car-free

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pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

The population of the valley served by this line is approximately 10,000. This can be compared with dreadful, dirty, diesel operated services in the UK using vehicles that are 40 years old e.g. the Lancaster- Morecambe branch line serving a population of approximately 100,000. There is no prospect of new investment on this line. Freiburg is well known for its highly acclaimed car-free residential areas of Vauban and Rieselfeld (Folleta and Field, 2011). Vauban is not 100% car free but has very low levels of car ownership (160 cars per 1000 residents) and low levels of car use, 16% of all trips are by car. Residents must sign a legal agreement not to own a car or pay for a parking space in a shared public garage at a cost of 18,500-22,500 Euros (Foletta and Field, 2011). Parking on the residential streets is not allowed. Vauban is not an isolated example of best practice.

Vauban is a new residential area in Freiburg on the site of a former French barracks with a population of 5000 and Rieselfeld is a still expanding new residential area with 10,500 residents (Stadt Freiburg, 2010). Both areas are served by tram, both have exceptionally high energy efficient homes and photo voltaic installations and both are car-reduced in the sense that car free living is encouraged and “Aufenthaltsqualitaet in öffentlichen Raum” is a design principle that is actually implemented. The English translation of this concept would be “the quality of the public realm that encourages residents to spend time in that realm.” As noted earlier the concept has very little resonance with thinking in the UK. The centre of Freiburg is almost totally car-free and in a way that is significantly different to the pedestrian areas of York or Lancaster or Oxford where cars and lorries frequently invade the pedestrian areas and destroy the “Aufenthaltsqualitaet.” Freiburg attaches a very high importance to the quality of the public realm generally including parks and green spaces, urban ecology, tree planting and the famous small streams that run through the city centre, the “Baechle” (Stadt Freiburg,2009).

Mixing the two at least at average urban speeds does not work without bloodshed. A vehicle driving down a residential street at 40 mph packs more destructive energy than a bullet.” Roberts provides evidence that in circumstances where traffic volumes fell e.g. in the Middle East oil crises of 1974 and 1979 child pedestrian deaths fell. In New Zealand between 1975 and 1980 child pedestrian deaths fell by 46% in response to car free days and a weekend ban on petrol sales “but when the oil started flowing and traffic volume resumed its upward trajectory, the number of children killed and injured on the roads increased along with it…when petrol prices rise fewer children die; when they fall, more children die.” The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2004, page 7) recommends against the use of the word “accident.” Road deaths and injuries are predictable and preventable: “While the risk of a crash is relatively low for most individual journeys, people travel many times each day, every week and every year.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

But if you move to Vauban, you have two options. If you own a car, you are contractually obligated to purchase a parking spot in one of the two garages at the edge of town. (That can be a shock. Leonard’s parents bought their parking spot for 20,000 euros.) But if you don’t own a car—and you are willing to sign an intimidating “car-free” pledge—you do not have to fork out for a parking spot. Instead, you buy a share of a leafy lot on the edge of town for about 3,700 euros. (This is an investment: if the car-free culture prevails, you will share that park with everyone. If Vauban requires more parking, you stand to make a sizable return.) This rationalization of car costs means that no matter how Vaubanites get to work, they tend to walk or cycle when they are close to home. That’s why the streets are full of people.

In 2000 Peñalosa and Eric Britton were called to Sweden to accept the Stockholm Challenge Award for the Environment, for pulling 850,000 vehicles off the street during the world’s biggest car-free day. Then the TransMilenio bus system was lauded for producing massive reductions in Bogotá’s carbon dioxide emissions.* It was the first transport system to be accredited under the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism—meaning that Bogotá could actually sell carbon credits to polluters in rich countries. For its public space transformations under Mayors Peñalosa, Antanas Mockus, and their successor, Luis Garzón, the city won the Golden Lion prize from the prestigious Venice Architecture Biennale. For its bicycle routes, its new parks, its Ciclovía, its upside-down roads, and that hugely popular car-free day, Bogotá was held up as a shining example of green urbanism. Not one of its programs was directed at the crisis of climate change, but the city offered tangible proof of the connection between urban design, experience, and the carbon energy system.

most of the world’s pollution: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank, “Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda,” Washington, DC, 2010, 15. civil war and sporadic terrorism: Martin, Gerard, and Miguel Arévalo Ceballos, Bogotá: Anatomía de una transformación: políticas de seguridad ciudadana 1995–2003 (Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2004). nobody was killed in traffic: Stockholm Challenge, www.stockholmchallenge.org/project/data/bogot&-car-free-day-within-world-car-free-day-forum (accessed January 2, 2011). While the elder proselytized: Peñalosa has influenced more than a hundred cities. On his advice, cities such as Jakarta, Delhi, and Manila have reclaimed streets from their usurpation by private cars, creating vast linear parks or handing the space to rapid bus systems modeled on Bogotá’s own. “Peñalosa’s philosophy on public spaces had a great impact on our perception of model cities,” Moji Rhodes, an assistant to the mayor in the seething megacity of Lagos, Nigeria, told me after Peñalosa convinced Lagos to start building sidewalks along new roads.


pages: 519 words: 118,095

Your Money: The Missing Manual by J.D. Roth

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Airbnb, asset allocation, bank run, buy low sell high, car-free, Community Supported Agriculture, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, Firefox, fixed income, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, index card, index fund, late fees, mortgage tax deduction, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, Paul Graham, random walk, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, speech recognition, traveling salesman, Vanguard fund, web application, Zipcar

, Making a list, Shopping smart, Picking a Mortgage, Closing the Deal C cable costs, The Power of Small Change, The phone company canceling credit cards, Stop Accumulating Debt, How and When to Cancel a Card, Boosting Your Score car loans, How and When to Cancel a Card, Money matters car-sharing organizations, Car-Free Living CardRatings.com, Choosing a Card Career Renegade blog, Resources for Entrepreneurs Carfax reports, Buying Used, Selling a Car cars buying guides, Close the deal competitive bidding, Close the deal costs of ownership, Do your homework, Reducing Your Cost of Ownership, Saving on gas, Car-Free Living dealership stories, Close the deal depreciation, Buying a Car happiness and, Buying a Car insurance, Car Insurance, Homeowners Insurance, Homeowners Insurance leasing, The Right Way to Buy a Car living car free, Car-Free Living maintenance, Reducing Your Cost of Ownership mechanics, Selling a Car prices, Research prices researching choices, Do your homework sales fraud, Selling a Car selling, Sell your old car separately, Selling a Car, Selling a Car test drives, Go for a test drive wrong way to buy, The Wrong Way to Buy a Car cash cash surpluses, Mapping Your Financial Future cash-based budget systems, Envelope Budgeting compulsive spending and, Curbing Compulsive Spending pain of paying, Why Use a Credit Card?

There's also a version of the site you can use with mobile gadgets like iPhones. Car-Free Living The best way to save money on a car is to not own one. Each year, AAA publishes an estimate of driving costs (http://tinyurl.com/driving-costs). They figure the average American spends about $9,369 each year to own a car. That works out to over $25 a day, or $750 per month. Imagine what else you could do with that money if you ditched your car! Not everyone has the option of going car-free. But for millions of people in cities like New York, Boston, Atlanta, and Los Angeles, giving up a vehicle is a viable option. In Chicago, for example, you can buy a week-long pass for unlimited subway and bus trips for only $24—that's just $96 per month. Though many people like the idea of going car-free, it can be tough to actually make the leap.

And it may seem old-fashioned, but don't forget walking and biking as ways to get around (and burn a few calories). Or check out the public transportation in your area. If those options won't cut it, look into getting a scooter (you can read about one Get Rich Slowly reader's scooter-based lifestyle at http://tinyurl.com/GRS-scooter.) Or check out car-sharing organizations like Zipcar (www.zipcar.com). Note If the idea of a car-free lifestyle intrigues you, pick up a copy of How to Live Well Without Owning a Car (Ten Speed Press, 2006) by Chris Balish. It includes tips for getting to work without a car, as well as some hints on what do with all the money you'll save! Finding Deals on Vacation and Travel As you learned in Chapter 1, experiences are more likely to make you happy than Stuff. Traveling can create lasting memories, but it can also be expensive: airfare, hotels, restaurants—the costs add up quickly.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

Instead, out of a conviction that active transportation was not only more sustainable, but equally popular with every level of Bogotán society, he spent a fraction of that money on the ciclorrutas system: 234 miles of permanent bike paths separated from automobiles by curbs and the short posts known as bollards. Less useful for commuting, but even better loved by the city’s residents, he expanded the city’s ciclovías, which close seventy-five miles of Bogotá’s streets each Sunday and transform the temporarily car-free streets into plazas full of street entertainers, group exercise classes, and of course walkers and cyclists. It gets even better: ever since 2000, on the first Thursday in February, the entire city, rich and poor, goes car-free. Peñalosa went further still. Those sidewalks that had been commandeered as de facto parking lots by the city’s traditional buses and cars? Peñalosa ordered them cleared, and then built a network of curbs and bollards to keep the vehicles off them permanently. He widened the sidewalks where he could—“skinnying” up the streets—and reduced the available street parking.

The first four chapters of Street Smart describe the huge implications for cities and suburbs in a world in which the private automobile is a less and less dominant component of a modern transportation network—though I may as well say it here clearly: the private automobile isn’t going to disappear from the landscape of the industrialized world, and Street Smart isn’t a recipe for doing away with it. It wouldn’t be practical even if it were desirable, which it isn’t. A car-free future is a myth: seductive but unreachable. A dozen other myths, plausible but misleading, pervade the world of transportation. It’s widely believed, for example, that building new roads parallel to congested ones will relieve congestion. Or that wider lanes are safer than narrower lanes. Planners and politicians regularly contend that the more lanes you add to an intersection, the more traffic it can handle; that moving a city’s traffic faster will make that city function better; or that closing a congested street or knocking down a highway leads inevitably to gridlock.

Instead of a justification for reopening the park, I produced a report showing that for the most part the closings of the Central Park loop to cars had little impact on Fifth Avenue traffic. The only hour when I found a measurable impact was between three and four in the afternoon. I knew, however, I had to come up with something more or I’d be bypassed in the process. So I proposed that we should open the Sixth Avenue entrance to the park but only as far as 72nd Street. Essentially the park would remain car-free north of 72nd Street and on the entire West Drive. I produced a rigorous report and it worked. The park remained closed from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. (we lost the 3–4 p.m. hour) and the Sixth Avenue entrance remained open (a vestige that remains today). The Central Park incident was a reminder that New York had a less environmentally conscious executive running things. Though the Clean Air Act of 1970 required the city to reduce pollution, and the state and city, under Governor Nelson Rockefellerh and Mayor Lindsay, had agreed to a plan to limit automobile traffic by placing tolls on the bridges that led from Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx into Manhattan, Mayor Beame didn’t believe in it.


pages: 212 words: 70,224

How to Retire the Cheapskate Way by Jeff Yeager

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asset allocation, car-free, employer provided health coverage, estate planning, financial independence, fixed income, pez dispenser, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Zipcar

As we saw in the profile of Lys and Dan Burden, one of the primary reasons they chose the retirement location they did was that it will allow them to live car-free or at least “car-lite,” saving them an estimated $11,500 per year. Whether or not you’re relocating in retirement, thinking through your options when it comes to transportation is an extremely high priority. Can you downsize from owning two cars to just one? Can you live without a car completely—or at least keep it parked in the garage more often—by relying on public transportation, community-provided transportation for seniors, or car/ride-sharing programs? An excellent book on the topic about how to live car-free or car-lite is, ironically, entitled How to Live Well Without Owning a Car, by Chris Balish. Don’t be put off by the title; in reality, Balish explores all types of creative options to simply reduce your automotive dependency (and costs), even if you decide to hang on to your four wheels once you retire.

“It really has everything we were looking for,” Lys says. “It’s rare to find so much diversity in a small town, and the sense of community is amazing. It even hosts its own annual kinetic sculpture races!” (Me: clueless expression.) “Just Google it, Jeff!” she laughs. I subsequently did, and you should too. Very high on the Burdens’ list of prerequisites for potential retirement locales was a place where they could live “car-lite” or even entirely “car-free.” That’s not surprising since Dan is the cofounder and executive director of the Walkable and Livable Communities Institute (www.walklive.org), a nonprofit organization dedicated to “working to create healthy, connected communities that support active living and that advance opportunities for all people through walkable streets, livable cities and better built environments.” “Port Townsend is going to allow us to make ample use of our legs and lungs,” Dan says.

That allowed Dan and Lys to make the monthly mortgage payments and build equity in the home, all while enjoying essentially a free place to live while they both attended the University of Montana. When the couple moved to Florida nine years later, they sold the house and managed to repay each of the shareholders twice the amount each had “invested.” “At that time we were considered well below the poverty line, but we lived like kings and queens,” Dan says. “We were living car-free and eating really healthy by buying in bulk for everyone living in the house. It worked out to about $30 per person per month for all of our food. So for a total of $60 a month, including utilities, everyone was getting room and board, while their original investment in the house was growing. Not bad, eh?” In fact, the Burdens were such pioneers in living a good life on less that, in 1974, Money magazine featured them in an article about alternative lifestyle choices and how to get the most out of the money you have to work with.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

For example, outdoor bike racks are generally scarce or inconveniently located, indoor parking facilities are almost nonexistent in U.S. cities, makeshift bike racks like parking meters are gradually disappearing from urban spaces (replaced by digital boxes), and most employers do not allow employees to bring their bicycles inside their place of work, much less provide facilities to shower and/or change clothes.23 One can add to this any number of issues, including the prevalence of road hazards, a decreasing number of independent bike shops nationwide, and a relatively hostile street environment in which it is not uncommon for male drivers to sexually harass women on bikes and to intimidate, taunt (getting called “faggot” is all-too-typical), and occasionally kill male cyclists.24 Even seven-time Tour de France champion lance armstrong is not immune from these general trends; he was threatened and almost run over by a vengeful driver following a verbal exchange on the road in the late 1990s.25 Whether one chooses to ride a bicycle or does so out of necessity, daily mobility quickly becomes an issue when some of the most mundane, routine experiences one has as a bicyclist are fraught with a degree of hassle that one rarely experiences as a driver. Sara Stout, a prominent bicycle advocate and car-free activist in portland (Oregon), describes how this everyday sensibility begins to transform one’s perspective about bicycle transportation and the need to effect some sort of change: “at first bicycling is utilitarian, it’s just how you choose to get around . . . but it becomes political really quickly because it’s hard to get around. There are difficulties at every turn, and there seem to be injustices at every turn.

Background and (Dis)Organization Critical Mass emerged from the collaborative efforts of cyclists in the San Francisco Bay area who were involved with the San Francisco Bicycle Coalition, social movement activism, and the largely underground bike messenger culture that flourished throughout the 1980s and early 1990s.5 The Commute Clot, as it was initially called, was first proposed as a monthly event to get bike commuters and other cyclists together for a group ride.6 These monthly gatherings quickly began to draw more participants despite a lack of formal organization or an overarching dogma; initial rides drew around fifty or sixty people but within several years the numbers swelled into the hundreds and thousands.7 Since early rides were designed to celebrate biking, it was, and still is, common for people to ride with costumes, decorated bicycles, signs, noisemakers, and, in some cases, with sound systems and live bands. Halloween rides, for example, consistently feature some of the most elaborate festivities and parade themes. Critical Mass has also been used to pay tribute to cyclists killed by automobiles, and occasionally integrated into political protests and reclaim the Streets events: guerilla street parties thrown to celebrate both car-free space and the act of celebration itself.8 Without a charter, a centralized network, or formal affiliation with any organization, the event spread to more than three hundred cities throughout the world with rides featuring as many as eighty thousand participants, or “Massers.”9 Critical Mass is essentially a direct action, anarchic event in that rides are unsanctioned by city officials and riders are motivated by self-determination, self-rule, and non-hierarchical organization.

The Dutch provo, who aligned themselves with anarchists, antiwar activists, beatniks, freaks, and the like, actually articulated this punk disposition in the 1960s when describing their allies as a worldwide provotariat who dwell in “carbon-monoxidepoisoned asphalt jungles”: they are the people who “don’t want a career, who lead irregular lives, who feel like cyclists on a motorway.”10 While an apt metaphor, this sentiment is also a truism for many dissidents who, like the provo, do not simply feel like cyclists on the motorway, they are the cyclists on the motorway. Thus, it is hardly surprising that the Diy punk underground has spawned an array of politicized (if not politically disorganized) cyclists who are passionate about car-free living, technical skill sharing, and the idea of gaining independence from both the auto and oil industries.11 indeed, within certain scenes, custom built fixed-gear bikes, old beach cruisers, BMX bikes, converted single speeders, and thrift store “beaters” are as integral to punk culture as seven-inch records, zines, mohawks, and bad tattoos. Bike riding and bicycles are prevalent in the lyrics and imagery of dozens of active and defunct punk bands such as Fifteen, rambo, Dead Things, The Haggard, latterman, Crucial Unit, Japanther, and This Bike is a pipe Bomb—a band whose stickers adorn bicycles throughout the United States and occasionally prompt irrational (and rather amusing) responses from police departments and bomb squads.12 Self-styled “bike punx” are not the first to pay homage to bicycles in music, but their songs and lyrics have a tone that is markedly different from Queen’s operatic “Bicycle race” or Syd Barrett’s psychedelic musings on pink Floyd’s “Bike.”13 For example, Divide and Conquer is one of the many hardcore (punk) bands to articulate a radical critique of automobility that, while slightly tongue-in-cheek, is a sincere response to the everyday frustrations of being a bike rider in a car culture, both literally and metaphorically: Trash the El Camino because the kids are ready to ride Go two-wheeled disaster!


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Add to that the availability of Zipcar car sharing in my neighborhood and it soon became apparent that going car-free was the most convenient option. Back in my Miami days, the idea of selling my car would never have occurred to me. My apartment was in the heart of South Beach’s art deco district. My job was on the mainland, in Little Havana, about a twenty-minute drive away. My gym was in Coral Gables, twenty minutes further afield. Lunch, unless I wanted Cuban food every day—a decided health risk—required another twenty minutes of driving. All told, I was spending close to ninety minutes each weekday in traffic, about normal for an American. And I was OK with that. But, in Washington, it soon became apparent that there were other benefits to my new car-free lifestyle, besides just convenience. Six months into my autoless diet, I had lost ten pounds through walking and biking, and reduced my stress levels by avoiding traffic.

The city has also completed about twenty blocks of the spectacular High Line project, a former elevated railway that has been converted to a linear park, perhaps the most delightful piece of civic art to have been created since midcentury. You’ve probably seen the pictures, and they don’t lie: these public amenities are a real boon to the livability of their neighborhoods and are well used in all but the worst weather. These car-free successes provide a powerful lesson that unfortunately does not apply to most American cities. It is a mistake to think that similar designs will produce similar results in vastly dissimilar places. Face it: you aren’t Copenhagen, where cyclists outnumber motorists.33 You aren’t New York, where pedestrian congestion can actually make it almost impossible to walk south along Seventh Avenue near Penn Station at 9:00 a.m.

Here, a preponderance of retail outlets cranks up the score, despite the fact that the only walking occurs in gigantic parking lots. For this reason, sprawl poster child Tysons Corner, Virginia—straight from the cover of Joel Garreau’s book Edge City—earns an impressive 87. This puts it two points ahead of my own U Street neighborhood in Washington, D.C., even though half my neighbors don’t own cars and walk to everything. Living car-free in Tysons Corner, if not actually illegal, is still a preposterous concept. Happily, the developers are hard at work refining the algorithm. A new version called Street Smart impressively manages to take block size, street width, and vehicle speed into account. This new version will eventually replace the original one—perhaps by the time you are reading this. But Lerner and his team are wary of moving too quickly: “When we make the change over to Street Smart, a lot of people’s scores will change, so we want to have a long beta period to work out any issues.”


pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

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business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city

Nozzi walks to work—lucky him—but he is no anti-car extremist. (I can vouch for the fact that he is a very capable driver; he’s taken me on driving tours through some of Florida’s more egregious sprawl.) But he con-vincingly argues that, for more people, using an automobile should be an option instead of a requirement for daily survival. This is a practical and attainable vision, not a wild-eyed dream of a car-free utopia. Like each of us, his point of view is no doubt shaped by his days at the office. Nozzi works in one of those outposts on the front lines in the battle over sprawl and development, the local city planning department. Thosehalls play host to intense brawls over street design, land use, and neighborhood form. Traffic is issue number one in the daily skirmishes. There one can hear all the radicalized opinions of rule-bound public works engineers, real estate developers, not-in-my-back-yard insurgents (NIMBYs), expensive lawyers, and volunteer preservationists.

The reason is that most European urban areas developed before the auto age, whereas U.S. cities developed and grew after the emergence of cars. It is no coincidence that cities across Europe, since entering the auto age, have begun to see U.S.-style sprawl. As long as we design our roads to encourage sprawl, we will be afflicted by sprawl. Sprawl is enabled by car travel (through near universal ownership of reasonably affordable cars, free and abundant parking, and high-capacity urban roads). A different path is to strive to make people the quality-of-life design imperative in our cities, and ecosystems the imperative in outlying areas. If we insist on a walkable, high quality of life in ourcommunities—even at the cost of some city squirrels and raccoons—fewer people will hop in their cars to live in remote subdivisions that have replaced outlying ecosystems.


pages: 221 words: 68,880

Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy (Bicycle) by Elly Blue

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

It’s no wonder that we are all driving less, but particularly young people—and not necessarily because they are discovering other ways to get around. Like I did as a teen, they are going out less. It’s the surefire consequence of a terrible economy. Nearly all U.S. teens have access to the Internet and are socializing online as an alternative to driving to the mall or hanging out in the parking lot.209 Yet what happens when these car-free youth grow up? Owning a car remains the price of admission to an adult life with job, kids, and responsibilities, in even a relatively human-scale suburban landscape like the one I grew up in. The same roads that frustrated me as insurmountable barriers when I tried to travel around under my own power as a teen made trips to the same places absurdly fast and easy when someone gave me a ride. Living in a suburban place, you all too often must drive—no matter what the cost.

People started to ride on their own initiative, organizations formed, and some trails and bike lanes were built. Things really took off in places that heavily invested in bike infrastructure networks, like Davis, California and Eugene and Corvallis, Oregon—three of the top bicycle cities in the nation to this day. Popular bicycling movements were more limited here. Residents of New York City rallied for a car-free Manhattan, but for the most part organized street activism on bicycles didn’t take off. A bicycle renaissance like the one occurring in Amsterdam wasn’t meant to be, at least not yet. Bicycling had been normal and widespread prior to the rise of the car, and among children up through the 1950s. But we didn’t seize the moment in the 1970s. Instead, as baby boomers grew up and the economy rebounded in the late 1980s, bicycling declined to nearly nothing.


pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

“Many dealers and lenders,” Hudson writes, “perceive these consumers as having fewer options, less financial experience, and a diminished sense of marketplace entitlement, thus making them more likely to be desperate or susceptible when it comes time to close the deal.”32 At the same time, these vulnerable customers are also more likely to have salespeople try to sell them superfluous credit insurance, roadside assistance, and extended warranties or service contracts. Low-ranking military personnel—who are often both working poor and young—have also often been particularly targeted for this type of lending.33 Car title loans are another means by which people are driven closer to poverty. These loans, maybe better termed car title pawns, are made to people who own their cars free and clear. The loans function much like home equity loans, but the deed at stake is the car’s title. Companies such as Cash America and New Century Financial make short-term loans for a portion of the value of the car, with interest rates often as high as 300 percent annually. The lenders hold the title and a duplicate set of keys and, if payments are missed, swoop in to repossess and resell the car.

A national transit policy based on much more ambitious goals than the ones advocated by those groups could produce a system that shifts tax policy and subsidy support away from cars and toward convenient, eco-friendly public transit—not just for city and suburb but for country and exurb—and fosters government regulation of the auto companies to make cars cheaper, safer, and cleaner. Here’s how we reach both the modest goal of reducing car use, and the more ambitious goals of remaking our transit system so that we can allow more people to live car-free, slash transit’s contribution to global warming, and create more jobs in a sustainable economy. As you’ll see, our prescription does not require us to give up the real freedom that cars can provide. It does, however, point us toward a healthier, more balanced car culture that minimizes the manifold prices we pay for this freedom. TAKE A FAMILY SNAPSHOT IN FRONT OF THE CAR The first thing to do is sit down and figure out how much you use and pay for your cars, and begin to look at why.


pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

It is tranquil, a small country town, and I found it hard to believe it was once Tibet’s third-largest city. Gyantse’s monastery dominates one end of the Tibetan old town, almost burrowing its way in to the hills behind it. At the other end, a ruined fort, or dzong, lies atop a precipitously rocky hill that rises incongruously close to the centre of town. It looms over low-rise Gyantse like a crumbling castle guarding a loch in Scotland. Between those two landmarks, the old town’s mostly car-free main street is lined by two- and three-storey white-stone houses. Their window frames and doors were outlined in black, some bearing the gyung drung, the Tibetan Buddhist swastika. Women in long black dresses and bangden walked home with baskets of shopping, along with monks and people going to and from the monastery, prayer wheels in hand. A mix of Bollywood tunes, traditional Tibetan music and western pop – the Backstreet Boys – emanated from the shops on the street.

Thick stews of beef or donkey meat, sausage and roughly folded pork dumplings, nothing like the delicate little packages served in the south of China, provide insulation against the elements, as well as revealing the Russian influence on Heilongjiang’s cuisine. I ate a lot of cabbage in the far north, one of the few vegetables that can be stored throughout the winter, and became accustomed to the lack of fresh fruit. Mohe’s residents, like those of most Chinese small towns, are friendly. They were both chuffed and intrigued to have a foreign visitor who wasn’t a Russian from over the border eighty kilometres away. Mohe’s quiet, surprisingly car-free streets too ensure it is far more pleasant than most places of an equivalent size in China. It is a modern town now, after an inferno in 1985 reduced most of its original wooden houses to ashes. Many of the new buildings are in a mock-Russian style, with peaked red roofs, domes and ornate façades. Despite its isolation, Mohe is one of China’s more unlikely tourist destinations. During the summer, when the sun shines for over twenty hours a day, it is the only place in the country where the northern lights are visible.

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

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banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Outdoor Activities Once the kids are out of nappies, skiing in the French Alps is the obvious family choice. Ski school École du Ski Français ( Click here ) initiates kids in the art of snow plough (group or private lessons, half- or full day) from four years old, and many resorts open their fun-driven jardins de neige (snow gardens) to kids from three years old. Families with kids aged under 10 will find smaller resorts like Les Gets, Avoriaz (car-free), La Clusaz, Chamrousse and Le Grand Bornand easier to navigate and better value than larger ski stations. Then, of course, there is all the fun of the fair off-piste: ice skating, sledging, snowshoeing and mushing. The French Alps and Pyrenees are prime walking areas. Tourist offices have information on easy, well-signposted family walks – or get in touch with a local guide. In Chamonix the cable-car ride and two-hour hike to Lac Blanc followed by a dip in the Alpine lake is a DIY family favourite; as are the mountain-discovery half-days for ages three to seven, and outdoor-adventure days for ages eight to 12 run by Cham’ Aventure (Click here ), based inside Chamonix’ Maison de la Montagne.

Trains running from Rouen include: Amiens From €19.40, 1¼ hours, four or five daily Caen From €24.90, 1½ hours, eight to 10 daily Dieppe From €11.10, 45 minutes, 14 to 16 daily Monday to Saturday, six Sunday Le Havre €14.60, 50 minutes, 20 daily Monday to Saturday, 10 Sunday Paris St-Lazare €21.90, 1¼ hours, about 27 daily Monday to Friday, 14 to 19 Saturday and Sunday Getting Around BICYCLE Cy’clic ( 08 00 08 78 00; http://cyclic.rouen.fr) , Rouen’s version of Paris’ Vélib’, lets you rent a city bike from 14 locations around town. Credit card registration for one/seven days costs €1/5. Use is free for the first 30 minutes; the 2nd/3rd/4th and subsequent half-hours cost €1/2/4 each. BUS Rouen’s bus lines are operated by TCAR ( 02 35 52 52 52; www.tcar.fr) . The most useful routes for travellers are the T2 and T3, which serve the Auberge de Jeunesse Robec. A single-journey ticket costs €1.50. CAR Free parking is available across the Seine from the city centre, along and below quai Jean Moulin. METRO Rouen’s metro ( 02 35 52 52 52; www.tcar.fr) runs from 5am (6am on Sunday) to about 11pm and is useful for getting from the train station to the centre of town. One ticket costs €1.50. There are Espace Métrobus ticket offices inside the train station. JUMIÈGES Following the Seine valley west of Rouen, the D982 road winds through little towns, occasionally following the banks of the Seine as it climbs and descends.

Internet access costs €1 for 15 minutes. Getting There & Around BUS The bus station ( 02 31 89 28 41) is two blocks east of the tourist office. Bus Verts ( 08 10 21 42 14; www.busverts.fr) services include an express bus to Caen (€11, one hour): Caen €7.95, two hours, 12 daily Monday to Saturday, six Sunday Deauville & Trouville €2.30, 30 minutes Le Havre €4.50, 35 minutes, eight daily Monday to Saturday, four Sunday CAR Free parking is available next to Naturospace, which is 600m from the Avant Port on bd Charles V. TRAIN To catch the train (eg to Paris), take the bus to Deauville or Le Havre. MANCHE The Manche département (www.manchetourisme.com) encompasses the entire Cotentin Peninsula, stretching from Utah Beach northwest to Cherbourg and southwest to the magnificent Mont St-Michel. The peninsula’s northwest corner is especially captivating, with unspoiled stretches of rocky coastline sheltering tranquil bays and villages.


pages: 356 words: 186,629

Frommer's Los Angeles 2010 by Matthew Richard Poole

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AltaVista, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Maui Hawaii, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile

T H E B E S T O F LO S A N G E L E S 8 T H E M O S T U N F O R G E T TA B L E D I N I N G E X P E R I E N C E S 1 • Figueroa H otel (939 S. F igueroa S t., Los Angeles; & 800/421-9092): M y favorite Downtown lodging is this venerable 1925 building re-created as a Spanish colonial–G othic palace. F un and funky, the ex otically decorated guest rooms hav e far mor e style than y our average hotel; what ’s mor e, this gentrified corner of D owntown offers easy , car-free Metro Line access to Hollywood and Universal Studios. See p. 95. • The H otel C alifornia (1670 O cean Ave., S anta M onica; & 866/5710000): You’ll like livin ’ it up at this hacienda-style beachfr ont motel that charges less than half the price of its fancy-pants neighbors. You’ll dig the hotel’s sur fer/sun-worshiper ambience, cheery r ooms with California-themed decor, and dir ect access to the sand via a private path.

Amenities: 2 r estaurants; 3 bars; bab ysitting; concierge; executive-level rooms; exercise room; Jacuzzi; Olympic-size outdoor pool; room service; spa. In room: A/C, TV, CD player, hair dryer, minibar, Wi-Fi ($10 per day). INEXPENSIVE W H E R E TO S TAY Best Western Holly wood Hills Hotel H O L LY W O O D 5 Location is a big selling point for this family-owned (since 1948) member of the r eliable Best Western chain: It’s just off U.S. 101 (the H ollywood Fwy.); a M etro Line stop just 3 blocks away means easy , car-free access to U niversal Studios; and the famed H ollywood and Vine intersection is just a 5-minute walk away . The entir e hotel has been r ecently r enovated in a contemporar y style, and all the spiffy guest r ooms come with a r efrigerator, coffeemaker, microwave, and wireless Internet. The rooms in the back building ar e my fav orites, as they sit w ell back from busy Franklin Avenue, face the gleaming blue-tiled, heated outdoor pool, and have an attractive view of the neighboring hillside.

., Topanga) & 310/455-2111; www.hollywoodprobicycles.com) rents mountain bikes at $75 for a 24-hour period and $50 for each additional day. Every rental comes with a free tour map, a safety helmet, a bike lock, and a handlebar bag for storage. In the South Bay, bike rentals—including tandem bikes—are available 1 block fr om The Strand at Hermosa Cyclery, 20 13th St. (& 310/374-7816; www.hermosacyclery. com). Cruisers are $7 per hour; tandems are $13 per hour. FYI, The Strand is an excellent car-free path that’s tailor-made for a leisurely bike ride. FISHING Del R ey S port F ishing, 13759 F iji Way, M arina del R ey ( & 800/8223625; www.marinadelreysportfishing.com), has three deep-sea boats depar ting daily on half- and full-day ocean fishing trips. O f course, it depends on what ’s r unning when you’re out, but bass, barracuda, halibut, and y ellowtail are the most common catches on these party boats.


pages: 188 words: 57,229

Frommer's Memorable Walks in San Francisco by Erika Lenkert

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Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, car-free, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, South of Market, San Francisco

Among many other performers, one who stood out was Maya Angelou, author of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings and the poet who read at the inauguration of President Clinton; she sang here during the 1950s. Turn right on Pacific Avenue, and just after you cross Montgomery Street, you’ll be at brick-lined Osgood Place on the left, which now is registered as a Historic Landmark and, as a result, is one of the few quiet—and car-free— alleyways left in the city. Stroll up Osgood and go left on Broadway to: 8. 1010 Montgomery St. (at the corner of Montgomery and Broadway). This is where Allen Ginsberg lived during the time he wrote his legendary poem Howl. Ginsberg first performed Howl on October 13, 1955, at the corner of Fillmore and Union streets (in a different part of town) at the Six Gallery—a converted auto-repair shop fitted with a small stage and chairs in a half-circle for a reading 44 • Memorable Walks in San Francisco by six poets.


pages: 287 words: 9,386

Stuff White People Like: A Definitive Guide to the Unique Taste of Millions by Christian Lander

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car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Frank Gehry, Slavoj Žižek

Most likely the conversation will continue with them talking about how jealous they are of people in New York who don’t have to drive. White people all support the idea of public transportation and will be happy to tell you about how subways and streetcars/trams have helped to energize cities like Chicago and Portland. They will tell you all about the energy and cost savings of having people abandon their cars for public transportation and how they hope that one day they can live in a city where they will be car-free. At this point, you are probably thinking about the massive number of buses that serve your city and how you have never seen a white person riding them. To a white person a bus is essentially a giant minivan that continually stops to pick up progressively smellier people. You should never, ever point this out to a white person. It will make them recognize that they might not love public transportation as much as they thought, and then they will feel sad.


pages: 207 words: 52,716

Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons by Peter Barnes

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Albert Einstein, car-free, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, jitney, new economy, patent troll, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

These efforts revitalized the neighborhood without displacing local residents, as would have happened through private property and gentrification. Building the Commons Sector | 137 Figure 9.1 • American Permanent Fund • Children’s start-up trust • Universal health insurance • Copyright royalty fund • Spectrum trust • Commons tax credit… on m Co m ra l ltu Cu • Land trusts • Municipal wi-fi • Community gardens • Farmers’ markets • Public spaces • Car-free zones • Time banks… s • Regional watershed trusts • Regional airshed trusts • Mississippi basin trust • Buffalo comons… en Local Regional National Op M an ag ed Gl o ba lC om m on s THE NEW COMMONS SECTOR SURFACE WATER TRUSTS The Oregon Water Trust, founded in 1993, acquires surface water rights to protect salmon and other fish. So far it has worked with over three hundred landowners to put water back into streams, some of which had been sucked completely dry.


pages: 195 words: 70,193

Frommer's Portable San Diego by Mark Hiss

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car-free, East Village, Golden Gate Park, Maui Hawaii

U.S. residents must show proof of international travel within the last 6 months in order to stay. 1 Downtown San Diego’s downtown is an excellent place for leisure travelers to stay. The nightlife and dining in the Gaslamp Quarter and Horton Plaza shopping are close at hand; Balboa Park, Hillcrest, Old Town, and Coronado are less than 10 minutes away by car; and beaches aren’t much farther. It’s also the city’s public-transportation hub and thus very convenient for car-free visitors. Many downtown hotels seem designed for the expense-account or trust-fund crowd, but there are more moderate choices, in terms of price. There’s the colorful, modern Bristol Hotel, 1055 First Ave. (& 800/662-4477 or 619/232-6141; www.bristolhotelsandiego. com), adjacent to the Gaslamp Quarter; and in the budget category, you can’t beat the 260-room 500 West, 500 W. Broadway (& 619/ 234-5252; www.500westhotel.com).


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

There’s an overwhelming desire for people to have more free time, and part of urbanization is just that. It’s so much easier to walk downstairs and walk outside and walk to a restaurant, or grab a bite.” This obsession with “walkable suburban,” it should be noted, does not mean that residents never have to get in their cars again. Only in a very few places in the country is it routine for people to live car-free entirely—New York City being one of them. My neighborhood in Manhattan’s West Village has a Walk Score of 100, making it a “walker’s paradise,” and I would say it fits that bill: in eighteen years of living in various neighborhoods in New York City, I have never owned a car. But my experience is an aberration of the highest order. All “walkable suburban” needs to mean is that a pleasant and walkable center of some kind is accessible nearby.

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

For the vehicle-mad, there’s Douarnenez’ seafaring Musée du Bateau, Clermont-Ferrand’s Vulcania, car museums in Lyon, Monaco (razz around the F1 Grand Prix track in a Ferrari;) and Mulhouse, which also sports the Cité du Train. Your kid wants to be an astronaut? Build and launch a shuttle at Toulouse’s interactive Cité de l’Espace. The coastlines drum up bags of old-fashioned fun: Cruise Porto’s crystalline caves on Corsica, meet sharks in Monaco’s Musée Océanographique, pedal (or be pedalled) and snorkel on car-free Île de Porquerolles, party at the Nice Carnival, see how oysters grow at an oyster farm in Brittany and ride a mechanical elephant Jules Verne–style on Île de Nantes. Return to beginning of chapter TREASURE TROVE France flaunts 32 World Heritage Sites (http://whc.unesco.org), including the banks of the Seine in Paris and royal palaces at Versailles, Fontainebleau and Chambord. The cathedral in Chartres makes a fine foray from the capital, as does the Unesco-hallmarked chunk of the Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes.

Montmartre & Pigalle All the streets in Montmartre, 18e, encircled by rue Caulaincourt, rue de Clignancourt, bd de Rochechouart and bd de Clichy (from 11am to 7pm April to August, from 11am to 6pm September to March), as well as rue des Martyrs, 9e (from 10am to 1pm Sundays). Canal St-Martin, 10e The area around quai de Valmy and quai de Jemmapes, 10e (from 10am to 6pm Sundays in winter, to 8pm in summer); in July and August yet more streets running south from quai de Jemmapes become car-free. Bois de Boulogne (from 9am to 6pm Saturdays and Sundays) and Bois de Vincennes (from 9am to 6pm Sundays). Jardin du Luxembourg, 6e Immediate surrounding streets, including parts of rue Auguste Compte, rue d’Assas, bd St-Michel and rue des Chartreux (from 10am to 6pm Sundays March to November). * * * The Panthéon is a superb example of 18th-century neoclassicism, but its ornate marble interior is gloomy in the extreme.

Auberge de Jeunesse Moulin de Méen ( 02 96 39 10 83; dinan@fuaj.org; Vallée de la Fontaine des Eaux; camping €6, dm incl breakfast €15.70; reception 9am-noon & 5-9pm, closed late Dec–early Feb; ) Dinan’s HI-affiliated youth hostel is in a lovely vine-covered old water mill about 750m north of the port. Hôtel Tour de l’Horloge ( 02 96 39 96 92; hiliotel@wanadoo.fr; 5 rue de la Chaux; s €42-57, d €47-62) In the centre of the old town, the 12-room Horloge occupies a charming 18th-century house on a cobbled, car-free lane, which contrasts with its brand-new renovations in colourful North African style. Head to the top floor, where rooms have exposed wooden beams and a lofty view of the hotel’s namesake clock tower. Hôtel Les Grandes Tours ( 02 96 85 16 20; www.hotel-dinan-grandes-tours.com; 6 rue du Château; s €48-52, d €51-55; Feb–mid-Dec) In its former life as the Hôtel des Messageries, this hotel was fabled as the place Victor Hugo stayed with his very good friend Juliette Drouet in 1836.

Bali & Lombok Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

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active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, first-past-the-post, global village, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism

Grab a cold one with the rest of the crew. Then order the heaped-up grilled seafood platter. On the Beach Various restaurants and cafes face the water along Jl Pantai Arjuna, and there are more along Jl Padma Utara. All are good come sunset. MozarellaITALIAN, SEAFOOD ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.mozzarella-resto.com; Maharta Bali Hotel, Jl Padma Utara; meals from 90,000Rp) The best of the beachfront restaurants on Legian’s car-free strip, Mozarella serves Italian fare that's more authentic than most. Fresh fish also features; service is rather polished and there are various open-air areas for moonlit dining plus a more sheltered dining room. ZanzibarINTERNATIONAL ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %0361-733529; Jl Arjuna; meals from 50,000Rp; h8am-11pm) This popular patio fronts a busy strip at Double Six Beach. Sunset is prime time; the best views are from the tables on the 2nd-floor terrace.

It's a wild party and a favourite subject for Australian journalists decrying the downfall of the nation's youth. DON'T MISS SUNSET DRINKS IN KUTA & LEGIAN Bali sunsets regularly explode in stunning displays of reds, oranges and purples. Sipping a cold one while watching this free show to the beat of the surf is the top activity at 6pm. Genial local guys offer plastic chairs on the sand and cheap, cold Bintang (20,000Rp). In Kuta, head to the car-free south end of the beach; in Legian, the best place is the strip of beach that starts north of Jl Padma and runs to the south end of Jl Pantai Arjuna. Legian & Double Six Beach Most of Legian's bars are smaller and appeal to a more sedate crowd than those in Kuta. The very notable exception is the area at the end of Jl Arjuna/Jl Double Six where there are cafes and clubs. A string of beach bars runs north from here on the Seminyak beachwalk.


pages: 321 words: 85,893

The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability by Lierre Keith

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British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, peak oil, placebo effect, Rosa Parks, the built environment

We have to measure our personal longings against the damage to our home and we have to let that damage be real to us, emotionally, intellectually, spiritually. It’s hard to do this when our immediate needs are being met: the lights are on, the cupboards full. Still, that is our adult knowledge now, and our final adult task. Number two is to stop driving a car. You’ll quickly discover the structural impediments to car-free living. The entire built environment has been rearranged for the demands of the automobile, demands that are completely at odds with the needs of human community. US Americans use much more fossil fuel than Europeans, not just because we’re fixated on our individual entitlements, but because we were foolish enough to let suburbs, with their segregated distances between home, work, and material goods like food, become our dominant living pattern.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Interstate highways were welcomed into the city core, streets were widened and made one-way, street trees were cut down, sidewalks were narrowed or eliminated, and on-street parking was replaced by massive parking lots, often on the sites of demolished historic buildings. The result was the evisceration of the public realm. In some cities, the street was relegated entirely to the poor and the homeless in favor of underground malls and pedestrian bridges, which continue to sap vitality from the street. Cities such as Dallas and Minneapolis built these stratified systems not because of the weather but to allow cars free rein of the terra firma. Dallas justified its system with the following explanation: “One of the chief contributing factors to traffic congestion is crowds of pedestrians interrupting the flow of traffic at intersections.”cc What some cities would now give to regain those pedestrian crowds! Astratified public realm for a stratified society: pedestrian bridges abandon the street to the underclass An appropriate fate for the Motor City: freeways and parking lots paved the way for Detroit’s decline (shown in 1950 and 1990) It is difficult to count the number of cities that have been extensively damaged by kowtowing to the demands of the automobile.


pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city

But programs like Summer Streets don’t really lead anywhere, in terms of broad transportation strategy for urban areas. City bicyclists undoubtedly enjoyed being able to tool down Manhattan’s spine, virtually unimpeded, from the middle of Central Park to the Brooklyn Bridge, but removing motor traffic from upper Park Avenue didn’t make that street any less of a pedestrian wasteland than it already was. Car-free programs like Summer Streets treat pedestrians and bicyclists the way Robert Moses used to treat cars, by segregating them on expressways of their own. A better idea, which Bloomberg’s office announced a few weeks later, was a plan to reconfigure Broadway by closing two of its four lanes to vehicle traffic and turning those lanes over to pedestrians, bicyclists, and vendors. That program actually carried New York a step closer to something that every big city needs, which is a surface-transportation vision that integrates buses, trucks, cabs, cars, bicyclists, and pedestrians into a coherent system in which all elements coexist safely, while steadily shrinking the space devoted to cars.


pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

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Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize

Kathryn Schulz, in her elegant book Being Wrong, describes the state of profound uncertainty that comes with feeling wrong about some fundamental belief. She compares it to being a toddler lost in the heart of Manhattan. But experimenting doesn’t have to be like that. On the very same day on which I read Schulz’s words, my three-year-old daughter was lost in the centre of London – on the South Bank, a car-free space that is otherwise just as bewildering as Times Square. And it didn’t bother her in the slightest: she bolted out of the door of a café and began to play hide and seek. Witnesses told her increasingly frantic family that she had sauntered along the bank of the Thames, playing on the street furniture, ducking behind benches, dancing around and exploring a space she found delightful. For the ten minutes during which she was lost, it seems that she felt absolutely secure that she would find her family or that her family would find her.


pages: 352 words: 104,411

Rush Hour by Iain Gately

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Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise

Traffic in Towns predicted an apocalypse if Britain failed to adapt to the reality of car commuting: ‘Unless steps are taken, the motor vehicle will defeat its own utility and bring about a disastrous degradation of the surroundings for living’. Both drivers and city-centre pedestrians would suffer as a result of congestion, and the aspirations of the entire population, of whom it was expected that they would take car ownership ‘as much for granted as an overcoat’, would be frustrated. The answer, in Professor Buchanan’s opinion, was to create ring roads around cities, and car-free zones within them: ‘Distasteful though we find the whole idea, we think that some deliberate limitation of the volume of motor traffic is quite unavoidable.’ He had visited California and Texas as part of his research, and concluded that: ‘The American policy of providing motorways for commuters can succeed, even in American conditions, only if there is a disregard for all considerations other than the free flow of traffic which seems sometimes to be almost ruthless.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Zipcar thrived by leveraging the opening provided by the wasteful economics of current car consumption models—the fact that personally owned cars sit idle 95 percent of the time.4 But we weren’t the only ones leveraging idle capacity: The U.S. government similarly shared its R&D and satellites with everyone for global positioning systems (GPS), and the city of Bogotá, Colombia, took advantage of the fact that its thoroughfares were relatively car-free on Sunday mornings by turning the streets over to pedestrians, runners, bicyclists, and skaters and featuring performances throughout the city. Examples of exploiting the hidden value in idle assets abound once you start to look for them. Recognizing the role of excess capacity was the first of my epiphanies. Unpacking my Zipcar experience, seeing the commonalities with other emerging companies, and appreciating the scale of the firestorm that Zipcar helped catalyze, took many years.

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Today, Greenfield Village is a major tourist attraction run by a foundation that has disentangled itself from the Ford Motor Company. Admission is $10. 50 a head. I had taken perhaps thirty steps beyond the ticket gate when a great pang of rue corkscrewed through me, realizing that here Henry Ford had built a monument to everything that his life's work had obliterated in the American townscape. In keeping with the period scene, there were no cars in sight. How strange it was to amble down car-free streets-even if you could always hear the distant roar of the Southfield Freeway. I was curious what my fellow visitors thought, and so, bran­ dishing a pocket tape recorder, I asked them. They liked a lot of things about the place. The pottery demonstration, the tintype studio, the "old-fashioned" lunch they got at the Eagle Tavern stagecoach :nn, the little watchmaker's shop off " Main Street," the costumed "schoolmarm" ringing her bell on the village green, the sheep grazing in the Firestone farm pasture, and so on.

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

The free monthly listings magazine twenty4-seven (www.twenty4-seven.co.uk) covers all the latest bars, gigs and clubs, and is available from tourist offices, bars and restaurants. Activities There’s a distinct whiff of adrenalin in Devon and Cornwall. Their landscapes lend themselves to activities ranging from amped-up adventure to chilled-out wanderings. The tourist board’s subsite (Click here) is completely car free and sweeps from Bodmin Moor to Padstow. Bikes can be hired in most large towns; we specify options throughout. SURFING Cornwall is a magnet for Britain’s surfers, with excellent breaks running all the way from Porthleven (near Helston) in Cornwall, west around Land’s End and along the north coast. Popular spots include Newquay (Click here), Perranporth, St Agnes and Bude (Click here) in Cornwall, and Croyde (Click here) in north Devon.

Check out www.itsadventuresouthwest.co.uk for details. Getting There & Around To reach some remote spots you will need your own wheels. However, if you’re determined, many rural areas are accessible by public transport, and if you’re sticking to the main towns and sights, it’s perfectly possible to get around by bus and train. Timetables and transport maps are available from stations and tourist offices, and the handy Car-Free Days Out (www.carfreedaysout.com) booklet has comprehensive public-transport listings. For all bus and train timetables, call Traveline South West (0871 200 2233; www.travelinesw.com). BUS The region’s main towns and cities are served by regular National Express coaches. For local buses, the more remote the area, the less regular the service; parts of Dartmoor and west Cornwall can be particularly tricky to navigate.

AROUND BRIDLINGTON Northeast of Bridlington, the 120m-high chalk cliffs of Flamborough Head thrust out into the North Sea, providing nesting sites for England’s largest seabird colony. The headland is also home to the country’s oldest surviving lighthouse tower, dating from around 1670 – it stands in the golf course about 300m before the car park beside the modern lighthouse. On the northern side of the headland, about 4 miles north of Bridlington, is the RSPB’s Bempton Cliffs Nature Reserve ( 01262-851179; pedestrian/car free/£3.50; visitor centre 10am-5pm Mar-Oct, 9.30am-4pm Nov-Feb). From April to August these cliffs are home to more than 200,000 nesting sea birds, including guillemots, razorbills, fulmars, a rare colony of gannets, and those supermodels of the seagull world, the delicate and elegant kittiwakes, with their fat and fluffy chicks. The big crowd-pullers, though, are the comical and colourful puffins.


pages: 485 words: 148,662

Farewell by Sergei Kostin, Eric Raynaud

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car-free, cuban missile crisis, index card, invisible hand, kremlinology, Lao Tzu, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier

A detail worth noting in his deposition, Vetrov admitted that no sooner had he made his request, he stopped, suddenly realizing that he had reached a point of no return. From now on, he would be a mole paid by an adversarial service. Yet, he did not need money to survive or to live better. He had everything a Soviet citizen could dream of, with a luxuriously furnished apartment in an upscale district, a house in the countryside, a car, free medical care for the entire family, and his son’s higher education paid. The “island” is what he thought he would be able to buy in that life awaiting him on the other side of the border. In his current life, a bottle of scotch for him or cheap jewelry for his mistress was all he needed. The value of Vetrov’s confession on this account is relative. No one wants to be seen in an unflattering light, appearing greedy, corruptible, and servile.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional

In New York City, Streetsblog helped to hasten the departure of Mayor Bloomberg’s first DOT commissioner and create a new, more ambitious set of expectations for her successor. Today, with Janette Sadik-Khan at the helm, New York City’s DOT is pushing a bold program to create “sustainable streets” through the prioritization of pedestrians, transit, and bicycles. Concepts that were considered “crazy” and politically impossible—a car-free Times Square and physically separated bike lanes, for example—are now being planned, designed, and built. New York City DOT is not just reformed, it is transformed, and widely considered a leading example for transportation agencies in other U.S. cities to follow. People who contributed to Streetsblog in the early days are now working in the DOT commissioner’s office. With editions up and running in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and on Capitol Hill, Streetsblog is also helping to make change happen in cities beyond New York and at the federal level.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

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additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

More about eco-efficiency than building a place where people might want to live. From Ma’s office window, we could see below the huddled buildings of Shanghai’s old town. As we talked, bulldozers were tearing down the buildings to make way for new office blocks. Ma saw this as progress. He wanted to do away with the past. Tear down the old towns and create a bright new, green, future. But to me, the old town was a dense, largely car-free enclave, mixing homes and workplaces and shops. It was a model of green design, the perfect embodiment of the dreams of the new urbanists. But he didn’t see it. And still the bulldozers came. 34 Zero Carbon: Why We Can Halt Climate Change THE THREAT FROM global warming is greater than usually claimed. In my last book, The Last Generation, I explained why many scientists believe that the world faces a series of dangerous ‘tipping points’ that could make warming happen much faster and more violently than allowed for in reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC.


pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker

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airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

The warehouses were pulled down and replaced by a riverside park designed by Claire and Michel Corajoud, top French landscape architects. The quai became a promenade with gardens, paths and in the center a long shallow reflecting pool or “water mirror” to catch the light from the sky and reflect the old eighteenth-century bourse, or stock exchange. Finally, Juppé built a modern tramway system that eliminates unnecessary driving and opens up the old city to pedestrians again with public squares, green spaces and car-free walkways. For Bordeaux, this was the equivalent of the Boston Big Dig. For French tourism officials, it was the Big Payoff. From the beginning, they had watched and fostered the renaissance of Bordeaux, promoting this “sleeping beauty” as returned to the living and figuring out how Bordeaux could add new glamour to the French tourist agenda. During our trip to France, Bill and I caught a rapid train from Paris and in less than three hours arrived at Bordeaux, in the southwest corner of France near the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees Mountains and a little farther to the east, the Mediterranean.


pages: 486 words: 148,485

Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

Tetlock, 228 regard the world as a place of absolutes (FN). See e.g., “Borderline Personality Disorder: Splitting Countertransference,” Psychiatric Times, Vol. 15, No. 11 (Nov. 1, 1988). “self-subversive thinking.” Tetlock, 214. doctors interrupt their patients. Jerome Groopman, How Doctors Think (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007), 17. John Francis. Mark Hertsgaard, “John Francis, a ‘Planetwalker’ Who Lived Car-Free and Silent for 17 Years, Chats with Grist,” Grist, May 10, 2005. Francis’s book is Planetwalker: How to Change Your World One Step at a Time (Elephant Mountain Press, 2005). The quotation appears on p. 44. Joseph-Marie de Maistre. Bates, 203. “the general will cannot err.” Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Lester G. Crocker, ed. (Simon and Schuster, 1973).


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Although they acknowledged how indispensable this exchange is to them for sheer survival, many women did not view it as “assistance” or “help” per se, because of the strong norms associated with sharing among members of the extended family.... I was told in numerous interviews that they received little or no “help” from family members, but on further elaboration, women would reveal receiving either cars, free rent, baby-sitting, clothes for their children, or numerous Christmas presents.84 Around the same time, rural Wisconsin resident Colleen Bennett told sociologist Mark Rank about her family:We’re all very close. We take care of each other if anybody has a problem. My husband and I have had financial problems on and off for years. And my brother recently lost his job. So when we have something where we can help them, we go ahead and give them a couple of dollars for gas in their car so they can find a job. ’Cause we know what it feels like when you don’t have it.


pages: 661 words: 193,092

The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

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car-free, the market place

They were silent, and gradually the skittering life of the ground, of holes and burrows, of the brush, began again; the gophers moved, and the rabbits crept to green things, the mice scampered over clods, and the winged hunters moved soundlessly overhead. Chapter 7 In the towns, on the edges of the towns, in fields, in vacant lots, the used-car yards, the wreckers’ yards, the garages with blazoned signs—Used Cars, Good Used Cars. Cheap transportation, three trailers. ’27 Ford, clean. Checked cars, guaranteed cars. Free radio. Car with 100 gallons of gas free. Come in and look. Used Cars. No overhead. A lot and a house large enough for a desk and chair and a blue book. Sheaf of contracts, dog-eared, held with paper clips, and a neat pile of unused contracts. Pen—keep it full, keep it working. A sale’s been lost ’cause a pen didn’t work. Those sons-of-bitches over there ain’t buying. Every yard gets ’em. They’re lookers.

Frommer's San Diego 2011 by Mark Hiss

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airport security, California gold rush, car-free, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, New Journalism, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

DOWNTOWN, THE GASLAMP & LITTLE ITALY San Diego’s downtown is an excellent place for leisure travelers to stay. The nightlife and dining in the Gaslamp Quarter and shopping at Horton Plaza are close at hand; Balboa Park, Hillcrest, Old Town, and Coronado are less than 10 minutes away by car; and beaches aren’t much farther. It’s also the city’s public transportation hub, and thus very convenient for car-free visitors. Many downtown hotels seem designed for the expense-account crowd, but there are more moderately priced choices. There’s the modern Bristol Hotel, 1055 First Ave. (& 800/662-4477 or 619/232-6141; www.thebristolsandiego.com), adjacent to the Gaslamp Quarter. In the budget category, you can’t beat the 259-room 500 West, 500 W. Broadway (& 866/315-4251 or 619/234-5252; www.500westhotel. com).


pages: 818 words: 153,952

C++ Concurrency in Action: Practical Multithreading by Anthony Williams

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car-free, finite state, SETI@home

Since it would therefore be rather expensive and impractical for each employee to have a company car, companies often offer a car pool instead; they have a limited number of cars that are available to all employees. When an employee needs to make an off-site trip, they book one of the pool cars for the appropriate time and return it for others to use when they return to the office. If there are no pool cars free on a given day, the employee will have to reschedule their trip for a subsequent date. A thread pool is a similar idea, except that threads are being shared rather than cars. On most systems, it’s impractical to have a separate thread for every task that can potentially be done in parallel with other tasks, but you’d still like to take advantage of the available concurrency where possible. A thread pool allows you to accomplish this; tasks that can be executed concurrently are submitted to the pool, which puts them on a queue of pending work.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

But its achievements are nevertheless remarkable, especially in light of its starting point. The 1970s oil shock hit Denmark harder than many of its European neighbors. At the time, every last drop of oil was imported. When prices rose dramatically the entire economy was crushed. Anne Højer Simonsen of the Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy recalls the sacrifices. “When I was a child, each Sunday, you could not ride on the highways. There were car-free Sundays. Only emergency vehicles rode. It was terrible. It was very cold all winter. We couldn’t have more than sixteen or seventeen degrees [Celsius] in our living rooms.” It took an entire decade for Denmark to recover. But the experience created a burning platform that unleashed an unstoppable drive toward self-sufficiency. Creating a Context for Self-Organization In the old model of government, politicians and bureaucrats not only steered, they rowed.


pages: 416 words: 204,183

The Rough Guide to Florence & the Best of Tuscany by Tim Jepson, Jonathan Buckley, Rough Guides

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air freight, Bonfire of the Vanities, car-free, housing crisis, land reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

Osteria delle Catene Via Mainardi 18 T0577.941.966. A thoroughly reliable place for straightforward Tuscan food. The wine list – over a hundred choices – is good, too. A full lunch will cost around €30, dinner €10–15 more. Closed Wed. | San Gimignano San Gimignano isn’t famous for its food – there are too many visitors and too few locals to ensure high standards. However, the tables set out on the car-free squares and lanes, and the good local wines, make for pleasant dining. The recommended places below are all moderately priced. Good bars are similarly thin on the ground, though there are one or two on each of the main piazzas that are decent enough places from where to watch the world go by. The little but extraordinarily popular A Gelateria di Piazza, at Piazza della Cisterna 4 (closed mid-Nov to mid-Feb), has arguably the best ice cream in Tuscany.

Frommer's Israel by Robert Ullian

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airport security, British Empire, car-free, East Village, haute cuisine, Khartoum Gordon, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Silicon Valley, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

Jewish Home Swap (www.jewishhomeswap.com) is a free service that gives people an opportunity to save on vacation costs by exchanging their homes with other people. The emphasis here is on homes with kosher kitchens and locations close to Jewish religious services. THE OLD CITY The advantage to staying in the Old City is that you feel the rhythms and hear the sounds of this extraordinary (and largely car-free) place—the calls to prayer from the minarets, the medley of bells from the city’s ancient churches. You’ll watch the bazaars come to life in the morning and slowly close down for the night; you’ll catch glimpses of street life that a visitor based in the New City would never see. You won’t come across any high-rise (or even low-rise) luxury palaces in the Old City, just a few inexpensive to moderately priced hotels, hospices, and hostels.


pages: 2,020 words: 267,411

Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy

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air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

If You Like… Medinas If you pause for a moment in the medina, stepping out of the stream of shoppers, you can watch Morocco’s very essence flash by. These ancient, crowded quarters – with winding lanes, dead ends, riad hotels, piles of spices, traders, tea drinkers, and a sensory assault around every corner – offer a strong dose of Morocco’s famous Maghrebi mystique. Fez The planet’s largest living Islamic medieval city and its biggest car-free urban environment, with donkeys trekking to tanneries in the leather district. (Click here) Marrakesh Exuberant Marrakshis course between souqs (markets), palaces and the Djemaa el-Fna within the medina’s 19km of ramparts. (Click here) Tangier Hop off the ferry for a fitting introduction to North Africa in this gem of a medina, contained by the walls of a 15th-century Portuguese fortress. (Click here) Chefchaouen Medinas aren’t always like diving from the top board; smaller, stylish examples include this Andalucian-blue one.

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Keswick YHA ( 0845 371 9746; www.yha.org.uk; Station Rd; dm £23; ) Fresh from a refit, this former woollen mill is now one of Lakeland’s top YHAs. Some of the dorms, doubles and triples have balconies over the river and Fitz Park, and the hostel has all the facilities a discerning backpacker could wish for. MIDRANGE Cumbria House ( 017687-73171; www.cumbriahouse.co.uk; 1 Derwent Water Pl; r £52-64) Charming Georgian surroundings and an admirable eco-policy (Fairtrade coffee, local produce, and a 5% discount for car-free guests) make this another smart option. Families can rent the top three rooms as a single suite, with views all the way to Blencathra. Heatherlea ( 017687-72430; www.heatherlea-keswick.co.uk; 26 Blencathra St; d £54) One of the best choices in the B&B-heavy area around Blencathra St. Tasteful decor (pine beds, crimson-striped cushions, beige throws) distinguishes the rooms; it’s worth bumping up to superior for the sparkling shower and gargantuan flat-screen TV.

Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

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active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Alternatively, from Denpasar hop over to Timor-Leste’s capital of Dili to tour old colonial towns and uncrowded reefs. Four Weeks Tramp Malaysia & Beyond Touchdown in Kuala Lumpur, an easy city for international arrivals. Bus to the tranquil Cameron Highlands and its glossy green tea plantations. Follow the northern migration to Penang for street eats and Malaysian fusion culture. Detour to the beaches of Langkawi. Return to Georgetown and bus to Kota Bharu, the jump-off point for car-free, carefree ambience on Pulau Perhentian. Pick up the Jungle Railway to Taman Negara, an ancient, accessible wilderness. Return to Kuala Lumpur for a well-planned, well-funded tour of Malaysian Borneo. Fly to Kota Kinabalu, in Sabah, ascend Borneo’s highest peak Mt Kinabalu. Head east to Sepilok and its orang-utan sanctuary. Swing over to Semporna, the gateway to dive sites. Culture vultures should detour to the oil-rich oddity of Brunei and its unassuming capital, Bandar Seri Begawan (BSB), surrounded by pristine rainforests and water villages.