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The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar
The Federal Deposit and Insurance Corporation (FDIC) conducts the biannual “National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households.” The survey classifies respondents as “banked” (they use only banks and credit unions), “unbanked” (they have no bank account), or “underbanked” (they have bank accounts but continue to rely on alternative financial services). As of 2013, the year of the FDIC’s most recent survey, approximately 8 percent of Americans were unbanked and another 20 percent were underbanked. The picture looks far worse for people of color. One in five African American households and nearly 18 percent of Latino households are unbanked. Policymakers, alarmed by these statistics, have been working hard to enfranchise the unbanked and underbanked. They insist that a formal relationship with a mainstream financial institution will improve these people’s lives.
_r=0 approximately 6 percent: Involuntary bank closure statistic comes from Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “CFPB Study of Overdraft Programs: A White Paper of Initial Findings” (Washington, DC: CFPB, June 2013). http://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201306_cfpb_whitepaper_overdraft-practices.pdf More than one million: This figure is from Silver-Greenberg, “Over a Million Are Denied Bank Accounts.” xvii “banked” (they use only banks): Burhouse et al., “2013 National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households.” One in five African American households: Ibid. “mainstream banking services”: Julie Menin, “Bad Alternative to Banks,” letter to the editor, New York Times, November 14, 2014. xviii Jacob Hacker writes that: Jacob Hacker, The Great Risk Shift: The New Economic Insecurity and the Decline of the American Dream (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008). A recent study conducted by: Burhouse et al., “2013 National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households.” xix put their trust in banks: GlobeScan, “Seven Years on from the Financial Crisis, Trust in Banks Remains at All-Time Low” (Toronto, Ontario: GlobeScan, July 2, 2015). http://www.globescan.com/news-and-analysis/blog/entry/seven-years-on-from-the-financial-crisis-trust-in-banks-remains-at-all-time-low.html 1.
These people will need new sources of credit, and some innovators are trying to meet this need. Raj Date, the founder of the startup Fenway Summer, says that “regulation makes already-too-conservative big institutions even more conservative and slow. And that helps if you’re small.” Meanwhile, banks are getting mixed messages from the federal government regarding how to think about the “underserved.” On the one hand, recent focus on the “unbanked” and “underbanked” has put pressure on banks to reach out to these potential customers. On the other hand, the creation of the CFPB has banks and alternative financial-services providers worried about a new layer of regulation and how it will affect them. Some believe the new attention being paid to consumer protection has had an unintended consequence: less advantaged customers find themselves even more underserved.
How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran
access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor
FDIC, “Addendum to the 2011 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households: Use of Alternative Financial Services,” June 2013, accessed March 17, 2015, www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/2013_afsaddendum_web.pdf. Michael Barr’s survey results from his book No Slack shows that when the unbanked are asked what changes to bank accounts would induce them to open an account, 29 percent of respondents said lower fees, 20 percent convenience, 10 percent get money faster, 14 percent lower minimum balance, 16 percent less confusing fees, and 11 percent nothing. Barr, No Slack, 32. 26. The majority of banks, 87 percent, require a third-party screen before they will open checking accounts, and 81 percent of banks require third-party screens to open savings accounts. FDIC, “Banks’ Efforts to Serve the Unbanked and Underbanked,” December 2008, 11, accessed March 17, 2015, www.fdic.gov/unbankedsurveys/2008survey/index.html. 27.
Mobile bill-pay, money transfers, and deposits could mean less wasted time for everyone. This is the story of South Africa’s foray into mobile banking: In South Africa, where only half the population has bank accounts, but nearly everyone has a mobile phone, a company called WIZZIT set out to bank the unbanked with an aspiring worldwide mission to “change the world by providing banking opportunities to the 4 billion unbanked and under-banked [globally] through cell phone technology, leading to a reduction in poverty and the creation of economic citizens.”79 However, the company not only failed to reduce poverty worldwide, but as it turned out, the banked and higher-income population, who relied on the service to conduct more banking transactions at increased convenience, comprised most of its South African customer base. A 2011 Harvard Business School case study on WIZZIT criticized the plan as presumptuous; said one author: “The mistake a lot of us make is to look at the folks at the base of the pyramid and assume they must need the same types of services we need.”80 There is reason to think mobile banking will not be the unbanked’s answer in the United States.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, “Nashville, TN: Field Hearing on Payday Loans,” March 2014, accessed March 17, 2015, youtu.be/ZpnXG0UdeoQ; CFPB, “Payday Loans and Deposit Advance Products,” April 24, 2013, 15; CFPB White Paper of Initial Data Findings, accessed March 17, 2015, files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201304_cfpb_payday-dap-whitepaper.pdf; Susan Urahn et al., “Payday Lending in America: Who Borrows, Where They Borrow, and Why,” Pew Charitable Trust, 2012, 32, accessed March 17, 2015, www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/pcs_assets/2012/PewPaydayLendingReportpdf.pdf. 56. FDIC, “National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households,” Executive Summary, September 2012, 5, accessed March 17, 2015, www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/2012_unbankedreport_execsumm.pdf; Gregory Elliehausen and Edward C. Lawrence, “Payday Advance Credit in America: An Analysis of Consumer Demand,” Georgetown University McDonough School of Business Credit Research, monograph no. 35, 2001, 28, 33, accessed March 17, 2015, www.fdic.gov/bank/analytical/cfr/2005/jan/CFRSS_2005_elliehausen.pdf. 57.
No Slack: The Financial Lives of Low-Income Americans by Michael S. Barr
active measures, asset allocation, Bayesian statistics, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market friction, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, p-value, payday loans, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked
Washington: Georgetown University, McDonough School of Business (www.fdic.gov/bank/analytical/cfr/2005/jan/CFRSS_ 2005_elliehausen.pdf). Farley, Reynolds, Sheldon Danziger, and Harry J. Holzer. 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Fay, Scott, Erik Hurst, and Michelle J. White. 2002. “The Household Bankruptcy Decision.” American Economic Review 92:706–18. FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). 2009. FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households (www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/full_report.pdf). FRS (Federal Reserve System). 2010. The 2010 Federal Reserve Payments Study (www. frbservices.org/files/communications/pdf/press/2010_payments_study.pdf). FRTIB (Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board). 2007. Thrift Savings Plan Participant Survey Results, 2006–07 (www.frtib.gov/pdf/FOIA/2006-TSP-Survey-Results.pdf). Gale, William G., J.
In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section 20:611–16. Elliehausen, Gregory, and Edward C. Lawrence. 2001. “Payday Advance Credit in America: An Analysis of Customer Demand.” Monograph 35. Washington: Georgetown University, McDonough School of Business (www.fdic.gov/bank/analytical/cfr/2005/jan/ CFRSS_2005_elliehausen.pdf). FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). 2009. FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households (www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/full_report.pdf). Green, Paul E., and V. Srinivasan. 1978. “Conjoint Analysis in Consumer Research: Issues and Outlook.” Journal of Consumer Research 5:103–23 (www.jstor.org/stable/2489001). 12864-02_CH02_3rdPgs.indd 52 3/23/12 11:55 AM managing money 53 Kish, Leslie. 1949. “A Procedure for Objective Respondent Selection within the Household.”
Beyond Cash-and-Carry: Financial Savings, Financial Services, and Low-Income Households in Two Communities. Report prepared for the Consumer Federation of America and the Ford Foundation. Swarthmore, Penn. (December). (www.swarthmore.edu/Documents/ academics/economics/beyond_cash_and_carry.pdf). Dove Consulting. 2000. “Survey of Non-Bank Financial Institutions for the Department of Treasury.” Report prepared for the U.S. Treasury Department (April 4). ———. 2008. “Banks’ Efforts to Serve the Unbanked and Underbanked.” Report prepared for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (December). Doyle, Joseph J., Jose A. Lopez, and Marc R. Saidenberg. 1998. “How Effective Is Lifeline Banking in Assisting the ‘Unbanked’?” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Current Issues in Economics and Finance 4, no. 6: 1–6 (www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci4-6. pdf ). Dunham, Constance. 2000. “Financial Service Usage Patterns for the Poor: Financial Cost Considerations.”
Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott
Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar
Exchanging Value: Daily, markets globally facilitate the exchange of trillions of dollars of financial assets. Trading is the buying and selling of assets and financial instruments for the purpose of investing, speculating, hedging, and arbitraging and includes the posttrade life cycle of clearing, settling, and storing value. Blockchain cuts settlement times on all transactions from days and weeks to minutes and seconds. This speed and efficiency creates opportunities for unbanked and underbanked people to participate in wealth creation. 6. Funding and Investing: Investing in an asset, company, or new enterprise gives an individual the opportunity to earn a return, in the form of capital appreciation, dividends, interest, rents, or some combination. The industry makes markets: matching investors with entrepreneurs and business owners at every stage of growth—from angels to IPOs and beyond.
., government finance), microlending, crowdfunding, regulators, credit rating agencies, credit score software companies 5. Exchanging Value—speculating, hedging, and arbitraging. Matching orders, clearing trades, collateral management and valuation, settlement and custody Blockchain takes settlement times on all transactions from days and weeks to minutes and seconds. This speed and efficiency also creates opportunities for unbanked and underbanked to participate in wealth creation Investment, wholesale banking, foreign exchange traders, hedge funds, pension funds, retail brokerage, clearinghouses, stock, futures, commodities exchanges; commodities brokerages, central banks, regulators 6. Funding and Investing in an Asset, Company, Start-up—capital appreciation, dividends, interest, rents, or some combination New models for peer-to-peer financing, recording of corporate actions such as dividends paid automatically through smart contracts.
Haluk Kulin, CEO of Personal BlackBox, said, “The biggest redistribution that is about to happen is not a redistribution of wealth but a redistribution of value. Wealth is how much money you have. Value is where you participate.”29 Blockchain can enable every person to have a unique and verifiable reputation-based identity that allows them to participate equally in the economy. The implications of this equality are profound. Lubin imagines a future where the “unbanked and underbanked will become increasingly enfranchised as microlending services will enable investors across the globe to construct diverse portfolios of many microloans of which the usage and repayment can be tracked in full detail on the blockchain, using Balanc3’s [a ConsenSys portfolio company] triple-entry accounting system, for instance.”30 In this new future, when people repay microloans, they are on their way to securing more and larger loans to build their businesses.
Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan
23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks
For example, the Islamic Bank of Bitcoin is investigating ways to conduct Sharia-compliant banking with Bitcoin.92 A key point of Bitcoin neutrality is that the real target market for whom Bitcoin could be most useful is the “unbanked,” individuals who do not have access to traditional banking services for any number of reasons, estimated at 53 percent of the worldwide population.93 Even in the United States, 7.7 percent of households are forecast to be unbanked or underbanked.94 Bitcoin neutrality means access for the unbanked and underbanked, which requires Bitcoin solutions that apply in all low-tech environments, with features like SMS payment, paper wallets, and batched blockchain transactions. Having neutrality-oriented, easy-to-use solutions (the “Twitter of emerging market Bitcoin”) for Bitcoin could trigger extremely fast uptake in underbanked markets, continuing the trend of 31 percent of Kenya’s GDP being spent through mobile phones.95 There are different SMS Bitcoin wallets and delivery mechanisms (like 37Coins96 and Coinapult, and projects like Kipochi97 that are integrated with commonly used emerging-markets mobile finance platforms like M-Pesa.
Bitcoin 2013 Conference, May 18, 2013, San Jose, CA. YouTube, June 10, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BT8FXQN-9-A. 92 Senbonzakura (handle name). “Islamic Bank of Bitcoin.” Bitcoin Forum, June 24, 2011. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=21732.0. 93 Chaia, A. et al. “Half the World Is Unbanked.” McKinsey & Co, March 2009. http://mckinseyonsociety.com/half-the-world-is-unbanked/. 94 “2013 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households,” U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, updated October 28, 2014, https://www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/. 95 Mims, C. “M-Pesa: 31% of Kenya’s GDP Is Spent Through Mobile Phones.” Quartz, February 27, 2013. http://qz.com/57504/31-of-kenyas-gdp-is-spent-through-mobile-phones/. 96 Cawrey, D. “37Coins Plans Worldwide Bitcoin Access with SMS-Based Wallet.” CoinDesk, May 20, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/37coins-plans-worldwide-bitcoin-access-sms-based-wallet/. 97 Rizzo, P.
The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game
CHAPTER SEVEN After a long multi-decade fight with the city: Jorge Salomón, “El barrio Charrúa, una pequeña Bolivia en el sur de Buenos Aires,” El País, February 12, 2016, http://www.elpaisonline.com/index.php/2013-01-15-14-16-26/sociedad/item/204708-el-barrio-charrua-una-pequena-bolivia-en-el-sur-de-buenos-aires. Hernando de Soto estimates that: Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (Basic Books, 2000). 7.7 percent of the population is “unbanked,”: Lori London, “The Top 10 Unbanked and Underbanked Cities,” goEBT, March 29, 2017, https://www.goebt.com/the-top-10-unbanked-and-underbanked-cities/. For the more than 2 billion adults worldwide: Global Findex Database, World Bank, 2014, http://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/globalfindex. UN’s plan to eradicate global poverty: Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/poverty/. committed a combined $31 billion in 2013: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor, “2014 Saw $31 Billion in International Funding for Financial Inclusion,” CGAP, January 19, 2016, http://www.cgap.org/news/2014-saw-31-billion-international-funding-financial-inclusion.
The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff
Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve
Farhi, Emmanuel, Gita Gopinath, and Oleg Itskhoki. 2013. “Fiscal Devaluations.” Review of Economic Studies 81 (2): 725–60. Farhi, Emmanuel, and Ivan Werning. 2016. “A Theory of Macroprudential Policies in the Presence of Nominal Rigidities” (May). Mimeo, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Forthcoming in Econometrica. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. 2014. “2013 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households.” Washington, DC. Available at https://www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. 2012. “Diary of Consumer Payment Choice.” Boston. ———. 2013. “Survey of Consumer Payment Choice.” Boston. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 2004. “How Much Currency Is Circulating in the Economy, and How Much of It Is Counterfeit?” (April). Available at http://www.frbsf.org/education/publications/doctor-econ/2004/april/money-supply-currency-counterfeit.
See also Bank of England United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 69, 74, 240n34 United States: Automated Clearing House system, 103; Bitcoin, regulation of, 210; cash circulating, amount of, 31–33; corruption in, 70–71; cost in GDP of buying back all paper currency, 217; counterfeiting, efforts to suppress, 77–78; currency entering or leaving the country, requirement to report large amounts of, 41; currency/GDP ratio, 1948–2015, 33, 36–37; currency/GDP ratio, 1995, 46; currency held by consumers, 3, 49–52; currency of, international significance of, 15–16; currency per capita, 37–38, 40; currency usage, 53–54; discount rate cuts in response to recent crises, 131–32; double-digit inflation, 183; foreign holdings of currency, 39–42, 236n19; foreign holdings of currency, 1985–2015, 45; foreign holdings of currency, estimating, 42–45; gold standard, post–World War I adjustments to, 29; the government’s profit from printing money, 81–82 (see also seigniorage); illegal drug market, estimated size of, 69; inflationary periods in, 27–28; Kleptocracy Asset Recovery Initiative, 72; large-denomination notes, 3, 31; negative interest rates in response to the financial crisis, 123; New York Federal Reserve discount rates, 1929–1939, 128–29; nominal policy interest rates, 2000–2015, 130; $100 bills, rise in demand for, 32–33; $100 North Korean counterfeit “supernote,” 78; paper currency, profits from monopoly on, 217; paper currency in colonial, 26–27; paper currency phaseout, costs and benefits of, 88–89; paper currency supply in small bills, percentage of, 85; payments by instrument type, 54; payments per dollar amount per consumer, 54; phaseout of large-denomination paper currency, proposal for, 95; quantitative easing in, 140–42; revenue as a percentage of GDP, 2006–2015, 83–84; scanner data from retail transactions, 56–57; sexual exploitation in, 74; short-term market interest rates, 1929–1939, 129; tax evasion in, 60–61, 83; terrorism and efforts to tighten enforcement of money-laundering regulations, 77; unauthorized immigrants in, 75; the unbanked and underbanked in, 98; underground economy, estimated size of, 62–63; Volcker’s disinflation effort, 119 universal financial inclusion, 98–100 Velde, François R., 19, 234n13 Venezuela, 184 Vietnam, 191 Vissing-Jorgensen, Annette, 141 Volcker, Paul, 119, 189, 191 Wallace, Neil, 104–5, 225–26 Wallace conjecture, 105, 225–26 Walsh, Carl, 231 Wang, Zhu, 56 Weber, Guglielmo, 239n13 Weber, Warren E., 234n13 Werning, Ivan, 251n3 White, Walter, 240n27 White, William, 176 Williams, John C., 133, 244n11, 245n17 Wolman, Alexander, 56, 244n11, 255n9 Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The (Baum), 192 Woodford, Michael, 145, 227, 230, 243n9 Wu, Jing Cynthia, 244n5, 247n28 Xerxes (king of Persia), 18 Xia, Fan Dora, 244n5, 247n28 Xi Jinping (president of People’s Republic of China), 71 Xu Caihou, 71 Yellen, Janet, 229, 255n5 zero bound constraint, 4–5, 119–27; black hole, similarity to, 124; consumption taxes as approach to, 156–57; fiscal policy and, 249n12; forward guidance as approach to, 145–46; higher inflation targets as approach to, 147–51; historical experiences with, 128–32; macroeconomic stabilization policy and, 124–25; mitigating, options for, 125–27; monetary policy and, 123–24, 227–30; opportunistic fiscal policy as approach to, 154–56; previous experiences of, 122; quantitative easing as approach to (see quantitative easing); quantitative implications of, literature on, 132–35; reemergence of, reasons for, 120–22; relaxing the rigidity of the inflation-targeting framework as approach to, 152–54; targeting nominal GDP as approach to, 151–52.
Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr
"Robert Solow", 23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
“What we lovingly call a data scientist today”: Philip Zeyliger’s descriptions and quotes come from an interview on Aug. 13, 2013. 6: Data Storytelling “Everything you added”: Interview on Sept. 17, 2013, with Sam Adams. Consider start-up ZestFinance: Douglas Merrill’s descriptions and quotes come from an interview on Oct. 30, 2013. fees paid by payday borrowers: For the average borrowers and amounts outstanding, Merrill did his own current estimates as of late 2013. But he also referenced the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s report in September 2012, 2011 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households. http://www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/2012_unbankedreport.pdf. And he also referred to a July 2012 report by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Payday Lending in America: Who Borrows, Where They Borrow, and Why. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2012/07/19/who-borrows-where-they-borrow-and-why. people like Tara Richardson: Her descriptions and quotes come from an interview on Dec. 5, 2013.
Smart Money: How High-Stakes Financial Innovation Is Reshaping Our WorldÑFor the Better by Andrew Palmer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, Innovator's Dilemma, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, loss aversion, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Network effects, Northern Rock, obamacare, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, railway mania, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Thales of Miletus, transaction costs, Tunguska event, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Vanguard fund, web application
Nesta, “Banking on Each Other,” April 25, 2013, http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/banking-each-other-rise-peer-peer-lending-businesses. 3. “Withering Away,” Economist, May 19, 2012. 4. Harry DeAngelo and René Stulz, “Why High Leverage Is Optimal for Banks” (NBER Working Paper 19139, August 2013). NOTES TO CHAPTER 8 1. Victor Stango, “Are Payday Lending Markets Competitive?” Regulation (Fall 2012); “National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households” (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 2011). 2. “Margin Calls,” Economist, February 16, 2013. 3. Meta Brown et al., “The Financial Crisis at the Kitchen Table: Trends in Household Debt and Credit,” Current Issues in Economics and Finance 19 (2013). 4. Atif Mian and Amir Sufi, “The Consequences of Mortgage Credit Expansion: Evidence from the 2007 Mortgage Default Crisis” (NBER Working Paper 13936, April 2008). 5.
A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus
active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional
Simplifying laws that govern microfinance programs. I have been advocating for years to create new banking laws to allow the setting up of banks for the poor as opposed to the present laws focused on creating banks for the rich. Doing patchwork on the existing laws to allow noncollateralized lending to the unbanked can have very little success—especially while the need for banking for the unbanked and underbanked is so vast. I try to present the case by pointing out that financial services are the oxygen of individual economic life. This oxygen is delivered extremely generously to the topmost people; in fact, they enjoy a kind of economic fire that sucks up nearly all the oxygen that is available. In this way the financial system helps cause the extreme concentration of wealth in the world. Meanwhile, despite the progress that has been made in designing and delivering financial services, the economic oxygen does not reach more than half of the world population.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
Additionally, American Express Ventures, established in 2011 in Silicon Valley, will invest in early-stage start-ups to help people manage their finances better. In June 2014, AmEx launched a Financial Innovation Lab, where researchers and counsellors work together to support credit building and savings; the lab’s results will be made publicly available. Through these multiple initiatives, AmEx is attempting to understand and solve a complex, multi-dimensional socio-economic problem. The unbanked and underbanked spend 10% of their $1 trillion disposable income on fees, the same amount as they spend on food. Schulman asks:13 “Imagine if you could turn loose almost $100 billion back into the economy?” Engage restless entrepreneurs, hackers and tinkerers Airbnb, an online short-let rental company, was launched in 2008 by Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia, two young people with no experience of the hotel industry.
Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner
algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K
M-PESA is an example of a near-bank system that transacts 20% of Kenya’s GDP outside the banking system. The discussion of their success is covered later in this journal in my interview with John Maynard, but the key comment he makes is that since M-PESA launched in 2007, the number of people who now have bank accounts with the traditional banks has almost quadrupled. The reason? As mobile money provides inclusion for the unbanked and underbanked, they become recognised as financially viable citizens and therefore for financial inclusion by being banked. Similarly, when banks find they cannot offer services to customers through this credit crisis that were previously offered, such as credit, other services gain traction. This is clear from the rise of crowdfunding platforms like kickstarter and social lending services like Zopa, Smava and Prosper.
The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize
With AI, huge groups of people can come together, share financial information, and pool risk, becoming the peer-to-peer market now known as “crowdlending.” Prosper, Funding Circle, and LendingTree are three examples in a market expected to grow from $26.16 billion in 2015 to $897.85 billion by 2024. A different example is the Smart Finance Group. Created in 2013 to serve China’s massive unbanked and underbanked population, Smart Finance uses an AI to comb a user’s personal data—social media data, smartphone data, educational and employment history, etc.—to generate a reliable credit score nearly instantly. With this method, they can approve a peer-to-peer loan in under eight seconds, including microloans to the unbanked. And the results speak for themselves. Roughly 1.5 to 2 million loans are taken out every month via Smart Finance.
Liberalism at Large: The World According to the Economist by Alex Zevin
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, Columbine, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, desegregation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, hiring and firing, imperial preference, income inequality, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norman Macrae, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War, young professional
In red, white and black, the cover read ‘Pro Logo’, and savaged the Canadian activist Naomi Klein for her ‘utterly wrong-headed’ No Logo (1999), the best-selling ‘bible of the anti-globalisation movement’.49 For his part, Emmott spied untrammelled vistas for financial innovation until the end. In his last signed piece in 2006, he hailed US banks for entering sectors served only by payday lenders and pawnbrokers. Citibank signed an agreement with 7-Eleven to put cash machines in 5,500 stores, while credit card companies ‘targeted the unbanked and under-banked’ – poor minorities and immigrants, who stood to gain from access to cheaper credit. (Banks anticipated culling $9 billion in fees from them, and that was ‘before any cross-selling of other products’.) The subprime mortgage crisis hit the next year. Among the community banks Emmott cited as paragons, just one limped into 2012.50 Yet the crash barely checked his stride. In 2008 ‘Crisis, What Crisis?