management

From Widgets to Digits: Employment Regulation for the Changing Workplace. New York: Cambridge University Press. ______. 2006. “Legal Protections for Atypical Employees: Employment Law for Workers without Workplaces and Employees without Employers.” Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 27, no. 2: 251–281. Sturgeon, Timothy, and Richard Florida. 2004. “Globalization, Deverticalization, and Employment in the Motor Vehicle Industry.” In Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by Martin Kenney and Richard Florida. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 52–81. Sum, Andrew, and Joseph McLaughlin. 2011. “Who Has Benefited from the Post–Great Recession Recovery?” Working paper, Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University (July). Sunstein, Cass, Daniel Kahnemann, David Schkade, and Ilana Ritov.

“Hiding behind the Corporate Veil: Employer Abuse of the Corporate Form to Avoid or Deny Workers’ Collectively Bargained and Statutory Rights.” West Virginia Law Review 100: 537–599. Curry, James, and Martin Kenney. 2004. “The Organizational and Geographic Configuration of the Personal Computer Value Chain.” In Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by Martin Kenney and Richard Florida. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 113–141. Dalzell, Robert. 1987. Enterprising Elite: The Boston Associates and the World They Made. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Davidov, Guy. 2004. “Joint Employer Status in Triangular Employment Relationships.” British Journal of Industrial Relations 42: 727–746. ______. 2006. “The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated”: “Employee” as a Viable (though Overly-Used) Legal Concept.”

Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson / Prentice Hall. Kelling, George, and Catherine Coles. 1996. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. New York: Martin Kessler Books / The Free Press. Kelling, George, and James Q. Wilson. 1982. “The Police and Neighborhood Safety.” The Atlantic, March, 29–38. Kenney, Martin, and Richard Florida. 2004. Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Kerr, Clark. 1977. Labor Markets and Wage Determination: The Balkanization of Labor Markets and Other Essays. Berkeley: University of California Press, Institute of Industrial Relations. Kleiner, Morris, and David Weil. 2012. “Evaluating the Efficacy of NLRA Remedies—Analysis and Comparison with Other Workplace Penalty Policies.”


pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

The Corbusian vision of a “city of skyscrapers” would allow society to make sufficient economic progress to enhance further the grandeur of the city. 11 Today’s density advocates are rarely as audacious as Le Corbusier, but they also claim numerous benefits from their sense of a highly centralized urban “order”; some organizations, such as the Urban Land Institute (ULI), have been fighting decentralization and suburbanization since the late 1930s.12 There is a widespread notion that higher density will increase productivity, calm the climate, and lower living costs, albeit at the price of homeownership.13 In the following pages, I outline the retro-urbanist argument for each of these purported benefits. THE ECONOMIC EQUATION Some retro-urbanists, such as Richard Florida, point to studies such as those from the Santa Fe Institute that show the great productivity of large cities, claiming that “bigger, denser cities literally speed up the metabolism of daily life.” The notion that innovation needs to take place in dense urban settings is now widely accepted. Yet in reality, as the study’s authors note, their findings were about the population of an area, not the density, and had little to do with the urban form.14 After all, many of the nation’s most innovative firms are located not in downtown cores but in sprawling regions, whether that’s in Silicon Valley, the north Dallas suburbs, or the “energy corridor” west of central Houston.

Even in New York City, the red-hot center of American ultra-density, eight of Manhattan’s 10 community boards45 opposed former Mayor Bloomberg’s attempts to further densify already congested Midtown.46 The Midtown project prompted Yale architect Robert Stern, a devoted advocate for dense cities and no opponent of density, to warn that too much high-rise development creates a dehumanized aesthetic that chases away creative businesses and tourists, while preserving older districts attracts them.47 Retro-urbanist Richard Florida, usually a reliable supporter of density, also expresses concern that high-rise density does not appeal much to the “creative class,” who prefer more human-scaled neighborhoods.48 Similarly, in Los Angeles, neighborhood councils, notably in Hollywood, have rallied against attempts to build denser buildings, which generate more congestion and erode both the area’s livability and its distinct urban identity.49 In London, too, attempts to build what the Independent describes as “the tall, the ostentatious, the showy and ‘iconic’” have been widely criticized for undermining the human-scaled character of London.

The Great Recession, which saw millions of homes foreclosed upon, many in suburbia, suggested to some that the mass movement to the periphery was ending.63 As homeownership rates dropped from historical highs during the Great Recession, some, like American economist Paul Krugman, envisioned a historical shift from an age of owning a home to an age of renting an apartment, which was more likely to occur close to the city core.64 Urban pundit Richard Florida saw the emergence of a new paradigm that would toss out not only the “suburban myth” of homeownership itself but also its “long-privileged place” at the center of the US economy.65 To be sure, homeownership dropped during the recession, as it had during the Great Depression. Yet the home values in suburbs around the country were not the only victims of the bubble; condo projects, including those in major cities such as Los Angeles, San Diego, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, and Vancouver, also suffered major declines, with many residents forced into rentals.66 These reversals did not mean the rebound of the urban core was over any more than it suggested the death of suburbs, but the latter notion gained great currency in the media.


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Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies by Cesar Hidalgo

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, assortative mating, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, New Economic Geography, Norbert Wiener, p-value, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, price mechanism, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, working-age population

,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 14, no. 2 [1998]: 7–17), and more recent attempts to find evidence have generated more discussion than answers (see, for example, Stephen J. Redding, “The Empirics of the New Economic Geography,” Journal of Regional Science 50, no. 1 [2010]: 297–311). Another approach that hinges on individuals, albeit differently from the approach followed by the new economic geographers, is the work of urban theorist Richard Florida. Florida has argued forcefully that the competitiveness of urban agglomerations hinges largely on their ability to attract creative individuals (Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002]). Other approaches focus not on the role of individuals but on the properties of regions or of the networks of firms that locate in these regions. One strand of this literature focuses on industrial clusters associated mostly with the Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter (see, for example, Michael E.


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Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray

affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional

They defended tradition and middle-class values. They worked for corporations and went to church. Meanwhile, the bohemians were the free spirits who flouted convention.” But by the 1990s, everything had gotten mixed up. “It was now impossible to tell an espresso-sipping artist from a cappuccino-gulping banker,”3 Brooks wrote. Bobos belonged to what Brooks labeled “the educated class.” In 2002, Richard Florida, a professor of public policy at George Mason University, identified “the creative class,” telling his readers, “If you are a scientist or engineer, an architect or designer, a writer, artist, or musician, or if you use your creativity as a key factor in your work in business, education, health care, law or some other profession, you are a member.”4 He celebrated the changes in the workplace, lifestyle, and social capital that accompanied the ascendancy of the creative class.

The best I can do is use the DDB Life Style data that were provided to Robert Putnam in the research for Bowling Alone and are now available to other scholars.11 That database does not permit us to isolate the top few centiles—the highest income code is $100,000—but it does give a quantitative measure of the relationship between income, education, and a wide variety of tastes and preferences. I also continue to draw heavily on the work of David Brooks and Richard Florida. Both Bobos in Paradise and The Rise of the Creative Class, along with their other books, have extensive documentation, some quantitative and some qualitative, for the generalizations they draw about the tastes and preferences of their Bobos and Creative Class, respectively, and my endnotes contain references to their discussions. My generalizations are consistent with theirs. There is one other way to verify or reject the account you are about to read: your own experience.

I have given only the barest outline of the tribal customs and rites of the new upper class. I spent a paragraph on new-upper-class vacations, while David Brooks devotes eight pages of Bobos in Paradise to them. I didn’t even mention sex; Brooks has another eight pages about that. I didn’t mention religion; see all thirty-seven pages of his chapter 6. I gave a few pages to changes in the world of work; Richard Florida devotes the better part of an entire book to them. But the lacuna that is likely to be at the top of your mind is politics. The new upper class tends to be liberal, right? There’s no getting around it: Every way of answering that question produces a yes. In chapter 3, I give politics a longer discussion, because it relates to the isolation of the new upper class. But that reality need not obscure another one: Most of the description of the elite culture in this chapter cuts across ideological lines.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

Renovation of the existing shikumen has meant expulsion of the people who once made it a living cité. The gentrifying twenty-somethings who eagerly sought out the shikumen as cool places to be wanted to live in the symbolic aura, but not in the presence of its former gritty, ‘real people’ residents. The familiar, twinned sins of gentrification and expulsion have been laid at the door of the urbanist Richard Florida, whose book on the creative classes became, twenty or so years ago, the bible for a new idea of the city. In a dynamic city, the young, the entrepreneurial, the organically minded should rule, and the old, the tired and the dutiful should fade away. The creative economy is meant to be both collective and informal in character, the shared table rather than the closed office – which translates urbanistically into the ‘innovation zone’, the ‘creative hub’ in Florida’s words.

For these people, Google provides – as in Silicon Valley – big white buses to chauffeur them to and from the office, thus extending working hours via absolutely reliable internet connections. This Googleplex formula derives from the classic company towns of the industrial era like Pullman, Illinois, in the US or Port Sunlight in Britain, both built in the 1880s; like them, the Googleplex ties a tight time-knot between working and dwelling. The Googlistas are poster-children for the ‘creative classes’. This term, invented by Richard Florida, is now defined by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics as people who mostly work in advertising, media services and tech start-ups outside universities; the number of independent artists, musicians and poets is relatively minute: the creative classes are more distributors, middlemen and branders than actual Homo fabers. Pursued by investors, celebrated by politicians as the answer to urban stagnation, the creative classes are an elite which does not do much for the mass.

So, too, Marc Fried found that a level-and-rebuild urban renewal project in Boston in the mid-twentieth century prompted profound social disorientation; see Marc Fried, ‘Grieving for a Lost Home: Psychological Costs of Relocation’, in Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, ed. James Q. Wilson (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966), pp. 359–79. 30. Herbert J. Gans, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans (New York: Free Press, 1982). 31. Sharon Zukin, Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982). 32. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 33. Patti Waldmeir, ‘Shanghai Starts Search for Its Heritage’, Financial Times, 22 February 2013, p. 8. 34. James Salter, Light Years (New York: Random House, 1975), p. 69. 35. See Marc Masurovsky, ‘Angelus Novus, Angel of History, by Paul Klee’, Plundered Art, Holocaust Art Restitution Project (HARP), 26 February 2013, http://plundered-art.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/angelus-novus-angel-of-history-by-paul.html. 36.


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Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, superconnector

In either case, the platform amplifies the effort and teaches skills in the process of using it. Is it any wonder that nearly two-thirds of the patents filed over the last three decades came from twenty metropolitan areas with only one-third of the US population? More innovation, creativity, and art per person happens in large metro areas than other places; what Jonah Lehrer calls “urban friction” and Richard Florida calls the “creative class” turns cities into higher platforms for success-seekers.* Platforms are why so many aspiring actors migrate to Los Angeles and why budding fashion bloggers move to New York. Platforms are why Harvard Law graduates have easier times finding jobs than those from other schools. Though it’s much more difficult to get into Harvard than other law schools, you will get more leverage with a degree from Harvard.

This means that in Finland, students’ learning in school is less affected by their family backgrounds than in most other countries.” 95 coined the term “lateral thinking” in 1967: Edward de Bono expounds on this and other terminology on his official website: “Lateral Thinking,” http://edwdebono.com/lateral.htm (accessed February 16, 2014). 98 Is it any wonder: Big cities are epicenters for invention, according to patent filings as collected and reported by Jonathan Rothwell, José Lobo, Deborah Strumsky, and Mark Muro, “Patenting Prosperity: Invention and Economic Performance in the United States and Its Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2013/02/patenting prosperity rothwell/patenting prosperity rothwell.pdf (accessed February 15, 2014). The authors write that “Sixty-three percent of U.S. patents are developed by people living in just 20 metro areas, which are home to 34 percent of the U.S. population.” Richard Florida writes about the benefits of city living for creative people in The Rise of the Creative Class—Revisited: 10th Anniversary Edition—Revised and Expanded, 2nd edition (Basic Books, 2012) and argues that creative people may actually boost the economics of cities, though many have debated whether this is causation or correlation. Jonah Lehrer writes about “urban friction” as a key reason for creativity and invention in big cities in Imagine: How Creativity Works (Houghton Mifflin, 2012).


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Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The number of nineteen-year-olds who have opted out of earning driver’s licenses has almost tripled since the late seventies, from 8 percent to 23 percent.1 This statistic is particularly meaningful when one considers how the American landscape has changed since the seventies, when most American teens could walk to school, to the store, and to the soccer field, in stark contrast to the realities of today’s autocentric sprawl. This trend began well before the recession of 2008 and subsequent fuel spikes, and is seen as cultural, not economic. Market researchers J. D. Power—hardly part of the anticar lobby—report that “online discussions by teens indicate shifts in perceptions regarding the necessity of and desire to have cars.”2 In “The Great Car Reset,” Richard Florida observes: “Younger people today … no longer see the car as a necessary expense or a source of personal freedom. In fact, it is increasingly just the opposite: not owning a car and not owning a house are seen by more and more as a path to greater flexibility, choice, and personal autonomy.”3 These driving trends are only a small part of a larger picture that has less to do with cars and more to do with cities, and specifically with how young professionals today view themselves in relation to the city, especially in comparison to previous generations.

Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 164. 2. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 10.7. I: WHY WALKABILITY? 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 217. WALKING, THE URBAN ADVANTAGE 1. Jack Neff, “Is Digital Revolution Driving Decline in U.S. Car Culture?” 2. J. D. Power press release, October 8, 2009. 3. Richard Florida, “The Great Car Reset.” 4. The Segmentation Company, “Attracting College-Educated, Young Adults to Cities,” 7. 5. Patrick C. Doherty and Christopher B. Leinberger, “The Next Real Estate Boom.” 6. Ibid. 7. Christopher B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism, 89. 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid., 90. 10. David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries, 283. 11. Carol Morello, Dan Keating, and Steve Hendrix, “Census: Young Adults Are Responsible for Most of D.C.’s Growth in Past Decade.” 12.


pages: 348 words: 83,490

More Than You Know: Finding Financial Wisdom in Unconventional Places (Updated and Expanded) by Michael J. Mauboussin

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Brownian motion, butter production in bangladesh, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, complexity theory, corporate governance, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, demographic transition, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, framing effect, functional fixedness, hindsight bias, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Arrow, Laplace demon, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, Murray Gell-Mann, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, statistical model, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, traveling salesman, value at risk, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Not all of these processes are mutually exclusive. 8 Per Bak, How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996), 1-3. 9 Robert Axtell, “The Emergence of Firms in a Population of Agents: Local Increasing Returns, Unstable Nash Equilibria, and Power Law Size Distributions,” Brookings Institution, Center on Social and Economics Working Paper 3, June 1999. Also see Robert L. Axtell and Richard Florida, “Emergent Cities: A Microeconomic Explanation of Zipf’s Law,” Brookings Institution and Carnegie Mellon University Working Paper, September 2000. 10 Michael Batty, “Rank Clocks,” Nature, vol. 444, November 30, 2006, 592-596. 11 Albert-László Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks (Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus, 2002), 69-72; Bernardo A. Huberman, The Laws of the Web: Patterns in the Ecology of Information (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001), 25-31; Lada A.

——. “Zipf Distribution of U.S. Firm Sizes.” Science 293 (September 2001): 1818-20. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol293/issue5536/index.shtml. ——. “Zipf’s Law of City Sizes: A Microeconomic Explanation Far from Equilibrium.” Presentation at a RAND workshop, Complex Systems and Policy Analysis: New Tools for a New Millennium, September 27-28, 2000, Arlington, Va. Axtell, Robert L., and Richard Florida. “Emergent Cities: A Microeconomic Explanation of Zipf’s Law.” Brookings Institution and Carnegie Mellon University Working Paper, September 2000. Baer, Gregory, and Gary Gensler. The Great Mutual Fund Trap. New York: Broadway Books, 2002. Bak, Per. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996. Barabási, Albert-László. Linked: The New Science of Networks.


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The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Schwab, The Fourth Industrial Revolution. 46. Wei Pan, Gourab Ghoshal, Coco Krumme, Manuel Cebrian, and Alex Pentland, “Urban Characteristics Attributable to Density-Driven Tie Formation” Nature Communications, June 4, 2013, https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms2961 (accessed June 26, 2019); Brian Knudsen, Richard Florida, Gary Gates, and Kevin Stolarick, “Urban Density, Creativity, and Innovation,” Creative Class, May 2007, http://creativeclass.com/rfcgdb/articles/Urban_Density_Creativity_and_Innovation.pdf (accessed June 26, 2019); Richard Florida, “The Density of Innovation,” The Atlantic, September 21, 2010, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2010/09/the-density-of-innovation/62576/ (accessed June 26, 2019); and Gerald Carlino, Satyajit Chatterjee, and Robert Hunt, “Urban Density and the Rate of Invention,” Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, August 2006 draft, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

It is ironic that the year 2007 – what most people consider as the beginning of the financial crash, though others postpone the beginning to 2008 – is also the year of release of the first iPhone, the product which popularised the smartphone, the killer device of the social media era. And indeed, exactly at the same time as our economic system was suffering such a profound economic shock, we have witnessed a wave of technological innovation, which seems to have few comparisons in its scope and rapidity. Although these trends may appear to be at each other loggerheads, they are not. In fact, economic crises have also often been moments of rapid technological innovation. Richard Florida, for example, highlights that during the Long Depression that started in 1873 there was a peak in patents, and the same may be said about the stagflation of the 1970s that led to the development of industrial robots.98 Furthermore, we know from Joseph Schumpeter that capitalism is characterised by a tendency towards creative destruction,99 in which incumbents in various industries are constantly threatened by the rise of new products and services, and we most clearly see this phenomenon in the so-called ‘disruption’100 posed by new companies, such as Airbnb, Amazon, Uber and Deliveroo, to existing companies.

Moreno, ‘Banks’ new competitors: Starbucks, Google, and Alibaba’, Harvard Business Review 2 (2014): 1–3. 96. Swedish Pirate Party Declaration of Principles, 4.0 version, May 2012, retrieved from https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Pirate_Party_Declaration_of_Principles/4.0. 97. Evgeny Morozov, To save everything, click here: the folly of technological solutionism (New York: PublicAffairs, 2013). 98. Richard Florida, The great reset: how new ways of living and working drive post-crash prosperity (Toronto: Random House Canada, 2010). 99. Schumpeter, Capitalism, socialism and democracy, pp.81–83. 100. Clayton M. Christensen, ‘The ongoing process of building a theory of disruption’, Journal of Product Innovation Management 23, no.1 (2006): 39–55. 101. The best starting point on the capitalist transformation of the internet is Robert W.


pages: 322 words: 84,580

The Economics of Belonging: A Radical Plan to Win Back the Left Behind and Achieve Prosperity for All by Martin Sandbu

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, collective bargaining, debt deflation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mini-job, mortgage debt, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, pink-collar, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, social intelligence, TaskRabbit, total factor productivity, universal basic income, very high income, winner-take-all economy, working poor

Chapter 11. Whose GDP? 1. Anand Menon, “Uniting the United Kingdom,” Foreign Affairs, 6 July 2016, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-kingdom/2016-07-06/uniting-united-kingdom. 2. Elisa Giannone, “Skilled-Biased Technical Change and Regional Convergence” (2017 Meeting Papers 190, Society for Economic Dynamics, January 2017), https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2017/paper_190.pdf; Richard Florida, “Welcome to the ‘Great Divergence,’ ” CityLab, 14 February 2017, https://www.citylab.com/life/2017/02/welcome-to-the-great-divergence/513548/; Peter Ganong and Daniel Shoag, “Why Has Regional Income Convergence in the U.S. Declined?,” Journal of Urban Economics 102 (November 2017): 76–90, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2017.07.002; Timothy Taylor, “Why Has US Regional Convergence Declined?,” Conversable Economist (blog), 26 January 2018, https://conversableeconomist.blogspot.com/2018/01/why-has-us-regional-convergence-declined.html; Martin Sandbu, “The Economic Problem Tearing Countries Apart,” Financial Times, 30 November 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/ab2f8a30-f47c-11e8-ae55-df4bf40f9d0d. 3.

An intriguing proposal to prevent this, outlined in Hendrickson, Muro, and Galston, Countering the Geography of Discontent, is to impose a 100 per cent federal tax on any incentives offered to specific companies by local authorities. In Europe, one can see the European Union’s state aid rules as serving a similar function: preventing local or national governments, especially poorer ones, from bidding away development resources in the quest for investment. 16. Richard Florida, “The Hypocrisy of Amazon’s HQ2 Process,” CityLab, 10 May 2018, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2018/05/the-hypocrisy-of-amazons-hq2-process/560072/; Edward Luce, “Beauty Contest to Host New Amazon Base Reveals Ugly Truths,” Financial Times, 6 June 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/f9f2b3bc-5eaa-11e8-9334-2218e7146b04. In the end, Amazon decided to split its new site between New York and the Washington suburbs, raising suspicions that it had planned this all along and was just trying to extract the maximum amount of local government support; see David Streitfeld, “Was Amazon’s Headquarters Contest a Bait-and-Switch?


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The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The British ghettos are up: U.K. white population from the Office for National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273. Fact about people in high-rises is from an op-ed by the British geographer Daniel Dorling, published in the Observer, September 25, 2005. The original unedited version is at sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/publications/2005/ Ghettos_observer_25_9_05.pdf. Many of the eager consumers: For an exploration of the gays-as-pioneers thesis, see Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander, “There Goes the Neighborhood,” working paper, March 2007, creativeclass.typepad.com/thecreativityexchange/files/Florida_Mellander_Housing_Values_1.pdf. Hammond’s computer creates: Ross Hammond, “Endogenous Transition Dynamics in Corruption: An Agent-Based Computer Model,” CSED Working Paper 19, December 2000, www.brookings.edu/es/dynamics/ papers/ross/ross.htm. Anyone who doubts this: For Booth’s map, see, for instance, Peter Whitfield, London: A Life in Maps (London: British Library, 2006).

Lessons from Immigrant Segregation in the United States,” working paper, June 2006, trinity.aas.duke.edu/~jvigdor/cgv2006a.pdf. The sociologist Mark Granovetter: Mark Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6(May 1973): 1360–80, www.stanford.edu/dept/soc/people/faculty/granovetter/documents/TheStrengthof WeakTies.pdf. 7. THE WORLD IS SPIKY The World is Spiky: I stole this delightful title from Richard Florida’s article with Tim Gulden in The Atlantic, October 2005. “Our dollar looks the same”: Daniel Gross, “The Value of a New York Dollar,” New York, November 6, 2006. The bottom line: Gross, “The Value of a New York Dollar.” Ed Glaeser, the Harvard-based economist: Edward Glaeser, “Are Cities Dying?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, no. 2(spring 1998): 139–60. “Who needs a network?”


pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Here University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives. Here Southeastern Michigan Council of Governments and Courtney Flynn, Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Here Lawrence Mishel, “The Wedges Between Productivity and Median Compensation Growth,” Economic Policy Institute, Issue Brief no. 330 (April 26, 2012). Here Blockchain Luxembourg SA, api.blockchain.info/charts/preview /market-price.png?timespan=all&lang=en. Here Richard Florida and Karen M. King, “Spiky Venture Capital: The Geography of Venture Capital Investment by Metro and Zip Code,” Martin Prosperity Institute (February 22, 2016). Here Rural Electrification Administration, A Guide for Members of REA Cooperatives (US Department of Agriculture, 1939), 20–21. Here Concept from Peter Turchin, “The Strange Disappearance of Cooperation in America,” Cliodynamica (blog) (June 21, 2013), peterturchin.com/cliodynamica/strange-disappearance.

On housing, see Laura Gottesdiener, “The Empire Strikes Back,” TomDispatch (November 26, 2013); on employment, see Guy Standing, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury Academic, 2011); on citizenship, see Atossa Araxia Abrahamian, The Cosmopolites: The Coming of the Global Citizen (Columbia Global Reports, 2015); on clouds, see John Durham Peters, The Marvelous Clouds: Toward a Philosophy of Elemental Media (University of Chicago Press, 2015). 8. Richard Florida, Who’s Your City? How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life (Basic Books, 2008), argued for a tripartite distinction among the “mobile,” the “stuck,” and the “rooted”; for a more recent policy analysis, see David Schleicher, “Stuck! The Law and Economics of Residential Stability,” Yale Law Journal 127 (2017). 9. Jeff Abbott, “Indigenous Weavers Organize for Collective Intellectual Property Rights,” Waging Nonviolence (July 17, 2017). 10.


pages: 346 words: 89,180

Capitalism Without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy by Jonathan Haskel, Stian Westlake

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, future of work, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mother of all demos, Network effects, new economy, open economy, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, place-making, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, quantitative hedge fund, rent-seeking, revision control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Vanguard fund, walkable city, X Prize, zero-sum game

Cluster policy can also be politically convenient: governments that for ideological reasons are anxious about seeming too interventionist can point out that they are only helping out clusters that are already there, not trying to create clusters from scratch; governments unable or unwilling to spend much money will find that when it comes to cluster policy, moral suasion and cost-effective networking events go a long way. It is no surprise that the writings of commentators like Michael Porter and Richard Florida, both of whom have stressed the importance of aspects of clusters in economic growth, have been very popular with policymakers over the last thirty years. The flipside of cheap, light-touch cluster policies is that it is difficult to show whether they have been effective. There are relatively rigorous ways of evaluating the economic effect of grants, tax breaks, or infrastructure investments.

Synergies are more likely to be realized if people meet each other and interact than if urban life is atomized and siloed. Getting this right involves striking a balance; it takes a combination of Jane Jacobs–style liberalism, tolerating messy and diverse areas rather than building multilane highways through them, and of some benign planning, providing enough infrastructure for people to get around and places for them to meet. The kinds of cities that attract what Richard Florida called the “creative class,” or the “innovation districts” that Bruce Katz observed emerging across the United States, involve a mixture of judicious planning and organic growth. There are inevitably tensions in this kind of policy. In intangible-intensive cities like New York and London, liberalizing planning rules to allow more housing to be built is criticized for causing the destruction of important public spaces and cultural venues where people congregate.


pages: 332 words: 91,780

Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity by Currid

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Donald Trump, income inequality, index card, industrial cluster, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, place-making, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, slashdot, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

Along with her help as a researcher, she toiled away on last-minute work for the book, from reformatting notes (a task I wouldn’t give my worst enemy) to looking up references. Vivian is a doctoral student at USC, and her attention to detail, intelligence, and ability to work under pressure are impressive and bode well for her own future career as a scholar. My scholarly colleagues and mentors Harvey Molotch, Susan Fainstein, Richard Florida, Lance Freeman, David Galenson, Tyler Cowen, Michael Storper, Allen Scott, and Dalton Conley were thoughtful and generous in the time they gave me to talk about my ideas for this book. I am fortunate to have Leo Braudy as my colleague at USC. His The Frenzy of Renown is the original treatise on the topic of fame, and his insights into my own work have been essential. Lisa Hacken was a terrific outside reader of my manuscript.

Additionally, because so many entertainers are “freelance” and essentially work on contract rather than on retainer, their employment numbers are not often picked up in firm employee numbers. 4. As not all workers within the broadly defined support and prepping industries (e.g., fitness trainers, nutritionists, hairstylists, and so-forth) are working strictly for celebrities, I took a percentage of the overall prep and support industries. I computed this number by incorporating Richard Florida’s methodology for approximating the “creative class,” or those members of the workforce who “generate meaningful new forms.” Florida makes the point that members of the creative class depend on multiple service workers to support them. I extend this argument to include the identified “support” industries and occupations more generally that work within the celebrity economy. I computed the percentage of the creative class comprised of celebrity-driven occupations.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Believing that distinct social environments shaped disparate social outcomes, they worried that the depravity of urban life might breed generations of social misfits.11 They feared that absent the warmth and comity of small-town America, the children of urban factory workers would mature without the decency required to sustain a modern, civilized society. The American Dream might eventually be extinguished amid the crime-ridden and poverty-stricken streets of America’s overcrowded cities. By the end of the 1900s, with cities awash in the affluent crowd Richard Florida termed the “creative class” seeming safer and more prosperous, a look back might have concluded that the Chicago School’s concerns were absurd.12 But a snapshot of life back then reveals the roots of their worry. America’s big turn-of-the-century metropolises were nasty places. The nation’s new mills and factories polluted the surrounding areas. Crime was rampant—at least by the imagined standards of idyllic small-town life.13 The political issues of the day were largely understood through that prism: the push for prohibition, for example, was at heart an effort by the nation’s more staid rural population to impose a sense of decorum on raucous and unhinged masses.14 As New York University historian Thomas Bender noted in an important book published decades later, a subtler change was also at work: the growing separation between home and neighborhood.

That’s not the model at work in the Bay Area, where engineers and programmers have congregated because of their similar interests. It’s not that one model is better than the other—but they’re different, and the shift marks a new model of growth, both for good and for bad. It’s worth noting that there’s movement afoot to return to the model of innovation through diversity, as evidenced by the pull of what Richard Florida has termed the “creative class.”33 The big suburban campuses that defined the exodus of businesses from urban areas—the sprawling, isolated facilities that were in vogue during the 1970s and 1980s in particular—are being abandoned by firms eager to capture the vitality of urban America. The so-called Platinum Mile in Westchester County, a stretch of highway north of Manhattan that was once dotted with big corporate office parks, has seen its vacancy rate rise to nearly 20 percent as firms have migrated back into New York City.34 And UBS, the financial giant that moved its offices out of Manhattan for Stamford, Connecticut, in 1996 has since considered a move back.35 It seems clear that two central tensions define the way American community life bears on economic innovation.


The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.

affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

But with the continued flight of industrial employment to the poorly regulated, low wage developing countries of Latin America and Asia, such a rebound is exceedingly unlikely, at least in the short run. Even with incentives and, even somehow, if Detroit could expand its highly educated, highly skilled workforce, there are simply too many forces pulling capital away from the city in search of low costs.26 If Detroit is unlikely to rise again as the Motor City, some planners envision its reinvention as a haven for artists, cultural producers, and hipsters. Urbanist Richard Florida, who made his reputation by arguing that the key to urban revitalization is a city’s ability to attract and retain a “creative class,” has been particularly influential in Detroit. The city’s boosters point to the revival of the once-bleak Midtown neighborhood, the rise of a thriving arts and cultural scene in the city, the gentrification of Corktown and a few blocks of Michigan Avenue near the abandoned Michigan Central Station, and the conversion of long-abandoned downtown skyscrapers into lofts.

., Handbook of Regenerative Urban Design (Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2008), 189-204; Grace Lee Boggs with Scott Kurashige, The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the Twenty-First Century (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012), esp. 105-134. For a useful overview of urban farming in the city, see John Gallagher, Reimagining Detroit: Opportunities for Redefining an American City (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010), ch. 3. 26. Bill Vlasic, “Last Auto Plant Brings Detroit Hope and Cash,”New York Times, July 15, 2013. 27. Richard Florida,The Rise of Creative Class Revisited(New York: Basic Books, 2012). For a compelling description of hipsters and the appeal of Detroit, see Binelli, Detroit City is the Place to Be. 28. Andrew Moore, Detroit Disassembled (Akron: Damiani/Akron Art Museum, 2010); Yves Marchand and Romain Meffre, The Ruins of Detroit (Göttingen: Steidl Verlag, 2011); for a critique, see Jerry Herron, “The Forgetting Machine: Notes Toward a History of Detroit,” Places: The Design Observer Group, January 9, 2012, http://places​.design​observer​.com​/feature​/the​-forgetting​-machine​-a​-history​-of​-detroit​/31848/. 29.

., The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 137–57; June Manning Thomas, Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). 17. Eugenie Ladner Birch, “Having a Longer View on Downtown Living,” Journal of the American Planning Association 68 (1): 5–21 offers an excellent survey of population trends and growth patterns in new downtowns. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002) has been an influential guide for urban planners and policymakers. 18. On the importance of “meds and eds,” see especially Daniel Gitterman, Joanne Spetz, and Matthew Fellowes, “The Other Side of the Ledger: Federal Health Spending in Metropolitan Economies” (discussion paper, Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, September 2004, http://www.brook.edu/metro/pubs/20040917_gitterman.htm).


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Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity by Lawrence Lessig

Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, creative destruction, future of journalism, George Akerlof, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, Joi Ito, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Louis Daguerre, new economy, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, software patent, transaction costs

Thus, as we'll see more clearly in the chapters below, the law's role is less and less to support creativity, and more and more to protect certain industries against competition. Just at the time digital technology could unleash an extraordinary range of commercial and noncommercial creativity, the law burdens this creativity with insanely complex and vague rules and with the threat of obscenely severe penalties. We may be seeing, as Richard Florida writes, the "Rise of the Creative Class."[18] Unfortunately, we are also seeing an extraordinary rise of regulation of this creative class. These burdens make no sense in our tradition. We should begin by understanding that tradition a bit more and by placing in their proper context the current battles about behavior labeled "piracy." Chapter 1 Creators In 1928, a cartoon character was born.

[16] See Rochelle Dreyfuss, "Expressive Genericity: Trademarks as Language in the Pepsi Generation," Notre Dame Law Review 65 (1990): 397. [17] Lisa Bannon, "The Birds May Sing, but Campers Can't Unless They Pay Up," Wall Street Journal, 21 August 1996, available at link #3; Jonathan Zittrain, "Calling Off the Copyright War: In Battle of Property vs. Free Speech, No One Wins," Boston Globe, 24 November 2002. [18] In The Rise of the Creative Class (New York: Basic Books, 2002), Richard Florida documents a shift in the nature of labor toward a labor of creativity. His work, however, doesn't directly address the legal conditions under which that creativity is enabled or stifled. I certainly agree with him about the importance and significance of this change, but I also believe the conditions under which it will be enabled are much more tenuous. [19] Leonard Maltin, Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons (New York: Penguin Books, 1987), 34¬35


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The Theft of a Decade: How the Baby Boomers Stole the Millennials' Economic Future by Joseph C. Sternberg

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, centre right, corporate raider, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, job satisfaction, job-hopping, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

No one, it turns out, is safe from the polarization of the labor market. Surrender, Dorothy And what’s remarkable is that we Millennials have been told for years that we shouldn’t think this is all that remarkable. Instead, we’ve been told since we were in college to expect that fewer and fewer of us will genuinely be able to succeed. Boomers and Gen Xers usually try to put a more positive spin on it, of course, but that’s really the message. Richard Florida’s 2002 book The Rise of the Creative Class was published just as the oldest Millennials were entering the work force or picking their college majors. Its first sentence said it all: “This book describes the emergence of a new social class.” The creative class of the title, which Florida estimated comprised more than 30 percent of America’s workforce at that time, derived its identity from its members’ “roles as purveyors of creativity.”31 This highly skilled, highly creative class’s attitudes to work, leisure, society, and so much more would reshape America’s economy and its culture.

Journal of Labor Economics 34, no. 1 pt. 2 (2016). 29. Lisa B. Kahn, “The Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating From College in a Bad Economy,” Labour Economics 17, no. 2 (April 2010). 30. Philip Oreopoulos, Till von Wachter, and Andrew Heisz, “The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4, no. 1 (2012). 31. Richard Florida, “Preface to the Original Edition,” in The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited (New York: Basic Books, 2012). 32. Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: Norton, 2014). 33. Tyler Cowen, Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Plume, 2013). 34. Paul Beaudry, David A.


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The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

As Hames implies this is not a positive state of affairs for Britain or even for most people in the capital itself: ‘It makes London an incredibly expensive city in which to live and work, with the property market utterly distorted by its status as an international enclave … Moreover, it can make the rest of the country feel inconsequential. This despite the fact that cities like Aberdeen, Bristol, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester, Newcastle and Oxford are world leaders in certain fields.’44 London has a high proportion of what Richard Florida calls the Creative Class—highly educated, mobile people for whom rootedness is not a high priority.45 And it has a relatively small proportion of the middle income/middle status people who form the core of any country. Some of those people, especially those on modest incomes from the white British majority, have in recent years felt themselves squeezed out both financially and culturally between affluent professionals and the growing ethnic minority presence.

.), 2014. 36.Ipsos MORI Generations, ‘Integration in Schools’, www.ipsos-mori-generations.com/integration 37.YouGov, ‘The Challenge Survey results’, October 2016, https://d25d2506sfb94s.cloudfront.net/cumulus_uploads/document/qkp8raq0wu/TheChallenge_Results_161004_Integration_W.pdf 38.Trevor Phillips, ‘Race and Faith: The Deafening Silence’, Civitas, June 2016. 39.Jonathan Haidt, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion, London: Penguin, 2012. 40.Michael Lind, ‘The Open-Borders “Liberaltarianism” of the New Urban Elite’, National Review, 15 September 2016, http://www.nationalreview.com/article/440055/open-borders-ideology-americas-urban-elite-threat-nationalism 41.www.ukpopulation2016.com 42.Peter Mandler, ‘Britain’s EU Problem is a London Problem’, Dissent, 24 June 2016. 43.Jon Kelly, ‘London-centric’, www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-248d9ac7–9784–4769–936a-8d3b435857a8 44.Tim Hames, ‘Britain’s capital punishment’, Progress, 7 November 2013. 45.Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Life, Community and Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books, 2002. 46.Simon Parker, ‘Interview: Ken Livingstone’, Prospect, 29 April 2007. 47.Eric Kaufmann and Gareth Harris, ‘Changing Places: Mapping the white British response to ethnic change…’, Demos, 2014. 48.Sarah Bell and James Paskins (eds), Imagining the Future City: London 2062, London: Ubiquity Press, 2013. 49.Ian Gordon, ‘Displacement and Densification: Tracing Spatial Impacts of Migration Inflows to London’, LSE London/RUPS MSc seminar series, 17 February 2014. 50.Migration Watch UK, ‘MW286—Who is getting local authority housing in London?


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

In a similar survey conducted by the group twenty years ago in 1987, less than 40 percent of the respondents made this claim. Apparently even money isn’t doing it for us as much as it used to, either. In 1989, 58 percent of the U.K. population claimed they were happy, but this figure had fallen to 45 percent by 2003, despite a 60 percent increase in average incomes. Punk Capitalism | 27 In his book The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida argues that across the West, we are being driven by creativity above all else. “We strive to work more independently and find it much harder to cope with incompetent managers and bullying bosses. . . . Whereas the lifestyle of the previous organizational age emphasized conformity, the new lifestyle favors individuality, self-statement, acceptance of difference and the desire for rich multidimensional experiences.”

Page 26 Lynn A. Karoly and Constantijn W. A. Panis, The 21st Century at Work (Monograph, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, 2004). Page 27 Tamara Schweitzer, “U.S. Workers Hate Their Jobs More Than Ever,” Inc.com, March 6, 2007. www.inc.com/criticalnews/articles/200703/work_Printer_Friendly .html. 248 | Notes For a great overview of why we are being driven by creativity above all else, see Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class (New York: Basic Books, 2002). Page 27 Lulu.com, The Life Expectancy of Bestsellers Plummets, Finds Study, May 19, 2006. www.lulu.com/static/pr/05_19_06.php. Page 28 Adrian Bowyer, interview by author, June 10, 2006 (all quotes from Bowyer used in this chapter are from this interview). Peter Wayner, “How It Works,” New York Times, May 29, 2003. Page 29 “On the Job,” Cadalyst.com, February 10, 2006. http://manufacturing.cadalyst .com/manufacturing/article/articleDetail.jsp?


pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

PG, “Snapshot: Viaweb.” 12. Livingston, Founders at Work, 217. 13. PG, “How Y Combinator Started.” 14. PG, “Why Smart People Have Bad Ideas,” April 2005, www.paulgraham.com/bronze.html. 15. Perhaps I, a Silicon Valley resident, am inclined to view the South as more isolated from tech centers as a matter of reflex. Richard Florida argues that the South does not receive due credit for attracting venture capital and shows other evidence that it too has become a hospitable host of “Startup Nation.” Richard Florida, “The Spread of Start-Up America and the Rise of the High-Tech South,” The Atlantic, October 2011, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/10/the-spread-of-start-up-america-and-the-rise-of-the-high-tech-south/246916/. 16. Chris Dixon, “Selling Pickaxes During a Gold Rush,” Chris Dixon blog, February 5, 2011, http://cdixon.org/2011/02/05/selling-pickaxes-during-a-gold-rush/. 17.


pages: 98 words: 30,109

Remote: Office Not Required by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson

Broken windows theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Google Hangouts, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, remote working, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Skype

This is a manifesto for discarding stifling location- and time-based organizational habits in favor of best work practices for our brave new virtual and global world. If your organization entrusts you with the responsibility to get things done, this is a must-read.” —David Allen, internationally bestselling author of Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity “Remote is the way I work and live. Now I know why. If you work in an office, you need to read this remarkable book, and change your life.” —Richard Florida, author of the national bestseller The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life “In the near future, everyone will work remotely, including those sitting across from you. You’ll need this farsighted book to prepare for this inversion.” —Kevin Kelly, senior maverick for Wired magazine and author of What Technology Wants “Leave your office at the office.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

Communities in Ohio, Kentucky, and Michigan were suddenly mired in their own foreclosure crises, compounded by another deep slide in the auto industry as General Motors and Chrysler wobbled on the precipice of bankruptcy. There was broad agreement that the postrecession economy needed to be very different from the real estate– and consumption-driven economy that had run aground. The United States needed, as Richard Florida calls his book about life after the crash, a “great reset.” There was also general consensus on the key elements of that reset or new strategy: innovation in science and technology, exports, and sustainability and new energy. For example, Jeffrey Immelt, the chairman 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 19 5/20/13 6:48 PM 20 NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY and CEO of General Electric, told an audience in Detroit in June 2009 that the United States should have three priorities: “become a country that is good at manufacturing and exports,” “win where it counts in clean energy,” and “invest in new technology.”6 Lawrence Summers, the director of the National Economic Council, said one month later, “The rebuilt American Economy must be more export-oriented and less consumption-oriented, more environmentally-oriented and less fossilenergy-oriented, more bio- and software-engineering-oriented and less financial-engineering-oriented.”7 In its meetings with business, civic, and academic leaders, the NYCEDC gleaned more than 100 ideas about how to move the city’s economy forward, covering everything from generating electricity from subway turnstiles to immigration reform to better waterfront access.

Alan Berube and others, “State of Metropolitan America: On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation” (Brookings, 2010), p. 93. 23. According to Chris Nelson, “Between 2010 and 2030, households with children will account for about 13 percent of the total change in households; households without children will represent the rest.” Arthur C. Nelson, Reshaping Metropolitan America, p. 27. 24. Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 25. Joseph Cortright, “Young and Restless 2011” (Washington: CEOs for Cities, 2011). 26. Robert Puentes, “Have Americans Hit Peak Travel? A Discussion of the Changes in U.S. Driving Habits,” Discussion Paper 14 (Washington: International Transport Forum, 2012). 27. Nelson, Reshaping Metropolitan America, p. 3. 28.


pages: 133 words: 36,528

Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, low cost airline, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional

Going to a university located in the centre of a city; enjoying a life which does not depend on the car; staying around for the first job or perhaps moving to another city centre; postponing learning to drive because the need is not pressing, insurance expensive and parking space hard to find; being frugal with money on account of student loan repayments; using a bike or walking for exercise and convenience, and public transport for the bigger distances; finding cheap rail fares through student discounts and online advance booking, bus arrival times via apps and delays from twitter feeds; wanting not to worry about drink‑driving on a Friday night; taking pride in software skills, rather than car mechanics; perhaps even preferring video games such as Grand Theft Auto (‘drive somewhere, shoot something, drive back’) to real‑life driving—all of these factors seem increasingly common in many developed countries and contribute to the decline in driving amongst younger people. There is growing recognition of the economic and cultural importance of cities, even in a world in which digital technologies allow us to be dispersed geographically yet interact continuously. It is in cities that we attain critical mass. Persuasive arguments, both economic and cultural, in favour of cities are articulated by two prominent US academics. Richard Florida maintains that metropolitan regions with high concentrations of technology workers, artists and musicians exhibit a higher level of economic development. This well‑educated ‘creative class’ fosters an environment that attracts more creative people and the businesses where they work. Edward Glaeser emphasises ‘agglomeration economics’, which refers to increases in productivity associated with urban proximity: larger pools of skilled staff to draw upon, suppliers and customers close to hand, and spillovers of technical know‑how so that ideas diffuse rapidly—both through organised discussion amongst those with similar expertise and in gossip.


pages: 425 words: 117,334

City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast

big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

North American Properties sold Avalon later in 2016. Toro and his wife, empty nesters, moved from suburban Cobb County to Midtown Atlanta, the area around the thriving Peachtree Street corridor between downtown and Buckhead. North American Properties bought, improved, and sold Atlanta’s Atlantic Station, then in 2016 purchased Colony Square at 14th Street and Peachtree, planning to refurbish that venerable mixed-use development. Citing Richard Florida’s The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (2011), Toro agreed that in the coming decades, cities will reurbanize dramatically. Home ownership rates will decline as more people seek flexible, convenient living in condos, townhouses, and apartments. “This sea-change is underway,” he said. “Out my window I can count ten cranes building high-rise residential housing here in Midtown.”

., Making Healthy Places: Designing and Building for Health, Well-Being, and Sustainability (2011); Michael Dobbins, Urban Design and People (2009); Andres Duany et al., Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (2000); Ellen Dunham-Jones and June Williamson, Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs (2009); Alan Ehrenhalt, The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (2012); Richard Florida’s three books: The Great Reset: How the Post-crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work (2011), The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited (2012), and Who’s Your City? How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life (2008); Leigh Gallagher, The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving (2013); Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier (2011); Ryan Gravel, Where We Want to Live: Reclaiming Infrastructure for a New Generation of Cities (2016); Richard J.


pages: 435 words: 120,574

Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, Deep Water Horizon, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, full employment, greed is good, guest worker program, invisible hand, knowledge economy, McMansion, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, payday loans, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, working poor, Yogi Berra

Paradoxically, politicians on the right appeal to this sense of victimhood, even when policies such as those of former governor Jindal exacerbate the problem. In the meantime, left and right need one another, just as the blue coastal and inland cities need red state energy and rich community. The rural Midwest and South need the cosmopolitan outreach to a diverse wider world. As sociologist Richard Florida notes, “Blue state knowledge economies run on red state energy. Red state energy economies, in their turn, depend on dense coastal cities and metro areas, not just as markets and sources of migrants, but for the technology and talent they supply.” In my travels, I was humbled by the complexity and height of the empathy wall. But with their teasing, good-hearted acceptance of a stranger from Berkeley, the people I met in Louisiana showed me that, in human terms, the wall can easily come down.

Riechen, and Stanley Schachter in When Prophecy Fails (London: Pinter and Martin, 2008 [1956]). 16: “They Say There Are Beautiful Trees” 231their names on waiting lists with thousands of others Chico Harlan, “Battered by Drop in Oil Prices and Jindal’s Fiscal Policies, Louisiana Falls into Budget Crisis,” Washington Post, March 4, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/03/04/the-debilitating-economic-disaster-louisianas-governor-left-behind. Also see Campbell Robertson, “In Louisiana, the Poor Lack Legal Defense,” New York Times, March 20, 2016. 233“but for the technology and talent they supply” Richard Florida, “Is Life Better in America’s Red States?” New York Times Sunday Review, January 3, 2015. 233Young conservatives are far more likely than their elders to care about the environment Amanda Little, “Will Conservatives Finally Embrace Clean Energy?” New Yorker, October 29, 2015. 2331969 Union Oil spill in the waters outside Santa Barbara, California Dan Fagin, Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation (New York: Bantam Books, 2013). 233since 2009 rates of air, water, and land pollution have been rising again across the nation Despite earlier progress, pollution trends in the nation as a whole have recently begun to rise.


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

At GMFramingham it took nearly thirty-one hours in 8.15 square feet with 1.3 defects."24 Toyota was able to build a car quicker, in less space, with fewer defects, and with half the labor. In recent years, Japanese manufacturers have combined the new lean-management techniques with increasingly sophisticated computer and other information technologies to create the "factory of the future" -automated production facilities with few workers, which more nearly resemble a laboratory than a factory. Social scientists Martin Kenney and Richard Florida talk of the new lean factories that are more cerebral than physical in appearance: "Under past forms of industrial production, including mass-production Fordism, much of work was physical.... The emergence of digitization increases the importance of abstract intelligence in production and thus requires that workers actively undertake what were previously thought of as intellectual activities.

America enjoyed pre-eminence in steel production by dint of its superior technologies and organizational methods and its access to cheap raw materials and continent-wide markets. Today, that competitive edge has been seriously eroded, in large part because of the failure of U.S. companies to keep up with the new technologies of the information revolution that have remade the steel industry. Authors Martin Kenney and Richard Florida contrast two very different steel factories located within an hour of each other in America's rust belt. The first is a sprawling complex of old rusted buildings and sheds housing hundreds of workers toiling in near-Dickensian Hanging Up the Blue Collar 133 conditions. Caked with grease and grime, they tend aged steel furnaces, transforming molten metal into steel slabs. The muddied floors are cluttered with rusted-out parts, abandoned tools, and chemical containers.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Enterprises like Sitters Studio posit creativity as commodification: a taught skill that bolsters business prowess for tiny corporate heirs. Creativity—as an expression of originality, experimentation, innovation—is not a viable product. It has been priced out into irrelevance—both by the professionalization of the industries that claim it, and the soaring cost of entry to those professions. The “creative class” is a frozen archetype—one that does not boost the economy of global cities, as urban studies theorist Richard Florida argues, but is a product of their takeover by elites. The creative class plays by the rules of the rich, because those are the only rules left. Adaptation is a form of survival. But adaptation is a form of abandonment as well. Bias Against Creativity In an article for Slate, Jessica Olien debunks the myth that originality and inventiveness are valued in U.S. society: “This is the thing about creativity that is rarely acknowledged: Most people don’t actually like it.”


pages: 182 words: 55,234

Rendezvous With Oblivion: Reports From a Sinking Society by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, edge city, Frank Gehry, high net worth, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

The members of our leadership class look out over the trashed and looted landscape of the American city, and they solemnly declare that salvation lies in an almost meaningless buzzword—that if we chant that buzzword loud enough and often enough, our troubles are over. Back in the day, my friends and I at the Baffler loved to mock, analyze, and deride money’s cultivation of the cool. Just think of all the permutations of urban hipness that have flickered by since we first undertook that mission: Rollerblading near water. “Potemkin bohemias” like Chicago’s Wicker Park. Richard Florida’s “creative class.” And while each of these fads came and went, here is what also happened: utilities were privatized to disastrous effect, the real estate bubble grew and burst, the banks got ever bigger, state governments declared war on public workers, and the economy went off a cliff. It is time to acknowledge the truth: that our leaders have nothing to say, really, about any of this. They have nothing to suggest, really, to Cairo, Illinois, or St.


The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001); Saskia Sassen, “The Global City: Introducing a Concept,” Brown Journal of World Affairs 11, no. 2 (Winter/Spring, 2005). 3. Greg Rosalsky, “What the Future of Work Means for Cities,” NPR, Planet Money, January 15, 2019; David Autor, “Work of the Past, Work of the Future,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 25588, February 2019. 4. Richard Florida, “The High Inequality of U.S. Metro Areas Compared to Countries,” CityLab.com, October 9, 2012. 5. William H. Frey, “The Suburbs: Not Just for White People Anymore,” New Republic, November 24, 2014. 6. Richard Alba, “The Likely Persistence of a White Majority,” The American Prospect, January 11, 2016; Stephen J. Trejo, “Who Remains Mexican? Selective Ethnic Attrition and the Intergenerational Progress of Mexican Americans,” in David L.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Such a person is more prone to question traditions, rules, and boundaries – and to search for answers where others may not think to.”614 People who are fluent in several languages also tend to be more creative. “Languages codify concepts differently, and the ability to draw upon these varied perspectives during a creative process generates a wider range of associations,” Johansson notes. Diversity can also act as a magnet for the innovative, entrepreneurial talents of what Richard Florida calls the “creative class”. “A great city has two hallmarks: tolerance for strangers and intolerance for mediocrity. These are precisely the qualities that appeal to members of the creative class – and they also happen to be qualities conducive to innovation, risk-taking, and the formation of new businesses.”615 The boost to innovation from diversity in general and immigration in particular is potentially huge.

Quoted in http://www.economist.com/node/21564536. 605 Edward Glaeser and Matthew Resseger, "The complementarity between cities and skills", National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper #15103, June 2009 606 James Manyika, Jaana Remes, Richard Dobbs, Javier Orellana and Fabian Schaer, "Urban America: US cities in the global economy", McKinsey Global Institute, April 2012 607 Paul Cheshire and Christian Hilber, "Office space supply restrictions in Britain: The political economy of market revenge", Economic Journal, 2008 608 Frans Johansson, The Medici Effect: Breakthrough Insights at the Intersection of Ideas, Concepts, and Cultures, Harvard Business School: 2004 609 Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: 2012 610 http://www.economist.com/node/21550235 611 http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-08/22/20-percent-time-here-to-stay 612 Scott Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies, Princeton: 2007 613 Donald Campbell, “Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes”, Psychological Review 67, no. 6 (1960): 380–400. 614 Dean Simonton, Origins of Genius, Oxford: 1999 615 Richard Florida, The Rise Of The Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community And Everyday Life, Basic Books: 2002 616 Richard B. Freeman and Wei Huang, "Collaborating with People Like Me: Ethnic co-authorship within the US", NBER working paper #19905, February 2014 http://www.nber.org/papers/w19905 617 Chiara Franzonia, Giuseppe Scellatob and Paula Stephand, “The mover’s advantage: The superior performance of migrant scientists”, Economics Letters, Volume 122, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 89–93 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176513004874 618 http://www.renewoureconomy.org/research/patent-pending-how-immigrants-are-reinventing-the-american-economy-2/ 76 per cent of patents, to be precise. 619 54 per cent of all patents, to be exact. 620 A 10 per cent increase in international graduate students would raise patent applications by 3.3 per cent, university patent grants by 6.0 per cent and non-university patent grants by 4.0 per cent.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

The writer Po Bronson notes that a “crisis can actually take people from thinking about what’s next to thinking about what is first.” Many of us grew up with the aspiration to own our homes. We hoped that when we retired we would have a place to live without having to pay housing costs. In recent years, home equity was also a lucrative place to invest. As home prices increased, so too did the equity. But the continued recession, or “reset,” as author Richard Florida calls it, has forced us to revisit childhood assumptions. Why is home ownership desirable? Does it ensure a less stressful, happier old age? Does the increased stress and high cost of buying, insuring, and maintaining a home for decades justify the anticipated stress reduction later in life? Perhaps we are moving into an era when feeling secure and happy will be uncoupled from what we individually own.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

Thus, migration has significant implications for innovation policy because the close proximity of likeminded individuals tends to create a multiplier effect. In other words, what drives economic value and productivity is not where most people live, but where most bright, ambitious and energetic people live, and this tends to be in large global cities. Creative cities According to Professor Richard Florida (author of The Rise of the Creative Class), economic progress is primarily driven by ideas, and ideas tend to cluster in large cities that are open and tolerant of diversity. If cities want to become economic powerhouses, they must therefore attract artists, writers, sculptors, musicians, immigrants and assorted oddballs, eccentrics and misfits from other places. In other words, taking a fairly long-term view of urban development, no rock bands, no bohemians and no “weirdos” equals no significant intellectual property, no scientific breakthroughs, no cutting-edge arts culture and no business model-busting young entrepreneurs.


pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

This is a repeat of the earlier trend of increased productivity in agriculture, leading to plummeting numbers of jobs over the past century (agricultural jobs were down to less than two percent of all jobs in 2000 from, as mentioned in chapter 1, forty percent in 1900 and twenty-seven percent in 1920). The agricultural economy transitioned to the industrial economy, and now the industrial is transitioning to the knowledge economy. The economic driver of how the American Dream is implemented on the ground is changing once again. Dr. Richard Florida’s assertion in his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, that future economic growth depends on the retention and attraction of the highly educated has become accepted wisdom of many economic development officials in cities throughout the country. The breeding and attraction of young, highly educated people to start new companies, attract similar entrepreneurs, build the local tax base, and become more “hip” is driving many urban and suburban economic development strategies in the 2000s.


pages: 237 words: 69,985

The Longing for Less by Kyle Chayka

Airbnb, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog

That’s to be avoided. You’re degrading it no matter what you’re doing.” Without the full context, the light, space, and architecture that the loft or the desert provided, the works weren’t as meaningful. I had to agree; Judd’s work never looks as good as when it’s in his own spaces and part of a total work of art. Over the decades art itself has become a commercializing force in the wider economy. Richard Florida’s Creative Class theory, circa 2002, made it common knowledge that artists are on the front lines of reviving urban spaces—a process also known as gentrification. SoHo was the classic example. Judd and so many other artists demonstrated how factory loft living could be cool, giving postindustrial space a veneer of cultural capital that later made it possible for developers. Frank Gehry’s famous Guggenheim Museum Bilbao opened in 1997, a structure of arcing steel waves that became one of the largest museums in Spain, though the city was small.


Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity by Brian Hare, Vanessa Woods

Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Law of Accelerating Returns, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, out of africa, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, smart cities, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, white flight, zero-sum game

Published online February 23, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/​news/​morning-mix/​wp/​2016/​02/​23/​donald-trump-on-protester-id-like-to-punch-him-in-the-face/. 93. J. Diamond, “Trump: I Could Shoot Somebody and Not Lose Voters” CNN Politics (2016). Published online January 24, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/​2016/​01/​23/​politics/​donald-trump-shoot-somebody-support/. 94. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 2016). 95. Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class, and What We Can Do About It (UK: Hachette, 2017). 96. R.T.T. Forman, “The Urban Region: Natural Systems in Our Place, Our Nourishment, Our Home Range, Our Future,” Landscape Ecology 23 (2008), 251–53. 97. A. Andreou, “Anti-Homeless Spikes: Sleeping Rough Opened My Eyes to the City’s Barbed Cruelty,” Guardian 19 (2015), 4–8. 9 Circle of Friends 1.


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

May 2007, www.economicmobility.org. 32 Since the recession began: Darlene Superville, “Obama: Jobs Bill Will Help Small Business Owners,” 13 Mar. 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com. 33 Over 2 million of those: Christopher Rugaber, “Millions of Jobs That Were Cut Won’t Likely Return,” 13 May 2010, www.bostonglobe.com. 34 We lost 1.2 million: Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Irwin Stelzer, and John Weicher, “Hudson Institute Economic Report,” 8 Jan. 2010, www.hudson.org. 35 In 1950, manufacturing accounted: Richard Florida, “How the Crash Will Reshape America,” Mar. 2009, www.theatlantic.com. 36 Indeed, one-third of all: Richard McCormack, “The Plight of American Manufacturing,” 21 Dec. 2009, www.prospect.org. 37 According to Thomas Philippon: Thomas Philippon, “The Future of the Financial Industry,” 16 Oct. 2008, www.sternfinance.blogspot.com. 38 As MIT professor Simon Johnson recounted: Simon Johnson, “The Quiet Coup,” May 2009, www.theatlantic.com. 39 That’s right—over 40: Ibid. 40 James Kwak, coauthor of: James Kwak, “ ‘13 Bankers’ in 4 Pictures: Why Wall Street Profits Are Out of Whack,” 15 Apr. 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com. 41 According to New York Times columnist Paul Krugman: Paul Krugman, “Don’t Cry for Wall Street,” 22 Apr. 2010, www.nytimes.com. 42 But the data points: Sandra Pianalto, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, “Forecasting in Uncertain Times,” 18 May 2010, www.clevelandfed.org. 43 Her conclusion: “Many people …”: Ibid. 44 At a D.C. jobs fair: Laura Bassett, “D.C.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

In short, Ace Hotel has turned a regular hotel lobby into a communal work space. Nobody is there trying to shuttle you to a room and there is no hustling from the wait staff to buy drinks or food. People come to the hotel (the majority of them are not guests, but native New Yorkers) to plug in, connect to the Internet, and run their businesses. This is one hotel that is encouraging people to come, squat, and work. And it’s cool. You can feel the energy. This is what Richard Florida was describing in 2004 when he released his bestselling book The Rise of the Creative Class. Creativity in our economy has not only become one of the key growth areas (as Florida predicted), but it is increasingly becoming the core unique selling proposition to everything. The challenge with creativity is that it does not align with how our work spaces have been planned and urbanized to date.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

… since 1970 the difference between the most and least educated U.S. cities has doubled…: Tyler Cowen, Average Is Over: Powering America beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Penguin Books, 2013), pp. 172–173. Fifty-nine percent of American counties saw more businesses close than open…: “Dynamism in Retreat: Consequences for Regions, Markets and Workers,” Economic Innovation Group, February 2017. California, New York, and Massachusetts accounted for 75 percent of venture capital in 2016…: Richard Florida, “A Closer Look at the Geography of Venture Capital in the U.S.” CityLab, February 23, 2016. A series of studies by the economists Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren…: Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren, “The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility: Childhood Exposure Effects and County-Level Estimates,” Equality of Opportunity, May 2015. David Brooks described such towns vividly…: David Brooks, “What’s the Matter with Republicans?”


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

Cities that had been pining away for some of Silicon Valley’s magic thrilled at the opportunities the new era presented, sponsoring makerspaces and demo days and holding seminars on how to lure in more venture investment. While the list of places with viable high-tech clusters expanded, however, high-tech investors remained firmly concentrated in the same places they had been in the 1980s. Urban theorist Richard Florida, whose widely read work on the “creative class” fueled cities’ high-tech hopes, found that San Francisco and Silicon Valley firms together accounted for over 40 percent of the VC investments and over 30 percent of the deals made nationally in 2013. Seattle came in at a feeble seventh place. Start-ups were blossoming in the home of Gates and Bezos, but it was too easy to fly down to Sand Hill Road to raise money.

Bylinsky, The Innovation Millionaires, 9. 6. Ernest A. Schonberger, “Inside the Market,” The Los Angeles Times, November 2, 1969, L1. 7. Arthur Rock, interviews by Sally Smith Hughes, 2008 and 2009, “Early Bay Area Venture Capitalists: Shaping the Economic and Business Landscape,” Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California, 20–21. Also see Martin Kenney and Richard Florida, “Venture Capital in Silicon Valley: Fueling New Firm Formation,” in Martin Kenney, ed., Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000), 98–123. 8. Leslie Berlin, “The First Venture Capital Firm in Silicon Valley: Draper, Gaither & Anderson,” in Making the American Century: Essays on the Political Culture of Twentieth Century America, ed.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

I have tried to include a broad survey of these works in the bibliography, but several works have been disproportionately influential on my argument and method in this book. Dean Keith Simonton’s Origins of Genius and Howard Gruber’s Darwin on Man both explicitly take a Darwinian approach to innovation, and use that approach to make sense of Darwin’s own distinct genius. Arthur Koestler’s Act of Creation and Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions remain essential platforms for the understanding of new ideas. Richard Florida’s Rise of the Creative Class looks at creativity in an urban context. Richard Ogle’s Smart World explores the intellectual and physical context of idea formation, as does Howard Gardner’s Creating Minds. Everett M. Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations is the canonical study of the way good ideas spread through organizations and society. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow and Creativity explore the psychological states of intense creativity.


pages: 281 words: 83,505

Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

goal of Living Breakwaters: Ibid. flood protection, adaptation, and climate security: City of New Orleans, Plan for the 21st Century: New Orleans 2030, 2010, https://www.nola.gov/​city-planning/​master-plan/. its bike-share program: See Shannon Sims, “Building a Social Scene Around a Bike Path,” CityLab, August 1, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/​life/​2017/​08/​lafitte-greenway-new-orleans/​534735/, and Richard Florida, “Mapping America’s Bike Commuters,” CityLab, May 19, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/​transportation/​2017/​05/​mapping-americas-bike-commuters/​526923/. CONCLUSION: BEFORE WE LIFT THE NEXT SHOVEL “Are we building the world we all want?”: Mark Zuckerberg, “Building Global Community,” Facebook, February 16, 2017, https://www.facebook.com/​notes/​mark-zuckerberg/​building-global-community/​10154544292806634/.


pages: 346 words: 90,371

Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

Fairbairn, Madeleine. 2014. ‘“Like Gold with Yield”: Evolving Intersections between Farmland and Finance’. Journal of Peasant Studies 41 (5): 777–95. Falk, Nicholas. 2014. Funding Housing and Local Growth. London: The Smith Institute. http://media.urbed.coop.ccc.cdn.faelix.net/sites/default/files/Funding%20Housing%20and%20Local%20Growth%2C%20The%20Smith%20Institute.pdf. Feldman, Maryann P., and Richard Florida. 1994. ‘The Geographic Sources of Innovation: Technological Infrastructure and Product Innovation in the United States’. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84 (2): 210–29. Feldstein, Martin. 2008. ‘How to Help People Whose Home Values Are Underwater’. The Wall Street Journal, 18 November, A21. Fernandez-Corugedo, Emilio, and John Muellbauer. 2006. ‘Consumer Credit Conditions in the United Kingdom’.


pages: 291 words: 88,879

Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone by Eric Klinenberg

big-box store, carbon footprint, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

That’s why Manhattan, the capital of America’s singleton society, is also the nation’s greenest city.16 Manhattan is not the only urban center that’s begun adapting to the new social environment. Planners and developers in cities across the United States are starting to build better accommodations and amenities for the unprecedented number of singletons who live in them. Some urban officials have made special efforts to attract the coveted demographic of professional singles that Richard Florida calls “the creative class,” in hope that they will stimulate the local culture and economy. Cities in Europe, Japan, and Australia have made even more progress. In Stockholm, where 60 percent of all households have just one occupant, a generous supply of publicly subsidized housing in urban centers and a rich, locally based neighborhood life make living alone an affordable and often quite social experience.


pages: 292 words: 92,588

The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities, and the Remaking of the Civilized World by Jeff Goodell

Airbnb, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, desegregation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, fixed income, Frank Gehry, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Lord Byron: The Major Works (London: Oxford University Press, 2008), 301. Chapter 7 1. Hurricane Sandy: Storm damage statistics from personal communication with Office of Mayor Bill de Blasio. 2. East Side Coastal Resiliency Project: “OneNYC: 2016 Progress Report.” The City of New York, Mayor Bill de Blasio. May 2016, 160. 3. budgeted at $760 million: Personal communication with Dan Zarrilli. 4. 10 percent of the US gross domestic product: Richard Florida. “Sorry, London: New York Is the World’s Most Economically Powerful City.” TheAtlantic.com, March 3, 2015. Accessed March 1, 2017. http://www.citylab.com/work/2015/03/sorry-london-new-york-is-the-worlds-most-economically-powerful-city/386315/ 5. Manhattan in 1650: Snejana Farberov. “How Hurricane Sandy Flooded New York Back to Its Seventeenth-Century Shape as It Inundated 400 Years of Reclaimed Land.”


pages: 309 words: 96,434

Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional

Manchester seemed the perfect example of a city which symbolized the trajectory of progress proclaimed by the government, from urban decay to urban renaissance, and it was soon anointed New Labour’s favourite city. The love affair reached new heights when the party broke with ninety years of political tradition, abandoning failing Blackpool in favour of the upbeat image of Manchester as a more suitable venue for its annual conference in 2006. The icing on the cake was when Richard Florida, the American economist who coined the term ‘the creative class’, declared Manchester the UK’s most creative and enterprising city.2 Today the property, shopping and financial services economy in the city has gone through the same boom and bust cycle described in the last chapter. Accompanying that, however, is another far less publicized story, which is not directly about decay and renaissance, growth or recession, but about the decline of local democracy and the rise of private government.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

., p. 14. 84.ILO, Global Employment Trends 2014, pp. 11–12; Bureau of Labor Statistics, ‘Of Total Unemployed, Percent Unemployed 27 Weeks and Over’, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, 1 January 1948; Eurostat, ‘Long-Term Unemployment Rate’, Eurostat, 2015, at ec.europa.eu. 85.Alan Krueger, Judd Cramer and David Cho, ‘Are the Long-Term Unemployed on the Margins of the Labor Market?’, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2014. 86.Loïc Wacquant, ‘The Rise of Advanced Marginality: Notes on Its Nature and Implications’, Acta Sociologica 39: 2 (1996), p. 125; Richard Florida, Zara Matheson, Patrick Adler and Taylor Brydges, The Divided City and the Shape of the New Metropolis, Martin Prosperity Institute, 2014, at martinprosperity.org. 87.William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), p. 15. 88.Loïc Wacquant, ‘Class, Race and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America’, Socialism and Democracy 28: 3 (2014), p. 46. 89.Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 191. 90.Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (New York: New Press, 2012), p. 218. 91.The number of black males working in manufacturing was nearly cut in half between 1973 and 1987.


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

Since coordinating international production requires international movements of firm-specific knowledge, North-to-South offshoring was accompanied by an absolutely massive North-to-South flow of know-how. In other words, the knowledge sluice-gate is wide open and know-how is flowing abundantly to a handful of devel oping nations. As a result of high technology from G7 firms fusing with low wages in developing nations, almost a fifth of world manufacturing value added has shifted from North to South. Yet despite the relaxation of the goods and ideas constraints, “the world is spiky,” as Richard Florida argued in his eponymous 2005 article in the Atlantic. Most international production networks and value chains are regional not global. They are inside Factory Asia, Factory Europe, or Factory North America. Moreover, as far as people-clustering is concerned, ongoing urbanization suggests distance is getting more important, not less. Both trends seem to be linked to the benefits of face-to-face interactions.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar

Some of the others that were especially notable and/or frequent were with Bhavish Aggarwal, Alisha Ali, Douglas Atkin, Michel Avital, Emily Badger, Mara Balestrini, Yochai Benkler, Rachel Botsman, danah boyd, Nathan Blecharczyk, Jennifer Bradley, Erik Brynjolfsson, Valentina Carbone, Emily Castor, David Chiu, Marc-David Chokrun, Sonal Choksi, Peter Coles, Chip Conley, Ariane Conrad, Arnab Das, Cristian Fleming (and his team at the Public Society), Richard Florida, Natalie Foster, Justin Fox, Liz Gannes, Lisa Gansky, Marina Gorbis, Neal Gorenflo, Alison Griswold, Vijay Gurbaxani, Tanner Hackett, Aassia Haroon Haq, Scott Heiferman, Jeremy Heimans, Sara Horowitz, Sam Hodges, Milicent Johnson, Noah Karesh, Stephane Kasriel, Sarah Kessler, David Kirkpatrick, Marjo Koivisto, Karim Lakhani, Kevin Laws, Michael Luca, Benita Matofska, Andrew McAfee, Ryan McKillen, Lesa Mitchell, Amy Nelson, Jeff Nickerson, Melissa O’Young, Janelle Orsi, Jeremy Osborn, Jeremiah Owyang (to whom I owe a special debt of gratitude for his remarkably selfless sharing of ideas and data), Wrede Petersmeyer, Ai-Jen Poo, Andrew Rasiej, Simone Ross, Anita Roth, Chelsea Rustrum, Carolyn Said, Marcela Sapone, Marie Schneegans, Trebor Scholz, Swati Sharma, Clay Shirky, Dane Stangler, Alex Stephany, James Surowiecki, Jason Tanz, Marie Ternes, Henry Timms, Viv Wang, Cheng Wei, Adam Werbach, Jamie Wong, Caroline Woolard, and numerous members of the OuiShare collective (including Flore Berlingen, Julie Braka, Albert Cañigueral, Simone Cicero, Javier Creus, Arthur De Grave, Elena Denaro, Diana Fillipova, Marguerite Grandjean, Asmaa Guedira, Ana Manzanedo, Bernie Mitchell, Edwin Mootoosamy, Ruhi Shamim, Maeva Tordo and especially Francesca Pick).


pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom

autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

In no particular order I’d like to thank: Tony Tsieh, Jeff Weiner, Ryan Holmes, Deepak Chopra, Danny Sullivan, Tim Ferriss, Gary Vanyerchuk, Martin Shervington, Sarah Hill, Michelle Killebrew, Muhammad Yunus, David Edelman, Meg Whitman, Denis Labelle, Dr. Jane Goodall, Dharmesh Shah, Beth Comstock, Thomas Friedman, David Sable, Chris Brogan, Michael Hyatt, Jeff Bullas, Don Peppers, Charlene Li, Rand Fishkin, Pam Moore, Nicolas Bordas, Peter Shankman, Steven Pinker, Richard Florida, Mike Allton, Jay Baer, Brian Solis, Steve Rubel, Neil Patel, Mark Schaefer, Jonah Berger, Chad Dickerson, Josh Leibowitz, Erica Hill, Niall Ferguson, Lee Odden, Jonathan Becher, John Jantsch, Yifat Cohen, Robert Cialdini, Andrew Hunt, Matt Heinz, Joe Pulizzi, Joseph Stiglitz, Michael Brenner, Michael Gold, John Rampton, Shawn Collins, Chris Ducker, David Skok, John Lee Dumas, Lee Odden, Jonathan Salem Baskin, Brent Csutoras, Heidi Cohen, Bill Tancer, Anita Newton, Matthew Barby, Craig Rosenberg, Brian Massey, Jon Haidt, Tom Fishburne, Roger Dooley, Pamela Wilson.


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

In part, their theory was based on earlier work by Philip Zimbardo in an article titled “The Human Choice: Individuation, Reason, and Order Versus Deindividuation, Impulse, and Chaos,” in the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (1969, Volume 17, pages 237–307). 13A report on the Eurobarometer analysis of the fear of crime, produced by the European Commission, titled “Analysis of Public Attitudes to Insecurity, Fear of Crime and Crime Prevention,” can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_181_sum_en.pdf 14A digest of results from a 2010 Gallup poll assessing fear of crime in the United States, titled “Nearly 4 in 10 Americans Still Fear Walking Alone at Night,” can be found at: http://www.gallup.com/poll/144272/nearly-americans-fear-walking-alone-night.aspx 15This Robert Ornstein quote comes from his 1992 book The Evolution of Consciousness: The Origins of the Way We Think (Simon and Schuster, New York, page 262). 16The official Viennese government description of gender mainstreaming may be found here: https://www.wien.gv.at/english/administration/gendermainstreaming/ A good discussion by Clare Foran of the Viennese policies titled “How to Design a City for Women,” can be found in the Atlantic City Lab blog at: http://www.citylab.com/commute/2013/09/how-design-city-women/6739/ 17The proportion of unmarried adults in U.S. rose to more than 50 percent according to a widely reported survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2014. The Martin Prosperity Institute published a regional analysis of the trend in an article written by Richard Florida on September 15, 2014 in the CityLab online magazine, titled “Singles Now Make Up More Than Half the U.S. Adult Population. Here’s Where They All Live.” Available at: http://www.citylab.com/housing/2014/09/singles-now-make-up-more-than-half-the-us-adult-population-heres-where-they-all-live/380137/ 18Statistics from Britain’s Office of National Statistics can be found at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/households-and-household-composition-in-england-and-wales-2001-2011/households-and-household-composition-in-england-and-wales-2001-11.html 19Statistics on changes in discussion networks in the United States were reported in an article by Miller McPherson, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Matthew Brashears in an article titled “Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks Over Two Decades,” in the journal American Sociological Review (2006, Volume 71, pages 353–375). 20Findings on loneliness and engagement in Vancouver were reported by the Vancouver Foundation in a 2012 study titled Connections and Engagement.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

The macroeconomic effects of ageing and falling birth rates are significant: upward pressure on wages, downward pressure on rates of return, falls in savings and investment and changes in current account deficits. See Magnus, G., The Age of Aging: How Demographics are Changing the Global Economy and Our World (Wiley, 2008). 2Gratton, L., The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems (Collins Business, 2015). 3See for example Richard Florida’s view of the rise of the city, Who is your City? How the creative economy is making where you live the most important decision in your life and The Rise of the Creative Class (Basic Books, 2002). 4Deloitte, London Futures: London crowned business capital of Europe (UK Futures, 2015). 5Moretti, E., The New Geography of Jobs (Mariner Books, 2013). 6Costa, D. and Kahn, M. E., ‘Power Couples: Changes in the Locational Choice of the College Educated 1940–1990’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (4) (2000): 1287–315. 7Johns, T. and Gratton, L., ‘The Third Wave of Virtual Work’, Harvard Business Review (2013). 8The fears over robots and artificial intelligence (AI) are much broader than just employment.


pages: 976 words: 235,576

The Meritocracy Trap: How America's Foundational Myth Feeds Inequality, Dismantles the Middle Class, and Devours the Elite by Daniel Markovits

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Anton Chekhov, asset-backed security, assortative mating, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Emanuel Derman, equity premium, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, high net worth, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, medical residency, minimum wage unemployment, Myron Scholes, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, stakhanovite, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, traveling salesman, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

.,” Washington Post, November 17, 2013, accessed July 23, 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/national/capital-gains-spending-on-contracts-and-lobbying-propels-a-wave-of-new-wealth-in-d-c/2013/11/17/6bd938aa-3c25-11e3-a94f-b58017bfee6c_story.html?utm_term=.44ae6632d430. Hereafter cited as Jaffey and Tankersley, “Capital Gains.” Washington is now among: See Jaffe and Tankersley, “Capital Gains.” See also Richard Florida, “Venture Capital Remains Highly Concentrated in Just a Few Cities,” City Lab, October 3, 2017, accessed July 23, 2018, www.citylab.com/life/2017/10/venture-capital-concentration/539775/. any other major metro area: See Jaffe and Tankersley, “Capital Gains.” $200 per person, before wine: See Jaffe and Tankersley, “Capital Gains.” For Washington restaurants, see, e.g., Maura Judkis, “One of the Most Expensive Restaurants in Washington Is Going to Increase Its Prices,” Washington Post, January 23, 2017, accessed July 23, 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/news/going-out-guide/wp/2017/01/23/one-of-the-most-expensive-restaurants-in-washington-is-about-to-increase-its-prices/?

have college degrees: “Educational Attainment of Population Ages 25 to 34,” Kids Count Data Center, last modified October 2017, https://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/6294-educational-attainment-of-population-ages-25-to-34#detailed/3/10,55-56,58-61,64-77,79-84,86,88-94,96-109,9428-9429/false/870,573,869,36,868,867,133,38,35,18/5924,1265,1309,1304,1311/13091,13090. all average nearly 50 percent: See Paul A. Jargowsky, “Take the Money and Run: Economic Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas,” American Sociology Review 61, no. 6 (1996): 984–98. Hereafter cited as Jargowsky, “Take the Money and Run.” Bishop, The Big Sort, 131. Richard Florida, “More Losers Than Winners in America’s New Economic Geography,” CityLab, January 30, 2013, accessed November 19, 2018, http://www.citylab.com/work/2013/01/more-losers-winners-americas-new-economic-geograpy/4465/. fell by 15 percent: See Catherine Rampell, “Who Says New York Is Not Affordable?,” New York Times Magazine, April 23, 2013, accessed November 19, 2018, www.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/magazine/who-says-new-york-is-not-affordable.html.


pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

The labor market elites responsible for the greatest profit-making were found in professional sectors—accountancy, finance, law, and medicine, or what Sassen calls “high level producer services.” Another account of this economic restructuring offers a similar but simpler explanation: The global economy had moved from producing widgets to producing ideas—those who were responsible for generating those ideas, what Robert Reich has called “symbolic analysts”37 or Richard Florida has termed the “creative class”—are the winners in the new economy.38 While a college degree is not an explicit measure of membership to Sassen’s, Reich’s, or Florida’s categorization, it certainly helps and most members do possess one. Thus the rise of an economy dependent on innovation and knowledge is also one dependent on professional skills, many of which are acquired through education.


pages: 359 words: 97,415

Vanishing Frontiers: The Forces Driving Mexico and the United States Together by Andrew Selee

Berlin Wall, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Donald Trump, energy security, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, payday loans, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Wozniak, Y Combinator

Pineau, The Integration of Immigrants into American Society (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2015); see, for example, 22. It’s a big part: For the most comprehensive discussion of the evidence, see National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2016). For another discussion of the evidence, see also Richard Florida, “Immigrants Boost Wages for Everyone,” Citylab, June 27, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2017/06/immigration-wages-economics/530301. They even tend to be: See the summary of the evidence on both health and incarceration in Waters and Pineau, The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. Today’s immigrants also appear: Waters and Pineau, The Integration of Immigrants into American Society.


pages: 385 words: 98,015

Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum by Lee Smolin

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, Ernest Rutherford, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, Turing machine

Just as the same city viewed from different directions appears entirely different, and, as it were, multiplied perspectively, in just the same way it happens that, because of the infinite multitude of simple substances, there are, as it were, just as many different universes, which are, nevertheless, only perspectives on a single one.11 This is indeed a metaphor that Jane Jacobs would have appreciated, as it captures a notion of urban diversity championed by her and embraced by philosophers of the city, such as Richard Florida, since. This urban metaphor inspires a hypothesis about how space and locality break down. If you stand next to me and we both look out, by virtue of our proximity we have similar views of the rest of the universe. Our views cannot be identical, because we cannot coincide, by virtue of both the Pauli exclusion principle and the identity of indiscernibles. But the closer to each other we stand, the more similar are our views.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Once more with feeling In the heady days of the 1990s, as the world economy started to hum and globalization became the basis of a free-market policy consensus, economic visionaries offered a new recipe for how individual cities and regions could prosper in this era of open borders. Pointing particularly to examples such as “Silicon Fen” around Cambridge University or North Carolina’s “Research Triangle,” gurus such as Richard Florida, Michael Porter, and Charles Leadbeater argued that the economic success stories of the future would be cities and business clusters that attracted highly educated, socially liberal workers, who were willing to mingle informally and circulate ideas. These centers of innovation would often emerge around universities. With good social connections between entrepreneurs, academic research, and venture capital, a whole new era of prosperity could be achieved, based upon nothing but ideas and imagination.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Phelps 85 Soft Spaces in Europe Re-negotiating governance, boundaries and borders Edited by Philip Allmendinger, Graham Haughton, Jörg Knieling and Frank Othengrafen 84 Regional Worlds: Advancing the Geography of Regions Edited by Martin Jones and Anssi Paasi 83 Place-making and Urban Development New challenges for contemporary planning and design Pier Carlo Palermo and Davide Ponzini 82 Knowledge, Networks and Policy Regional studies in postwar Britain and beyond James Hopkins 81 Dynamics of Economic Spaces in the Global Knowledge-based Economy Theory and East Asian cases Sam Ock Park 80 Urban Competitiveness Theory and practice Daniele Letri and Peter Kresl 79 Smart Specialisation Opportunities and challenges for regional innovation policy Dominique Foray 78 The Age of Intelligent Cities Smart environments and innovation-for-all strategies Nicos Komninos 77 Space and Place in Central and Eastern Europe Historical trends and perspectives Gyula Horváth 76 Territorial Cohesion in Rural Europe The relational turn in rural development Edited by Andrew Copus and Philomena de Lima 75 The Global Competitiveness of Regions Robert Huggins, Hiro Izushi, Daniel Prokop and Piers Thompson 74 The Social Dynamics of Innovation Networks Edited by Roel Rutten, Paul Benneworth, Dessy Irawati and Frans Boekema 73 The European Territory From historical roots to global challenges Jacques Robert 72 Urban Innovation Systems What makes them tick? Willem van Winden, Erik Braun, Alexander Otgaar and Jan-Jelle Witte 71 Shrinking Cities A global perspective Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang Woon Nam 70 Cities, State and Globalization City-regional governance Tassilo Herrschel 69 The Creative Class Goes Global Edited by Charlotta Mellander, Richard Florida, Bjørn Asheim and Meric Gertler 68 Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and the Transformation of Regions Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger Stough 67 The Economic Geography of the IT Industry in the Asia Pacific Region Edited by Philip Cooke, Glen Searle and Kevin O’Connor 66 Working Regions Reconnecting innovation and production in the knowledge economy Jennifer Clark 65 Europe’s Changing Geography The impact of inter-regional networks Edited by Nicola Bellini and Ulrich Hilpert 64 The Value of Arts and Culture for Regional Development A Scandinavian perspective Edited by Lisbeth Lindeborg and Lars Lindkvist 63 The University and the City John Goddard and Paul Vallance 62 Re-framing Regional Development Evolution, innovation and transition Edited by Philip Cooke 61 Networking Regionalised Innovative Labour Markets Edited by Ulrich Hilpert and Helen Lawton Smith 60 Leadership and Change in Sustainable Regional Development Edited by Markku Sotarauta, Ina Horlings and Joyce Liddle 59 Regional Development Agencies: The Next Generation?


pages: 358 words: 106,729

Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Anderson, “Wall Street Winners Get Billion-Dollar Paydays,” New York Times, April 16, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2008/04/16/business/16wall.html. 7 See Stacey Schreft, Aarti Singh, and Ashley Hodgson, “Jobless Recoveries and the Wait-and-See Hypothesis,” Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (4th quarter, 2005): 81–99. 8 Ibid. Chapter One. Let Them Eat Credit 1 See, for example, Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2004). 2 See Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz, The Race between Education and Technology (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2009), 231. 3 Ibid., 330–31. 4 On educational attainment, see U.S. Census Bureau, “Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008,” www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2008.html, accessed March 5, 2010. 5 Brink Lindsey, “Paul Krugman’s Nostalgianomics: Economic Policies, Social Norms, and Income Inequality,” Cato Institute working paper, Washington, DC, 2009. 6 Author’s calculations based on Goldin and Katz, The Race between Education and Technology, 52. 7 U.S.


pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game

Officer, ‘Purchasing power of British pounds from 1264 to present’, MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.measuring-worth.com/ppoweruk/ 83 ‘Positive black swans’: Nassim Nicholas Taleb, The Black Swan (New York: Random House, 2007). 85 We should now build: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 12. 86 He soon discovered some remarkable examples: Richard Dawkins, The Greatest Show on Earth (London: Bantam, 2009), pp. 254–73. 87 Bright ideas emerge from the swirling mix of other ideas: See also Richard Florida, ‘The world is spiky’, The Atlantic Monthly, October 2005, my The Logic of Life (2008), Matt Ridley’s The Rational Optimist (2010) and Steven Johnson’s Where Good Ideas Come From (2010). 87 A playboy politician most famous as a campaigner against lesbianism: McKinstry, Spitfire, pp.17–18. 88 ‘Bloody good cup of tea, Mitchell’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 20. 88 ‘It’s either him or me!’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 31. 88 ‘Freak machines’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 29. 89 England’s pride was intact: McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 32. 89 ‘The Battle of Britain was won by Chamberlain’: McKinstry, Spitfire, p.194. 89 One might think that there is no problem enouraging innovation: as this book was going to press, Tyler Cowen’s book The Great Stagnation (Dutton, 2011) appeared.


pages: 406 words: 105,602

The Startup Way: Making Entrepreneurship a Fundamental Discipline of Every Enterprise by Eric Ries

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, connected car, corporate governance, DevOps, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, obamacare, peer-to-peer, place-making, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, universal basic income, web of trust, Y Combinator

Immigration Forty-four percent of Silicon Valley startups have immigrant founders.13 Fifty-one percent of startups worth a billion dollars were founded by immigrants.14 Many more of the most successful American startups have at least one immigrant founder. Openness to immigrants is one of the cultural values that predict future economic growth on a city-by-city basis (one of several data-based indexes that Silicon Valley routinely leads the pack in). As Richard Florida writes in The Flight of the Creative Class, the United States “doesn’t have some intrinsic advantage in the production of creative people, new ideas, or startup companies. Its real advantage lies in its ability to attract these economic drivers from around the world. Of critical importance to American success in this last century has been a tremendous influx of global talent.”15 Yet the United States has no category for a startup visa, and startup founders have traditionally found it quite difficult to come and stay in the States.


pages: 374 words: 111,284

The AI Economy: Work, Wealth and Welfare in the Robot Age by Roger Bootle

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, anti-work, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mega-rich, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, positional goods, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, Y2K, Yogi Berra

At one extreme, there is the “world is flat” view, advocated by the New York Times columnist Tom Friedman. This holds that, thanks to the cheapness and interconnectedness of modern technology, anyone with internet access can invent a service or product with potential global scale. At the other extreme is the view that the world is far from flat. In fact, it has at least a few large mountains. This is the view of Professor Richard Florida from Toronto University, who emphasizes the fact that innovation takes place in a select number of metropolitan areas, usually centered around a large, successful company and/or a leading university. Yet, although the world seems to be dominated by American tech firms, at the start-up and just past start-up stage, innovation has been globalized, with vibrant tech centers developing in China, India, and Europe.


pages: 338 words: 104,684

The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and the Birth of the People's Economy by Stephanie Kelton

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, COVID-19, Covid-19, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discrete time, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Food sovereignty, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, liquidity trap, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, urban planning, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, zero-sum game

See Mosler, The 7 Deadly Innocent Frauds of Economic Policy (Christiansted, USVI: Valance, 2010). 6. There are many excellent books that deal with one or more of these issues. See, for example, Robert B. Reich, Saving Capitalism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2015); David Cay Johnston, Free Lunch (London: Penguin, 2007); Thomas Frank, Listen, Liberal (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2015); Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis (New York: Basic Books/Hachette, 2017); Chris Arnade, Dignity (New York: Sentinel, 2019); Anand Giridharadas, Winners Take All (New York: Vintage, 2019); and David Dayen, Chain of Title (New York: New Press, 2016). 7. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “Policy Basics: Introduction to the Federal Budget Process,” updated July 8, 2019, www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-introduction-to-the-federal-budget-process. 8.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

In some developing countries where the national government has been discredited, everybody just works around it. Aid organizations go straight to the cities, where the need is; and multinational corporations go straight to where the workers and emerging markets are, in the cities. “The world’s forty largest megaregions, which are home to some 18 percent of the world’s population,” writes urban theorist Richard Florida, “produce two-thirds of global economic output and nearly 9 in 10 new patented innovations.” Whereas nations are defined by their boundaries, cities are densely connected nodes, making every city a world city to some degree, with the accompanying multipliers of cultural diversity, financial flow, and population flow. In the vast worldwide migration toward jobs, the poor hardly limit their travels to cities in their own countries.


pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Japonica Brown-Saracino finds a small but significant group of “social preservationists” who combine the social characteristics of gentrifiers and the social goals of community preservationists. “Social Preservationists and the Quest for Authentic Community,” City and Community 3, no. 2 (2004): 125–56. 14. The aesthetic and political complexity of gentrification in London in the 1970s is beautifully evoked by Patrick Wright in On Living in an Old Country (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class (New York: Basic Books, 2002). 15. Other public sector administrators: notably, city planners Edward J. Logue in Boston, New Haven, and New York; Edmund Bacon in Philadelphia; and Austin Tobin, head of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, builder and owner of the World Trade Center. Villain: Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts into Air (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982), pp. 287–348.


pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Social psychologists have actually measured this, researching what people say when close to death, and found that the regrets of the dying are overwhelmingly linked to our sense of belonging, to love and to family, and hardly at all to work or achievement in the public realm.63 A woman I know who runs a hospice told me that men in particular invariably ask for forgiveness from those close to them for not being a more loving or caring husband or father. I. The size, influence, and definition of the creative class is contested, but the connection with both liberal attitudes and economic inequality is not. Here is Richard Florida, the author of the concept, himself: “Across the United States, inequality is not just a little higher, but substantially higher, in liberal areas than in more conservative ones. All of the twenty-five congressional districts with the highest levels of income inequality were represented by Democrats, according to a 2014 analysis.” II. According to the 2012 British Social Attitudes survey, only 13 percent of people agree that “a man’s job is to earn money; a woman’s job is to look after home and family,” with little difference between the genders.


pages: 482 words: 122,497

The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank

affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

John Rees, interview with Danford Sawyer, Review of the NEWS, July 7, 1982, pp. 39–50. 5. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991), p. 351. Washington seems to exert a magnetic attraction on celebrators of suburbia. David Brooks’s rosy meditations on suburbia in his 2004 book, On Paradise Drive, instantly mark him as an inhabitant of the D.C. metro area. The latest priest of this faith is Richard Florida, a professor at a university located in the Virginia suburbs, who finds the city “a booming, far-flung region that’s a key node in what [he] call[s] the Creative Economy.” Florida, “A Creative Crossroads,” Washington Post, May 7, 2006. 6. Oliver McKee Jr., “Washington as a Boom Town,” North American Review, February 1935. 7. New Dealers’ stories: See Katie Louchheim, The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983).


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

College graduates wanted to become doctors, lawyers, and government bureaucrats. Today, mere financial security has lost its sheen. The most ambitious IIT graduates are leaving large corporations to start their own companies. They’re aspiring for greater esteem, achievement, and self-actualization. Self-Actualizing Creative Class Inglehart’s analysis tapered off with the service sector, and that’s where the sociologist Richard Florida picked things up. He extended the analysis with investigations of what he popularized as the creative class.30 These are “scientists, engineers, artists, musicians, designers and knowledge-based professionals” who are “paid principally to do creative work for a living.”31 The rise of the creative class is an international phenomenon led by developed-world cities. Florida estimated that in the United States the creative class grew from 3 million to 38 million people between 1900 and 2000, or from 10 percent to 30 percent of the working population.


World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

A more effective taxing power would make it less dependent on higher tiers of govern­ ment. Options include an enhanced property tax, as proposed by Mayor John Tory, vehicle registration taxes or a progressive income tax. In the longer term, some have even proposed that Toronto should have provincial powers over regional issues such as infrastructure, and a much more direct relationship with the federal government (Lu, 2010). Urbanist Richard Florida has argued that, “Toronto needs the resources of a province to become a truly global city” (Florida in Tapscott, 2014). 146 World Cities and Nation States Positive trade policy in order to increase productivity growth Toronto’s GDP and labour productivity growth has been modest over the past two decades, despite its sector strengths. One reason is the lack of traded clus­ ters. The Canada–EU Comprehensive Economic & Trade Agreement (CETA) is an example where regulatory co‐ordination can support trade and innovation.


pages: 476 words: 132,042

What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

The city as a whole is a wonderful technological invention that concentrates the flow of energy and minds into computer chip-like density. In a relatively small footprint, a city not only provides living quarters and occupations in a minimum of space, but it also generates a maximum of ideas and inventions. Stewart Brand notes in the “City Planet” chapter of his book Whole Earth Discipline, “Cities are wealth creators; they have always been.” He quotes urban theorist Richard Florida, who claims that forty of the largest megacities in the world, home to 18 percent of the world’s population, “produce two-thirds of global economic output and nearly 9 in 10 new patented innovations.” A Canadian demographer calculated that “80 to 90 percent of GNP growth occurs in cities.” The raggedy new part of each city, its squats and encampments, often house the most productive citizens.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

There is every reason to think that an increasingly prosperous world will continue to place more value on the innovative enjoyments that cities can provide. The bottom-up nature of urban innovation suggests that the best economic development strategy may be to attract smart people and get out of their way. But how can places become consumer cities and attract skilled residents? One vision, espoused by urbanist Richard Florida, emphasizes the arts, toleration for alternative lifestyles, and a fun, happening downtown. A second vision focuses on better providing the core public services that have always been the province of cities: safe streets, fast commutes, good schools. City leaders typically have scarce resources; they can’t do everything for everybody. Even if one believes, as I do, that every city should subscribe to a bit of each vision, there will always be the question of where to invest the revenues of city government and the energy of its leaders.


pages: 311 words: 130,761

Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall

Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor

And more important, members of the educated class can never be secure about their children’s future. The kids have some domestic and educational advantages—all those tutors and developmental toys—but they still have to work through school and ace the SATs just to achieve the same social rank as their parents. Compared to past elites, little is guaranteed.13 In another best-selling book on this subject, The Rise of the Creative Class, Richard Florida asserts that the United States has a creative class composed of two major occupational categories: the supercreative core, which consists of occupations in computer science; mathematics; architecture; engineering; the life, physical, and social sciences; education; the arts; and the media; and the creative professions, which are occupations in management, business, finance, law, health care, and high-end sales.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

See his ‘Figures of Destructuration: Terrorism, Architecture, Social Form’, November 2009, available at bratton.info. 67Ibid. 68Darton, ‘Janus Face of Architectural Terrorism’. 69It must be stressed here that there is no evidence that Atta and his colleagues had any way of predicting, let alone planning, the final collapse of the buildings once they had been struck by the two aircraft. 8. Housing: Luxified Skies 1Edward Glaeser, ‘How Skyscrapers Can Save the City’, Atlantic, March 2011. See also his Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier, New York: Penguin, 2012. 2Ibid. 3See Richard Florida, ‘The Rise of the Creative Class’, Washington Monthly 34:5, 2002, pp. 15–25. 4Jamie Peck, ‘Edward Glaeser’s City: A Triumph of Economism’, unpublished paper, 2014. 5Glaeser is affiliated with the neoconservative Manhattan Institute, which was a key intellectual player behind George W. Bush’s two presidential tenancies. See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 [1928]. 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 [1927], p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940.


pages: 444 words: 127,259

Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

Chapter 8: PAS DE DEUX 72 Roughly one third: Artturi Tarjanne, “Why VC’s Seek 10x Returns,” Activist VC Blog (blog), Nexit Adventures, January 12, 2018, http://www.nexitventures.com/blog/vcs-seek-10x-returns/. 74 Kalanick frequently compared: Amir Efrati, “Uber Group’s Visit to Seoul Escort Bar Sparked HR Complaint,” The Information, March 24, 2017, https://www.theinformation.com/articles/uber-groups-visit-to-seoul-escort-bar-sparked-hr-complaint. 75 “Software is eating the world”: Andreessen Horowitz, Software Is Eating the World, https://a16z.com/. 75 deals increased by 73 percent: Richard Florida and Ian Hathaway, “How the Geography of Startups and Innovation Is Changing,” Harvard Business Review, November 27, 2018, https://hbr.org/2018/11/how-the-geography-of-startups-and-innovation-is-changing. 75 billions invested post-2010: Center for American Entrepreneurship, “Rise of the Global Startup City,” Startup Revolution, http://startupsusa.org/global-startup-cities/. 75 emerged as the world’s epicenter: Center for American Entrepreneurship, “Rise of the Global Startup City.” 76 “to organize the world’s information”: “From the Garage to the Googleplex,” About, Google, https://www.google.com/about/our-story/. 76 controversial financial instrument: “The Effects of Dual-Class Ownership on Ordinary Shareholders,” Knowledge@Wharton, June 30, 2004, http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-effects-of-dual-class-ownership-on-ordinary-shareholders/. 77 “An Owner’s Manual For Google Investors”: Larry Page and Sergey Brin, “2004 Founders’ IPO Letter,” Alphabet Investor Relations, https://abc.xyz/investor/founders-letters/2004/ipo-letter.html. 77 $3.5-billion acquisition: “Snapchat Spurned $3 Billion Acquisition Offer from Facebook,” Digits (blog), Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2013, https://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/11/13/snapchat-spurned-3-billion-acquisition-offer-from-facebook/.


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

David Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011). Jessica Livingston, “Max Levchin,” in Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (New York: Apress, 2008). Ben Mezrich, The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook (New York: Anchor, 2010). David O. Sacks and Peter A. Thiel, The Diversity Myth: Multiculturalism and Political Intolerance on Campus (Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 1998). TAMPA Richard Florida, The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity (New York: HarperCollins, 2010). Alyssa Katz, Our Lot: How Real Estate Came to Own Us (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010). Robert J. Kerstein, Politics and Growth in Twentieth-Century Tampa (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001). Paul Reyes, Exiles in Eden: Life Among the Ruins of Florida’s Great Recession (New York: Henry Holt, 2010).


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

Almost fifty years after Jane’s hypotheses about the primacy of cities in national economies were articulated, many of us who have come to study cities from a variety of perspectives have arrived at some version of her conclusions. We live in the age of the Urbanocene, and globally the fate of the cities is the fate of the planet. Jane understood this truth more than fifty years ago, and only now are some of the experts beginning to recognize her extraordinary foresight. Many writers have picked up this theme, including the urban economists Edward Glaeser and Richard Florida, but none has been as forthright and bold as Benjamin Barber in his book with the provocative title If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities.5 These are indicative of a rising consciousness that cities are where the action is—where challenges have to be addressed in real time and where governance seems to work, at least relative to the increasing dysfunctionality of the nation-state. 3.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

A pluralistic country that embraces pluralism has the potential to be much more innovative, because it can draw the best talent from anywhere in the world and mix together many more diverse perspectives; oftentimes the best ideas emerge from that combustion. Even countries that are not ethnically or religiously diverse—think Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and China—can enjoy the fruits of pluralism if they have a pluralistic outlook; that is, if they develop the habits of reaching out to the best ideas anywhere in the world to adapt and adopt them. As the social scientist Richard Florida observed in a December 12, 2011, essay on this subject on CityLab.com: Economic growth and development has long been seen to turn on natural resources, technological innovation and human capital. But a growing number of studies, including my own research, suggest that geographic proximity and cultural diversity—a place’s openness to different cultures, religions, sexual orientations—also play key roles in economic growth.