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Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley
affirmative action, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, lump of labour, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population
As we’ve seen in the preceding chapters, it’s not uncommon for logic and reason to be crowded out of our emotionally charged national conversation about immigrants. At such times, we count on our elected leaders to have the courage of their convictions, even when it’s unpopular. Especially when it’s unpopular. The driver’s license brouhaha revealed that when it comes to immigration reform, Senator Clinton and Governor Spitzer lack either courage or conviction. It also revealed that the GOP isn’t the only party struggling with the issue. A Democrat in the White House won’t automatically (or necessarily) fare any better on immigration reform than a Republican. My primary goal in writing this book was to offer a rebuttal to some of the more common anti-immigrant arguments that I’ve come across while covering the issue as a Wall Street Journal editorialist. The received wisdom, courtesy of ratings-driven populists on talk radio and cable news outlets primarily, holds that immigrants cause more trouble than they’re worth.
Tanton and his organizations were working in the shadows for years to foment the Sierra Club upheaval. (“The Sierra Club may not want to touch the immigration issue, but the immigration issue is going to touch the Sierra Club,” he once vowed.) And Tanton-linked groups and individuals have played major roles in drumming up faux grassroots anti-immigration sentiment nationwide. The head of one of Tanton’s major organs, the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), claims to have testified before Congress more than fifty times. Tanton’s extensive network shows how activists from across the political spectrum and with different agendas—population control, abortion rights, economic protectionism, racial purity— have coalesced around the issue of restricting immigration. The three Republican witnesses who appeared at the Hostettler hearing all had direct ties to Tanton.
A similar Colorado report overstated the health-care costs of illegal immigrants by including the health-care costs of many legal immigrants. The same Colorado study also inflated the costs of educating immigrants by assuming that all illegals between the ages of five and seventeen were in public schools, not accounting for the fact that some were enrolled in private schools and others did not attend school at all. Strayhorn references a report by the nativist Federation for American Immigration Reform that stacks the deck by including as an illegal alien “cost” the education of their American-born children, who are, in fact, U.S. citizens—until a constitutional amendment says otherwise. That’s significant because some two-thirds of the children of illegal immigrants, and 80 percent of the children of legal immigrants, are U.S. born. Such human capital expenditures, properly understood, are a net investment, and the children of immigrants—including Latinos—typically do better than their parents in terms of schooling and income.
3D printing, card file, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, immigration reform, labour mobility, open economy, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, Y2K
Bailing out big banks is far more important. Funding distant wars of dubious value to the tune of trillions of dollars is more important. Fundamental yet simple immigration changes that could create a better future for our children and our nation, however, aren’t really worth the trouble and the time, despite there being a strong consensus in Washington, DC, that immigration reform is vital to American competitiveness around the globe. In the political equation, immigration reform is a third-rail issue. A few legislators have introduced bills and pushed hard, but the paucity of results speaks far louder than the press releases or the good intentions of a vocal minority. The skilled immigrants, for their part, have no real voice or influence in the process that controls both them and the destiny of the US economy. Skilled immigrants do not spend millions of dollars on lobbyists.
The skilled immigrants, for their part, have no real voice or influence in the process that controls both them and the destiny of the US economy. Skilled immigrants do not spend millions of dollars on lobbyists. They cannot vote. The communities of their ethnic peers in America, likewise, do not wield significant political clout and do not represent a unified voting bloc. The only advocates for skilled immigrants of any real influence, the large US multinationals that hire H-1Bs and the US Chamber of Commerce, have not made immigration reform a defining issue or a top priority. The only people who care enough to shout from the rooftops are venture capitalists and those interested in maintaining the United States as the leading incubator for startups—people like venture capitalist Brad Feld, LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman, Netscape co-founder Marc Andreessen, and Google chairman Eric Schmidt. The loudest government voice has been New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, who has called US immigration policies “economic suicide.”
Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional
Sensing that the card-check provision was too controversial to win all sixty Democratic votes needed to overcome a filibuster, the sponsors drafted an alternative that jettisoned card check in favor of expedited NLRB elections and stiffer penalties for companies that break the rules during a union drive.2 But it turned out that EFCA wasn’t a major priority for the president, who used neither his bully pulpit nor his political muscle to build public support and alignment in the Senate.3 Meanwhile, big business pulled out all the stops in a blizzard of lobbying on the Hill and major advertising buys in Democratically vulnerable states. In an investigative report on the corporate-driven campaign to kill EFCA, Ken Silverstein of Harper’s Magazine shared a quote from Glenn Spencer of the Chamber of Commerce about Obama’s position on the issue: “The administration is working on a lot of serious issues, the kind of things that make a legacy—health care, the economy, immigration reform. This is just a distraction. It will split the Senate right down the middle, and you still may not win. [Obama’s] not going to ignore the unions. But will he sink a lot of political capital into a radioactive issue like this? I don’t think so. Congress has noted the lack of engagement. They know what his priorities are.”4 The new compromise version of EFCA, without card check, had a chance of passing the Senate.
As the working class faced dwindling jobs and shrinking pay, these “new class” Democrats were energized more by car safety and air pollution than by the falling minimum wage and inadequate labor laws. Violent attacks on antiwar activists by union-card-carrying hard hats—white men all—further eviscerated the prospects of solidarity within these diverging groups of Democratic voters. Adding to the out-of-touch positions of labor, the AFL-CIO maintained an intractable opposition to immigrants and immigration reform until 2000. This battle for the heart and soul of the Democratic Party occurred at precisely the same time that organized business was ascending in power, and unions were inexorably caught in a downward spiral. As America entered the 1980s, this was the context for the shifting allegiances of the working class and the political direction of the Democratic Party. We know how this battle turned out.
Today’s Latino population, both documented and undocumented, is the new scapegoat used to apportion blame for all manner of social and economic problems. “They” are stealing our jobs, pushing down our wages, straining our schools, and bringing crime to our neighborhoods. In 2015, Donald Trump became the Republican front-runner during the primary season by developing an incendiary anti-immigrant platform, with widespread deportation as his central plank. Even President Obama, who has been a vocal and ardent supporter of comprehensive immigration reform, has succumbed to the political pressure to increase deportations. In fact, more immigrants have been deported under his administration than during George W. Bush’s presidency. Beginning in the mid-1990s, migration of Mexican workers to the United States picked up dramatically. Between 1990 and 2000, the population of Mexican-born people living in the United States doubled, from 4.5 million to 9 million, then grew a bit slower in the new century, to 12.7 million in 2008.
The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K
video=3000154454 (accessed August 12, 2013). 26. John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, October 21, 2012, http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/keynes/john_maynard/k44g/. 27. Peter B. Dixon and Maureen T. Rimmer, “Restriction or Legalization? Measuring the Economic Benefits of Immigration Reform,” Cato Institute, August 13, 2009, http://www.cato.org/publications/trade-policy-analysis/restriction-or-legalization-measuring-economic-benefits-immigration-reform (accessed December 14, 2012); Robert Lynch and Patrick Oakford, “The Economic Effects of Granting Legal Status and Citizenship to Undocumented Immigrants,” Center for American Progress, March 20, 2013, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2013/03/20/57351/the-economic-effects-of-granting-legal-status-and-citizenship-to-undocumented-immigrants/ (accessed August 12, 2013). 28.
We’re making our argument for infrastructure investment because of these externalities, independent of any Keynesian stimulus it might provide, and we’re squarely in the economic mainstream when we do so. WELCOME THE WORLD’S TALENT Any policy shift advocated by both the libertarian Cato Institute and the progressive Center for American Progress can truly be said to have diverse support.27 Such is the case for immigration reform, a range of proposed changes with the broad goal of increasing the numbers of legal foreign-born workers and citizens in the United States. Generous immigration policies really are part of the Econ 101 playbook; there is wide agreement among economists that they benefit not only the immigrants themselves but also the economy of the country they move to. Some studies have found that certain workers in the host country, particularly less skilled ones, are made worse off by immigration because their wages fall but other research has reached different conclusions.
Foreign-born people make up less than 13 percent of the country’s population in recent years, but between 1995 and 2005 more than 25 percent of all new engineering and technology companies had at least one immigrant cofounder, according to research by Wadhwa, Saxenian, and their colleagues.32 These companies in total had more than $52 billion in 2005 sales, and employed almost 450,000 people. According to immigration reform advocacy group Partnership for a New American Economy, between 1990 and 2005, 25 percent of America’s highest-growth companies were founded by foreign-born entrepreneurs.33 As economist Michael Kremer demonstrated in a now classic paper, increasing the number of immigrant engineers actually leads to higher, not lower, wages for native-born engineers because immigrants help creative ecosystems flourish.34 It’s no wonder that wages are higher for good software designers in Silicon Valley, where they are surrounded by others with similar and generally complementary skills, rather than in more isolated parts of the world.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, young professional
A New York Times editorial from 1982, “Immigration and Purity,” articulated a realist view of the subject, saying: “Unlimited immigration was a need, and a glory, of the undeveloped American past. Yet no one believes America can still support it. We must choose how many people to admit, and which ones. That can be done only if we can control the borders.” By 2004, when a new push began for tough, enforcement-driven immigration reform, the Times had changed its perspective markedly. When the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 was introduced in Congress, the Times showed its bias by failing to report the bill’s various “hidden bombs,” as one critic called them. For example, it would have replaced the entire immigration bench with activists, since it required that lawyers proposed for immigration judgeships have at least five years practicing immigration law and that existing judges give up lifetime spots on the bench after seven years.
Carl Hulse’s front-page story on March 21, “Another Long March in the Name of Change,” likened the passing of the bill to “society-shifting” milestones in the civil rights movement. A report filed by Robert Pear and David Herszenhorn was headlined “Obama Hails Vote on Health Care as Answering ‘the Call of History.’” The editorial page was effusive too. “Barack Obama put his presidency on the line for an accomplishment of historic proportions,” read “Health Care Reform, at Last.” Obama’s initial steps toward immigration reform in June 2010 also stirred the Times, which opined that “President Obama’s first major speech on immigration had the eloquence and clarity we have come to expect when he engages a wrenching national debate.” In a dig at the majority of Americans who want border enforcement before any legalization of the undocumented, the editorial pronounced Obama correct in maintaining that “sealing off that vast space [the border] with troops and fences alone is a fantasy.”
The editorial rhetoric from the Times got increasingly nasty. Although the editorial page called for civil discourse, it hardly practiced what it preached, instead issuing juvenile insults far more frequently than dependable insights. Even as it denounced the “demagoguery” of the opposition, it practiced its own form. Conservatives who were concerned about enforcement first were said to hold a view of immigration reform that was equivalent to “pest control.” Editorialists illogically likened opposing amnesty to favoring segregation. Other editorials indulged in victimology that sounded like self-parody: Hispanics are the new gays; Hispanics are the new Willy Horton; sending them home is immoral and a human rights violation. One editorial, “Ain’t That America,” said:Think of America’s greatest historical shames.
Spoiled Brats: Short Stories by Simon Rich
Even though Claire is bad at cooking, and believes in false god, and dresses like prostitute, with both ankles exposed, she is not so stupid a person. I know this because she is always reading books. I have read books before—a red one and also two blue ones—so I know a little bit about it. But Claire’s books are much larger, with hard covers and pages filled with numbers. “She’s getting a PhD in sociology,” Simon explains when I ask him about it. “Over at Columbia.” “What does she read so much about?” “Something with immigration reform, I think? To be honest, I kind of tune out when she starts blabbing about it. It’s a pretty boring thing to study.” This comment is strange, I think, coming from man who studied English in college—a language he already spoke. But I say nothing. One afternoon, I am mending shirt in living room when Claire enters, wearing pack on back. “Mind if I study in here?” she asks. “Is fine,” I say.
We sit down at table in the back. It is next to the bathroom and covered with filth. I find the least disgusting chair and draw it out for Claire. “So,” I say, “tell me, how was the exam?” “It was really hard,” she says. “On the last essay, with five minutes left, I realized I’d forgotten to mention the Perkins Report.” “What is Perkins Report?” “It’s, like, the statistical backbone of immigration-reform theory. Somehow I’d forgotten to incorporate it.” “That’s awesome,” Simon says. We swivel toward him. He is facing the bar, his pupils darting back and forth in obvious search for celebrities. “That’s awesome,” he says again. “Hey—who wants a Manhattan?” “I’ll just have a beer, please,” Claire says. “Gotcha. What about you, Hersch?” “I do not drink alcohols,” I remind him. “Gotcha.”
“Last year at this time I was thinking about becoming a banker or working for some soulless ad firm. But interning for Herschel has shown me that you don’t have to sell out to succeed.” According to Claire Whitman, the company’s chief spokeswoman, pickles are only the beginning. Sarah’s Statue of Liberty Garlic Pickles with Salt Pickle Company intends to open a political action center in Williamsburg, with a focus on immigration reform. And an art zine is being planned in collaboration with the Vortex Factory, the profits of which will be donated to worthy causes. When I asked Herschel about these developments, he responded with the pithy poeticism that has made him such a cultural icon in Williamsburg. “Everyone must return jar. Or they will be severely violenced.” It’s hard to think of a better metaphor for our times.
The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter
Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional
But, as economists point out, the price of slaves should represent the stream of profits that farmers expected from their labor. Price stability thus suggests that this expected stream did not grow very much. Substitute illegal immigrants for slaves, and similar patterns emerge in the United States today. For decades American farmers have relied on cheap immigrant labor to tend their crops. In 1986, they pressed to pass the Immigration Reform and Control Act, which legalized nearly 3 million illegal immigrants. After that, their investments in laborsaving technology froze. By 1999, capital investments had fallen 46.7 percent from their peak in 1980. Indeed, the institution of immigrant work in the United States may provide an answer to the question about the seeming unpopularity of slavery: it is not as unpopular as it may seem; it has just taken on a different, subtle form.
,” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1994, pp. 367-377. 5-8 The Price of Crossing Borders: Comparative gender gaps are drawn from: Bijayalaxmi Nanda, “The Ladli Scheme in India: Leading to a Lehenga or a Law Degree?” Presentation, Department of Political Science, Miranda House, Delhi University (http://www.undp-povertycentre.org/pressroom/files/ipc126.pdf, accessed 08/13/2010). The analysis of illegal immigration into the United States draws from: Raúl Hinojosa-Ojeda, “Raising the Floor for American Workers: The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform,” Center for American Progress, January 2010 (http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/special-reports/raising-floor-american-workers. , accessed 08/01/2010); the Mexican Migration Project database (http://mmp.opr.princeton.edu/results/001costs-en.aspx, accessed on 06/30/2010); Maria Jimenez, “Humanitarian Crisis: Migrant Deaths at the U.S.-Mexico Border,” American Civil Liberties Union, Washington, 2009 (http://www.aclu.org/immigrants-rights/humanitarian-crisis-migrant-deaths-us-mexico-border, accessed 08/08/2010); Patricia Cortes, “The Effect of Low-Skilled Immigration on U.S.
electricity elephant-seal cows Elías, Julio Jorge e-mail, spam and Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act (1974) Empire State Stem Cell Board encyclopedias, free energy engagement rings engineers England environment see also climate change; pollution Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Epson ESP printers Essay on the Principle of Population, An (Malthus) Ethiopia Ethnographic Atlas (Murdock) eToys Eurobarometer surveys Europe Catholic Church in decline of polygamy in happiness in lack of sprawl in U.S. compared with work hours in see also Western Europe European Climate Exchange European Union evangelical Christianity executive pay ExxonMobil faith benefits of cheap cost of Fallaci, Oriana families changes to culture and income of of 9/11 victims size of Fanning, Shawn (the Napster) Federal Communications Commission Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Delaney Clause to (1958) Federal Reserve Federal Trade Commission (FTC) “Feeding the Illusion of Growth and Happiness” (Easterlin) Feinberg, Kenneth fertility decline in female file sharing film financial crises financial services fines fire departments fishing floors Florence foeticide food culture and faith and preparation of price increases for surpluses of Food and Agriculture Organization Food Quality Protection Act (1996) Ford Ford, Henry Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fourier, Charles France happiness in work hours in Frank, Robert Free (Anderson) Freedom Communications free lunch, use of term free rider problem free things broadcast TV and movies music and Napstering the world and profiting from ideas freeware Freud, Sigmund fuel see also gas Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints future ethics of mispricing nature and price of Gabaix, Xavier Gallup polls Gandhi garbage gas price of General Motors (GM) General Social Survey General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The (Keynes) genetics, genes Germany happiness in Germany, Nazi Gershom ben Judah Ghosts I-IV (album) gifts Glass-Steagall Act (1933) GlaxoSmithKline globalization global warming Goa God Goldin, Claudia goods Google Google News Gore, Al Gorton, Mark government hostility toward intervention of resource allocation of Great Britain bubbles in gas prices in happiness in politics in Great Depression Greece, ancient green revolution (1960s and 1970s) Greenspan, Alan gross national happiness (GNH) index Haiti Hammurabi Hanna, Mark happiness faith and genetics and life-cycle curve of loss aversion and money and problems with defining of right-left gap in U.S. trade-off and Hare Krishna Society Harvard University Haryana health health care health insurance Health Ministry, New Zealand Healthway Heinrich, Armin Hindus, Hinduism HIV homeland security, U.S. Homeland Security Department, U.S. Hoover, Herbert horse meat House of Representatives, U.S. housing, homes bubble price of HP human papillomavirus Hume, David Hungary hunting I Am Rich Iannaccone, Larry IBM Iceland ideas Illinois illustrators Illy iMacs immigrants illegal Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) improvement income family happiness and inequality of marriage and national redistribution of tax on technological progress and indentured servants India future of marriage in sex ratios in Indonesia indulgences industrialization inequality income Inevitable Rise and Liberation of Niggy Tardust!, The (album) infanticide information conflict between makers and consumers of driven off-line free online information technology Inhofe, James ink In Rainbows (album) insurance health social insurance companies Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Labour Organization Internet free downloads and internet service providers (ISPs) investment bubbles and in human capital investment banks iPhone Iran Ireland, Irish Isabella, Queen of Spain Israel Italy iTunes Jack Benny Show, The (TV show) Jackson, Michael janitors Japan, Japanese culture in health-related expenditures in Jehovah’s Witnesses Jews, Judaism Orthodox ultra-Orthodox Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan jobs Jobs, Steve John Paul II, Pope Johns, Adrian justice Justice Department, U.S.
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration
“At a time when many are wondering whether Democrats and Republicans can come together on anything, there is at least one area where we’re in strong agreement,” wrote Kerry and Lugar in an op-ed. “We believe that America is the best country in the world to do business. And now is the time to reach out to immigrant entrepreneurs—men and women who have come from overseas to study in our universities, and countless others coming up with great ideas abroad—to help drive innovation and job creation here at home.” The senators see the proposal as a jobs initiative, not an immigration reform initiative. As Kerry put it, “This bill is a small down payment on a cure to global competitiveness.”43 Clearly, when it comes to jobs, there is no lack of ideas. Just a lack of political will. Yes, many of these job-creating proposals are expensive, but, in the long run, not nearly as expensive as long-term unemployment and the disappearance of America’s middle class. PERVERTED PRIORITIES: THE REMIX Any time the idea of funding jobs programs or rebuilding America’s moldering infrastructure is raised, our leaders immediately look at the price tag and go into sticker shock: We can’t afford that!
Podesta and Karen Kornbluh, “The Green Bank: Financing the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy Requires Targeted Financing to Encourage Private-Sector Participation,” 21 May 2009, www.americanprogress.org. 35 Reed Hundt, the Federal Communications Commission chair: Reed Hundt, in conversation with the author, 20 Mar. 2010. 36 According to Hundt, a green bank would create: Reed Hundt, www.coalitionforgreencapital.com. 37 According to a May 2010 report by the Congressional Oversight Panel: Congressional Oversight Panel, “May Oversight Report: The Small Business Credit Crunch and the Impact of the TARP,” 13 May 2010, www.cop.senate.gov. 38 Even more important than helping small businesses: Barbara Kiviat, “The Workforce: Where Will the New Jobs Come From?” 19 Mar. 2010, www.time.com. 39 Right now, the United States has an immigration limit: Jonathan Ortmans, “In the National Interest: High-Skill Immigration Reform,” 31 Aug. 2009, www.entrepreneurship.org. 40 The people behind StartupVisa.com: Douglas MacMillan, “Visas for Foreign Entrepreneurs,” 11 Mar. 2010, www.businessweek.com. 41 Our current law allows foreign investors to get a visa: Brad Feld, “StartUp Visa Act Introduced by Senators Kerry and Lugar,” 24 Feb. 2010, www.businessinsider.com. 42 The proposal, the StartUp Visa Act of 2010: John Kerry and Dick Lugar, “Visa for Start-ups Will Keep Innovation and Jobs in the U.S,” 18 Mar. 2010, www.mercurynews.com. 43 As Kerry put it, “This bill is a small …”: Douglas MacMillan, “Visas for Foreign Entrepreneurs,” 11 Mar. 2010, www.businessweek.com. 44 But they never seem to have the same reaction: Office of Management and Budget, Updated Summary Tables, Budget of the U.S.
The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
Like it or not, the reality is that many millions of undocumented migrants consider America to be their home; that no deportation program could possibly deport so many people; and that unless their children are schooled and provided healthcare and other vital assistance, the effects will be felt throughout society over the decades to come. Any meaningful anti-poverty movement will, therefore, have to first convince a majority of Americans that the undocumented ought to be worthy of help; and, second, ensure that immigration reform—through moves such as the DREAM Act—is a core part of its strategy. For whatever one’s theoretical take on immigration—whether one favors a route to legalization, or an emphasis on border control and the deportation of the undocumented; whether one believes that the initial act of illegal entry into the United States renders all subsequent actions moot, or whether one judges the undocumented by how they act and live once in the country—in reality many millions of undocumented residents will likely continue to live in America for the foreseeable future.
But for the adults, there was no aid, no medical care, no relief except for the charity food that Maria picked up on Thursdays from a local church. As mentioned earlier in the book, the presence of millions of such workers in America has made discussions of anti-poverty programs more complicated than was the case during the 1960s, when far fewer undocumented immigrants beat the path to America. Absent a pathway to legality, absent a comprehensive immigration reform being implemented, these workers will continue to exist in the shadows. And, in those shadows, they will continue to be horrendously maltreated. Half a mile south of El Paso’s old, brick-and-stone downtown, Ninth Avenue runs along the railway tracks that abut the Rio Grande. South of the river is Juarez, Mexico. The two international bridges that daily disgorge thousands of visitors, migrant workers, and would-be immigrants, do so onto Ninth Avenue.
Any systemic push to first significantly reduce poverty, and then to prevent its rapid recurrence, will, of course, have to include many moving parts: local, state, and federal government involvement, including changes in how we raise taxes and how we spend revenues. Attention must be paid to the kinds of debt that we as a society encourage people to accrue, and the sorts of institutions we allow to issue that debt. Additionally, we must consider immigration reform, new energy policies, and changes in the way we use the criminal justice system. Overuse of incarceration is both expensive, and thus a huge drain on limited public resources, and also inimical to the public policy goal of eliminating entrenched poverty. We must look to public-private partnerships as well as nonprofit and philanthropic engagement in arenas such as education, services for the mentally ill, programs available to foster youth as they age out of the foster care system, and the building of affordable housing units.
Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy
4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator
Something about watching those clueless members of Congress debate the bill, watching them insist that they could regulate the Internet and a bunch of nerds couldn’t stop them—that really brought it home for people. This was happening. Congress was going to break the Internet and it just didn’t care. David Segal After the markup, but well before the blackout, we’d already heard from several offices that the volume of constituent contacts that they were receiving had been surpassed only by the immigration reform debate, Obama’s health care reform push, or for many offices, never at all. Even more spectacularly: in the case of the prior debates, America’s sentiments were substantially divided. But when it came to SOPA, something like 99% of us—regardless of party, geography, or ideological self-identity—were on the same side. Tiffiniy Cheng Whether or not we’d sunk the bill was still unclear, but the fruits of the campaign were many: it generated over two million petition signers as well as two million emails and eighty-four thousand calls to Congress—four calls per second from Tumblr users alone.
Beyond this, the fight against SOPA and PIPA has built a massive new constituency of Internet users who now better understand the threats that Congress, the content industry, and other powerful actors pose to their networks. Most importantly, we’re ever-more astute activists—and now we know what winning tastes like. 160 CO N G R E S S S AY S : “ T H I S C A N ’ T B E HAPPENING” DAVID SEG AL After the markup, but well before the blackout, we’d already heard from several offices that the volume of constituent contacts that they were receiving had been surpassed only by the immigration reform debate, Obama’s health care reform push, or for many offices, never at all. Even more spectacularly: in the case of the prior debates, America’s sentiments were substantially divided. But when it came to SOPA, something like 99% of us—regardless of party, geography, or ideological self-identity—were on the same side. Some of these offices—like Ron Paul’s—were congratulatory. Others, particularly those that were complicit in attempting to foist SOPA on the American public, were a bit less gracious.
In fact, Congressional staffers later reported that the SOPA/PIPA battle had been the impetus for as many constituent contacts as any issue in memory—including recently contentious issues like health care and immigration. Somehow a bill related to DNS blocking rose to a similar level of public prominence—for at least a brief moment—but while Americans were sharply divided when it came to health care and immigration reform, they were overwhelmingly united in favor of the Internet. It was a political coming of age: the Internet had truly arrived in Washington. In the weeks leading up to the blackout, most lawmakers were treated to decentralized barrages of hundreds of emails and phone calls about SOPA/PIPA. Their social media pages were filled with inquiries about the two bills from incredulous Netizens. Twitter announced that in the first 16 hours alone on January 18th, over 2.4 million users tweeted about SOPA/PIPA.
Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton
Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile
See the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article five, and the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, article eleven. N OT E S 227 Chapter 5: The health of agriculture and food workers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Statement of Richard Estrada, Commissioner, US Commission on Immigration Reform before House Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration, December 7, 1995. Available at: <www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/120795.html>. Economist (December 8, 2007: 11). Lien and Nerlick (2004: 201). New Internationalist (2003a: 20). Economist (September 6, 2003: 28), Lang and Heasman (2004: 90), Hacker (2004), New Internationalist (2004a). Employment in manufacturing in the United States has decreased from 21.6 percent in 1979 to 9.86 percent in 2005 (Lardner, 2007).
Pressinger, R. (1997) “Chemical food additive exposure during pregnancy: links to learning disabilities, ADD and behaviour disorders” [online] <www.chemtox.com/pregnancy/artificial.htm>. Priesnitz, W. (2007) “Ask natural life: how green is my diet?” [online] <http://forum.stlc.com>. Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone, New York: Touchstone. Read, A. (2006) “Protecting worker rights in the context of immigration reform”, Journal of Law and Social Change. BIBLIOGRAPHY 247 Reardon, T., Timner, P. and Berdoque, J. (2004) “The rapid rise of supermarkets in developing countries: induced organizational, institutional, and technological change in agrifood systems”, Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2. Rees, A. (2006) Genetically Modified Food, London: Pluto Press. Richard, S., Moselmi, S., Benachour, N. and Seralini, G.
Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism's Stealth Revolution by Wendy Brown
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Food sovereignty, haute couture, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, late capitalism, means of production, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, young professional
They expressed concern, too, with those left behind in the neoliberal race to riches while “corporate profits . . . rocketed to all-time highs.”12 In these ways, it seemed that the light of “hope and change” on which Obama had glided to power in 2008 had indeed been reignited. Close consideration of the State of the Union address, however, reveals a different placing of the accent marks. While Obama called for protecting Medicare; progressive tax reform; increasing government investment in science and technology research, clean energy, home ownership, 24 u n d o in g t h e d e m o s and education; immigration reform; fighting sex discrimination and domestic violence; and raising the minimum wage, each of these issues was framed in terms of its contribution to economic growth or American competitiveness.13 “A growing economy that creates good, middle-class jobs — that must be the North Star that guides our efforts” the president intoned. “Every day,” he added, “we must ask ourselves three questions as a nation.”14 What are these supervenient guides to law and policy formation, to collective and individual conduct?
Clean energy would keep us competitive — “as long as countries like China keep going all-in on clean energy, so must we.”16 Fixing our aging infrastructure would “prove that there is no better place to do business than the United States of America.”17 More accessible mortgages enabling “responsible young families” to buy their first home will “help our economy grow.”18 Investing in education would reduce the drags on growth caused by teen pregnancy and violent crime, put “kids on a path to a good job,” allow them to “work their way into the middle class,” and provide the skills that would make the economy competitive. Schools should be rewarded for partnering with “colleges and employers” and for creating “classes that focus on science, technology, engineering and math — the skills today’s employers U n d o in g D e m o c r a c y 25 are looking for.”19 Immigration reform will “harness the talents and ingenuity of striving, hopeful immigrants” and attract “the highly skilled entrepreneurs and engineers that will help create jobs and grow our economy.”20 Economic growth would also result “when our wives, mothers and daughters can live their lives free from discrimination . . . and . . . fear of domestic violence,” when “we reward an honest day’s work with honest wages” with minimum wage reform, when we rebuild decimated factory towns, and when we strengthen families through “removing financial deterrents to marriage for low-income couples and doing more to encourage fatherhood.”21 Obama’s January 2013 State of the Union speech thus recovered a liberal agenda by packaging it as economic stimulus, promising that it would generate competitiveness, prosperity, and continued recovery from the recessions induced by the 2008 finance-capital meltdown.
Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor
Daniel Yergin, The Prize (New York: Free Press, 2008), p. 15. 25. Francis J. Grund, The Americans in Their Moral, Social, and Political Relations, 2 vols. (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, 1837), pp. 1–2, 5. Quoted in Rodgers, The Work Ethic, pp. 5–6. 26. John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government, V, 34. 27. Quoted in Jon Ward, “Paul Ryan Reads from 1850 Irish Government Poster to Make Case for Immigration Reform,” Huffington Post, June 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/12/paul-ryan-poster-irish-im_n_3428852.html (accessed April 23, 2015). 28. Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts about America’s Poor,” Heritage Foundation, September 13, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/09/understanding-poverty-in-the-united-states-surprising-facts-about-americas-poor (accessed April 12, 2015).
Benjamin Powell, “In Defense of ‘Sweatshops,’” Library of Economics and Liberty, June 2, 2008, http://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/y2008/Powellsweatshops.html (accessed May 20, 2015). 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid. 27. Richard Tedlow, Giants of Enterprise (New York: Collins, 2003), pp. 19–33. 28. Quoted in Jon Ward, “Paul Ryan Reads from 1850 Irish Government Poster to Make Case for Immigration Reform,” Huffington Post, June 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/12/paul-ryan-poster-irish-im_n_3428852.html (accessed April 8, 2015). 29. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Address at Atlanta, Georgia,” Works of Franklin D. Roosevelt, November 29, 1935, http://newdeal.feri.org/speeches/1935g.htm (accessed May 31, 2015). 30. Dean Alfange, “Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations,” Bartleby.com, http://www.bartleby.com/73/71.html (accessed April 28, 2015). 31.
Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce
The President and Congress determine the annual ceiling and country distributions (ceilings have ranged from 50,000–90,000). 1986: The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalized several undocumented immigrants but made it unlawful to hire undocumented workers. 1990: The Immigration Act of 1990 increased the annual immigrant limit to 700,000 and established the Immigrant Investor Program. 1996: Welfare Reform ended many cash and medical assistance programs for most legal immigrants. 1996: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) expanded enforcement operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2001: The USA Patriot Act, in response to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks on New York and Washington, DC, gives federal officials greater power to intercept national and international communications. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 was a bill that focused on managing unauthorized migration, but failed to pass the House.
Economic Impact of Immigration Many deliberations in the United States revolve around the economic impact of migration. The ongoing immigration debate juggles arguments regarding the assets newcomers bring to the country with those about the drains they place on the infrastructure, and the country is divided on the current net worth of immigration in the twenty-first century. The Immigrant Workforce Recent foci on immigration reform and the guest worker program have drawn attention to undocumented workers. One must bear in mind in all deliberations that of the 34 million documented immigrants in the United States in 2004, over 27 million were between the ages of 16 and 65 years, and the majority of them were in the workforce and across the occupational structure (Table 3-6). A significant proportion of the legitimate workforce, they have the appropriate documentation and are essential to the functioning of the country.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
Miya Yoshitani, “Confessions of a Climate Denier in Tunisia,” Asian Pacific Environment Network, May 8, 2013. 69. Nick Cohen, “The Climate Change Deniers Have Won,” The Observer, March 22, 2014. 70. Philip Radford, “The Environmental Case for a Path to Citizenship,” Huffington Post, March 14, 2013; Anna Palmer and Darren Samuelsohn, “Sierra Club Backs Immigration Reform,” Politico, April 24, 2013; “Statement on Immigration Reform,” BlueGreen Alliance, http://www .bluegreenalliance.org; May Boeve, “Solidarity with the Immigration Reform Movement,” 350 .org, March 22, 2013, http://350.org. 71. Pamela Gossin, Encyclopedia of Literature and Science (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002), 208; William Blake, “And Did Those Feet in Ancient Time,” poem in The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 95. 72.
That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks
If you need any convincing about the virtues of immigration, attend the Intel science finals. We need to keep a constant flow of legal immigrants into our country, whether they wear blue collars or lab coats. It is a part of our formula that very few countries can copy. When all of these energetic, high-aspiring people are mixed together with a democratic system and free markets, magic happens. If we want to keep that magic, we need immigration reform that guarantees that we will always attract and retain, in a legal, orderly fashion, the world’s first-round aspirational and intellectual draft choices. The overall winner of the 2010 Intel contest—a $100,000 award for the best project out of the forty—was Erika Alden DeBenedictis of New Mexico, who developed a software navigation system that would enable spacecraft to “travel through the solar system” more efficiently.
“The H-1B visa program—that is the key to making us the innovators of energy and computers,” said Senator Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina Republican, who has been critical of his own party’s obstinacy on this issue. “It has been for most of our life. If you wanted to get really smart and have a degree that would allow you to be a leader in the world, you came to America. Well, it’s hard as hell to get to America now. And once you get here, it’s hard to stay.” Immigration reform that better secures the borders, establishes a legal pathway toward citizenship for the roughly twelve million illegal immigrants who are here, and enables, even recruits, high-skilled immigrants to become citizens is much more urgent than most of us realize. We need both the brainy risk takers and the brawny ones. Low-skilled immigrants may not be able to write software, but such people also contribute to the vibrancy of the American economy.
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
The reality of privatized detention is one of services cut to the bone, offering the barest minimum of care. Detention Watch Network issued a report in 2013 that examined 250 facilities across the country, many of which were run for profit, and found that none of them could guarantee basic medical care or appropriate protection against sexual and physical abuse. A lack of official oversight exacerbated the problem, along with the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which allowed inmates to be punished for minor crimes as if they were serious felonies.40 Punishment, not rehabilitation, remained the corporate and governmental focus, as it was more profitable. CCA refused a simple proposal in 2015 from former prisoner and associate director of the Human Rights Defense Center, Alex Friedmann, for the company to commit an additional 5 percent of its net income to reducing recidivism.41 Public opposition to these companies was growing; the Interfaith Prison Coalition launched a campaign in 2015 to boycott and divest from firms that made profit from prison labor and charged exorbitant prices for prisoner phone calls.
The New York Times slammed the quota in 2014: at a time when millions of Americans “can’t find work and have lost their unemployment benefits … there is no shortage of money when it comes to hunting down unauthorized immigrants.”50 The reality of the “bed mandate” was a boon for disaster capitalism. Lobbying by for-profit companies ensured that the country’s privately run facilities were filled with foreign-born, legal US residents convicted of mostly minor crimes who could be deported at any time. This dragnet did nothing to ensure public safety, but instead satisfied a Republican House that embraced punishment as a response to tepid immigration reform. Azadeh Shahshahani, ACLU Georgia’s former national security and immigrants’ rights project director and president of the National Lawyers’ Guild, was one of many calling loudly for this inhumane and arbitrary law to be axed. She told me at her Atlanta office: “The bed quota is tied to corporate profit to ensure 34,000 immigrants are in beds every night. There’s no law enforcement evidence it does any help.”
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
He particularly singled out the “Orientals” (Japanese, Chinese, and Hindus), who “cannot be assimilated” because they have their own “virtues and vices.”22 US president Teddy Roosevelt (1904–8) in a speech in 1915, said, “There is no room in this country for hyphenated Americanism … 52 Multicultural Cities We must unsparingly condemn any man who holds any other allegiance.”23 These sentiments resonate even today, particularly among those opposed to substantial immigration, even though the idiom of discourse has changed. Samuel Huntington, the Harvard academic famous for the “Clash of Civilizations” thesis, suggests, “Mexican immigration is heading towards the demographic reconquista of areas America took from Mexico by force in the 1830s and 1840s.”24 The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), a lobby group for restricting immigration argues that present-day immigrants neither make significant contribution to the economy nor are they willing to adapt to the American culture. After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001, immigration has been linked with national security. Immigrants, particularly from Muslim countries, are viewed with suspicion, and have the additional burden having to prove their loyalty to Western societies.
See also ethnic neighbourhoods; residential segregation; specific cities and ethnicities ethnic goods, and consumer markets, 110 EthniCity, 84 ethnicity, 15–16, 26 ethnic neighbourhoods, 60, 73, 84, 139, 141 ethnic resources, 95–6, 95t ethnoburbs, 58–9 ethno-racial differences, 135–9, 136t, 137, 151 Index 339 ethno-racial subculture, 12, 13 Europe: assimilation of nonWhites in, 32; birth rates, 43; ethnic business districts, 74; and immigrants’ religions, 17; as land of migrants, 47; multiculturalism policies, 20, 264, 266; neighbourhood centres, 235; sports, 162; transnationalism, 37, 53, 54. See also specific countries European Union, 54 Evangelicalism, 142 exceptionalism, 26 Fainstein, S., 37, 191 fairs and festivals, 51, 58, 81–2, 157, 168, 191, 213, 250 family and neighbourhood social relations, 128–30, 289n9 family structures, 51, 129, 146–7, 195–6, 198, 289n11 Fassenden, F., 67 Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 52 fertility rates, 43 Filipinos: economic niches, 101, 105; enclaves, 66, 70, 232, 256; family structures, 129; as model minority, 105; political representation, 187; statistics, 10, 45t, 102, 104 films. See movies financial services industry: and Chinese economies, 116, 117, 118, 119; as ethnic niche, 89, 92; labour force statistics, 98t. See also banking First Nations. See Aboriginal peoples fiscal constraints, 49, 177, 212, 228, 303–4n43 Fish, S., 157 Fisher, C., 13–14, 143 Fleras, A., 24, 25, 270 Florida, R., 36, 120, 122, 293n23 Flushing (Queens), 69, 75, 116, 117, 132, 165 Foner, N., 5, 11, 69, 132, 254, 275n9 Fong, E., 96, 120, 289n2 foods: food carts, 157, 196–7, 213; in food courts, 76, 82, 157; and health regulations, 213; in hospitals, 196, 198; in malls, 75, 232; varieties and fusions, 51, 65, 157–8, 169.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent
The Tea Partiers initially singled out Obama for coddling the “takers,” but after Republicans won the Congress in 2010 but failed to deliver on the Tea Party’s non-negotiable demands to repeal Obamacare, the Tea Party focused their ire on the Republican establishment. Tea Party candidates ran against both Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Majority Leader Eric Cantor—and in the latter case, won. McConnell and Cantor’s sin lay in refusing to go all the way in repudiating even the bare rudiments of the neoliberal consensus between the parties and in failing to block even discussion of immigration reform. Cantor’s sin also lay in being too close to Wall Street and the Business Roundtable. In the primary, Tea Party candidate David Brat said, “All the investment banks in New York and D.C.—those guys should have gone to jail. Instead of going to jail, they went on Eric’s Rolodex, and they are sending him big checks.” This side of the Tea Party, which echoes the original People’s Party, was largely ignored by political scientists and other commentators, even after Trump’s presidential campaign brought it to the surface.
Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor; Saul Singer
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War
Current and former leaders from three in particular opened their doors to us in Israel and in Silicon Valley and provided lots of access: thank you to Google’s Eric Schmidt, David Krane, Yossi Mattias, Andrew McLaughlin, and Yoelle Maarek; Intel’s Shmuel Eden and David Perlmutter; and Cisco’s Michael Laor and Yoav Samet. Leon Wieseltier provided us with wise counsel on the relationship between Jewish history and the modern Israeli ethos. Stuart Anderson, a former colleague of Dan’s from the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration, has always been a source of rich analysis on immigration reform. He shared important research on the subject for this book. We are grateful to the president of Israel, Shimon Peres, who gave us half a day in his office. He not only gave us his unique perspective as a central player throughout the entire span of Israel’s history, but is still, at age eighty-five, in high office and busy working to launch whole new industries. We would also like to thank the prime minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, for spending a lot of time with us during a hectic period for him in 2008.
The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton
affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor
Attracting superstars like the Beckham’s of science to the country “can only help take our worldclass domestic research to the next level. . . . To be the best you have to work with the best.”12 And to work with the best justiﬁed radical changes in national policy, especially the reform of immigration policies that opened borders to the highly skilled and offered attractive tax beneﬁts to make a country more competitive and attractive to top-level professional and managerial workers. Immigration reform in the global war for talent involves the market-based liberalization of national borders, removing barriers to the entry of foreign talent. Although states have long used market criteria to shape immigration policy, the trend across OECD nations over the past two decades has seen a rise in immigration levels overall, with a growing bias toward the highly skilled.13 The scale of high-skill migration can be shown in some of the available evidence.14 Globally, high-skill migration increased at a rate two and a half times faster than low-skill migration between 1990 and 2000.
Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill
barriers to entry, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce
ImmigrationWorks (accepts donations) organizes, represents, and advocates on behalf of small-business owners who would benefit from being able to hire lower-skill migrant workers more easily, with the aim of “bringing America’s annual legal intake of foreign workers more realistically into line with the country’s labor needs.” The Center for Global Development (accepts donations) conducts policy-relevant research and policy analysis on topics relevant to improving the lives of the global poor, including on immigration reform, then makes recommendations to policy makers. Factory farming What’s the problem? Fifty billion animals are raised and slaughtered in factory farms every year. Relatively small changes to farming practices could substantially improve these animals’ welfare. Raising animals for consumption also produces substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Scale: Up to very large, depending on value judgments.
Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin
airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks
Lacking any hard leads, the Washington Regional Threat and Analysis Center, a place where the governments of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia shared and analyzed threat information, had issued a daily summary that warned against just about everything imaginable. The warnings included a log of completely legal demonstrations; authorities believed such activities could provide cover for terrorist or other criminal action. Events to keep an eye on, the center noted, were a protest against Israeli settlements in Gaza, a demonstration in support of immigration reform, another sponsored by Veterans for Peace, an antiwar “Shoe Throwing at the White House,” and an anti-abortion March for Life rally. No one was particularly concerned that these were lawful—keeping track of such groups had become a habit of law enforcement agencies across the country. Several other reports of out-of-town crimes were also in circulation, including a machine gun heist in rural Pennsylvania and the discovery in Maine of radioactive materials and components for a radiological dispersal device in the house of a suspected member of a white supremacist group.
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey
He reassured the public that “The Viking days are gone. This is one of the most open countries in Europe in terms of immigration.” If “even” Sweden can be accused of racism, that left Switzerland as one of a few European countries that enjoyed a relatively wholesome image as a society devoid of racism. Its record has been impressive: over the past fifty years, the Swiss refused to pass thirteen proposed immigration reforms, including the 18 percent initiative in 2000 which would have limited the foreign-born resident population to this figure. But the image of an idyllic Swiss multicultural home came to grief in 2007 when an anti-immigrant nationalist party—the Swiss People’s Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP)—repeated its 2003 breakthrough and won the most number of seats to parliament (62 of 200), subsequently forming a coalition government.
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization
p. 241: Figures for the percentage of GDP in the Philippines derived from overseas remittances comes from the Global Strategy Institute (forums.csis.org/gsionline/?p=565). p. 242: The organization calling itself America’s Leadership Team for Long Range Population-Immigration-Resource Planning is an umbrella group composed of the American Immigration Control Foundation, Californians for Population Stabilization, the Federation for American Immigration Reform and NumbersUSA. One of their advertisements makes the case that “America has problems—huge problems,” then goes on to say “all of these problems are caused by a large and fast-growing population.” p. 247: The figure of $50 per ton to reduce emissions comes from a report by McKinsey & Company called “Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much and at What Cost?” (www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/ greenhousegas.asp).
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey
As discussed, a program along the proposed lines would generate large net benefits relative to the redistribution it might cause, given the height of border barriers at present.27 The foreign workers also would be employed at home, under the same labor standards and regulations that protect domestic workers. This invalidates any claim of unfair competition on the basis of a non-level playing field. If either of these assertions turns out to be invalid, opponents would then have a stronger case. Whether a sufficiently broad domestic political consensus on temporary work visas can be reached in the advanced nations remains to be seen. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 contained provisions that would have expanded a guest worker scheme in the United States, but the bill died an early death in Congress. An enlarged foreign worker presence clearly garners little enthusiasm in the United States or in Europe. In light of this, it would be easy to write such programs off as politically unrealistic. That would be a mistake. Trade liberalization has never had a huge amount of domestic political support either.
Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith
affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator
With a lifetime approval score of over 95 percent from the American Conservative Union, and with enormous clout for his district, Cantor appeared to have the safest seat in the House, in his conservative district.14 Yet despite a 26-to-1 advantage in campaign funds,15 Cantor lost in a primary to an unknown extreme-right candidate who attacked him for a couple of statements hinting at the possibility of modest immigration reform. This unseating never would have happened in the past. The complexity of today’s civil society places extremely high demands on citizens. If our democracy is to hold together with any hope or prospect for pragmatic alignment of interests and actions, we need a citizenry with a strong base of essential skills: critical analysis, communication, collaboration, and creative problem-solving. But, as we will see in the next two chapters, few of our graduates are receiving an education equipping them with the skills needed for effective citizenship.
The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman
banking crisis, British Empire, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor
The United States will have to offer immigrants a range of competitive benefits, from highly streamlined green-card processes to specialized visas catering to the needs and wishes of the immigrant workforce and quite possibly to bonuses—paid directly through the government or through firms that are hiring them—along with guarantees of employment. And immigrants will certainly comparison shop. This process will result in a substantial increase in the power of the federal government. Since 1980 we have seen a steady erosion of government power. The immigration reform that will be needed around 2030 will require direct government management, however. If private businesses manage the process, the federal government at least will be enforcing guarantees to make certain immigrants are not defrauded and that the companies can deliver on their promises. Otherwise, unemployed immigrants will become a burden. Simply opening the borders will not be an option. The management of the new labor force—the counterpart to the management of capital and credit markets—will dramatically enhance federal power, reversing the pattern of the Reagan period.
The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing
8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional
D. (2006), Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong, New York: Harper Collins. Hewlett, S. A., Jackson, M., Sherbin, L., Shiller, P., Sosnovich, E. and Sumberg, K. (2009), Bookend Generations: Leveraging Talent and Finding Common Ground, New York: Center for Work-Life Policy. Hinojosa-Ojeda, R. (2010), Raising the Floor for American Workers: The Economic Benefits of Comprehensive Immigration Reform, Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, Immigration Policy Center. Hinsliff, G. (2009), ‘Home Office to Unveil Points System for Immigrants Seeking British Citizenship’, Observer, 2 August, p. 4. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959), Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Manchester: Manchester University Press. House, F. (2009), The Business of Migration: Migrant Worker Rights in a Time of Financial Crisis, London: Institute for Human Rights and Business.
Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein
affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog
The Times subheaded its report on the SDS protest “Holiday from Exams.” According to one poll, more Americans thought such protesters were “tools of the Communists” than disagreed with Johnson on Vietnam. Johnson kept on rolling out his Great Society: preschool for poor children, college prep for poor teenagers, legal services for indigent defendants, economic redevelopment funds for lagging regions, landmark immigration reform, a Department of Housing and Urban Development, national endowments for the humanities and arts—even a whole new category for the liberal agenda, environmentalism: a Highway Beautification Act, a Water Quality Act, a Clean Air Act, bulldozed through as if the opposition from the Big Three automakers, the advertising industry, and the chemical industry weren’t even there. The Republican National Committee could hardly raise the $200,000 each month necessary to keep its office open.
“Glad to see you,” he cried from his loudspeaker before jumping out impromptu style, just as he used to do on the campaign trail, in 1964, to shake hands with the commuters whose right-of-way his motorcade blocked. He was entering one of his manic phases. Before thirty thousand screaming fans in Newark, he opened with a favorite ritual: calling the roll of the people’s champions on the dais beside him: “The leader and the dean of your delegation, a fighter for immigration reform—a leader in the field of human rights! My supporter—Pete Rodino! “The sponsor of the Arts and Humanities Act…that greaaaaat progressive—Frank Thompson! “The energetic congressman who gave us the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, and my supporter—Dominick Daniels!” Johnson launched into the topic of his address: the opposing party. “A great man once said, ‘In the Democratic Party, even the old seem young.’”
He started talking, strangely, about himself: “Throughout my entire public career, I have followed the personal philosophy that I am a free man, an American, a public servant, and a member of my party, in that order, always and only.” He paraphrased Lincoln: “It is true that a house divided against itself, by the spirit of faction, of party, of region, of religion and race cannot stand.” Then: “Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president.” That was the bombshell. One thousand days ago he was changing the world: passing federal aid to education, immigration reform, voting rights, Medicare. Now, he was announcing his retirement. Wisconsin tramped to the polls. Reagan won 11 percent in write-ins. Then Nixon did what he always did in 1968 after a few weeks of intense campaigning: he rested, flying off to quiet, undeveloped Key Biscayne, Florida, where his friend Bebe Rebozo owned land. “That’s how I keep up the tan,” he explained to Jules Witcover. The tan he had never rested enough to achieve running against John F.
Arrival City by Doug Saunders
agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, megacity, microcredit, new economy, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population
In most cases, governments come to realize that millions of potential taxpayers are living below the radar, earning incomes but not paying taxes, and creating gray-market families and awkward legal paradoxes as their deracinated children come of age; the result is usually a mass amnesty. The United States has granted post-facto citizenship to millions of illegal immigrants in recent decades (most recently in the early 1990s); similar amnesties, involving hundreds of thousands of undocumented migrants, have been granted in Spain, Italy, France, Britain, and Germany. More such amnesties are almost certain in the future. A typical example is the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border. And yet, by the time it was passed, pressure from the Chamber of Commerce and agriculture lobbies had transformed it into a mass amnesty that provided legal citizenship to almost three million “illegals,” combined with a new program allowing low-skill migrants to enter under a guest-worker program demanded by agricultural industries in the western states.
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey
It was as if Americans had lost the ability to speak a common civic tongue. Polsby wrote, "In important respects the U.S. population resembles the population that attempted to build the Tower of Babel."33 By 2006, even the slow-moving wheels of government had seized up. In June, Charles Babington wrote in the Washington Post, "Congress seems to be struggling lately to carry out its most basic mission: passing legislation."34 Whatever the issue—the minimum wage, immigration reform, bankrupt pensions, global warming, energy policy, stem cell research, inquiries into domestic surveillance, resolutions on the war in Iraq—it slipped under the surface of Congress's deepening pool of discord. In early July, former House Republican leader Dick Armey said bluntly, "I'm not sure what this Congress has accomplished."35 So Congress quit pretending and just stopped meeting. In 2006, the House met nine fewer days than it had in 1948, the year President Harry Truman dubbed the legislature the "do-nothing Congress."
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Y2K
The bill would have made it a felony to be in this country illegally, or to give assistance—like food or medical care—to anyone who was. Deeply wounded, American’s illegal immigrants took to the streets. In broad daylight. In matching white T-shirts, in 140 cities, and in at least thirty-nine states. From Phoenix to Philadelphia, from Boise to Birmingham, hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants marched in organized parades, in front of TV cameras, to protest the House-passed bill and to call instead for liberalized immigration reform that would not narrow but widen the path to citizenship. In Atlanta, the birthplace of America’s civil rights movement, the marchers held placards reading, “We Have a Dream, Too.” In Mississippi, they sang “We Shall Overcome” in Spanish. In Los Angeles, the rally in March 2006 was said to be the largest in the history of the city, and perhaps in all of the Western United States. (Referring to the border-long security fence that many lawmakers supported constructing, comedian Carlos Mencia asked, “If you deport us, who will build the wall?”)
Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein
Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K
Between the “work for justice” peace activists, the antinuclear movement, and the inner spiritual peace approach, what is largely missing is a peace movement speaking up for the UN, for peacekeeping, for the multidimensional efforts of international, national, and private organizations to stop wars and keep the peace. So the peace movement all across America, organized and motivated for peace, puts its efforts into helping the homeless, pressing for immigration reform, supporting health care reform—and none of these efforts are ending the world’s wars. And then out there in the eastern Congo is a soldier from Bangladesh with a blue UN helmet, trying to stop the violence of a society torn apart by decades of war after decades of colonialism. And this soldier does not have enough comrades, enough equipment, enough political support, to do half of what he or she could do with adequate resources.
3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar
Gauthier-Loiselle, "How much does immigration boost innovation?", American Economic Journal, 2010 624 Based on information available at http://www.nobelprize.org/. 625 Carsten Fink, Ernest Miguelez, Julio Raffo, "The global race for inventors", Vox.eu, 17 July 2013 http://www.voxeu.org/article/global-race-inventors 626 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/nobel-winner-slates-britains-stupid-immigration-reforms-8433324.html 627 Francesc Ortega and Giovanni Peri, “The effects of Brain Gain on Growth, Investment, and Employment: Evidence from the OECD countries, 1980–2005”, in Boeri T., Brucker H, Docquier F., Rapoport H. (eds) Brain Drain and Brain Gain, Oxford: 2012 628 Alberto Alesina, A Devleeschauwer, S Kurlat and R Wacziarg, "Fractionalization", Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2): 155-194, 2003 629 I pointed this out in Immigrants in my rebuttal of David Goodhart’s anti-diversity arguments. 630Alberto Alesina, J Harnoss and H Rapoport, “Birthplace diversity and economic prosperity”, NBER Working Paper #18699, January 2013 631 Alessandra Venturini, F.
A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell
Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor
As Naomi Klein has warned, Obama’s first term must be a lesson to all activists that the appearance of a progressive leader should not lull us into a false sense of accomplishment; there is simply no room for a honeymoon or hero worship, as though we only need to elect the right leader. Only grit and hard work will do. There have been some great cultural shifts and organizing successes in the US in recent years, like the marriage equality and immigration reform movements. But breaking the power of oil companies may be even harder, because the sums of the money on the other side are so fantastic—there are trillions of dollars’ worth of oil in Canada’s tar sands alone, and the people who own these resources will spend what they need to assure their victories. In March 2013, Rex Tillerson, Exxon’s $100,000-a-day CEO, said that environmentalists were “obtuse” for opposing new pipelines, while announcing that the company planned to more than double the acreage on which it was exploring for new hydrocarbons—and projecting that renewables would account for just 1 per cent of the total US energy supply in 2040.
Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day
Dustmann, Christian and Tommaso Frattini (2014). “The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK.” The Economic Journal 124(580): 593–643. 60. Goldin, Ian (2012). Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid. 63. Kosloski, Rey (2014, June 11). The American Way of Border Control and Immigration Reform Politics. Oxford: Oxford Martin School. 64. Miles, Tom (2015, September 25). “UN Sees Refugee Flow to Europe Growing, Plans for Big Iraq Displacement.” Reuters. Retrieved from www.reuters.com. 65. Spate, O. H. K. (1979). The Spanish Lake: The Pacific Since Magellan. Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp. 15–22. 66. Ibid. 67. Thrower, Norman J.W. (2008).
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey
Interview with Homi Kharas, Washington, DC, February 2012. 7. The results of this OECD survey and other relevant reports can be found at www.globalworksfoundation.org/Documents/fact465.science_000.pdf. 8. Brzezinski, Strategic Vision: America and the Crisis of Global Power. 9. Jason DeParle, “Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move,” New York Times, June 26, 2010. 10. Jorge G. Castañeda and Douglas S. Massey, “Do-it-Yourself Immigration Reform,” New York Times, June 1, 2012. 11. The figures on remittances are quoted from the World Bank Development Indicators Database (2011 edition). 12. Dean Yang, “Migrant Remittances,” in Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, no. 3 (Summer 2011), pp. 129–152 at p. 130. 13. Richard Dobbs, “Megacities,” Foreign Policy, September–October 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/08/16/prime_numbers_megacities. 14.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra
And for decades the party itself was a pluralistic amalgam of northern liberal Republicans and southern and western conservatives. But in recent years the Tea Party and other hyperconservative forces, also funded in large part by fossil fuel companies and oil billionaires, have tried to wipe out the Republican Party’s once rich polyculture and turn it into a monoculture that’s enormously susceptible to diseased ideas: climate change is a hoax; evolution never happened; we don’t need immigration reform. All of this weakened the G.O.P.’s foundation and opened the way for an invasive species such as Donald Trump to make deep inroads into its garden. A 2012 study by the Kauffman Foundation revealed that immigrants founded one-quarter of U.S. technology start-up companies. The study, entitled “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Then and Now,” shows that “24.3 percent of engineering and technology start-up companies have at least one immigrant founder serving in a key role,” Reuters reported on October 2, 2012.
Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, very high income, We are the 99%
Chapter 14 proposes a rethinking of the progressive income tax based on past experience and recent trends. Chapter 15 describes what a progressive tax on capital adapted to twenty-first century conditions might look like and compares this idealized tool to other types of regulation that might emerge from the political process, ranging from a wealth tax in Europe to capital controls in China, immigration reform in the United States, and revival of protectionism in many countries. Chapter 16 deals with the pressing question of public debt and the related issue of the optimal accumulation of public capital at a time when natural capital may be deteriorating. One final word. It would have been quite presumptuous in 1913 to publish a book called “Capital in the Twentieth Century.” I beg the reader’s indulgence for giving the title Capital in the Twenty-First Century to this book, which appeared in French in 2013 and in English in 2014.
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management
The fiscal headwind is caused by an increase in the ratio of people in retirement who do not earn incomes or do not pay income taxes to working people who do earn incomes and do pay taxes. Policy solutions include immigration, to raise the number of tax-paying workers, together with tax reforms that would raise revenue and improve tax equity. A carbon tax, desirable on environmental grounds to reduce carbon emissions, has the side benefit of generating substantial revenue to help alleviate the fiscal headwind. Immigration Reform of immigration can be accomplished in a way that raises the average skill level of the working-age population and that thus contributes to the growth of labor productivity. One avenue for reform would be to end the practice of denying residency to foreign-born graduates of U.S. universities, a “self-imposed brain drain.” A promising tool to promote high-skilled immigration and raise the average quality of the U.S. labor force would be one such as the Canadian point-based immigration system, in which a point calculator is used to rate each immigrant applicant based on his or her level of education, language skills, and previous employment experience, among other criteria.18 The definition of skills could be broad and could include blue-collar skills, many of which are currently in short supply in the U.S.