peer-to-peer

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pages: 731 words: 134,263

Talk Is Cheap: Switching to Internet Telephones by James E. Gaskin

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Debian, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, telemarketer

Many cooperative groups have collaborated to shuttle Internet calls to a public telephone network central office serving the telephone number you dial. And when you do have to pay, it's pennies per minute, and only when you use it. 2.2.4. Virtual Numbers Calling out from a peer-to-peer network to the public telephone network is one thing. But if your peer-to-peer service lists you as JamesGaskin inside the Skype user directory (well, yours doesn't, but mine does), how do outsiders dial that? How can they call you? Enter virtual numbers and the inbound side of the public phone to peer-to-peer network gateway. Virtual numbers are traditional telephone numbers that link the public telephone network into the broadband phone world. Vonage and their competitors with analog telephone adapters that plug into your broadband modem are providing virtual numbers as well, but they don't really say that.

Many cooperative groups have collaborated to shuttle Internet calls to a public telephone network central office serving the telephone number you dial. And when you do have to pay, it's pennies per minute, and only when you use it. 2.2.4. Virtual Numbers Calling out from a peer-to-peer network to the public telephone network is one thing. But if your peer-to-peer service lists you as JamesGaskin inside the Skype user directory (well, yours doesn't, but mine does), how do outsiders dial that? How can they call you? Enter virtual numbers and the inbound side of the public phone to peer-to-peer network gateway. Virtual numbers are traditional telephone numbers that link the public telephone network into the broadband phone world. Vonage and their competitors with analog telephone adapters that plug into your broadband modem are providing virtual numbers as well, but they don't really say that.

Just remember that in marketing, brand awareness wins, and having every user of your product (or free Skype software in this case) demand that all their friends get the product is a wonderful thing and much desired by marketing people. * * * Note: Name from Air"Skype" is a made-up word picked because it had an available web address, the ability to act as a noun and a verb, and no meaning in any language. * * * Peer-to-peer technologies that were developed for KaZaA and improved for Skype allow the two founders to claim that Skype is the third generation of peer-to-peer technology. That makes sense, and explains why Skype has an advantage over many of their competitors: they've been doing it longer and learning as they go. Starting August 29, 2003, Skype software rolled quickly across the Internet. People were so excited that they gladly suffered through the early growing pains. Of course, a cult-like following was all they had, because Skype users could only talk to other Skype users, and only when they were both on their computers and logged into the Skype service.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

The path to fair and appropriate policies addressing peer-to-peer technologies continues to be obscured by the polarizing rhetoric often used by the participants in the debate. The content industries have repeatedly attempted to position peer-to-peer technologies as weapons, Pa r l orPr e s s 126 wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion and peer-to-peer users as criminals and terrorists. These arguments tend to conflate peer-to-peer technologies with the uses to which they are being put. While some of these uses are at least unethical and potentially illegal, many are not. The content industries’ arguments to date threaten to disrupt growth and innovation in peer-to-peer technologies, which already offer computer users far more than free, easy access to the latest Top-40 hit. Peer-to-peer networks’ true potential will only be realized once U.S. culture settles on a means of expediting the movement of cultural artifacts into the public domain.

For this reason, the core conclusion of Eytan Adar and Bernardo Huberman’s 2000 study of the usage patterns of Gnutella users—that roughly 70 percent of Gnutella users distribute no files— is perhaps not surprising. Thus, while peer-to-peer technologies are rooted in the establishment of level relationships among networked computers (the “peers” in peer-to-peer) the people using peer-to-peer technologies typically pursue imbalanced relationships. As a result, a small subset of peer-to-peer users account for the bulk of the distribution of authorized and unauthorized files to peer-to-peer networks, thereby assuming the bulk of the risks associated with the transmission of these files. It is these users who have earned the right to frame arguments that their activities constitute “sharing.” By contrast, peer- Pa r l orPr e s s 100 wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion to-peer users who scrupulously avoid making files available to others are not sharing, but taking.

The second reason is that advocates for broader and fairer use of peer-to-peer technologies have yet to produce an argument as superficially compelling as “stealing music hurts artists.” The content industries are winning this debate in large part by drawing upon established tropes that portray college campuses as enclaves of lawlessness and unethical behavior. And when the image most people have of peer-to-peer technologies is yoked to Shawn Fanning’s perpetuation of his hacker/undergraduate persona well past its expiration date, the task of rewriting and redirecting the peer-to-peer debate grows incrementally more difficult. I do not call or wish for the end of copyright. Rather, I seek copyrights calibrated not to print delivered by ponies, but to the torrents of information now spanning the globe via broadband peer-to-peer networks. The consequences of a failure to revise the current peer-to-peer narrative are, ultimately, the abandonment of the principles that prompted the first Congress to title the first U.S.


pages: 315 words: 93,522

How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day

See also chat rooms Interpol, 147–48, 213, 217 Interscope Records, 45–50, 73, 77–80, 112–13, 153, 189 Iovine, Jimmy, 45–48, 76–80, 92, 112, 191 IP addresses limits on for Scene members, 160–61, 180 traceability of, 70–71, 160–61, 250–52 iPod device, 155–57, 192–93, 202 iTunes Store, 132–33, 155–58, 189, 192, 205–6, 209, 235–36 Jackson, Michael, 84, 234 Japanese electronics industry, 93, 97, 127, 144 Jay-Z (artist), 103, 112–13, 125, 140, 177, 179, 201, 237–38, 260 Jobs, Steve, 132–33, 155–57, 189, 192–93, 227–28, 235–37 Johnston, James, 16–17, 20–21, 60, 96, 274n Juvenile (artist), 80–81, 200 “Kali” (RNS ringleader) as“Blazini,” “Death, ” 181 Glover’s association with, 108–9, 139–42, 145–46, 148–51, 215–22 law enforcement investigation of, 195–203, 248–52 leadership of RNS by, 106–8, 180–88, 217–20 paranoia of, 147, 217 post-RNS activities of, 251, 262 Saunders’ association with, 179 shutdown of RNS by, 218–22, 249–52 Tai’s association with, 143–45 Kaminska, Izabella, 244–45 Kazaa peer-to-peer network, 160, 165, 209, 225, 252 Knight, Suge, 46–50, 78, 81 KOSDK (RNS participant), 181–88, 220 Laurie Records, 38, 43–44, 199 Led Zeppelin (band), 39–41, 124, 199, 261 Level 3 encoder (L3Enc), 55–56, 62–63, 72–73, 88–89, 91 Lévy, Jean-Bernard, 155, 190 licensing agreements mp3 technology and, 56–58, 90–91, 94, 128–29 music publishing business and, 234 for streaming media, 261 Lil Wayne, 81, 140, 154, 179, 200–202, 226 LimeWire peer-to-peer network, 160, 165, 171, 184, 252 Limp Bizkit, 79, 112, 123 Linde, Henri, 57–63, 93–94, 96, 127–29, 133 “Little Bit O’ Soul” (song), 43–44 Ludacris (artist), 140, 143–44, 148–49, 153, 177 Macintosh systems, mp3 and, 62, 132–33 Mannie Fresh (artist), 81, 154 Marilyn Manson (artist), 77, 79 market research, Morris’s reliance on, 42–50, 156–57, 190, 198–99 Marshall Mathers LP (album), The, 124–25 Messier, Jean-Marie, 122, 155 Metallica (band), 73, 202 Microsoft, 87, 128–30, 133 Middelhoff, Thomas, 116–17, 119 mixtapes, Internet distribution of, 201–2 Mnookin, Seth, 227–29 Mohan, Edward, 248, 251 MojoNation peer-to-peer network, 166–67 Montejano, Richard (RickOne) (OSC leader), 221–22, 248–49 Morris, Doug advertising streaming revenue, 231–38 artists’ relationships with, 112–13, 120–21, 158–59, 191, 229–32 at Atlantic Records, 39–42 bootlegged music and, 84–85 Cash Money records and, 80, 113. 200, 202 earnings of, 189–90, 227, 260 Ertegun and, 39–42, 46, 48, 191, 199, 278n Iovine and, 45–47 Jay-Z and, 103, 237 Jobs and, 155–57, 192–93, 227–28, 235–37 market research skills of, 42–50, 156–57, 190, 198–99, 228–29 MCA Music Entertainment Group and, 75–79 Napster, reaction to, 117–20 payola scandal and, 196–98 PolyGram merger and, 102–3 Project Hubcap lawsuits and, 158–61, 193 rap music expansion and, 148–51, 154–55, 221 as Sony Music CEO, 260 Universal Music Group and, 79–85, 111–12, 153, 155 Vevo and, 232–38, 261 Vivendi merger and, 122–25, 158–59, 189–92, 225–38 as Warner Music Group CEO, 37–38, 42–46, 50–51 Wired magazine interview and, 227–30 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) DVD technology and, 165 mp3 development and, 17–20, 61–62, 94, 97–98, 127, 134 organizational structure of, 274n Philips lobbying of, 20–21 psychoacoustic compression competition held by, 17–19, 53 support of mp2, 5–6, 20–25, 58 mp2 technology MPEG endorsement of, 20–25 popularity of, 5, 53, 192 mp3 technology bootlegged music using, 85, 88–89 Brandenburg’s development of, 2–6, 16, 18–21, 53–58, 128 commercial success of, 87 copy-protectable version of, 90 encoding process, 282n Morris’ reaction to, 117–18, 120–21, 193 MPEG endorsement of, 20 music piracy and, 72–73, 193 patents on, 56–58, 90–91, 93–96, 128–29 player development for, 58–60, 125–26 psychoacoustic research and, 7–16, 128 recording industry resistance to, 5–6, 56–57, 90–92 MPMan player, 97, 259 MTV, 40, 179, 192–93 Murphy, George, 255–58 MUSICAM, 18–21, 24–25, 55, 60–61, 94, 97, 128, 134 Music Explosion (band), 43–44, 123 music festivals, growth of, 233–38, 260–61 music retailers as prerelease source, 144–45, 176–77 price collusion and, 114 sales figures for, 43, 154 music videos, syndication of, 232–38, 260–61 Napster, 244 emergence of, 114–21 impact on recording industry of, 156–57, 244 mp3 technology and, 128, 130–31 peer-to-peer file-sharing and, 160, 165 portable player development and, 125–26 National Hockey League, 54–55 NEET demographic, 209–14 NetFraCk (piracy leader), 72–73 NFO files, Scene’s use of, 140–41, 182, 216, 219 Nicks, Stevie, 41, 45 Nine Inch Nails (band), 77, 208 No Doubt (band), 77, 79 Nominet domain name, 212–14 Ogg Vorbis, 132, 259 Oink’s Pink Palace, 170–74, 205–14, 239–43, 252, 263 Old Skool Classics (OSC) piracy group, 179, 220–22, 248–49 open-source software, 132, 168, 170–71, 259 Operation Buccaneer, 147–48, 162, 194 Operation Fastlink, 162–63, 182, 195, 203, 239, 257–58 organized crime, bootlegged music and, 67–68, 71–74, 83–85 Outkast, 108, 143–44, 148, 179 Pandora, 253, 261 Parker, Sean, 116–17 patent law, mp3 protections and, 95–96 PC systems, mp3 player development and, 55–56, 59, 62, 85 peer-to-peer file-sharing, 114–18, 121–22 lawsuits against, 158–61, 165, 225–26 Napster and, 160, 167 prerelease leaks and, 157–58 quality and distribution problems with, 165–67, 171–72 torrent technology and, 166–70, 226–27 Philips corporation format wars and, 19–20, 59, 67, 94, 97, 134 mp2 promotion by, 20–25, 53 PolyGram division of, 32–33, 78, 82 Seagram purchase of PolyGram from, 82–85, 101 Physical Graffiti (album), 48, 199 Pink Moon (album), 205–6, 240 piracy, origin of term, 278n Pirate Bay torrent site, 168–71, 173, 184, 207, 209, 240, 242–43, 252 Pirate Party, formation of, 242–45 PlayStation piracy, 108, 186 PolyGram division of Philips corporation, 32–33, 78, 82–85, 101, 111–12 EDC takeover of, 191–92, 215 marquee releases at, 136 PolyGram Kings Mountain manufacturing plant closing of, 253 compact disc production at, 27–29 Glover’s employment at, 32–33, 175–76 Interscope distribution deal with, 73, 78 “No Theft Tolerated” standard at, 32 security system at, 67–68, 103–5, 135–39 smuggling activity at, 35, 67, 103–8, 135, 149–51, 176–88 Universal’s acquisition of, 84–85, 101–3 polyphase quadrature filter bank, 19–21 Popp, Harald, 13, 53, 56–59, 88, 93–95, 97–98, 130–31, 134 portable music players, 125–27 Prabhu, Jay, 194–96, 203, 252, 257 prerelease leaks Oink’s Pink Palace and, 209–14 Scene involvement with, 72–73, 139–41, 144–45, 184–88 sources for, 144–45, 157–58, 176–77, 185–88 streaming technology and, 261–62 Pressplay online music store, 119, 157, 228 Project Hubcap lawsuits, 159–60, 166, 193, 225–26 psychoacoustic compression technology AAC applications, 60, 88, 96–98 Brandenburg’s development of, 60, 88 competing research in, 7–17, 128 human speech and, 16 mp2 use of, 5, 20–25 mp3 use of, 7–16, 53–58 MPEG evaluation of, 17–19, 53 studio engineers’ reaction to, 91–92 Zwicker’s contributions to, 7–16, 18–19 publishing rights as revenue stream, 234–38, 260–61 Rabid Neurosis.

The lawsuit sought to obtain an injunction prohibiting the sale of Diamond’s Rio portable digital audio device, and any others like it, suffocating the nascent mp3 player market in the cradle. The second lawsuit, A&M Records vs. Napster, was filed by 18 record companies, including Universal. The suit alleged that Napster was legally responsible for the copyright infringement occurring over its peer-to-peer network, and that the company was liable for damages. The two lawsuits wound through various civil courts and various stages of appeal. Napster peaked at sixty million users, while Diamond’s Rio player was plagued by various design flaws and sold poorly. The lawsuits had a chilling effect on industry R&D. As long as it might be found liable for the copyright infringement of its users, no legitimate software company was going to market a peer-to-peer file-sharing app, and, facing the possibility of a court-ordered injunction removing it from the shelves, no legitimate device maker was going to invest in designing a player for mp3s.

But if you had a reliable mp3 player, things would be different. You could throw your CDs in the garbage and port everything to a pocket-sized hard drive. You’d never have to buy a compact disc again. It all depended on how RIAA vs. Diamond played out. After successive rounds of appeals and counterappeals, the lawsuits came to an end. It was a split decision, with a victory against Napster but a loss against Diamond. Peer-to-peer networks were driven underground, but the mp3 players remained on store shelves. Napster’s servers went offline in July 2001, and, following a mad rush of eleventh-hour downloading, the public had hundreds of millions of mp3 files stranded on their home computers, and no easy way to get them off. The stage was set for a remarkable upheaval, one that would permanently obsolesce the compact disc and catalyze the transformation of a niche technology player into the largest company on earth.


pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

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affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, commoditize, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto

Preserving the capacity of industrial cultural producers to maintain a hermetic seal on the use of materials to which they own copyright can be bought only at the cost of disabling the newly emerging modes of cultural production from quoting and directly building upon much of the culture of the last century. 737 The Battle over Peer-to-Peer Networks 738 The second major institutional battle over the technical and social trajectory of Internet development has revolved around peer-to-peer (p2p) networks. I [pg 419] offer a detailed description of it here, but not because I think it will be the make-it-or-break-it of the networked information economy. If any laws have that determinative a power, they are the Fritz chip and DMCA. However, the peer-to-peer legal battle offers an excellent case study of just how difficult it is to evaluate the effects of institutional ecology on technology, economic organization, and social practice. 739 Peer-to-peer technologies as a global phenomenon emerged from Napster and its use by tens of millions of users around the globe for unauthorized sharing of music files.

See blocked access financial reward, as demotivator, 187-190 Fine-grained goods, 221 First-best preferences, 355 large-audience programming, 355 power of mass media owners, 355 First-best preferences, mass media and, 297, 359, 366, 397, 423, 429, 463 concentration of mass-media power, 297, 397-402, 423, 429-436 large-audience programming, 366-375, 463-464 of mass media owners, 359-365 power of mass media owners, 397-402 Fisher, William (Terry), 40, 245, 498, 526, 720 Fiske, John, 262, 497, 526 Fixed costs, 216 Folding@home project, 168-170 Folk culture, 585 see culture food, commons-research based on, 585 Food security, commons-based research on, 586-608 Formal autonomy theory, 269-272 Formal instruction, 562 Fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 459-460, 818-819 Franklin, Benjamin, 342 Franks, Charles, 165, 264 Free High School Science Texts (FHSST), 201, 582 Free software, 19-20, 37, 96, 125-132, 202, 247, 573, 762, 803 as competition to market-based business, 247 commons-based welfare development, 573-576 human development and justice, 37 policy on, 762-763 project modularity and granularity, 202 security considerations, 803-807 Freedom, 50, 122, 253, 273, 286, 316, 505, 532 behavioral options, 286-288, 316 cultural, 505-514, 532-533 of commons, 122 property and commons, 273-278 Freenet, 479 Frey, Bruno, 187-188 Friedman, Milton, 82 Friendships, virtual, 637-639 Friendster, 653 Froomkin, Michael, 727, 755 Future, 481, 531 participatory culture, 531-536 public sphere, 481-484 G GCP (Generation Challenge Program), 605 GE (General Electric), 346, 350-351 GM (genetically modified) foods, 590-597 GNU/Linux operating system, 128-131 GPL (General Public License), 126-130, 205 See Also free software, 205 GTLD-MoU document, 754 Games, immersive, 149-150, 263 General Public License (GPL), 126-130, 205 See also fre software, 205 Generation Challenge Program (GCP), 605 Genetically modified (GM) foods, 590-597 Genome@home project, 169 Ghosh, Rishab, 207 Gifts, 226-227 Gilmore, Dan, 393, 470 Glance, Natalie, 447, 461 Global development, 550-554, 584, 609, 627-628, 796 food and agricultural innovation, 584-608 international harmonization, 796-801 medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609-623 Gnutella, 740 Godelier, Maurice, 215, 226 Golden rice, 599 Goods, information-embedded, 556-558 Google, 153 Gould, Stephen Jay, 64 Government, 52, 339, 356, 426, 473 authoritarian control, 426, 473-480 independence from control of, 339, 356 role of, 52-56 working around authorities, 473-480 Gramsci, Antonio, 506-507 Granovetter, Mark, 189, 638, 641 Granularity, 200-203, 221 of lumpy goods, 221-222 Granularity of participation and, 200-203 Green Revolution, 589-594 Grokster, 742 Growth rates of Web sites, 443, 446 H HDI (Human Development Index), 552-554 HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index), 363 HIV/AIDS, 570-571, 585, 610 Habermas, Jurgen, 333, 338, 367, 508-509, 727 Hampton, Keith, 644 HapMap Project, 621 Hardware, 206, 220, 294, 718 as shareable, lumpy goods, 220-222 infrastructure ownership, 294-295 policy on physical devices, 718-725 Hardware regulations, 718-725 Harmonization, international, 796-801 Harris, Bev, 405, 408-409, 412 Hart, Michael, 164-165, 264 Hayek, Friedrich, 51, 274 Health effects of GM foods, 593-594 Hearst, William Randolph, 365 Heller, Michael, 558 High-production value content, 313, 528-530 Hollings, Fritz, 721-724 Home project, 168-170 Hoover, Herbert, 348 Hopkins Report, 408 Horner, Mark, 201 Huberman, Bernardo, 443, 446 Human Development Index (HDI), 552-554 Human Development Report, 552 Human affairs, technology and, 43-48 Human communicative capacity, 108-112, 194, 217 feasibility conditions for social production, 194-207 pricing, 217 Human community, coexisting with Internet, 664-666 Human contact, online vs. physical, 638-639 Human development and justice, 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550-554, 568, 820-821 commons-based research, 568-583 liberal theories of, 542-549 Human motivation, 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context of, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 200-203, 221-222 Human welfare, 255, 297, 427, 542, 550, 555, 568 commons-based research, 568-583 commons-based strategies, 550-554 digital divide, 427 freedom from constraint, 297-299 information-based advantages, 555-562 liberal theories of justice, 542-549 Hundt, Reed, 398 Hyperlinking on the Web, 392, 437, 791 as trespass, 791-795 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 I IAHC (International Ad Hock Committee), 754 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), 754 IBM's business strategy, 96, 247-248 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), 755 Iconic representations of opinion, 367, 373 Ideal market, 123 Immersive entertainment, 149-150, 263 Implicit knowledge, transfer of, 562 Incentives to produce, 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 200-203, 221-222 Independence from government control, 339, 356 Independence of Web sites, 203 Individual autonomy, 26-28, 51, 203, 258-322, 269, 278, 279, 309, 506, 815-819 culture and, 506-508 formal conception of, 269-272 independence of Web sites, 203 individual capabilities in, 51-56 information environment, structure of, 278, 279-303 mass media and, 309-310 Individual capabilities and action, 16, 43, 51-56, 108, 195, 238, 513, 545 as modality of production, 238-243 as physical capital, 195-196 coordinated effects of individual actions, 16-18 cultural shift, 513 economic condition and, 545 human capacity as resource, 108 technology and human affairs, 43-48 Individualist methodologies, 47-48 Industrial age, 73, 265 destabilization of, 73 reduction of individual autonomy, 265-266 Industrial ecology of digital environment, 356 emerging role of mass media, 356-358 Industrial model of communication, 16-17, 29, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 356, 539, 563, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 825-826 autonomy and, 309-310 barriers to justice, 539-540 emerging role of mass media, 327-330, 340-341, 356-358 enclosure movement, 671-672 information industries, 563-565 mapping, framework for, 685-698 medical innovation and, 611 path dependency, 679-684 relationship with social producers, 244-250 security-related policy, 146-148, 695, 803-807 shift away from, 31-34 stakes of information policy, 808-829 structure of mass media, 327-330 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 Inefficiency of information regulation, 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 221, 291, 571, 810-813 capacity reallocation, 221-224 property protections, 571 wireless communications policy, 291 Inertness, political, 355, 366-375 Influence exaction, 295-296, 298-300 Information appropriation strategies, 101-103 Information as nonrival, 79-83 Information economy, 11-66, 14, 24, 42, 57, 394, 542 democracy and liberalism, 24-39 effects on public sphere, 394-415 emergence of, 14-23 institutional ecology, 57-66 justice, liberal theories of, 542-549 methodological choices, 42-56 Information flow, 34, 281, 296, 355, 366, 463, 702 controlling with policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 Information industries, 563-565 Information overload and Babel objection, 31, 34, 314-323, 419, 424, 429-436, 818-819 Information production, 16, 79, 88, 174, 194, 403, 815 feasibility conditions for social production, 194-207 networked public sphere capacity for, 403-415 nonrivalry, 79-83, 174 physical constraints on, 16-17 strategies of, 88 Information production capital, 21-22, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309 control of, 195-196 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 fixed and initial costs, 216 production costs as limiting, 309 transaction costs, 120 Information production economics, 77-117, 88, 100, 105, 114 current production strategies, 88-99 exclusive rights, 100-104, 114-117 production over computer networks, 105-112 Information production inputs, 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702 NASA Clickworkers project, 137-139 Wikipedia project, 140-148 existing information, 81-83, 108 immersive entertainment, 149-150 individual action as modality, 238-243 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 pricing, 214-219 propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 systematically blocked by policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 universal intake, 335-336, 355-358 Information production, market-based, 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 613 cultural change, transparency of, 522-526 mass popular culture, 529-530 relationship with social producers, 244-250 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 universities as, 613-616 without property protections, 83-87, 95-99 Information sharing, 175, 216, 218, 294 infrastructure ownership, 294 initial costs, 216 transaction costs, 218-223 Information, defined, 71, 559-560 Information, perfect, 364 Information-embedded goods, 556-558 Information-embedded tools, 558 Innovation, 37, 291, 586, 764 agricultural, commons-based, 586-608 human development, 37-38 software patents and, 764-766 wireless communications policy, 291 Innovation economics, 77-117, 88, 100, 100, 105, 114 current production strategies, 88 exclusive rights, 100-104, 100-104, 114-117 production over computer networks, 105-112 Inputs to production, 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702 NASA Clickworkers project, 137-139 Wikipedia project, 140-148 existing information, 81-83, 108 immersive entertainment, 149-150 individual action as modality, 238-243 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 pricing, 214-219 propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 systematically blocked by policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 universal intake, 335-336, 355-358 Instant messaging, 647 Institute for One World Health, 619 Institutional ecology of digital environment, 6, 16-17, 27-28, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 539, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 824-827 autonomy and, 309-310 barriers to justice, 539-540 emerging role of mass media, 327-330, 340-341 enclosure movement, 671-672 mapping, framework for, 685-698 medical innovation and, 611 path dependency, 679-684 relationship with social producers, 244-250 security-related policy, 146-148, 695, 803-807 shift away from, 31-34 stakes of information policy, 808-829 structure of mass media, 327-330 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 International HapMap Project, 621 International harmonization, 796-801 Internet, 377, 385, 416, 423, 429, 437, 448, 473, 515, 528, 535, 654, 664, 698, 753, 759, 791 Web addresses, 753-758 Web browsers, 759-761 as platform for human connection, 654-658 authoritarian control over, 473-480 centralization of, 423, 429-436 coexisting with human community, 664-666 democratizing effect of, 416-428 democratizing effects of, 377-384 globality of, effects on policy, 698 linking as trespass, 791-795 plasticity of culture, 528-530, 535 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 strongly connected Web sites, 448-450 technologies of, 385-393 transparency of culture, 515-527 Internet Explorer browser, 759-761 Intrinsic motivations, 187-193 Introna, Lucas, 466 Isolation, 637-639 J Jackson, Jesse, 470 Jedi Saga, The, 261-262 Jefferson, Richard, 606 Joe Einstein model, 91-92, 98, 564 Johanson, Jon, 734 Journalism, undermined by commercialism, 355, 365-375 Justice and human development, 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550, 568, 820-821 commons-based research, 568 commons-based strategies, 550-554 liberal theories of, 542-549 K KDKA Pittsburgh, 345, 346-347 KaZaa, 741-742 Kant, Immanuel, 274 Karma (Slashdot), 157 Keillor, Garrison, 441 Kick, Russ, 203, 464 Know-How model, 95 Knowledge, defined, 562 Koren, Niva Elkin, 40 Kottke, Jason, 455 Kraut, Robert, 638, 644 Kumar, Ravi, 455 Kymlicka, Will, 508 L Laboratories, peer-produced, 622-623 Lakhani, Karim, 207 Lange, David, 63 Large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463 susceptibility of networked public sphere, 463-464 Large-circulation press, 342-343 Large-grained goods, 221 Last mile (wireless), 709-714 Layers of institutional ecology, 676-677, 685-698, 691, 696, 767, 823-825 content layer, 676-677, 691, 696, 767-802, 823-825 physical layer, 691, 823-825 see also logical layer of institutional ecology, 691 Learning networks, 91-92, 95, 218 Lemley, Mark, 705, 779 Lerner, Josh, 83, 207 Lessig, Lawrence (Larry), 40, 63, 434, 498, 501, 678, 705 Liberal political theory, 49-51, 502, 532 cultural freedom, 502-514, 532-533 Liberal societies, 24-39, 26, 31, 35, 40, 331, 542 autonomy, 26-29 critical culture and social relations, 40 design of public sphere, 331-339 justice and human development, 35 public sphere, shift from mass media, 31-34 theories of justice, 542-549 Licensing, 126, 205, 346, 598, 778 GPL (General Public License), 126-130, 205 agricultural biotechnologies, 598-608 radio, 346-349 shrink-wrap (contractual enclosure), 778-781 Limited intake of mass media, 355-358 Limited sharing networks, 91-92, 98-99 Limited-access common resources, 122 Lin, Nan, 189 Linking on the Web, 392, 437, 791 as trespass, 791-795 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 Linux operating system, 130 Litman, Jessica, 63, 74, 501, 771 Local clusters in network topology, 34 Logical layer of institutional ecology, 171, 522, 671, 676, 691, 696, 726-766, 729, 737-752, 753, 759, 762, 782, 787, 796, 805, 823 DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 671, 729-736 Web browsers, 759-761 database protection, 787-790 domain name system, 753-758 free software policies, 762-763 international harmonization, 796-801 peer-to-peer networks, 171-175, 805-806 recent changes, 696 trademark dilutation, 522, 782-786 Loneliness, 637-639 Loose affiliations, 27-28, 631, 642, 649-653 Los Alamos model, 91-92, 98 Lott, Trent, 461, 470 Lowest-common-denominator programming, 355, 367-375, 463-464 Lucas, George, 261-262 Luck, justice and, 543-545 Lumpy goods, 220-222 Luther, Martin, 64 M MIT's Open Courseware Initiative, 582 MMOGs (massive multiplayer online games), 149, 263 MP3.com, 739, 744 MSF (Medecins San Frontieres), 614 Mailing lists (electronic), 387 Management, changing relationships of, 247-250 Mangabeira Unger, Roberto, 266 Manipulating perceptions of others, 281-288, 285, 295, 298, 315-316, 397, 531 influence exaction, 295-296, 298-300 with propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 Marconi, 346 Market reports, access to, 561 Market transactions, 211-214 Market-based information producers, 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 529, 613 cultural change, transparency of, 522-526 mass popular culture, 529-530, 529-530 relationship with social producers, 244-250 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 universities as, 613-616 without property protections, 83-87, 95-99 Marshall, Josh, 398, 445, 470 Marx, Karl, 274, 505 Mass media, 327, 327, 340, 352, 353, 353, 397 as platform for public sphere, 327-330, 340-341, 352, 353-356 basic critiques of, 353-375 commercial platform for public sphere, 327-330 corrective effects of network environment, 397-402 structure of, 327-330 Mass media, political freedom and, 323-376, 331, 340, 353-375, 357 commercial platform for public sphere, 340-341, 357-358 design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 331-339 Massive multiplayer games, 149, 263 McChesney, Robert, 352 McHenry, Robert, 141 McLuhan, Marshall, 45 McVeigh, Timothy (sailor), 652 Medecins Sans Frontieres, 614 Media concentration, 297, 397, 423, 429-436 corrective effects of network environment, 397-402 Medicines, commons-based research on, 609-623 Medium of exchange, 214-219 Medium-grained goods, 221 Meetup.com site, 653 Metamoderation (Slashdot), 159-160 Methodological individualism, 48 Mickey model, 90-93 Microsoft Corporation, 759, 794 browser wars, 759-761 sidewalk.com, 794 Milgram, Stanley, 454 Misfortune, justice and, 543-545 Mobile phones, 393, 651, 709 open wireless networks, 709-714 Modularity, 200-203 Moglen, Eben, 20, 112, 748 Monetary constraints on information production, 21-23, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309 control of, 195-196 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 fixed and initial costs, 216 production costs as limiting, 309 transaction costs, 120 Money, 89, 187, 214, 309, 420, 462 as demotivator, 187-190 as dominant factor, 420 centralization of communications, 462-466 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 cost of production as limiting, 309 crispness of currency exchange, 214-219 Monitoring, authoritarian, 426 Monopoly, 290, 345, 351, 371, 473, 611 authoritarian control, 473-480 breadth of programming under, 371 medical research and innovation, 611 radio broadcasting, 345, 351-352 wired environment as, 290 Moore, Michael, 360 Motivation to produce, 21-22, 183-194, 189, 200-203, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 221-222 Moulitas, Markos, 398 Mumford, Lewis, 45 Municipal broadband initiatives, 715-717 Murdoch, Rupert, 365 Music industry, 106-107, 171, 733, 747-750, 777 DMCA violations, 733 digital sampling, 777 peer-to-peer networks and, 171-172 MyDD.com site, 398 N NASA Clickworkers, 137-139 NBC (National Broadcasting Company), 351 NIH (National Institutes of Health), 579 NSI (Network Solutions. Inc.), 754-755 Napster, 739-740 see also peer-to-peer networks, 739 Negroponte, Nicholas, 430 Neighborhood relations, strengthening of, 631, 642-647 Nelson, W. R., 367 Netanel, Neil, 425, 468 Netscape and browser wars, 760 Network topology, 171, 179, 278, 279, 319, 392, 437, 448, 451, 455, 737, 791, 805 autonomy and, 278, 279-303 emergent ordered structure, 455-460 linking as trespass, 791-795 moderately linked sites, 451 peer-to-peer networks, 171-175, 737-752, 805 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 quoting on Web, 392 repeater networks, 179-180 strongly connected Web sites, 448-450 Networked environment policy, 14-66, 14, 24, 57, 394, 542 democracy and liberalism, 24-39 effects on public sphere, 394-415 emergence of, 14-23 institutional ecology, 57-66 justice, liberal theories of, 542-549 Networked environmental policy.

Nevertheless, they provide important lessons about the extent to which large-scale collaboration among strangers or loosely affiliated users can provide effective communications platforms. For fairly obvious reasons, we usually think of peer-to-peer networks, beginning with Napster, as a "problem." This is because they were initially overwhelmingly used to perform an act that, by the analysis of almost any legal scholar, was copyright infringement. To a significant extent, they are still used in this form. There were, and continue to be, many arguments about whether the acts of the firms that provided peer-to-peer software were responsible for the violations. However, there has been little argument that anyone who allows thousands of other users to make copies of his or her music files is violating copyright-- hence the public interpretation of the creation of peer-to-peer networks as primarily a problem. From the narrow perspective of the law of copyright or of the business model of the recording industry and Hollywood, this may be an appropriate focus.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

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AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The point is that the idle time of the machine could be harnessed to the end of getting something done. 30 As Howard Rheingold describes it: At its most basic level, distributed processing is a way of harvesting a resource that until now has been squandered on a massive scale: unused CPU cycles. Even if you type two characters per second on your keyboard, you're using only a fraction of your machine's power. [Distributed computing bands together millions of computers] on the Net to create, with their downtime, ad hoc supercomputers.31 The potential of peer-to-peer technologies reaches far beyond simple file transfer or the sharing of processing cycles. Indeed, as researchers are coming to understand, the most important peer-to-peer technologies could be more efficient caching technologies. A “cache” is simply a copy of content kept close to the user, so that less time is needed to get access to that content. P2P caching solutions imagine using computers at the edge to more efficiently store data. A user might be paid by a network, for example, to reserve 1 gigabyte of his or her hard disk for the network to do with as it wants.

By increasing the demand for a diverse selection of content, and by enabling the cheaper identification of that demand, the Net widens the range of potential contributors. NEW PARTICIPATION: P2P FINALLY, CONSIDER an innovation that enables a new kind of participation that many have called the next great revolution for the Internet, and that in light of our discussion of e2e will be quite familiar: the emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks.25 A peer-to-peer network is one where the content is being served not by a single central server, but by equal, or “peer,” machines linked across the network. Formally, “p2p is a class of applications that take advantage of resources—storage, cycles, content, human presence—available at the edges of the Internet.”26 In the sense I've described, this was the architecture of the original computers on the Internet—there wasn't a set of central servers that the machines connected to; instead, there was a set of e2e protocols that enabled data to be shared among the machines.

As machines have become more powerful, and as they have become more reliably and permanently connected to the Net, the possibility of using peers to process and forward data on the Net has increased. Peer-to-peer services are returning to the Internet as machines mature and are persistently on the Net. The character of what can happen is changing, and the potential—if left free to develop—is extraordinary. Napster is the most famous peer-to-peer technology, even though it is not exactly peer-to-peer. (There is a central server that keeps a database of who has what; the music itself is kept on other people's machines.) But Napster is the horse and buggy in this transportation system. It is only the beginning. Consider the SETI project. SETI—the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence—scans the radio waves for evidence of intelligent life somewhere else in the universe.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Some Challenges and Opportunities In many ways, this new generation of decentralized peer-to-peer technologies mirrors the P2P vision of Michel Bauwens that we discussed in chapter 1, and promises to create immense economic value over the coming decades. As the venture capitalist Chris Dixon wrote on his blog in 2014, Bitcoin makes activities like international microfinance, markets for computing capacity, incentivized social software, and other micropayments possible—not because we haven’t considered the value of these before, but because the transaction costs were too high.16 There are signs that traditional businesses will embrace many of the new capabilities of decentralized peer-to-peer technologies, much like Facebook actively uses BitTorrent within its privately owned server farms. In spring 2015, NASDAQ announced plans to leverage blockchain technology to support the development of a distributed ledger function for securities trading that will provide enhanced integrity, audit capabilities, governance, and transfer of ownership capabilities.

These include conversations with: Neha Gondal about the sociology of the sharing economy; Ravi Bapna, Verena Butt d’Espous, Juan Cartagena, Chris Dellarocas, Alok Gupta, and Sarah Rice about trust; Paul Daugherty, Peter Evans, Geoffrey Parker, Anand Shah, Marshall Van Alstyne, and Bruce Weinelt about platforms; Brad Burnham, Kanyi Maqubela, Simon Rothman, Craig Shapiro, and Albert Wenger about venture capital; Janelle Orsi, Nathan Schreiber, and Trebor Scholz about cooperatives; Umang Dua, Oisin Hanrahan, Micah Kaufmann, and Juho Makkonen about marketplace models; Gene Homicki about alternative rental models; Primavera De Filipi and Matan Field about the blockchain and decentralized peer-to-peer technologies; Ashwini Chhabra, Molly Cohen, Althea Erickson, David Estrada, Nick Grossman, David Hantman, Alex Howard, Meera Joshi, Veronica Juarez, Chris Lehane, Mike Masserman, Padden Murphy, Joseph Okpaku, Brooks Rainwater, April Rinne, Sofia Ranchordas, Michael Simas, Jessica Singleton, Adam Thierer, and Bradley Tusk about regulation; Elena Grewal, Kevin Novak, and Chris Pouliot about the use of data science in the sharing economy; Nellie Abernathy, Cynthia Estlund, Steve King, Wilma Liebman, Marysol McGee, Brian Miller, Michelle Miller, Caitlin Pearce, Libby Reder, Julie Samuels, Kristin Sharp, Dan Teran, Felicia Wong, and Marco Zappacosta about the future of work.

The “crowd”—manifested by a distributed and partially replicated index, and not a centralized server—matched a peer looking for a song with the peer who had the song. Every subsequent successful peer-to-peer filesharing network uses some variant of this decentralized, replicated indexing approach. And in 2009, the emergence of the digital currency Bitcoin demonstrated a significant step forward in decentralized peer-to-peer technology by decentralizing and distributing not merely an index but an actual anonymized ledger of financial transactions, the blockchain. When combined with peer-to-peer filesharing technologies, cryptographic techniques, and a novel incentive system, Bitcoin showed how a blockchain-based system could be used as the basis for trusted peer-to-peer transactions without a third-party intermediary, instead using the crowd—a decentralized network of “verifiers”—to clear transactions.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

An interesting challenge for academic publishing on the blockchain is not just having an open-access, collaboratively edited, ongoing-discussion-forum journal per existing examples, or open-access, self-published blockchain white papers on GitHub, but to more fundamentally implement the blockchain concepts in blockchain journals. The consideration of what a decentralized direct peer-to-peer model for academic publishing could look like prompts the articulation of the functions that academic publishing provides and how, if these are still required, they might be provided in decentralized models. In terms of “publishing,” any manner of making content publicly available on the Web is publishing; one can easily self-publish on blogs, wikis, Twitter, Amazon, and the like. A blockchain model in terms of decentralized peer-to-peer content would be nothing more than a search engine linking one individual’s interests with another’s published material. This is a decentralized peer-to-peer model in the blockchain sense. So, academic (and other publishers) might be providing some other value functions, namely vouching for content quality.

The censorship issue is that in a URL such as google.com, centralized authorities control the top-level domain, the .com portion (the United States controls .com URLs), and therefore can potentially seize and redirect the URL. Centralized authorities control all top-level domains; for example, China controls all .cn domains. Therefore, a decentralized DNS means that top-level domains can exist that are not controlled by anyone, and they have DNS lookup tables shared on a peer-to-peer network. As long as there are volunteers running the decentralized DNS server software, alternative domains registered in this system can be accessed. Authorities cannot impose rules to affect the operation of a well-designed and executed global peer-to-peer top-level domain. The same Bitcoin structure is used in the implementation of a separate blockchain and coin, Namecoin, for decentralized DNS.

REST APIs Essentially secure calls in real time, these could be used in specific cases to help usability. Many blockchain companies provide alternative wallet interfaces that have this kind of functionality, such as Blockchain.info’s numerous wallet APIs. Business Model Challenges Another noted challenge, both functional and technical, is related to business models. At first traditional business models might not seem applicable to Bitcoin since the whole point of decentralized peer-to-peer models is that there are no facilitating intermediaries to take a cut/transaction fee (as in one classical business model). However, there are still many worthwhile revenue-generating products and services to provide in the new blockchain economy. Education and mainstream user-friendly tools are obvious low-hanging fruit (for example, being targeted by Coinbase, Circle Internet Financial, and Xapo), as is improving the efficiency of the entire worldwide existing banking and finance infrastructure like Ripple—another almost “no brainer” project, when blockchain principles are understood.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Traditionally, when making online payments, we solve the double-spend problem by clearing every transaction through the central databases of one or many third parties, such as a money transfer service (like Western Union), a commercial bank (Citicorp), a government body (Commonwealth Bank of Australia), a credit card company (Visa), or an online payment platform (PayPal). Settlement can take days or even weeks in some parts of the world. Breakthrough: Satoshi leveraged an existing distributed peer-to-peer network and a bit of clever cryptography to create a consensus mechanism that could solve the double-spend problem as well as, if not better than, a trusted third party. On the bitcoin blockchain, the network time-stamps the first transaction where the owner spends a particular coin and rejects subsequent spends of the coin, thus eliminating a double spend. Network participants who run fully operating bitcoin nodes—called miners—gather up recent transactions, settle them in the form of a block of data, and repeat the process every ten minutes.

Let the network reach consensus algorithmically on what happened and record it cryptographically on the blockchain. The mechanism for reaching consensus is critical. “Consensus is a social process,” blogged Vitalik Buterin, pioneer of the Ethereum blockchain. “Human beings are fairly good at engaging in consensus . . . without any help from algorithms.” He explained that, once a system scales beyond an individual’s ability to do the math, people turn to software agents. In peer-to-peer networks, the consensus algorithm divvies up the right to update the status of the network, that is, to vote on the truth. The algorithm doles out this right to a group of peers who constitute an economic set, a set that has skin in the game, so to speak. According to Buterin, what’s important about this economic set is that its members are securely distributed: no single member or cartel should be able to overtake a majority, even if they had the means and incentive to do so.7 To achieve consensus, the bitcoin network uses what’s called a proof of work (PoW) mechanism.

Who graduated from medical school? Who bought guns? Who made these Nike shoes, this Apple device, or this baby formula? Where did these diamonds come from? Trust is the sine qua non of the digital economy, and a platform for secure and reliable mass collaboration holds many possibilities for a new kind of organization and society. 2. Distributed Power Principle: The system distributes power across a peer-to-peer network with no single point of control. No single party can shut the system down. If a central authority manages to black out or cut off an individual or group, the system will still survive. If over half the network attempts to overwhelm the whole, everyone will see what’s happening. Problem to Be Solved: In the first era of the Internet, any large institution with a large established base of users, be they employees, citizens, customers, or other organizations, thought little of their social contract.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The distributed and interconnected nature of the Internet of Things deepens individual entrepreneurial engagement in direct proportion to the diversity and strength of one’s collaborative relationships in the social economy. That’s because the democratization of communication, energy, and logistics allows billions of people to be individually “empowered.” But that empowerment is only achievable by one’s participation in peer-to-peer networks that are underwritten by social capital. A new generation is coming of age that is more entrepreneurially self-directed by means of being more socially embedded. It’s no surprise that the best and brightest of the Millennial Generation think of themselves as “social entrepreneurs.” For them, being both entrepreneurial and social is no longer an oxymoron, but rather, a tautology. Hundreds of millions of people are already transferring bits and pieces of their economic life from capitalist markets to the global Collaborative Commons.

By eliminating virtually all of the remaining middlemen who mark up the transaction costs at every stage of the value chain, small- and medium-sized enterprises—especially cooperatives and other nonprofit businesses—and billions of prosumers can share their goods and services directly with one another on the Collaborative Commons—at near zero marginal cost. The reduction in both fixed and marginal costs dramatically reduces the entry costs of creating new businesses in distributed peer-to-peer networks. The low entry costs encourage more people to become potential entrepreneurs and collaborators, creating and sharing information, energy, and goods and services on the Commons. The changes brought on by the establishment of an IoT infrastructure and Collaborative Commons go far beyond the narrow confines of commerce. Every communication/energy matrix is accompanied by a set of broad prescriptions about how society and economic life are to be organized that mirror the possibilities and potentials unleashed by the new enabling technologies.

Both capitalist and socialist regimes organize production in integrated, vertically scaled enterprises because of the increased efficiencies, despite their different patterns of ownership and distribution of earnings. But how do we go about organizing an economy where the entry costs in establishing a communication/energy matrix are substantially lower and paid for in large part by hundreds of millions of individuals in peer-to-peer networks, and where the marginal costs of generating, storing, and sharing communications, energy, and a growing number of products and services are heading to nearly zero? A new communication/energy matrix is emerging, and with it a new “smart” public infrastructure. The Internet of Things (IoT) will connect everyone and everything in a new economic paradigm that is far more complex than the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, but one whose architecture is distributed rather than centralized.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

It represented the logical conclusion to the Web’s Santa Claus economics, the Internet’s original sin, where “consumers” were treated as spoiled children and indulged with an infinite supply of free goodies in what the New York Times’ media columnist David Carr calls the “Something for Nothing” economy.5 Founded by Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker in 1999, Napster enabled what is euphemistically known as the peer-to-peer sharing of music. Fanning and Parker took Chris Anderson’s advice about the radical value of “free” to its most ridiculous conclusion. Not merely content to give their own stuff away for nothing, Napster gave away everybody else’s as well. Along with other peer-to-peer networks like Travis Kalanick’s Scour and later pirate businesses such as Megaupload, Rapidshare, and Pirate Bay, Napster created a networked kleptocracy, masquerading as the “sharing economy,” in which the only real abundance was the ubiquitous availability of online stolen content, particularly recorded music. Over the last fifteen years, online piracy has become an epidemic. In a 2011 report sponsored by the U.S.

“You know, the thing that is illegal when the Mafia does it.”42 As Brad Stone notes, Amazon is becoming “increasingly monolithic in markets like books and electronics,” which is why he believes that antitrust authorities will inevitably come to scrutinize Amazon’s market power.43 Let’s hope that there will be politicians bold enough to take on Bezos before Amazon becomes, quite literally, the Everything Store. No, the Internet is not the answer, especially when it comes to the so-called sharing economy of peer-to-peer networks like Uber and Airbnb. The good news is that, as Wired’s Marcus Wohlsen put it, the “sun is setting on the wild west” of ride- and apartment-sharing networks.44 Tax collectors and municipalities from Cleveland to Hamburg are recognizing that many peer-to-peer rentals and ride-sharing apps are breaking both local and national housing and transportation laws. What the Financial Times calls a “regulatory backlash”45 has pushed Uber to limit surge pricing during emergencies46 and forced Airbnb hosts to install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in their homes.47 “Just because a company has an app instead of a storefront doesn’t mean consumer protection laws don’t apply,” notes the New York State attorney general Eric Schneiderman, who is trying to subpoena Airbnb’s user data in New York City.48 A group of housing activists in San Francisco is even planning a late 2014 ballot measure in the city that would “severely curb” Airbnb’s operations.49 “Airbnb is bringing up the rent despite what the company says,” explains the New York City–based political party Working Families.50 The answer is to use the law and regulation to force the Internet out of its prolonged adolescence.

Cloned to appear like Netflix, Popcorn Time has already been translated into thirty-two languages and offers what one analyst described as a “nightmare scenario” for the movie industry.13 The Buenos Aires–based makers of Popcorn Time claim to have invented the service for the convenience of consumers. But the more subscribers Popcorn Time steals from Hulu and Netflix, the fewer resources moviemakers will have to invest in their products. And, of course, the more we use peer-to-peer technologies like Popcorn Time, the emptier movie theaters will become. In 2013, there was a 21% drop in the number of what Variety calls the “all important” 18–24 age group buying tickets to watch movies.14 With the popularity of products like Popcorn Time, expect that number to plummet even more dramatically in the future. The real cost, both in terms of jobs and economic growth, of online piracy is astonishingly high.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

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Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

But the key to the efficiency of this Little Brother is that it builds upon a principle described best by VisiCalc co-inventor Dan Bricklin in an essay called “The Cornucopia of the Commons.”21 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 132 8/12/08 1:55:18 AM T W O EC O NO MIE S: C O MMERC I A L A ND SH A RING 133 Bricklin’s essay was inspired by a quibble he had with those who said Napster was so successful because it was a peer-to-peer technology. Napster’s success, he argued, had nothing to do with peer-to-peer. First, the system was not in fact a “peer-to-peer” technology. Second, not using a p2p architecture may well have been a better technical strategy to serving the ends that Napster sought. Bricklin argued that Napster’s success came not from a technical design, but from an architecture that produced value as a byproduct of people getting what they wanted. When you installed Napster, by default it made shareable the music you had on your computer.

However, now I’m at a point where I kind of take it for granted, and I don’t even think about what I would do if one day it were suddenly not available. In a time when there are so many options to amass a 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 284 8/12/08 1:56:14 AM REFORMING US 285 music collection, I take the way that is most convenient for me and most damaging to the artists. Much has been said in the justice system, in the media and online about the legality of these peer to peer networks, but the reality is that millions of people do it and only a few are ever stopped. I shamefully admit that, despite my sympathy for the artists and others who lose money from the filesharing, I consciously take part in it and I have no plans to stop in the near future. Some people can justify stealing music because they do not realize the consequences; that is not the case for me because I am fully aware of them.


pages: 52 words: 13,257

Bitcoin Internals: A Technical Guide to Bitcoin by Chris Clark

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bitcoin, fiat currency, peer-to-peer, Satoshi Nakamoto, transaction costs, Turing complete

Chapter 8 The Block Chain 8.1 The Byzantine Generals’ Problem After verification, transactions are relayed to other nodes in the peer-to-peer network. The other nodes will repeat the verification and relay the transaction to more nodes. Within seconds, the transaction should reach most of the nodes on the network. Transactions are then held in pools on the nodes awaiting insertion into the block chain, which is a public record of all transactions that have ever occurred in the Bitcoin network. The block chain is not just a simple list of transaction receipts though. It is specially designed to solve the double-spending problem for a peer-to-peer network of untrusted nodes. As discussed in the Double-Spending section, the goal is to determine the chronological ordering of transactions so that the first payment can be accepted and the second payment can be rejected. So the peer-to-peer network has to have a method to agree on an ordering of transactions even though some peers might be trying to sabotage the system.

A better solution is to take the hash of each chunk individually so that each chunk can be verified as it comes in. However, if there are a large number of chunks, then there is a greater chance that some of the hash values will become corrupted. Furthermore, this is a lot of data for the trusted source to store. Ideally, a trusted source would only have to provide one hash, and the rest of the hashes could be downloaded from untrusted sources, such as peers in a peer-to-peer network. This can be accomplished using a top hash generated by hashing all of the hashes of the chunks. The resulting structure is called a hash list. If the number of chunks is very large, the list of hashes of all the chunks might also be quite large. In order to verify just one chunk against the trusted top hash, one would need to obtain all of the hashes in the hash list. Ralph Merkle proposed the idea of a hash tree in 1979, which allows a chunk to be verified with only a logarithmic number of hashes.[6] In a hash tree, or Merkle tree, hashes are taken of all chunks as in a hash list, but then these hashes are paired and the hash of each pair is taken, and these hashes are then paired again, and so on until there is only one hash at the top of this tree of hashes

This idea was introduced by Nick Szabos in his digital currency proposal called Bit Gold, which was released between 1998 and 2005.[18] A proof of work chain provides additional security because each individual proof of work gets buried under the subsequent proofs of work. As the chain grows, it becomes more and more difficult to redo all the proofs of work. Chapter 6 Technical Overview 6.1 Architecture Bitcoin is run by a peer-to-peer network of computers called nodes. Nodes are responsible for processing transactions and maintaining all records of ownership. Anyone can download the free open-source Bitcoin software and become a node. All nodes are treated equally; no node is trusted. However, the system is based on the assumption that the majority of computing power will come from honest nodes (see Chapter 8). Ownership records are replicated on every full node. 6.2 Ownership There are two ways to track ownership of a currency: Possession of a token that independently represents value (e.g. paper cash, metal coins, and Chaum’s digital cash) Possession of a key that controls access to records in a ledger (e.g. checks, credit cards, Paypal, and Bitcoin) Designing a decentralized currency is challenging because it is not obvious how either of these methods can be used without some trusted authority like a bank.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

The software driving these communities was stagnant: subscribers who were both interested in the communities’ content and technically minded had few outlets through which to contribute technical improvements to the way the communities were built. Instead, any improvements were orchestrated centrally. As the initial offerings of the proprietary networks plateaued, the Internet saw developments in technology that in turn led to developments in content and ultimately in social and economic interaction: the Web and Web sites, online shopping, peer-to-peer networking, wikis, and blogs. The hostility of AT&T toward companies like Hush-A-Phone and of the proprietary networks to the innovations of enterprising subscribers is not unusual, and it is not driven solely by their status as monopolists. Just as behavioral economics shows how individuals can consistently behave irrationally under particular circumstances,18 and how decision-making within groups can fall prey to error and bias,19 so too can the incumbent firms in a given market fail to seize opportunities that they rationally ought to exploit.

These remedies can apply to some units and not others, allowing regulators to winnow out bad uses from good ones on the basis of individual adjudication, rather than rely on the generalities of ex ante legislative-style drafting. For example, suppose a particular television broadcast were found to infringe a copyright or to damage someone’s reputation. In a world of old-fashioned televisions and VCRs, or PCs and peer-to-peer networks, the broadcaster or creator could be sued, but anyone who recorded the broadcast could, as a practical matter, retain a copy. Today, it is possible to require DVR makers to delete the offending broadcast from any DVRs that have recorded it or, perhaps acting with more precision, to retroactively edit out the slice of defamatory content from the recorded program. This control extends beyond any particular content medium: as e-book devices become popular, the same excisions could be performed for print materials.

Daniel Solove, for instance, has written extensively on emergent privacy concerns, but he has focused on the danger of “digital dossiers” created by businesses and governments.52 Likewise, Jerry Kang and Dana Cuff have written about how small sensors will lead to “pervasive computing,” but they worry that the technology will be abused by coordinated entities like shopping malls, and their prescriptions thus follow the pattern established by Privacy 1.0.53 Their concerns are not misplaced, but they represent an increasingly smaller part of the total picture. The essence of Privacy 2.0 is that government or corporations, or other intermediaries, need not be the source of the surveillance. Peer-to-peer technologies can eliminate points of control and gatekeeping from the transfer of personal data and information just as they can for movies and music. The intellectual property conflicts raised by the generative Internet, where people can still copy large amounts of copyrighted music without fear of repercussion, are rehearsals for the problems of Privacy 2.0.54 The Rodney King beating was filmed not by a public camera, but by a private one, and its novel use in 1991 is now commonplace.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Your device will know things about your surroundings that you have no way of knowing on your own: where people are, who they are and what their virtual profiles contain. Today, users already share their iTunes libraries with strangers over Wi-Fi networks, and in the future, they’ll be able to share much more. In places like Yemen, where socially conservative norms limit many teenagers’ ability to socialize with the opposite sex, young people may elect to hide their personal information on peer-to-peer networks when at home or at the mosque—who knows who could be looking?—but reveal it when in public parks and cafés, and at parties. Yet P2P technology is a limited replacement for the richness and convenience of the Internet, despite its myriad advantages. We often need stored and searchable records of our activities and communications, particularly if we want to share something or refer to it later.

“give the police the technology”: Rich Trenholm, “Cameron Considers Blocking Twitter, Facebook, BBM after Riots,” CNET, August 11, 2011, http://crave.cnet.co.uk/software/cameron-considers-blocking-twitter-facebook-bbm-after-riots-50004693/; Olivia Solon, “Cameron Suggests Blocking Potential Criminals from Social Media,” Wired UK, August 11, 2011, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-08/11/david-cameron-social-media. industry cooperation with law enforcement was sufficient: “Social Media Talks About Rioting ‘Constructive,’ ” BBC, August 25, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14657456. Bitcoins: Bitcoin is the most successful experiment in digital currency today; it uses a mix of peer-to-peer networking and cryptographic signatures to process online payments. The value of the currency has fluctuated wildly since its inception; the first publicly traded Bitcoins went for 3 cents, and a little more than a year later they were valued at $29.57 apiece. Bitcoins are held in digital “wallets,” and are used to pay for a wide range of virtual and physical goods. At the illicit online market called the Silk Road, where people can use encrypted channels to buy illegal drugs, Bitcoins are the sole currency and generate approximately $22 million in annual sales, according to a recent study.

In a world with no delete button, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking will become the default mode of operation for anyone looking to operate under or off the radar. Contemporary mobile P2P technologies like Bluetooth allow two physical devices to speak directly to each other rather than having to communicate over the Internet. This is in contrast to P2P file-sharing networks such as BitTorrent, which operate over the Internet. Common to both forms of peer-to-peer technologies is that users connect to each other (acting as both suppliers and receivers) without using a fixed third-party service. For citizens in the future, P2P networking will offer an enticing combination of instant communication and independence from third-party controls or monitoring. All smart phones today are equipped with some form of peer-to-peer capability, and as the wave of cheap smart phones saturates the emerging markets in the next decade, even more people will be able to take advantage of these increasingly sophisticated tools.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Is it just the dissidents? Are the dissidents united? Or do they all have different agendas? Internet-centric explanations, at least in their current form, greatly impoverish and infantilize our public debate. We ought to steer away from them as much as possible. If doing so requires imposing a moratorium on using the very term “Internet” and instead going for more precise terminology, like “peer-to-peer networks” or “social networks” or “search engines,” so be it. It’s the very possibility that the whole—that is, “the Internet”—is somehow spiritually and politically greater than the sum of these specific terms that exerts such a corrosive influence on how we think about the world. Hype and Consequences Ahistorical thinking in Internet debates is too ubiquitous and persistent to be written off as ignorance or laziness.

Once we move to a post-Internet world, there is a small chance that our technology pundits (and perhaps even some academics) will no longer get away with proclaiming something a revolution and then walking away without supplying good, empirical evidence—as if that revolution were so self-evident and no further proof was needed. I too used to be one of those people—albeit very briefly—sometime between 2005 and 2007. I remember perfectly the thrill that comes from thinking that the lessons of Wikipedia or peer-to-peer networking or Friendster or Skype could and should be applied absolutely everywhere. It’s a very powerful set of hammers, and plenty of people—many of them in Silicon Valley—are dying to hear you cry, “Nail!” regardless of what you are looking at. Thinking that you are living through a revolution and hold the key to how it will unfold is, I confess, rather intoxicating. So I can relate to those Internet thinkers who feel extremely comfortable with the current state of debate, even though I can probably not forgive them.

It is in this context that Lessig’s quote about “the network . . . not going away” appears. Close scrutiny of the quote in context, however, reveals how easily Lessig’s brand of Internet-centrism mutates into hopeless technological defeatism: “But the network is not going away. We are not going to kill the ‘darknet’ (as Microsoft called it in a fantastic paper about the inevitable survival of peer-to-peer technologies). We are not going to regulate access to news, or ads for free futons. We are not going back to the twentieth century.” In the context of challenges induced by transparency, Lessig proposes that it would be better to tinker with the laws and embrace publicly funded elections so that citizens wouldn’t even entertain the notion that politicians might be bought off. The reasoning that makes Lessig opt for the legal rather than the technological solution is of particular importance here: the network is sacred and permanent, so any tinkering with its nodes is out.


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The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World by Brad Stone

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, collaborative consumption, East Village, fixed income, Google X / Alphabet X, housing crisis, inflight wifi, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Necker cube, obamacare, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Despite that setback, Kalanick was ready to dust himself off and try again.19 He started talking to one of his Scour co-founders, Michael Todd, about redeveloping the technology behind Scour and selling it to media companies as a tool to help them distribute their material online. Bandwidth was expensive back then, around six hundred dollars per megabyte (as opposed to about a dollar per megabyte on a broadband internet line today), and peer-to-peer networking could reduce the cost. They called their new company Red Swoosh, after the twin half-moon insignias in the original Scour logo. Kalanick said it was “a revenge business” and recognized a satisfying irony: “The idea is the same peer-to-peer technology but I take those thirty-three litigants that sued me and turn them into customers,” he said. “Now those dudes who sued me are now paying me. It sounded good.”20 In practice, it didn’t work out as well. Kalanick tried to raise money in 2001, right in the midst of the dot-com bust.

Kalanick later said that Uber’s first fight in San Francisco added to his personal conviction about the company just as he was taking a more active leadership role. “For me that was the moment where I was like, for whatever reason, I knew this was the right battle to fight,” he told me in 2012. On a tech podcast, he added that the fight with the MTA recalled all the litigation and conflict of his decade in the world of peer-to-peer technology. “The great thing is I’ve seen this before,” he said. “I thought, Oh, man, I have a playbook for this. Let’s do this thing. When that happened, it felt like a homecoming.”28 After that first meeting with Hayashi, Kalanick spent weeks negotiating with Garrett Camp and angel investors Chris Sacca and Rob Hayes over his compensation as CEO. He somehow calculated that he needed a 23 percent ownership stake in Uber, up from his 12 percent stake as a founder and adviser, but declined to explain his logic.


pages: 379 words: 113,656

Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age by Duncan J. Watts

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, corporate governance, Drosophila, Erdős number, experimental subject, fixed income, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, industrial cluster, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Milgram experiment, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, Vilfredo Pareto, Y2K

Because no one server knows where all the files are—because there is no central directory—every query becomes a broadcast search that effectively asks each and every node in the network, “Do you have this file?” So a peer-to-peer network like Gnutella, comprising ten thousand nodes, for example, will generate roughly ten thousand times as many messages as a Napster-like network of the same size, where each query is sent only to a single, high-capacity server. Because the aim of peer-to-peer networks is to become as large as possible (in order to increase the number of available files), and because the larger the network is, the worse its performance will be, could it be that truly peer-to-peer networks are inherently self-defeating? A hint of a Gnutella-like world was revealed by accident a year or so ago by Mrs. Janet Forrest’s sixth-grade social studies class at Taylorsville Elementary School in North Carolina.

But there is also a practical reason to understand directed searches in networks—namely, the process of finding a target person in a social network, through a chain of intermediate acquaintances, is essentially the same as finding a file or other piece of uniquely specified information in a distributed database. Quite a lot of attention has been paid recently to the potential of so-called peer-to-peer networks, particularly in the music industry. The first generation of such networks, the archetype of which is the infamous Napster, was actually only a peer-to-peer network in a limited sense. While the files themselves are located on individuals’ personal computers—called peers—and the file exchanges occur directly between peers, a complete directory of all available files (and their locations) is maintained on a central server. In principle, a central directory renders the problem of finding information trivial, even in a very large network—simply query the directory, and it will tell you the location of the file.

The findings of the so-called reverse small-world experiment that corroborated some of our theoretical predictions were published in Killworth, P. D., and Bernard, H. R. The reverse small world experiment. Social Networks, 1, 159–192 (1978). Bernard, H. R., Killworth, P. D., Evans, M. J., McCarty, C., and Shelly, G. A. Studying relations cross-culturally. Ethnology, 27(2), 155–179 (1988). Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks A discussion of the problems facing peer-to-peer networks like Gnutella is Ritter, J. P. Why Gnutella can’t scale. No really (working paper, available on-line at http://www.darkridge.com/~jpr5/doc/gnutella.html, 2000). Two search algorithms that take advantage of Gnutella’s apparent scale-free character are presented in Adamic, L. A., Lukose, R. M., Puniyani, A. R., and Huberman, B. A. Search in power-law networks.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Blockchains offer an incredible innovation environment for the next generation of financial services. As cryptocurrency volatilities subside, these will become popular. Derivatives, options, swaps, synthetic instruments, investments, loans, and many other traditional instruments will have their cryptocurrency version, therefore creating a new financial services trading marketplace. 9. Peer-to-Peer Network There is nothing “central” about blockchains. Architecturally, the base layer of the blockchain is a peer-to-peer network. A blockchain pushes for decentralization via peer processing at its node locations. The network is really the computer. You verify each other transaction at the peer-to-peer level. In essence, a blockchain could be regarded as a thin computing cloud that is truly decentralized. Any user can reach and transact with another user instantly, no matter where they are in the universe, and regardless of business hours.

In this case, there’s a digital asset whose ownership and movement are governed by the blockchain. Use the blockchain in a more fundamental way, where the app would not function without the blockchain. Typically, you would set-up a specific peer-to-peer network with nodes, for example, OpenBazaar, as a decentralized e-commerce app. Use your own blockchain (could be shared with others), without an economic token or currency unit. This is where most of the permissioned blockchains play within enterprises. Use your own blockchain (or another blockchain), including a token or currency unit, to create an economic network of value, for example, MaidSafe,4 which creates a market for unused computing resources over a peer-to-peer network of users. 12 FEATURES OF A BLOCKCHAIN PLATFORM If you need to evaluate a given blockchain platform, the following features are important: 1. Programmability.

Rather than simply hoping that the parties we interact with behave honorably, we are building technological systems that inherently build the desired properties into the system, in such a way that they will keep functioning with the guarantees that we expect, even if many of the actors involved are corrupt. All transactions under “crypto 2.0” come with auditable trails of cryptographic proofs. Decentralized peer-to-peer networks can be used to reduce reliance on any single server; public key cryptography could create a notion of portable user-controlled identities. More advanced kinds of math, including ring signatures, homomorphic encryption, and zero-knowledge proofs, guarantee privacy, allowing users to put all of their data in the open in such a way that certain properties of it can be verified, and even computed on, without actually revealing any private details.


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

So, the experience of music on Napster begs the question of the performance of a market without copyright: will a good product sold at a reasonable price be widely distributed for free? Within the book industry there is considerable evidence with which to answer this question, because, while most publishers have released electronic editions only in encrypted form, a few have sold unencrypted editions. Moreover, many books are currently available on peer-to-peer networks, and there have been lawsuits by a number of authors attempting to prevent this. So, we might expect relatively few sales of unencrypted electronic books because they will immediately appear for free on peer-to-peer networks, while encrypted books will sell better because they are not subject to “piracy.” Strikingly, the data shows exactly the opposite. The case of Fictionwise.com is an especially instructive natural experiment because, depending on the publisher and author, the site sells some books in encrypted form and others in unencrypted form.

And that’s about typical for even a successful book issued electronically [in encrypted form].32 Interestingly, searching the Gnutella peer-to-peer network on September 1, 2002, and on a number of subsequent occasions, the keyword e-book turns up several books released by Baen in electronic form. But they are legal copies of books given away by Baen for free – we found none of the books that Baen sells. In the end, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that it is the unpopularity of the music industry with its customers, combined with the inferiority of the “legitimate” product, that has led to the widespread giving away of MP3s for the cost of personal time and bandwidth. In the case of products sold in a superior form at a reasonable price, there appears to be little effort to trade them on peer-to-peer networks – so much so that the unencrypted product outsells the encrypted version.

At the same time, though, his interests in the recorded music industry argued against an extension of copyright protection. Demand for Edison’s phonograph obviously increased as cheaper and more abundant recordings of music became available, which was facilitated by a weak enforcement of the composers’ monopoly power. Encrypted versus Unencrypted Sales The book, recorded music, and movie industries have been heavily influenced by the Napster experience, in which music has been given away for free over peer-to-peer networks. Consequently these industries have made a strong effort both to encrypt their products and to lobby the government to mandate encryption schemes. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, for example, makes it a federal crime to reverse-engineer encryption schemes used to protect copyright. When it comes to competitive markets, P1: KNP head margin: 1/2 gutter margin: 7/8 CUUS245-02 cuus245 978 0 521 87928 6 May 28, 2008 10:35 Creation under Competition 35 the Napster experience is deceptive – the product distributed on Napster-like networks is not only cheaper than the commercial product but also is also better.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Lindahl himself ultimately stopped contributing to Wikipedia, driven off by what he called the “deletionistas.” But over time, the revisions tightened the prose and expanded the scope of the entry. The end result is a rich, informative, well-structured document that covers the technical elements of peer-to-peer networks, but also includes sections on their social and economic impact, and the historical context of their invention. Near the end of the entry, the text even suggests that peer-to-peer networks are increasingly being used to describe human-to-human interactions, including notions of peer governance and peer production. The media like to highlight stories of Wikipedia abuse: the scurrilous attack that a user has added to a rival’s biographical entry; the endless fighting over the content of the abortion entry, or the entry on the Iraq War.

Years after both Baran and Davies had published their seminal papers, Davies jokingly said to Baran, “Well, you may have got there first, but I got the name.” In the late 1960s, packet switching became the foundation of ARPANET, the research network that laid the groundwork for the Internet. The ARPANET design relied on several radical principles that broke with existing computing paradigms. ARPANET was what we would now call a peer-to-peer network, as opposed to a client-server or mainframe-terminal network. Traditionally, networks had involved centralized mainframes that contained far more processing power and storage capacity than the less advanced terminals connected to them. The intelligence in the network, in other words, was centralized; decisions about what kind of information should be prioritized in the network were executed in these dominant machines.

In fact, the Internet is not even, strictly speaking, a “bottom-up” system, as it is conventionally described. Bottom-up implies a top, a leadership that gets its support from below, a kind of reverse hierarchy. But the network that Baran, Cerf, and others designed was a network of peers, not a hierarchy. No single agency controlled it absolutely; everyone controlled it partially. Decentralization, peer-to-peer networks, gateways, platform stacks—the principles that Baran, Davies, Cerf, Kahn, and others hit upon together in the 1960s and 1970s provided a brilliant solution to the problem of sharing information on a planetary scale. Tellingly, the solution ultimately outperformed any rival approaches developed by the marketplace. Billions of dollars were spent by private companies trying to build global networks based on proprietary standards: AOL, CompuServe, Prodigy, Microsoft, Apple, and many others made epic efforts to become mainstream consumer networks in the late 1980s and early 1990s.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

In the process of simulating photographic cameras—and their associated tools like developers and printers—the computer literally killed off its film-based model: in 2009, Kodak discontinued the iconic color film Kodachrome after three-quarters of a century, and once-dominant manufacturers like Canon no longer even manufacture thirty-five-millimeter cameras that take film. Video games may have begun in arcades, but they are now exponentially more likely to be played in the home than outside it. As for the cinema, which was itself swallowed up by televisual prostheses like videocassette recorders (VCRs), DVRs, and DVDs, the computer simulates it, migrates it online, chops it into YouTube segments, has it pirated on peer-to-peer networks, and shoots, stores, and projects it digitally. When computers simulate telephones, everything becomes available from the free Internet calling on services like Skype to mobile tele/computing hybrids like the iPhone. When we are talking about communication devices, simulation engenders participation. After establishing communication between machines, between machines and people, and between people themselves, the next step is to allow the user to make 15 CHAPTER 2 something and then put it out into the network, where others will be able (and more crucially willing) to download that which has been uploaded.

These “connection is everything” models heavily promoted by phone and wireless companies are retro-McLuhan: in these corporate futures, the medium always dominates the message. Bespoke futures might well restore some balance. The culture machine offers a growing capacity to create complex visualizations with digital systems and distribute them widely over high-speed networks, engaging with open-source cultural initiatives. We are now capable of taking advantage of peer-to-peer networking, file sharing, and massively scaled distributed computing to develop countervailing forces, or people’s rather than corporate scenario-building strategies. 116 BESPOKE FUTURES Bespoke Futures as Strange Attractors At an earlier cultural moment, we might have looked to the, or at least an, avant-garde for surplus futurity and to generate our bespoke futures. But given the use and abuse of the term avant-garde (I have described it as a horse, ridden too hard for too long and in need of an extended cooling-off period), it is important to develop other metaphors.25 Compare two imagescapes—one still, and the other dynamic.

Brenda Laurel once noted that “creating interactive simulations of complex systems is one of the most highly leveraged goals we can achieve with our burgeoning technological power. . . . Good simulations will not only help us learn about systems, they may help us evaluate policies and form political goals.”36 This new century brings new problems, as is always the case, but we would be foolish to not take advantage of peer-to-peer networking, file sharing, and massively scaled distributed computing to develop countervailing forces, from a truly populist scenario-building capacity to as yet unimaginable visualizations of change. Open-source cultural production challenges more than government and corporate centralization; it also serves to empower the citizenry. The more that states and corporations grow, the more individuals need to be able to communicate with others in their own communities and across the globe, if they hope to have any say in their own lives.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

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Firefox, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Popular downloads are prone to bottlenecks as more and more people try to suck files from a single source. (Technically, the client-server approach doesn’t scale.) The more popular the download, the more it costs the server in bandwidth charges. If the client or server has a problem mid-download (a power outage, lost connection, or system crash), then you’re stuck with an incomplete file and typically must restart the download — possibly a big download — from scratch. Peer-to-Peer Networks Adequate mirroring (use of cloned servers) alleviates some of the problems of client-server networks, but BitTorrent solves them outright by using a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing network. Unlike a server-based network, where most of the resources lie with a few central servers, a P2P network has only peers, which are ordinary computers (like yours) that all act as equal points on the network.

Drag the program’s icon to the Applications folder or to your home folder, or follow the instructions in the installer window. In all cases, generate keys, apply cracks, and install and launch the program as the torrent instructs. Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs

Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs


pages: 406 words: 88,820

Television disrupted: the transition from network to networked TV by Shelly Palmer

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barriers to entry, call centre, commoditize, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, James Watt: steam engine, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

And, of utmost importance to this argument, most people cannot differentiate between the most expensive and the least expensive work product. Conversely, it takes an army of talented creative people to manufacture a professional television show or motion picture: writers, directors, producers, camera operators, Copyright © 2006, Shelly Palmer. All rights reserved. 5-Television.Chap Five v3.qxd 3/20/06 7:22 AM Page 71 Peer-to-Peer Networks 71 actors, art directors, wardrobe wranglers, set designers, set builders, script supervisors, hair, make-up, editors, graphic artists, composers, musicians, post-production supervisors… the list goes on and on. You might have all of the skills individually, but you probably don’t. And, even though you can make a video or a movie with a home video camera and the post-production suite of programs on your laptop, absolutely everyone who watches it will know it was “made with loving hands at home.”

There are already movies legally available for 99-cent downloads that are guaranteed to be virus-free and exactly as advertised. Again, respect for time, value and convenience is a good weapon against piracy. Is this to say that video and movies are not going to be pirated? Don’t be silly. People are going to trade them like baseball cards — but not all people, not every movie and not all of the time. Peer-to-Peer Networks It was easy to shut down Napster. All you had to do was disconnect the index server from the network and it was over. That’s because Napster was based upon a client-server network architecture where there was a central server with client “nodes” attached to it over the Internet, as in Figure 5.2. Unlike a client-server network where each node is connected to a central server, a peer-to-peer (P2P) network relies on the computing power and the bandwidth of equal peer nodes that function as both “clients” and “servers” simultaneously, as seen in Figure 5.3.

As each peer is added to the network, it brings along computing power, bandwidth and storage that it can share with everyone, which increases the total capacity of the system as it expands. It is the distributed nature of P2P networks that make them powerful. Should a Copyright © 2006, Shelly Palmer. All rights reserved. 5-Television.Chap Five v3.qxd 3/20/06 7:22 AM Page 72 72 C H A P T E R 5 Emerging Networks FIGURE 5.2 Client-Server Network: FIGURE 5.3 Peer-to-peer networks do This type of network can be easily shut not have central file servers; since each down because each network node is con- node is connected to more than one other nected to a central server. node, they are very hard to shut down. single node fail, peers can find replicas of the data on multiple other peers. This ability to find data without relying on a central server makes P2P networks very hard to shut down.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

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book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

What right have you to insist that we should become mere clerks, working in an obscure back-room, leaving you to commune with our audiences on our behalf?" Technology giveth and technology taketh away. Seventy years later, Napster showed us that, as William Gibson noted, "We may be at the end of the brief period during which it is possible to charge for recorded music." Surely we're at the end of the period where it's possible to exclude those who don't wish to pay. Every song released can be downloaded gratis from a peer-to-peer network (and will shortly get easier to download, as hard-drive price/performance curves take us to a place where all the music ever recorded will fit on a disposable pocket-drive that you can just walk over to a friend's place and copy). But have no fear: the Internet makes it possible for recording artists to reach a wider audience than ever dreamt of before. Your potential fans may be spread in a thin, even coat over the world, in a configuration that could never be cost-effective to reach with traditional marketing.

Obviously, if there was some way to ensure that a given publisher was the only source for a copyrighted work, that publisher could hike up its prices, devote less money to service, and still sell its wares. Having to compete with free copies handed from user to user makes life harder — hasn't it always? But it is most assuredly possible. Look at Apple's wildly popular iTunes Music Store, which has sold over one billion tracks since 2003. Every song on iTunes is available as a free download from user-to-user, peer-to-peer networks like Kazaa. Indeed, the P2P monitoring company Big Champagne reports that the average time-lapse between a iTunes-exclusive song being offered by Apple and that same song being offered on P2P networks is 180 seconds. Every iTunes customer could readily acquire every iTunes song for free, using the fastest-adopted technology in history. Many of them do (just as many fans photocopy their favorite stories from magazines and pass them around to friends).

[fn: My lifestyle is as gypsy and fancy-free as the characters in H2G2, and as a result my copies of the Adams books are thousands of miles away in storages in other countries, and this essay was penned on public transit and cheap hotel rooms in Chile, Boston, London, Geneva, Brussels, Bergen, Geneva (again), Toronto, Edinburgh, and Helsinki. Luckily, I was able to download a dodgy, re-keyed version of the Adams books from a peer-to-peer network, which network I accessed via an open wireless network on a random street-corner in an anonymous city, a fact that I note here as testimony to the power of the Internet to do what the Guide does for Ford and Arthur: put all the information I need at my fingertips, wherever I am. However, these texts are a little on the dodgy side, as noted, so you might want to confirm these quotes before, say, uttering them before an Adams truefan.]


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

Creation spaces go one step further by introducing the opportunity to participate in peer-to-peer networks that cut across teams, leveraging their individual experiences and providing access to a much more diverse body of expertise than would otherwise exist. These learning networks organize around shared resources such as discussion boards, video repositories, and archives of previous contributions. In some cases, they may also benefit from physical gatherings, such as conferences or competitions. Although much of the interaction at this level involves the transfer of knowledge, new knowledge is often generated as participants hold sustained discussions about their performance challenges. New knowledge also emerges as peer-to-peer networks like these apply innovations and new knowledge in diverse environments where they can be tested and improved.

Each release of World of Warcraft, for example, starts out as the sole creation of its designers, but as soon as players begin playing, the game actually changes, evolving as a result of the actions of its participants. To work successfully, the creation space must be designed to work at three levels, with the second level building on the first and the third building on the first two. First, the creation space must be designed to foster the formation of teams and interactions within each of the teams. Second, it must be designed to encourage the formation of robust and diverse peer-to-peer networks that expand knowledge-sharing and knowledge-creation activities across teams. Third, it must be designed to reach beyond the creation space and engage a broader set of participants in the products of the creation space, as when nightclub DJs play music created online at ccMixter, or when employees of other corporations participate in SAP’s Developer Network. Getting the balance right between design and emergence is critical to the sustainability and scaling of these environments.

See Geographic spikes Standards adopted through shaping strategies adoption of McLean’s containerized shipping driven through shaping strategies Novell’s network operating system as de facto of protocols designed to facilitate interactions Visa Start-up companies Stocks (equities) Stocks of knowledge compared to flows of new knowledge as diminishing in value as means, ends, toward knowledge flows Storage law for data Stress in push systems Stress in the workplace Strong ties Success Super-nodes Surfaces, exposing Surfermag.com Surfingthemag.com Surfline.com Sur vival access as essential toig and serendipity Tacit knowledge about how to do new things conveyed through conferences cultivated through listening, empathy described versus explicit Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) Talent development institutions reoriented around needed by institutions as new trajectory of institutions and open-innovation efforts supported by focused initiatives TCP/IP standard Teahupoo, Tahiti Teams and guilds as collaborative creation efforts interacting, as creation space success elements as peer-to-peer networks performance-driven of surfers World of Warcraft (WoW) social networks Teasers for online social network attention Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital (Perez) Technology CPU innovation breaks down push distinguished from platforms as tool for reaching talent outside institutions Tertius Gaudens Tertius Iungens Tesla Motors Texas Instruments Thinking for a Living (Davenport) Thomas, Doug T-Mobile Too big to fail concept Toshiba Tow-in surfing Toyota Toys and games industries Training programs Trajectory defined as meaningful destination as element of journey toward pull igigig for finding, motivating, individual passion, creativity as shaping view of talent development for institutions Travel services as search engines Travelocity The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (Merton and Barber) “The Travels and Adventures of Three Princes of Sarendip” fable Twitter in corporate contexts Iranian protests videos secured script used by protestors in Iran TWsurf.com Uncertainty.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Given enough time, decentralized connected dumb things can become smarter than we think. Second, even though a purely decentralized power won’t take us all the way, it is almost always the best way to start. It’s fast, cheap, and out of control. The barriers to start a new crowd-powered service are low and getting lower. A hive mind scales up wonderfully smoothly. That is why there were 9,000 startups in 2015 trying to exploit the sharing power of decentralized peer-to-peer networks. It does not matter if they morph over time. Perhaps a hundred years from now these shared processes, such as Wikipedia, will be layered up with so much management that they’ll resemble the old-school centralized businesses. Even so, the bottom up was still the best way to start. • • • We live in a golden age now. The volume of creative work in the next decade will dwarf the volume of the last 50 years.

There are websites today that feature only movie trailers or great commercials, but they don’t earn anything from the sources for hosting them. Soon enough they will. This arrangement completely reverses the power of the established ad industry. Like Uber and other decentralized systems, it takes what was once a highly refined job performed by a few professionals and spreads it across a peer-to-peer network of amateurs. No advertising professional in 2016 believes it could work, and even reasonable people think it sounds crazy, but one thing we know about the last 30 years is that seemingly impossible things can be accomplished by peers of amateurs when connected smartly. A couple of maverick startups in 2016 are trying to disrupt the current attention system, but it may take a number of tries before some of the radical new modes stick.

See also work environments on-demand expectations, 64–65, 114–17 OpenOffice, 151 open source industry, 135, 141–42, 143, 271 oral communication, 204 Oscar Awards, 187–88 overfitting, 170 ownership, 112–13, 117–18, 121–22, 124–25, 127, 138 Page, Larry, 36–37 Pandora, 169 parallel computation, 38–39, 40 passive archives, 249 passwords, 220, 235 patents, 283 PatientsLikeMe, 145 patronage, 71–72 PayPal, 65, 119–20, 124 pedometers, 238 peer-to-peer networks, 129–30, 184–85 Periscope, 76 “personal analytics” engine, 239 personalization, 68–69, 172–73, 175, 191, 240–41, 261–62 pharmaceutical research, 241–42 pharmacies, 50 phase transitions, 294–97 phones automatic updates of, 62 cameras in, 34 and clouds, 126 and decentralized communications, 129–31 and on-demand model of access, 114 directories, 285 and interactivity, 219 lifespan of apps for, 11 as reading devices, 91–92 in rural China, 56 and self-tracking technology, 239–40 and tracking technology, 239–40, 250, 253 and virtual reality technology, 215, 222 photography and images and artificial intelligence, 33–34 and classic film production, 198–99 and content recognition, 43, 203 and Creative Commons licensing, 139 democratization of, 77 and digital storage capacity, 266 and facial recognition, 39, 43 flexible images, 204 and Google Photo, 43 and lifelogging, 248–49 and new media genres, 195 and photo captioning, 51 and reproductive imperative, 87 sharing of, 140 Picard, Rosalind, 220 Picasso, Pablo, 288 Pichai, Sundar, 37 Pine, Joseph, 172–73 Pinterest, 32, 136, 139, 140, 183 piracy, 124 placebo effect, 242 platform synergy, 122–25, 131 PlayStation Now, 109 porn sites, 202–3 postal mail, 253 postindustrial economy, 57 “presence,” 216–17 printing, 85, 87.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

As of August 2014, a haul that size would be worth about $21 million, but back then they were worth exactly zero, since Nakamoto had no one else to transfer them to, no way to “spend” them. If a hallmark of a currency is utility, at this early point bitcoin had absolutely none. He had to get others to join. So, six days after the Genesis Block, Nakamoto went back to the same cryptography mailing list and told its readers that the program was ready: “Announcing the first release of bitcoin, a new electronic cash system that uses a peer-to-peer network to prevent double-spending.” And then the sales pitch: “It’s completely decentralized with no server or central authority.” The people on that list, who’d heard claims like this before, had no evidence yet that Nakamoto had overcome the challenge that had felled his predecessors: preventing fraudulent transactions—the so-called double-spending problem—when no central authority is charged with authenticating transactions.

All, in one forum or another, have denied being Nakamoto. Other investigators have gone off on interesting but equally fruitless tangents. Writing for The New Yorker, Joshua Davis fixated on some of the British spellings in Nakamoto’s writings and headed to the British Isles to find their author. He zeroed in on Michael Clear, a Dublin-based computer-science student who’d worked for Allied Irish Banks on peer-to-peer technology and who responded to Davis’s inquiries with the enticing line “I’m not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldn’t tell you.” Davis’s work was inconclusive, but Clear’s comment, which he later said was intended as a harmless joke, meant the Irishman was inundated with e-mails. He has since vehemently denied creating bitcoin and has pleaded with people to leave him alone. Convinced that Davis was caught out by a probable disinformation campaign by the founder—as if Nakamoto’s Britishisms and Times of London reference were planted to throw trackers off the scent—New York University journalism professor Adam Penenberg turned his attention elsewhere.


pages: 552 words: 143,074

Without Copyrights: Piracy, Publishing, and the Public Domain (Modernist Literature and Culture) by Robert Spoo

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invisible hand, Network effects, New Journalism, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, transaction costs

The Senate Judiciary Committee summarized the prevailing dread: “Due to the ease with which digital works can be copied and distributed worldwide virtually instantaneously, copyright owners will hesitate to make their works readily available on the Internet without reasonable assurance that they will be protected against massive piracy.”16 The phrase “massive piracy” has emotional force in excess of its denotative capacity. Applied, as it often is today, to unauthorized file sharing by countless anonymous or pseudonymous users in decentralized peer-to-peer networks,17 the phrase conjures up conspiratorial intent to break the law—a gigantic, orchestrated music heist—when in fact the very nature of decentralized file sharing scatters concerted intent and mens rea over the vast reaches of the World Wide Web. This is why the music and movie industries have focused much of their litigation efforts on the purveyors of peer-to-peer technologies and services: Napster, Aimster, Grokster, Kazaa, LimeWire, BitTorrent, and, of course, The Pirate Bay. Piracy, in the digital era, as in the past, must have a local habitation and a name, and the pirate is almost invariably thought of as a wicked lawbreaker, a violator of legislated or common law rights.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

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4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

After Martti suggested his own changes, the final version made the more modest assertion that “the community is hopeful the currency will remain outside the reach of any government.” When the item went online, shortly after midnight in Helsinki, it wasn’t anything more than the single paragraph the Bitcoin team had submitted. “How’s this for a disruptive technology?” it began. “Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer, network-based digital currency with no central bank, and no transaction fees.” Despite the modesty of the item, the Internet chat channel that Martti had established for the Bitcoin community quickly lit up. NewLibertyStandard wrote: “FRONT PAGE!!!” Regulars like Laszlo made a point of being on the Bitcoin chat channel, to answer questions and serve as a tour guide of sorts for any newbies who checked in after reading the story.

Back when Satoshi had first launched the software, his writings were drily focused on the technical specifications of the programming. But after the first few weeks, Satoshi began emphasizing the broader ideological motivations for the software to help win over a broader audience, and privacy was only a part of it. In a February posting on the website of the P2P Foundation, a group dedicated to decentralized, peer-to-peer technology, Satoshi led off by talking about problems with traditional, or fiat, currencies, a term for money generated by government decree, or fiat. “The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work,” Satoshi wrote. “The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust.” Currency debasement was not an issue the Cypherpunks had discussed much, but Satoshi made it clear with this posting, and not for the last time, that he had been thinking about more than just the concerns of the Cypherpunks when designing the Bitcoin software.


pages: 314 words: 69,741

The Internet Is a Playground by David Thorne

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late fees, Naomi Klein, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

I would no doubt find your ideas more “cutting edge” and original if I had traveled forward in time from the 1950s, but as it stands, your ideas for technology-based projects that have already been put into application by other people several years before you thought of them fail to generate the enthusiasm they possibly deserve. Having said that, though, if I had traveled forward in time, my time machine would probably put your peer-to-peer networking technology to shame, because it would have not only commercial viability but also an awesome logo and accompanying pie charts. Regardless, I have, as requested, attached a logo that represents the peer-to-peer-networking project you are currently working on and how it feels working with you in general. Regards, David From: Simon Edhouse Date: Tuesday 17 November 2009 11:07 a.m. To: David Thorne Subject: Re: Re: Re: Re: Logo Design You just crossed the line. You have no idea about the potential this project has.

Not once did the secretary there call me a wanker or have her grotty old G-strings poking out the top of her fat arse every day, making me feel ill”—which I found much more entertaining than having to do the work that maintaining new clients would have entailed. From: Simon Edhouse Date: Monday 16 November 2009 2:19 p.m. To: David Thorne Subject: Logo Design Hello David, I would like to catch up as I am working on a really exciting project at the moment and need a logo designed. Basically something representing peer to peer networking. I have to have something to show prospective clients this week so would you be able to pull something together in the next few days? I will also need a couple of pie charts done for a 1 page website. If deal goes ahead there will be some good money in it for you. Simon From: David Thorne Date: Monday 16 November 2009 3:52 p.m. To: Simon Edhouse Subject: Re: Logo Design Dear Simon, Disregarding the fact that you have still not paid me for work I completed earlier this year despite several assertions that you would do so, I would be delighted to spend my free time creating logos and pie charts for you based on further vague promises of future possible payment.


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce

It could radically decentralise society itself, getting rid of the need for banks, governments, even companies and politicians. Take the example of Twister, a blockchain-based rival to Twitter, built entirely on a peer-to-peer network. If you live under a despotic regime, sending a message critical of your government on Twitter leaves you vulnerable to that government coercing Twitter, the company, into handing over your details. With Twister, that will not be possible. Then there is Namecoin, which aims to issue internet names in a decentralised, peer-to-peer fashion; Storj, which plans to allow cloud storage of files hidden inside blockchains; and Ethereum, which is a decentralised peer-to-peer network ‘designed to replace absolutely anything that can be described in code’, as Matthew Sparkes puts it. The digital expert Primavera De Filippi sees Ethereum and its ilk coming up with smart contracts, allowing ‘distributed autonomous organisations’ that, once they have been deployed on the blockchain, ‘no longer need (nor heed) their creators’.

So, while we should honour individuals for their contributions, we should not really think that they made something come into existence that would not have otherwise. The names would be different, and some of the procedures too, but an alternative internet would exist today whoever had lived. The true origin of the internet does not lie in brilliant individuals, nor in private companies, nor in government funding. It lies, as Steven Berlin Johnson has argued persuasively, in open-source, peer-to-peer networking of an almost hippie, sixties-California-commune kind. ‘Like many of the bedrock technologies that have come to define the digital age, the internet was created by – and continues to be shaped by – decentralised groups of scientists and programmers and hobbyists (and more than a few entrepreneurs) freely sharing the fruits of their intellectual labor with the entire world.’ These were people collaborating because they wanted to, not because they were paid to, and with little or no intellectual property in their ideas.

Chapter 16: The Evolution of the Internet Hayek quote from Hayek, F. 1978. The Constitution of Liberty. University of Chicago Press. On East German televisions, and telephones, Kupferberg, Feiwel 2002. The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic. Transaction Publishers. On the Arpanet, Crovitz, Gordon 2012. Who really invented the internet?. Wall Street Journal 22 July 2012. On peer-to-peer networks, Johnson, Steven 2012. Future Perfect. Penguin. On the balkanisation of the web, Sparkes, Matthew 2014. The Coming Digital Anarchy. Daily Telegraph 9 June 2014. On Wikipedia editing, Scott, Nigel 2014. Wikipedia: where truth dies online. Spiked 29 April 2014. Filipachi, Amanda 2013. Sexism on Wikipedia is Not the Work of ‘a Single Misguided Editor’. The Atlantic 13 April 2013. Solomon, Lawrence 2009.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Social networks had overthrown a dictatorship. Zeynep Tufekci, a sociologist at the University of Maryland, took issue with these claims in a fascinating post called “Can ‘Leaderless Revolutions’ Stay Leaderless?” Even if the democratic movement in Egypt had truly lacked leaders (a debatable assertion given the role trade unions played, for example), Tufekci argued that social media and peer-to-peer networks in no way guaranteed that the situation would stay that way. Social media, Tufekci explained, do not guard against the “iron law of oligarchy,” the tendency of even democratic groups to develop oligarchic characteristics—they may, in fact, facilitate it. “Networks which start out as diffuse can and likely will quickly evolve into hierarchies not in spite but because of their open and flat nature,” she explained.23 “Influence in the online world can actually spontaneously exhibit even sharper all-or-nothing dynamics compared to the off-line world, with everything below a certain threshold becoming increasingly weaker while those who first manage to cross the threshold becoming widely popular.”

Online, creative works are decontextualized, remixed, and mashed up. We surf and skim, passing along songs instead of albums, quotes instead of essays, clips instead of films. Artists who share their work with the world (or find it leaked) see it repurposed in ways they didn’t anticipate. The minute a film is released or an essay is published, it begins to race around the Internet, passed through peer-to-peer networks, posted on personal Web sites, quoted in social media streams. In one sense, therefore, any ownership claim is purely theoretical, since, in practice, people’s creations circulate in ways they cannot control. In practice, though, the laws underpinning ownership are stronger than ever before, so strong that some experts warn we are living through a “second enclosure,” a reference to the eighteenth-century privatization of collectively managed fields and forests in England.

According to Mason’s Web site, his speaking performances have left Procter and Gamble “delighted,” struck the executives of Miller Genuine Draft as “amazing.” Disney, only slightly more restrained, found Mason “very stimulating!” Mason’s argument also holds true for most mainstream culture. The most downloaded files are, without fail, the biggest blockbusters and mainstream hits. While peer-to-peer networks can be used to share amateur and independent creativity, in practice they are more often used to trade Lady Gaga or Game of Thrones. Of course, big business is loath to lose potential sales to free distribution (the push for SOPA and PIPA in the United States and the draconian “three strikes” laws abroad, which can slow or suspend Internet access to repeat copyright infringers, prove as much), but pirate sites also increase the reach of American commercial culture, spreading it around to distant corners of the globe.


pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

In 2014, Krawcheck gave it the clever moniker Ellevate and launched the Pax Ellevate Global Women’s Index Fund, which invests in companies highly rated in terms of advancing female leadership. The verdict on the Ellevate network’s effectiveness is still out, but it is a promising start. THE NETWORKING GAP: SCHMOOZE OR LOSE The comparative weakness of female networks also results from women’s dispositions. Studies show that women are more reluctant than men to use their peer-to-peer networks because they feel uncomfortable using connections opportunistically. Also, some argue that since women have had top job opportunities only for a few decades, they lack role models and are still learning practices that men have long internalized.15 Often women are hired for their soft skills to attract new clients, sell financial services, and maintain client relationships. Despite excelling in these roles, they have largely been unable to break into the male-dominated high ranks of finance.

Shaw, 188 Dakota building, 199–200 Daley, William, 165 Dalio, Ray, xxvii Anthony Scaramucci and, 24 background on, 69–72 meditation by, 62, 70 net worth of, 88 Principles, 63, 71 Robin Hood Foundation and, 76 spouse of, 135 Dallara, Charles, 27, 107, 131–133 Dallara, Peixin, 131–133 D’Andrea Tyson, Laura, 185 Das, Satyajit, 210 Davos access to, 113 attendees of, 2, 4, 113–114 central bankers at, 33 critics of, 95 description of, 1–4, 96, 112–116 drawbacks of, 113 environment of, 2–3 hierarchy at, 114 hotels in, 2–3 networking at, 113–114 parties at, 114–116 peer-to-peer networking at, 5, 9 purpose of, 4 status markers at, 114 superhubs at, 8–12 Dealbreaker, 71 Debt, 210 Decision makers, proximity to, 42 Dell, Michael, 115 Democratic Party, 168 Den of Thieves, 190 Depression, 137 Deripaska, Oleg, 9, 69 Deutsche Bank, 27, 42, 101, 105, 118, 120–121, 131, 136, 141, 143, 176 Diamond, Bob, 43, 137, 205 Dijsselbloem, Jeroen, 121 DiMartino, Joseph, 199 Dimon, Jamie alma mater of, 174 as superhub, 11, 56 as type A personality, 56–57 background on, 55–58 charity by, 76 Elizabeth Warren and, 225 financial losses by, 23, 51 firings by, 140–141 general references to, xxv, 79 at JPMorgan, 9.

See Davos need for, 112 Network power communication used to form, 41 description of, xxv of Klaus Schwab, 95 network strength and, 97 Network science description of, xxvi financial system viewed through, 6–7 human relationships viewed through, 7 patterns in, 7 Networkers, 100–101 Networking at charity events, 128–129 at Davos, 5, 9 family office platform for, 123–124 at fitness clubs, 125–126 mind-set of, 100–101 power lunches for, 124–125 at Private parties, 126–128 purpose of, 100, 104, 108 resistance to, 104 by Superhubs, 100 by women, 151 Networking gap, 151, 161–162 New York charity events in, 128 Four Seasons restaurant in, 124 real estate in, 90–91 New York Fed, 45–46, 183, 208–209, 215 New York Times, 17, 56, 71, 125, 148, 158, 189 New York University, 36, 47, 64 New Zealand, 13 Newsweek, 80 Niccolini, Julian, 124 Niederauer, Duncan, 85 Nodes definition of, xxvi description of, 18–19 failure of, 216 in financial system, 19–20 hierarchy of, 19 with limited connections, 20 links to, 19 preferential attachment of, xxvi senior, 77 superhub connections to, 19–20 Nonverbal communication, 99–100, 149 Nooyi, Indra, 157 Norms, 222 Northwestern University, 220 Norway, 114 Novogratz, Michael, 109 Noyer, Christian, 160 O Oaktree Capital Management, 90 Obama, Barack, 58, 165, 168, 173–174, 188–189, 196 Observer, 87 Obsessiveness, 69 Och, Dan, 170 Och-Ziff, 170 “Office housework,” 152 Office of the Chief Economist, 164 Old boys’ network, 82–85, 150 Old Lane Partners, 139 On the Brink, 172 On Tour with the IMF, 160 O’Neal, Stanley, 56 O’Neill, Michael, 140 Open-mindedness, 62 Opportunities, 52–53 Opportunity gap, 13 Orszag, Peter, 168 Osborne, George, 121, 137 Osório, Horta, 137 Oxfam, 213 P Pain, 71 Paine Webber, 209 Palantir Technologies, 72 Panama Papers, 211 Pandit, Vikram, 23, 53, 57, 139–140, 203 Pao, Ellen, 196–203 Papandreou, George, 27 Paranoia, 71 Paris, 131–132 Parties private, 126–128 at World Economic Forum, 114–116 Patton, Arch, 87 Paulson & Co., 42, 88 Paulson, Hank AIG and, 183 Alan Greenspan and, 36 as U.S. treasury secretary, 36, 167 background on, 172 at Bilderberg conference, 121 networking by, 172–173, 182 personal relationships, 11 in public and private sectors, 165 revolving door phenomenon and, 165 Robert Rubin and, 167 Paulson, John, xxvii, 7, 82, 88, 129 Pax Ellevate Global Women’s Index Fund, 151 Peer-to-peer networking at Davos, 5, 9 by women, 151 P=EFT formula, 63–64, 192 Pelosi, Nancy, 27, 173 Peltz, Nelson, 154 People’s Bank of China, 209 Pepsi, 157 Perfectionism, 137 Performance-based assessments, 152 Performance-based compensation, 86 “Perma-bears,” 48 Perry, Richard, 170 Perry Capital, 170 Personal connections access and, 52 benefits of, 45–46 description of, 7–8, 10–12 in financial crisis of 2007–2008 resolution, 172–173 influence of, 41–42 information from, 41–42 leveraging of, 175 need for, 98 networking to create, 100–101 technology’s role in, 99–100 value of, 175 Peterson, Pete, 27, 30, 53, 61, 79, 124 Peterson Institute, 107 Petraeus, General David, 121 Petro Saudi, 170 “Philanthrocapitalism,” 128 Philanthropy, 17, 70, 75–76, 128, 129, 169, 171, 192, 199 Philippe, King of Belgium, 114 Picasso, Pablo, 124–125 Piketty, Thomas, 49 PIMCO, 42, 44, 53, 66–67, 69 Pinchuk, Victor, 195 Place Vendôme, 132 Plato, 79 Plaza Hotel, 158 Point72 Asset Management, 88 Policy makers, 85 Political capital, 169 Political protection, 175–176 Politics, finance and, 163 Ponzi schemes, 196, 201–202 Pool Room, 124 Pope, 220 Portugal, 177 “Positive linking,” 100 Potential versus performance, 152–153 Poverty, 213 Power network.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

* * * Of course, with creation comes destruction. I haven’t really come here to see art projects – cool as they may be. I want to find some cracking. The lightning talks offer up a couple of titbits. One talk, entitled “cache games”, shows how to manipulate someone else’s computer from afar using the web caching system. Another details how to launch a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack using peer-to-peer networks. If this was the magician’s circle, then think of these guys as fairground conjurers. For the really good tricks, it’s clear I’m going to have to leave the sideshows. The main lecture hall is accessed from the first, and top floor of the Berliner. Its domed roof has something of the Biosphere 1 about it, but despite this, the lecture hall is pretty normal. Normal that is, until you look up on the stage.

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology n00bie: Hacker jargon for “newbie” NORAD: North American Aerospace Defense Command ONI: Open Net Initiative Open Rights Group (ORG): UK-based organisation that works to preserve digital rights and freedoms open source: Practices in production and development that promote access to the end products source materials ORG: See Open Rights Group paywall: A paywall blocks access to a webpage with a screen requiring payment. PDP11: 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s peer-to-peer: A distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between equally privileged participants in the application which are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. The peer-to-peer application structure was popularised by file sharing systems like Napster. phreaking: A slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks. protocol: A communications protocol is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

Instead of paying a record company to listen to their artists’ music on a CD player, we pay a computer company for the hardware, an Internet-access company for the bandwidth, and a software company for the media player to do all this. And that’s when we’re doing it illegally, instead of just paying ninety-nine cents to Apple’s iTunes. “Silicon Valley consultants call it Web 2.0, as if it were a new version of some old software. But it’s really a revolution,” Time enthused. Peer-to-peer networking is terrific, indeed, but revolutions are those moments in history when a mob storms the palace and cuts off the heads of the people who have been exploiting them. This is something else. Yes, bloggers and YouTubers have had many successes, particularly against government. They have brought down a Republican senator, an attorney general, and even made headway against the repressive net censorship of the Chinese.

Anything digital, no matter how seemingly well protected or encrypted, was capable of being copied and shared. The bias of the Internet for abundance over scarcity appeared to be taking its toll. Hollywood studios and record companies began lobbying Congress for laws and enforcement to prevent their entire libraries from becoming worthless. Comcast, a cable company that offers broadband Internet service, began blocking traffic from peer-to-peer networks in an effort to prevent losses to its corporate brethren and subsidiaries. Other corporations lobbied for changes to the way Internet access is billed, making it easier for large companies to support fast content distribution, but much harder for smaller groups or individuals to share their data. The content wars redrew the battle lines of the net revolution. It became a struggle between consumers and producers: customers fighting to get the products they wanted for free, and doing it by investing in a host of other products that, all told, probably cost them more money anyway.

This team-up is based on the premise that a group of small companies can outperform a single large contractor—doing large projects faster, cheaper, and better than the “big boys.” Big contractors form their own Contract Teaming Arrangements when necessary, but these teams are organized hierarchically, like a military unit, with the “prime” contractor commanding and controlling its subcontractors. A Super CTA is very different: It’s organized as a peer-to-peer network, like a modern software development team. It’s a partnership of equals; in a Super CTA, one company handles the team’s communication and coordination functions, but no company in the team dictates to any other. A Super CTA is a contracting democracy, and, like democracy in general, it requires checks, balances, and good communications to function well. It’s more complex than a hierarchical team, but that increased complexity brings higher performance and potentially greater benefits to society.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

In Free: The Future of a Radical Price, Chris Anderson, the editor of Wired, argued that people can no longer own things made out of ideas because anybody can get them for nothing. Since most of what advanced economies produce is made of information, this could mean that much of the product of modern economic activity would inevitably become gratis. The dictum seems to be true. Retail sales of music in the United States—from CDs to ring tones—declined by about a fifth in 2008 to $8.5 billion, as consumers stopped buying music and turned to peer-to-peer networks, where it is available for free. Globally, wholesale shipments of recorded music fell by nearly a tenth, to $18.4 billion. This changed the very meaning of success. The biggest album of 2008, Lil Wayne’s Tha Carter III, sold 2.87 million copies in the United States, according to Nielsen SoundScan. Nine years earlier the top album was Millennium by the Backstreet Boys. It sold 9.45 million copies.

In 2005, a report commissioned by the Motion Picture Association of America found that piracy cost the movie industry worldwide $18.2 billion a year and online theft accounted for 39 percent of the total. These days, more people copy movies than go see them in theaters. In May of 2008 the French bought 12.2 million tickets to see films but downloaded 13.7 million free copies of movies online through peer-to-peer networks. In the summer of 2008 Warner Bros. made an impressive display of security to launch the hit Batman movie The Dark Knight, using technology that allowed it to track each and every copy of the film. A few months later I sat in Bryant Park, behind the New York Public Library with a lanky, twenty-four-year-old philosophy major from the State University of New York. He opened his Mac iBook and took me to a Web site where at the click of the mouse, he could download a high-definition copy of The Dark Knight for free.


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

But when pointing out weak security, Tiversa has courted controversy. In 2013, LabMD, an Atlanta company that performs cancer diagnoses, filed a complaint accusing Tiversa of stealing patient information from it and other health care companies through peer-to-peer networks. LabMD had been under investigation by the Federal Trade Commission after a data breach allegedly exposed patient information. The company claimed that the government had hired Tiversa to take the documents without LabMD’s knowledge or consent. According to court documents, Tiversa found LabMD patient information on a peer-to-peer network and then allegedly made repeated phone calls and sent e-mails to the health care company trying to sell Tiversa’s cyber security services. LabMD’s lawsuits were subsequently withdrawn or dismissed, and Tiversa has sued LabMD for defamation.


pages: 377 words: 110,427

The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz by Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig

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affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, failed state, fear of failure, Firefox, full employment, Howard Zinn, index card, invisible hand, John Gruber, Lean Startup, More Guns, Less Crime, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, semantic web, single-payer health, SpamAssassin, SPARQL, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, unbiased observer, wage slave, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

so you repeat as necessary to get the amount you’re owed. Since the government can’t open the envelope (we use crypto to ensure this), they have no idea of knowing which gift certificate they signed, so they can’t associate you with it when you spend it later. Now, to anonymously submit the gift certificates to the government, you reuse the peer-to-peer network you downloaded the songs from as a remailer network. You encrypt your gift certificate so only the government can read it, then you pass it to a friend on the peer-to-peer network, who passes it to a friend, etc., until someone gives it to the government. The government publishes the list of identifiers for gift certificates they’ve received, so you can make sure it got through and resend it if it didn’t. Conclusion This proposal isn’t the simplest, and probably not the most elegant, but unlike the others it will work without cheating the public.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The migration to digital music is recent enough that most of us grasp its wider repercussions: think of the still-simmering debates over music in the post-Napster era, the challenges it has posed to our intellectual property laws and the economics of all creative industries. But, as always, what began with an attempt to create and share new kinds of sounds ended up triggering other revolutions in other domains. The first true peer-to-peer networks for sharing information were designed specifically for the swapping of musical files. It is still too early to tell, but this innovation may turn out to be as influential as those piano keyboards and pinned cylinders, if in fact peer-to-peer platforms like Bitcoin eventually become an important part of the global financial infrastructure, as many people believe. It is entirely possible that the most significant advance in the history of money since the invention of a government-backed currency will end up having its roots in teenagers sharing Metallica songs.

It is entirely possible that the most significant advance in the history of money since the invention of a government-backed currency will end up having its roots in teenagers sharing Metallica songs. Whenever waves of new information technology have crested, music has been there to greet them. Music was among the first activities to be encoded, the first to be automated, the first to be programmed, the first to be digitized as a commercial product, the first to be distributed via peer-to-peer networks. There is something undeniably pleasing about that litany, something hopeful. Think about the history behind the most influential device of the modern age: a digital computer sharing information across wireless networks. What were the enabling technologies that made it possible to invent such a device in the first place? The standard story is that computers—and the Internet—descend from military technology, since many early computers were designed specifically to crack wartime codes or calculate rocket trajectories.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

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3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

But why would you want to? That takes a bit longer to explain. I’ll start with a short history of Bitcoin. Chapter 3: Precursors, History and Creation, Satoshi’s White Paper I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at: http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf The main properties: Double-spending is prevented with a peer-to-peer network. No mint or other trusted parties. Participants can be anonymous. New coins are made from Hashcash style proof-of-work. The proof-of-work for new coin generation also powers the network to prevent double-spending. —Satoshi Nakamoto’s announcement of Bitcoin, The Cryptography and Cryptography Policy Mailing List, November 1, 2008 With this message, an anonymous person or group posting under the name Satoshi Nakamoto started the revolution known to the public as Bitcoin.

Farivar describes the process by which Arscoin turned from a hypothetical cryptocurrency into an actual one: I called Corallo, the Coingen creator, for some guidance. First, he said, I needed one of my colleagues to install the app as well so that person could be added as a peer. Soon Peter Bright joined the grand experiment, allowing me to open the Arscoin-qt console and type: “addnode [Peter’s IP address] add.” Bam! Suddenly there was an Arscoin peer-to-peer network of two. The next step was to begin mining with the command “setgenerate true.” In the Windows version of the Arscoin app, a pop-up soon flashed in the taskbar to denote a successfully mined block. The reward? Fifty Arscoins. Now Arscoin was officially born. While this might have been worthless mathematical crunching, the thrill of minting “coins” quickly attracted a host of other staffers.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Fourth, publicly fund the set-up of community makerspaces – places where innovators can meet and experiment with shared use of 3D printers and essential tools for hardware construction. And lastly, encourage the spread of civic organisations – from cooperative societies and student groups to innovation clubs and neighbourhood associations – because their interconnections turn into the very nodes that bring such peer-to-peer networks alive. Going global Despite the importance of tackling national inequalities, global inequalities are still of great concern. Since 2000, global income inequality has narrowed slightly – largely thanks to poverty reduction in China – but the world as a whole still remains more unequal than any single country within it.85 And that extreme skew in global incomes helps to push humanity beyond both sides of the Doughnut.

., 6 micro-businesses, 9, 173, 178 microeconomics, 132–4 microgrids, 187–8 Micronesia, 153 Microsoft, 231 middle class, 6, 46, 58 middle-income countries, 90, 164, 168, 173, 180, 226, 254 migration, 82, 89–90, 166, 195, 199, 236, 266, 286 Milanovic, Branko, 171 Mill, John Stuart, 33–4, 73, 97, 250, 251, 283, 284, 288 Millo, Yuval, 101 minimum wage, 82, 88, 176 Minsky, Hyman, 87, 146 Mises, Ludwig von, 66 mission zero, 217 mobile banking, 199–200 mobile phones, 222 Model T revolution, 277–8 Moldova, 199 Mombasa, Kenya, 185–6 Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 94 money creation, 87, 164, 177, 182–8, 205 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 Monoculture (Michaels), 6 Monopoly, 149 Mont Pelerin Society, 67, 93 Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, The (Friedman), 258 moral vacancy, 41 Morgan, Mary, 99 Morogoro, Tanzania, 121 Moyo, Dambisa, 258 Muirhead, Sam, 230, 231 MultiCapital Scorecard, 241 Murphy, David, 264 Murphy, Richard, 185 musical tastes, 110 Myriad Genetics, 196 N national basic income, 177 Native Americans, 115, 116, 282 natural capital, 7, 116, 269 Natural Economic Order, The (Gessel), 274 Nedbank, 216 negative externalities, 213 negative interest rates, 275–6 neoclassical economics, 134, 135 neoliberalism, 7, 62–3, 67–70, 81, 83, 84, 88, 93, 143, 170, 176 Nepal, 181, 199 Nestlé, 217 Netherlands, 211, 235, 224, 226, 238, 277 networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6, 174–6 neuroscience, 12–13 New Deal, 37 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 New Year’s Day, 124 New York, United States, 9, 41, 55 Newlight Technologies, 224, 226, 293 Newton, Isaac, 13, 15–17, 32–3, 95, 97, 129, 131, 135–7, 142, 145, 162 Nicaragua, 196 Nigeria, 164 nitrogen, 49, 52, 212–13, 216, 218, 221, 226, 298 ‘no pain, no gain’, 163, 167, 173, 204, 209 Nobel Prize, 6–7, 43, 83, 101, 167 Norway, 281 nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 O Obama, Barack, 41, 92 Oberlin, Ohio, 239, 240–41 Occupy movement, 40, 91 ocean acidification, 45, 46, 52, 155, 242, 298 Ohio, United States, 190, 239 Okun, Arthur, 37 onwards and upwards, 53 Open Building Institute, 196 Open Source Circular Economy (OSCE), 229–32 open systems, 74 open-source design, 158, 196–8, 265 open-source licensing, 204 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 38, 210, 255–6, 258 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 14 Ormerod, Paul, 110, 111 Orr, David, 239 Ostrom, Elinor, 83, 84, 158, 160, 181–2 Ostry, Jonathan, 173 OSVehicle, 231 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 ownership of wealth, 177–82 Oxfam, 9, 44 Oxford University, 1, 36 ozone layer, 9, 50, 115 P Pachamama, 54, 55 Pakistan, 124 Pareto, Vilfredo, 165–6, 175 Paris, France, 290 Park 20|20, Netherlands, 224, 226 Parker Brothers, 149 Patagonia, 56 patents, 195–6, 197, 204 patient capital, 235 Paypal, 192 Pearce, Joshua, 197, 203–4 peer-to-peer networks, 187, 192, 198, 203, 292 People’s QE, 184–5 Perseus, 244 Persia, 13 Peru, 2, 105–6 Phillips, Adam, 283 Phillips, William ‘Bill’, 64–6, 75, 142, 262 phosphorus, 49, 52, 212–13, 218, 298 Physiocrats, 73 Pickett, Kate, 171 pictures, 12–25 Piketty, Thomas, 169 Playfair, William, 16 Poincaré, Henri, 109, 127–8 Polanyi, Karl, 82, 272 political economy, 33–4, 42 political funding, 91–2, 171–2 political voice, 43, 45, 51–2, 77, 117 pollution, 29, 45, 52, 85, 143, 155, 206–17, 226, 238, 242, 254, 298 population, 5, 46, 57, 155, 199, 250, 252, 254 Portugal, 211 post-growth society, 250 poverty, 5, 9, 37, 41, 50, 88, 118, 148, 151 emotional, 283 and inequality, 164–5, 168–9, 178 and overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 and taxation, 277 power, 91–92 pre-analytic vision, 21–2 prescription medicines, 123 price-takers, 132 prices, 81, 118–23, 131, 160 Principles of Economics (Mankiw), 34 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 17, 98 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 288 ProComposto, 226 Propaganda (Bernays), 107 public relations, 107, 281 public spending v. investment, 276 public–private patents, 195 Putnam, Robert, 76–7 Q quantitative easing (QE), 184–5 Quebec, 281 Quesnay, François, 16, 73 R Rabot, Ghent, 236 Rancière, Romain, 172 rating and review systems, 105 rational economic man, 94–103, 109, 111, 112, 126, 282 Reagan, Ronald, 67 reciprocity, 103–6, 117, 118, 123 reflexivity of markets, 144 reinforcing feedback loops, 138–41, 148, 250, 271 relative decoupling, 259 renewable energy biomass energy, 118, 221 and circular economy, 221, 224, 226, 235, 238–9, 274 and commons, 83, 85, 185, 187–8, 192, 203, 264 geothermal energy, 221 and green growth, 257, 260, 263, 264, 267 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 pricing, 118 solar energy, see solar energy wave energy, 221 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 rentier sector, 180, 183, 184 reregulation, 82, 87, 269 resource flows, 175 resource-intensive lifestyles, 46 Rethinking Economics, 289 Reynebeau, Guy, 237 Ricardo, David, 67, 68, 73, 89, 250 Richardson, Katherine, 53 Rifkin, Jeremy, 83, 264–5 Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The (Kennedy), 279 risk, 112, 113–14 Robbins, Lionel, 34 Robinson, James, 86 Robinson, Joan, 142 robots, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 Rockefeller Foundation, 135 Rockford, Illinois, 179–80 Rockström, Johan, 48, 55 Roddick, Anita, 232–4 Rogoff, Kenneth, 271, 280 Roman Catholic Church, 15, 19 Rombo, Tanzania, 190 Rome, Ancient, 13, 48, 154 Romney, Mitt, 92 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 37 rooted membership, 190 Rostow, Walt, 248–50, 254, 257, 267–70, 284 Ruddick, Will, 185 rule of thumb, 113–14 Ruskin, John, 42, 223 Russia, 200 rust belt, 90, 239 S S curve, 251–6 Sainsbury’s, 56 Samuelson, Paul, 17–21, 24–5, 38, 62–7, 70, 74, 84, 91, 92, 93, 262, 290–91 Sandel, Michael, 41, 120–21 Sanergy, 226 sanitation, 5, 51, 59 Santa Fe, California, 213 Santinagar, West Bengal, 178 São Paolo, Brazil, 281 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 43 Saumweder, Philipp, 226 Scharmer, Otto, 115 Scholes, Myron, 100–101 Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich, 42, 142 Schumpeter, Joseph, 21 Schwartz, Shalom, 107–9 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 163, 167, 204 ‘Science and Complexity’ (Weaver), 136 Scotland, 57 Seaman, David, 187 Seattle, Washington, 217 second machine age, 258 Second World War (1939–45), 18, 37, 70, 170 secular stagnation, 256 self-interest, 28, 68, 96–7, 99–100, 102–3 Selfish Society, The (Gerhardt), 283 Sen, Amartya, 43 Shakespeare, William, 61–3, 67, 93 shale gas, 264, 269 Shang Dynasty, 48 shareholders, 82, 88, 189, 191, 227, 234, 273, 292 sharing economy, 264 Sheraton Hotel, Boston, 3 Siegen, Germany, 290 Silicon Valley, 231 Simon, Julian, 70 Sinclair, Upton, 255 Sismondi, Jean, 42 slavery, 33, 77, 161 Slovenia, 177 Small Is Beautiful (Schumacher), 42 smart phones, 85 Smith, Adam, 33, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78–9, 81, 96–7, 103–4, 128, 133, 160, 181, 250 social capital, 76–7, 122, 125, 172 social contract, 120, 125 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 social media, 83, 281 Social Progress Index, 280 social pyramid, 166 society, 76–7 solar energy, 59, 75, 111, 118, 187–8, 190 circular economy, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226–7, 239 commons, 203 zero-energy buildings, 217 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84 Solow, Robert, 135, 150, 262–3 Soros, George, 144 South Africa, 56, 177, 214, 216 South Korea, 90, 168 South Sea Bubble (1720), 145 Soviet Union (1922–91), 37, 67, 161, 279 Spain, 211, 238, 256 Spirit Level, The (Wilkinson & Pickett), 171 Sraffa, Piero, 148 St Gallen, Switzerland, 186 Stages of Economic Growth, The (Rostow), 248–50, 254 stakeholder finance, 190 Standish, Russell, 147 state, 28, 33, 69–70, 78, 82, 160, 176, 180, 182–4, 188 and commons, 85, 93, 197, 237 and market, 84–6, 200, 281 partner state, 197, 237–9 and robots, 195 stationary state, 250 Steffen, Will, 46, 48 Sterman, John, 66, 143, 152–4 Steuart, James, 33 Stiglitz, Joseph, 43, 111, 196 stocks and flows, 138–41, 143, 144, 152 sub-prime mortgages, 141 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 Sugarscape, 150–51 Summers, Larry, 256 Sumner, Andy, 165 Sundrop Farms, 224–6 Sunstein, Cass, 112 supply and demand, 28, 132–6, 143, 253 supply chains, 10 Sweden, 6, 255, 275, 281 swishing, 264 Switzerland, 42, 66, 80, 131, 186–7, 275 T Tableau économique (Quesnay), 16 tabula rasa, 20, 25, 63, 291 takarangi, 54 Tanzania, 121, 190, 202 tar sands, 264, 269 taxation, 78, 111, 165, 170, 176, 177, 237–8, 276–9 annual wealth tax, 200 environment, 213–14, 215 global carbon tax, 201 global financial transactions tax, 201, 235 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 non-renewable resources, 193, 237–8, 278–9 People’s QE, 185 tax relief v. tax justice, 23, 276–7 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 202, 258 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 61, 63, 93 Texas, United States, 120 Thailand, 90, 200 Thaler, Richard, 112 Thatcher, Margaret, 67, 69, 76 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 96 Thompson, Edward Palmer, 180 3D printing, 83–4, 192, 198, 231, 264 thriving-in-balance, 54–7, 62 tiered pricing, 213–14 Tigray, Ethiopia, 226 time banking, 186 Titmuss, Richard, 118–19 Toffler, Alvin, 12, 80 Togo, 231, 292 Torekes, 236–7 Torras, Mariano, 209 Torvalds, Linus, 231 trade, 62, 68–9, 70, 89–90 trade unions, 82, 176, 189 trademarks, 195, 204 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 transport, 59 trickle-down economics, 111, 170 Triodos, 235 Turkey, 200 Tversky, Amos, 111 Twain, Mark, 178–9 U Uganda, 118, 125 Ulanowicz, Robert, 175 Ultimatum Game, 105, 117 unemployment, 36, 37, 276, 277–9 United Kingdom Big Bang (1986), 87 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 free trade, 90 global material footprints, 211 money creation, 182 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 poverty, 165, 166 prescription medicines, 123 wages, 188 United Nations, 55, 198, 204, 255, 258, 279 G77 bloc, 55 Human Development Index, 9, 279 Sustainable Development Goals, 24, 45 United States American Economic Association meeting (2015), 3 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 Congress, 36 Council of Economic Advisers, 6, 37 Earning by Learning, 120 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 Federal Reserve, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 free trade, 90 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 global material footprint, 211 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 inequality, 170, 171 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 political funding, 91–2, 171 poverty, 165, 166 productivity and employment, 193 rust belt, 90, 239 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 wages, 188 universal basic income, 200 University of Berkeley, 116 University of Denver, 160 urbanisation, 58–9 utility, 35, 98, 133 V values, 6, 23, 34, 35, 42, 117, 118, 121, 123–6 altruism, 100, 104 anthropocentric, 115 extrinsic, 115 fluid, 28, 102, 106–9 and networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6 and nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 and pricing, 81, 120–23 Veblen, Thorstein, 82, 109, 111, 142 Venice, 195 verbal framing, 23 Verhulst, Pierre, 252 Victor, Peter, 270 Viner, Jacob, 34 virtuous cycles, 138, 148 visual framing, 23 Vitruvian Man, 13–14 Volkswagen, 215–16 W Wacharia, John, 186 Wall Street, 149, 234, 273 Wallich, Henry, 282 Walras, Léon, 131, 132, 133–4, 137 Ward, Barbara, 53 Warr, Benjamin, 263 water, 5, 9, 45, 46, 51, 54, 59, 79, 213–14 wave energy, 221 Ways of Seeing (Berger), 12, 281 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 74, 78, 96, 104 wealth ownership, 177–82 Weaver, Warren, 135–6 weightless economy, 261–2 WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialised, rich, democratic), 103–5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 282 West Bengal, India, 124, 178 West, Darrell, 171–2 wetlands, 7 whale hunting, 106 Wiedmann, Tommy, 210 Wikipedia, 82, 223 Wilkinson, Richard, 171 win–win trade, 62, 68, 89 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 Wizard of Oz, The, 241 Woelab, 231, 293 Wolf, Martin, 183, 266 women’s rights, 33, 57, 107, 160, 201 and core economy, 69, 79–81 education, 57, 124, 178, 198 and land ownership, 178 see also gender equality workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 World 3 model, 154–5 World Bank, 6, 41, 119, 164, 168, 171, 206, 255, 258 World No Tobacco Day, 124 World Trade Organization, 6, 89 worldview, 22, 54, 115 X xenophobia, 266, 277, 286 Xenophon, 4, 32, 56–7, 160 Y Yandle, Bruce, 208 Yang, Yuan, 1–3, 289–90 yin yang, 54 Yousafzai, Malala, 124 YouTube, 192 Yunnan, China, 56 Z Zambia, 10 Zanzibar, 9 Zara, 276 Zeitvorsoge, 186–7 zero environmental impact, 217–18, 238, 241 zero-hour contracts, 88 zero-humans-required production, 192 zero-interest loans, 183 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84, 191, 264 zero-waste manufacturing, 227 Zinn, Howard, 77 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Illustrations are reproduced by kind permission of: archive.org


pages: 103 words: 32,131

Program Or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age by Douglas Rushkoff

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banking crisis, big-box store, citizen journalism, cloud computing, digital map, East Village, financial innovation, Firefox, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, WikiLeaks

Those conversations are already happening, with or without any particular company’s page or hub. The truth about what they do and how well they do it is already a topic of conversation. The real way to “go social,” if they wanted to, would not be to accumulate more page friends or message followers, but rather to get their friends and followers to befriend and follow one another. That’s how to create a culture in a peer-to-peer, networked medium. Instead of looking to monetize or otherwise intercede between existing social connections, those promoting networks should be looking to foster connections between people who are as yet unknown to each other yet potentially in need of each other. And then let them go about their business—or their socializing. The danger, of course, is that today’s “penny for your friends” social networks will survive long enough—at least one after the other—for their compromised social standards to become accepted or even internalized by users.


pages: 302 words: 82,233

Beautiful security by Andy Oram, John Viega

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Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, defense in depth, Donald Davies, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, market design, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Nick Leeson, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, pirate software, Robert Bork, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, security theater, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

., 30 Nimda virus, 248 NOC (National Office for Cyberspace), 201, 202 NTLM authentication, 6 O OCC, 191 off-the-shelf software (see software acquisition) Office Max, 50 online advertising advertisers as victims, 98–105 attacks on users, 89–98 CPA advertising, 102–103 CPC advertising, 100–101 CPM advertising, 100–103 creating accountability, 105 deceptive ads, 94–98 exploit-laden banner ads, 89–92 false impressions, 98–99 fighting fraud, 103–104 malvertisements, 92–94 special procurement challenges, 104 targeted, 250 online advertising, targeted, 249 online forums, 250 Open Security Foundation, 55 open source honeyclients, 133–135 Open Web Application Security Project (see OWASP) OpenID identity management, 154 OpenPGP standard/protocol background, 108 certification support, 111, 112 designated revokers, 122 direct trust, 109 exportable signatures, 125 extended introducers, 123 in-certificate preferences, 126 key support, 112 key-editing policies, 126 revoking certificates, 122 OpenSocial API, 159 operating systems, host logging, 232, 236 OptOut spyware removal tool, 251 Orange Book, 213 organizational culture, 200–202 outsourcing extending security initiative to, 190 trends in, 154 vulnerability research, 156 OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) background, 159 CLASP methodology, 187 Top 10 list, 187 P P2P (peer-to-peer) networks botnet communication, 66 honeyclient considerations, 146 packet sniffers, 92 packets handshake, 28 SQL Slammer worm, 227 Pakistani Flu virus, 248 PAN (Primary Account Number), 77 Panda Labs, 69 PAR (Payer Authentication Request), 77 PARAM tag, 94 passive sniffing, 9 passphrases, 29 password grinding, 28 password-cracking tools L0phtCrack example, 3–6 passphrases and, 29 passwords authentication security, 7 identity theft and, 24 NTLM authentication and, 6 PATHSERVER, 129 Payer Authentication Request (PAR), 77 Payment Card Industry (see PCI) INDEX 277 PayPal, 79 PCI (Payment Card Industry) Data Security Standard, 75, 82, 159, 211, 214, 237 protecting credit card data, 44 peer-to-peer networks (see P2P networks) PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail), 117 perma-vendors, 156 Personally Identifiable Information (PII), 180 Pezzonavante honeyclient, 144 PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 111 (see also Web of Trust) background, 107, 108, 116 backward compatibility issues, 117 Crypto Wars, 118 designated revokers, 122 encryption support, 107, 116–120 key validity, 108 patent and export problems, 117 source download, 116 trust models, 109–116 trust relationships, 108 PGP Corporation, 108 PGP Global Directory, 127 pharmware, 68 phishing 3-D Secure protocol, 77 as information source, 68 botnet support, 66 challenges detecting, 231 spam and, 70 specialization in, 249 PhoneyC website, 145 PII (Personally Identifiable Information), 180 Piper, Fred, 168 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authoritative keys, 123 defined, 111 DSG support, 203 revoking certificates, 120 SET considerations, 79 PlexLogic, 45 Plumb, Colin, 119 port scanning, 231 pragmatic security, 200, 209 Pre-Shared Key (PSK), 28 Pretty Good Privacy (see PGP) Price, Will, 127 Primary Account Number (PAN), 77 Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), 117 proof-of-concept project, 191–193 Provos, Niels, 145 PSK (Pre-Shared Key), 28 psychological traps confirmation traps, 10–14 278 INDEX functional fixation, 14–20 learned helplessness, 2 public key cryptography cumulative trust systems, 111 key revocation, 121 PGP support, 107 RSA algorithm, 117 SET support, 78 steganographic applications, 245 validity, 108 Public Key Infrastructure (see PKI) Public Key Partners, 118 put options, 39 Q Qualys vulnerability management, 151 R Raduege, Harry, 201 Regular, Bob, 90 regulatory compliance (see legal considerations) Reiter, Mark, 129 Reliable Software Technologies, 171, 173 reputation economy, 167 resource dealers, 64 Return on Investment (ROI), 163, 205–207 Return on Security Investment (ROSI), 206 Returnil, 254, 255, 256, 257 revoking certificates, 120–122 RFC 1991, 108, 119 RFC 3156, 108 RFC 4880, 108 Right Media, 94 ROI (Return on Investment), 163, 205–207 root certificates defined, 109 direct trust, 110 rootkits example investigating, 220 Rustock.C, 252 specialization in, 249 ROSI (Return on Security Investment), 206 routers DDoS attacks on, 16 host logging, 232 watch lists, 231 Routh, Jim, 183–197 RSA Data Security Incorporated, 117 RSA public-key algorithm, 117 RSAREF library, 117 Rustock.C rootkit, 252 S Sabett, Randy V., 199–212 sandboxing functionality, 254 HIPS support, 253 need for new strategies, 248 Santa Fe Group, 44 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), 80, 214 SCADA systems, 18 Schoen, Seth, 127 SDLC (see software development lifecycle) Second Life virtual world, 159 Secret Service Shadowcrew network and, 65 TJX security breach and, 50 Secunia, 156 Secure Electronic Transaction (see SET) security breaches attorney involvement in investigating, 211 Barings Bank, 38–49 California data privacy law, 203–205 cyber underground and, 63–72 databases and, 239 impact of, 208 logs in investigating, 218–221 public data sources, 59 tiger team responses, 210–211 TJX, 49–59 security certificates defined, 22 encryption and, 22, 24 fundamental flaw, 25 paying attention to, 26 wireless access points, 26, 27 Security Event Managers (SEMs), 153 security metrics (see metrics) Security Metrics Catalog project, 54 security traps (see psychological traps) SecurityFocus database, 132 SecurityMetrics.org, 54 SEI (Software Engineering Institute), 176 Seifert, Christian, 138, 145 self-signed certificates, 109 SEMs (Security Event Managers), 153 separation of duties, 39 September 11, 2001, 249 server applications, host logging, 232 Service Set Identifier (SSID), 52 service-oriented architecture (SOA), 150 SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) background, 78 evaluation of, 79 protections supported, 78 transaction process, 79 SHA256 hash algorithm, 241 Shadowcrew network, 65 short straddle trading strategy, 39, 40 signature harassment, 125 Sinclair, Upton, 149 Skinner, B.

Practical Packet Analysis: Using Wireshark to Solve Real-World Network Problems by Chris Sanders

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Debian, peer-to-peer, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment

Figure 8-35. Looking at the port number is a good way to identify the type of traffic. A quick search for this port number at http://www.iana.org will list the services associated with this port. Summary The Gnutella network is commonly used for the downloading and distribution of various file types. This idea may sound great at first, but unfortunately, it has resulted in a large peer-to-peer network of pornography as well as pirated software, movies, and music. In this scenario, it seems that Tina, or someone using Tina's computer, has installed some form of Gnutella client in order to download pornographic material. Final Thoughts If you look at way each of these scenarios was resolved, you will notice that most of the problems were not actually network related. This is pretty common when it comes to complaints about a slow network.


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

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Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

A New Kind of Engineering I have been talking about complex systems in the context of science, but complexity is also a cause, and effect, of changes in engineering and the organization of social systems. Centralized decentralized Centralized systems are conceptually simple and easier to analyze, but decentralized systems can be more robust. For example, on the World Wide Web, clients send requests to centralized servers; if the servers are down, the service is unavailable. In peer-to-peer networks, every node is both a client and a server. To take down the service, you have to take down every node. Isolation interaction In classical engineering, the complexity of large systems is managed by isolating components and minimizing interactions. This is still an important engineering principle; nevertheless, the availability of cheap computation makes it increasingly feasible to design systems with complex interactions between components.


pages: 187 words: 62,861

The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler

business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Magnatune is an online label that sells music of many artists, in each case releasing the music in a perfect digital format that users can copy flawlessly. They also release the music under a Creative Commons license that makes it perfectly legal for the fans to make as many copies as they wish. In other words, when a fan buys music from Magnatune, the fan can legally and easily make millions of copies and blanket them across peer-to-peer networks. And yet they don’t. After scouring the records from more than 75,000 transactions on the site, we found that although users were invited to pay between $5 and $18, at their discretion (in increments of 50 cents), 48 percent of users paid $8 per album, well within a range of what the industry would be thrilled to establish as standard practice for consumers. Even more incredible, only 15 percent paid the minimum (without copying from a friend) of $5 and another 15 percent paid as much as $10.


pages: 218 words: 44,364

The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations by Ori Brafman, Rod A. Beckstrom

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Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, disintermediation, experimental economics, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, jimmy wales, Kibera, Lao Tzu, Network effects, peer-to-peer, pez dispenser, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing

In the music industry, for example, could the labels have predicted that the sweet spot was about to shift so suddenly and dramatically? The answer turns out to be a surprising yes—if only they had asked the right questions. The record labels had long known that people like to copy music. More broadly, we have a natural human tendency to share information. That's why keeping government and corporate secrets is so difficult—people are apt to gab. Once the peer-to-peer technology was out there, the writing was on the wall. THE STARFISH AND THE SPIDER People's propensity to share music is precisely why the labels have fought for antipiracy laws and tried to block new technologies, like the CD burner, that make copying music easier. For a while, these measures sorta kinda worked. Yeah, people burned CDs for friends, but the amount of piracy was fairly contained.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Chesky later realized that his parents grew up in the hotel generation, whereas his grandfather and his friends would stay on farms and in little houses during their travels. Airbnb is not very different from that experience. “We are not the modern invention, hotels are.” Indeed, prior to the 1950s, staying with friends or friends of friends was a common way to travel. Airbnb is an old idea, being replicated and made relevant again through peer-to-peer networks and new technologies. There is now an unbounded marketplace for efficient peer-to-peer exchanges between producer and consumer, seller and buyer, lender and borrower, and neighbor and neighbor. Online exchanges mimic the close ties once formed through face-to-face exchanges in villages, but on a much larger and unconfined scale. In other words, technology is reinventing old forms of trust.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

A new globally networked commercial economy needs a currency to match. Step forward crypto currencies such as bitcoin, which are the next evolution in how we trade. Bitcoin Bitcoin was the first fully implemented and distributed crypto currency. It works in much the same way as other emerging crypto currencies. Crypto currencies are simply decentralised electronic cash systems. The ‘money’ is created by using peer-to-peer networking, digital signatures and cryptography to generate a currency. Bitcoins are mined out of a digital network by computers plugged into a system trying to figure out a 64-digit code that unlocks 50 bitcoins at a time. The money, or bitcoins, is generally traded within the system by using specific peer-to-peer software. It’s a lot like BitTorrent client software. All transactions are stored on a publicly distributed database so that the record of transaction is with everyone plugged into the system, rather than in a central storage location.

Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman

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collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

So, too, the scale and complexity of the data structures at issue—“petabytes”—is such that they cannot be processed by human intelligence alone but rather require machine intelligence in the form of database management systems and algorithms that structure data collection. Combating or otherwise responding to a control system dependent on computing power requires the design of a counter-system, a rather modest example of which is Diaspora, an open-source, privacy-aware, distributed do-it-yourself social network that eliminates the hub of a social media conglomerate in favor of a peer-to-peer network in which each individual is a node.53 Without a hub or central server, data encrypted with GNU Privacy Guard is sent directly to one’s friends rather than stored and hence mined. True peer-to-peer communication—that is, that which is not routed through a central hub—would need to move to a network such as Diaspora because the controlled application programming interface (API) of social networks such as Facebook means that Dataveillance and Countervailance hacking a hub-based network in order to convert it to peer-to-peer is difficult if not impossible.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Beyond the Sharing Economy, there are many examples, some of which we saw in Chapter 7: Lawrence Lessig’s idea of the “hybrid economy” 1 relies on amateurs and professionals working side by side, often on for-profit platforms; Social Enterprises are organizations that apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being; Benefit Corporations such as Etsy, the online craft trading marketplace, are firms “that want to consider society and the environment in addition to profit in their decision making process.” The related idea of social entrepreneurship uses markets to scale up efforts to create social good. Groups such as Markets for Good (a wing of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) and Google.org, the charitable arm of Google, put these ideas into practice. Steven Berlin Johnson’s idea of “peer progressives” was mentioned in Chapter 1. It highlights both for-profit and not-for-profit peer-to-peer networks as a framework for solving social problems, and seeks to position digital platforms and their communities for social good.2 Pierre Omidyar is one of the most vocal proponents of the social enterprise model. Omidyar founded eBay, one of the direct ancestors of the Sharing Economy. EBay took what was a neighborhood activity (the yard sale) and scaled it up by putting it on the Internet, with massive success.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

You can drive your car to the commuter rail station, and, thirty minutes after you park it, someone else picks it up to commute to work, sharing the car by preset agreement. Money is under assault from more directions than just barter. A host of alternative currencies are blossoming on the Internet, and one in particular—an open-source project called Bitcoin—appears to be gaining steam. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority, allowing anyone to send “money” (the Bitcoin currency) to anyone, anywhere, at any time, and beyond the reach of governments. Bitcoin enlists participants in the community to manage transactions and issue money; the network, rather than a central bank, collectively creates the money. Lest you think Bitcoin is a nerd pipe dream, many companies—even large, publicly traded ones like LaCie—accept Bitcoin as payment.10 In the opinion of the tech entrepreneur and journalist Jason Calacanis, “Bitcoin is a P2P currency that could topple governments, destabilize economies and create uncontrollable global bazaars for contraband.”11 Recently, Bitcoin has faced significant setbacks, but it is a promising opening salvo in the advent of alternative, postgovernment currency.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

Its market capitalisation is about $800 million, one-sixth that of GoPro, a maker of (digital) cameras for extreme sports that was founded in 2002. Peer-to-peer A new business model which is generating a lot of column inches for the idea of digital disruption is peer-to-peer commerce, the leading practitioners of which are AirBnB and Uber. Both were founded in San Francisco, of course – in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The level of investor enthusiasm for the peer-to-peer model is demonstrated by comparing AirBnB’s market cap of $20bn in March 2015 with Hyatt’s market cap of $8.4bn. Hyatt has over 500 hotels around the world and revenues of $4bn. AirBnB, with 13 members of staff, owns no hotels and its revenues in March 2015 were around $250m. Uber’s rise has been even more dramatic: its market cap reached $50bn in May 2015. This sort of growth is unsettling for competitors.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

When he downloaded the popular P2P sharing software, he accidentally and unknowingly installed the program in the wrong directory on his computer. As a result, the plans and defensive security features of the military helicopter that shuttles the president from the White House to Air Force One leaked to P2P music-sharing networks around the world, including those in Iran. For the want of free music, a billion-dollar military project was compromised, and the blueprints for the president’s Sikorsky VH-3D helicopter ended up on a peer-to-peer network in Iran, hosted next to the pirated songs of both Michael Jackson and Shadmehr Aghili, the undisputed king of Persian pop. The former military contractor, interrogated by both the FBI and the Department of Defense, admitted his error, but by then the damage had been one. Our global interconnections and never-ending storage of more and more data mean leaks are inevitable. What data might you or your company be leaking to the cloud?

Using two-factor authentication means that even if your password is compromised, it cannot be used without the second authentication factor (physical access to your mobile device itself). Download Download software only from official sites (such as Apple’s App Store or directly from a company’s own verified Web site). Be highly skeptical of unofficial app stores and third-party sites hosting “free” software. In addition, avoid pirated media and software widely available on peer-to-peer networks, which frequently contain malware and viruses. Settings in both the Windows and the Mac operating systems can help you “white list” so that only approved software from identified vendors is allowed to run on your machine. While doing so will not guarantee software safety, it can greatly reduce the risk of infection. Pay close attention to apps and their permissions. They are “free” for a reason and you’re paying with your privacy.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

In this regard deep address is also a mereological technology. Third, addresses, in plural networks, produce topology. Whereas the nested hierarchies of postal addressing (e.g., name, building, street, city) refer to specific locations within a natural geography, such that the physical proximity or distance of one addressee versus another might be deduced from their addresses, Internet addressing follows no such geographic conventions, and peer-to-peer networking is all but agnostic as to the territorial origins and outcomes of packet flows. Instead, the accumulation of Internet addresses in certain areas, such as New York and Palo Alto, and the density of relations between those accumulations produce durable patterns of information communicated through the world.28 Globally our regular networks of bundled addressors and addresses wear grooves into information channels, sometimes aligning with geopolitical borders and interests and sometimes perforating them.

Manuel de la Pila housing block, 312 opinionlessness, state of, 240–241, 426n47 O’Reilly, Tim, 121 Oreskes, Naomi, 457n10 Organized Chaos, forces of, 445n37 Ouroboros energy grid, 92–96, 294–295 Outer Space Treaty, 456n7 “Outline of a Doctrine of French Policy” (Kojève), 109 “Overexposed City, The” (Virilio), 155 ownership competitive, 332 of data, 203, 285, 345–346 economics of, 282 owner-Users, 285–286, 345–346 Page, Larry, 134, 139, 281, 315 Page Mill Road, 57 “PageRank” (Franceschet), 332 PageRank algorithm, 134, 332 Pakistan-India border, 97, 309 Palace of the Soviets, 181 Palantir, 121, 287, 360, 459n20 Palestine, 120 Panopticon effect, 363 paper envelope, 46 parametricism, 160–161, 162–163 parastates, 446n39 Parker, Sean, 126 Parnet, Clare, 393n50 Parsons, Talcott, 385n25 partition in architecture, 391n30 Patriot Act, US, 120, 363 peer-to-peer networking, 206, 215 Peirce, Charles Sanders, 211, 223 Perec, Georges, 75 persona design, 254, 255 personality, 277–278 personal mapping technologies, 86, 236, 243, 431n70 personal mobility systems. See cars: driverless personal rapid transit (PRT) systems, 282 personhood, 173–175, 271, 439n65 persuasive interfaces, 224, 430n65 pervasive computing, 113, 172, 301–302 petroglyphs, 309 phone-car interface, 280 physicalization of abstraction, 29, 33 physical-to-virtual binary opposition, 19 Pinochet, Augusto, 59, 385n25 piracy, 380n15 pirate radio, 244–245 placebo interfaces, 224 placefulness, 16, 29, 155 place-making, 84, 149–150, 310 planetary computational economy, 92 planetary data infrastructure, 267 planetary photography, 150, 300, 354 planetary-scale computation architecture, 5, 197 assignment claimed by, 122 cartographic imperative of, 191 client-side versus server-side critique, 356–357 climactic impact of, 92–93, 96 design and, 192, 356 divides crossed, 27–28 ecological governance convergence, 98 economic geography, effect on, 199 elements of, 5 emergence of, 3, 13, 55 energy footprint, 82–83, 92–96, 106–107, 113, 140–141, 258–260, 303–304 forms taken, 4–5 future of, 351, 356 Google's occupation of, 34–40 governance and, 27 jurisdictions, 357 limits to growth, 93–94 at microlevel of the object, 191–192 neoliberalism and, 21 physical world, relation to, 358 political geography and, 6, 11 real project of, 404n11 space of, 34–40, 303 technologies’ alignment into, 4–5 urban design for, 160 Planetary Skin Institute, 88–90, 92, 97–98, 106, 180, 336, 392n42, 452n67 planetary supersurfaces, 188–189 planetary visualization, 452n69 Planet of the Apes, 182 planetology, comparative, 300–302, 333, 353, 360 plan of action, 43, 342 platform architecture, ideal, 49–50 platform-as-state, 7–8, 42, 48–50, 120–123, 140, 295, 315–316, 319, 327, 335, 341 platform-based robotics, 138–139 platform cities, 183–189 platform design, 44, 48, 51 platform economics network value, 159 platform surplus value, 48, 137, 159, 309, 374 User platform value, 309, 375–376 User surplus, 48 value versus price, indexing of, 336 platforms accidents of, 51 authority, 57 autonomy, 136, 282, 339 centralization versus decentralization, 48 characteristics of, 47–51, 214 City layer, designs for, 177 competition between, 50 component standardization, 47–48 control-decontrol paradox in, 46 decision-making, 44, 341–342 defined, 42, 328, 374, 383n4 diagrams ensnaring actors in, 44 economically sustainable, 48 etymology, 43 exchange value, 51 functions of, 19, 41, 119, 328, 342 future of, 117, 141–145, 244, 295, 315–316 genealogy of, 42 generic universality, 49 geography, 110–112 governing, 109, 119, 143 identity, 42 information mediated, 46 institutional forms, 44 introduction, 41–46 logic, 19, 44, 314 mechanics, 44–51 model-to-real correlation, 387n33 network effects, 48 neutrality, 44 origins, 46 overview of, 41–46 physicality and tactility of, 129–130 platform of platforms, 332–333 platform-within-a-platform principle, 284 plots in, 44 as remedy and poison, 5, 133 robotics, shift to, 362 service infrastructures, 116 as stacks, 7–8, 42–43 standardization, 44–46 theory, 41, 47 wars, 110, 123–125, 295 platform sovereignty activist stance on, 312 architectural surface interfaciality in, 166–167 City layer infrastructures role in, 151–153 constitutional violence of, 155 deciding exceptions in, 21 decision-making, 32–33, 44 defined, 374 derivation of, 37 design, 87–88 emergence of, 33, 152 grid programmability providing, 38 guarantees, 151 of nonhuman User, 273 overview of, 51 paradoxes of, 37 principle of, 36 productive accidents of, 37 reversibility, 22, 152–153 states, 339 urban envelopes, 159, 258 platform surplus value, 38, 48, 137, 159, 309, 374 platform totalities, 297 plot, 43–44 Plug-In City (Archigram), 179 pluralism, 302–303 polis, segmentation of, 241 political, the, 6, 30, 379n10 political agency, 173–175, 250, 258 political-geographic order, 26, 56 political identity of the User, 260, 347 political machine, stack as, 55–58 political philosophy, 20 political rights of the User, 285 political subjectivity, 21, 136, 152, 258, 260, 268 political technology, territory as, 335 political theology, 105, 236, 243, 297, 426n46 politico-theological geographies, 242, 248, 320–322 politics agonistic logics of, 180, 247 architectural, 166–167 interfacial, 244–246 of Internet of Things, 204 norms of, 39 Schmittian, spatial dimension of, 381n24 of ubiquitous computing, 203 “Politics of the Envelope, The” (Zaera-Polo), 166 Pontecorvo, Gillo, 244 poor doors, 311 pop futurist media, 432n71 Popper, Karl, 459n19 popular ecology movement, 86 Portzamparc, Christian de, 311 postage stamps, 194 postal identity, 193–196, 206 postal system, 132, 153–154, 195 post-Anthropocenic geopolitics, 285 post-Anthropocenic User, 264 Postel, John, 319 post-Fordism, 231 posthumanism, 275 post-human User, 285, 287–288 “Postscript on Societies of Control” (Deleuze), 157–158 Pourparlers (Deleuze), 147 Pouzin, Louis, 41 poverty ending, 303, 443n23 interiority/exteriority of, 311–312 politics of, 312, 444n30 of working poor, 331 power architecture symbolizing, 325 cultural legitimacy of exercise of, 424n41 of extralegal violence, 317 monopolizing, 308–309 shifts in, 233, 312–313 power-knowledge asymmetries, 454n75 power of brand, 128, 130 “Powers of Ten” (Eames and Eames), 52 power tools, 438n59 preagricultural societies, 149 presence, 205 Price, Cedric, 179, 201 Princeton Radio Project, 254 Prism, 9, 121, 320 privacy axiomatization of individual, 409n42 biopolitics of, 159, 360 cost of, 136, 285, 445n37 expectations of, 346 meta-metadata recursivity for, 287 right to, 270, 285 sacralization through encryption, 347 privacy markets, 285, 445n37 private human User, dissolution of, 289 private versus public space, 159 production labor.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

., an aircraft crashing and killing everyone on board, or a rocket colliding with the International Space Station), flight control systems must tolerate Byzan‐ tine faults [81, 82]. • In a system with multiple participating organizations, some participants may attempt to cheat or defraud others. In such circumstances, it is not safe for a node to simply trust another node’s messages, since they may be sent with mali‐ cious intent. For example, peer-to-peer networks like Bitcoin and other block‐ chains can be considered to be a way of getting mutually untrusting parties to agree whether a transaction happened or not, without relying on a central authority [83]. However, in the kinds of systems we discuss in this book, we can usually safely assume that there are no Byzantine faults. In your datacenter, all the nodes are con‐ trolled by your organization (so they can hopefully be trusted) and radiation levels are low enough that memory corruption is not a major problem.

Web applications do need to expect arbitrary and malicious behavior of clients that are under end-user control, such as web browsers. This is why input validation, sani‐ tization, and output escaping are so important: to prevent SQL injection and crosssite scripting, for example. However, we typically don’t use Byzantine fault-tolerant protocols here, but simply make the server the authority on deciding what client behavior is and isn’t allowed. In peer-to-peer networks, where there is no such cen‐ tral authority, Byzantine fault tolerance is more relevant. A bug in the software could be regarded as a Byzantine fault, but if you deploy the same software to all nodes, then a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm cannot save you. Most Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithms require a supermajority of more than twothirds of the nodes to be functioning correctly (i.e., if you have four nodes, at most one may malfunction).


pages: 260 words: 40,943

Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions by Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray, George Kurtz

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AltaVista, bash_history, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, remote working, web application

He set up a simple form that allowed users to select what directory they wanted to share out and what port they wanted to listen on. This information was POSTed to a Perl CGI script that invoked Dan’s custom Java classes to share out the specified folder and to create the listening port linked to it on the client side. Showing his sense of humor, Dan promoted the Napster-like features of this technique to allow users to share files via the peer-to-peer network created by millions of users sharing out their drives over HTTP. In all seriousness, though, this problem should not be downplayed simply because it only allows read access to data. Dan’s exploit is quite generous, allowing users to specify what directory they wish to share. Malicious applets could work much more stealthily, exposing anyone who uses Netscape to possible disclosure of sensitive information.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

The libraries and archives we had only dreamed of were now literally at our fingertips. The Internet brought with it the exhilaration and abundance of a frontierless commons, along with the fractious and debilitating intensity of depersonalized disputes in electronic discussion lists. It demonstrated the possibilities of extraordinary feats of electronic generosity and altruism, with people sharing enormous quantities of information on peer-to-peer networks, and at the same time it provided early exposure to, and warnings about, the relentless narcissism of vanity blogging. It changed the ways in which the world became present to us and the ways in which we became present to the world, forever. The Internet expands the horizon of every utterance or expressive act to a potentially planetary level. This makes it impossible to imagine a purely local context or public for anything that anyone creates today.


pages: 388 words: 106,138

The Song Machine: Inside the Hit Factory by John Seabrook

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barriers to entry, financial independence, game design, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, trade route

He told his lead engineer, Ludvig Strigeus, a brilliant programmer he had worked with before, “I don’t accept anything that isn’t below two hundred milliseconds.” Strigeus responded, “It can’t be done. The Internet isn’t built like that.” “You have to figure it out,” Ek insisted. The solution involved designing a streaming protocol that worked faster than the standard one, as well as building their own peer-to-peer network, a decentralized architecture in which all the computers on it can communicate with one another. In four months, they had a working prototype. “And I knew when we had it that it was going to be very special,” Ek says. Ek’s original idea was to launch Spotify in the United States at the same time that he launched the service in Europe. Ken Parks, Spotify’s chief content officer, says, “Daniel thought he could just go down to the corner store in Stockholm and pick up a global license.”

Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K

For 915MHz (North America), there are 10 channels available and the standard supports a maximum data rate of 40Kbps, while at 868MHz (Europe), there is only one channel and this can support data transfer at up to 20Kbps. ZigBee supports three network topologies—the star, mesh, and cluster tree or hybrid networks. The star network is commonly used, as it is the simplest to deploy. However, the mesh or peer-to-peer network configurations enable high degrees of reliability to be obtained. Messages may be routed across the network using the different stations as relays. There is usually a choice of routes that can be used and this makes the network very robust. If interference is present on one section of a network, another section can be used instead. The basic ZigBee standard supports 64-bit IEEE addresses as well as 16-bit short addresses.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

From the start, e-commerce has grappled with the question of trust—first in getting users to trust that online companies like Amazon would safely fulfill their credit card purchases, then in getting users to trust one another without ever meeting or talking to or seeing one another. When it comes to coded trust, eBay offered the first major breakthrough. eBay was created in 1995, shortly after the birth of the commercial Internet, to be an online marketplace based on trust. It is a peer-to-peer network where buyers and sellers engage in commerce directly, exchanging money for goods between themselves. eBay makes its money by taking a commission fee on each transaction, and each of those transactions will occur only if buyer and seller are confident of a good outcome. According to eBay founder Pierre Omidyar, people on eBay “learned how to trust a complete stranger. eBay’s business is based on enabling someone to do business with another person, and to do that, they first have to develop some measure of trust, either in the other person or the system.”


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Likewise, as headlines panicked investors about the failure of broadband, the massive communities built on IRC chat channels and other early live networking platforms were finding new, more advanced avenues for social and intellectual exchange. For-profit streaming media companies like Icebox may have failed, but the streaming technologies they used have survived and flourished as social tools such as iVisit and NetMeeting. And while the client lists of business-to-business service companies have shrunk, peer-to-peer networks, from Napster to Hotline, still grow in popularity and resist all efforts to quell the massive exchange of data, illegal or not. In fact, the average American home now has more information and broadcast resources than a major television network newsroom did in the ’70s. A single Apple laptop is a video production studio, allowing even for the complex editing of independent films. Add a fast Internet connection, and a home producer can broadcast around the globe.


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

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Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

The politics of intellectual property law have over the past ten years reached a contentious point—a political debate that cannot fully or at least comfortably rely on abstractions, universal principles, or naturalized rationalities but instead must entertain more local, pragmatic stakes along with the reality of what people do, can do, or desire to do. Under threat, these principles may clamor for more attention. For example, in March 2005, on the eve of an important Supreme Court deliberation over the legality of peer-to-peer technologies, the New York Times ran an editorial stating its position on intellectual property law by way of arguments couched in a vocabulary of doom, liberal progress, and naturalization: “If their work is suddenly made ‘free,’ all of society is likely to suffer. [ … ] The founders wrote copyright protections into the Constitution because they believed that they were necessary for progress.”19 By invoking the country’s founders and tropes of progress, this message sought to reassert the naturalness of these propositions precisely when they were most under threat.


pages: 426 words: 105,423

The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich by Timothy Ferriss

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Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, call centre, clean water, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, fixed income, follow your passion, game design, global village, Iridium satellite, knowledge worker, late fees, Maui Hawaii, oil shock, paper trading, Parkinson's law, passive income, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, William of Occam

It was just one of six countries he had visited in the last 12 months. Japan was next on the agenda. Buzzing with a smile and his coffee mug in hand, he ambled over to his Mac to check on personal e-mail first. There were 32 messages and all brought good news. One of his friends and business partners, also a cofounder of Limewire, had an update: Last Bamboo, their start-up poised to reinvent peer-to-peer technology, was rounding the final corners of development. It could be their billion-dollar baby, but Doug was letting the engineers run wild first. Samson Projects, one of the hottest contemporary art galleries in Boston, had compliments for Doug’s latest work and requests for expanded involvement with new exhibits as their sound curator. The last e-mail in his inbox was a fan letter addressed to “Demon Doc” and praise for his latest instrumental hip-hop album, onliness VI.O.I.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

An NPS can be as low as −100 (everybody is a detractor) or as high as +100 (everybody is a promoter). An NPS that is positive (i.e., higher than zero) is considered good, and an NPS of +50 is excellent. The NPS is largely based on a single, direct question: How likely is it that you would recommend our company/product/service to a friend or colleague? If you have a high NPS, then your sales function is free. If you are using peer-to-peer models, your service costs can also essentially be free. Using crowdsourcing and community ideation (such as Quirky or Gustin), your R&D and product development costs can also approach zero. And it doesn’t stop there. What we’re now seeing with ExOs—and this is tremendously important—is that the marginal cost of supply goes to zero. A case in point: it costs Uber essentially zero to add an additional car and driver to its fleet.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

We can think about the music industry, which was just about ready to collapse under the pressure of Napster, a platform that unlocked the excess capacity found in other people’s music, until iTunes came up with a business model—a platform—for selling single songs quickly and easily. This gave the music industry another decade. Spotify and Pandora, however, advanced the business model yet again. Not only do I not need to buy a whole album when I only want one song, but since I can listen to any song I want at any time through a subscription service, I don’t feel the need to own music at all. Jeremiah Owyang, formerly an analyst at Forrester Research covering peer-to-peer models and how companies respond, is now founder of Crowd Companies, a brand council that offers research and strategic advice to companies seeking to become part of the collaborative economy. He has a simple four-phase circular path that explains the transition from the old industrial approach to the new one: Product → Service → Marketplace → Platform. Jeremiah has documented how many large companies are already making the transition.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Cut from hours of video footage that Georgian soldiers themselves had supposedly shot on their mobile phones—later confiscated by Russians—the film analyzed the war from a highly ideological position, portraying Georgians in the worst possible light imaginable. The film quickly became a viral sensation, with 2.5 million people watching it online. The success of the online campaign owes much to the zeal with which producers of the film embraced all forms of digital distribution, putting it on all important peer-to-peer networks and encouraging piracy. Putting the film on Russia.ru helped to make it visible. The film made a smooth transition to TV screen, too: On the first anniversary of the war, the film was shown on one of Russia’s national patriotic channels. And to ensure absolute media dominance, it was followed up by a book, which was well received by Russian bloggers and journalists. This is a level of media convergence that most Western content producers can only dream of.


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

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4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

“The group posted a string of Twitter messages in which it took credit for the breach.” Topiary started requesting donations for LulzSec and used Twitter and Pastebin to provide the thirty-one-digit number that acted as the group’s new Bitcoin address. Anyone could anonymously donate to their anonymous account if he converted money into the Bitcoin currency and made a transfer. Bitcoin was a digital currency that used peer-to-peer networking to make anonymous payments. It became increasingly popular around the same time LulzSec started hacking. By May, the currency’s value was up by a dollar from where it had been at the start of the year, to $8.70. A few days after soliciting donations, Topiary jokingly thanked a “mysterious benefactor who sent us 0.02 BitCoins. Your kindness will be used to fund terror of the highest quality.”


pages: 443 words: 123,526

Glasshouse by Stross, Charles

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cognitive dissonance, experimental subject, gravity well, loose coupling, peer-to-peer, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, sensible shoes, theory of mind, white picket fence

Neual was quick with hands and feet, taking slyly sarcastic delight in winding me up. Lauro had perfect manners but lost it when making love with us. Iambic-18 was a radical xenomorph, sometimes manifesting in more than one body at the same time when the fancy took it. Our children . . . Are all dead, and it is unquestionably my fault. The nature of Curious Yellow is that it propagates stealthily between A-gates, creating a peer-to-peer network that exchanges stegged instructions using people as data packets. If you have the misfortune to be infected, it installs its kernel in your netlink, and when you check into an A-gate for backup or transport—which proceeds through your netlink—CY is the first thing to hit the gate's memory buffer. A-gate control nodes are supposedly designed so that they can't execute data, but whoever invented CY obviously found a design flaw in the standard architecture.


pages: 452 words: 134,502

Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy

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4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, QR code, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Networks can play a role here as well. Kickstarter, a crowd-funding network, launched only a few years ago, will provide more support for creators this year than the National Endowment for the Arts. 284 O n the F reedom T o I nnovate In the UK, lawmakers are just as frustrated as we are that banks are still not lending to small businesses, but the irregulatory framework has allowed FundingCircle, a peer-to-peer network of lenders and borrowers, to flourish. Lawmakers have begun encouraging their constituents not just to “shop local” and “eat local.” They are asking them to “lend local,” creating a brand new source of working capital for small businesses and an emotional and financial return for lenders. There are many other examples of networks making a difference in civil society from mapping slums in Kenya, to getting at-risk kids in New York to take better care of their health, to empowering mothers in Boston to take on gang violence.


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

There will also be easy-to-use tools to allow patients to search for the best and least expensive hospitals and doctors—again, customized for their condition and preferences.41 The latter is important: for some patients, the surgeon’s technical skill trumps the fact that he lacks a winning personality; for others, bedside manner is more important than surgical dexterity. Just as one can refine a Yelp search by adding filters, patients will be able to filter results not just by proximity, quality, and cost, but also by personal preferences and values. Many patients will want to be educated and supported through peer-to-peer networks, and there will be many to choose from—no longer operating parallel to the traditional healthcare system, but now integrated into it. When a patient on such a network wants a peer to see part of his medical record, it will be easy to import the data from the EHR. The reverse will also be true: the patient who wants his doctor to see a portion of a peer-to-peer conversation will be able to move that into the EHR.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

More recently, analysts of digital utopianism have dated the communitarian rhetoric surrounding the introduction of the Internet to what they have imagined to be a single, authentically revolutionary social movement that was somehow crushed or co-opted by the forces of capitalism.75 By confusing the New Left with the counterculture, and the New Communalists with both, contemporary theorists of digital media have often gone so far as to echo the utopians of the 1990s and to reimagine its peer-to-peer technologies as the rebirth in hardware [ 34 ] Chapter 1 and software of a single, “free” culture that once stood outside the mainstream and can do so again.76 A closer look at the New Left and the New Communalists, however, reveals critical differences between the two movements and suggests that neither achieved a complete break with the society it aimed to change. From its earliest days, the New Left was a primarily political movement, albeit one with communitarian strains.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

Virtual economies are becoming increasingly important, says Wharton legal studies professor Dan Hunter, adding that they could redefine the concept of work, help test economic theories and contribute to the gross domestic product. “Increasingly, these virtual economies are leading to real money trades,” notes Hunter, one of a handful of academics closely following this trend. Bitcoin is an experimental new digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. It uses peer-to-peer technology to operate, with no central authority, managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is also the name of the open-source software that enables the use of this innovative virtual currency. Over the past few years, the peer-to-peer currency it has created has gained a surprising foothold in the global market. There are now multiple Bitcoin-processing apps for Android and the iPhone, as well as an online payment system similar to PayPal.

Version Control With Git: Powerful Tools and Techniques for Collaborative Software Development by Jon Loeliger, Matthew McCullough

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continuous integration, Debian, distributed revision control, GnuPG, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pull request, revision control, web application, web of trust

Subversion (SVN), introduced in 2001, quickly became popular within the free software community. Unlike CVS, SVN committed changes atomically and had significantly better support for branches. BitKeeper and Mercurial were radical departures from all the aforementioned solutions. Each eliminated the central repository; instead, the store was distributed, providing each developer with his own shareable copy. Git is derived from this peer-to-peer model. Finally, Mercurial and Monotone contrived a hash fingerprint to uniquely identify a file’s content. The name assigned to the file is a moniker and a convenient handle for the user and nothing more. Git features this notion as well. Internally, the Git identifier is based on the file’s contents, a concept known as a content-addressable file store. The concept is not new. [See “The Venti Filesystem,” (Plan 9), Bell Labs, http://www.usenix.org/events/fast02/quinlan/quinlan_html/index.html.]


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

What is needed, rather, is a more diffuse concept of sovereignty. Such arguments place a different complexion on the question of monetary sovereignty, shifting attention away from the national state (money)–global market (finance) dichotomy favored by Strange and others, toward a set of richer and more nuanced questions about how money and finance map onto diffuse configurations of economic and political agents, as well as economic forms such as peer-to-peer networks. The multitude is not a social body: it cannot be sovereign (Hardt and Negri 2005: 330). It cannot be reduced to a unity, and it does not submit to a unity.30 If the age of Empire is the age of the multitude, this is because there is no unitary political subject, such as a party, people, or nation (Hardt and Negri 2005: 331). As they conceive it, moreover, the idea of the multitude inverts the way in which money has traditionally been held to render all humans interchangeable.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Oxford Dictionary of Current English Ozaki, Muneto p2p networks Packard, David Pahl, Ray Pain, Kathy Paris, El Paris, El/World Media Palo Alto Research Center, Xerox Panofsky, Erwin Paraguay parenthood Paris: Belleville; service center; Villejuif Park, Young-bum Parkinson, G. H. R. Parsons, Carol part-time work Patel, S. J. patriarchalism patrilineal/patrimonial logic Paugham, S. Payr, Sabine Pearl River Delta peer-to-peer networks: see p2p networks pension funds perestroika Perez, Carlotta Perlman, Janice Personal Computer personal services personalized devices Peru Peter the Great Peterson, Chris Petrella, Ricardo Pettersson, L. O. Pfeffer, Jeffrey pharmaceutical industry Philippe, J. Picciotto, Sol Piller, Charles Piore, Michael J. place: interactivity; space of planar process Platonov, Andrey PNUD Poirer, Mark polarization; see also marginalization Policy Studies Institute politics; Asian Pacific; computer-mediated communication; corruption; global economy; globalization; media; Mexico; multimedia; personal interest; third way Polyakov, L.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

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8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, Guido van Rossum, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, Perl 6, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, Ruby on Rails, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

The Arpanet was in use in the United States and the Internet was being designed as an upgrade, but Europe had thrown its weight behind the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) effort, and for a while it appeared that OSI might triumph. Both of these used leased lines from the phone companies; in the US that speed was 56 Kbps. Probably the most successful network of the time, in terms of numbers of computers and people connected, was the UUCP network, which was unusual in that it had absolutely no central authority. It was, in some sense, the original peer-to-peer network, which ran over dialup phone lines: 9600 bps was about the fastest available for some time. The fastest network (at 3 Mbps) was based on the Ethernet from Xerox, which ran a protocol called XNS (Xerox Network Systems)—but it didn't work outside of a local installation. The environment of the time was rather different than what exists today. Computers were highly heterogeneous, to the extent that there wasn't even complete agreement to use 8-bit bytes.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

So a creator in Bend, Oregon, can sell and deliver a song to someone in Kathmandu, Nepal, as easily as a New York record label (maybe even more easily). This new technology permits creators to maintain relationships so that the customer can become a fan, and so that the creator keeps the total amount of payment, which reduces the number of fans needed. This new ability for the creator to retain the full price is revolutionary, but a second technological innovation amplifies that power further. A fundamental virtue of a peer-to-peer network (like the web) is that the most obscure node is only one click away from the most popular node. In other words, the most obscure, under-selling book, song, or idea is only one click away from the best-selling book, song, or idea. Early in the rise of the web, the large aggregators of content and products, such as eBay, Amazon, Netflix, etc., noticed that the total sales of *all* the lowest-selling obscure items would equal, or in some cases exceed, the sales of the few best-selling items.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

It can be a one billion or ten billion business for us,” says Chambers.20 Cyberspace ventures like MySpace, Second Life, and InnoCentive are all collaborative spaces. Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics , make the point that the collaborative human potential, when connected by way of distributed-computing technology, takes the economy beyond business-as-usual operating assumptions into new territory based on “openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally.”21 Third Industrial Revolution peer-to-peer technologies give rise to “distributed capitalism” and, in the process, make many of the central assumptions of market capitalism outmoded and irrelevant. For example, consider Adam Smith’s firm belief that human nature predisposes each individual to pursue his own self- interest in the marketplace, against the interests of others. Smith allowed the dubious qualification that even though it’s only his own self- interest that he has in mind, by so doing he contributes somehow to the common good.