immigration reform

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pages: 627 words: 89,295

The Politics Industry: How Political Innovation Can Break Partisan Gridlock and Save Our Democracy by Katherine M. Gehl, Michael E. Porter

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, future of work, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, Menlo Park, new economy, obamacare, pension reform, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, zero-sum game

Fortunately, the amendment was rejected.18 But Obama quickly backed another poison pill supported by organized labor to sunset a popular Republican idea to expand the guest-worker program.19 The amendment ultimately passed—by just one vote.20 Immigration reform was dead. Both parties had killed it. While it was a major defeat for the country, the failure of immigration reform was a tactical win for Obama. In today’s politics, taking ideological stands at the expense of actual legislative action can be smart strategy. Obama pandered to his Democratic base, blocked a major legislative victory for future opponent McCain, and kept a highly partisan wedge issue on the table to rally support for the elections. Obama campaigned on a commitment to deal with immigration in his first year. Despite a Democratic supermajority in Congress during his first term, there was no action.21 By the time the Democrats attempted immigration reform in 2013 in the Senate, the Republicans had retaken control of the House and blocked it.

Kennedy, knowing that the amendment’s passage would tank the bill, again attacked his fellow Democrat: “Who is the senator from North Dakota trying to fool?” See Orman, Declaration of Independents. 20. Greg Orman, “Debaters Should Press Biden on Killing Immigration Reform in ’07,” RealClearPolitics, October 14, 2019, https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2019/10/14/debaters_should_press_biden_on_killing_immigration_reform_in_07_141490.html. 21. On the campaign trail, months after sinking the deal, Obama pledged he would push for immigration reform in his first year. See Orman, Declaration of Independents. 22. Republicans had hoped that next president would be Mitt Romney, but the 2012 elections did not go according to plan, in no small part because of Hispanic voters. Eight years earlier, George Bush won over 40 percent of the Hispanic vote.

Wong, The Politics of Immigration (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017). 12. Wong, The Politics of Immigration. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) “passed in a Republican-controlled House by a vote of 370 to 37. Of the 226 Republican representatives who voted, 202, or 89 percent, supported the bill. Of the 180 Democratic representatives who voted, just 13, or 7 percent, opposed the bill. This means that a full 93 percent of Democratic representatives joined Republican representatives in passing IIRIRA.” 13. See Marc R. Rosenblum, “US Immigration Policy Since 9/11: Understanding the Stalemate over Comprehensive Immigration Reform,” Regional Migration Study Group, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (August 2011), https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/us-immigration-policy-911-understanding-the-stalemate-over-comprehensive-immigration. 14.


pages: 196 words: 53,627

Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley

affirmative action, business cycle, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

As we’ve seen in the preceding chapters, it’s not uncommon for logic and reason to be crowded out of our emotionally charged national conversation about immigrants. At such times, we count on our elected leaders to have the courage of their convictions, even when it’s unpopular. Especially when it’s unpopular. The driver’s license brouhaha revealed that when it comes to immigration reform, Senator Clinton and Governor Spitzer lack either courage or conviction. It also revealed that the GOP isn’t the only party struggling with the issue. A Democrat in the White House won’t automatically (or necessarily) fare any better on immigration reform than a Republican. My primary goal in writing this book was to offer a rebuttal to some of the more common anti-immigrant arguments that I’ve come across while covering the issue as a Wall Street Journal editorialist. The received wisdom, courtesy of ratings-driven populists on talk radio and cable news outlets primarily, holds that immigrants cause more trouble than they’re worth.

Tanton and his organizations were working in the shadows for years to foment the Sierra Club upheaval. (“The Sierra Club may not want to touch the immigration issue, but the immigration issue is going to touch the Sierra Club,” he once vowed.) And Tanton-linked groups and individuals have played major roles in drumming up faux grassroots anti-immigration sentiment nationwide. The head of one of Tanton’s major organs, the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), claims to have testified before Congress more than fifty times. Tanton’s extensive network shows how activists from across the political spectrum and with different agendas—population control, abortion rights, economic protectionism, racial purity— have coalesced around the issue of restricting immigration. The three Republican witnesses who appeared at the Hostettler hearing all had direct ties to Tanton.

A similar Colorado report overstated the health-care costs of illegal immigrants by including the health-care costs of many legal immigrants. The same Colorado study also inflated the costs of educating immigrants by assuming that all illegals between the ages of five and seventeen were in public schools, not accounting for the fact that some were enrolled in private schools and others did not attend school at all. Strayhorn references a report by the nativist Federation for American Immigration Reform that stacks the deck by including as an illegal alien “cost” the education of their American-born children, who are, in fact, U.S. citizens—until a constitutional amendment says otherwise. That’s significant because some two-thirds of the children of illegal immigrants, and 80 percent of the children of legal immigrants, are U.S. born. Such human capital expenditures, properly understood, are a net investment, and the children of immigrants—including Latinos—typically do better than their parents in terms of schooling and income.


The State and the Stork: The Population Debate and Policy Making in US History by Derek S. Hoff

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, feminist movement, full employment, garden city movement, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, New Economic Geography, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, War on Poverty, white flight, zero-sum game

Tydings was so confident of the demographic unimportance of immigration reform, which he deemed a civil rights measure, that he actually co-sponsored some of the legislation. Tydings argued, “The immigration reform bill will not increase the number of migrants to this country. It will not open the flood-gates or swamp our labor market.”177 Beyond the small group of leaders on population issues, many liberal reformers not only sought reassurances that immigration reform would be net population neutral but also believed the domestic population growth rate was already too high. This stance centered on the traditional argument—magnified by the unemployment concerns of the early 1960s—that immigrants would take jobs away from Americans. In addition, proponents of immigration reform echoed the running-to-stand-still thesis that population growth was a drag on the economy.

As we have seen throughout this study, historians have focused so intensely on issues of population “quality” (that is, on the racist motivations of population movements) that they have neglected the very real anxiety about population quantity—even among racial liberals. Southern segregationists who opposed immigration reform may have deployed a disingenuous Malthusianism. But more importantly, many liberal advocates of reform, consistent with the unease with demographic change permeating the Great Society, not only argued that immigration reform would and should be demographically neutral but also expressed opposition to domestic population growth from any source. The prospect of population increase was the third rail of the 1960s immigration-reform debate: the range of options considered was limited by the prevailing sense that America already had too large a population. A truly radical policy shift toward nearly open immigration would have met opposition regardless of prevailing growth rates, but population anxiety narrowed the possibilities.

In the 1940s and 1950s, Congress “opened the door a little” in managing the great society’s population growth 159 piecemeal fashion, eroding the quotas through special legislation and increasing the number of refugees from communist states allowed into the United States.152 A coalition of immigration reform advocates coalesced among congressional liberals, religious leaders, and interest groups. Reformers were rejuvenated by the election of John F. Kennedy, a descendant of Irish immigrants and the author of the celebratory Nation of Immigrants (1959).153 But Kennedy moved cautiously on the issue while his bureaucracy crafted a reform package, and immigration reform stalled in the 87th Congress (1961–63). In early 1963, the president announced that immigration reform would be a priority,154 and soon thereafter a major barrier to reform was cleared by the death of Francis Walter (D-Pa.), the virulently anti-reform chair of the House Subcommittee on Immigration and author of the restrictive 1952 McCarran-Walter Act, which became law over President Truman’s veto.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

Illegal immigration divided law-and-order conservatives, who wanted to see lawbreaking immigrants deported, from business-minded conservatives, who preferred to maintain a cheap source of labor, held more ecumenical views, and worried about the risks of alienating Latino voters. Periodically, these tensions flared up, as they had in 2007 when President George W. Bush, hailing the United States as “a nation of immigrants,” tried to pass an immigration reform bill that would have allowed 12 million undocumented immigrants to become U.S. citizens. His effort was soundly defeated by conservatives in his own party who attacked the “amnesty” Bush was offering to people who had broken the law. As the Republican Party turned once again to immigration reform following Romney’s poor showing with Hispanic voters, these same tensions rose to a boil, even as leaders in both parties, including President Obama, agreed it was time to get something done. Trump positioned himself squarely against this effort, encouraged by his growing fixation with what was then still an unorthodox political technology: Twitter.

“Because when it comes to immigration, you know that the 11 million illegals, if given the right to vote . . . every one of those 11 million people will be voting Democratic.” Republicans who supported immigration reform, Trump warned, were “on a suicide mission.” Although it passed the Senate, the following summer the Gang of Eight bill died in the House of Representatives, done in by the conservative backlash. It was Breitbart News that put the final nail in the coffin. Tipped off by border agents, the website first drew attention to the child migrant crisis at the U.S.–Mexico border. The vivid scenes of helpless U.S. officials and detention facilities overrun by waves of Mexican and Central American children were widely picked up by the national media, killing any chance of Congress passing immigration reform. In the process, the backlash also took down Republican House majority leader Eric Cantor of Virginia.

“He had a crazy policy”: Ronald Kessler, “Donald Trump: Mean-Spirited GOP Won’t Win Elections, Newsmax, November 26, 2012, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/Donald-Trump-Ronald-Kessler/2012/11/26/id/465363/ “I believe that if we’re successful”: Byron Tau, “Obama: Republican ‘Fever’ Will Break After the Election,” Politico.com, June 1, 2012, www.politico.com/blogs/politico44/2012/06/obama-republican-fever-will-break-after-the-election-125059. Rupert Murdoch, the CEO of News Corp.: Rupert Murdoch, “Immigration Reform Can’t Wait,” Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2014, www.wsj.com/articles/rupert-murdoch-immigration-reform-cant-wait-1403134311. “God bless Fox”: Ryan Lizza, “Getting to Maybe,” New Yorker, June 24, 2013, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/06/24/getting-to-maybe. “We have to make America strong again”: Transcript of Donald Trump’s Remarks (2013 Conservative Political Action Conference, March 15, 2013, Washington, DC), Democracy in Action, www.p2016.org/photos13/cpac13/trump031513spt.html.


pages: 219 words: 62,816

"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

The results were also comparable: increased deportations, the pushing of migrants into more remote and dangerous routes, greater risk of abuse and violence, yet little slowing of migrant flows.6 As journalist Manuel Bojórquez reported, “The Obama administration wants to stem the flow of children entering the United States illegally by highlighting the perils of the journey. But many young immigrants say they know the dangers. They believe the risk at home is greater.”7 DONALD TRUMP, IMMIGRATION, AND THE WORKING CLASS It wasn’t that big a jump from President Bill Clinton’s criminalization of immigrants with the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) to Obama’s recriminalization with humanitarian exceptions, to candidate and then president Donald Trump’s repeated references to immigrants as “rapists,” “criminals,” “bad hombres,” and “bad dudes.” Nativism had become one arm of a multifaceted project of the criminalization of people of color, with mass incarceration, expansion and militarization of the police, and the creation of a climate of fear so as to justify the growth and institutionalization of a repressive apparatus at home and abroad.

This contradiction continues to characterize U.S. law and society: many people who are physically present here are still excluded from the rights and privileges of citizenship. Keeping some people outside of the bounds of equality and citizenship served employers’ need for cheap labor in the past, and continues to do so today. So let’s return to the original question: do immigrants compete with low-skilled workers for low-paying jobs? Yes. But the reason that this competition exists is because too many people are deprived of rights. The proposals for immigration reform that are circulating today do nothing to expand the rights of those currently excluded—in fact they do just the opposite. Further restrictions on immigration will not lower the numbers of immigrants—as long as the demand for labor is there, history has shown that immigrants will keep coming. And further restrictions will only compound the problem of immigrants’ lack of rights. The answer to the low-wage problem is not to restrict the rights of people at the bottom even more (through deportations, criminalizations, etc.) but to challenge the accord between business and government that promotes the low-wage, high-profit model.

Even those who had been in the United States for ten years or more in 2003 had a family income of only $29,900—as compared to natives, whose family incomes averaged $45,900, refugees at $45,200, legal permanent residents at $44,600, and naturalized citizens at $56,500.7 It’s not surprising, then, that 39 percent of undocumented immigrant children live below the poverty line, and 53 percent lack health insurance.8 The results of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, which granted amnesty to a significant portion of the undocumented population then in the United States, are also clear. Once they achieved legal status, migrants were able to improve their levels of education and income.9 By maintaining arbitrary status differences and excluding millions of people from legal rights, and by ensuring that immigrants will continue to arrive, and that some will continue to be classed as “illegal,” U.S. policies guarantee the existence of a permanent underclass.


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Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional

But in the 1996 election campaign Dole made immigration one of his issues, and vowed to outdo Clinton on border security and deportation. Meanwhile, in 1994, a bipartisan Commission on Immigration Reform chaired by African-American Congresswoman and Democrat Barbara Jordan tabled its long-awaited report. Its remit involved travelling the country to take soundings from ‘Town Hall’-style meetings. The commission recommended increasing money for the border patrol, setting up a computerized registry, enacting employer sanctions and reducing legal immigration to 550,000. The report’s findings informed President Clinton’s Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of 1996. Though border enforcement was beefed up, employer sanctions were never properly enforced, which reduced the effectiveness of the measures.

In a report dubbed ‘the autopsy’, the Republican National Committee (RNC), chaired by Reince Priebus, reiterated the need for the party to appeal to Hispanics and young people by embracing immigration reform. The then reality-TV star Donald Trump echoed the RNC line: ‘[Romney] had a crazy policy of self-deportation,’ he told the conservative website Newsmax. ‘He lost all of the Latino vote. He lost the Asian vote. He lost everybody who is inspired to come into this country.’91 Bypassing Congress, Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme in 2012 which allows undocumented immigrants who entered the country as minors to apply for a renewable two-year permit preventing them from being deported. DACA was widely criticized by the Republicans and in Arizona governor Jan Brewer refused to recognize those possessing DACA permits. In 2013, with a Democratic majority in the Senate, an immigration reform bill finally gained ground.

The RNC, Karl Rove, Grover Norquist, 100 conservative economists, the CATO Institute and the Wall Street Journal urged congressmen to pass the bill.92 All Democrats were now onside, but when the bill came to the Republican-controlled House it suffered a crushing defeat. Why did immigration reform fail? In a perceptive analysis, Christopher Parker of the University of Washington argues: ‘House Republicans aren’t motivated by true conservatism. Rather, they represent constituencies haunted by anxiety associated with the perception that they’re “losing their country” to immigrants from south of the border.’ Parker noted that over a quarter of Republican legislators won seats due to endorsement from the Tea Party. Parker identified a 70 per cent overlap between the Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus, which Tancredo had founded, and congressmen supported by the Tea Party. Formed after Obama’s inauguration in 2009, the Tea Party reflected a wholly new right-wing ecosystem.


The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

Edsall, “We Aren’t Seeing White Support for Trump for What It Is,” New York Times, August 28, 2019. 5. “Germany’s Green Party Finds a Haven in Heidelberg,” DW.com, July 24, 2017. 6. Vernon Briggs, “Illegal Immigration and the Dilemma of American Unions,” History News Network, March 7, 2011. 7. U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, “Legal Immigration: Setting Priorities” (Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1996); U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, “Becoming an American: Immigration and Immigrant Policy” (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1997). 8. Quoted in Rhonda Fanning, “What Barbara Jordan & Current GOP Rhetoric Have in Common,” Texas Standard, February 16, 2016. 9. Erik Ruark, “Misuse of Barbara Jordan’s Legacy on Immigration is Wrong, No Matter Who Does It,” NumbersUSA, January 17, 2019. 10.

The historian of organized labor Vernon Briggs observed that “it is not surprising that at every juncture and with no exception prior to the 1990s, the American labor movement either directly instigated or strongly endorsed every legislative initiative by the US Congress to regulate and to restrict immigration. It also supported all related efforts to strengthen enforcement of these policies.”6 In the 1990s the US Commission on Immigration Reform was appointed by President Bill Clinton, at a time when the Democratic Party was still influenced in part by the historic skepticism of organized labor toward large-scale immigration. While denouncing bigotry against immigrants, the commission called for reducing legal immigration, shifting the basis of immigration away from family relationships toward skills, and promoting the integration of immigrants.7 In the words of the chair of the commission, Barbara Jordan, the first African American woman from the South to be elected to Congress, “The commission finds no national interest in continuing to import lesser skilled and unskilled workers to compete in the most vulnerable parts of our labor force.”8 Jordan also rejected efforts to blur the distinction between legal and illegal immigration: “To make sense about the national interest in immigration, it is necessary to make distinctions between those who obey the law, and those who violate it.

Here’s Why,” Los Angeles Times, April 22, 2017; Sara Murray, “On the Killing Floor, Clues to the Impact of Immigration on Jobs,” Wall Street Journal, August 21, 2013; Philip Martin, Importing Poverty? Immigration and the Changing Face of Rural America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009). 22. Robert Shapiro, “Race, Ethnicity, and the Job Market,” Journal of Democracy, no. 53, Summer 2019. 23. Patricia Cohen, “Is Immigration at Its Limit? Not for Employers,” New York Times, August 22, 2019. 24. Matthew Yglesias, “DREAM On: America Needs Much Bigger, Bolder Immigration Reform—for Low-Skilled Workers, Not Just Supergeniuses—to Boost the Economy,” Slate, June 20, 2012. 25. “The Impact of Illegal Immigration on the Wages and Employment Opportunities of Black Workers: A Briefing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights” (Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, August 2010). 26. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2017). 27.


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Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor

“Public Attitudes Toward Immigration Policy Across the Legal/Illegal Divide: The Role of Categorical and Attribute-Based Decision-Making.” Political Behavior 38:1 (March 1, 2016). cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt19m3r9c7/qt19m3r9c7.pdf. 3. Wright, Matthew. “Ahead of government shutdown, Congress sets its sights on not-so-comprehensive immigration reform.” The Conversation, January 18, 2018. theconversation.com/ahead-of-government-shutdown-congress-sets-its-sights-on-not-so-comprehensive-immigration-reform-89998. 4. Krogstad, Jens Manuel, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D’Vera Cohn. “5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S.” Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/. 5. Cox and Posner. 6. Skerry, Peter. “Splitting the Differences on Illegal Immigration.”

Low-skill immigrants thus find it hard to escape impoverished enclaves to climb into the pan-ethnic middle class. How is our current approach raising the risk of racialization? The most obvious example is that for years, we’ve implicitly tolerated unauthorized immigration, which has arguably been the biggest source of low-skill immigration to the United States in recent decades. Prior to the 1965 immigration reform, migration from source countries in the Western Hemisphere was not subject to numerical limits. Migration flows from Latin America and the Caribbean were only lightly regulated, and so circular migration patterns, in which people traveled back and forth between the United States and their native countries, were fairly common. There was no real expectation that seasonal migrants would integrate into the American mainstream, and the migrant communities that did form were mostly on the margins of American life.

Yet amnesty advocates oppose mandatory E-Verify, precisely on the grounds that it would make it hard for members of the long-resident unauthorized population to find work or to change jobs. Reconciling these two camps might seem impossible, not least because amnesty opponents are deeply skeptical that a new large-scale amnesty would be accompanied by resolute enforcement to ensure that there aren’t calls for yet another amnesty in the years to come.4 And I’m sympathetic to this point of view, as it really is true that the last large-scale amnesty—the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which ultimately granted legal status to three million unauthorized immigrants—was followed by further surges in unauthorized immigration. Nevertheless, I believe there is a way forward. First, we have to acknowledge that the growth of America’s unauthorized immigrant population did not happen by accident. Several years ago, the legal scholars Eric Posner and Adam Cox observed that the United States had a de facto “illegal immigration system,” stemming from “the deliberate underenforcement of immigration law plus periodic amnesties.”5 The idea, in essence, is that by mostly turning a blind eye to unauthorized entries and to visa overstays, and allowing unauthorized immigrants to work without much in the way of interference, the United States put out the welcome mat, and it is hardly surprising that millions of people took their chances, especially since the only unauthorized immigrants who were targeted for deportation seemed to be those who had committed serious non-immigration crimes.


pages: 103 words: 24,033

The Immigrant Exodus: Why America Is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent by Vivek Wadhwa

card file, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, immigration reform, Marc Andreessen, open economy, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, the new new thing, Y2K

Bailing out big banks is far more important. Funding distant wars of dubious value to the tune of trillions of dollars is more important. Fundamental yet simple immigration changes that could create a better future for our children and our nation, however, aren’t really worth the trouble and the time, despite there being a strong consensus in Washington, DC, that immigration reform is vital to American competitiveness around the globe. In the political equation, immigration reform is a third-rail issue. A few legislators have introduced bills and pushed hard, but the paucity of results speaks far louder than the press releases or the good intentions of a vocal minority. The skilled immigrants, for their part, have no real voice or influence in the process that controls both them and the destiny of the US economy. Skilled immigrants do not spend millions of dollars on lobbyists.

The skilled immigrants, for their part, have no real voice or influence in the process that controls both them and the destiny of the US economy. Skilled immigrants do not spend millions of dollars on lobbyists. They cannot vote. The communities of their ethnic peers in America, likewise, do not wield significant political clout and do not represent a unified voting bloc. The only advocates for skilled immigrants of any real influence, the large US multinationals that hire H-1Bs and the US Chamber of Commerce, have not made immigration reform a defining issue or a top priority. The only people who care enough to shout from the rooftops are venture capitalists and those interested in maintaining the United States as the leading incubator for startups—people like venture capitalist Brad Feld, LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman, Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen, and Google chairman Eric Schmidt. The loudest government voice has been New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, who has called US immigration policies “economic suicide.”


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

video=3000154454 (accessed August 12, 2013). 26. John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, October 21, 2012, http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/keynes/john_maynard/k44g/. 27. Peter B. Dixon and Maureen T. Rimmer, “Restriction or Legalization? Measuring the Economic Benefits of Immigration Reform,” Cato Institute, August 13, 2009, http://www.cato.org/publications/trade-policy-analysis/restriction-or-legalization-measuring-economic-benefits-immigration-reform (accessed December 14, 2012); Robert Lynch and Patrick Oakford, “The Economic Effects of Granting Legal Status and Citizenship to Undocumented Immigrants,” Center for American Progress, March 20, 2013, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2013/03/20/57351/the-economic-effects-of-granting-legal-status-and-citizenship-to-undocumented-immigrants/ (accessed August 12, 2013). 28.

We’re making our argument for infrastructure investment because of these externalities, independent of any Keynesian stimulus it might provide, and we’re squarely in the economic mainstream when we do so. WELCOME THE WORLD’S TALENT Any policy shift advocated by both the libertarian Cato Institute and the progressive Center for American Progress can truly be said to have diverse support.27 Such is the case for immigration reform, a range of proposed changes with the broad goal of increasing the numbers of legal foreign-born workers and citizens in the United States. Generous immigration policies really are part of the Econ 101 playbook; there is wide agreement among economists that they benefit not only the immigrants themselves but also the economy of the country they move to. Some studies have found that certain workers in the host country, particularly less skilled ones, are made worse off by immigration because their wages fall but other research has reached different conclusions.

Foreign-born people make up less than 13 percent of the country’s population in recent years, but between 1995 and 2005 more than 25 percent of all new engineering and technology companies had at least one immigrant cofounder, according to research by Wadhwa, Saxenian, and their colleagues.32 These companies in total had more than $52 billion in 2005 sales, and employed almost 450,000 people. According to immigration reform advocacy group Partnership for a New American Economy, between 1990 and 2005, 25 percent of America’s highest-growth companies were founded by foreign-born entrepreneurs.33 As economist Michael Kremer demonstrated in a now classic paper, increasing the number of immigrant engineers actually leads to higher, not lower, wages for native-born engineers because immigrants help creative ecosystems flourish.34 It’s no wonder that wages are higher for good software designers in Silicon Valley, where they are surrounded by others with similar and generally complementary skills, rather than in more isolated parts of the world.


pages: 86 words: 26,489

This America: The Case for the Nation by Jill Lepore

Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, immigration reform, liberal world order, mass immigration

-Mexico border became more militarized, and more dangerous, with Operation Blockade in Texas in 1993 and Operation Gatekeeper in California in 1994. In 1997, the chair of a congressional Commission on Immigration Reform said that immigration “is about who and what we are as a Nation,” a common refrain. Few had answers. But immigration became, increasingly, the issue on which American politics turned. Between 2005 and 2013, at least one person a day on average died trying to cross into the United States from Mexico. The end of the Cold War didn’t kill nationalism. Global trade didn’t kill nationalism. Immigration reform didn’t kill nationalism. The internet didn’t kill nationalism. Instead, arguably, all of these developments only stoked nationalism. And so, in the United States, did the attacks on September 11, 2001.

Mexican immigrants, who had been exempt from the quota system of the 1924 act, now fell under a numerical limit, a cap of 20,000 immigrants per year, which amounted to a 40 percent reduction in legal immigration from Mexico. Millions of Mexicans continued to cross the border for temporary work but now began to do so without papers and found themselves unable to cross back and forth easily. Between 1965 and 1986, an estimated twenty-eight million Mexicans arrived in the United States without papers, belonging, as many said, “ni de aquí ni de allá”—from neither here nor there. A 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act opened a path to citizenship for many undocumented immigrants but also made going back and forth across the border without papers even more difficult, leaving millions of undocumented immigrants who by now had formed families all but trapped in the United States, which they came to call the jaula de oro, the Cage of Gold. Between 1965 and 2000, conservatism became the dominant force in American politics.


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, American ideology, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

Sensing that the card-check provision was too controversial to win all sixty Democratic votes needed to overcome a filibuster, the sponsors drafted an alternative that jettisoned card check in favor of expedited NLRB elections and stiffer penalties for companies that break the rules during a union drive.2 But it turned out that EFCA wasn’t a major priority for the president, who used neither his bully pulpit nor his political muscle to build public support and alignment in the Senate.3 Meanwhile, big business pulled out all the stops in a blizzard of lobbying on the Hill and major advertising buys in Democratically vulnerable states. In an investigative report on the corporate-driven campaign to kill EFCA, Ken Silverstein of Harper’s Magazine shared a quote from Glenn Spencer of the Chamber of Commerce about Obama’s position on the issue: “The administration is working on a lot of serious issues, the kind of things that make a legacy—health care, the economy, immigration reform. This is just a distraction. It will split the Senate right down the middle, and you still may not win. [Obama’s] not going to ignore the unions. But will he sink a lot of political capital into a radioactive issue like this? I don’t think so. Congress has noted the lack of engagement. They know what his priorities are.”4 The new compromise version of EFCA, without card check, had a chance of passing the Senate.

As the working class faced dwindling jobs and shrinking pay, these “new class” Democrats were energized more by car safety and air pollution than by the falling minimum wage and inadequate labor laws. Violent attacks on antiwar activists by union-card-carrying hard hats—white men all—further eviscerated the prospects of solidarity within these diverging groups of Democratic voters. Adding to the out-of-touch positions of labor, the AFL-CIO maintained an intractable opposition to immigrants and immigration reform until 2000. This battle for the heart and soul of the Democratic Party occurred at precisely the same time that organized business was ascending in power, and unions were inexorably caught in a downward spiral. As America entered the 1980s, this was the context for the shifting allegiances of the working class and the political direction of the Democratic Party. We know how this battle turned out.

Today’s Latino population, both documented and undocumented, is the new scapegoat used to apportion blame for all manner of social and economic problems. “They” are stealing our jobs, pushing down our wages, straining our schools, and bringing crime to our neighborhoods. In 2015, Donald Trump became the Republican front-runner during the primary season by developing an incendiary anti-immigrant platform, with widespread deportation as his central plank. Even President Obama, who has been a vocal and ardent supporter of comprehensive immigration reform, has succumbed to the political pressure to increase deportations. In fact, more immigrants have been deported under his administration than during George W. Bush’s presidency. Beginning in the mid-1990s, migration of Mexican workers to the United States picked up dramatically. Between 1990 and 2000, the population of Mexican-born people living in the United States doubled, from 4.5 million to 9 million, then grew a bit slower in the new century, to 12.7 million in 2008.


pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, different worldview, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional

A New York Times editorial from 1982, “Immigration and Purity,” articulated a realist view of the subject, saying: “Unlimited immigration was a need, and a glory, of the undeveloped American past. Yet no one believes America can still support it. We must choose how many people to admit, and which ones. That can be done only if we can control the borders.” By 2004, when a new push began for tough, enforcement-driven immigration reform, the Times had changed its perspective markedly. When the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 was introduced in Congress, the Times showed its bias by failing to report the bill’s various “hidden bombs,” as one critic called them. For example, it would have replaced the entire immigration bench with activists, since it required that lawyers proposed for immigration judgeships have at least five years practicing immigration law and that existing judges give up lifetime spots on the bench after seven years.

Carl Hulse’s front-page story on March 21, “Another Long March in the Name of Change,” likened the passing of the bill to “society-shifting” milestones in the civil rights movement. A report filed by Robert Pear and David Herszenhorn was headlined “Obama Hails Vote on Health Care as Answering ‘the Call of History.’” The editorial page was effusive too. “Barack Obama put his presidency on the line for an accomplishment of historic proportions,” read “Health Care Reform, at Last.” Obama’s initial steps toward immigration reform in June 2010 also stirred the Times, which opined that “President Obama’s first major speech on immigration had the eloquence and clarity we have come to expect when he engages a wrenching national debate.” In a dig at the majority of Americans who want border enforcement before any legalization of the undocumented, the editorial pronounced Obama correct in maintaining that “sealing off that vast space [the border] with troops and fences alone is a fantasy.”

The editorial rhetoric from the Times got increasingly nasty. Although the editorial page called for civil discourse, it hardly practiced what it preached, instead issuing juvenile insults far more frequently than dependable insights. Even as it denounced the “demagoguery” of the opposition, it practiced its own form. Conservatives who were concerned about enforcement first were said to hold a view of immigration reform that was equivalent to “pest control.” Editorialists illogically likened opposing amnesty to favoring segregation. Other editorials indulged in victimology that sounded like self-parody: Hispanics are the new gays; Hispanics are the new Willy Horton; sending them home is immoral and a human rights violation. One editorial, “Ain’t That America,” said:Think of America’s greatest historical shames.


pages: 227 words: 71,675

Rules for Revolutionaries: How Big Organizing Can Change Everything by Becky Bond, Zack Exley

battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, declining real wages, Donald Trump, family office, fixed income, full employment, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, income inequality, Kickstarter, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, plutocrats, Plutocrats, randomized controlled trial, Skype, telemarketer, union organizing

In fact, all of those things are the status quo in almost every high- and middle-income country in the world. Bernie Sanders called for them, and he almost won the presidential primary. Our problems are big, so our solutions must be big as well. To achieve them we need a new kind of organizing, and that is big organizing. Big organizing rarely works around a single issue. Our struggles are all connected. We can’t achieve universal health care until we have immigration reform. We can’t fix income equality until we deal with structural racism and the historical legacy of slavery. We can’t resolve national and global security issues or reach full employment without working as hard as possible to stop climate change. Big organizing also needs to have a clear and credible theory of change that explains why organizing matters. Bernie’s message was that if we wanted to win on all of the issues, we had to organize for a political revolution.

RULE 13 If There Are No Nurses, I Don’t Want to Be Part of Your Revolution • becky • Nursing as a profession is based on the values of caring, compassion, and community, and nurses are powerful allies who will attract countless others to your cause. They possess a down-to-earth professionalism that is sincere and authentic, and they have firsthand knowledge of the life-or-death stakes of the most urgent issues of the day, from income inequality to immigration reform to climate change. I’m serious when I say that if there are no nurses, I don’t want to be part of your revolution. In poll after poll, nursing is named by Americans as the most-trusted profession. No other profession is even close. Meanwhile, there’s a four-way tie for the least-trusted professions: lobbyists, members of Congress, telemarketers, and car salespeople. When National Nurses United endorsed Bernie Sanders for president (they were the first national union to do so), NNU president RoseAnn DeMoro said “Bernie’s issues align with nurses from top to bottom.”

This was a man who cared about getting things done. Cesar explained to me that too often campaigns going after the Latino vote thought the only thing they had to talk to Latino audiences about was immigration policy. But in reality, a lot of the families he talked with on the campaign trail cared most about universal health care and free public college. They were also concerned about climate change. Yes, they cared deeply about immigration reform, but Latino families shouldn’t be treated as single-issue voters. They were facing the same challenges as the majority of Americans, and of course, all of our struggles are connected. I heard the same thing from students. Hannah Fertig was a cofounder of Buffs for Bernie, a student group at the University of Colorado Boulder. I met her at a giant barnstorm rally in Denver. She gave me a button with the group’s logo—an illustration of Bernie Sanders riding a unicorn with rainbow lasers shooting out of his fingertips.


pages: 178 words: 43,631

Spoiled Brats: Short Stories by Simon Rich

dumpster diving, immigration reform, Kickstarter, Occupy movement, pattern recognition

Even though Claire is bad at cooking, and believes in false god, and dresses like prostitute, with both ankles exposed, she is not so stupid a person. I know this because she is always reading books. I have read books before—a red one and also two blue ones—so I know a little bit about it. But Claire’s books are much larger, with hard covers and pages filled with numbers. “She’s getting a PhD in sociology,” Simon explains when I ask him about it. “Over at Columbia.” “What does she read so much about?” “Something with immigration reform, I think? To be honest, I kind of tune out when she starts blabbing about it. It’s a pretty boring thing to study.” This comment is strange, I think, coming from man who studied English in college—a language he already spoke. But I say nothing. One afternoon, I am mending shirt in living room when Claire enters, wearing pack on back. “Mind if I study in here?” she asks. “Is fine,” I say.

We sit down at table in the back. It is next to the bathroom and covered with filth. I find the least disgusting chair and draw it out for Claire. “So,” I say, “tell me, how was the exam?” “It was really hard,” she says. “On the last essay, with five minutes left, I realized I’d forgotten to mention the Perkins Report.” “What is Perkins Report?” “It’s, like, the statistical backbone of immigration-reform theory. Somehow I’d forgotten to incorporate it.” “That’s awesome,” Simon says. We swivel toward him. He is facing the bar, his pupils darting back and forth in obvious search for celebrities. “That’s awesome,” he says again. “Hey—who wants a Manhattan?” “I’ll just have a beer, please,” Claire says. “Gotcha. What about you, Hersch?” “I do not drink alcohols,” I remind him. “Gotcha.”

“Last year at this time I was thinking about becoming a banker or working for some soulless ad firm. But interning for Herschel has shown me that you don’t have to sell out to succeed.” According to Claire Whitman, the company’s chief spokeswoman, pickles are only the beginning. Sarah’s Statue of Liberty Garlic Pickles with Salt Pickle Company intends to open a political action center in Williamsburg, with a focus on immigration reform. And an art zine is being planned in collaboration with the Vortex Factory, the profits of which will be donated to worthy causes. When I asked Herschel about these developments, he responded with the pithy poeticism that has made him such a cultural icon in Williamsburg. “Everyone must return jar. Or they will be severely violenced.” It’s hard to think of a better metaphor for our times.


pages: 412 words: 96,251

Why We're Polarized by Ezra Klein

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climategate, collapse of Lehman Brothers, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Nate Silver, obamacare, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, source of truth

Bush signed legislation raising taxes, for instance. That would be unthinkable in today’s Republican Party, where almost every elected official has signed a pledge promising to never raise taxes under any circumstances. Bush also signed the Americans with Disabilities Act into law and oversaw a cap-and-trade program to reduce the pollutants behind acid rain. Reagan, for his part, signed an immigration reform bill that today’s Democrats venerate and today’s Republicans denounce. “I believe in the idea of amnesty for those who have put down roots and who have lived here even though sometime back they may have entered illegally,”19 Reagan said. Yes, Reagan said that. President Bill Clinton, meanwhile, launched his administration with a budget designed to reduce the deficit and an all-out effort to pass the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

It does not matter what we say about education, jobs or the economy; if Hispanics think we do not want them here, they will close their ears to our policies. In the last election, Governor Romney received just 27 percent of the Hispanic vote. Other minority communities, including Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, also view the Party as unwelcoming. President Bush got 44 percent of the Asian vote in 2004; our presidential nominee received only 26 percent in 2012. The report went on to recommend embracing comprehensive immigration reform, elevating Hispanic leaders inside the Republican Party, and being “inclusive and welcoming” in both “fact and deed.” Otherwise, it warned, “our Party’s appeal will continue to shrink to its core constituencies only.” But there were dissenting voices. The political analyst Sean Trende wrote an influential analysis of the results in Real Clear Politics, arguing that “almost 7 million fewer whites voted in 2012 than in 2008.”24 It was mobilizing these “missing white voters,” Trende said, that offered Republicans a quicker path back to power.

So while Obama was reticent to discuss race, and careful to reflect white anxieties when he did, Clinton was eager to discuss it and aimed her comments at winning over voters of color. “Ending systemic racism requires contributions from all of us, especially those of us who haven’t experienced it ourselves,” Clinton said, becoming the first major-party candidate to use the term “systemic racism” in a speech. Where Obama made a point of increasing deportations in his first term in office as part of a bid to win moderates over to immigration reform, Clinton promised not to deport any undocumented immigrants save for violent criminals or terrorists, a position well to Obama’s left. It’s to cast no judgment on either side to say that the choice between the party of Hillary Clinton and the party of Donald Trump is sharper than the choice between the parties of Bill Clinton and George H. W. Bush. It is easier to know if you agree with the Democrats in the age of Hillary Clinton than of Bill Clinton, just as it was easier to know where you stood with George W.


pages: 382 words: 107,150

We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck

airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

United Farm Workers cofounder Dolores Huerta fasted with them, drawing attention to the deep ties between the UFW and UNITE HERE. Maria Elena Durazo, child of farmworkers turned UNITE HERE organizer, was trained as an organizer by the UFW. Both unions understand that there can be no labor justice without a path to citizenship for all workers, she says. And that will only come when unions register members to vote and fight for immigration reform. “That was true in the early twentieth century,” Durazo says, “and it’s just as true now.”16 Massimo Frattini believes that workers’ transnational networking is equally important in a global economy. He has organized worldwide weeks of action by hotel housekeepers each year since 2014. Workers from Massachusetts to California, from Manila to Buenos Aires, in the Maldives, Addis Ababa, Reykjavík, Oslo, and hundreds of other locales have participated.

My coworkers were already having their doors broken down at dawn by ICE. Parents were being dragged away and taken someplace their children couldn’t find them. That’s why we started fighting. That’s why we won’t stop. I honestly don’t know how much worse it can get.” For Sanders, Rainer, and many others, the living-wage campaign is inextricably tied to the struggle against police violence and for immigration reform. Fight for $15 activists at a McDonald’s in Ferguson, Missouri, provided safe space during the unrest after police killed teenager Michael Brown in the summer of 2014. Living-wage marchers in New York wore shirts emblazoned with the last words of Eric Garner, father of six, killed by the NYPD that summer. “We’re the same people,” says Rainer. “We have to hold down three jobs, and when we are done and tired, walking home from work, then we are abused by police, raided by immigration cops.”

Over the next few years, Mexico was flooded with cheap, genetically modified American corn that drove down corn prices and contaminated Oaxaca’s diverse corn crops. Two million Mexicans lost their farms. Millions more lost farm jobs. Half a million Mexicans a year were soon fleeing to the US. This was double the number who had left each year before NAFTA.3 Fortunately for the Lopez family, Abelardo was one of 2.7 million undocumented workers granted amnesty and a green card under Ronald Reagan’s 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). That enabled him to bring his family to the US. One by one he brought his sons. Arcenio waited for word from US authorities that it was his turn. It took ten years. A long backlog makes legal entry into the US painfully slow. A decade-long wait is not unusual. But Arcenio Lopez turned twenty-one while he was waiting. And US officials told him he was no longer eligible to join his family legally.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

But for a mature, settled society, mass immigration can be a poor choice, to the extent that it is a choice at all. Reagan was tasked by voters with undoing those post-1960s changes deemed unsustainable. Mass immigration was one of them, and it stands perhaps as his emblematic failure. Reagan flung open the gates to immigration while stirringly proclaiming a determination to slam them shut. Almost all of Reaganism was like that. The Hart-Celler immigration reform of 1965 is sometimes overlooked amid the tidal wave of legislation that flowed through Congress that year. It overturned the “national origins” system, passed under the Immigration Act of 1924 and reaffirmed in 1952, that had aimed to keep the ethnic composition of the United States roughly what it was. Even in the mid-1960s, immigrants from Britain and Germany made up more than half of national “quota” immigration—and those countries plus Ireland, Italy, and Poland accounted for almost three quarters.

In the waning days of the Carter administration, Kennedy proposed a Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, chose Notre Dame president Father Theodore Hesburgh to head it, and selected the reading materials that would guide it. Two of the Kennedy commission’s members, Republican senator Alan Simpson of Wyoming and Democratic congressman Romano Mazzoli of Kentucky, sponsored the legislation that would become the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). Simpson-Mazzoli aimed at a bold compromise. It legalized and offered American citizenship to illegal immigrants who could prove they had been resident in the United States for even the briefest of stays. A Special Agricultural Worker (SAW) program gave permanent residency to workers who could show they had done 60 days of farm work between May 1985 and May 1986, regardless of whether they knew any English or had any understanding of American civics.

In the half-century that followed: Pew Research Center, “Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S., Driving Population Growth and Change Through 2065,” September 28, 2015, 6. Kennedy proposed: Edward M. Kennedy, Selected Readings on U.S. Immigration Policy and Law: A Compendium, 96th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 1980). A Special Agricultural Worker (SAW) program: Betsy Cooper and Kevin O’Neil, “Lessons from the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986,” MPI Policy Brief 3 (August 2005): 4. Simpson-Mazzoli brought with it: Ibid. Cooper and O’Neil called it “the largest expansion of federal regulatory authority since the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1980”—but their date is a typo. In June 1986: Gallup poll, June 19–23, 1986. “Everyone assumed”: Brad Plumer, “Congress Tried to Fix Immigration Back in 1986.


pages: 208 words: 51,277

Chicken: The Dangerous Transformation of America's Favorite Food by Steve Striffler

clean water, collective bargaining, corporate raider, illegal immigration, immigration reform, longitudinal study, market design, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

I have a job, a house. My kids go to school here. No one bothers me. I don’t know, maybe the Getting Here 107 INS will pick me up one day, but I don’t think about it. I have almost ten years [in poultry]. Really, there is nothing in Mexico for me. But still, I would like to return.26 Tighter border control, which began in the mid-s, has done little to stop illegal immigration. Between , when the Immigration Reform and Control Act was enacted, and , INS funding increased eightfold and Border Patrol funding sixfold. Yet, the number of illegal immigrants doubled during the same period and is growing by an estimated , a year. What tighter border control did do was make the passage more expensive and more dangerous for immigrants. As a result, once immigrants finally arrive in the United States they stay longer.

I like my own people more than others, and I am not ready for a world without borders.” He has no sympathy for the poultry industry: “If there is a victim here at the moment it’s that young Mexican family that all of the sudden is told by Don Tyson: ‘Come to America. We’ll make you rich.’ Those are damn empty promises.”22 Organized groups such as Project USA and the Federation of American Immigration Reform (FAIR) have fueled these anti-immigration sentiments. In , Project USA erected billboards in eleven states that called immigration a population crisis and cultural problem.23 In some places throughout the United States, antiimmigrant sentiment has come from working people who feel their jobs are being threatened by or lost to immigrants. In Mason City, Iowa, , residents signed a petition to prevent the city from accepting a state grant that would help recruit immigrants in order to alleviate the state’s labor shortage.

They need to get paid in a way that is not only transparent, but also reflects the massive investments Toward a Friendlier Chicken 167 they make in the industry. They also need to operate without fear of retaliation from integrators. Workers, regardless of where they are born, must labor under safe conditions, get paid a living wage, and not fear their employers. This will require serious immigration reform. The government—pushed by consumers, workers, farmers, environmentalists, and others—has to help create and support a legal and political climate in which workers and farmers can organize. Friendly Chicken It is difficult to be optimistic about an industry in which power is so concentrated, government involvement so one-sided, and abuses so routine and outrageous. There is something fundamentally wrong with an industry in which the very people who produce chicken are punished when they identify problems with food safety, working conditions, or farming practices.


pages: 359 words: 97,415

Vanishing Frontiers: The Forces Driving Mexico and the United States Together by Andrew Selee

Berlin Wall, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Donald Trump, energy security, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, payday loans, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Wozniak, Y Combinator

See specific officials, agencies, and issues Gruma, 85, 90 Grupo Alfa, 85, 113–115, 116, 130 Grupo Electra, 77 Guadalajara, Mexico cost of living, 100 expatriates in, 206 innovation culture in, 104–107 manufacturing in, 98, 103 reinvention of, 98–99 technology innovation in, 23, 95, 97, 98–100, 101–102, 103–104, 107, 272 Guerrero, Vicente, 210 Guerrero violence, 19, 180 guest worker program, 36, 39 Guillén, Tonatiuh, 43 Gulf Cartel, 137, 138, 172, 176 gun sales/smuggling, 143, 150, 176 Gutiérrez, José Luis, 219–220, 221 Gutiérrez, Mak, 105 Gutiérrez, Raúl, 73, 74, 75, 86 Guzmán, “Chapo,” 137, 166, 176–177 Ha*Ash, 218, 219 Hackers/Founders, 105 Hadley, Steven, 148 Hayek, Salma, 227, 232, 236, 242, 253 Hazelton, Pennsylvania affiliation with, 7–8 crime in, 10–11 decline of, 8 demographics of, changes in, 9, 12–13, 187 employment in, 8, 9 ethnic history of, 2 immigration and, 1, 2–3, 4, 8, 185, 187 investment in, and nearby communities, 4–5, 9, 14, 76, 84, 85, 89 as a microcosm of US-Mexico relations, 20–21 migrant journey to, from Atzompa, 15–16 population in, 8, 9 public-private partnerships in, 14 restriction of immigration in, 2, 9 revitalization of, 8–9, 13–14, 21, 185, 201 start-ups in, expansion of, 9–10, 185 unifying, attempts at, 11–12, 14 voters in, and national elections, 21 Hazelton Integration Project (HIP), 11–12, 14 health care accessibility of, 18, 66, 205, 206 affordability of, 205 improvement in, 66 investment in, 189, 191 provision of, 204–205 quality of, 205 health-care technology, 103 heavy manufacturing, 63 Heineken, 86–87 Hernández, Roberto, 158–159, 159–160, 161–162, 163, 243 heroin, 19, 74, 137, 143, 158, 178–179, 180 Hewlett Foundation, 160, 162 Hewlett-Packard (HP), 95, 98, 99 high-tech industries attracting, 13–14 pairing low-tech and, 96 supply chains for, 30 See also technology sector hockey leagues, 248 holiday celebrations, 194 Hollywood production/studios, 6, 23, 39, 226, 228, 230, 231–232, 233, 235, 237, 238, 243 home cooking, ethnic, becoming mainstream, 260, 262 Homeland Security, Department of, 45, 134, 269 homicides immigration backlash and, 10, 11 organized crime and, 19, 31, 136, 138, 139, 142, 150, 165, 166, 168, 172, 177, 180 overall rate of, 19, 138, 150, 177, 178, 179 hospitality industry, 185 How to Be a Latin Lover (film), 227 Hughes, Langston, 208–209 Human Development Report, 241 Hunt, Hunter, 125, 127 Hunt Consolidated Energy, 125, 127 Hurricane Katrina assistance, 133–135, 141, 150, 151, 171 hydropower, 123, 126 IBM, 95, 98, 99 IEnova, 120, 122, 124 illegal drugs, demand for, 19, 21, 143, 149–150, 176, 178, 180, 274 See also drug addiction/overdoses; drug trade/trafficking illegal immigration amnesty for, 265 and the border wall, 22 concerns over, 186, 190 crackdown on, 269 decline in, 3–4, 186, 190, 191, 282 deterring, common goal of, 200 documentation issues facing, 193 new flows of, first line of defense in, 199–200 protest against, 2 Imcine, 228, 229 immigrant roots, 209, 210 immigration backlash against, 2, 10, 11 decline in, 3, 20, 187, 190–191, 195, 196, 198, 202, 255 as embedded, 186 fears associated with, 21, 185–186 films involving, 226–227, 228, 230, 232 height of, 190 job loss driving, 63, 190 mass, ending of, 4 new wave of, 1 positive views toward, 22, 186, 283 poverty driving, 2, 15, 189, 198 previous waves of, 9, 13, 186, 188 profound influence of, 282–283 restrictions on, focusing on, 2, 10 shifting face of, 4, 188, 198, 200, 201 and social integration, 186–187 See also illegal immigration; returning migrants immigration debate, 2–3, 4, 22, 188 immigration reform, 147, 265 Immigration Reform and Control Act, 265 imports agricultural, 49–50 border crossing and, 71 natural gas, 119, 124 oil, 124, 131 and tariffs, 36 See also exports; trade incarceration rates, 10 income disparity/inequality, 65, 275, 277 See also poverty income growth, 18, 66, 196, 248 See also economic growth; middle class independent filmmaking, 6, 228, 233, 234, 238, 239, 240, 241–242, 243–244, 254 See also documentary film Independents, 22, 275 India call centers and, 193 emigration from, 4 film industry and, 225, 227 outsourcing IT to, issue with, 94 technology sector in, 98 venture capital and, 107 indigenous roots, 209–210 industrial sector declining employment in, 59, 60, 275 development of, 8–9 shared production in, 58, 282 trade balance in, 51 See also specific industries informal sector, 66 Infosys, 95 infrastructure, 205 innovation culture, 104–107 innovation economy, 21, 23, 30, 39, 67 innovation labs/hubs, 39, 110–111 See also Guadalajara, Mexico; Silicon Valley, California innovation meet-ups, 104, 105–106 institution building, 157, 169, 180 Instructions Not Included (film), 226–227 Intel, 95, 99 intelligence model, 175 International Revolutionary Party (PRI), 114 investment matching, 189–190 as part of overall expansion, 90, 91 portfolio, 76 rise in, 4–5, 9, 74, 75–79, 80–82, 84, 88–89, 270, 271 in San Diego-Tijuana bridge, 28 See also venture capital investment laws, 109–110 investment risk, 111–112 Iraq war, 144, 147, 148 Ireland, emigration from, 2, 9, 13, 186, 197 Italy emigrants from, 1, 2, 8, 9, 13, 33, 39, 43, 186, 197, 260 movie market in, 224 Jalisco New Generation Cartel, 177 Jane the Virgin (TV show), 253 Japan, 5, 28, 47, 50 Jeep, 55, 57 Jesse & Joy, 215–216 Jiménez, Efraín, 188–189, 192, 201 Jinich, Pati, 260 jobs.

Fisk had been with President Bush during President Calderón’s first visit to the Oval Office and later at the Merida meeting, and he understood Bush’s desire to get something done with Mexico on security cooperation. But as a veteran of congressional and presidential policymaking, Fisk also understood that presidential will was only the beginning. Now came the fight in Congress. Congress was initially skeptical about security cooperation with Mexico. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had strained budgets and pitted Democrats against President Bush. And immigration reform legislation, which Bush had supported strongly in both 2006 and 2007, had many Republicans at loggerheads with the White House—another issue they associated with Mexico. Throughout the rest of 2007 and most of 2008, the Merida Initiative would languish on the Hill with little action. Meanwhile, violence in Mexico was starting to make headlines as the trafficking organizations started a series of new mafia wars against each other.

He first love was soccer. He was recruited to be part of the Olympic Development Program but wasn’t selected because he wasn’t yet an American citizen. Kihuen had come to the country with a visa, following his father, a farmworker, but he had overstayed it and spent several years as an unauthorized immigrant. He only legalized his status thanks to the amnesty offered by Ronald Reagan in 1986 as part of the Immigration Reform and Control Act, a deal that brought 3.1 million unauthorized immigrants, a majority of them Mexicans, out of the shadows. It’s “thanks to Ronald Reagan, a Republican, that I’m here in the United States,” says Kihuen, a Democrat. While he didn’t make the US Olympic Team, the owner of one of Mexico’s top teams, Chivas, spotted him and invited him to Guadalajara, the city he’d grown up in as a boy, to try out for the Mexican professional league.


pages: 350 words: 109,521

Our 50-State Border Crisis: How the Mexican Border Fuels the Drug Epidemic Across America by Howard G. Buffett

airport security, clean water, collective bargaining, defense in depth, Donald Trump, illegal immigration, immigration reform, linked data, low skilled workers, moral panic

We have had a porous border for a long time, and millions of individuals have entered illegally; even more have entered legally but then overstayed their visas and are now living here in violation of immigration rules and are susceptible to deportation. There may be more than 11 million people whose status and fears make them vulnerable to threats and manipulation.12 We can debate how we got here, but this is where we are. Whether or not we attempt a larger, comprehensive immigration reform agenda, regardless of what federal policies are pursued in coming years, the sheer volume and distribution of the undocumented population means the vast majority are going to be here for a very long time. Communities will not be safer if immigrants retreat further into the shadows because predators exploit their fears. In the climate Arapaio’s order promoted, you can see why an undocumented woman who may have just been raped may be afraid to reach out to a law enforcement officer to ask for help or to report the crime.

Smugglers will shift their tactics from climbing a fence near an urban area to crossing the border on remote, rocky terrain where horseback-mounted teams might be needed. Or a response to political shifts and opportunities may trigger a surge of migrants. That happened in 2014 in Texas. Violence was escalating in Mexico and Central America, and for a brief period there appeared to be growing political support for broad immigration reform. There also were perceptions that unaccompanied minors who turned themselves in after crossing the border would be released to family members.1 Tens of thousands of unaccompanied minors began crossing the Rio Grande, swamping BP’s resources, and it took months to shore up that sector by shifting agents away from other areas that in some cases had high smuggling activity. The Associated Press did an analysis that year showing that on one single day, June 14, 2,500 agents were on duty in the San Diego sector and that sector arrested ninety-seven immigrants illegally crossing the border.

It’s counterproductive to spend tax dollars to support border security while our personal discretionary funds support the very criminals harming and killing thousands of people on both sides of the border. Labor demand When U.S. employers create an incentive for individuals to cross the border illegally by ignoring labor laws and hiring them “under the table,” they are undermining border security. I think immigration reform must be treated separately from border security, but I do think we have to acknowledge and stop rationalizing this “pull” factor. Breaking the law undermines the rule of law. It’s wrong. As a nation, we have to admit that we have essential work, particularly in agriculture, that we cannot hire sufficient numbers of Americans to perform based on the job requirements and for the amount of money these businesses feel they can pay and still make a profit.


pages: 555 words: 80,635

Open: The Progressive Case for Free Trade, Immigration, and Global Capital by Kimberly Clausing

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, investor state dispute settlement, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, zero-sum game

About eleven million people, however, reside in the United States who first entered the country illegally or overstayed their visas; this population is a little less than one quarter of all immigrants. Our immigration policy has changed infrequently over the decades. A notable change of priorities occurred in 1965, when a nation-based quota system was repealed in favor of prioritizing family reunification. Two decades later, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act set up a system of employer sanctions for hiring undocomented immigrants, increased resources for border enforcement, and provided amnesty for undocumented immigrants residing in the United States. Since then, changes to our immigration system have been smaller, including changes in visa allotments and the creation of the diversity category of visas in 1990, provisions that made it more difficult for immigrants to access welfare benefits in 1996, and laws that tightened documentation and reporting requirements as well as immigration rights in 2003 and 2005.

There are likely more cost-effective ways to discourage undocumented immigration.53 This is especially likely since, in recent years, more undocumented immigrants have overstayed visas than entered without documentation.54 For those undocumented immigrants already in the country, I would suggest providing a path toward citizenship, as suggested by Obama Administration and congressional leaders in prior immigration reform plans such as the DREAM Act. Providing a path to citizenship does not benefit only the undocumented workers; it also benefits the US economy as a whole. Documented workers are likely to pay more in tax revenue than they receive in benefits, helping the federal budget.55 Giving workers legal status also gives them a greater incentive and ability to invest in learning and skill-building, allowing them to contribute more to the economy and reducing wage competition for the lowest-wage workers.

For statistics on the relative size of border-control spending, see Council of Economic Advisers, Economic Report of the President (Washington DC: United States Government Printing Office, 2013), 152. 54. See Robert Warren and Donald Kerwin, “The 2,000 Mile Wall in Search of a Purpose: Since 2007 Visa Overstays have Outnumbered Undocumented Border Crossers by a Half Million,” Journal on Migration and Human Security 5:1 (2017), 124-136. 55. Congressional Budget Office, Senate Amendment 1150 to S. 1348, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, June 4, 2007. 9. Equipping Workers for a Modern Global Economy 1. Of course, countries often have different preferences about the optimal tax rate or level of regulation, and cooperation need not involve harmonization. Cooperation can, however, help countries avoid some of the harmful aspects of tax and regulatory competition. 2. Milton Friedman argued for a negative income tax similar to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), and such proposals are also popular with thinkers on the left.


The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah

Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl

But while the social panic about out-of-control population growth diminished, deflated by demographic shifts and political scandal, the movement to make migration as difficult and deadly as possible not only persisted, it grew. In 1979 the Michigan ophthalmologist John Tanton spun off ZPG’s immigration committee50 into a new group aimed entirely at restricting immigration called the Federation for American Immigration Reform. He and his allies created a slew of associated organizations, all focused on cracking down on the flow of migrants into the country. Within a few years, Tanton’s antimigrant network included the Center for Immigration Studies, an anti-immigration think tank; NumbersUSA, an anti-immigration lobby group; U.S. English, a group that opposed the bilingual education that newly arrived immigrants relied on; and Social Contract Press, a publishing outfit specializing in anti-immigrant literature.

In the 1980s and ’90s, elements on both sides of the political spectrum aligned both for and against immigration, with corporate interests and their partisan allies broadly aligned in favor of immigration and labor unions and their partisan allies arguing that immigrants drove down wages and had a negative impact on the environment. Garrett Hardin and Anne Ehrlich served on the board of Tanton’s Federation for American Immigration Reform. Like Ehrlich, who primed his readers and viewers to accept the necessity of authoritarian measures, Tanton gently helped his supporters disregard51 those who might call his antimigrant positions “racist.” For too long, he’d tell them, environmentalists had been averse to discussing the truth about immigration because of the “seamy history” of “xenophobia and racism” that surrounded it. But those who truly cared about the planet and its people knew better.

After the war in Syria began in 2011, a new social panic about migrants erupted,56 creating another political opening for Tanton’s network. The Trump administration tapped people from Tanton’s organizations to oversee immigration policy. The office tasked with helping immigrants whose visas and citizenship applications had been denied or delayed would be overseen by Julie Kirchner, a former executive director of the Federation for American Immigration Reform. The administration’s panel on election integrity would be led by the group’s legal counsel, Kris Kobach. The head of the organization’s polling firm, Kellyanne Conway, would become one of the president’s top advisers. The federation’s director of lobbying, Robert Law, would serve as a senior policy adviser to the Trump administration’s U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, where he’d recommend that the government reduce the number of refugees it admitted and end the practice of automatically granting citizenship to people born in the United States.


pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

It was ordinary that after expanding the deficit, defensibly, to fight the recession, Obama would then fail to reach a bipartisan agreement to restrain the long-term growth of debt; after all, no major deal combining spending cuts and tax increases has been reached since 1991, twenty-eight years ago and counting. It was likewise ordinary that there wouldn’t even be a revenue-neutral tax reform (the last one was in 1985), that there would also be no deal on immigration reform (the last one was in 1986), and that after posturing as a critic of presidential unilateralism, Obama would end up claiming novel powers in an effort to make immigration policy on his own. It was normal that he would do the same on health care and climate policy. It was normal that the day-to-day functioning of the federal system depended on government-by-brinksmanship, with debt-ceiling showdowns and fiscal cliffs and government shutdowns necessary preconditions for even modest deals.

These patterns explain why even government programs that seem to work well enough when they are first implemented tend over time—over say, the eighty years from FDR’s heroic age of liberalism to Obama’s age of liberal frustration—to devolve into what Jonathan Rauch, in his Clinton-era book Government’s End, described as a “large, incoherent, often incomprehensible mass that is solicitous of its clients but impervious to any broad, coherent program of reform.” The Obamacare case study is useful here, not least because it’s a rare example where a meaningful reform, as opposed to just a deficit-funded tax cut or spending boost, did ultimately pass—unlike Clinton’s health care fiasco, or Bush’s doomed Social Security reform effort, or the Trump administration’s Obamacare repeal-and-replace effort, or every attempted immigration reform deal. The opposition to the Obama health care bill was obviously ideological, reflecting a clash between libertarian and social democratic principles. But most Americans aren’t thoroughgoing libertarians; indeed, even most Tea Partiers weren’t thoroughgoing libertarians. The real reason that Obamacare opposition became so fierce, and the debate so toxic, was that the health care system as it exists is as Rauch described government as a whole: a huge sprawl of client populations and powerful interest groups, all of which have a strong financial stake in the existing system, and all of which have spent decades building up the lobbying shops and inner-ring knowledge required to either frustrate or redirect reform.

Ron, 231 Huebner, Jonathan, 45 Hungary, 85–86, 164 Huntington, Samuel, 159 Hurrican Maria, 71 Hustler, 119–20 Huxley, Aldous, 127–28, 130, 184–85 Huysmans, Joris-Karl, 156 hyperloops, 37 Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment (Fukuyama), 115 identity politics, 115 ideological debates, repetition in, 100–101 “illiberal democracy,” 163–64 immanent divine, 224 immigrants, 64 birthrate of, 50 immigration: economic and social insecurities exacerbated by, 63–64 see also mass migration immigration reform, 70 impeachment hearings, 71 Inca Empire, 189–90 India, economic growth in, 167 inequality, economic, 31–32 declining birthrate and, 57–58 infant mortality rates, 50–51 innovation, 30 decline of, 45, 46 declining birthrate and, 57–58 repetition vs., 9 Instagram, 18 institutions: decadence and, 8–10, 69 technological acceleration and, 213–15 intellectuals, intellectual realm, repetition in, 96–101, 180 interest groups, health care and, 73–74 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 174 Internet, 40 anonymity on, 144–45 Chinese censoring of, 139 and decline in risky social behavior, 122–23 and declining rates of sexual violence, 121–22 extremist elements of, 194 hive mind and, 106–7 homogenization of, 104–5, 106 illusion of progress fed by, 11 journalism and, 105–6 mediocrity and, 107 NSA and, 146, 147 pornography and, 120–21 productivity and, 41 repetition in, 104–7 right to privacy and, 145, 146–47 as surveillance state, 144–47 unfulfilled promise of, 104–5 Internet economy, 17, 22 consolidation in, 27 Ip, Greg, 167 IPCC, 195 iPhone, 37, 40, 107 IQ scores, Flynn effect and, 35 Iran, Islamic Republic of, 160, 163 Iran nuclear deal, 71 Iraq War, 69, 70, 80, 150 Ireland, 52, 84 Islam, Islamic world, 201, 223 falling birthrates in, 161 modernity and, 227 as path to renaissance, 226–28 Islamic State (ISIS), 70, 113, 148, 152, 160 Islamists, Islamism, 113, 114, 155, 207 as alternative to liberal order, 159–62 Israel: birthrate in, 50, 54, 217 as model for nationalist renaissance, 217–18 Italy, 84, 85 iTunes, 105 Ivanov, Vyacheslav, 7 James, P.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

But, as economists point out, the price of slaves should represent the stream of profits that farmers expected from their labor. Price stability thus suggests that this expected stream did not grow very much. Substitute illegal immigrants for slaves, and similar patterns emerge in the United States today. For decades American farmers have relied on cheap immigrant labor to tend their crops. In 1986, they pressed to pass the Immigration Reform and Control Act, which legalized nearly 3 million illegal immigrants. After that, their investments in laborsaving technology froze. By 1999, capital investments had fallen 46.7 percent from their peak in 1980. Indeed, the institution of immigrant work in the United States may provide an answer to the question about the seeming unpopularity of slavery: it is not as unpopular as it may seem; it has just taken on a different, subtle form.

,” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1994, pp. 367-377. 5-8 The Price of Crossing Borders: Comparative gender gaps are drawn from: Bijayalaxmi Nanda, “The Ladli Scheme in India: Leading to a Lehenga or a Law Degree?” Presentation, Department of Political Science, Miranda House, Delhi University (http://www.undp-povertycentre.org/pressroom/files/ipc126.pdf, accessed 08/13/2010). The analysis of illegal immigration into the United States draws from: Raúl Hinojosa-Ojeda, “Raising the Floor for American Workers: The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform,” Center for American Progress, January 2010 (http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/special-reports/raising-floor-american-workers. , accessed 08/01/2010); the Mexican Migration Project database (http://mmp.opr.princeton.edu/results/001costs-en.aspx, accessed on 06/30/2010); Maria Jimenez, “Humanitarian Crisis: Migrant Deaths at the U.S.-Mexico Border,” American Civil Liberties Union, Washington, 2009 (http://www.aclu.org/immigrants-rights/humanitarian-crisis-migrant-deaths-us-mexico-border, accessed 08/08/2010); Patricia Cortes, “The Effect of Low-Skilled Immigration on U.S.

electricity elephant-seal cows Elías, Julio Jorge e-mail, spam and Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act (1974) Empire State Stem Cell Board encyclopedias, free energy engagement rings engineers England environment see also climate change; pollution Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Epson ESP printers Essay on the Principle of Population, An (Malthus) Ethiopia Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock) eToys Eurobarometer surveys Europe Catholic Church in decline of polygamy in happiness in lack of sprawl in U.S. compared with work hours in see also Western Europe European Climate Exchange European Union evangelical Christianity executive pay ExxonMobil faith benefits of cheap cost of Fallaci, Oriana families changes to culture and income of of 9/11 victims size of Fanning, Shawn (the Napster) Federal Communications Commission Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Delaney Clause to (1958) Federal Reserve Federal Trade Commission (FTC) “Feeding the Illusion of Growth and Happiness” (Easterlin) Feinberg, Kenneth fertility decline in female file sharing film financial crises financial services fines fire departments fishing floors Florence foeticide food culture and faith and preparation of price increases for surpluses of Food and Agriculture Organization Food Quality Protection Act (1996) Ford Ford, Henry Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fourier, Charles France happiness in work hours in Frank, Robert Free (Anderson) Freedom Communications free lunch, use of term free rider problem free things broadcast TV and movies music and Napstering the world and profiting from ideas freeware Freud, Sigmund fuel see also gas Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints future ethics of mispricing nature and price of Gabaix, Xavier Gallup polls Gandhi garbage gas price of General Motors (GM) General Social Survey General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The (Keynes) genetics, genes Germany happiness in Germany, Nazi Gershom ben Judah Ghosts I-IV (album) gifts Glass-Steagall Act (1933) GlaxoSmithKline globalization global warming Goa God Goldin, Claudia goods Google Google News Gore, Al Gorton, Mark government hostility toward intervention of resource allocation of Great Britain bubbles in gas prices in happiness in politics in Great Depression Greece, ancient green revolution (1960s and 1970s) Greenspan, Alan gross national happiness (GNH) index Haiti Hammurabi Hanna, Mark happiness faith and genetics and life-cycle curve of loss aversion and money and problems with defining of right-left gap in U.S. trade-off and Hare Krishna Society Harvard University Haryana health health care health insurance Health Ministry, New Zealand Healthway Heinrich, Armin Hindus, Hinduism HIV homeland security, U.S. Homeland Security Department, U.S. Hoover, Herbert horse meat House of Representatives, U.S. housing, homes bubble price of HP human papillomavirus Hume, David Hungary hunting I Am Rich Iannaccone, Larry IBM Iceland ideas Illinois illustrators Illy iMacs immigrants illegal Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) improvement income family happiness and inequality of marriage and national redistribution of tax on technological progress and indentured servants India future of marriage in sex ratios in Indonesia indulgences industrialization inequality income Inevitable Rise and Liberation of Niggy Tardust!, The (album) infanticide information conflict between makers and consumers of driven off-line free online information technology Inhofe, James ink In Rainbows (album) insurance health social insurance companies Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Labour Organization Internet free downloads and internet service providers (ISPs) investment bubbles and in human capital investment banks iPhone Iran Ireland, Irish Isabella, Queen of Spain Israel Italy iTunes Jack Benny Show, The (TV show) Jackson, Michael janitors Japan, Japanese culture in health-related expenditures in Jehovah’s Witnesses Jews, Judaism Orthodox ultra-Orthodox Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan jobs Jobs, Steve John Paul II, Pope Johns, Adrian justice Justice Department, U.S.


pages: 519 words: 155,332

Tailspin: The People and Forces Behind America's Fifty-Year Fall--And Those Fighting to Reverse It by Steven Brill

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, future of work, ghettoisation, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of radio, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, paper trading, performance metric, post-work, Potemkin village, Powell Memorandum, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, telemarketer, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

Cable television and then the Internet and then social media allowed people to read and see whatever reinforced what they already believed. The days of the country sharing the same set of facts by watching the news unfold on broadcast television were over. It is not surprising that the micro-focused elected leaders who emerged from this new media world could not get together to address runaway health care costs, the decaying infrastructure, immigration reform, working-class job displacement, or the rampant speculation on Wall Street that crashed the economy. As government was disabled from delivering on these vital issues, the protected were able to protect themselves still more. For them, it was all about building their own moats. Their money, their power, their lobbyists, their lawyers, their drive overwhelmed the institutions that were supposed to hold them accountable—government agencies, Congress, the courts.

The rule was named for Dennis Hastert, a Republican from Illinois who became speaker in 1999, but it was actually initiated by Newt Gingrich, the fiery partisan who had preceded Hastert in 1995. In practice, the Hastert Rule meant that if, for example, the Senate had passed a bill that 45 percent of House Republicans and 80 percent of House Democrats were prepared to vote for, it would still never be considered despite commanding an obvious majority of House votes—a fate that befell a widely supported comprehensive border security and immigration reform law passed with bipartisan support in the Senate in 2013. “With the Hastert Rule, you become speaker of your party, not the country,” said Ray LaHood, a former Republican congressman from Illinois who served as President Obama’s first transportation secretary and was a top aide to Bob Michel, the Republican House minority leader during the Reagan presidency and the first two Clinton years.

BPC had an infrastructure plan ready to go, as well as proposals for reforming the federal budgeting process, for streamlining government regulations, and for fixes to NAFTA. “Everyone should agree with them,” Grumet said. “NAFTA is twenty-three years old and stuff like the IP [intellectual property] provisions certainly needs fixing.” The organization had “decisive input over many long days,” Grumet recalled, in shaping the 2013 immigration reform bill that passed the Senate in a bipartisan vote. It is an issue the team had kept working on despite the refusal of the Republican House to consider the bill. “We’re not non-partisan,” Grumet emphasized. “We’re partisans. Non-partisanship is quaint BS. That’s not the world we live in, or will ever live in. The best ideas come out of partisan debates. We argue with each other. We do research, and debate what we find.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

Paul are reorienting their economic development strategies toward exports, foreign direct investment, and skilled immigration. With the world undergoing a systemic shift toward sustainable growth (a third industrial revolution) and federal energy and environmental policies under siege, metros like Seattle and Philadelphia are cementing their niches in energy-efficient technologies. And with immigration altering the social fabric of American society and national immigration reform seemingly impossible to achieve, metros like Houston are taking innovative steps to integrate tens of thousands of new immigrants into economic and community life. The metro revolution reflects the maturing of U.S. cities and metros in terms of capacity and focus. Over the past three decades, these communities have innovated on the form of their places, regenerating downtowns, 01-2151-2 ch1.indd 4 5/20/13 6:45 PM A REVOLUTION UNLEASHED 5 revitalizing waterfronts, restoring historic buildings, inspiring grand architecture, expanding transit and transportation choices.

For example, Jeffrey Immelt, the chairman 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 19 5/20/13 6:48 PM 20 NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY and CEO of General Electric, told an audience in Detroit in June 2009 that the United States should have three priorities: “become a country that is good at manufacturing and exports,” “win where it counts in clean energy,” and “invest in new technology.”6 Lawrence Summers, the director of the National Economic Council, said one month later, “The rebuilt American Economy must be more export-oriented and less consumption-oriented, more environmentally-oriented and less fossilenergy-oriented, more bio- and software-engineering-oriented and less financial-engineering-oriented.”7 In its meetings with business, civic, and academic leaders, the NYCEDC gleaned more than 100 ideas about how to move the city’s economy forward, covering everything from generating electricity from subway turnstiles to immigration reform to better waterfront access. One of the themes that emerged consistently was that the city and the region needed more—much more—science and technology talent to drive its future. The NYCEDC was getting the same kind of feedback from people involved with its new incubators, investment funds, and related entrepreneurial efforts. “We were getting this feedback from multiple initiatives,” recalled the NYCEDC’s president, Seth Pinsky.

In the next half decade, it is highly likely that these state innovations will continue, with funding coming either from specific voter-approved tax increases or bond issues or from cuts in unproductive state spending.41 The federal government has one other critical task. To help metropolitan leaders such as those in Portland and Miami further internationalize the American economy, Congress and the president need to act on immigration reform, favorable trade agreements, and a new openness to foreign investment, including from China. America’s simultaneous diversity and insularity sets us apart from every other nation on earth. Our metropolitan areas have enormous potential to participate in and benefit from the seamless exchange of goods, services, ideas, capital, and people. But Los Angeles does not set the rules on immigration, nor does Portland determine the framework for trade and investment, nor does Miami determine the antitrust laws that condition business competition.


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Like it or not, the reality is that many millions of undocumented migrants consider America to be their home; that no deportation program could possibly deport so many people; and that unless their children are schooled and provided healthcare and other vital assistance, the effects will be felt throughout society over the decades to come. Any meaningful anti-poverty movement will, therefore, have to first convince a majority of Americans that the undocumented ought to be worthy of help; and, second, ensure that immigration reform—through moves such as the DREAM Act—is a core part of its strategy. For whatever one’s theoretical take on immigration—whether one favors a route to legalization, or an emphasis on border control and the deportation of the undocumented; whether one believes that the initial act of illegal entry into the United States renders all subsequent actions moot, or whether one judges the undocumented by how they act and live once in the country—in reality many millions of undocumented residents will likely continue to live in America for the foreseeable future.

But for the adults, there was no aid, no medical care, no relief except for the charity food that Maria picked up on Thursdays from a local church. As mentioned earlier in the book, the presence of millions of such workers in America has made discussions of anti-poverty programs more complicated than was the case during the 1960s, when far fewer undocumented immigrants beat the path to America. Absent a pathway to legality, absent a comprehensive immigration reform being implemented, these workers will continue to exist in the shadows. And, in those shadows, they will continue to be horrendously maltreated. Half a mile south of El Paso’s old, brick-and-stone downtown, Ninth Avenue runs along the railway tracks that abut the Rio Grande. South of the river is Juarez, Mexico. The two international bridges that daily disgorge thousands of visitors, migrant workers, and would-be immigrants, do so onto Ninth Avenue.

Any systemic push to first significantly reduce poverty, and then to prevent its rapid recurrence, will, of course, have to include many moving parts: local, state, and federal government involvement, including changes in how we raise taxes and how we spend revenues. Attention must be paid to the kinds of debt that we as a society encourage people to accrue, and the sorts of institutions we allow to issue that debt. Additionally, we must consider immigration reform, new energy policies, and changes in the way we use the criminal justice system. Overuse of incarceration is both expensive, and thus a huge drain on limited public resources, and also inimical to the public policy goal of eliminating entrenched poverty. We must look to public-private partnerships as well as nonprofit and philanthropic engagement in arenas such as education, services for the mentally ill, programs available to foster youth as they age out of the foster care system, and the building of affordable housing units.


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

“At a time when many are wondering whether Democrats and Republicans can come together on anything, there is at least one area where we’re in strong agreement,” wrote Kerry and Lugar in an op-ed. “We believe that America is the best country in the world to do business. And now is the time to reach out to immigrant entrepreneurs—men and women who have come from overseas to study in our universities, and countless others coming up with great ideas abroad—to help drive innovation and job creation here at home.” The senators see the proposal as a jobs initiative, not an immigration reform initiative. As Kerry put it, “This bill is a small down payment on a cure to global competitiveness.”43 Clearly, when it comes to jobs, there is no lack of ideas. Just a lack of political will. Yes, many of these job-creating proposals are expensive, but, in the long run, not nearly as expensive as long-term unemployment and the disappearance of America’s middle class. PERVERTED PRIORITIES: THE REMIX Any time the idea of funding jobs programs or rebuilding America’s moldering infrastructure is raised, our leaders immediately look at the price tag and go into sticker shock: We can’t afford that!

Podesta and Karen Kornbluh, “The Green Bank: Financing the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy Requires Targeted Financing to Encourage Private-Sector Participation,” 21 May 2009, www.americanprogress.org. 35 Reed Hundt, the Federal Communications Commission chair: Reed Hundt, in conversation with the author, 20 Mar. 2010. 36 According to Hundt, a green bank would create: Reed Hundt, www.coalitionforgreencapital.com. 37 According to a May 2010 report by the Congressional Oversight Panel: Congressional Oversight Panel, “May Oversight Report: The Small Business Credit Crunch and the Impact of the TARP,” 13 May 2010, www.cop.senate.gov. 38 Even more important than helping small businesses: Barbara Kiviat, “The Workforce: Where Will the New Jobs Come From?” 19 Mar. 2010, www.time.com. 39 Right now, the United States has an immigration limit: Jonathan Ortmans, “In the National Interest: High-Skill Immigration Reform,” 31 Aug. 2009, www.entrepreneurship.org. 40 The people behind StartupVisa.com: Douglas MacMillan, “Visas for Foreign Entrepreneurs,” 11 Mar. 2010, www.businessweek.com. 41 Our current law allows foreign investors to get a visa: Brad Feld, “StartUp Visa Act Introduced by Senators Kerry and Lugar,” 24 Feb. 2010, www.businessinsider.com. 42 The proposal, the StartUp Visa Act of 2010: John Kerry and Dick Lugar, “Visa for Start-ups Will Keep Innovation and Jobs in the U.S,” 18 Mar. 2010, www.mercurynews.com. 43 As Kerry put it, “This bill is a small …”: Douglas MacMillan, “Visas for Foreign Entrepreneurs,” 11 Mar. 2010, www.businessweek.com. 44 But they never seem to have the same reaction: Office of Management and Budget, Updated Summary Tables, Budget of the U.S.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Cloud State University began organizing caucuses and committees in the American Libraries Association, including the subject analysis committee, social responsibilities round table, and REFORMA, which advocates for library services for Latinos and those who speak Spanish. Social media campaigns ensued, organized under the Twitter hashtags #DropTheWord and #NoHumanBeingIsIllegal.4 By March 29, 2016, Dartmouth College’s student-led organization the Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality (CoFired) and DREAMers announced in a press release that after a two-year battle, in partnership with campus librarians and the American Libraries Association, “the Library of Congress will replace the term ‘illegal aliens’ with ‘noncitizens’ and ‘unauthorized immigrants’ in its subject headings.”5 “Illegal Alien” Revisited The struggle over reclassifying undocumented immigrants was part of a long history of naming members of society as problem people.

See advertising companies; algorithms; search engines; Twitter Bitch, 4, 181 Black, Diane, 135 Black feminism, 29–33, 92–93; antipornography rhetoric and scholarship, 100 black feminist technology studies (BFTS), 171–72 Black Girls (rock band), 69 Black Girls Code, 26, 64–65 ‘black girls’ search results, 17–21, 31, 49, 64, 66–68, 103, 160, 192n5; Chicago Urban League, 191n73; first search results, 3–4, 5; improvements, 10, 181–82; pornification, 11, 86 Black Lives Matter, 165 Black Looks (hooks), 92–94 Black Scholar, 11 Blanchette, Jean-François, 125, 128 Brandeis University report, 167 Brin, Sergey, 37, 38, 40–41, 44, 47 Brock, André, 17–21, 91, 151 Brown, Ronald, 104 Cabos-Owen, Julie, 119 Chicago Tribune, 134 Chicago Urban League, 191n73 Chin, Denny, 157 classification schemes, 150; Eurocentrism, 141; misrepresentations of women and people of color, 5, 138; racial classification, 136–37, 149. See also Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality and DREAMers (CoFired), 135 Cohen, Nicole, 154 commercial influences, 16, 104 commercial interests, 32, 36, 157, 179; gaming the system, 40–41; influence on journalism, 154; transparency, 50, 104 ComputerWorld, 127 comScore Media Metrix consumer panel, 35, 53 ConsumerWatchdog.org, 56 copyright, 50, 120, 129 Crawford, Kate, 26 critical race theory, 6, 61, 136, 138, 143, 150 crowdsourcing, 188n27 Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, 120 Cyber Racism (Daniels), 116 cyberspace, 61–62; #Gamergate comments, 63; mirror of society, 90–91; social identity, 104–5 Damore, James, 2 Daniels, Jessie, 84, 108, 116, 172 Darnton, Robert, 157 Dartmouth College Freedom Budget, 134 data storage and archiving, 125–28 Davis, Jessica, 85 “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow), 61 Department of Labor workforce data, 162 DeSantis, John, 134 Dewey Decimal Classification System, 24, 136; biases, 140 Diaz, Alejandro, 26, 42 Dickinson, Gregory M., 158–59 digital divide, 34, 56, 86, 160–61, 164, 188n21 digital footprint, 11, 187n9 digital media platforms, 5–6, 12–13, 30, 56, 148, 188n31 Dines, Gail, 101–2 distributed denial of service (DDOS), 112 Doctor, DePayne Middleton, 110 Dorsey, Joseph C., 93 Edelman, Benjamin, 44 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 190n64 employment practices: college engineering curricula, 70, 163; “pipeline issues,” 64–66; underemployment of Blacks, 80; underemployment of Black women, 69 Epstein, Robert, 52 European Commission, 157 European Court of Justice, 121 Everett, Anna, 107 Facebook, 3, 156, 158, 181; commercial content moderation, 58; content screening, 56; “diversity problems,” 65, 177; personal information, 120–21; search engine optimization, 54; underemployment of Black women, 69.


pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

lang=en) Neeley, Jenny, ‘Over the line: Homeland Security’s unconstitutional authority to waive all legal requirements for the purpose of building border infrastructure’, The Arizona Journal of Environmental, Law & Policy, 11 May 2011 Nowrasteh, Alex, Guide to Trump’s Executive Order to Limit Migration for ‘National Security’ Reasons (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 26 January 2017) Obama, Barack, ‘Floor statement on immigration reform’, speech, 3 April 2006 (obamaspeeches.com/061-Immigration-Reform-Obama-Speech.htm) ‘Political polarization in the American public’, Pew Research Center, 12 June 2014 (www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-polarization-in-the-american-public/) Stovall, Preston, ‘Reassessing cultural divisions in the United States’, Quillette, 13 January 2017 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics, 2015) Chapter 3: Israel and Palestine ‘Behind the headlines: facts and figures – Islam in Israel’, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 9 June 2016 (mfa.gov.il/MFA/ForeignPolicy/Issues/ Pages/Facts-and-Figures-Islam-in-Israel.aspx) ‘A document of general principles and policies’, Hamas, 1 May 2017 (hamas .ps/en/post/678/a-document-of-general-principles-and-policies) ‘Internal fight: Palestinian abuses in Gaza and the West Bank’, Human Rights Watch, July 2008 (www.hrw.org/report/2008/07/29/internal-fight/ palestinian-abuses-gaza-and-west-bank) ‘OECD reviews of labour market and social policies: Israel’, OECD, January 2010 (www.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/oecd-reviews-of-labour-market-and-social-policies_20743408) Starr, Kelsey Jo, and Masci, David, ‘In Israel, Jews are united by homeland but divided into very different groups’, Pew Research Centre, 8 March 2016 Vallet, Elisabeth (ed.), Borders, Fences and Walls: State of Insecurity?


pages: 452 words: 134,502

Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Something about watching those clueless members of Congress debate the bill, watching them insist that they could regulate the Internet and a bunch of nerds couldn’t stop them—that really brought it home for people. This was happening. Congress was going to break the Internet and it just didn’t care. David Segal After the markup, but well before the blackout, we’d already heard from several offices that the volume of constituent contacts that they were receiving had been surpassed only by the immigration reform debate, Obama’s health care reform push, or for many offices, never at all. Even more spectacularly: in the case of the prior debates, America’s sentiments were substantially divided. But when it came to SOPA, something like 99% of us—regardless of party, geography, or ideological self-identity—were on the same side. Tiffiniy Cheng Whether or not we’d sunk the bill was still unclear, but the fruits of the campaign were many: it generated over two million petition signers as well as two million emails and eighty-four thousand calls to Congress—four calls per second from Tumblr users alone.

Beyond this, the fight against SOPA and PIPA has built a massive new constituency of Internet users who now better understand the threats that Congress, the content industry, and other powerful actors pose to their networks. Most importantly, we’re ever-more astute activists—and now we know what winning tastes like. CONGRESS SAYS: “THIS CAN’T BE HAPPENING” DAVID SEGAL After the markup, but well before the blackout, we’d already heard from several offices that the volume of constituent contacts that they were receiving had been surpassed only by the immigration reform debate, Obama’s health care reform push, or for many offices, never at all. Even more spectacularly: in the case of the prior debates, America’s sentiments were substantially divided. But when it came to SOPA, something like 99% of us—regardless of party, geography, or ideological self-identity—were on the same side. Some of these offices—like Ron Paul’s—were congratulatory. Others, particularly those that were complicit in attempting to foist SOPA on the American public, were a bit less gracious.

In fact, Congressional staffers later reported that the SOPA/PIPA battle had been the impetus for as many constituent contacts as any issue in memory—including recently contentious issues like health care and immigration. Somehow a bill related to DNS blocking rose to a similar level of public prominence—for at least a brief moment—but while Americans were sharply divided when it came to health care and immigration reform, they were overwhelmingly united in favor of the Internet. It was a political coming of age: the Internet had truly arrived in Washington. In the weeks leading up to the blackout, most lawmakers were treated to decentralized barrages of hundreds of emails and phone calls about SOPA/PIPA. Their social media pages were filled with inquiries about the two bills from incredulous Netizens. Twitter announced that in the first 16 hours alone on January 18th, over 2.4 million users tweeted about SOPA/PIPA.


pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

There is no universally accepted answer to this question, but my list would include better education at every level from preschool through K-12 through all forms of postsecondary education and on to lifelong learning. To this I would add a robust infrastructure program, something that would provide jobs, increase U.S. competitiveness, and make the society more resilient in the face of natural disasters or terrorism. Immigration reform that created greater opportunity for those with advanced degrees and needed skills to come and stay would help; also helpful would be immigration reform that included a conditional path to legal status or citizenship for many of the twelve million or so people living in the country now without the necessary documentation. Tax reform that lowers corporate rates (among the world’s highest) is desirable, as are other reforms that would lower individual rates, as well as reduce so-called tax expenditures, such as being able to deduct what is spent on mortgage interest and charitable donations or not being taxed on employer health care contributions.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

When he asked under what authority the agent was operating, the agent pointed his weapon at the senator and said, “That’s all the authority I need.”11 The current intensification of border enforcement began in the early 1990s, under the Clinton administration, with the launching of Operation Gatekeeper in California, Operation Hold-the-Line in Texas, and Operation Safeguard in Arizona and the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA). Within a few years, funding for what was then the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) doubled, as did the number of Border Patrol officers. These operations represented the first real effort to close the southern border.12 It involved several new initiatives, including significantly increasing the amount of fencing, immediately deporting immigrants living in the US for a long list of major and minor criminal infractions, creating immigration courts in border areas to facilitate quicker processing and deportation of captured migrants, and creating a massive system for identifying migrants through biometric data collection.

Conner 19, 234n43 Grant, Melissa Gira 246n4 Grant, Oscar 1 Greene, Judith 254n13, 259n2 Greenwald, Glenn 212, 251n59, 258n41 Gurley, Akai 1 Hadden, Sally 237n31 Halstead Act 129, 131 Handschu v City of New York 207 Hari, Johann 132, 229, 248n6 Harm reduction 127–8, 150–2 Harris, David 234n47 Harris, Eric 1 Harris, Jason 1 Harrison, Jason 77 Hayes, Chris 27, 235n58 Herbert, Steve 16, 92–3, 229, 234n41, 243n1, 245n2 Hernandez, Kelly 177, 229, 253n3 Hernandez-Rojas, Anastasio 188 Herrnstein, Richard 6, 232n15 Hill, Anthony 1 Holiday, Billie 132 Homeless courts 101–2 Homestead strike 204 Hoover, J. Edgar 201–2, 205 Housing First 103–4 Howell, Babe 166, 252n17 Hoyt, Edwin Palmer 257n15 Human Rights Watch 212, 250n42, 258n42 Human Trafficking Intervention Court 120–1 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act 180, 183–4, 189 Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) 178, 182–5 Immigration and Naturalization Service 180 Immigration Movement International 196, 256n50 Immigration Restriction League 176 Implicit bias 7–8, 24, 68 Independent prosecutors 17–20 International Workers of the World (IWW) 205 Jacobins 36 Jaun Crow 44 Jim Crow 33, 47–8, 225 John schools 118–19 Johnson, Benjamin 236n27 Johnson, Hank 217 Johnson, Lyndon 14 Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF) 208–10 Jones, Reece 194, 230, 256n45 Justice League 55 Justice Reinvestment 224 Justice Strategies 147, 254n13, 259n2 Karp, David 252n27 Katz, Jack 253n20 Katzenbach report 14 Kelling, George 5, 231n12 Kempadoo, Kamala 246n5 Kennedy, David 167, 173, 252n19, 253n29 Kerner Commission 14, 50 Keunang, Charly Leundeu 95 King, Martin Luther 203, 206 King, Rodney 21, 159, 188 Klein, Malcolm 156, 230, 252n3 Klein, Naomi 256n3 Knapp Commission 117 Kohn, Alfi 70 Koval, Mike 87–8 Kraska, Peter 234n55 Ku Klux Klan 48 Kuzmarov, Jeremy 42, 236n22 Lager beer riots 38 Laker, Barbara 230, 248n16 Lambert, Bob 200 Lane, Roger 235n10 Latimer massacre 40 Law Enforcement against Prohibition 140 Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion 85–6 Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit 205 Leahy, Patrick 179 Legalization of alcohol 222; of drugs 152–3, 222; of gambling 222; of sex work 124, 222 Leone, Peter 74–5, 241n58 Levine, Harry 248n5, 250n41 Lewis, Paul 256n11 Lind, Dara 237n17 London Metropolitan Police 34–5, 36, 45, 199–200 Longmire, Sylvia 255n42 Lopez, Derek 66 Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) 93–5, 137, 158–9, 169–70 Luddites 36 Mather, F.


pages: 273 words: 93,419

Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton

Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile

See the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article five, and the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, article eleven. N OT E S 227 Chapter 5: The health of agriculture and food workers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Statement of Richard Estrada, Commissioner, US Commission on Immigration Reform before House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration, December 7, 1995. Available at: <www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/120795.html>. Economist (December 8, 2007: 11). Lien and Nerlick (2004: 201). New Internationalist (2003a: 20). Economist (September 6, 2003: 28), Lang and Heasman (2004: 90), Hacker (2004), New Internationalist (2004a). Employment in manufacturing in the United States has decreased from 21.6 percent in 1979 to 9.86 percent in 2005 (Lardner, 2007).

Pressinger, R. (1997) “Chemical food additive exposure during pregnancy: links to learning disabilities, ADD and behaviour disorders” [online] <www.chemtox.com/pregnancy/artificial.htm>. Priesnitz, W. (2007) “Ask natural life: how green is my diet?” [online] <http://forum.stlc.com>. Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone, New York: Touchstone. Read, A. (2006) “Protecting worker rights in the context of immigration reform”, Journal of Law and Social Change. BIBLIOGRAPHY 247 Reardon, T., Timner, P. and Berdoque, J. (2004) “The rapid rise of supermarkets in developing countries: induced organizational, institutional, and technological change in agrifood systems”, Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2. Rees, A. (2006) Genetically Modified Food, London: Pluto Press. Richard, S., Moselmi, S., Benachour, N. and Seralini, G.


Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution by Wendy Brown

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Food sovereignty, haute couture, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, late capitalism, means of production, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, Philip Mirowski, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, shareholder value, sharing economy, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, young professional, zero-sum game

They expressed concern, too, with those left behind in the neoliberal race to riches while “corporate profits . . . rocketed to all-time highs.”12 In these ways, it seemed that the light of “hope and change” on which Obama had glided to power in 2008 had indeed been reignited. Close consideration of the State of the Union address, however, reveals a different placing of the accent marks. While Obama called for protecting Medicare; progressive tax reform; increasing government investment in science and technology research, clean energy, home ownership, 24 u n d o in g t h e d e m o s and education; immigration reform; fighting sex discrimination and domestic violence; and raising the minimum wage, each of these issues was framed in terms of its contribution to economic growth or American competitiveness.13 “A growing economy that creates good, middle-class jobs — that must be the North Star that guides our efforts” the president intoned. “Every day,” he added, “we must ask ourselves three questions as a nation.”14 What are these supervenient guides to law and policy formation, to collective and individual conduct?

Clean energy would keep us competitive — “as long as countries like China keep going all-in on clean energy, so must we.”16 Fixing our aging infrastructure would “prove that there is no better place to do business than the United States of America.”17 More accessible mortgages enabling “responsible young families” to buy their first home will “help our economy grow.”18 Investing in education would reduce the drags on growth caused by teen pregnancy and violent crime, put “kids on a path to a good job,” allow them to “work their way into the middle class,” and provide the skills that would make the economy competitive. Schools should be rewarded for partnering with “colleges and employers” and for creating “classes that focus on science, technology, engineering and math — the skills today’s employers U n d o in g D e m o c r a c y 25 are looking for.”19 Immigration reform will “harness the talents and ingenuity of striving, hopeful immigrants” and attract “the highly skilled entrepreneurs and engineers that will help create jobs and grow our economy.”20 Economic growth would also result “when our wives, mothers and daughters can live their lives free from discrimination . . . and . . . fear of domestic violence,” when “we reward an honest day’s work with honest wages” with minimum wage reform, when we rebuild decimated factory towns, and when we strengthen families through “removing financial deterrents to marriage for low-income couples and doing more to encourage fatherhood.”21 Obama’s January 2013 State of the Union speech thus recovered a liberal agenda by packaging it as economic stimulus, promising that it would generate competitiveness, prosperity, and continued recovery from the recessions induced by the 2008 finance-capital meltdown.


pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Daniel Yergin, The Prize (New York: Free Press, 2008), p. 15. 25. Francis J. Grund, The Americans in Their Moral, Social, and Political Relations, 2 vols. (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, 1837), pp. 1–2, 5. Quoted in Rodgers, The Work Ethic, pp. 5–6. 26. John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government, V, 34. 27. Quoted in Jon Ward, “Paul Ryan Reads from 1850 Irish Government Poster to Make Case for Immigration Reform,” Huffington Post, June 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/12/paul-ryan-poster-irish-im_n_3428852.html (accessed April 23, 2015). 28. Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts about America’s Poor,” Heritage Foundation, September 13, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/09/understanding-poverty-in-the-united-states-surprising-facts-about-americas-poor (accessed April 12, 2015).

Benjamin Powell, “In Defense of ‘Sweatshops,’” Library of Economics and Liberty, June 2, 2008, http://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/y2008/Powellsweatshops.html (accessed May 20, 2015). 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid. 27. Richard Tedlow, Giants of Enterprise (New York: Collins, 2003), pp. 19–33. 28. Quoted in Jon Ward, “Paul Ryan Reads from 1850 Irish Government Poster to Make Case for Immigration Reform,” Huffington Post, June 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/12/paul-ryan-poster-irish-im_n_3428852.html (accessed April 8, 2015). 29. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Address at Atlanta, Georgia,” Works of Franklin D. Roosevelt, November 29, 1935, http://newdeal.feri.org/speeches/1935g.htm (accessed May 31, 2015). 30. Dean Alfange, “Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations,” Bartleby.com, http://www.bartleby.com/73/71.html (accessed April 28, 2015). 31.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus

Raising the minimum wage was “not only the right thing to do for working families; it’s the smart thing to do for our economy.” 32 Employing the same idiom, Obama declared that “empowering women isn’t just the right thing to do; it’s the smart thing to do. When women succeed, nations are more safe, more secure, and more prosperous.” Speaking before the U.N. General Assembly, he said the same of development aid: “It’s not just the right thing to do, it’s the smart thing to do.” Obama invoked this double-barreled appeal to ethics and smarts on issues ranging from immigration reform to extending unemployment insurance. 33 The “smart thing to do” always pointed to a prudential or self-interested reason that did not depend on moral considerations. Clinton and Obama were of course not the first political leaders to buttress moral arguments with prudential ones; what is striking is that the prudential considerations were now a matter of being “smart.” Defending one’s policies as smart rather than dumb is closely akin to credentialist ways of talking about people.

Clinton, “The President’s Radio Address,” August 19, 2000, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/218332 ; “Remarks on Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Legislation and an Exchange with Reporters,” June 14, 2000, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/226899 ; “The President’s Radio Address,” September 2, 2000, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/218133 . 33. Barack Obama, “Statement on International Women’s Day,” March 8, 2013, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/303937 ; “Remarks to the United Nations General Assembly in New York City,” September 20, 2016, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/318949 ; “Remarks on Immigration Reform,” October 24, 2013, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/305189 ; “Remarks at Forsyth Technical Community College in Winston-Salem, North Carolina,” December 6, 2010, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/288963 . 34. Hillary Clinton quoted in “Press Release—President Obama Announces Key State Department Appointments,” March 6, 2009, the American Presidency Project, presidency.ucsb.edu/node/322243 . 35.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

The President and Congress determine the annual ceiling and country distributions (ceilings have ranged from 50,000–90,000). 1986: The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalized several undocumented immigrants but made it unlawful to hire undocumented workers. 1990: The Immigration Act of 1990 increased the annual immigrant limit to 700,000 and established the Immigrant Investor Program. 1996: Welfare Reform ended many cash and medical assistance programs for most legal immigrants. 1996: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) expanded enforcement operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2001: The USA Patriot Act, in response to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks on New York and Washington, DC, gives federal officials greater power to intercept national and international communications. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 was a bill that focused on managing unauthorized migration, but failed to pass the House.

Economic Impact of Immigration Many deliberations in the United States revolve around the economic impact of migration. The ongoing immigration debate juggles arguments regarding the assets newcomers bring to the country with those about the drains they place on the infrastructure, and the country is divided on the current net worth of immigration in the twenty-first century. The Immigrant Workforce Recent foci on immigration reform and the guest worker program have drawn attention to undocumented workers. One must bear in mind in all deliberations that of the 34 million documented immigrants in the United States in 2004, over 27 million were between the ages of 16 and 65 years, and the majority of them were in the workforce and across the occupational structure (Table 3-6). A significant proportion of the legitimate workforce, they have the appropriate documentation and are essential to the functioning of the country.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

Instead of restricting entry by country of origin, the new system would operate on “the principle that values and rewards each man on the basis of his merit as a man,” said the President. Here was the next, necessary step in America’s commitment to civil rights and racial equity, correcting “a cruel and enduring wrong in the conduct of the American Nation.” For the bill’s opponents, the loudest of whom were Johnson’s fellow Southern Democrats, immigration reform was a dangerous opening of the floodgates. What would happen to the nation’s heritage, its citizens’ connection to their Enlightenment roots? “I don’t know of any contributions that Ethiopia has made to the making of America,” huffed North Carolina’s Sam Ervin. The special-skills provision was “just sanctimonious propaganda,” he said, allowing immigrants to come by the tens of thousands “to compete with Americans for available jobs.”2 In the end, the effects of the bill signed that day in New York Harbor went far beyond what Johnson or Ervin imagined.

The target of their ire wasn’t IBM or the corporations that used its products, but government bureaucracies with rapidly growing electronic databases enumerating everything from a person’s age and marital status to their medical history and draft number. Senator Sam Ervin was one of the most prominent and consistent of these critics. A strict Constitutionalist (and the ardent states-rights segregationist who had so deeply disliked 1965’s immigration reforms), Ervin gained enduring fame as the folksy chair of the Senate Watergate Committee. Before that, however, he spent the first years of the 1970s helming an investigation into government computers, and his hearings generated juicy headlines. With chairman’s gavel in one hand and a densely printed sheet of microfilm in the other, Ervin railed against the encroaching “dossier dictatorship” in Washington, warning darkly, “The computer never forgets.”24 On the House side, the crusader-in-chief was Neil Gallagher, Democrat of New Jersey, who parlayed a Kennedyesque demeanor and a knack for comparably pungent soundbites to make his name as a privacy advocate.

Beyond that, of course, was extraordinary philanthropy, led by Bill Gates, whose namesake foundation had a $40 billion endowment and had become the leading actor in global initiatives tackling public health and poverty. Gates, the enfant terrible turned elder statesman, became an inspiration to tech’s younger generation. Mark Zuckerberg pumped $100 million into public education in the beleaguered school system of Newark, New Jersey, became an advocate for immigration reform, and announced that he and his wife would, like Bill and Melinda Gates, give away all their wealth during their lifetimes. While the industry’s longstanding lobbying work was as active as ever, tech’s masters of the universe were becoming increasingly vocal about policy matters that went beyond the usual array of capital gains tax cuts or Internet sales taxes or net neutrality. Some came off as odd and self-serving: in 2014, third-generation Valley VC Tim Draper, son of Bill and grandson of William, spearheaded a campaign to break California into six states (one of which would be named, naturally, “Silicon Valley”).


pages: 138 words: 43,748

Conscience of a Conservative: A Rejection of Destructive Politics and a Return to Principle by Jeff Flake

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, immigration reform, impulse control, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Potemkin village, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

The values that will redeem us are ancient and the road ahead is difficult, which is as it should be, because we know as conservatives that nothing that lasts and is worthwhile comes easily or quickly. During 2013, my first year in the Senate, I became part of a bipartisan group—led by the senior senator from Arizona, John McCain—that was set on dealing with America’s long-neglected need for comprehensive immigration reform. Bipartisan groups in Congress are almost always called “gangs,” as if bipartisanship is some kind of outlaw activity, but in any case the group became known as the “Gang of Eight.” And the bill that we would produce was one of the few major bills in years to be produced under what is known as “regular order.” Regular order means that the House and the Senate run according to the standing rules of both bodies and that the twelve appropriations bills that we are required to pass are passed on time—at the time of this writing, this has not happened in twenty years.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

The reality of privatized detention is one of services cut to the bone, offering the barest minimum of care. Detention Watch Network issued a report in 2013 that examined 250 facilities across the country, many of which were run for profit, and found that none of them could guarantee basic medical care or appropriate protection against sexual and physical abuse. A lack of official oversight exacerbated the problem, along with the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which allowed inmates to be punished for minor crimes as if they were serious felonies.40 Punishment, not rehabilitation, remained the corporate and governmental focus, as it was more profitable. CCA refused a simple proposal in 2015 from former prisoner and associate director of the Human Rights Defense Center, Alex Friedmann, for the company to commit an additional 5 percent of its net income to reducing recidivism.41 Public opposition to these companies was growing; the Interfaith Prison Coalition launched a campaign in 2015 to boycott and divest from firms that made profit from prison labor and charged exorbitant prices for prisoner phone calls.

The New York Times slammed the quota in 2014: at a time when millions of Americans “can’t find work and have lost their unemployment benefits … there is no shortage of money when it comes to hunting down unauthorized immigrants.”50 The reality of the “bed mandate” was a boon for disaster capitalism. Lobbying by for-profit companies ensured that the country’s privately run facilities were filled with foreign-born, legal US residents convicted of mostly minor crimes who could be deported at any time. This dragnet did nothing to ensure public safety, but instead satisfied a Republican House that embraced punishment as a response to tepid immigration reform. Azadeh Shahshahani, ACLU Georgia’s former national security and immigrants’ rights project director and president of the National Lawyers’ Guild, was one of many calling loudly for this inhumane and arbitrary law to be axed. She told me at her Atlanta office: “The bed quota is tied to corporate profit to ensure 34,000 immigrants are in beds every night. There’s no law enforcement evidence it does any help.”


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

He particularly singled out the “Orientals” (Japanese, Chinese, and Hindus), who “cannot be assimilated” because they have their own “virtues and vices.”22 US president Teddy Roosevelt (1904–8) in a speech in 1915, said, “There is no room in this country for hyphenated Americanism … 52 Multicultural Cities We must unsparingly condemn any man who holds any other allegiance.”23 These sentiments resonate even today, particularly among those opposed to substantial immigration, even though the idiom of discourse has changed. Samuel Huntington, the Harvard academic famous for the “Clash of Civilizations” thesis, suggests, “Mexican immigration is heading towards the demographic reconquista of areas America took from Mexico by force in the 1830s and 1840s.”24 The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), a lobby group for restricting immigration argues that present-day immigrants neither make significant contribution to the economy nor are they willing to adapt to the American culture. After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001, immigration has been linked with national security. Immigrants, particularly from Muslim countries, are viewed with suspicion, and have the additional burden having to prove their loyalty to Western societies.

See also ethnic neighbourhoods; residential segregation; specific cities and ethnicities ethnic goods, and consumer markets, 110 EthniCity, 84 ethnicity, 15–16, 26 ethnic neighbourhoods, 60, 73, 84, 139, 141 ethnic resources, 95–6, 95t ethnoburbs, 58–9 ethno-racial differences, 135–9, 136t, 137, 151 Index 339 ethno-racial subculture, 12, 13 Europe: assimilation of nonWhites in, 32; birth rates, 43; ethnic business districts, 74; and immigrants’ religions, 17; as land of migrants, 47; multiculturalism policies, 20, 264, 266; neighbourhood centres, 235; sports, 162; transnationalism, 37, 53, 54. See also specific countries European Union, 54 Evangelicalism, 142 exceptionalism, 26 Fainstein, S., 37, 191 fairs and festivals, 51, 58, 81–2, 157, 168, 191, 213, 250 family and neighbourhood social relations, 128–30, 289n9 family structures, 51, 129, 146–7, 195–6, 198, 289n11 Fassenden, F., 67 Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 52 fertility rates, 43 Filipinos: economic niches, 101, 105; enclaves, 66, 70, 232, 256; family structures, 129; as model minority, 105; political representation, 187; statistics, 10, 45t, 102, 104 films. See movies financial services industry: and Chinese economies, 116, 117, 118, 119; as ethnic niche, 89, 92; labour force statistics, 98t. See also banking First Nations. See Aboriginal peoples fiscal constraints, 49, 177, 212, 228, 303–4n43 Fish, S., 157 Fisher, C., 13–14, 143 Fleras, A., 24, 25, 270 Florida, R., 36, 120, 122, 293n23 Flushing (Queens), 69, 75, 116, 117, 132, 165 Foner, N., 5, 11, 69, 132, 254, 275n9 Fong, E., 96, 120, 289n2 foods: food carts, 157, 196–7, 213; in food courts, 76, 82, 157; and health regulations, 213; in hospitals, 196, 198; in malls, 75, 232; varieties and fusions, 51, 65, 157–8, 169.


pages: 482 words: 121,173

Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

But Americans increasingly forgot what made it work. And the political support for its various pieces began to fall apart. The tech sector confronted this growing discord as it dealt with immigration challenges soon after the twenty-first century began. Year after year, the Republicans would support highly skilled immigrants but not broader immigration reform. The Democrats would support highly skilled immigrants but only as part of broader immigration reform. Years of talking with leaders of both parties almost always ended with the frustrating conclusion that nothing would get done. After the 2016 presidential race, it only became worse. As Satya and I flew to New York in December 2016 for President-Elect Trump’s meeting with tech leaders at Trump Tower, we decided that we would find a way to raise the issue of immigration at some point in the conversation.


Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City by Mike Davis

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, invisible hand, job automation, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mass immigration, new economy, occupational segregation, postnationalism / post nation state, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor

.^^^ York's burgeoning but profoundly as we underdog Mexican population, have seen, struggles to survive in the benthic layer of the economy: working lives New in as busboys in Greek restaurants, risking their gypsy construction, illegally selling stops, or hustling flowers at street corners. candy ^^"^ On Long similarly threadbare Central American immigrants - whom were laid off subway in Island, many of during the defense industry downsizing of 1990-93 - expressed to Sarah Mahler narratives of disillusion- ment: "Their portrayals of their dejection, marginalization lives in America are full of deceit, and exploitation." The 1986 Immigration Reform Act (IRC A), moreover, tionalized unprecedented extremes of economic and institu- social mar- THE PUERTO RICAN TRAGEDY While ginality. 2.5 million previously 109 undocumented immigrants gained legal rights to work, and, potentially, to citizenship, several million others who after the deadline, asserts, who arrived became criminalized pariahs ("underneath underdog," as Charlie Mingus once put Mahler amnesty or failed to qualify for "IRCA it).


pages: 154 words: 47,880

The System: Who Rigged It, How We Fix It by Robert B. Reich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, financial deregulation, Gordon Gekko, immigration reform, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, job automation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Income inequality has gotten worse….More than 28 million Americans don’t have medical insurance at all. And, surprisingly, 25% of those eligible for various types of federal assistance programs don’t get any help.” He cautioned that “no one can claim that the promise of equal opportunity is being offered to all Americans through our education systems, nor are those who have run afoul of our justice system getting the second chance that many of them deserve. And we have been debating immigration reform for 30 years. Simply put, the social needs of far too many of our citizens are not being met.” In his 2017 letter he warned, “We should be ringing the national alarm bell that inner city schools are failing our children,” and noted that “over the last 16 years, we have spent trillions of dollars on wars when we could have been investing that money productively.” He told bankers at a financial conference that “I want to help lower-wage people more than I want to help you.”


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

If you need any convincing about the virtues of immigration, attend the Intel science finals. We need to keep a constant flow of legal immigrants into our country, whether they wear blue collars or lab coats. It is a part of our formula that very few countries can copy. When all of these energetic, high-aspiring people are mixed together with a democratic system and free markets, magic happens. If we want to keep that magic, we need immigration reform that guarantees that we will always attract and retain, in a legal, orderly fashion, the world’s first-round aspirational and intellectual draft choices. The overall winner of the 2010 Intel contest—a $100,000 award for the best project out of the forty—was Erika Alden DeBenedictis of New Mexico, who developed a software navigation system that would enable spacecraft to “travel through the solar system” more efficiently.

“The H-1B visa program—that is the key to making us the innovators of energy and computers,” said Senator Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina Republican, who has been critical of his own party’s obstinacy on this issue. “It has been for most of our life. If you wanted to get really smart and have a degree that would allow you to be a leader in the world, you came to America. Well, it’s hard as hell to get to America now. And once you get here, it’s hard to stay.” Immigration reform that better secures the borders, establishes a legal pathway toward citizenship for the roughly twelve million illegal immigrants who are here, and enables, even recruits, high-skilled immigrants to become citizens is much more urgent than most of us realize. We need both the brainy risk takers and the brawny ones. Low-skilled immigrants may not be able to write software, but such people also contribute to the vibrancy of the American economy.


pages: 459 words: 138,689

Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

Six other countries contributed more than 1 million people to the United States’ immigration numbers: Puerto Rico, Vietnam, El Salvador, Cuba, South Korea, and the Dominican Republic.12 The great and growing economic inequality of the United States sucked in people from neighboring and nearby countries, especially Mexico. U.S. politicians reacted to this acceleration with sanctions. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) was signed into law in September 1996. “I don’t think people fully appreciated what those laws had done,” said New York University academic Nancy Morawetz, referring to both the IIRIRA and other 1996 laws that affected immigration. One effect was clear: after IIRIRA came into effect, deportation from the United States went from being a rare phenomenon to a relatively common one: “Before 1996, internal enforcement activities had not played a very significant role in immigration enforcement,” noted sociologists Douglas Massey and Karen Pren.

See also carbon emissions gross domestic product (GDP), 232–41; China, 239–41, 241; concept of, 232–33; global, per capita, 233–37, 234, 292, 293, 297; United States, 237–39, 238 Grosz, Stephen, 317 Guatemala, 209, 210 Haiti, 212, 213 Haque, Umair, 319 Harrison, John, 30 Hawking, Stephen, 144 height, average adult, 266–67, 268, 269, 283 Henriksson, Anna-Maja, 312 hierarchy, 152, 182, 264, 285–86, 363n50 High-Speed Society (Rosa and Scheuerman), 272–73, 360n28, 360n30 home-loan debt, 49–56, 54 Hong Kong, 154, 263 household appliances, 267, 269 housing: house prices, 247–51, 249, 253–55; mortgages, 49–56, 54; rental, 49–50, 53; social housing, 51, 56 Huygens, Christiaan, 30 Ibbitson, John, 140, 141, 296 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 153–54 immigration: and birth rates, 312; future scarcity of, 296; Japan and, 326; and population growth, 318; United Kingdom and, 165; United States and, 152, 153–54, 296, 318 income inequality, 24, 284, 294 India: automobile production, 115, 118; democracy in, 264–65; fertility rates, 226, 227; population, 3, 147, 165–68, 167, 171, 307–8 Indicators of Social Change (Sheldon and Moore), 313 Indonesia, 172, 173, 174 Industrial Revolution, 99, 230 Indus Valley Civilization, 264 inequalities: debt and the concentration of wealth, 37–38, 45–46, 56–58; and population slowdown, 7–8; redistribution imperative, 294–95; and slowdown, 319–22, 343n1; in United States, 152–53 infant mortality, 185, 217–18, 220 information.


pages: 162 words: 51,445

The Speech: The Story Behind Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. S Dream by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, immigration reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, urban decay, War on Poverty, white flight

Blacks and Latinos were far more likely to vote for Obama than previous Democratic candidates, and since there were more of them than ever before, that left Republicans dependent on winning an even higher percentage of white votes than usual. This was widely understood to be one of the key reasons for the Republican defeat in 2012, prompting a two-pronged response. The first was to reevaluate the party’s image among nonwhite Americans. This involved a substantial shift in its attitude toward immigration reform and a more cosmetic reappraisal of its rhetoric and messaging. The second was an attempt to change voter identification laws and use the courts to roll back civil rights–era legislation designed to eradicate racial discrimination in elections. In order to pursue such a legal, political, and electoral agenda, the Right had to posit racism not only as a discrete phenomenon of the past but as one that has no discernible legacy.


pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

The Tea Partiers initially singled out Obama for coddling the “takers,” but after Republicans won the Congress in 2010 but failed to deliver on the Tea Party’s non-negotiable demands to repeal Obamacare, the Tea Party focused their ire on the Republican establishment. Tea Party candidates ran against both Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Majority Leader Eric Cantor—and in the latter case, won. McConnell and Cantor’s sin lay in refusing to go all the way in repudiating even the bare rudiments of the neoliberal consensus between the parties and in failing to block even discussion of immigration reform. Cantor’s sin also lay in being too close to Wall Street and the Business Roundtable. In the primary, Tea Party candidate David Brat said, “All the investment banks in New York and D.C.—those guys should have gone to jail. Instead of going to jail, they went on Eric’s Rolodex, and they are sending him big checks.” This side of the Tea Party, which echoes the original People’s Party, was largely ignored by political scientists and other commentators, even after Trump’s presidential campaign brought it to the surface.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Miya Yoshitani, “Confessions of a Climate Denier in Tunisia,” Asian Pacific Environment Network, May 8, 2013. 69. Nick Cohen, “The Climate Change Deniers Have Won,” The Observer, March 22, 2014. 70. Philip Radford, “The Environmental Case for a Path to Citizenship,” Huffington Post, March 14, 2013; Anna Palmer and Darren Samuelsohn, “Sierra Club Backs Immigration Reform,” Politico, April 24, 2013; “Statement on Immigration Reform,” BlueGreen Alliance, http://www .bluegreenalliance.org; May Boeve, “Solidarity with the Immigration Reform Movement,” 350 .org, March 22, 2013, http://350.org. 71. Pamela Gossin, Encyclopedia of Literature and Science (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002), 208; William Blake, “And Did Those Feet in Ancient Time,” poem in The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 95. 72.


American Secession: The Looming Threat of a National Breakup by F. H. Buckley

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, crony capitalism, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, old-boy network, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, wealth creators

But inevitably bad laws are enacted and then prove impossible to repeal. And all of this is made worse by the absurd (and imaginary) requirement of a sixty-vote majority in the Senate to overcome a filibuster. What that’s given us is a constitutional crisis, our second since the Civil War. In 1861, our Constitution proved incapable of resolving the differences among us. Now too, on health care, immigration reform and so many of the issues that divide us, stasis reigns and necessity is met with impossibility. Our Constitution has been justly admired, but it was made for a citizenry very different from the angry Americans of today. And, as in 1861, that’s a recipe for secession. 2 WHEN SECESSION IS POLITICALLY CORRECT If our Constitution has failed us, if we’re so divided, secession wouldn’t seem far away.


Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House by Peter Baker

addicted to oil, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, buy low sell high, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, drone strike, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, South China Sea, stem cell, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working poor, Yom Kippur War

With so much else going on, he was interested in one last chance to achieve a historic domestic initiative, not to poke at a hornet’s nest. He was in Rhode Island on June 28 giving a speech on Iraq at the Naval War College when Ted Kennedy called. His on-again, off-again partner asked Bush to press Harry Reid to keep trying on immigration reform. Bush was dumbfounded. If Reid would not listen to Kennedy, he surely would not listen to Bush. Within hours, immigration reform was dead as supporters failed to overcome a filibuster mounted by conservatives who opposed anything they thought smacked of amnesty for foreigners who broke the law to sneak into the country. Bush looked uncharacteristically dejected as he approached a lectern set up at the war college, fiddling with papers as he talked and avoiding the sort of winking eye contact he often made with reporters.

Cloud, “White House Is Said to Debate ’08 Cut in Iraq Combat Forces by 50%,” New York Times, May 26, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/26/washington/26strategy.html?ex=1180843200&en=4a5b0fcb25dabda6&ei=5065&partner. 63 “to be quite frank about it”: Woodward, War Within, 360. 64 “My concern was whether”: David Petraeus, author interview. 65 “Respectfully, sir, I can”: Administration official, author interview. 66 “hadn’t read the bill”: George W. Bush, speech on immigration reform, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, Ga., May 29, 2007, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/05/20070529-7.html. 67 “He didn’t laugh”: Dan Bartlett, speech to U.S. Chamber of Commerce, September 13, 2007, http://www.leadingauthorities.com/speaker/dan-bartlett.aspx. 68 judge sentenced Scooter Libby: Judge Reggie B. Walton imposed the sentence “with a sense of sadness,” he said, because of his respect for those in public service but added that “it is important we expect and demand a lot from people who put themselves in those positions.

., 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1, 6.2, 9.1, 10.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 13.1, 15.1, 16.1, 21.1, 24.1, 24.2, 28.1, 29.1, 30.1, 30.2, 31.1, 31.2, 32.1, 33.1, 34.1, 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, epl.1 House Republican Conference housing market, 24.1, 26.1, 27.1, 33.1, 34.1, 35.1, 35.2, 36.1, 37.1, epl.1 Houston, Sam Howard, Arlene, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 Howard, George Hoyer, Steny Hubbard, Al, 21.1, 30.1 Hubbard, Glenn, 3.1, 11.1, 13.1, 13.2 Huckabee, Mike, 31.1, 33.1 Hughes, Karen, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 9.1, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, 12.1, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 14.1, 14.2, 17.1, 18.1, 19.1, 19.2, 20.1, 21.1, 24.1, 25.1, 26.1, 27.1, 29.1, 31.1, 34.1, 35.1, 35.2, 37.1, epl.1 Hu Jintao, 25.1, 28.1, 33.1, 35.1 Hume, Brit Hundred Degree Club, 11.1, 27.1 Hunt, Al Hunt, Terence, 28.1, 28.2 Hurricane Gustav Hurricane Katrina, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 24.1, 27.1, 31.1, 35.1, 35.2, epl.1, epl.2, nts.1n–29n, nts.2n–49n Hussein, Qusay, 14.1, 16.1 Hussein, Saddam, prl.1, prl.2, 2.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 9.1, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12.1, 13.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.2, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 17.1, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2, 24.1, 26.1, 26.2, 28.1, 30.1, 30.2, 30.3, 33.1, 35.1, 35.2, 36.1, epl.1, epl.2, epl.3, nts.1n Hussein, Uday, 14.1, 16.1 Hutchinson, Asa Hutchison, Kay Bailey Huxley, Aldous Ibrahim, Saad Eddin Ifill, Gwen Ignatius, David immigration reform, 2.1, 3.1, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2, 24.1, 31.1, 32.1, 32.2, 33.1, 37.1, epl.1, epl.2 independent voters, 5.1, 17.1, 17.2, 19.1, 28.1 India, 3.1, 5.1, 16.1 Information Security Oversight Office inspectors, weapons, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 15.1, 17.1, 17.2 Insurrection Act (1807), 23.1, 23.2 Intelligence Identities Protection Act (1982) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 13.1, 32.1 International Committee of the Red Cross International Criminal Court (ICC) interrogations, 10.1, 11.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 22.1, 24.1, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 31.1, 33.1, 33.2, 35.1, 35.2, epl.1, epl.2, epl.3, epl.4 In the Heart of the Sea (Philbrick) Iowa primary, 3.1, 17.1, 35.1 Iran, prl.1, 2.1, 2.2, 7.1, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 14.1, 16.1, 17.1, 18.1, 18.2, 21.1, 24.1, 26.1, 27.1, 29.1, 30.1, 31.1, 32.1, 32.2, 33.1, 34.1, 35.1, 35.2, 37.1, epl.1, epl.2 Iran-contra scandal, 2.1, 17.1, epl.1 Iraq Body Count Iraq Governing Council, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 17.1 Iraq Interim Authority, 13.1, 14.1 Iraq Stabilization Group Iraq Study Group, 28.1, 29.1, 30.1 Iraq Summit, 26.1, 29.1 Iraq Survey Group Iraq War: Arab reaction to, 8.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12.1, 13.1, 29.1, 33.1, 35.1, 36.1, epl.1, epl.2 casualties in, 2.1, 11.1, 13.1, 13.2, 22.1, 24.1, 26.1, 26.2, 27.1, 30.1, 31.1, nts.1n constitution established in, 15.1, 16.1, 16.2, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2, 22.1, 24.1, 26.1 insurgency in, 13.1, 14.1, 15.1, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 17.1, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 23.1, 25.1, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 27.1, 28.1, 29.1, 29.2, 33.1, epl.1 interim government in, 10.1, 13.1, 14.1, 16.1, 20.1, 21.1, 25.1, 26.1 invasion in, prl.1, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 14.1, 17.1, 17.2, 19.1, 21.1, 21.2, 26.1, 26.2, 27.1, 28.1, 28.2, 30.1, 30.2, 31.1, 33.1, 33.2 Iraqi elections (2005) held during, 15.1, 16.1, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2, 24.1, 24.2, 25.1, 25.2, 26.1, 30.1 occupation after, prl.1, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 11.1, 11.2, 13.1, 16.1, 16.2, 17.1, 18.1, 20.1, 27.1, 35.1 reconstruction for, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 16.1, 24.1, 25.1 regime change in, 5.1, 6.1, 9.1, 10.1, 11.1, 11.2, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 13.1, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 21.1, 30.1 surge strategy for, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 27.1, 27.2, 27.3, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 31.1, 31.2, 31.3, 31.4, 32.1, 32.2, 32.3, 32.4, 33.1, 33.2, 34.1, 35.1, epl.1, epl.2, epl.3 troop deployment in, prl.1, prl.2, prl.3, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 14.1, 14.2, 15.1, 16.1, 16.2, 17.1, 18.1, 20.1, 20.2, 24.1, 24.2, 25.1 troop withdrawal in, 20.1, 20.2, 21.1, 21.2, 22.1, 22.2, 24.1, 26.1, 27.1, 27.2, 28.1, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 30.1, 31.1, 31.2, 31.3, 31.4, 32.1, 33.1, 32.2, 32.3, 33.2, 35.1, 36.1, nts.1n–51n UN resolutions on, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 16.1, 18.1 “Iron Triangle,” 3.1, 17.1 Islam, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 16.1, 21.1, epl.1, epl.2 Islamic Center of Washington Islamic extremists, 8.1, 16.1, 21.1 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Israel, 5.1, 6.1, 8.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 14.1, 14.2, 20.1, 24.1, 27.1, 27.2, 31.1, 31.2, 32.1, 33.1, 33.2, 33.3, 34.1, 35.1 Ivanov, Igor, 10.1, 26.1 Jaafari, Ibrahim al-, 21.1, 25.1, 25.2, 26.1 Jackson, Andrew, 5.1, epl.1 Jackson, Barry James, Marquis Janjaweed Japan, 11.1, 16.1, epl.1 Japanese-American internment camps Jarrett, Valerie Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson, William Jeffords, James, 6.1, 12.1 Jeffrey, James Jennings, Peter Jesus Christ, 2.1, 3.1, 11.1, nts.1n Jeter, Derek Jews, 8.1, 11.1, 13.1, 13.2 John Adams (McCullough) Johnson, Clay, 25.1, 37.1 Johnson, Lyndon B., 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 17.1, 23.1, 26.1, 27.1, 29.1, 30.1, 35.1, epl.1 Joints Chiefs of Staff, U.S., 2.1, 6.1, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1, 11.1, 13.1, 13.2, 29.1, 29.2, 30.1, 30.2, 31.1, 32.1 Jones, Edith Jones, Frederick, 16.1, 19.1, 21.1, 24.1, 26.1 Jordan, Vernon Joseph, Robert, 5.1, 14.1, 15.1, 16.1, 23.1, 31.1 JPMorgan Chase Jumblatt, Walid Jurgens, Thomas Justice Department, U.S., 9.1, 9.2, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, 11.2, 15.1, 16.1, 17.1, 18.1, 20.1, 23.1, 24.1, 26.1, 32.1, 34.1, 35.1, 37.1, epl.1, nts.1n Kabul, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 25.1, 28.1, 31.1, 36.1 Kagan, Frederick W., 26.1, 26.2, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3 Kagan, Robert Kandahar, 9.1, 10.1, 28.1 Kaplan, Joel, 11.1, 25.1, 28.1, 34.1, 34.2, 35.1, 36.1, 36.2, 37.1, 37.2, 37.3 Kaplan, Robert Kappes, Stephen Karami, Omar Karine A incident (2002) Karzai, Hamid, 10.1, 25.1, 28.1, 31.1, 36.1 Kasich, John Kass, Leon Kaufman, Ron, 3.1, 3.2 Kavanaugh, Ashley Kavanaugh, Brett Kay, David, 15.1, 17.1, 17.2, 18.1 Kazakhstan, 27.1, 31.1 Kean, Thomas H., 17.1, 18.1, 20.1 Keane, Jack, 28.1, 29.1, 30.1, 30.2, 31.1, 31.2, 32.1 Keating, Frank, 3.1, 8.1 Keegan, John Keene, David Keil, Richard, 7.1, 8.1, 28.1, 28.2 Kellems, Kevin, 9.1, 16.1 Keller, Bill, 24.1, 24.2, nts.1n Kelley, William, 22.1, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3 Kelly, James, 12.1, 17.1, 17.2 Kemp, Jack Kennedy, Anthony M.


pages: 239 words: 62,005

Don't Burn This Book: Thinking for Yourself in an Age of Unreason by Dave Rubin

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, butterfly effect, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Donald Trump, failed state, gender pay gap, illegal immigration, immigration reform, job automation, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, unpaid internship, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Hope and Change himself, Barack Obama, sounding an awful lot like evil, racist Republican Donald Trump, wouldn’t you say? Meanwhile, Democrat senator Chuck Schumer of New York once said during a 2009 speech at Georgetown University: “The American people are fundamentally pro-legal immigration and anti-illegal immigration. We will only pass comprehensive reform when we recognize this fundamental concept. “First, illegal immigration is wrong. A primary goal of comprehensive immigration reform must be to dramatically curtail future illegal immigration.” Then, nervous Nancy Pelosi added: “We all agree we need to secure our borders, while honoring our values.” Even Democrat senator Dianne Feinstein of California criticized the flood of migrants coming from Mexico. Speaking during a visit to the border in the early 1990s, she said: “It’s a competition for space. Whether the space is a job, the space is a home, a place in a classroom, it becomes a competition for space.”


pages: 191 words: 67,625

The Line Becomes a River: Dispatches From the Border by Francisco Cantú

Corrections Corporation of America, Google Earth, immigration reform, impulse control

That means he’s now considered a “recent entrant,” and recent entrants are a priority for deportation even under these executive actions. So what we need to do is try to make a great case for prosecutorial discretion. Basically, that means we would present to a judge all the compelling reasons that José should still be granted a stay of removal despite his recent entry. The goal here is to get José out of detention and, essentially, to buy time with the appeals process and hope for better policy and eventual immigration reform down the line. José would still have no work permit, he’d still be living in the shadows, but he’d be protected, he could remain there safely, if that makes any sense. Elizabeth shifted her gaze around the room, looking in turn at Diane, Lupe, the pastor, and me. So, she began again, here’s what I will need from all of you: From you, Lupe, any and all documentation that establishes how long José has lived and worked in the States.


pages: 232 words: 71,024

The Decline and Fall of IBM: End of an American Icon? by Robert X. Cringely

AltaVista, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, compound rate of return, corporate raider, full employment, if you build it, they will come, immigration reform, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Paul Graham, platform as a service, race to the bottom, remote working, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application

H-1B shut them out of those jobs. In an election year and with the economy crumbling this could have been a powerful issue, if only politicians had taken the time to understand it. This went way beyond IBM. H-1B visa abuse is rampant in high tech where it is used mainly to keep down labor costs – the exact opposite of the stated intent of both the enabling legislation and current political propaganda around proposed immigration reform. There is no high-tech labor shortage in America no matter what industry says. But IBM was, and is, the poster child for bad management. IBM's leadership appeared transfixed on two things—selling and cutting costs. They were pushing their sales force very hard, and squeezing commissions at the same time. They were cutting everyone and everything. What IBM did not understand was how to run a business.


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game

Attracting superstars like the Beckham’s of science to the country “can only help take our worldclass domestic research to the next level. . . . To be the best you have to work with the best.”12 And to work with the best justified radical changes in national policy, especially the reform of immigration policies that opened borders to the highly skilled and offered attractive tax benefits to make a country more competitive and attractive to top-level professional and managerial workers. Immigration reform in the global war for talent involves the market-based liberalization of national borders, removing barriers to the entry of foreign talent. Although states have long used market criteria to shape immigration policy, the trend across OECD nations over the past two decades has seen a rise in immigration levels overall, with a growing bias toward the highly skilled.13 The scale of high-skill migration can be shown in some of the available evidence.14 Globally, high-skill migration increased at a rate two and a half times faster than low-skill migration between 1990 and 2000.


pages: 241 words: 75,417

The Last President of Europe: Emmanuel Macron's Race to Revive France and Save the World by William Drozdiak

Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, centre right, cloud computing, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, UNCLOS, working poor

At Meseberg, Merkel finally accepted the principle of a Eurozone budget and promised to create an effective banking union designed to prevent future financial crises in Europe. It was the symbolic breakthrough that Macron had been seeking since his Sorbonne speech, even if it fell far short of his own ambitious goals for Europe.17 Yet barely ten days later, the Meseberg accord began to fall apart. At a European Union summit meeting, other leaders questioned the rationale and timing of French-German proposals for a Eurozone budget and immigration reform. With nationalist sentiment rising across Europe, several leaders spoke out against taking any steps that would antagonize voters opposed to further moves toward an integrated Europe. “The people just will not accept these ideas; just look at how they are voting,” said Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Denmark’s liberal prime minister, whose government depended on support from the hard-right Danish People’s Party to stay in power.


pages: 319 words: 75,257

Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy by David Frum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, illegal immigration, immigration reform, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley

Don’t Democrats care about national identity? Must everything be subordinated to clashing cultural identities? As recently as 2006, then-governor Mitt Romney believed he could win the Republican nomination and the US presidency by championing universal health insurance in his then-state of Massachusetts. As recently as 2007, future Democratic presidential candidate Senator Bernie Sanders opposed the Kennedy-McCain immigration reform as too likely to undercut American workers’ wages. The parties hardened their positions on these core issues only after 2008, a sign of the post-recession era’s ultra-polarization. The consequence has been the frustration of both parties’ highest hopes. The Democrats did enact the Affordable Care Act in 2010, but they have not been able to protect it from Republican sabotage at the federal and state level.


pages: 302 words: 74,350

I Hate the Internet: A Novel by Jarett Kobek

Anne Wojcicki, Burning Man, disruptive innovation, East Village, Edward Snowden, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, liberation theology, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, packet switching, PageRank, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Whole Earth Catalog

Fuck your working class, too, for being so deluded by the shiny baubles of consumerism that their every protest only comes too late, when the die is cast and the deed is done! Fuck everyone who thought that the newest business would improve the neighborhood only to discover two years later that they couldn’t afford their rent! “San Francisco, your future is a vast ethnic ghetto! The Mark Zuckerbergs of the world are working on immigration reform. They don’t give a fuck about Latinos but they love using Latinos as a disguise for their agenda! Their goal is to replace their existing workforce with workers from Asian countries. Because tech workers from Asia will work for one-third the salary! All the low level cogs in the tech industry are so fucked up their own asses that while they were hosting public mournings for net neutrality, they failed to get anything like a political education!


Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight

The first group of any significance was the Society for the Suppression of Destitute Aliens, founded in 1886 and partly financed by the antisemitic ideologue Arnold White, but it had little impact. There then followed the Association for Preventing the Immigration of Destitute Aliens, which actually counted members of both Houses of Parliament in its ranks but did not attract ordinary East Enders and also folded. Another group called the Immigration Reform Association came into existence in 1903 but had limited success. The most significant anti-Jewish immigrant grouping before the First World War was the British Brothers’ League, established in 1901 under the leadership of Major William Evans-Gordon, Conservative MP for Stepney and a dominant political voice in the campaign which led to the Aliens Act of 1905. The League also received some support from most of the other East End MPs.

., (i) Hamburg, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Hammersmith, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Hampstead, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Hamza, Abu, (i) Handel, Georg Friedrich, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Music for the Royal Fireworks, (i) Water Music, (i) Hannah, David, (i) Hanover, (i), (ii), (iii) Hanseatic League, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Steelyard, (i) Harden’s London Restaurants, (i) Haringey, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Harmoniser Gospel Group, (i) Harrison, Ivor, (i) Harrison, Lesley, (i) Harrogate, (i) Harrow, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Harsefeld, (i) Hartman, Anthony, (i) Havering, (i), (ii), (iii) Haydn, Joseph, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Hayes, (i), (ii) Hazard, Eden, (i) Health Exhibition of 1884, (i) Heathrow Airport, (i), (ii) Hendon, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Henry, Thierry, (i), (ii), (iii) Henry Wood Promenade Concerts, (i), (ii) Heron, Gil, (i) Herriot-Watt University, (i) Herschel, Georg, (i) Heymann, Bernhard, (i) Higgs and Hill, (i) Highbury, (i) Highgate, (i), (ii) Hitler, Adolf, (i), (ii) hockey, (i) Holborn, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Holland, see Netherlands Holland Park, (i) Holloway, (i), (ii) homeless migrants, (i) Home Rule Confederation, (i) Honeghan, Lloyd, (i) Hong Kong, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Hope, Maurice, (i) Hornsey, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Hôtel du Lac, (i) Hotel Review, (i) Houlihan, Michael, (i) Hounslow, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) House of Commons, (i), (ii) Howe, Darcus, (i) Hoxton, (i) Huddersfield Town, (i) Hughton, Chris, (i) Hull, (i), (ii) Hungarians, in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Hungary, (i), (ii) Hurst, Geoff, (i) Hussain, Ed, (i) Hutchinson, Leslie, (i), (ii) Huth, Frederick, (i), (ii) Hyams, Harry, (i) Hyde Park, (i), (ii), (iii) Hyman, Nathan, (i) Immigration Reform Association, (i) Imperial Fascist League, (i) In Dahomey, (i) India, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv) Indian National Congress, (i) Indians in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi), (xxii), (xxiii), (xxiv), (xxv), (xxvi), (xxvii), (xxviii), (xxix) All-India Muslim League, (i) Caribbean, (i) Goans, (i) Gujuratis, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) India House, (i) India League, (i) London Indian Society, (i) numbers, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) occupations, (i) businessmen, (i), (ii), (iii) factory workers, (i) homeworkers, (i) musicians, (i), (ii) princes, (i) restaurateurs, (i) sailors, (i), (ii) shopkeepers, (i), (ii), (iii) students, (i), (ii), (iii) teachers, (i) writers, (i) Patidars, (i) Punjabis, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) racism against, (i) religion, (i), (ii) Hinduism, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Swaminarayan Hindu Mission, (i) see also Bangladeshis in London; Pakistanis in London; Sikhs in London; South Asians in London inter-ethnic friendship, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) intermarriage, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) International Association, (i) International Finance Centre, (i) Ipswich, (i) Iranians in London, (i) Iraq, (i), (ii) Iraqi Kurds in London, (i) Ireland, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv) Famine, (i), (ii) Good Friday Agreement, (i) Sinn Fein, (i) Ireland in London, (i) Irish Folk Song Society of London, (i) Irish in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi), (xxii), (xxiii), (xxiv), (xxv), (xxvi), (xxvii), (xxviii), (xxix), (xxx), (xxxi), (xxxii), (xxxiii), (xxxiv), (xxxv), (xxxvi), (xxxvii), (xxxviii), (xxxix), (xl), (xli), (xlii), (xliii), (xliv), (xlv), (xlvi), (xlvii), (xlviii), (xlix), (l), (li), (lii), (liii), (liv), (lv), (lvi), (lvii), (lviii) distribution of, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) hostility towards, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) marriage, (i) numbers, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) occupations of, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) actors, (i) bankers, (i) beggars, (i) boxers, (i), (ii) builders, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) bus drivers, (i) businessmen, (i), (ii) chairmen, (i), (ii) clerical workers, (i) coal-heavers, (i) domestic servants, (i), (ii), (iii) dramatists, (i) factory workers, (i), (ii) footballers, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) hawkers, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) labourers, (i) lawyers, (i), (ii) merchants, (i) musicians, (i), (ii), (iii) nurses, (i), (ii) porters, (i) silk-weavers, (i) writers, (i) religion, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) see also Roman Catholicism Irish National League, (i) Irish Republican Army, (i), (ii), (iii) Irish Republican Brotherhood, (i) Iskra, (i) Islam, Haji Shirajul, (i) Islam in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Central Islamic Society, (i) Muslim League, (i) Pan-Islamic Society, (i) Ramadan, (i) see also Bangladeshis in London, Pakistanis in London; places of worship; religion Islamic schools, (i) Islamists in London, (i), (ii), (iii) Island Records, (i) Isle of Dogs, (i) Islington, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Israel, Menasseh ben, (i), (ii), (iii) Issacs, Godfrey, (i) Issacs, Sir Rufus, (i) Istanbul, (i) Italian Benevolent Society, (i) Italians in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi), (xxii), (xxiii), (xxiv), (xxv), (xxvi), (xxvii), (xxviii), (xxix), (xxx), (xxxi), (xxxii), (xxxiii), (xxxiv), (xxxv), (xxxvi), (xxxvii), (xxxviii), (xxxix), (xl), (xli), (xlii), (xliii), (xliv), (xlv), (xlvi), (xlvii), (xlviii), (xlix), (l), (li), (lii) churches, (i) distribution, (i), (ii) hostility towards, (i), (ii), (iii) Lombards, (i), (ii) numbers, (i), (ii) occupations, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) asphalt layers, (i) bankers, (i) cooks, (i), (ii), (iii) Italian Club of Culinary Art, (i) Italian Culinary Society, (i) craftsmen, (i), (ii) fish and chip shop owners, (i) food provisioners, (i), (ii), (iii) hawkers, (i), (ii) ice cream sellers, (i), (ii) industrialists, (i) miners, (i) musicians, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi) prostitutes, (i) scholars, (i) statue makers, (i) waiters, (i), (ii), (iii) religion, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Italian Opera, (i), (ii), (iii) Italy, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii) ITV, (i) The Big Match, (i) Love Thy Neighbour, (i), (ii) Ivory Coast, (i) Jacobs, Harry, (i) Jamaica, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Jamaicans in London, (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv) numbers, (i) see also Barbadians in London; black people in London; Trinidadians in London; West Indians in London James, C.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Current and former leaders from three in particular opened their doors to us in Israel and in Silicon Valley and provided lots of access: thank you to Google’s Eric Schmidt, David Krane, Yossi Mattias, Andrew McLaughlin, and Yoelle Maarek; Intel’s Shmuel Eden and David Perlmutter; and Cisco’s Michael Laor and Yoav Samet. Leon Wieseltier provided us with wise counsel on the relationship between Jewish history and the modern Israeli ethos. Stuart Anderson, a former colleague of Dan’s from the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration, has always been a source of rich analysis on immigration reform. He shared important research on the subject for this book. We are grateful to the president of Israel, Shimon Peres, who gave us half a day in his office. He not only gave us his unique perspective as a central player throughout the entire span of Israel’s history, but is still, at age eighty-five, in high office and busy working to launch whole new industries. We would also like to thank the prime minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, for spending a lot of time with us during a hectic period for him in 2008.


pages: 258 words: 83,303

Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller: Oil and the End of Globalization by Jeff Rubin

addicted to oil, air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, business cycle, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

p. 241: Figures for the percentage of GDP in the Philippines derived from overseas remittances comes from the Global Strategy Institute (forums.csis.org/gsionline/?p=565). p. 242: The organization calling itself America’s Leadership Team for Long Range Population-Immigration-Resource Planning is an umbrella group composed of the American Immigration Control Foundation, Californians for Population Stabilization, the Federation for American Immigration Reform and NumbersUSA. One of their advertisements makes the case that “America has problems—huge problems,” then goes on to say “all of these problems are caused by a large and fast-growing population.” p. 247: The figure of $50 per ton to reduce emissions comes from a report by McKinsey & Company called “Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much and at What Cost?” (www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/ greenhousegas.asp).


pages: 340 words: 81,110

How Democracies Die by Steven Levitsky, Daniel Ziblatt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Nate Silver, Norman Mailer, old-boy network, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, universal basic income

In October 2011, the president presented what would become his mantra for achieving policy goals: “We can’t wait for an increasingly dysfunctional Congress to do its job,” he told an audience in Nevada. “Whenever they won’t act, I will.” Obama began to use executive authority in a way he might not have expected to before coming into office. In 2010, in the face of Congress’s failure to pass a new energy bill, he issued an “executive memorandum” instructing government agencies to raise fuel efficiency standards for all cars. In 2012, in response to Congress’s inability to pass immigration reform, he announced an executive action to cease deportation of illegal immigrants who came to the United States before the age of sixteen and were either in school or were high school graduates or military veterans. In 2015, President Obama responded to Congress’s refusal to pass legislation to combat climate change by issuing an executive order to all federal agencies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use more renewable energy.


pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman

American ideology, banking crisis, British Empire, business cycle, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, low earth orbit, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

The United States will have to offer immigrants a range of competitive benefits, from highly streamlined green-card processes to specialized visas catering to the needs and wishes of the immigrant workforce and quite possibly to bonuses—paid directly through the government or through firms that are hiring them—along with guarantees of employment. And immigrants will certainly comparison shop. This process will result in a substantial increase in the power of the federal government. Since 1980 we have seen a steady erosion of government power. The immigration reform that will be needed around 2030 will require direct government management, however. If private businesses manage the process, the federal government at least will be enforcing guarantees to make certain immigrants are not defrauded and that the companies can deliver on their promises. Otherwise, unemployed immigrants will become a burden. Simply opening the borders will not be an option. The management of the new labor force—the counterpart to the management of capital and credit markets—will dramatically enhance federal power, reversing the pattern of the Reagan period.


pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

ImmigrationWorks (accepts donations) organizes, represents, and advocates on behalf of small-business owners who would benefit from being able to hire lower-skill migrant workers more easily, with the aim of “bringing America’s annual legal intake of foreign workers more realistically into line with the country’s labor needs.” The Center for Global Development (accepts donations) conducts policy-relevant research and policy analysis on topics relevant to improving the lives of the global poor, including on immigration reform, then makes recommendations to policy makers. Factory farming What’s the problem? Fifty billion animals are raised and slaughtered in factory farms every year. Relatively small changes to farming practices could substantially improve these animals’ welfare. Raising animals for consumption also produces substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Scale: Up to very large, depending on value judgments.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

He had arrived with a sizable entourage. When he was called to join the panel, one loyal aide blasted the fifteen-year-old hip-hop hit “Who Let the Dogs Out” from a smartphone speaker while the rest of Schulte’s pack whooped and cheered. A dutiful subordinate posted Schulte’s photo to Twitter. He later added the approving caption “Thought leaderin’.” “My job, and our job at Fwd.us, is to pass comprehensive immigration reform,” Schulte began. The sole panelist who carried his alcoholic drink onstage, he punctuated his points by tilting a beer bottle toward the audience. “We’re going to have a system where more high-skilled immigrants can come to this country,” he said. Tilt. “We are not going to deport eleven and a half million people,” he went on. “No credible person in Washington thinks this.” Tilt. Schulte was so, so smug and so, so wrong.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

D. (2006), Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong, New York: Harper Collins. Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E. and Sumberg, K. (2009), Bookend Generations: Leveraging Talent and Finding Common Ground, New York: Center for Work-Life Policy. Hinojosa-Ojeda, R. (2010), Raising the Floor for American Workers: The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform, Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, Immigration Policy Center. Hinsliff, G. (2009), ‘Home Office to Unveil Points System for Immigrants Seeking British Citizenship’, Observer, 2 August, p. 4. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959), Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Manchester: Manchester University Press. House, F. (2009), The Business of Migration: Migrant Worker Rights in a Time of Financial Crisis, London: Institute for Human Rights and Business.


pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

With a lifetime approval score of over 95 percent from the American Conservative Union, and with enormous clout for his district, Cantor appeared to have the safest seat in the House, in his conservative district.14 Yet despite a 26-to-1 advantage in campaign funds,15 Cantor lost in a primary to an unknown extreme-right candidate who attacked him for a couple of statements hinting at the possibility of modest immigration reform. This unseating never would have happened in the past. The complexity of today’s civil society places extremely high demands on citizens. If our democracy is to hold together with any hope or prospect for pragmatic alignment of interests and actions, we need a citizenry with a strong base of essential skills: critical analysis, communication, collaboration, and creative problem-solving. But, as we will see in the next two chapters, few of our graduates are receiving an education equipping them with the skills needed for effective citizenship.


pages: 423 words: 92,798

No Shortcuts: Organizing for Power in the New Gilded Age by Jane F. McAlevey

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, feminist movement, hiring and firing, immigration reform, informal economy, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, precariat, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, The Chicago School, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

The high participation that characterizes MRNY’s high-touch model separates it from more typical social-movement organizations, in which “membership” is nothing more than subscribership. MRNY’s ability to mobilize its members in civic actions is palpable at legislative hearings; on street corners and in marches; in its many press conferences; and in the forty-two buses they sent to Washington, D.C., to demand immigration reform. Underlying MRNY’s work is a commitment to its high-participation, high-touch organization-building model. Its wide array of weekly and biweekly meetings create meaningful points of entry and leadership development for its thousands of members. Committee meetings share commonalities: Members cook and serve dinner at the office near each meeting’s end while debriefing, discussing recent actions, and planning for upcoming ones.


America in the World by Robert B. Zoellick

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Corn Laws, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hypertext link, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty

In his second term, even with wartime preoccupations, Bush launched a Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America to connect local governments and business groups to national projects for transportation, financial services, the environment, and intelligence sharing. The president also assisted trade, development, and democracy in Central America, in part through cooperation with Mexico. Bush pressed Congress to pass immigration reform—to no avail and with disruptive long-term consequences.2 Barack Obama never recognized the strategic potential of North America, although he maintained neighborly ties. NAFTA had become politically unpopular in the president’s party, so the administration would not mention NAFTA and gave up making the public case; it is hard to win a debate in which only one side argues. Obama’s appointees scaled back Bush’s project to build trilateral institutional ties.

Roosevelt: A Political Life (New York: Viking, 2017), 289–91 for discussion of the Quarantine Speech. Afterword. From Traditions to Today 1. Brown, a keen student of economic history, recalled that the London Economic Conference of 1933, which Cordell Hull attended, had failed dismally, contributing to the breakdown of the international economy in the Great Depression. 2. In his memoir, President Bush notes that he should have made immigration reform the first major initiative of his second term, instead of Social Security. George W. Bush, Decision Points (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010), 306. 3. Bush, Decision Points, 306. 4. My challenge for China—and for U.S. diplomacy—was to move beyond questions of Chinese participation to encouraging Beijing’s behavior—attention to norms, not just forms. The United States, China, and many others have mutual interests in resisting protectionism, thwarting proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, and countering terrorism; they need to cooperate on energy security, climate change, diseases, exchange rate policies, economic growth, development, and regional security, including dangers in North Korea, Central Asia, and the Persian Gulf.


pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin

airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, drone strike, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

Lacking any hard leads, the Washington Regional Threat and Analysis Center, a place where the governments of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia shared and analyzed threat information, had issued a daily summary that warned against just about everything imaginable. The warnings included a log of completely legal demonstrations; authorities believed such activities could provide cover for terrorist or other criminal action. Events to keep an eye on, the center noted, were a protest against Israeli settlements in Gaza, a demonstration in support of immigration reform, another sponsored by Veterans for Peace, an antiwar “Shoe Throwing at the White House,” and an anti-abortion March for Life rally. No one was particularly concerned that these were lawful—keeping track of such groups had become a habit of law enforcement agencies across the country. Several other reports of out-of-town crimes were also in circulation, including a machine gun heist in rural Pennsylvania and the discovery in Maine of radioactive materials and components for a radiological dispersal device in the house of a suspected member of a white supremacist group.


pages: 436 words: 98,538

The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Vivek Wadhwa, Richard Freeman, and Ben Rissing, “Education and Tech Entrepreneurship,” Ewing Marion Kaufmann Foundation (2008), http://www.kauffman.org/what-we-do/research/2009/04/education-and-tech-entrepreneurship. 54. Charles I. Jones, “Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in a World of Ideas,” American Economic Review 92, no. 1 (2002), http://web.stanford.edu/~chadj/SourcesAER2002.pdf. 55. Giovanni Peri, “The Economic Windfall of Immigration Reform,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 2013, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324196204578297850464590498. 56. Scott Anderson, “Immigrants and Billion Dollar Startups,” National Foundation for American Policy, March 2016, http://nfap.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Immigrants-and-Billion-Dollar-Startups.NFAP-Policy-Brief.March-2016.pdf. 57. “Digest of Education Statistics: 2012, Table 316,” National Center for Education Statistics, U.S.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

As discussed, a program along the proposed lines would generate large net benefits relative to the redistribution it might cause, given the height of border barriers at present.27 The foreign workers also would be employed at home, under the same labor standards and regulations that protect domestic workers. This invalidates any claim of unfair competition on the basis of a non-level playing field. If either of these assertions turns out to be invalid, opponents would then have a stronger case. Whether a sufficiently broad domestic political consensus on temporary work visas can be reached in the advanced nations remains to be seen. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 contained provisions that would have expanded a guest worker scheme in the United States, but the bill died an early death in Congress. An enlarged foreign worker presence clearly garners little enthusiasm in the United States or in Europe. In light of this, it would be easy to write such programs off as politically unrealistic. That would be a mistake. Trade liberalization has never had a huge amount of domestic political support either.


pages: 463 words: 105,197

Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar

While thinking about how landowners might vote on whether to accept a developer’s offer without disadvantaging the few owners who really want to stay in their homes, he stumbled on a solution in 2009 that allows the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves idea to apply to practical voting.34 To see how it works, let us return to the example with which we began this chapter. Suppose that Japan holds periodic referenda on important issues, like gun control or immigration reform. Every citizen is given a budget of “voice credits” every year, which he may spend on referenda that year or save for the future, as Kentaro did. To convert voice credits to votes, a voter can dip into his budget and spend as much of the balance as he wants to buy votes—but the cost of a number of votes is its square in voice credits. Thus, we call this system Quadratic Voting (QV). One vote costs one voice credit, which from now on we’ll denote as 1. 4 buys you 2 votes (the square root of four), 9 buys you 3, and so on.


pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, American ideology, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog

The Times subheaded its report on the SDS protest “Holiday from Exams.” According to one poll, more Americans thought such protesters were “tools of the Communists” than disagreed with Johnson on Vietnam. Johnson kept on rolling out his Great Society: preschool for poor children, college prep for poor teenagers, legal services for indigent defendants, economic redevelopment funds for lagging regions, landmark immigration reform, a Department of Housing and Urban Development, national endowments for the humanities and arts—even a whole new category for the liberal agenda, environmentalism: a Highway Beautification Act, a Water Quality Act, a Clean Air Act, bulldozed through as if the opposition from the Big Three automakers, the advertising industry, and the chemical industry weren’t even there. The Republican National Committee could hardly raise the $200,000 each month necessary to keep its office open.

“Glad to see you,” he cried from his loudspeaker before jumping out impromptu style, just as he used to do on the campaign trail, in 1964, to shake hands with the commuters whose right-of-way his motorcade blocked. He was entering one of his manic phases. Before thirty thousand screaming fans in Newark, he opened with a favorite ritual: calling the roll of the people’s champions on the dais beside him: “The leader and the dean of your delegation, a fighter for immigration reform—a leader in the field of human rights! My supporter—Pete Rodino! “The sponsor of the Arts and Humanities Act…that greaaaaat progressive—Frank Thompson! “The energetic congressman who gave us the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, and my supporter—Dominick Daniels!” Johnson launched into the topic of his address: the opposing party. “A great man once said, ‘In the Democratic Party, even the old seem young.’”

He started talking, strangely, about himself: “Throughout my entire public career, I have followed the personal philosophy that I am a free man, an American, a public servant, and a member of my party, in that order, always and only.” He paraphrased Lincoln: “It is true that a house divided against itself, by the spirit of faction, of party, of region, of religion and race cannot stand.” Then: “Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president.” That was the bombshell. One thousand days ago he was changing the world: passing federal aid to education, immigration reform, voting rights, Medicare. Now, he was announcing his retirement. Wisconsin tramped to the polls. Reagan won 11 percent in write-ins. Then Nixon did what he always did in 1968 after a few weeks of intense campaigning: he rested, flying off to quiet, undeveloped Key Biscayne, Florida, where his friend Bebe Rebozo owned land. “That’s how I keep up the tan,” he explained to Jules Witcover. The tan he had never rested enough to achieve running against John F.


pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

He reassured the public that “The Viking days are gone. This is one of the most open countries in Europe in terms of immigration.” If “even” Sweden can be accused of racism, that left Switzerland as one of a few European countries that enjoyed a relatively wholesome image as a society devoid of racism. Its record has been impressive: over the past fifty years, the Swiss refused to pass thirteen proposed immigration reforms, including the 18 percent initiative in 2000 which would have limited the foreign-born resident population to this figure. But the image of an idyllic Swiss multicultural home came to grief in 2007 when an anti-immigrant nationalist party—the Swiss People’s Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP)—repeated its 2003 breakthrough and won the most number of seats to parliament (62 of 200), subsequently forming a coalition government.


pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

But there is little doubt that a fragmented media market is a significant contributing factor. By itself, partyism is not the most serious threat to democratic self-government. But if it decreases government’s ability to solve serious problems, then it has concrete and potentially catastrophic consequences for people’s lives. I have offered the examples of gun control and climate change; consider also immigration reform and even infrastructure—issues on which the United States has been unable to make progress in recent years, in part because of the role of echo chambers. To be sure, the system of checks and balances is designed to promote deliberation and circumspection in government, and prevent insufficiently considered movement. But paralysis was hardly the point—and a fragmented communications system helps to produce paralysis.


pages: 1,066 words: 273,703

Crashed: How a Decade of Financial Crises Changed the World by Adam Tooze

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, break the buck, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open economy, paradox of thrift, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, éminence grise

Editorialist Liu Chang wrote: “As US politicians of both political parties are still shuffling back and forth between the White House and the Capitol Hill without striking a viable deal to bring normality to the body politic they brag about, it is perhaps a good time for the befuddled world to start considering building a de-Americanized world.”61 On a lighter note, a Canadian comic living in China commented: “Chinese must be wondering: When will America embrace real reform? How long can this system survive? Where is America’s Gorbachev?”62 Nor was it only foreigners who were worried. If the Tea Party would turn the Republican Party into a vehicle for an attack on the creditworthiness of US government, what was safe? So far the Tea Party had made Obamacare its main target. What would be next? By 2014 the Republican Right would block immigration reform and refuse to fund the Export-Import Bank, both priorities of American business. At the G20 the Americans were embarrassed to report that funding for the IMF was being held hostage by Republican opponents of abortion who wanted contraception excluded from Obamacare.63 What if the Republican zealots targeted Fed independence or trade policy next? Of course, there were business interests aligned with the Tea Party on tax and welfare issues.

Since the 1980s the party leadership had nailed itself to the mast of globalization. The idea of NAFTA was launched by the Reagan administration. It had been crafted by Bush senior only to be carried across the line in 1993 by Clinton. In the 1990s “globalization” was a bipartisan project of the Republicans and the Rubinite wing of the Democratic Party. Their push extended not only to goods and capital. It extended to labor too. The business lobby favored immigration reform, which would give residence rights to the large and cheap workforce of undocumented migrants. Opposition to regulation of all kinds, “freedom” for labor, goods and capital were the ideological bracket that joined American business interests in a single block, from small contractors to the Davos set. There were sectors, perhaps most notably in coal mining, where this alignment did not hold.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

In most cases, governments come to realize that millions of potential taxpayers are living below the radar, earning incomes but not paying taxes, and creating gray-market families and awkward legal paradoxes as their deracinated children come of age; the result is usually a mass amnesty. The United States has granted post-facto citizenship to millions of illegal immigrants in recent decades (most recently in the early 1990s); similar amnesties, involving hundreds of thousands of undocumented migrants, have been granted in Spain, Italy, France, Britain, and Germany. More such amnesties are almost certain in the future. A typical example is the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border. And yet, by the time it was passed, pressure from the Chamber of Commerce and agriculture lobbies had transformed it into a mass amnesty that provided legal citizenship to almost three million “illegals,” combined with a new program allowing low-skill migrants to enter under a guest-worker program demanded by agricultural industries in the western states.


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Interview with Homi Kharas, Washington, DC, February 2012. 7. The results of this OECD survey and other relevant reports can be found at www.globalworksfoundation.org/Documents/fact465.science_000.pdf. 8. Brzezinski, Strategic Vision: America and the Crisis of Global Power. 9. Jason DeParle, “Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move,” New York Times, June 26, 2010. 10. Jorge G. Castañeda and Douglas S. Massey, “Do-it-Yourself Immigration Reform,” New York Times, June 1, 2012. 11. The figures on remittances are quoted from the World Bank Development Indicators Database (2011 edition). 12. Dean Yang, “Migrant Remittances,” in Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, no. 3 (Summer 2011), pp. 129–152 at p. 130. 13. Richard Dobbs, “Megacities,” Foreign Policy, September–October 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/08/16/prime_numbers_megacities. 14.


pages: 434 words: 117,327

Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America by Cass R. Sunstein

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, anti-globalists, availability heuristic, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Nate Silver, Network effects, New Journalism, night-watchman state, obamacare, Potemkin village, random walk, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

In the modern era, for example, invocations of common sense are widespread and bipartisan. Ronald Reagan claimed that “preservation of our environment is not a liberal or conservative challenge, it’s common sense.” Both Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama have argued for “commonsense gun control” efforts such as legislation that would require universal background checks. Paul Ryan has called for “commonsense conservatism,” including immigration reform and rolling back of FDA regulations. And Ted Cruz has referred to reductions in top marginal tax rates as commonsense tax reform. In all these cases, the speaker is appealing to what Rosenfeld (2011, p. 145) calls “the instinctive perceptions, unschooled logic, and simple style of . . . ‘plain sensible men,’ ” often in contrast with so-called elites.1 The irony, of course, is that those invoking common sense are almost always members of the political elite whose agendas may well be at odds with the interests of “plain sensible men.”


pages: 359 words: 113,847

Siege: Trump Under Fire by Michael Wolff

Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, forensic accounting, gig economy, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, impulse control, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, Saturday Night Live, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

In the days before the address, Jared and Ivanka’s allies began to leak reports that Trump would deliver a “unity” speech. This was part of the continuing Kushner plan to cultivate a new atmosphere and a new “cordiality,” he told confidants, with Democrats. Kushner was even suggesting that Trump might pivot from the Republicans and make several key deals with Democrats—on infrastructure, on drug pricing, and on Kushner’s fond notion of a far-reaching immigration reform bill. Just as he had been from the beginning of his presidency, a fundamentally self-obsessed and otherwise uninterested Trump was willing to accede to his daughter and son-in-law’s desire for establishment status. At the same time, he was—and he usually, if not always, understood this—utterly dependent on his hard-core supporters’ belief that he stood for what they stood for. He would reliably tilt back and forth between these divergent poles, but by what degree depended on the hour of the day.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Dustmann, Christian and Tommaso Frattini (2014). “The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK.” The Economic Journal 124(580): 593–643. 60. Goldin, Ian (2012). Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid. 63. Kosloski, Rey (2014, June 11). The American Way of Border Control and Immigration Reform Politics. Oxford: Oxford Martin School. 64. Miles, Tom (2015, September 25). “UN Sees Refugee Flow to Europe Growing, Plans for Big Iraq Displacement.” Reuters. Retrieved from www.reuters.com. 65. Spate, O. H. K. (1979). The Spanish Lake: The Pacific Since Magellan. Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp. 15–22. 66. Ibid. 67. Thrower, Norman J.W. (2008).


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

That figure is global, for the entire planet of 195 countries and 7.6 billion people. There’s an unholy trinity of forces that have an interest in hyping the crisis. The first are companies that don’t like the high salaries that cybersecurity professionals demand. Attracting more people to the field, creating a slack in demand, and driving down costs would be of interest. Every time the issue of immigration reform comes up in Congress, the tech companies, in the hopes of expanding the H-1B visa program for technical workers, cite the cybersecurity workforce crisis as one of the main drivers. The second player in this trinity is the cybersecurity industry itself, which does not necessarily want more workers in the field. They want their customers to buy more products and services from them, including managed security services that will outsource the work, automation of workflow, and AI that will replace the workers.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

, he has said it again, and turned up the volume. At the death of John McCain, whose long imprisonment in North Vietnam had turned him into a hero for most Americans, the president made no effort to go back on his criticisms of a man who had offended him grievously – most probably, by being a Republican who tried to work across the aisle in the Senate (notably with Ted Kennedy) in an effort to find a consensus on immigration reform. McCain wanted to devise a ‘pathway to citizenship’ for the millions of undocumented migrants living in the United States, many of them settled for a generation and more, with working children and grandchildren educated in the US who probably spent less time wondering about how to pare down their tax bills from the Internal Revenue Service than Trump himself, or his lawyers. And, with an intimate knowledge of the Mexican border from his own state of Arizona, McCain didn’t think that the wall was a solution to anything.


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

It was as if Americans had lost the ability to speak a common civic tongue. Polsby wrote, "In important respects the U.S. population resembles the population that attempted to build the Tower of Babel."33 By 2006, even the slow-moving wheels of government had seized up. In June, Charles Babington wrote in the Washington Post, "Congress seems to be struggling lately to carry out its most basic mission: passing legislation."34 Whatever the issue—the minimum wage, immigration reform, bankrupt pensions, global warming, energy policy, stem cell research, inquiries into domestic surveillance, resolutions on the war in Iraq—it slipped under the surface of Congress's deepening pool of discord. In early July, former House Republican leader Dick Armey said bluntly, "I'm not sure what this Congress has accomplished."35 So Congress quit pretending and just stopped meeting. In 2006, the House met nine fewer days than it had in 1948, the year President Harry Truman dubbed the legislature the "do-nothing Congress."


pages: 387 words: 119,409

Work Rules!: Insights From Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead by Laszlo Bock

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, citizen journalism, clean water, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, helicopter parent, immigration reform, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, nudge unit, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, random walk, Richard Thaler, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tony Hsieh, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Earlier, he had worked at another consulting firm, a start-up, as an actor, and cofounded a nonprofit organization working with at-risk youth. He is a member of the board of trustees of Pomona College and has served as an advisor or board member of several venture capital-funded companies. He earned a bachelor’s degree in international relations from Pomona College and an MBA from the Yale School of Management. Laszlo has testified before Congress on immigration reform and labor issues. He has been featured in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, the Washington Post, and on PBS NewsHour and the Today show. In 2010 he was named “Human Resources Executive of the Year” by Human Resource Executive magazine. In 2014 they named him one of the “ten most influential people impacting HR” for the decade, the only HR executive to be named to the list. He (briefly) co-held the world record for Greek Syrtaki dance along with 1,671 other Googlers.


pages: 402 words: 126,835

The Job: The Future of Work in the Modern Era by Ellen Ruppel Shell

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, big-box store, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban renewal, white picket fence, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game

Sporck, Spinoff: A Personal History of the Industry That Changed the World (Saranac, MI: Saranac Lake, 2001), 271: “It would have been impossible to move ahead with the rapidly developing technology of semiconductors in an organization hampered by union formalities….No semiconductor facility in Silicon Valley was ever unionized.” “there may have been a time and a place for unions” Kevin Rose, “Silicon Valley’s Anti-Unionism, Now with a Side of Class Warfare,” New York Magazine, July 2013. Still, it’s worth pointing out that not a few of these new economy employers recognize the value of collective action in pursuit of their own goals. Consider, for example, the sudden involvement of industrial leadership in immigration reform. In April 2013, Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg collaborated on the launch of Fwd.us, a proimmigration collective whose members included Bill Gates, Google’s Eric Schmidt, Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer, and Silicon Valley venture capitalist and billionaire John Doerr. narrows the gap between the highest and lowest earners Derek C. Jones, “The Ombudsman: Employee Ownership as a Mechanism to Enhance Corporate Governance and Moderate Executive Pay Levels,” Interfaces 43, no. 6 (December 1, 2013): 599–601, https://doi.org/​10.1287/​inte.2013.0709.


World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

Given the city’s large (37%) foreign‐born New York 117 population, New York’s political system is fairly united in support of immigration and distances itself from the federal immigration machinery that seeks to deport large numbers of new arrivals. The City is supported by New York State, which has actively invited immigrants through the federal system and established an Office for New Americans to assist with integration and entrepreneurship (Aon and the Partnership for New York City, 2013; Semple, 2013). New York political leaders are leading proponents of fairer and more effective immigration reform. Former Mayor Michael Bloomberg continues to co‐chair the Partnership for a New American Economy, which leads an effort to reform national immigration policy. In the years ahead, New York’s profile as a city that is open to talent and newcomers will likely depend on the federal government debate becoming less antagonistic and more flexible to the human capital needs of its large cities (Jorgensen, 2014).


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

The bill would have made it a felony to be in this country illegally, or to give assistance—like food or medical care—to anyone who was. Deeply wounded, American’s illegal immigrants took to the streets. In broad daylight. In matching white T-shirts, in 140 cities, and in at least thirty-nine states. From Phoenix to Philadelphia, from Boise to Birmingham, hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants marched in organized parades, in front of TV cameras, to protest the House-passed bill and to call instead for liberalized immigration reform that would not narrow but widen the path to citizenship. In Atlanta, the birthplace of America’s civil rights movement, the marchers held placards reading, “We Have a Dream, Too.” In Mississippi, they sang “We Shall Overcome” in Spanish. In Los Angeles, the rally in March 2006 was said to be the largest in the history of the city, and perhaps in all of the Western United States. (Referring to the border-long security fence that many lawmakers supported constructing, comedian Carlos Mencia asked, “If you deport us, who will build the wall?”)


pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

addicted to oil, Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, WikiLeaks, working poor

As Naomi Klein has warned, Obama’s first term must be a lesson to all activists that the appearance of a progressive leader should not lull us into a false sense of accomplishment; there is simply no room for a honeymoon or hero worship, as though we only need to elect the right leader. Only grit and hard work will do. There have been some great cultural shifts and organizing successes in the US in recent years, like the marriage equality and immigration reform movements. But breaking the power of oil companies may be even harder, because the sums of the money on the other side are so fantastic—there are trillions of dollars’ worth of oil in Canada’s tar sands alone, and the people who own these resources will spend what they need to assure their victories. In March 2013, Rex Tillerson, Exxon’s $100,000-a-day CEO, said that environmentalists were “obtuse” for opposing new pipelines, while announcing that the company planned to more than double the acreage on which it was exploring for new hydrocarbons—and projecting that renewables would account for just 1 per cent of the total US energy supply in 2040.


pages: 504 words: 129,087

The Ones We've Been Waiting For: How a New Generation of Leaders Will Transform America by Charlotte Alter

"side hustle", 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Hangouts, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job-hopping, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, passive income, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, white picket fence, working poor, Works Progress Administration

* * * Carlos Curbelo was in a tough spot: he was a moderate anti-Trump Republican representing a Democratic-leaning district that included the Miami suburbs and the Florida Keys. His 70 percent Latino district was full of recent immigrants, and his constituents regularly felt the brunt of persistent flooding as hurricanes got stronger with every year of warming. That was part of the reason he had tried to steer his party toward immigration reform and climate change solutions, joining the small but growing cohort of Republicans who hoped to move the ball toward issues that millennials were concerned about. But in the party of Trump, he was drowning: even though he’d been reelected in 2016, his voters had chosen Clinton over Trump by the second highest margin of any Republican-held district in the nation. While Amash was the first to call for impeachment, Carlos had challenged Trump’s immigration and climate policies more loudly than any other Republican.


The Transformation Of Ireland 1900-2000 by Diarmaid Ferriter

anti-communist, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, edge city, falling living standards, financial independence, ghettoisation, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, immigration reform, income per capita, land reform, manufacturing employment, moral panic, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, sensible shoes, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, women in the workforce

But I miss the warmth of Ireland.’153 America, too, provided a new outlet for the wandering Irish, where earlier in the century they had established themselves at the centre of the labour movement, the politics of the cities, the Church and even literature. Their legal status was one of the foremost concerns in the 1980s. Although 9,900 emigrated legally in 1989, many more went illegally to cities like New York, Boston and Chicago, and became active in the Irish Immigration Reform Movement. A notable success of their campaign was the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Of the 40,000 green cards available under this scheme, 16,329 went to Irish applicants, a measure of the social and political influence they could generate in America, though many Irish women ended up once again in private homes looking after children and the elderly.154 As with Britain, it was the fact that the emigrants were better educated which facilitated their more innovative pursuits, with many finding their way into journalism, publishing and television, making an impact beyond their numbers.


pages: 511 words: 148,310

Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business cycle, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, long peace, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, selection bias, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

Between the “work for justice” peace activists, the antinuclear movement, and the inner spiritual peace approach, what is largely missing is a peace movement speaking up for the UN, for peacekeeping, for the multidimensional efforts of international, national, and private organizations to stop wars and keep the peace. So the peace movement all across America, organized and motivated for peace, puts its efforts into helping the homeless, pressing for immigration reform, supporting health care reform—and none of these efforts are ending the world’s wars. And then out there in the eastern Congo is a soldier from Bangladesh with a blue UN helmet, trying to stop the violence of a society torn apart by decades of war after decades of colonialism. And this soldier does not have enough comrades, enough equipment, enough political support, to do half of what he or she could do with adequate resources.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Gauthier-Loiselle, "How much does immigration boost innovation?", American Economic Journal, 2010 624 Based on information available at http://www.nobelprize.org/. 625 Carsten Fink, Ernest Miguelez, Julio Raffo, "The global race for inventors", Vox.eu, 17 July 2013 http://www.voxeu.org/article/global-race-inventors 626 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/nobel-winner-slates-britains-stupid-immigration-reforms-8433324.html 627 Francesc Ortega and Giovanni Peri, “The effects of Brain Gain on Growth, Investment, and Employment: Evidence from the OECD countries, 1980–2005”, in Boeri T., Brucker H, Docquier F., Rapoport H. (eds) Brain Drain and Brain Gain, Oxford: 2012 628 Alberto Alesina, A Devleeschauwer, S Kurlat and R Wacziarg, "Fractionalization", Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2): 155-194, 2003 629 I pointed this out in Immigrants in my rebuttal of David Goodhart’s anti-diversity arguments. 630Alberto Alesina, J Harnoss and H Rapoport, “Birthplace diversity and economic prosperity”, NBER Working Paper #18699, January 2013 631 Alessandra Venturini, F.


pages: 470 words: 148,730

Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

Muslims are simultaneously falling behind the Hindu population in economic terms and are the target of rising levels of violence from the majority Hindu population. 24 Jane Coaston, “How White Supremacist Candidates Fared in 2018,” Vox, November 7, 2018, accessed April 22, 2019, https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/11/7/18064670/white-supremacist-candidates-2018-midterm-elections. 25 Robert P. Jones, Daniel Cox, Betsy Cooper, and Rachel Lienesch, “How Americans View Immigrants and What They Want from Immigration Reform: Findings from the 2015 American Values Atlas,” Public Religion Research Institute, March 29, 2016. 26 Leonardo Bursztyn, Georgy Egorov, and Stefano Fiorin, “From Extreme to Mainstream: How Social Norms Unravel,” NBER Working Paper 23415, 2017. 27 Cited in Chris Haynes, Jennifer L. Merolla, and S. Karthik Ramakrishnan, Framing Immigrants: News Coverage, Public Opinion, and Policy (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2016). 28 Ibid. 29 Anirban Mitra and Debraj Ray, “Implications of an Economic Theory of Conflict: Hindu-Muslim Violence in India,” Journal of Political Economy 122, no. 4 (2014): 719–65. 30 Daniel L.


pages: 579 words: 164,339

Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? by Alan Weisman

air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, David Attenborough, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, El Camino Real, epigenetics, Filipino sailors, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, housing crisis, ice-free Arctic, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, liberation theology, load shedding, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Population Action International, Guttmacher Institute, October 4, 2011. http://populationaction.org/articles. Martin, Glen. “Taking the Heat: Bay Area Ecosystems in the Age of Climate Change.” January 1, 2008. http://baynature.org/articles/taking-the-heat. Martin, Jack, and Stanley Fogel. “Projecting the U.S. Population to 2050: Four Immigration Scenarios.” A report by the Federation of American Immigration Reform, March 2006. http://www.fairus.org/site/DocServer/pop_projections.pdf. “Melinda Gates’ New Crusade: Investing Billions in Women’s Health.” Daily Beast, May 7, 2012. Melnick, Meredith. “Is the Catholic Church’s Argument Against IVF a Bit Holey?” Heathland.Times.com, October 8, 2010. Moore, Malcolm, and Peter Foster. “China to Create Largest Mega City in the World with 42 Million People.”


pages: 589 words: 167,680

The Red and the Blue: The 1990s and the Birth of Political Tribalism by Steve Kornacki

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, computer age, David Brooks, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, mass immigration, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Again, he was standing virtually alone among major conservative voices. Buchanan, wrote George Will, “evidently does not understand what distinguishes American nationality—and should rescue our nationalism from nativism.” The Republican Party’s most recent national platform included a commitment to “welcome those from other lands who bring to America their ideals and industry” along with a cursory nod to border security. This posture stemmed from the immigration reform signed by Reagan in 1986. It aimed to accommodate those who had come to the country illegally but lived otherwise lawful lives with a promise to curtail future illegal crossings. Nearly three million people, many of them from Mexico, had since qualified for green cards under the law, but the flow of illegal entries hadn’t stopped. To Buchanan, a populist fire was waiting to be lit. “Take a look at what’s happened to the people of California,” he said.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

And for decades the party itself was a pluralistic amalgam of northern liberal Republicans and southern and western conservatives. But in recent years the Tea Party and other hyperconservative forces, also funded in large part by fossil fuel companies and oil billionaires, have tried to wipe out the Republican Party’s once rich polyculture and turn it into a monoculture that’s enormously susceptible to diseased ideas: climate change is a hoax; evolution never happened; we don’t need immigration reform. All of this weakened the G.O.P.’s foundation and opened the way for an invasive species such as Donald Trump to make deep inroads into its garden. A 2012 study by the Kauffman Foundation revealed that immigrants founded one-quarter of U.S. technology start-up companies. The study, entitled “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Then and Now,” shows that “24.3 percent of engineering and technology start-up companies have at least one immigrant founder serving in a key role,” Reuters reported on October 2, 2012.


How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

The combination was potent: a legal environment where foreign workers could toil for paltry wages with little oversight to stitch garments labeled MADE IN THE USA. Saipan functioned as a sort of standing loophole. Starting in 1995, as stories of its exploited workers made their way to the mainland, members of Congress sought to close it. Over the next decade or so, they would submit at least twenty-nine bills to change some part of the relevant law. Twice the Senate voted unanimously for wage and immigration reforms, only to have the bills die in the House Committee on Resources. A 1999 House bill had 243 cosponsors, a substantial majority. But it, too, died. The Northern Marianas government and the garment manufacturers, it turned out, had hired a lobbyist to defend their lucrative arrangement. A really, really good lobbyist. He offered junkets to every Congress member and congressional aide who wanted to visit Saipan—more than 150 went.


Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism by Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Cass Sunstein, centre right, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, declining real wages, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, open borders, open economy, post-industrial society, post-materialism, precariat, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, statistical model, stem cell, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

‘Xenophobia and in-­group solidarity in Iraq: A natural experiment on the impact of insecurity.’ Perspectives on Politics 4 (3): 495–505. 45. John Sides and Jack Citrin. 2007. ‘European opinion about immigration: The role of identities, interests and information.’ British Journal of Political Science 37 (3): 477–504. 46. Jack Citrin, Donald P. Green, C. Muste, and C. Wong. 1997. ‘Public opinion towards immigration reform: The role of economic motivations.’ Journal of Politics 59: 858–881; V.M. Esses, L.M. Jackson, and T.L. Armstrong. 1998. ‘Intergroup competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: An instrumental model of group conflict.’ Journal of Social Issues 54: 699–724; G. Lahav. 2004. Immigration and Politics in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paul M. Sniderman, L.


pages: 935 words: 267,358

Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, twin studies, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, zero-sum game

Chapter 14 proposes a rethinking of the progressive income tax based on past experience and recent trends. Chapter 15 describes what a progressive tax on capital adapted to twenty-first century conditions might look like and compares this idealized tool to other types of regulation that might emerge from the political process, ranging from a wealth tax in Europe to capital controls in China, immigration reform in the United States, and revival of protectionism in many countries. Chapter 16 deals with the pressing question of public debt and the related issue of the optimal accumulation of public capital at a time when natural capital may be deteriorating. One final word. It would have been quite presumptuous in 1913 to publish a book called “Capital in the Twentieth Century.” I beg the reader’s indulgence for giving the title Capital in the Twenty-First Century to this book, which appeared in French in 2013 and in English in 2014.


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

When the French decided in 1791 to imitate the British law of patents they imitated also its high costs (this in contrast to American patents, authorized by the constitution of 1789)—for fifteen years of a state-protected monopoly the fee was fully 1,500 livres, many years wages for a workingman.24 Or compare now again the free-market complaints by American farmers against anti-Hispanic conservatives. The farmers complain because without immigrants, legal or illegal, they are unable to harvest their crops. Openness to immigration was, indeed, an important part of the liberal rope, as against the xenophobia we see from time to time even in a liberal Europe and United States. (The comedian Steven Colbert testified to a congressional hearing on immigration reform on September 24, 2010, that “My grandfather did not travel across four thousand miles of the Atlantic Ocean to see this country overrun by immigrants. He did it because he killed a man back in Ireland.”) The journalist Álvaro Vargas Llosa notes that because of Milton Friedman and others making the Smithian-liberal case in the twentieth century, “arguing for tariffs against competition for the sake of protecting an industry has lost its prestige and comes at a price for those who dare speak openly in such terms.”


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

The fiscal headwind is caused by an increase in the ratio of people in retirement who do not earn incomes or do not pay income taxes to working people who do earn incomes and do pay taxes. Policy solutions include immigration, to raise the number of tax-paying workers, together with tax reforms that would raise revenue and improve tax equity. A carbon tax, desirable on environmental grounds to reduce carbon emissions, has the side benefit of generating substantial revenue to help alleviate the fiscal headwind. Immigration Reform of immigration can be accomplished in a way that raises the average skill level of the working-age population and that thus contributes to the growth of labor productivity. One avenue for reform would be to end the practice of denying residency to foreign-born graduates of U.S. universities, a “self-imposed brain drain.” A promising tool to promote high-skilled immigration and raise the average quality of the U.S. labor force would be one such as the Canadian point-based immigration system, in which a point calculator is used to rate each immigrant applicant based on his or her level of education, language skills, and previous employment experience, among other criteria.18 The definition of skills could be broad and could include blue-collar skills, many of which are currently in short supply in the U.S.


Southwest USA Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Columbine, Donner party, El Camino Real, friendly fire, G4S, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), low earth orbit, off grid, place-making, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, walkable city, Works Progress Administration, X Prize

A fist-pumping ‘We Will Rock You,’ of course. Arizona, you see, is made for road trips. It has its gorgeous, iconic sites, but it’s the road that breathes life into a trip. Take Route 66 into Flagstaff for a dose of mom-and-pop friendliness. Channel the state’s mining past on a twisting drive through rugged Jerome. Reflect on Native American history as you drive below a mesa-top Hopi village. Political controversies – such as immigration reform and budget slashing – have grabbed headlines recently, but these hot-button issues need perspective. Politicians are temporary. But the sunset beauty of the Grand Canyon, the saguaro-dotted deserts of Tucson and the red rocks of Sedona... they’re here for the duration and hoping you’ll stop by, regardless of the politics. When to Go Jan–Mar Visit spas in southern Arizona. Cross-country ski in Kaibab National Forest.


Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The city’s Little Haiti adds 70,000 Haitians to the mix. The South, more than any other region, is a culture unto itself; over half of all black Americans live here. These examples are just a fraction of the complex whole. The East, like the rest of the country, can never quite decide if the continual influx of newcomers is its saving grace or what will eventually strain society to the breaking point. ‘Immigration reform’ has been a Washington buzzword for over a decade. Some people believe the nation’s current system deals with illegal immigrants (there are 11 million of them, compared to 470,000 legal immigrants) too leniently – that we should deport immigrants who are here unlawfully and fine employers who hire them. Other Americans think those rules are too harsh – that immigrants who have been here for years working, contributing to society and abiding by the law deserve amnesty.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

On one hand, diversity is celebrated (Cinco de Mayo, Martin Luther King Day and Chinese New Year all get their due), but on the other hand, many Americans are comfortable with the status quo. Immigration is at the crux of the matter. Immigrants currently make up about 12% of the population. About 470,000 newcomers enter the US legally each year, with the majority from Mexico, followed by Asia and Europe. Another 11 million or so are in the country illegally. This is the issue that makes Americans edgy, especially as it gets politicized. ‘Immigration reform’ has been a Washington buzzword for more than a decade. Some people believe the nation’s current system deals with illegal immigrants too leniently – that walls should be built on the border, immigrants who are here unlawfully should be deported and employers who hire them should be fined. Other Americans think those rules are too harsh – that immigrants who have been here for years working, contributing to society and abiding by the law deserve amnesty.