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War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower
anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, labour mobility, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway
The original wartime U.S. national-character studies dealt with Japan, Germany, Burma, Siam, and Rumania, and those on Japan are generally regarded in retrospect as being by far the most interesting.2 A fundamental premise of the national-character approach was “the psychic unity of humankind”—the assumption, as Margaret Mead later expressed it, that “all human beings share in a basic humanity.” This reflected the antiracist influence of Franz Boas, who had been the immensely influential teacher of Mead and Ruth Benedict, among many others. Boas played a leading role in repudiating the theories of biological determinism, or “scientific racism,” which dominated the mainstream of European and American anthropological teaching throughout the nineteenth century. Many of the scholars who became associated with the national-character studies went out of their way to emphasize that the most recent and reliable work on racial differences by anthropologists in no way supported theories of biologically engendered superiority or inferiority in intellect or character.
This was not, however, a solitary stream, but one fed by two others: one that we may call slave words and colonial words, drawn from the experience of blacks and Chinese “coolies” in America, and from the colonial enterprise everywhere; and another stream of language which deserves the label “intellectual words,” involving the rationalization of racism beginning with the great debates among Spanish theologians and philosophers at the time of the conquistadores, and carrying through the “scientific racism” of the nineteenth century right up to the Pacific War. The image of the nonwhite in European eyes was initially shaped by the simultaneous encounter with black peoples in Africa and the natives of the Americas. The two were not treated identically. Blacks were enslaved, but until the eighteenth century were not seen as subjects capable of conversion to Christianity. The Indians were massacred, but after learned debate among ecclesiastics were also soon accepted as humans fit for conversion.
The old faith in a hierarchy of existence was confirmed, with “Mongol” peoples placed between the lowly blacks and the lofty whites. The impression that nonwhites remained, in effect, “natural slaves”—that is, persons destined to serve and subordinate themselves to the superior whites–was thus implicitly revitalized by the mainstream of Western rational inquiry and empirical investigation, a welcome finding indeed in an age of intensified empire building. Even with all the new theoretical language, scientific racism had a familiar ring. Here, for instance, is a well-known example of how nineteenth-century scholars used the concept of childishness to explain the characteristics of Asians and their place in the hierarchy of races: “As the type of the Negro is foetal, that of the Mongol is infantile. And in strict accordance with this we find that their government, literature and art are infantile also. They are beardless children, whose life is a task, and whose chief virtue consists in unquestioning obedience.”
Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama
Albert Einstein, Asilomar, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test
Feminists were among the most fierce resisters of any suggestion that male-female differences were genetic rather than socially constructed.6 The problem with the extreme social constructionist view and the extreme hereditarian view is that neither is tenable in the light of currently available empirical evidence. In the process of mobilizing for World War I, the U.S. Army began widespread intelligence testing of new recruits, for the first time providing data on the cognitive abilities of different racial and. ethnic groups.7 These data were seized on by opponents of immigration as evidence for the mental inferiority of, among others, Jews and blacks. In one of the great early defeats of “scientific racism,” the anthropologist Franz Boas showed in a carefully constructed study that immigrant children’s head sizes and intelligence converged on those of the native-born when the children were fed an American diet. Others demonstrated the cultural bias embedded in the army intelligence tests (the tests asked children to identify, among other things, tennis courts, which most immigrant children had never seen).
Even if we do not posit any breakthroughs in genetic engineering that will allow us to manipulate intelligence, the sheer accumulation of knowledge about genes and behavior will have political consequences. Some of these consequences may be very good: molecular biology may exonerate genes from responsibility for important differences between individuals or groups, just as Boas’s research on head sizes debunked early-twentieth-century “scientific racism.” On the other hand, the life sciences may give us news we would rather not hear. The political firestorm set off by The Bell Curve will not be the last on this subject, and the flames will be fed by further research in genetics, cognitive neuroscience, and molecular biology. Many on the Left would have liked simply to shout down arguments about genes and intelligence as inherently racist and the work of pseudoscientists, but the science itself will not permit this kind of shortcut.
The evolutionary psychologists Martin Daly and Margo Wilson have shown that homicide rates vary according to certain predictions of evolutionary biology—for example, that domestic homicide takes place much more frequently between nonkin (for instance, between husbands and wives or stepfathers and stepchildren) than between blood relatives.47 Whatever the exact trade-off between genes and environment with respect to crime, it is clear that any reasonable public discussion of this issue is politically impossible in the contemporary United States. The reason for this is that since African-Americans are disproportionately represented in the U.S. criminal population, any suggestion that there is a genetic component to crime is thought to imply that blacks are somehow genetically predisposed to be criminals. No serious academic researcher working on this issue has ever suggested anything of the sort since the bad old days of scientific racism, but that has not prevented people from harboring deep suspicions that anyone even interested in this topic must have racist motives. Such suspicions were fed in the early 1990s by Frederick K. Goodwin, a noted psychiatrist and head of the federal Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Goodwin, whom Tom Wolfe has described as “a certified yokel in the field of public relations,” was describing the National Institute of Mental Health’s Violence Initiative when he suggested that crime-ridden urban America was a “jungle.”48 Goodwin was evidently referring to a number of perfectly respectable studies that suggested that male violence is hard-wired.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
When the Spanish colonized the New World, they debated whether the indigenous people they found had souls; the Catholic church, at least, concluded that they did and tried—ineffectively—to prevent the worst depredations of the local settlers. In the nineteenth century, the situation was different. The scramble for Africa occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species and the rise of a doctrine of “scientific racism” asserting that the existing hierarchy among the world’s races was the result of the inherent biological superiority of white Europeans over everyone else. These views emerged despite the steady spread of democracy and representative government in Europe and North America, and they legitimated the use of force against nonwhite people. As a result, settler populations were granted an expanding set of political rights completely denied to Africans, setting up a sharp dichotomy between citizens on the one hand and subjects on the other.17 Once the scramble for Africa got under way, it unfolded with extraordinary rapidity.
(I will return to this problem in chapter 31 and in Part IV below.) The argument that uneducated people could not exercise the franchise responsibly was vulnerable to the spread of mass public education, which most European societies began to implement toward the end of the nineteenth century. The same was not true for novel antidemocratic arguments based on biology. After publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species in 1859, a school of “scientific” racism sprang up to explain and justify not just the ongoing colonial conquest of non-European peoples but also the failure to grant equal rights to blacks, immigrants, and ethnic minorities. Women as well were held to be insufficiently rational to be granted the vote, and in any event destined by their biology to be unqualified for male workplace occupations.14 It is important to note that all of these nineteenth-century antidemocratic arguments accepted many of the modern conceptual foundations underpinning democracy.
Hirschman, The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1991), p. 20. 11. Walter Bagehot, The English Constitution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 186. 12. Ibid., pp. 4–5, 32. 13. Gaetano Mosca, The Ruling Class (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939); Vilfredo Pareto, Sociological Writings (New York: Praeger, 1966). See the discussion of Mosca and Pareto in Hirschman, Rhetoric of Reaction, pp. 50–57. 14. On scientific racism, see Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981). 15. Bruce E. Cain, Regulating Politics? The Democratic Imperative and American Political Reform (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014). 16. The contemporary rational choice version of this Marxist tale can be found in Carles Boix, Democracy and Redistribution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), and Daron Acemoglu and James A.
The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional
Innate Talents and Abilities Most people know intuitively that the question, If you’re so smart, then why aren’t you rich? is not really a question at all but a rhetorical comment implying that there is much more to monetary success than intelligence, whatever that means and however it might be measured. The use of the results of IQ tests to “prove” the innate superiority or inferiority of culturally distinct peoples has a long and controversial history. In the early part of the twentieth century, “scientific racism” developed in the social sciences, particularly in anthropology. During World War I, the U.S. Army used the newly developed IQ tests to sort candidates for induction. Interestingly, the results showed that potential inductees sorted themselves fairly neatly into four relatively discrete groups: northern whites, northern blacks, southern whites, and southern blacks. Was this evidence that northern blacks were “smarter” or of a “different race” than southern blacks?
., 1 , 2 Matthew effect, 1 , 2 matrix of domination, 1.1-1.2 Medicare, 1 , 2.1-2.2 mentors, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 meritocracy affirmative action and, 1 American promotion of merit, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 coping strategies, 1 , 2 credentials, lack of as a barrier, 1.1-1.2 as a desired outcome, 1 discrimination as the antithesis of merit, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9.1-9.2 , 10 , 11 education as a merit filter, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 employment opportunities, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 entrepreneurial success, 1 fairness of the system, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 folklore of, 1 government spending and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 in the hiring process, 1.1-1.2 , 2 human capital factors, 1 , 2 , 3 income based on merit, 1 inheritance as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13.1-13.2 intergenerational wealth transfers, 1.1-1.2 legacy preferences as nonmerit based, 1.1-1.2 , 2 luck as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 market trends, 1.1-1.2 meritocratic aristocracy, 1.1-1.2 nepotism as nonmeritorious, 1.1-1.2 the new elite as extra-meritorious, 1 noblesse oblige increasing potential for, 1 nonmerit factors suppressing merit, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Barack Obama as example of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 the past, reverence for, 1 physical attractiveness as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2 pure merit system, 1.1-1.2 reform movements and, 1 , 2 self-employment as an expression of, 1 social and cultural capital as nonmerit factors, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7 , 8.1-8.2 , 9 , 10 , 11 structural mobility and, 1.1-1.2 talents and abilities of the merit formula, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 taxes and nonmerit advantages, 1.1-1.2 Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Microsoft, 1.1-1.2 middle class America as not middle class, 1 asset building, 1 cultural capital, 1.1-1.2 deferment of gratification, 1 education and, 1 , 2 , 3 Great Recession affecting, 1 home ownership, 1 inner cities, flight from, 1 , 2 Barack Obama, background of, 1.1-1.2 old class vs. new, 1.1-1.2 precarious status of, 1.1-1.2 sports choices of, 1 upper-middle class, 1 , 2 T The Millionaire Mind (Stanley), 1 M millionaires, 1 , 2 , 3 minority groups affirmative action, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 asset accumulation, 1.1-1.2 core employment, underrepresentation in, 1 disadvantages of, 1 discrimination experiences, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 education issues, 1.1-1.2 as inner city dwellers, 1 opportunities expanding, 1 , 2 , 3 self-employment and, 1 social capital, lack of, 1 , 2 , 3 moral character, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Mormons, 1 Murray, Charles, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 Muslims, 1.1-1.2 N National College Athletic Association (NCAA), 1 nepotism, 1.1-1.2 , 2 net worth affirmative action and, 1 defined, 1 by income group, 1 of minority groups, 1 of Barack Obama family, 1 of one percenters, 1 , 2 , 3 of Walton heirs, 1.1-1.2 wealth scale, 1.1-1.2 new elite, 1 , 2.1-2.2 noblesse oblige, 1.1-1.2 O Obama, Barack, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 Obama, Michelle, 1.1-1.2 occupations attitude as a factor, 1 , 2 blue-collar jobs, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 CEO salaries, 1.1-1.2 , 2 changes in opportunities, 1.1-1.2 , 2 cultural capital and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 the disabled and employment difficulties, 1 discrimination, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 downsizing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 education linked to, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9.1-9.2 , 10.1-10.2 , 11 , 12.1-12.2 , 13 , 14.1-14.2 fastest growing jobs, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 health hazards, 1 nepotism and, 1 , 2 occupational mobility, 1.1-1.2 , 2 occupational segregation, 1 , 2.1-2.2 outsourcing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 physical attraction and occupational success, 1 self-employment and, 1 self-made men, 1.1-1.2 social capital and occupational opportunities, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 wages, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 white-collar jobs, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Occupy Wall Street (OWS), 1 old boy networks, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 old money, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 Outliers: The Story of Success (Gladwell), 1 , 2 outsourcing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ownership class, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 P Paterson, Tim, 1 Peale, Norman Vincent, 1.1-1.2 pensions, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 pink-collar ghetto, 1.1-1.2 poverty children affected by, 1 , 2 culture-of-poverty theory, 1.1-1.2 , 2 full-time work below poverty level, 1 as a matter of attitude, 1 meritocracy and, 1 , 2 minority rates of, 1 , 2 poverty threshold, 1 regional variations in poverty rates, 1.1-1.2 , 2 senior citizens and poverty rates, 1 U.S. poverty rates, 1 T The Power of Positive Thinking (Peale), 1.1-1.2 P Protestants and the Protestant ethic, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Puritan values, 1.1-1.2 R racism and racial issues affirmative action, 1.1-1.2 athletes and, 1 crime and the legal system, 1.1-1.2 disabilities, disproportionate experience of, 1 discrimination and, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7 , 8 in education, 1.1-1.2 employment, affecting, 1 Great Recession worsening racial equality, 1 home ownership, 1 ideologies of inequality, as part of, 1 income gaps, 1 language skills and, 1 Obama, election of, 1 , 2 scientific racism, 1.1-1.2 segregation, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 social capital and, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 white flight, 1 , 2 random-walk hypothesis, 1 recession See Great Recession references, 1 , 2 , 3 retirement as part of the American Dream, 1 , 2 delayment as a coping strategy, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 home ownership and funding of, 1 as jeopardized, 1 , 2.1-2.2 proposed supplementation, 1 self-employment and, 1 , 2 , 3 right attitude, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 T The Rise of Meritocracy, 1870–2033:An Essay on Education and Equality (Young), 1 , 2 R Rivera, Lauren, 1 Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt, 1.1-1.2 S Schmitt, John, 1.1-1.2 schools See education segregation educational, 1 , 2 , 3 occupational, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 racial, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 residential, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 of the wealthy, 1.1-1.2 white flight, 1 See also discrimination self-employment American Dream, as exemplifying, 1 franchises, 1 freelancing, 1 , 2 income, 1.1-1.2 irregular economy and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 petty bourgeoisie and, 1 psychological characteristics, 1 rates of, diminished, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 risk, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 subcontractors, 1 taxes, 1.1-1.2 , 2 women and minorities, 1.1-1.2 self-help books, 1 , 2 self-made individuals, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6 sexual harassment, 1.1-1.2 Shapiro, Thomas, 1 , 2.1-2.2 slaves and slavery, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 small businesses, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9 Smith, Adam, 1 social capital benefits of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 defined, 1 , 2 , 3 discrimination and, 1 , 2 economic opportunities, having access to, 1 , 2 , 3 education and, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 mentorship as a form of, 1 nepotism and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 racism and lack of, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 restricted access, effects of, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 social climbing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 of U.S. presidents, 1.1-1.2 weak ties, 1.1-1.2 social climbing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 social clubs, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 social mobility athletic and artistic abilities, associated with, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 cultural capital as a factor in, 1 education link, 1 , 2 , 3 hard work as a factor, 1 individual merit, 1 integrity hindering, 1.1-1.2 marrying for money, 1 reduction of opportunities, 1 , 2 during Republican administrations, 1 role of government, 1 , 2 social climbing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 status attainment, 1 through self-employment, 1 social reform movements, 1.1-1.2 Social Register, 1 social reproduction theory, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Social Security, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 Something for Nothing: Luck in America (Lears), 1.1-1.2 T the South, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 S Stanley, Thomas, 1 status-attainment theory, 1.1-1.2 Stevens, Mitchell, 1 stock market, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 student loans, 1 , 2.1-2.2 success athletic success, 1 , 2.1-2.2 attitudes associated with, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 birth timing and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 cultural capital, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 discrimination, achieving success through, 1 education, as a factor in, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 entrepreneurial success, 1 , 2 , 3 God’s grace, success as sign of, 1 , 2 hard work and, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 human capital factors, 1 individualism as key to, 1 intelligence as a determinant, 1 luck as important, 1 meritocracy myth and, 1 mind-power ethic as success formula, 1.1-1.2 moral character and, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 parental involvement, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 the right stuff, being made of as key, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 small businesses and, 1 social capital increasing likelihood of, 1 , 2 , 3 suburban living as marker of, 1 10,000 hour rule, 1 women and, 1 , 2 supply side, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 Survival of the Prettiest (Etcoff), 1.1-1.2 Swift, Adam, 1.1-1.2 T talent and abilities American aristocracy, 1 American Dream, leading to, 1 of athletes and celebrities, 1 education enhancing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 functional theory of inequality, 1 jobs matched to talent, 1 success achieved through, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 talent-use gap, 1 upward mobility and, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 taxes capital gains, 1.1-1.2 estate taxes, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 government policies linked with, 1 , 2 incentives and credits, 1.1-1.2 income taxes, lowered by Republicans, 1 irregular economy, avoiding, 1.1-1.2 progressive taxation, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 property taxes and school funding, 1.1-1.2 self-employment and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Social Security affected by, 1 , 2 the South and lower taxes, 1 tax breaks for the wealthy, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 of urban areas, 1 , 2 Thurow, Lester, 1 , 2.1-2.2 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1.1-1.2 , 2 tracking, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1.1-1.2 U Unequal Childhoods (Lareau), 1 upper class charitable giving and, 1 cultural capital, holders of, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 deferred gratification, capability of, 1 distinctive lifestyle, 1.1-1.2 , 2 education, 1 , 2 endogamy, tendency towards, 1.1-1.2 as exclusive, 1.1-1.2 , 2 as isolated, 1.1-1.2 one percenters as members, 1 Plymouth Puritans as wellspring, 1 political power, 1.1-1.2 social clubs, frequenting, 1.1-1.2 virtues found in, 1 WASP background of, 1 women of, 1 , 2 , 3 upward mobility attitudes as affecting, 1 barriers to, 1 through college education, 1 credentialism and, 1 downward mobility, vs., 1 through entrepreneurialism, 1 glass ceiling as limiting, 1 integrity as suppressing, 1.1-1.2 irregular economy, as avenue, 1 marriage as a means of, 1.1-1.2 Michelle Obama as example, 1 slowing rates of, 1 See also social climbing See also social mobility V Vedder, Richard, 1 , 2 virtue, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 W Walmart, 1 Walton, Sam, 1 , 2 , 3 wealth accumulation gaps, 1 , 2 , 3 advantages of wealth inheritance, 1 , 2.1-2.2 capital investments, 1 charitable giving and the wealthy, 1 , 2.1-2.2 culture of, 1 , 2 discrimination and, 1 , 2 distribution as skewed, 1.1-1.2 Forbes magazine listings, 1.1-1.2 gambling, attainment through, 1 government intervention, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Great Recession affecting, 1 guilt feelings, 1.1-1.2 hard work as negligible, 1 inequalities of, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 lottery, wealth attainment through, 1 luck as a factor, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 marriage rates, affecting, 1 nepotism aiding in transference of, 1 old money, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 one percenters, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ostentatious displays of, 1 political power, 1.1-1.2 property ownership producing, 1 , 2 pursuit of as a moral issue, 1.1-1.2 , 2 race affecting, 1 social and cultural capital, converted to, 1 , 2 the superwealthy, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 tax breaks for the wealthy, 1 taxes on, 1.1-1.2 transfers of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 women and, 1 See also inheritance See also self-employment Weber, Max, 1.1-1.2 welfare, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs), 1.1-1.2 , 2 white-collar crime, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Wilson, William Julius, 1 , 2 Winfrey, Oprah, 1.1-1.2 Wisconsin school, 1.1-1.2 women attractiveness as a success factor, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 discrimination against, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8.1-8.2 , 9.1-9.2 , 10 economic disparities, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 educational attainment, 1.1-1.2 , 2 family concerns, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 glass ceiling, experiencing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 inferiority, feelings of, 1.1-1.2 labor force participation, increasing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 mentorships, access to, 1 , 2.1-2.2 occupational disparities, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5.1-5.2 political underrepresentation, 1.1-1.2 self-employment and, 1.1-1.2 as trailing partners, 1 of the upper class, 1 , 2 , 3 working class American Dream and, 1 cultural capital, lack of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 economic instability, 1.1-1.2 education issues, 1 , 2 , 3 hard work and, 1 health risks, 1 home ownership, 1 lower class value stretch, 1 nepotism, effect of, 1 the new lower class, 1 women and incomes, 1 work See hard work See occupations Y Young, Michael, 1 , 2 About the Authors Stephen J.
The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch
cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism
Such changes have made both racism and the ideology of martial conquest, appropri- 117 martial ethic, the cult of victory or the obsession with achievement (which some critics still see as the "dominant sports creed") , , ate to an earlier age of empire building, increasingly anach- but from the collapse of conventions that formerly restrained ronistic. rivalry even as they glorified it In the United States, the transition from Theodore Roose' s jingoism to Woodrow Wilson s ' velt liberal neocolonialism al- ready spelled the obsolescence of the older ideology of AngloSaxon supremacy. The collapse of "scientific" racism in the twenties and thirties, the integration of the armed forces in the Korean War, and the attack on racial segregation in the fifties and sixties marked a deep-seated ideological shift, rooted in changing modes of exploitation. Of course the relation between material life and ideology is never simple, least of all in the case of an ideology as irrational as racism. In any case, de facto racism continues to flourish without a racial ideology.
Asked to keep one eye open, cool and detached, in appraising half the students, we were to keep the other eye winking as the rest of the students were passed from grade to grade and eventually into a world that would be all too happy to teach them, as they drifted churlishly from disappointment to disaster, what , - " , tration have turned the first-year curriculum into "a playpen of self-exploration." Schooling and the New Illiteracy : 143 142 : The Culture of Narcissism " " able, on the grounds of cultural deprivation. Cultural anthropology, which overthrew scientific racism in the thirties, provided educators with a new excuse for their failure to educate lower-class children: thev came from culturalh' deprived back- grounds and were therciore unreachable. As Kenneth B. Clark " pointed out, Social scientists and educators, in the use and practice of the concept of cultural deprivation, have unintentionally provided an educational establishment that was already resistant to change . . with a justification for continued inefficiency, much more respectable and much more acceptable in the middle of the twentieth century than racism.
Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez
Airbnb, airport security, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, drone strike, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, source of truth, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, éminence grise
Somerset, 200 Mayer, Marissa, 78 Mayfield Capital, 154, 156, 159, 162–63 McAfee, 382 McCorvie, Ryan, 16–17 McDonald’s, 82, 450 McEachen, Matthew (“MRM”), 41, 46, 62–63 call to, 123 CEO position, 249 chaos monkey suggestion, 103 codebase and, 66, 73, 184, 234 coding, 146 comrade-in-arms, 91 as daredevil, 136–37 deal details and, 251–52 earnestness, 68 Facebook and, 223, 225 family, 135, 205 getting to know, 88 irritation, 102–3 lost with, 109 paying off mortgage, 494 as resourceful savior, 100–101 as steadfast, 67 McGarraugh, Charlie, 14–15 McLean, Malcom, 447 media publishers, 387 MediaMath, 390 Menlo Park, 84 bedroom community, 338 conferences, 119 headquarters, 469 moving to, 337 schools, 306 meritocracy, 74 Merkle, 384 mesothelioma, 81 Miami drug trade, 304 Michelangelo, 334 Microsoft Adchemy and, 153–54, 161–62 Atlas, 383, 453–55 calendar, 340 dogfooding, 43 monopolist, 286 program managers, 272 middle managers, 359 Miller, Arthur, 104 Miller, Frank, 434 Milton, John, 475 minimum viable product (MVP), 434 miracles, 51 misleading, offensive, or sexually inappropriate (MOSI), 310 Mixpanel, 62 mobile commerce, 484–89 mobile data, 382, 477, 484, 486 Mobile Marketing Association (MMA), 448 monetary value, 317–19 monetization bet, 4 data-per-pixel, 274 digital, 184 Facebook, 5, 209, 275, 278, 298, 318, 425, 444 folly, 361–72 Google, 186 growth, 141 influences, 9 savvy, 486–89 tug-of-war, 379 Twitter, 190 zero-sum game, 319 money fuck-you money, 102, 415–16 investors, 74 outside, 155 pre-money valuation, 212 seed, 96 of VCs, 174 Moore’s law, 25 MoPub, 476–77, 479–81 morality, 226, 256, 284 Morgenstern, Jared, 218 Morishige, Sara, 183 Morris, Robert Tappan, 60–61 Mortal Kombat 3, 178 Moscone, George, 181 Moskovitz, Dustin, 284 Motwani, Rajeev, 138 Museum of Natural History, 366 My Life as a Quant (Derman), 16 MySpace, 283–84 N00b, 269 Nanigans, 480–81 Narasin, Ben, 128–31, 143–44 NASDAQ, 405, 410 National Socialism, 356 native ad formats, 448–49 Neko, 482 Netflix, 83, 103, 328 Netscape Navigator, 286 Neustar, 384, 386 New Rich, 357 New York Times, 448, 486 New Zealand, 318 News Feed addictive, 482 ads, 482–84, 488, 492 click-through rates, 487 content, 309 creation, 2 distribution, 364 as magic real estate, 362 spamming users, 372 versions, 444 newspaper advertising, 36–37 Nielsen, 385 1984 (Orwell), 433 noncash valuation, 212 no-shop contract, 201 Nukala, Murthy crossing paths, 167–68 ego, 42–43 greed, 44 hazing by, 71 immigrant worker, 72 lecture from, 65–66 manipulative rage, 136 pep rally, 36 saying good-bye to, 73 self-preservation and, 162–63 tantrums, 45 as tyrant, 158 vindictiveness, 134 wooing by, 154 Obama, Barack, 299–300 obscenity, 268 OkCupid, 54 Olivan, Javier, 410 Omnicom, 437, 443 on-boarding, 260–67, 271 one shot, one kill motto, 298 one-on-one, 434, 457, 469 online dating, 54–55 Opel, John, 148 Open Graph, 280, 364 optimization, 276, 302 Oracle investors, 111 job at, 193 logo, 124 product shindigs, 181 recruiting, 70 Orkut, 379 Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe, 193, 203, 253 Orwell, George, 433 outside money, 155 Ovid, 316 Oxford English Dictionary, 80 Page, Larry, 112, 428, 431 Pahl, Sebastien, 119 Palantir, 272 Palihapitiya, Chamath, 265–66 Palo Alto bosom of, 116 climate, 123 downtown, 333, 338 East, 404 hub, 109 old, 112, 158 posh, 84 shuttles, 289, 339 Stanford grads, 63 Pamplona running of bulls, 106–7 Pan-Arabism, 356 Pansari, Ambar, 210 Paper, 283 Parse, 155 Patel, Satya, 249–50 Patton, 369 Payne, Jim, 476 PayPal, 78, 124 personal wealth, 415 personally identifiable information (PII), 395 photo sharing, 286, 490–91, 493 photo-comparison software, 310 Pickens, Slim, 102 Piepgrass, Brian, 374 pings, 188, 327, 422 PMMess, 347–51, 407, 409 poker playing, 396–97 polyandry, 483 Polybius, 172, 316, 336 Pong, 150 Ponzi scheme, 16 pornography, 167, 262, 268, 312, 314, 315 post-valuation, 212 pregnancy, 58–59 pre-money valuation, 212 La Presse, 37 privacy Facebook and, 316–29 Irish Data Privacy Audit, 278, 320–23 PRIZM Segments, 385 product development, 47, 94, 191, 220, 334, 370, 389 product managers (PMs) as Afghan warlords, 273 earning money, 302 everyday work, 294 Facebook, 4, 6–7, 10, 91, 97, 202, 210, 271–79 Google, 192 habitat, 341 high-value, 246 ideal, 219 information and, 295 internal and external forces and, 316–17 last on buck-passing chain, 327 managing, 276 stupidity, 313 tech companies, 272 tiebreaker role, 292 product marketing manager (PMM), 277, 366 product navigators, 272 production, 94 product-market fit, 175 programmatic media-buying technology, 38 Project Chorizo, 296 pseudorandomness, 75 publishers, 37, 39 Putnam, Chris, 284 Qualcomm, 70 quants, 16–18, 24, 29, 141, 207 Quick and Dirty Operating System (QDOS), 149 Rabkin, Mark, 3, 312, 389, 398, 435 Rajaram, Gokul, 8, 10 accepting offer from, 248 banter with, 472–73 as boss, 3 bribery, 471 FBX and, 435 go big or go home ethos, 300 in great debate, 459 influence, 202 insubordination toward, 465 interview with, 221–22 leadership, 309 loss of trust, 468 lot with, 373 management of, 434 middle manager, 463–64 one-on-one and, 469 as product leader, 276–77 riding by, 346 stripping of duties, 452 word of, 252 Ralston, Geoff, 93 Rapportive, 96–97, 106 real-time bidding (RTB), 40–41 real-time data synchronization, 38 Red Rock Coffee, 84 RedLaser, 51 Reesman, Ben, 308, 389, 399–400, 475, 477 relativity, 25 replicating portfolio, 247–48 retargeting, 9, 381, 395, 438, 461 return of advertising spend (ROAS), 81 revenue dashboards, 274–75, 295–96 Right Media, 37–38 The Road Warrior, 134 Roetter, Alex, 185, 190, 493–94 romantic liaisons, 55–56 Romper Stomper, 202 Rosenblum, Rich, 21–22 Rosenn, Itamar, 368 Rosenthal, Brian, 389, 390 Ross, Blake, 444 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 303 rounds, 156 routing system, 324 Rubinstein, Dan, 312–13 Ruby on Rails, 155 Russia, 375–76 Sacca, Chris, 128, 141, 143 acquisition advice, 187–88, 212–13, 245–47 on deals, 205–7 ignoring inquiries, 201 pseudoangel, 113, 117–19 wisdom, 202 Safari, 484 safe sex, 58 safeguarding role, 315 sailboat living, 307, 332, 337–38 salaries, 358 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), 181 Sandberg, Sheryl, 2, 10 data joining and, 465 gatekeeper, 4–5 intimates, 3–4 leadership, 410 managerial prowess, 311–13 meetings, 371, 382, 459 PowerPoint and, 7 recommendations to, 462 schmoozing, 367 wiles of, 408 Sarna, Chander, 67–68, 71, 72 sausage grinder, 296 scale, 300 Scalps@Facebook, 314 scavenging foray, 116 schadenfreude, 16–17 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 282 Schrage, Elliot, 3–4, 410 Schreier, Bryan, 123–25 Schrock, Nick, 400 Schroepfer, Mike, 2 Schultz, Alex, 374 scientific racism, 122 Scoble, Robert, 100 Scott, George C., 24, 369 security, 314–15 seed money, 96 Sequoia, 122–25, 130, 159 severance package, 470–71 severity-level-one bug (SEV1), 323 sexual molestation, 17 Shaffer, Justin, 219–21, 444 Shakespeare, William, 120, 427, 456 Shapiro, Scott, 378, 459 Shelly, Percy Bysshe, 337 Shockley, William, 122 shuttles, 289, 339 Siegelman, Russell, 146, 201, 213, 397 angel investor, 110–13 commitment, 141–43 negotiations, 116–17 Silicon Valley.
Even the best suffer startup drama. * Fairchild Semiconductor occupies a legendary place is US tech history. Founded by William Shockley, a Nobel laureate and the inventor of that central artifact of our electronic age, the transistor, Fairchild is known for having recruited and then antagonized the team that eventually became Intel. Shockley ended his career embroiled in polemics about scientific racism and eugenics. He rather famously contributed his seed to a sperm bank of recognized geniuses and Olympians. By the time of his death, he was a bitter, broken man of ruined reputation, estranged from all family and colleagues; his children learned of his death via newspaper obituaries. Don’t come to Silicon Valley looking for sanity, dear reader. * Yes, I was transmogrified into “Andrew,” perhaps the most egregious anglicization of my name ever.
Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, endogenous growth, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, long peace, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
The treason of the clerisy led in the twentieth-century to nationalism and socialism and national socialism. The clerisy provided the “scientific” justifications for such schemes, as in scientific materialism or scientific imperialism or scientific racism or scientific Malthusianism or, lately, scientific neo-eugenics. The scientific schemes reasserted elite control over newly liberated poor people. Consider Mao’s little Red Book, say, or Hitler’s Mein Kampf, which extracted from the scientific dreams of left or right a plan for an ant-colony society 44 governed by the Party. Or consider the more polite versions of elite control, such as the great statistician Karl A. Pearson in 1900 approving of a scientific racism in support of imperialism: “It is a false view of human solidarity, which regrets that a capable and stalwart tribe of white men should advocate replacing a dark-skinned tribe which can . . .
What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War
By ‘the Right’, I don’t mean the American Republicans or the British Conservatives or the French Gaullists, but the deep right of the counter-revolution that raged against the American and French Revolutions and the slow evolution of Britain into a democratic society. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it took the form of aristocratic reaction and ethnic nationalism. In the twentieth, ‘scientific’ racism and fascism. The themes and arguments of the vile tradition appeared with remarkable consistency in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, Iran, the Sudan, as well as the ideologies of the Islamist terror groups. As early as 1770, one Cornelius de Pauw, a Dutch naturalist, sounded like half the novelists and playwrights in Britain today (and all the novelists and playwrights in France) when he poured scorn on everything American.
St John 236 Philip the Fair of France 340, 341 Philippines 81 Philosophers’ Magazine 101 Philosophy and Literature 99 pink poets 219, 220 Pinter, Harold 74, 168, 178 Mountain Language 52 poets 222–3 Pol Pot 30, 50, 93, 166, 167 political correctness 114, 213 political cults 60–2 Pollitt, Harry 238–9, 243–4 Ponchaud, François 167 Cambodia: Year Zero 167–8 Poos, Jacques 136–7 post-modernism 377, 381 Pottins, Charlie 65–6 poverty 116 Powell, Anthony 113 Power, Samantha 128–9 Preston 308–9 Pritt, D.N. 242–3 Prospect 179 Protestant work ethic 201 Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, The 36, 344, 345, 346, 349 public service ethos 194–5 al-Qaradawi, Yusuf 305–6, 309 Question Time 367 Qutb, Sayyid 264–5, 267, 294, 348, 369, 370 Our Battle with the Jews 348 race relations 201 racism 309–10, 352 radicalism 103, 105, 106, 124 ‘rage of party’ 152–3 Rashid, Shanaz 299–300 Reagan, Ronald 196, 201 Redgrave, Corin 57, 59, 61, 64, 67, 247 Redgrave, Deirdre 61 Redgrave, Michael 242, 243, 244, 247 Redgrave, Vanessa 57, 59, 62, 67 religion 361 militant 27 religious fundamentalism 110 Republic of Fear (Makiya) 31, 45–6, 52, 70, 84, 330 Republicans 85, 211 Respect 309, 310 Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) 173–4, 295 revolutions (1848) 355 (1968) 21, 22 Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad 26 Richardson, Natasha 62 Rifkind, Malcolm 140–1, 142, 143, 144, 147–8, 150, 154 Rippon, Geoffrey 56 Rix, Mick 302 Robin Hood 368 Robison, John 340 Roe v Wade 212 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 83 Rose, General Sir Michael 154 Rose, Jonathan Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes 207, 208 Rosenberg, Harold 183 Roth, Kenneth 325 Roy, Arundhati 178 Royden, Dr Maude 236 Rumsfeld, Donald 47, 48 Rushdie, Salman 371 Russell, Bertrand 21, 78, 228, 233, 235, 236 Russia, tsarist and Jews 344 Ruzicka, Marla 320 Sackur, Stephen 318 Saddam Hussein 7, 25, 30, 32, 33, 73, 76–7, 281–2, 314, 352, 365 capture of 318–19 decline in condemnation of by left 74–5 and Galloway 291–2, 293 genocide of Kurds 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 and indoctrination of Iraqis 34 initial condemnation of by left 5–6 invasion of Kuwait 6, 70, 72–3 and Iraqi Communist Party 38 legacy 38 purges of Baath Party 35, 42–4 trial of 50 and unions 297 and war with Iran 28, 32, 44, 47–8 Said, Edward 73, 75–7, 92–3, 95, 274 Orientalism 75 Salazar, António 1 Saleh, Hadi 302–4 Salih, Barham 328–9 Sarajevo 153–4 Sartre, Jean-Paul 103, 348 Satanic Verses 184 sati 101–2 satire 113–14 Saudi Arabia 249, 350 Schanberg, Sydney 167 Schmidt, Paul 234 Schroeder, Gerhard 313 Scientific American 97 ‘scientific’ racism 262 Scottish Highland Clearances 118 Scowcroft, Brent 72, 135, 142 Second World War 195, 226, 239, 245 Serbia/Serbs 169, 172 see also Bosnian war Shaun of the Dead 124–5 Shaw, George Bernard 190 Shia Muslims 35 Shultz, George 52 Simms, Brendan 143, 148 single mothers 200 Six Day War (1967) 21, 36 Smollett, Peter 246 social democracy 11, 94 Social Text 99 socialism 27, 355, 360, 373, 375 death of 11, 12, 93–4, 103, 108, 213, 374, 381 Socialist Alliance 309 Socialist Worker 300 Socialist Workers Party (SWP) 54, 295–6, 296, 307 Sokal, Alan 99 Sokal hoax 98–9 Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 3 Somalia 359 Soros, George 139 Soviet Union 4 collapse of 87–8, 94 invasion of by Hitler (1941) 246, 248 and Iraq 37–8, 40 pact with Nazi Germany (1939) 237–9 Spain 327 anti-war demonstrations 280 Spanish Civil War 122, 123, 218, 223–5, 237, 248 Spanish socialists 327–8 Srebrenica massacre (1995) 130–1, 149–50, 171, 177–8 Stalin, Joseph 4, 30, 49, 50, 218, 226, 247, 248 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 46–7 Stop the War Coalition 290, 295, 305 student protests (1968) 22 suburbanization 221 Sudan 50 suicide bombers 10, 350 Sullivan, Andrew 271 Sunni Arabs 35 Swain, Jon 167 SWP see Socialist Workers Party Syria 349, 350 seizure of power by Baath Party 31 Tadic, Dusko 174 Taliban 260, 271, 277–8 Tantawi, Mohammad Sayed 306 Tanweer, Shezad 257, 258 Tavistock, Marquess of 236 Taylor, A.J.P. 56 Telegraph 292 Templars see Knights Templars Thatcher, Margaret 54, 114, 143, 144, 184, 185, 189, 195, 196, 199, 337 Thatcherism 184–5 theory/theorists 96–101, 103–4, 104–5, 106, 112, 114, 115, 117, 213–14, 293, 321 Thirties 217–21, 356 Tippett, Sir Michael 185 Tocqueville, Alexis de 42 totalitarianism 29, 37, 38–9, 119–20, 359–60, 361 Tourish, Dennis and Wohlforth, Tim On the Edge 63 trade unions 14, 93, 193, 199, 297–9, 355, 360 Trnopolje camp (Bosnia) 131–4, 171, 174, 175–6 Trotsky, Leon 54, 57 Trotskyists 52, 53, 67, 87, 248, 295 Tudeh Party 27 Tudjman, Franjo 127 Turkey 162–3, 170 Uday Hussein 292 Ulbricht, Walter 239 United Nations 72, 129, 149, 357 United States 367 and Bosnian War 135, 145 and Gulf War 72–3 helps Iraq in Iran – Iraq war 46–8 and Iran 26 oil and policy towards Middle East 84 revolt of masses against rich liberals 210 see also Bush, George W.; Iraq War universities 204 University of California Press 45 van Gogh, Theo 335 Versailles, Treaty of 228, 250 victimhood 78–9 Vidal-Naquet, Pierre 165–6 Vietnam War 21, 22, 93 Voltaire 164 Vulliamy, Ed 129, 130, 173, 176 Wall Street Crash (1929) 194–5, 218, 219 Walzer, Michael 355 Watson, Fiona 326 Waugh, Evelyn 113, 159 weapons of mass destruction 47 welfare state 195, 197, 199, 200–1, 355 Wells, H.G. 190 West Germany weapons sales to Iraq 47 Weston, Jon 134 Wheatcroft, Geoffrey 184–5, 278–9 Wheen, Francis How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World 278 Williams, Ian 129 Williams, Ralph Vaughan 244 Williams, Raymond 241–2 Willmott, Peter 199 Wilson, Harold 56 Windsor, Duke of 234 Withey, Lynne 45–6 Wittgenstein 105 Wolf, Naomi 183 Wolfowitz, Paul 80–2, 83, 84 Wolin, Richard 264 women priests 236 Woolf, Leonard 232 Woolf, Virginia 190–2, 228, 232, 236, 299 Woolworths 221 Workers’ Revolutionary Party see WRP working class 189–94, 196, 202–8, 210–11, 221–2, 379–80 World Social Forum 115 World Trade Organization 115, 117 WRP (Workers’ Revolutionary Party) 53–5, 57, 58–60, 63–4 downfall of 66–7, 68 and fascist conspiracy theory 65 and Iraq 65–6, 67, 68 and Irene Gorst 59–60 soliciting funds from Arab tyrants 64–5 see also Healy, Gerry Yeats, W.B. 219 Yom Kippur War 55 Younes, Nadia 326 Young, David 65 Young, Michael Family and Kinship in East London 199 Young, Stuart 65 Yugoslavia, former 85, 127 see also Bosnian war; Kosovo war Zarqawi, Abu Musab 286–7 Zimbabwe 117, 118, 351 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I could not have written this book without the help of many people who gave me their time without complaint.
The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler
business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar
His work looked to culture, instead of biology, to explain human differences across societies and races, spawning the birth of modern anthropology as a new scientific basis from which to attack the assumptions that certain races, religions, and cultures were superior to others. The first generation of this modern scientific nature/nurture debate continued for several decades, and it was only the horror of Nazism that put it to rest, at least for a time. Repulsed by the Nazi uses of eugenics and scientific racism, the scientific and academic community had by the 1950s finally settled the battle more or less completely on the culture side. • • • But it was not forever that the biologists would be banished from the debate over the mysteries of human nature and sociality. The vehicle that brought them back into the picture in the 1970s was the resurgence of interest in animal behavior. After all, no one really doubted that questions such as why starlings fly into the evening sky, or lemmings jump off cliffs, must be answered in evolutionary and genetic terms.
The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla
British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Diao, Xinshen, Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio and Robinson, Sherman (2003) How Much Does It Hurt? The Impact of Agricultural Trade Policies on Developing Countries (Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute). Doussin, Jean-Pierre (2009) Le Commerce équitable [Fair Trade] (Paris: PUF, Que sais-je ?). Drescher, Seymour (1992) ‘The Ending of Slave Trade and the Evolution of European Scientific Racism’, in Inikori, Joseph E. and Engerman, Stanley L. (eds) The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas and Europe (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 361–96). Duménil, Gérard and Lévy, Dominique (2011) The Crisis of Neoliberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). Elliott, Kimberly A. ( 2010) Open Markets for the Poorest Countries: Trade Preferences that Work.
Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History by Stephen Jay Gould
Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, correlation coefficient, Drosophila, European colonialism, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Scientific racism, sexual politics, the scientific method
Scientists, as ordinary human beings, unconsciously reflect in their theories the social and political constraints of their times. As privileged members of society, more often than not they end up defending existing social arrangements as biologically foreordained. I discuss the general message in an obscure debate within eighteenth century embryology, Engels’s views on human evolution, Lombroso’s theory of innate criminality, and a twisted tale from the catacombs of scientific racism. The final section pursues the same theme, but applies it to contemporary discussions of “human nature”—the major impact of misused evolutionary theory upon current social policy. The first subsection criticizes as political prejudice the biological determinism that has recently deluged us with killer apes as ancestors, innate aggression and territoriality, female passivity as the dictate of nature, racial differences in IQ, etc.
affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight
The emphasis here was on tracking the colonial American and European antecedents of present-day families, identifying forebears who had achieved distinction, and learning the origins of surnames. As anxieties grew over increased immigration, this exploration of the colonial heritages and English and Dutch antecedents of middle- and upper-class New Yorkers suffused genealogy with nativism and scientific racism and strengthened its capacity to legitimate social relations.41 Genealogy had close links to other social practices that expanded its cultural appeal. A new kind of social organization that venerated family heritage and colonial history, the patriotic hereditary society, came into vogue in the 1880s. Patriotic hereditary societies such as the Sons of the Revolution, the Holland Society, and the Daughters of the American Revolution popularized genealogy by requiring proof of family lineage or ancestral accomplishment (like service in the Revolutionary War) for membership and by linking individual family history to nationalism.42 More broadly, popular historians used family origins to make sense of the past and elucidate individual success.
Existing institutions such as the American Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art expanded significantly in the late nineteenth century, due in large measure to the money, leadership, and networks of the upper class. Needless to say, this support had significant costs. As scholars who have examined the links between leaders of the Bronx Zoo and the Museum of Natural History and the ideologies of scientific racism and nativism have shown, major cultural organizations amply reflected the apprehensions and ambitions of upper-class and upper-middle-class New Yorkers.73 A study of two key institutions—the Metropolitan Opera and the Metropolitan Museum of Art—will help us understand how elites imagined New York as a great city, worked out their inner conflicts, and related to the public. The founding of the Metropolitan Opera in 1880 is commonly ascribed to a rebellion of new elites against old elites.
Money: The Unauthorized Biography by Felix Martin
bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invention of writing, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail
In the nineteenth century, there was a great fashion for ‘positive criminology,’ which claimed that felons could be identified by their physical attributes. It sounds bizarre to us today that anyone could believe that you could tell an anarchist by his ears, or a thief by the shape of his nose. But the point is that the people who believed all this had no vested interest in locking up people with unusual faces—they simply believed in the naturalistic explanation of criminality as a product of physiological factors. Likewise, ‘scientific racism’ was widely accepted as the truth in nineteenth-century America. The inferiority of non-white peoples could be ‘proved,’ it was believed, by physical differences. And again, it was the hallmark of a liberal outlook—not a reactionary one—to believe this kind of thing. The point is that naturalistic reasoning in the social sciences—claiming to explain social phenomena as objective truths of nature—is self-reinforcing.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Some Progressive reformers working in the black community, through institutions like the National Association of Colored Women, had to cede control of their movements to white women or to work with very limited funding. The end result of this was twofold: an emphasis on social uplift that came from within the black community, and exasperation with white Progressivism.89 Some Progressives, like Theodore Roosevelt, believed that the potential for democracy was, at least in part, racial—that Anglo-Americans possessed more of the genius for self-government than anyone else. “Scientific racism” proposed a hierarchy of the races, with the white Anglo-Saxon at the top and other, “less advanced” cultures lower in the hierarchy. Africans and Aboriginal peoples were considered to be at the bottom of the hierarchy, but other nonwhite people were also held to be inferior. The Progressive period thus saw limitations on immigration from places like China (the Exclusion Act of 1882) and Japan (the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1908), and by the 1920s, successive Immigration Acts that drastically cut back permissible immigration from southern and eastern Europe.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond
agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Columbian Exchange, correlation coefficient, double helix, Drosophila, European colonialism, invention of gunpowder, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the scientific method, trade route, V2 rocket
Paying some archaeologists to reconstruct Anasazi firewood consumption would be cheaper than committing the same mistake and ruining 100,000 square miles of the US, as we may now be doing. Finally, let's face the touchiest question. Today, environmentalists view people who exterminate species and destroy habitats as morally bad. Industrial societies have jumped at any excuse to denigrate pre-industrial peoples, in order to justify killing them and appropriating their land. Are the purported new finds about moas and Chaco Canyon vegetation just pseudo-scientific racism that in effect is saying, Maoris and Indians dp not deserve fair treatment because they were bad? What has to be remembered is that it has always been hard for humans to know the rate at which they can safely harvest biological resources indefinitely, without depleting them. A significant decline in resources may not be easy to distinguish from a normal year-to-year fluctuation. It is even harder to assess the rate at which new resources are being produced.
The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd
accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond
He distinguished between Nutzgeld, or useful objects used in exchange, and Zeichengeld, or objects of conventional form, practically useless, mere tokens of value (Thilenius 1921; Quiggin 1949: 3). Quiggin notes further relevant distinctions, such as those drawn by Albert Terrien de Lacouperie (1845–1894) between Naturgeld, Handelsgeld, und Industriegeld, and by George Montandon (1879–1944)—an advocate, incidentally, of scientific racism—between natural money and money of civilization (or “cultural money”). Tellingly in light of our discussion of origin myths in Chapter 1, each distinction seems to be grappling with the idea that some forms of money are closer to nature, or to what is essentially useful, whereas others tend to be closer to civilization, and are abstract. It is an intriguing point because it seems to reverse the idea, which Polanyi seems to perpetuate, that only earlier (limited-purpose) monies possess sufficient cultural richness to constitute objects of anthropological research in their own right, whereas later (general-purpose) monies correspond to the culturally neutral, colorless media of exchange one finds in economics textbooks—or in Simmel.
Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng
Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War
So young officers who came ‘fresh to the province’ saw what their seniors were doing and were ‘apt to fall into the same habits’.11 The threat of no promotion was actually carried out by Charles Bernard, who passed over three senior district superintendents for the job of inspector general of police, one of them – a Major Litchfield – because had ‘formed and maintained immoral connections with a native of the country’. The British tended to be pragmatic about such things, however. There is no hint, in the official papers at least, of any of the ‘scientific racism’ or fears of ‘miscegenation’ which were common elsewhere in the later part of the nineteenth century. Sir Charles Crosthwaite, the arch-Conservative, who thought that Lloyd George and Churchill were cads and loathed the 1909 ‘People’s Budget’, was typically practical on the issue. Writing at the end of 1888 to Herbert Thirkell White, Crosthwaite was frank: ‘There is no doubt that many men in Burma keep Burman women.’
White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg
A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Nott, “The Mulatto a Hybrid—Probable Extermination of the Two Races If the Whites and Blacks Are Allowed to Intermarry,” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, August 16, 1843; also see Reginald Horsman, Josiah Nott of Mobile: Southerner, Physician, and Racial Theorist (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987). 12. See “Literary Notices,” Northern Light, September 2, 1844; Horsman, “Scientific Racism and the American Indian at Mid-Century,” American Quarterly 27, no. 2 (May 1975): 152–68. 13. “Inaugural Address 1836,” in First Congress—First Session. An Accurate and Authentic Report of the Proceedings of the House of Representatives. From the 3d of October to the 23d of December, by M. J. Favel (Columbia, TX, 1836), 67; Sam Houston to Antonio Santa Anna, March 21, 1842, in Writings of Sam Houston, 1813–1863, eds.
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery
It is all fantasy, of course, but it is as plausible as anyone else’s guess (unless we follow those unromantic archaeologists who point out that sloppy excavation is the most economical explanation for the interleaved Neanderthal and human deposits at Reindeer Cave, meaning that there is no direct evidence for Flatheads learning from Others). The bottom line is sex. If modern humans replaced Neanderthals in the Western Old World and Homo erectus in the Eastern regions without interbreeding, racist theories tracing contemporary Western rule back to prehistoric biological differences must be wrong. But was that what happened? In the heyday of so-called scientific racism in the 1930s, some physical anthropologists insisted that modern Chinese people were more primitive than Europeans because their skulls had similarities (small ridges on top, relatively flat upper faces, nonprotruding jaws, shovel-shaped incisors) to those of Peking Man. So, too, these anthropologists pointed out, the skulls of Australia’s indigenous peoples had similarities—ridges around the back for attaching neck muscles, shelflike brows, receding foreheads, large teeth—with those of Indonesian Homo erectus a million years ago.
The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, yellow journalism, zero-coupon bond
Garrett Hardin, “A Second Sermon on the Mount,” from Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1963. 51. Nevertheless, some remnants of the eugenics movement remained alive, and by the millennial era, developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive science had raised complicated questions about the idea. 52. The historic linkage between “population control,” the eugenics movement, and racism is detailed by Allan Chase in The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977). While a full treatment of these issues is beyond the scope of this book, what seems clear, from his change in terminology, steering of the Buffett Foundation, and gradual distancing from the Hardin camp, was Buffett’s disenchantment with the Malthusian views of Hardin because of their eugenics implications. (Hardin’s personal stationery featured a small U.S. map around the words “Quality of the Population.”) 53.