Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

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pages: 1,197 words: 304,245

The Invention of Science: A New History of the Scientific Revolution by David Wootton

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, British Empire, clockwork universe, Commentariolus, commoditize, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, fudge factor, germ theory of disease, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Philip Mirowski, placebo effect, QWERTY keyboard, Republic of Letters, social intelligence, spice trade, spinning jenny, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

For Koyré, it was, following on Gaston Bachelard’s concept of an ‘epistemological break’, identified with a single intellectual mutation: the replacement of the Aristotelian idea of place (in which there was always an up and a down, a left and a right) by a geometrical idea of space, a substitution which made possible, he argued, the invention of the idea of inertia, which was the foundation of modern physics.11 Koyré had a vast influence in America, and his Bachelardian conception of an intellectual mutation was adopted by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Laski and Butterfield had a comparable influence in England on works such as Rupert Hall’s The Scientific Revolution (1954), which denied any connection between the Scientific and Industrial revolutions, and J. D. Bernal’s Science in History, whose second volume, The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions (1965), insisted on the closeness of the connection. There is a fundamental difference between these two conceptions of the Scientific Revolution.

The most influential arguments in favour of relativism flow from the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951).xliv Wittgenstein taught in Cambridge on and off from 1929 to 1947 – he left the year before Butterfield lectured on the Scientific Revolution – but it would never have occurred to Butterfield that he needed to consult Wittgenstein, or indeed any other philosopher, to learn how to think about science. It was not until the late 1950s, following the publication of the Philosophical Investigations in 1953, that arguments drawn from Wittgenstein began to transform the history and philosophy of science; their influence can already be seen, for example, in Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.72 Thereafter it became common to claim that Wittgenstein had shown that rationality was entirely culturally relative: our science may be different from that of the ancient Romans, but we have no grounds for claiming that it is better, for their world was utterly unlike ours. There is no common standard by which the two can be compared. Truth, according to Wittgenstein’s doctrine that meaning is use,73 is what we choose to make it; it requires a social consensus but not any correspondence between what we say and how the world is.74 This first wave of relativism was later supplemented by other, profoundly different intellectual traditions: the linguistic philosophy of J.

Anachronism, driven in disgrace out of the back door, re-enters in triumph through the front. It may be hard to believe, but proponents of the strong programme have acquired a dominant position within the history of science. The most striking example of this approach in action is Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer’s Leviathan and the Air-pump (1985), generally acknowledged as the most influential work in the discipline since Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.xlix The new history of science offered, in Steven Shapin’s phrase, a social history of truth.l Scientific method, it was now argued, kept changing, so that there was no such thing as the scientific method: a famous book by Paul Feyerabend was entitled Against Method,li its catchphrase ‘Anything goes’; it was followed by Farewell to Reason.78 Some philosophers and nearly all anthropologists agreed: standards of rationality were, they insisted, local and highly variable.79 But we must reject the Wittgensteinian notion that truth is simply consensus, a notion incompatible with an understanding of one of the fundamental things science does, which is to show that a consensus view must be abandoned when it is at odds with the evidence.lii The classic text here is Galileo’s ‘Letter to Christina of Lorraine’ (1615) in defence of Copernicanism.


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Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

But he seems to have had little interest in the environments that make those collisions possible: living environments, office environments, media environments. On a basic level, it is true that ideas happen inside minds, but those minds are invariably connected to external networks that shape the flow of information and inspiration out of which great ideas are fashioned. Koestler was hardly alone in his interest in the roots of scientific breakthrough. Thomas Kuhn’s even more influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions had been published two years before The Act of Creation. Since those two books were published, countless dissertations and scholarly essays have explored the psychology and sociology of scientific progress. Some focused on biographical accounts of legendary scientists at work; others tested theories through lab experiments that simulated the kind of cognitive work involved in scientific discovery.

I have tried to include a broad survey of these works in the bibliography, but several works have been disproportionately influential on my argument and method in this book. Dean Keith Simonton’s Origins of Genius and Howard Gruber’s Darwin on Man both explicitly take a Darwinian approach to innovation, and use that approach to make sense of Darwin’s own distinct genius. Arthur Koestler’s Act of Creation and Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions remain essential platforms for the understanding of new ideas. Richard Florida’s Rise of the Creative Class looks at creativity in an urban context. Richard Ogle’s Smart World explores the intellectual and physical context of idea formation, as does Howard Gardner’s Creating Minds. Everett M. Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations is the canonical study of the way good ideas spread through organizations and society.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

A year-and-a-half after the assassination, the musicians who would form Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company, and various other druggie blues and folk-rock bands were playing their first gigs together in San Francisco. This does not mean that the assassination “caused” the decade’s cultural upheaval. The months before Kennedy’s death had already seen the publication of Thomas Kuhn’s book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (August 1962), which upended notions about science’s solidity and a lot of social and political assumptions built on it; Rachel Carson’s exposé of pesticides, Silent Spring (September 1962); and The Feminine Mystique (February 1963), Betty Friedan’s attack on what she saw as the vapidity of well-to-do housewives’ existence. Something was going to happen. The two conflicts that did most to define the American 1960s—those over racial integration and the war in Vietnam—were already visible.

“who would enrich diversity”: Kate Sinclair, “Student Demands: Who’s Resigned, What’s Renamed,” New York Times, February 3, 2016. “more just and inclusive campus”: Jonathan Haidt and Lee Jussim, “Hard Truths About Race on Campus,” Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2016. “A new scientific truth”: Max Planck, Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers (New York: Philosophical Library, 1949), 33–34. Quoted in Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996 [1962]), 151n. By the new century: Emily Cohn, “Tom Jones Reflects on a ‘Selfless Revolution,’ ” Cornell Daily Sun, April 16, 2009. “deny fascists, organized racists”: From the group Hope Not Hate (UK). Quoted in William Voegeli, “Unsafe Spaces,” Claremont Review of Books, Winter 2015–2016, 8–14. “government should be able”: Jacob Poushter, “40% of Millennials OK with Limiting Speech Offensive to Minorities,” Pew Research Center, November 20, 2015.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

By December 1941, nylon hose had captured 30 percent of the American market, one of the greatest consumer product success stories of all time.7 Disobedience, especially in crucial realms like problem solving, often pays greater dividends than compliance. Innovation requires creativity, and creativity—to the great frustration of well-meaning (and not so well-meaning) managers—often requires freedom from constraints. We can actually go further. As Thomas Kuhn showed in his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, new paradigms almost invariably come into being because some scientist didn’t embrace the dominant idea.8 In other words, the rule about great scientific advances is that to make them you have to break the rules. Nobody has ever won a Nobel Prize by doing what they’re told, or even by following someone else’s blueprints. In the early 1920s, Dick Drew, a researcher at 3M, turned his focus from the sandpaper the company was known for to a new kind of tape.

American Economic Review, 80, no. 2 (1990): 355–361. 7 Ashley Lutz, “20 Predictions from Smart People That Were Completely Wrong,” Business Insider, May 2, 2012, http://www.businessinsider.com/false-predictons-2012-5?op=1#ixzz3QikI1PWu. 8 David Lieberman, “CEO Forum: Microsoft’s Ballmer Having a ‘Great Time,’” USA Today, April 30, 2007, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2007-04-29-ballmer-ceo-forum-usat_N.htm. 9 Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York: Pantheon, 1972). 10 Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition (University of Chicago Press, 2012). 11 Ibid. 12 Daniel Šmihula, “The Waves of the Technological Innovations,” Studia Politica Slovaca, issue 1 (2009): 32–47; Carlota Perez, Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002). 13 Frank J. Sonleitner, “The Origin of Species by Punctuated Equilibria,” Creation/Evolution Journal 7, no. 1 (1987): 25–30. 14 Chris Mack, “The Multiple Lives of Moore’s Law,” IEEE Spectrum 52, no. 4 (April 1, 2015): 31–31, doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2015.7065415. 15 Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: Voyaging (New York: Knopf, 1995). 16 Ibid.; Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (New York: Knopf, 1995); Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin (London: Michael Joseph, 1991). 17 Dietrich Stoltzenberg, Fritz Haber: Chemist, Nobel Laureate, German, Jew; A Biography (Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 2004). 18 Marc Goodman, Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It (New York: Doubleday, 2015). 19 Peter Hayes, From Cooperation to Complicity: Degussa in the Third Reich (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007). 20 “Through Deaf Eyes,” PBS, http://www.pbs.org/weta/throughdeafeyes/deaflife/bell_nad.html. 21 We should note that this may be an apocryphal quote. 22 Mark Cousins, The Story of Film (London: Pavilion, 2012), Kindle Edition, chapter 1: “Technical Thrill (1895–1903), The sensations of the first movies.” 23 Richard Brody, “The Worst Thing About ‘Birth of a Nation’ Is How Good It Is,” New Yorker, February 1, 2013, http://www.newyorker.com/culture/richard-brody/the-worst-thing-about-birth-of-a-nation-is-how-good-it-is. 24 This “cosmic calendar” originated with the late Carl Sagan, in The Dragons of Eden (New York: Ballantine, 1977).

Hounshell and John Kenly Smith, Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R and D, 1902–1980 (Cambridge University Press, 1988). 2 Pap Ndiaye, Nylon and Bombs: DuPont and the March of Modern America (Baltimore: JHU Press, 2007). 3 Hounshell and Smith, Science and Corporate Strategy. 4 Ibid. 5 Gerard Colby, Du Pont: Behind the Nylon Curtain (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall [1974], 1974). 6 Hounshell and Smith, Science and Corporate Strategy. 7 “Wallace Carothers and the Development of Nylon: National Historic Chemical Landmark,” American Chemical Society, n.d., http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/carotherspolymers.html. 8 Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition, (University of Chicago Press, 2012). 9 Zachary Crockett, “The Man Who Invented Scotch Tape,” Priceonomics, December 30, 2014, http://priceonomics.com/the-man-who-invented-scotch-tape/. 10 Tim Donnelly, “9 Brilliant Inventions Made by Mistake,” Inc.com, August 15, 2012, http://www.inc.com/tim-donnelly/brilliant-failures/9-inventions-made-by-mistake.html. 11 David R.


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This Could Be Our Future: A Manifesto for a More Generous World by Yancey Strickler

basic income, big-box store, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, effective altruism, Elon Musk, financial independence, gender pay gap, global supply chain, housing crisis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Nash: game theory, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, medical bankruptcy, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, white flight

Bentoism Elizabeth Anderson, Value in Ethics and Economics Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality How Ideas Work Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind John Higgs, The KLF: Chaos, Magic, and the Band Who Burned a Million Pounds John Higgs, Stranger Than We Can Imagine: An Alternative History of the 20th Century Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Daniel Rodgers, Age of Fracture J. Z. Young, Doubt and Certainty in Science: A Biologist’s Reflections on the Brain Economics Rutger Bregman, Utopia for Realists: How We Can Build the Ideal World David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years (Updated and Expanded) Annie Lowrey, Give People Money: How a Universal Basic Income Would End Poverty, Revolutionize Work, and Remake the World Mariana Mazzucato, The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs.

When we do, we find opportunity. The optimist’s argument for exercise, organic food, and recycling would be that these are also Kondratiev wave–like trends. The first thirty years were spent creating the infrastructure and doing normal science. The next thirty years will be spent getting those behaviors to full capacity as the new norms. Two other important sources of background on this area are Thomas Kuhn’s book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and J. Z. Young’s book Doubt and Certainty in Science. Kuhn’s book is tremendous in its description of how paradigms and “normal science”—the process by which we test and build out a new way of seeing—create new approaches to knowledge. J. Z. Young, a biologist, explains in vivid and compelling detail how our brains learn and acquire new knowledge. The neurological background for why we are the way we are.


The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Consider the number of psychologists down the years who have insisted that consciousness does not exist because it cannot be measured.8 Still, the natural tendency of a small child with a hammer to believe that everything is in need of a good pounding is not the only factor at work here. The inner life of emotions and meanings is among the things the scientific method handles poorly — ​it is very hard to quantify an emotion — ​and this blindness is particularly marked when it comes to the narratives that have gathered around science itself. Thomas Kuhn pointed out in his celebrated book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that each branch of science rests on a set of paradigms that go unquestioned, and often unnoticed, except in those revolutionary periods when the gap between the paradigm and the evidence forces itself into view.9 What he did not discuss, and only a few of the sociologists of science have explored, is the extent to which those paradigms unfold from exactly that nonrational sphere of human life which science itself analyzes so ineffectively.10 The scientific method, after all, is simply a set of practical tools for studying nature.

Bulletin of Marine Science 31 (1981), pp. 723–729. 7. James McClenon, Deviant Science: The Case of Parapsychology, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984, offers a useful case study of the split between inquiry and ideology in modern scientific research. 8. See Roger Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics, Oxford University Press, 1989, for a thoughtful discussion. 9. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, 1962. 10. McClenon, Deviant Science. Chapter Thirteen: The Ecotechnic Promise 1. See, for example, Timothy Burns, ed., After History? Francis Fukuyama and his Critics, Rowman and Littlefield, 1994. 2. “We are history’s actors ...when we act, we create our own reality.” This embarrassing display of hubris by a Bush administration staffer is quoted in Ron Suskind, “Faith, certainty, and the presidency of George W.


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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Available from http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/ redhat71-v1/redhat71sloc.html 9 Juan José Amor-Iglesias, Jesús M. González-Barahona, Gregorio Robles-Martínez and Israel Herráiz-Tabernero, ‘Measuring Libre Software Using Debian 3.1 (Sarge) as a Case Study: Preliminary Results’, UPGRADE6.3, June 2005. Available from http://www.upgrade-cepis.org/ issues/2005/3/up6-3Amor.pdf 10 Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 2004) 11 Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (University of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 10 12 Richard K. Lester and Michael Piore, Innovation: The Mission Dimension (Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 2004) 13 Andrew Hargadon, How Breakthroughs Happen (Boston, MA: HBS Press, 2003) 14 James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds (Little, Brown, 2004) 15 Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies (Princeton University Press, 2007) 16 Bart Nooteboom, Learning and Innovation in Organizations and Economies (Oxford University Press, 2000) 17 Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 2004) 18 Articles by Lakhani, Ghosh and Lerner in Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A.


pages: 200 words: 60,987

The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America by Steven Johnson

Albert Einstein, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, Danny Hillis, discovery of DNA, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kevin Kelly, planetary scale, side project, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

And they were all fundamentally correct, at least in their contention that class identity, capital, and technological acceleration would be prime movers in the coming centuries, and that each one had an independent life, outside the direct control of human decision-makers. Humans made the steam engine, but the steam engine ended up remaking humanity, in ways that the original inventors never anticipated. The contemporary view of intellectual progress is dominated by one book: Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, published in 1962, from which the now conventional terms “paradigm” and “paradigm shift” originate. By some measures, Kuhn’s book was the most cited text in the last quarter of the twentieth century, and it regularly ranks among the most influential books of the entire century. In Revolutions, Kuhn set out to dismantle the idea that scientific progress happens in a linear fashion, as a series of indisputable facts unearthed one after another, each breakthrough another definitive step toward absolute truth.


From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

.: New Riders), was updated and published on the World Wide Web in 1994 (http://www.fourmilab.ch/autofile/). See also Jonathan Richardson, “A Decade of CAD,” CAD User, March 1998: 20–22, 26, 28. 22. Walker, The Autodesk File, p. 24 23. Ibid., p. 299. 24. Ibid., pp. 296–304. 25. The concepts of paradigm shift, technological closure, and critical problems are informed by the works of Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Parke Hughes, and Nathan Rosenberg, among others. See Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (University of Chicago Press, 1962); Thomas Parke Hughes, Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880–1930 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983); Nathan Rosenberg, Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics (Cambridge University Press, 1982). 26. Douglas K. Smith and R. C. Alexander, Fumbling the Future: How Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer (Morrow, 1988); Michael A.


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Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine by John Abramson

germ theory of disease, Louis Pasteur, medical malpractice, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, p-value, placebo effect, profit maximization, profit motive, publication bias, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Our belief that we are too scientifically grounded to succumb to such nonrational beliefs may, in fact, be our myth. How else can we explain the widespread agreement that statins or the new antidepressants or the COX-2 inhibitors are genuine breakthroughs that will preserve and restore our health in ways never before possible? These are our myths, merging science and hope into our shared belief. It is exactly myths such as these that Thomas Kuhn was referring to in his groundbreaking book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, published in 1962. Kuhn coined the term “paradigm” to describe the unspoken professional values, beliefs, and techniques shared by a community of scientists or professionals. The shared paradigm then defines the range of problems that are legitimate to investigate, the range of legitimate solutions, and the criteria that justify belief that the findings are true.

Michael Polyani developed the idea: “When we accept a certain set of presuppositions and use them as our interpretative framework, we may be said to dwell in them as we do in our own body.. . . As they are themselves our ultimate framework, they are essentially inarticulable.” Quoted in Jan Golinski, Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivism and the History of Science, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 17. 203 shared paradigm defines the range: Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962, pp. 64–65. 203 criteria that justify belief: Susan Haack, Evidence and Inquiry: Towards Reconstruction in Epistemology, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993, p. 206. 204 “The Need for a New Medical Model: G. L. Engel, “The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine,” Science 196:129–136, 1977. 204 “half of all deaths: A.


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To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

(Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), 52. 10 “A cook . . . is not a man who first has a vision of a pie”: Michael Oakeshott, “The Idea of a University,” Academic Questions 17, no. 1 (2004): 23. 10 “the book speaks only to those who know already”: Oakeshott, “Political Education.” 11 what’s going on in our kitchens: this section draws considerably on an earlier article of mine: Evgeny Morozov, “Stay Out of My Kitchen, Robots,” Slate, August 27, 2012, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/08/why_you_don_t_want_a_robot_in_your_kitchen.html. 11 British magazine New Scientist recently covered: Jacob Aron, “Smart Kitchens Keep Novice Chefs on Track,” New Scientist 215, no. 2877 (August 11, 2012): 17, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528774.900-augmented-reality-kitchens-keep-novice-chefs-on-track.html. 11 “For example, if the system detects sugar pouring into a bowl”: ibid. 14 “life, the universe and everything”: reference to Douglas Adams, Life, the Universe and Everything (Los Angeles, CA: Del Rey, 1995). 14 In the afterword to my first book, The Net Delusion: Morozov, The Net Delusion, 337. 14 French philosopher Bruno Latour: Bruno Latour, The Pasteurization of France (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 15. 15 What Would Google Do?: Jeff Jarvis, What Would Google Do?, 1st ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 2009). 16 Following the work of Latour and Thomas Kuhn: see Bruno Latour, Science in Action (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), and Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Chapter 2: The Nonsense of “the Internet”—and How to Stop It 17 “The internet is not territory to be conquered”: Nicholas Mendoza, “Metal, Code, Flesh: Why we Need a ‘Rights of the Internet’ Declaration,” February 15, 2012, AlJazeera .com, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/02/201228715322807.html. 17 “What made Blockbuster close?”

,” The Atlantic, May 6, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/05/why-do-our-best-and-brightest-end-up-in-silicon-valley-and-not-dc/256767. 135 “nothing would be more fatal”: Theodore M. Porter, Karl Pearson: The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 293. 136 “in the new political order”: quoted in Crick, In Defence of Politics, 73. 136 “Suppose the ‘arbitrariness’ which Saint-Simon”: ibid., 74. 136 following Thomas Kuhn’s work on scientific paradigms: Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). 136 much of the presumed unity is a myth: see Peter Galison and David Stump, eds., The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power, 1st ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996). 137 “rescue mankind from the lack of certainty”: Crick, In Defense of Politics, 70. 137 “everything in society is . . . capable”: ibid., 71. 137 “one of the most important components”: quoted in Robert D.


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Independent Diplomat: Dispatches From an Unaccountable Elite by Carne Ross

barriers to entry, cuban missile crisis, Doha Development Round, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, iterative process, meta analysis, meta-analysis, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, stakhanovite, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

The Negotiation (2) 1 Though I have lightly edited the piece, the style and content remain essentially the same as when I wrote it in January 2000. 2 One night in New York, I had to come up with a new name for the agency, in part because agreement seemed to require that we change the name from that in the UK draft up till that point (this was the acronym, UNCIIM, for UN Commission for Inspection and Investigation and Monitoring, a word that, to Russian and French ears, sounded too much like one designed for the pursuit of criminals). We needed a new name that incorporated the key concepts of MOnitoring, Verification,Inspection and Commission. UNMOVIC was the construction which, after several hours of crossword-like pondering, I came up with. 3 For the full text go to www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/ 4 Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, 3rd edn, 1996. 5 I would suggest that a classic example of this phenomenon, examined in chapter 2, is that of the break-up of Yugoslavia. It was not only the massacre of Srebrenica that produced a shift in the view of that war as a “civil war”. It was psychologically impossible for the Conservative government, then in power, to admit this, but the massacre and the dawning understanding that the war was very much not a civil war produced a paradigm shift in the incoming Labour government which later adopted in Kosovo an altogether more interventionist approach. 10.


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Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

Models like Schelling’s don’t look like classical science, and many people find them less compelling, at least at first. But as I will try to demonstrate, these models do useful work, including prediction, explanation, and design. One of the goals of this book is to explain how. Paradigm Shift? When I describe this book to people, I am often asked if this new kind of science is a paradigm shift. I don’t think so, and here’s why. Thomas Kuhn introduced the term “paradigm shift” in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962. It refers to a process in the history of science where the basic assumptions of a field change, or where one theory is replaced by another. He presents as examples the Copernican revolution, the displacement of phlogiston by the oxygen model of combustion, and the emergence of relativity. The development of complexity science is not the replacement of an older model, but (in my opinion) a gradual shift in the criteria by which models are judged and in the kinds of models that are considered acceptable.

Determinism indeterminism Determinism is the view that all events are inevitably caused by prior events. Forms of indeterminism include randomness, probabilistic causation, and fundamental uncertainty. We come back to this topic in the sections Determinism and Free Will. These trends are not universal or complete, but the center of opinion is shifting along these axes. As evidence, consider the reaction to Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which was reviled when it was published and is now considered almost uncontroversial. These trends are both cause and effect of complexity science. For example, highly abstracted models are more acceptable now because of the diminished expectation that there should be a unique, correct model for every system. Conversely, developments in complex systems challenge determinism and the related concept of physical law.


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Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

But the scientific method as we understand it today was introduced to the world through the work of Francis Bacon in his 1620 Novum Organum, and René Descartes in his 1637 Discourse on the Method. Whether or not this method has ever been practiced as such (that is, to what extent scientists, especially as individuals, seek to replicate experiments and falsify hypotheses) is an open question, as Thomas Kuhn made abundantly clear in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. But my point here concerns the method as an intellectual ideal more than an actual practice. “For Satan himself.” The Bible, New International Version (HarperTorch, 1993), 2 Corinthians 11:14–15. errors as ignes fatui. Bates, 46. Pierre-Simon Laplace. Bates touches on this development toward the end of Enlightenment Aberrations (248), but my primary source here was Steven M.

There is no way around the fact that we crave justification for our core beliefs and believe them only because we think such justification is, at the very least, in the offing.” David Hume. Hume lays out the problem of induction in his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (Oxford University Press, 2006). “the poverty of the stimulus” (FN). Chomsky describes this problem in his Rules and Representations (Columbia University Press, 2005). Thomas Kuhn. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (The University of Chicago Press, 1996). The anecdote about Chinese and Western astronomers appears on p. 116. As Alan Greenspan pointed out. http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20081024163819.pdf “interpreting increased violence in Iraq.” George Packer, “History Boys,” the New Yorker, June 11, 2007. The NASA higher-ups responsible for the…Columbia. Henry Petroski, Success through Failure: The Paradox of Design (Princeton University Press, 2006), 166.


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It's Better Than It Looks: Reasons for Optimism in an Age of Fear by Gregg Easterbrook

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, coronavirus, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Chicago School, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The case for rising temperature trends can be made, convincingly, from the Climate Change Science Program supervised by President George W. Bush, which in 2006 declared “clear evidence of human influences on the climate system.” The existence of a scientific consensus is not the same as the assurance of truth. Scientific consensus has been wrong before and will be wrong again. Thomas Kuhn’s 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is well known for introducing the term “paradigm shift,” less known for warning that scientists may endorse whatever viewpoint will maximize their incomes. Climate researchers are more likely to be funded if they cry apocalypse, and act accordingly. But though not proof, the scientific consensus on climate change is a strong indicator. Much public debate regarding climate change is conducted in extreme forms of language that reflect current political schisms, as well as the location of fund-raising ahead of other concerns.

The 2005 National Academy of Sciences finding: “Joint Science Academies’ Statement: Global Response to Climate Change” (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2005). In 2014, the National Academy of Sciences concluded: “Climate Change Evidence and Causes” (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2014). from the Climate Change Science Program supervised by President George W. Bush: “Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere” (Washington, DC: Climate Change Science Program, 2006). Thomas Kuhn’s 1962 book: Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). but NOAA does not detect any hiatus in data: Thomas Karl et al., “Possible Artifacts of Data Biases in Recent Global Surface Warming Hiatus,” Science, June 26, 2015. The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, a division of NOAA, said in 2017: “Global Warming and Hurricanes: An Overview of Current Research” (Princeton, NJ: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, 2017).


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The Participation Revolution: How to Ride the Waves of Change in a Terrifyingly Turbulent World by Neil Gibb

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, gig economy, iterative process, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kodak vs Instagram, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, performance metric, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, urban renewal

It is a period that when looked back on makes a great deal of sense, but at the time can just seem like everything is falling apart – and, of course, that is because everything is. It was this increasingly disruptive and unsettling transitional phase that the Luddites were caught up in. And it is the increasingly disruptive and unsettling transitional phase we are in now. The great transformation “Revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense…that an existing paradigm has ceased to function adequately” Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Seventeen years after Sergey Brin and Larry Page first launched Google in their friend Susan Wojcicki’s garage in Menlo Park, California, HBO released the second season of Silicon Valley, its fictional comedy parodying the thriving industry that had grown out of those early garage start-ups. In the third episode, Gareth Belson – CEO of a company that has more than a few parallels with the one that Brin and Page had created – rather grandiosely likened Silicon Valley to Europe in the Renaissance.


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Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life by J. Craig Venter

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, Barry Marshall: ulcers, bioinformatics, borderless world, Brownian motion, clean water, discovery of DNA, double helix, epigenetics, experimental subject, global pandemic, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, phenotype, Richard Feynman, stem cell, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, no. 44 (2005): pp. 15971–76. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503868102. 15. V. Larionov, N. Kouprina, J. Graves, X. N. Chen, J. R. Korenberg, and M. A. Resnick. “Specific cloning of human DNA as yeast artificial chromosomes by transformation-associated recombination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93, no. 1 (1996): pp. 491–96. Chapter 7 1. Thomas Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), pp. 84–85. 2. C. Lartigue, J. I. Glass, N. Alperovich, R. Pieper, P. P. Parmar, C. A. Hutchison III, H. O. Smith, and J. C. Venter. “Genome transplantation in bacteria: Changing one species to another.” Science 317, no. 5838 (August 3, 2007): pp. 632–38. 3. I. Wilmut, A. E. Schnieke, J. McWhir, A. J. Kind, and K. H. Campbell.


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Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review

For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of commodity price fluctuations: Dennis L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles (Cambridge, MA: Wright-Allen Press, Inc., 1970). 6. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967). 7. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838. Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works, vol. XI, (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1887), 177. 8. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). Chapter Seven 1. G.K. Chesterton, Orthodoxy (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1927). 2. For a beautiful example of how systems thinking and other human qualities can be combined in the context of corporate management, see Peter Senge’s book The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Doubleday, 1990). 3.


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The Panic Virus: The True Story Behind the Vaccine-Autism Controversy by Seth Mnookin

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, en.wikipedia.org, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, neurotypical, pattern recognition, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

But misguided, ill-informed, and cavalier coverage of science and medicine is not always so benign: It influences how hundreds of millions of research dollars are spent, it sucks up the time and energy of public health officials already stretched thin, and it bestows credibility on people’s delusions and fantasies, with occasionally calamitous results. 17 By the 1980s, the majority of Bettelheim’s conclusions had been called into question. After he committed suicide in 1990, dozens of former patients of the residential treatment program he ran at the University of Chicago claimed they’d been physically and mentally abused while in his care. 18 The notion that scientific progress can be understood only within specific social contexts was articulated most famously by Thomas Kuhn in his 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In it, Kuhn argued that scientific advances are not merely the result of the steady accumulation of more sophisticated data; instead, scientific thought undergoes “paradigm shifts” in which accepted “ways of knowing” are replaced by new methods of understanding the world. Kuhn’s prototypical illustration of a paradigm shift at work occurred in sixteenth-century, pre-Enlightenment Europe: It wasn’t until the all-enveloping primacy of the Catholic Church was challenged by a growing belief in empiricism and experimentation that Ptolemy’s earth-centric theory of the universe was overturned by Copernicus’s heliocentric one, in which the earth is just one of the planets orbiting the sun. 19 One of the most significant factors in this regard was Rain Man, the 1988 blockbuster film starring Dustin Hoffman as an autistic, card-counting savant named Raymond Babbitt and Tom Cruise as his self-absorbed younger brother.

Spitzer, “The Diagnostic Status of Homosexuality in the DSM-III: A Reformulation of the Issues,” The American Journal of Psychiatry 1981;138: 210–15. 80 Jonathan Metzl writes about one: Jonathan Metzl, The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease (Boston: Beacon Press, 2010). 80 The evolution of the DSM’s handling of autism: Richard Roy Grinker, Unstrange Minds (Philadelphia: Basic Books, 2007), 111–35. 80 The notion that scientific progress: Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Originally published 1962. See also: Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985). Originally published 1957. 81 the heading of “schizophrenic reaction, childhood type,” which listed: American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Mental Disorders (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association Mental Hospital Service), 28. 81 In the DSM-II: American Psychiatric Association, DSM-II: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2nd ed.


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The New Science of Asset Allocation: Risk Management in a Multi-Asset World by Thomas Schneeweis, Garry B. Crowder, Hossein Kazemi

asset allocation, backtesting, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, commodity trading advisor, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, high net worth, implied volatility, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, market microstructure, merger arbitrage, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, passive investing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, selection bias, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical model, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, systematic trading, technology bubble, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, value at risk, yield curve, zero-sum game

While a summary of empirical tests of various equity based pricing models is not the focus of this book, the changing market structure and risk and return opportunities are. Just as the CAPM and its empirical variant (e.g., the market model) became a primary expected factor model for decades, the Fama and French three-factor model plus one (momentum) has somewhat dominated the academic world for the past 20 years, despite evidence that the underlying factors may have become less important in terms of explaining return. Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. 1970) offers one explanation as to why the movement from one mode of explaining market returns to another is so difficult. The point is simple: there is risk in the use of any risk or return model. 12. One can always take this to various extremes. The fact that over time return to risk is correctly priced does not mean that at some point assets may offer known excess to risk opportunities for which others take the anticipated loss (e.g., government policy may force losses on some for the benefit of others); however, this is simply another risk that must be considered when investing.


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Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science by Dani Rodrik

airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Donald Davies, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, fudge factor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, loss aversion, low skilled workers, market design, market fundamentalism, minimum wage unemployment, oil shock, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, South Sea Bubble, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, white flight

Samuelson, “Protection and Real Wages,” Review of Economic Studies 9, no. 1 (1941): 58–73. ¶ While currency appreciation is the more immediate mechanism, the same effect can be caused by an increase in domestic wages. Crowding out requires simply that domestic wages increase in foreign currency terms, which can happen because of a rise in wages, an increase in the value of the domestic currency, or some combination of the two. # Ever since Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), it has become commonplace to question whether even the natural sciences fit this idealized mold. Kuhn pointed out that scientists work within “paradigms” that they’re unwilling to give up even in the presence of evidence that violates them. My point about economics will be different. It is that economics as a science advances “horizontally” (by multiplying models) rather than “vertically” (by newer ones replacing older ones). ** Here is the physicist Steven Weinberg: “None of the laws of physics known today (with the possible exception of the general principles of quantum mechanics) are exactly and universally valid.


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

However, for most people, if they think they need it, it will already be too late. A study by Harvard Medical School found that after the age of 40 around 400 genes become lazy, which affects learning, memory and communication skills. Another study found that workplace coordination and dexterity start to fall after the age of 25 and decline Work and Business 281 dramatically after 35. This more or less fits with the theory put forward by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that radical breakthroughs tend to come from just three sources: young people, accidents and the cross-fertilization of disciplines. In other words, it’s younger people who tend to create value. This is obviously problematic from one standpoint — that workplace remuneration tends to be based on age and experience — so maybe in the future we’ll see employers putting more time and effort into keeping older minds young and also linking pay to results rather than just age.


Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deskilling, disruptive innovation, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, global value chain, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, smart grid, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick

Mark Clark, “Suppressing Innovation: Bell Laboratories and Magnetic Recording,” Technology and Culture 34, no. 3 (1993): 534. 113. Clark, “Suppressing Innovation,” 534. 114. Frank W. Geels, “Regime Resistance against Low-Carbon Transitions: Introducing Politics and Power into the Multi-Level Perspective,” Theory, Culture and Society 31, no. 5 (2014): 21–40. 115. Similar dynamics of success are evident in the field of scientific research as illustrated in Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). Chapter 2 1. Suzanne Bush, “Coffee Cleared in Chemical Court,” BBC News, September 30, 2003. 2. Bush, “Coffee Cleared.” 3. Joseph A. Schumpeter, Business Cycles: A Theoretical, Historical and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process, vol. 1 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1939), 73. 4. Calestous Juma, The Gene Hunters: Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), 41. 5.


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In Pursuit of Memory: The Fight Against Alzheimer's by Joseph Jebelli

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, double helix, epigenetics, global pandemic, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, phenotype, placebo effect, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, stem cell, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

By linking the physical state of Auguste’s brain to the bewildering facts of her behaviour, Alzheimer challenged his peers to think differently. Instead of being rooted in psychology, he made it clear that dementia may reflect deeper riddles of biology. And whatever Alzheimer’s disease was, it was a riddle that cried out almost literally for a solution. 2 Understanding an Epidemic The historian of science may be tempted to exclaim that when paradigms change, the world itself changes with them. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962 IN THE DECADES that followed the eponymous Bavarian’s first public description of Alzheimer’s, scientists, pathologists and psychiatrists were at loggerheads over what he had actually discovered. Alzheimer had certainly found a unique pattern of brain pathology with those ‘peculiar’ plaques and tangles scattered among the debris of dead nerve cells. The trouble, however, was that these so-called ‘hallmarks’ of Alzheimer’s disease were also found in the brains of people with nothing mentally wrong with them whatsoever, provided they lived long enough.


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The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

America, Britain, France, and other countries continue to govern dozens of such protectorates, although their populations are usually smaller. 119. On the World Trade Organization, see Rabkin, Law Without Nations?, 193–232. On the “globalization” of domestic politics under the rubric of the pursuit of universal human rights, see Rabkin, Law Without Nations?, 158–192; Fonte, Sovereignty or Submission, 201–278. PART THREE: ANTI-NATIONALISM AND HATE 1. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996 [1962]), esp. 148–151. 2. See Chapter III. 3. See Chapter II, esp. note 16 (Part One). 4. Immanuel Kant, “Perpetual Peace,” in Political Writings, ed. Hans Reiss, trans. H. B. Nisbet (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1970), 102–103. Emphasis removed. 5. Ibid., 105. Emphasis in the original. When Kant uses the term “international state” here, he apparently means a non-federal state with a single jurisdiction (“a world republic”).


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Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen; Mark Ridley

Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, bioinformatics, cognitive bias, computer age, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Haight Ashbury, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, phenotype, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Dennett, ‘The New Replicators’, in Mark Page (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Evolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), vol. 1, E83-E92. 36 J. M. Balkin, Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998). 37 Daniel C. Dennett, Breaking the Spell (London: Penguin, 2006). 38 A. Turing, ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Mind, 59 (1950): 433-46°. 39 Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). The invention of an algorithmic biology Seth Bullock BIOLOGY and computing might not seem the most comfortable of bedfellows. It is easy to imagine nature and technology clashing as the green-welly brigade rub up awkwardly against the back-room boffins. But collaboration between the two fields has exploded in recent years, driven primarily by massive investment in the emerging field of bioinformatics charged with mapping the human genome.


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Duped: Double Lives, False Identities, and the Con Man I Almost Married by Abby Ellin

Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Burning Man, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Donald Trump, double helix, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, forensic accounting, fudge factor, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, telemarketer, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

So painful and scary is the idea of being betrayed by the person with whom you share your life that many of us would prefer to believe ourselves wrong.51 This response is known as “betrayal blindness,” and it’s the idea that we overlook clues to deception because it’s to our benefit not to see them.52 So how can the self be both duper and dupee at the same time? Because not all our beliefs are conscious. In a 1979 study by Ruben Gur and Harold Sackeim, people were matched for age and sex and asked to read the same paragraph out loud. The passage was from Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.53 (Kuhn was the physicist, philosopher, and historian who introduced the term “paradigm shift” to mass audiences.) The researchers recorded the participants and then sliced the recordings into segments of two, four, six, twelve, and twenty-four seconds. The participants then listened to a master tape that played back a mixture of everyone’s voices. Each person was also hooked up to a machine that measured his or her galvanic skin response (GSR), which doubles in intensity when you hear your own voice instead of someone else’s.


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The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

We are, it appears, in the early stages of a game-changing transformation in economic paradigms. A new economic model is emerging in the twilight of the capitalist era that is better suited to organize a society in which more and more goods and services are nearly free. The term paradigm shift has been thrown around so much in recent years, in reference to virtually any kind of change, that it might be helpful to revisit the words of Thomas Kuhn, whose book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions made the word paradigm part of the general discourse. Kuhn described a paradigm as a system of beliefs and assumptions that operate together to establish an integrated and unified worldview that is so convincing and compelling that it is regarded as tantamount to reality itself. He used the term to refer to standard and nearly universally accepted models in science, like Newtonian physics and Darwinian evolution.17 A paradigm’s narrative power rests on its all-encompassing description of reality.

John Maynard Keynes, Essays in Persuasion (Project Gutenberg eBook, 2011), 358–74, http://gutenberg.ca/ebooks/keynes-essaysinpersuasion/keynes-essaysinpersuasion-00-h.html (accessed January 23, 2013). 8. Ibid. 9. J. Bradford Delong and Lawrence H. Summers, “The ‘New Economy’: Background, Historical Perspective, Questions and Speculations,” Economic Policy for the Informational Economy (2001): 16. 10. Ibid., 35. 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid., 16. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid., 16, 38. 17. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). 18. Isaac Asimov, “In the Game of Energy and Thermodynamics You Can’t Even Break Even,” Smithsonian, August 1970, 9. 19. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger and Kenneth Cukier, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013) 59. 20. Ibid., 89. 21. Steve Lohr, “The Internet Gets Physical,” The New York Times, December 17, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/18/sunday-review/the-internet-gets-physical.html?


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The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

Information and the Transformation of Molecular Biology,” Science in Context 8 (1995): 609–634; Ronald Kline, “Cybernetics, Management Science, and Technology Policy: The Emergence of ‘Information Technology’ as a Keyword, 1948–1985,” Technology and Culture 47, no. 3 (2006): 513–535. 63. Karl Steinbuch, INFORMATIK: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung (Berlin: SEG-Nachrichten, 1957). 64. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), 138. 65. Donald Ervin Knuth, The Art of Computer programming, Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1968). 66. Paul Ceruzzi, “Electronics Technology and Computer Science, 1940–1975: A Coevolution,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 4 (1989): 257–275. 67. Peter Wegner, “Three Computer Cultures: Computer Technology, Computer Mathematics, and Computer Science,” Advances in Computers 10 (1970): 7–78. 68.


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Think Like a Rocket Scientist by Ozan Varol

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Wiles, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Arthur Eddington, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, dark matter, delayed gratification, different worldview, discovery of DNA, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, functional fixedness, Gary Taubes, George Santayana, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Inbox Zero, index fund, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, late fees, lateral thinking, lone genius, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, obamacare, Occam's razor, out of africa, Peter Thiel, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra

Ethan Siegel, “Happy Birthday to Urbain Le Verrier, Who Discovered Neptune with Math Alone,” Forbes, March 11, 2019, www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2019/03/11/happy-birthday-to-urbain-le-verrier-who-discovered-neptune-with-math-alone/#6674bcd7586d. 44. Clegg, Gravitational Waves, 29. 45. Clegg, Gravitational Waves, 29. 46. Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe. 47. T. C. Chamberlin, “The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses,” Science, May 1965, http://arti.vub.ac.be/cursus/2005-2006/mwo/chamberlin1890science.pdf. 48. Isaac Asimov, “The Relativity of Wrong,” Skeptical Inquirer 14 (fall 1989):35–44. 49. Thomas S. Kuhn, Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), xxvi. 50. Howard Wainer and Shaun Lysen, “That’s Funny… A Window on Data Can Be a Window on Discovery,” American Scientist, July 2009, www.americanscientist.org/article/thats-funny. 51. For the discovery of quantum mechanics, see John D. Norton, “Origins of Quantum Theory,” online chapter in Einstein for Everyone course, University of Pittsburgh, fall 2018, www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/chapters/quantum_theory_origins.


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Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Marc Freedman, Prime Time: How Baby Boomers Will Revolutionize Retirement and Transform America (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2001), and Encore: Finding Work That Matters in the Second Half of Life (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2007). 10. Mary Catherine Bateson, Composing a Life (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1989). II. Small and Beautiful 1. Erik H. Erikson, Young Man Luther (New York: W. W. Norton, 1958), pp. 100-104. 2. Nevil Shute, Trustee from the Toolroom (New York: William Morrow, 1960). III. Liberation Time 1. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). 2. Ibid. IV. From Strength to Strength 1. Arnold Gesell, An Atlas of Infant Behavior (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934). 2. Sigmund Freud, “Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex,” in The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud, ed. A. A. Brill (New York: Modern Library, 1938). 3. G. Stanley Hall, Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education (New York: D.


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Origin Story: A Big History of Everything by David Christian

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cepheid variable, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, complexity theory, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, demographic transition, double helix, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, nuclear winter, planetary scale, rising living standards, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, Yogi Berra

Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 2nd ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968), 261. 6. Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes (London: Bantam, 1988), 151. 7. My thanks to Elise Bohan for this quote from Terry Pratchett, Lords and Ladies (London: Victor Gollancz, 1992). 8. On paradigms, the classic text is Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970). 9. Peter Atkins, Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), loc. 722, Kindle. 10. Lawrence Krauss, A Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather than Nothing (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012). 11. Erwin Schrödinger, What Is Life? And Mind and Matter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967), 73. 12.


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Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes by Maria Konnikova

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, availability heuristic, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, delayed gratification, fear of failure, feminist movement, functional fixedness, Lao Tzu, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Walter Mischel

Chapter One: The Scientific Method of the Mind For the history of Sherlock Holmes and the background of the Conan Doyle stories and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s life, I’ve drawn heavily on several sources: Leslie Klinger’s The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes; Andrew Lycett’s The Man Who Created Sherlock Holmes; and John Lellenerg, Daniel Stashower, and Charles Foley’s Arthur Conan Doyle: A Life in Letters. While the latter two form a compendium of information on Conan Doyle’s life, the former is the single best source on the background for and various interpretations of the Holmes canon. For a taste of early psychology, I recommend William James’s classic text, The Principles of Psychology. For a discussion of the scientific method and its history, Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Much of the discussion of motivation, learning, and expertise draws on the research of Angela Duckworth, Ellen Winner (author of Gifted Children: Myths and Realities), and K. Anders Ericsson (author of The Road to Excellence). The chapter also owes a debt to the work of Daniel Gilbert. Chapter Two: The Brain Attic One of the best existing summaries of the research on memory is Eric Kandel’s In Search of Memory.


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The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

In spite of this, many mainstream scientists—not to mention the rest of the public—continue to understand reality according to the predominant reductionist stance. In 2013, readers of a respected British magazine, Prospect, named outspoken reductionist Richard Dawkins as the world's top thinker. Why has mainstream thinking so far failed to fully embrace this new understanding of life?43 One answer lurks in a famous monograph published in 1962 by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. “In science,” Kuhn observes, “novelty emerges only with difficulty, manifested by resistance.” When a worldview is established, and works reasonably well, people get used to thinking according to the cognitive structures it encourages. As we've seen throughout this book, the human patterning instinct has evolved to focus attention on what fits within its cultural frame and ignore what doesn't.

Lewontin, “Dream of the Human Genome”; Depew and Weber, Darwinism Evolving, 477–78; Woese, “New Biology for a New Century”; Goodwin, How the Leopard Changed Its Spots, xvi–xvii. 42. Kauffman, At Home in the Universe, 185–86. See “The Modern Relevance of Li” in chapter 14. 43. Ott, “Edward N. Lorenz”; John Dugdale, “Richard Dawkins Named World's Top Thinker in Poll,” Guardian, April 25, 2013. 44. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 64. 45. Ibid., 85–86, 151–52. Chapter 20. Consuming the Earth in the Modern Era 1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “The Sorcerer's Apprentice,” trans. Brigitte Dubiel (1797). I am indebted to Steve Hagen for pointing out this work as a parable for the power of technology. See Steve Hagen, Buddhism Is Not What You Think: Finding Freedom beyond Beliefs (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2004), 28–29. 2.


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Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease and Inheritance by Nessa Carey

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, life extension, mouse model, phenotype, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies

At this point, smile smugly and then say ‘Oh, in that case he’s karyotypically abnormal. He has an XXY karyotype, rather than XY’. And if you’re feeling particularly mean, you can tell them that Tom is infertile. That should shut them up. Chapter 10 The Message is Not the Medium Science commits suicide when it adopts a creed. Thomas Henry Huxley One of the most influential books on the philosophy of science is Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, published in 1962. One of the claims in Kuhn’s book is that science does not proceed in an orderly, linear and polite fashion, with all new findings viewed in a completely unbiased way. Instead, there is a prevailing theory which dominates a field. When new conflicting data are generated, the theory doesn’t immediately topple. It may get tweaked slightly, but scientists can and often do continue to believe in a theory long after there is sufficient evidence to discount it.


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The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

‘It is impossible for us to leave a law which would contradict, or render illegitimate, Israeli laws,’ recollected Inbar. But in other respects the mode of rule in the Jordanian period fitted the Israeli conceptions of control well. It was as comprehensive as the Israelis hoped it would be; it even included a list of the books censored in the West Bank, especially for children. The Jordanian list included The Diary of Anne Frank, while the Israeli list named Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (presumably because it contained in the title the word ‘revolution’).7 The Shacham Plan also suggested the names of people who should be appointed to senior posts in the future occupation. Some of them would indeed be there in 1967, men such as Chaim Herzog and the plan’s mastermind, Colonel Mishael Shacham himself. In 1963 Herzog was released from active military service with the rank of a general.


Evil Genes: Why Rome Fell, Hitler Rose, Enron Failed, and My Sister Stole My Mother's Boyfriend by Barbara Oakley Phd

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Barry Marshall: ulcers, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, prisoner's dilemma, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies, union organizing, Y2K

Pamela Fayerman, “Hitler's Defeat after Allied Invasion Attributed to Parkinson's Disease,” Vancouver Sun, July 27, 1999; Betty Glad, “Why Tyrants Go Too Far: Malignant Narcissism and Absolute Power,” Political Psychology 23, no. 1 (2002): 1–36; Colin Martindale, Nancy Hasenfus, and Dwight Hines, “Hitler: A Neurohistorical Formulation,” Confinia Psychiatrica 19, no. 2 (1976): 106–16; Hyman Muslin, “Adolf Hitler: The Evil Self,” Psychohistory Review (Sangamon State University) 20, no. 3 (1992): 251–70; Jerrold Post, When Illness Strikes the Leader: The Dilemma of the Captive King (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993), p. 51; Fritz Redlich, Diagnosis of a Destructive Prophet (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 18, 231–35; David Ronfeldt, Beware the Hubris-Nemisis Complex (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1994); Ron Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil (New York: Random House, 1999), p. 87; John C. Sonne, “On Tyrants as Abortion Survivors,” Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health 19, no. 2 (2004): 149–67. 9. As of February 21, 2007. 10. Glad, “Why Tyrants Go Too Far.” 11. Tony Becher and Paul Trowler, Academic Tribes and Territories, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press, 2001); Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). 12. Judith Rich Harris, The Nurture Assumption (New York: Free Press, 1998); Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). CHAPTER 1: IN SEARCH OF MACHIAVELLI 1. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, in L. J. Peter, Peter's Quotations: Ideas for Our Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1979), p. 123. 2.


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Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey


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Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, double helix, fear of failure, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Vilfredo Pareto

This perspective claims that knowing how a person sees his or her own past is one of the best ways to predict what he or she will do in the future. Every home a museum. Csikszentmihalyi & Rochberg-Halton (1981) studied over 300 members of three-generational families around Chicago, who were asked in their homes to show interviewers their favorite objects, and to explain the reasons for cherishing them. The four quotations from Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) are from pages 24, 38, 38, and 36, respectively. One of the most exciting promises of flow theory is that it may help explain why certain ideas, practices, and products are adopted, while others are ignored or forgotten—since at this point the histories of ideas, institutions, and cultures work almost exclusively within a paradigm informed by economic determinism. In addition, it might be revealing to consider how history is directed by the enjoyment people derive or anticipate from different courses of action.


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Big Bang by Simon Singh

Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, Andrew Wiles, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Astronomia nova, Brownian motion, carbon-based life, Cepheid variable, Chance favours the prepared mind, Commentariolus, Copley Medal, cosmic abundance, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, Dava Sobel, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of penicillin, Dmitri Mendeleev, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Freundlich, Fellow of the Royal Society, fudge factor, Hans Lippershey, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Henri Poincaré, horn antenna, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Karl Jansky, Kickstarter, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, luminiferous ether, Magellanic Cloud, Murray Gell-Mann, music of the spheres, Olbers’ paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Paul Erdős, retrograde motion, Richard Feynman, scientific mainstream, Simon Singh, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbiased observer, Wilhelm Olbers, William of Occam

Narlikar, A Different Approach to Cosmology (CUP, 2000) The authors, who remain unconvinced by the Big Bang model, put forward their own arguments and challenge the interpretations of various observations. Epilogue Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (Routledge, 2002) First published in 1959, Popper presents an academic and revolutionary view of the philosophy of science. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (University of Chicago Press, 1996) First published in 1962, this is Kuhn’s alternative view of the nature of scientific progress. Steve Fuller, Kuhn vs Popper (Icon, 2003) A re-examination of the Kuhn versus Popper debate on the philosophy of science, which is more accessible than their original publications cited above. Lewis Wolpert, The Unnatural Nature of Science (Faber & Faber, 1993) A discussion of what science is, what it can do, what it cannot do, and how it works.


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But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

But his central point is my obsession: the possibility that we are unable to isolate or imagine something fundamental about the construction of reality, and that the eventual realization of whatever that fundamental thing is will necessitate a rewrite of everything else. Here again, I’m not the first person to fantasize about this possibility. It’s the controversial premise of Thomas Kuhn’s 1962 masterwork The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn’s take was that science does not advance through minor steps, but through major ones—basically, that everyone believes all the same things for long stretches of time, only to have the entire collective worldview altered by a paradigm shift36 transforming the entire system. Prior to these massive shifts, researchers conduct what Kuhn called “normal science,” where scientists try to solve all the puzzles inside the existing paradigm, inadvertently propping up its dominance.


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Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

Intellectual magazines that are ostensibly dedicated to ideas confine themselves to politics and the arts, with scant attention to new ideas emerging from science, with the exception of politicized issues like climate change (and regular attacks on scientism).20 Still worse is the treatment of science in the liberal arts curricula of many universities. Students can graduate with a trifling exposure to science, and what they do learn is often designed to poison them against it. The most commonly assigned book on science in modern universities (aside from a popular biology textbook) is Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.21 That 1962 classic is commonly interpreted as showing that science does not converge on the truth but merely busies itself with solving puzzles before flipping to some new paradigm which renders its previous theories obsolete, indeed, unintelligible.22 Though Kuhn himself later disavowed this nihilist interpretation, it has become the conventional wisdom within the Second Culture.

See Nordic countries Schank, Roger, 477n20 Scheidel, Walter, 106–7 Schelling, Friedrich, 30 Schelling, Thomas, 480nn105,112 Schell, Jonathan, 309–310, 456n1 Schmitt, Carl, 447 Schneier, Bruce, 303, 304 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 39–40, 165 Schrag, Daniel, 151 Schumer, Amy, 434 Schwartz, Richard, 274 science application to wealth creation, 82–3, 94–5 beauty and, 34, 260, 386, 407–8, 433–4 climate change, consensus on, 137–8, 464n45 collaboration in, 64, 409 cosmopolitan virtues of, 409 definition of, 9, 391–3 depth of achievements of, 385–7 doubt as first principle of, 390 and errors and prejudices, discrediting own, 391 heroes of, 63–4 ideals of, 27, 387–8, 390, 392–3, 409 methods of, 10, 390, 392 naïveté of scientists on policy, 390–91 national boundaries transcended by, 387–8, 409 nuclear war activism by scientists, 308–310 nuclear weapons as indictment of, 308 and political correctness, accusations of, 138 political ideology in scientists, 138, 356–8, 372 and “scientific method,” as term, 392 science, disdain for, 33–4, 387, 389–90, 395, 408–9 and bioethics, 402 as bipartisan, 388–9 cultural sophistication and, 17 faitheism and, 430 history of science and, 395–6 and Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 395, 486n21 left-wing repression, 373, 388 medical progress and, 63 right-wing politicians and, 387–8 “science studies” and, 396 Second Culture paranoia about, 389–90, 409 university general education, 400–401 See also intellectuals; scientism —EVILS BLAMED ON SCIENCE, 388–9, 397, 400 eugenics, 388, 399–400 Holocaust, 397 nuclear weapons, 308–310 racism and imperialism, 34, 388, 397–8, 399, 486n32 Social Darwinism, 388, 398–9, 486nn36–37 Tuskegee syphilis study, 401 science of man, 10 Scientific Revolution, 8, 9–10, 24, 326 scientism, 34, 388, 389, 390, 392, 395.


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The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, life extension, linear programming, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, nuclear winter, old-boy network, open economy, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

The fact that Newtonian mechanics fails at speeds approaching the speed of light and is not an adequate basis for developing atomic power or the hydrogen bomb does not mean that it was inadequate as a means of mastering other aspects of nature, such as global navigation, steam locomotion, or the long-range gun. There is, moreover, a hierarchy among paradigms that is established by nature rather than man: the theory of relativity could not have been discovered before having discovered the Newtonian laws of motion. It is this hierarchy among paradigms that ensures a coherence and unidirectionality to the advancement of scientific knowledge. See Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, second edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), particularly pp. 95-110, 139-143, and 170-173. For a review of criticisms of Kuhn, see Terence Ball, “From Paradigms to Research Programs: Toward a Post-Kuhnian Political Science,” American Journal of Political Science 20, no. 1 (February 1976): 151-177. 3 There are instances of less technologically advanced powers “defeating” more advanced ones, like Vietnam and the United States or Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, but the reasons for these defeats lay in the very different political stakes of the two sides.


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Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

They found common cause with political activists representing feminism, environmentalism, African Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, humanism, the peace movement, gay rights, animal rights, antinuclear activists, and other disempowered groups. Science came to be seen as the province of a hawkish, probusiness political-right power structure—polluting, uncaring, greedy, mechanistic, sexist, racist, imperialistic, oppressive, and not to be trusted. KUHNIANISM In 1962, this broad ambivalence toward science crystallized with the publication of American philosopher Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Stunningly, it became one of the most cited academic books of the twentieth century. It sold about a million copies, a figure unheard of for a philosophical text, and gave clarity to Americans’ increasingly ambivalent attitudes toward science and the nature of reality. Science was not the gradual and painstaking accumulation of knowledge, Kuhn said, but rather a sociological and thus political phenomenon that happens in sudden paradigm shifts.


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Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown by Philip Mirowski

"Robert Solow", Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, constrained optimization, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, loose coupling, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, sealed-bid auction, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, working poor

Smith, “What I Learned in Grad School.” 20 This dynamic is described from various vantage points in Weintraub, The Future of the History of Economics; Lee, A History of Heterodox Economics; and Haring, “Economics Is Losing Its Memory.” 21 Available for viewing at www.aeaweb.org/webcasts/assa2010.php. 22 For a video admission by Alan Blinder, see www.cengagesites.com/academic/?site=5322&secID=5312. And for that of John Taylor: www.cengagesites.com/academic/?site=5724&SecID=7344. 23 The texts were “The Methodology of Positive Economics” in Friedman, Essays in Positive Economics, and Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. See, for instance, http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/ 2009/08/why-this-new-crisis-needs-a-new-paradigm-of-economic-thought.html#more;or www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/3210; or www.rieti.go.jp/en/rieti_report/108.html. It was instructive how economists instinctively and unself-consciously turned to the writings of members of the Mont Pèlerin Society such as Friedman and Popper when they were forced to access “philosophy.”


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The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

As World War Two broke out, these advances in computing were adopted and developed by The Royal Society is a Fellowship of many of the world’s most eminent scientists and is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence. 2 See ‘Technological novelty profile and invention’s future impact’, Kim et al., (2016), EPJ Data Science. 3 The term ‘combinatorial evolution’, was coined by the scientific theorist W. Brian Arthur, who is also one of the founders of complexity economics. In a streak that is similar to Thomas Kuhn’s ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’, Arthur’s book, ‘The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves’, explains that technologies are based on interactions and composed into modular systems of components that can grow. Being modular, they combine with each other and when a technology reaches a critical mass of components and interfaces, it evolves to enter new domains, and changes based on the new natural phenomena it interacts with.


How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett

airport security, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, framing effect, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, Shai Danziger, Skype, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

I call this band of scientists the Lost Chorus because their work, published in prestigious journals, has been largely overlooked, ignored, or misunderstood since the supposed dark ages ended.37 Why did the Lost Chorus flourish for half a century and then vanish? My best guess is that these scientists did not offer a fully formed, alternative theory of emotion to compete with the compelling classical view. They presented solid counterevidence to be sure, but criticism alone was not enough to remain relevant. As philosopher Thomas Kuhn wrote about the structure of scientific revolutions: “To reject one paradigm without simultaneously substituting another is to reject science itself.” So when the classical view reasserted itself in the 1960s, half a century of anti-essentialist research was swept into history’s dustbin. And we are all the poorer for it, considering how much time and money are being wasted today in pursuit of illusory emotion essences.


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The Myth of Capitalism: Monopolies and the Death of Competition by Jonathan Tepper

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, diversification, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, merger arbitrage, Metcalfe's law, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, passive investing, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, undersea cable, Vanguard fund, very high income, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

The overall effect has been “approval of significantly more mergers that prove to be anticompetitive.” The damage has already been done. Max Planck once said, “Science progresses one funeral at a time.” Any reform of antitrust laws will likely have to come when those influenced by Bork die away. Law does not proceed in a straight line toward greater fairness and justice. In 1962 Thomas Kuhn wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. It has become one of the most cited books of all time. He rejected the idea that scientific progress was “the addition of new truths to the stock of old truths” and the correction of past errors. Kuhn saw science as shifting radically from one paradigm to another, going from normal to revolutionary phases. Antitrust law has experienced its own revolutions with each passing generation.


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The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, British Empire, Copley Medal, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Etonian, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Harrison: Longitude, music of the spheres, placebo effect, polynesian navigation, Richard Feynman, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unbiased observer, University of East Anglia, éminence grise

He announced, ‘An undevout astronomer is mad,’ though he had some doubts about the size and complication of the cosmos as revealed by Newton’s mathematics: ‘Perhaps a seraph’s computation fails!’ (Book IX, lines 1, 226-35). A later edition of the poem was superbly illustrated with William Blake’s watercolour engravings, a consolation for those terrified by the new cosmology. Bibliography The Bigger Picture (In chronological order of publication) Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago UP, 1962-70 Albert Bettex, The Discovery of Nature (with 482 illustrations), Thames & Hudson, 1965 James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, 1968/2001 Arthur Koestler, The Act of Creation, Danube edition, 1969 Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man, 1973 Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin, Penguin, 1992 Lewis Wolpert, The Unnatural Nature of Science, Faber, 1992 James Gleick, Richard Feynman and Modern Physics, Pantheon Books, 1992 Michael J.


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Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Gobal Crisis by James Rickards

Asian financial crisis, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, game design, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, high net worth, income inequality, interest rate derivative, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Myron Scholes, Network effects, New Journalism, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, one-China policy, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, time value of money, too big to fail, value at risk, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game


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The Myth of the Rational Market: A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion on Wall Street by Justin Fox

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, card file, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of the americas, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, endowment effect, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, impulse control, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, Nikolai Kondratiev, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pushing on a string, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, stocks for the long run, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, volatility smile, Yogi Berra

Robert Merton sprang to the defense of the rational market hypothesis against Shiller’s critique mainly because Franco Modigliani—presumably trying to bring more attention to the matter—asked him to do it. Merton’s colleagues figured they had better things to do. However absurd and reality denying that may seem from the outside, it’s how science works. “Normal science, the activity in which most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like,” wrote Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. “Much of the success of the enterprise derives from the community’s willingness to defend that assumption, if necessary at considerable cost.” Attacks from outside are thus likely to fail. It is only when hard-to-explain anomalies start cropping up within the paradigm of a science that change is possible. In finance, such anomalies had actually been cropping up from the beginning.


The Deep Learning Revolution (The MIT Press) by Terrence J. Sejnowski

AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Conway's Game of Life, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, delayed gratification, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Henri Poincaré, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Norbert Wiener, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, PageRank, pattern recognition, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Socratic dialogue, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

.), Pathological Altruism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 30. https://futureoflife.org/open-letter-autonomous-weapons/. 302 Notes 31. http://www.cnn.com/2017/09/01/world/putin-artificial-intelligence-will-rule -world/index.html. 32. Andrew Burtjan, “Leave A.I. Alone,” New York Times, January 4, 2018. https:// www.nytimes.com/2018/01/04/opinion/leave-artificial-intelligence.html. Chapter 9 1. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 23 2. M. Riesenhuber and T. Poggio, “Hierarchical Models of Object Recognition In Cortex.” Nat Neurosci. 2: 1019-1025, 1999; T. Serre, A. Oliva, and T. Poggio, “A Feedforward Architecture Accounts for Rapid Categorization.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, no. 15 (2007): 6424– 6429. 3.


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The Road to Ruin: The Global Elites' Secret Plan for the Next Financial Crisis by James Rickards

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, cellular automata, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, jitney, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Pierre-Simon Laplace, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, reserve currency, RFID, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, stocks for the long run, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transfer pricing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system


pages: 293 words: 78,439

Dual Transformation: How to Reposition Today's Business While Creating the Future by Scott D. Anthony, Mark W. Johnson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversified portfolio, Internet of things, invention of hypertext, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, obamacare, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, pez dispenser, recommendation engine, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, the market place, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transfer pricing, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

And while there remained continued pressure from dominant players such as Google and Facebook, who would you rather have competing: People who grew up selling print and TV ads or digital natives? One of Gilbert’s mantras was, “A digital buyer needs a digital seller.” More generally, our advice is that transformation B should involve a careful blend of people we dub “aliens” (who will push you in a new direction) and “diplomats” (who will help negotiate bilateral relationships). First, the aliens. In 1962, Thomas Kuhn’s classic The Structure of Scientific Revolutions highlighted what Kuhn dubbed paradigm shifts, which always came from outside the established orthodoxy. If you don’t bring in aliens, it is unlikely that you’ll be able to push the innovation frontier. However, the diplomats—who can speak core and alien and can arbitrate differences between the two—also play a critical role. The magic of transformation B is that you borrow just enough from the core to create competitive advantage without crossing a line that opens the door to the innovator’s dilemma (this is the focus of chapter 4).


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What's Wrong with Economics? by Robert Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, global supply chain, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, precariat, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, survivorship bias, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game


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Democracy Incorporated by Sheldon S. Wolin

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, centre right, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass incarceration, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, single-payer health, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen

We need only recall that “democracy” was not in favor among many of our Founding Fathers; that the original Constitution explicitly accepted slavery and did not include a bill of rights. 18. Cited in Fareed Zakaria, The Future of Freedom (New York: Norton, 2003), 210–11. 19. The classic statement of this view is Max Weber’s “Science as a Vocation,” in From Max Weber, 129–56. 20. See Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), chap. 2; J. Bronowski, Science and Human Values (New York: Harper, 1956), especially 65 ff. 21. See Sheldon Krimsky, Science in the Private Interest (San Francisco: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003). 22. In the nineteenth century there were several proposals for substituting science for religion as the basis of society, the most notable being that of Auguste Comte. 23.


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Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman by James Gleick

Albert Einstein, American ideology, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Ernest Rutherford, gravity well, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, uranium enrichment

Not since Newton … By then the profession of science was expanding rapidly, counting not hundreds but tens of thousands of practitioners. Clearly most of their work, most of science, was ordinary—as Freeman Dyson put it, a business of “honest craftsmen,” “solid work,” “collaborative efforts where to be reliable is more important than to be original.” In modern times it became almost impossible to talk about the processes of scientific change without echoing Thomas S. Kuhn, whose Structure of Scientific Revolutions so thoroughly changed the discourse of historians of science. Kuhn distinguished between normal science—problem solving, the fleshing out of existing frameworks, the unsurprising craft that occupies virtually all working researchers—and revolutions, the vertiginous intellectual upheavals through which knowledge lurches genuinely forward. Nothing in Kuhn’s scheme required individual genius to turn the crank of revolutions.


Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models by Gabriel Weinberg, Lauren McCann

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business process, butterfly effect, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, fear of failure, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hindsight bias, housing crisis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, income inequality, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, lateral thinking, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, mail merge, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, Potemkin village, prediction markets, premature optimization, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, publication bias, recommendation engine, remote working, replication crisis, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Shai Danziger, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, uber lyft, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Even to mathematically inclined parents, this alternative way of doing arithmetic can feel foreign after so many years of thinking about it another way. Singapore Math: Addition Singapore math teaches addition using “number bonds” that break apart numbers so that students can add in groups of ten. In science, this phenomenon is documented in Thomas Kuhn’s book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which popularized the paradigm shift model, describing how accepted scientific theories change over time. Instead of a gradual, evolving progression, Kuhn describes a bumpy, messy process in which initial problems with a scientific theory are either ignored or rationalized away. Eventually so many issues pile up that the scientific discipline in question is thrown into a crisis mode, and the paradigm shifts to a new explanation, entering a new stable era.


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Transaction Man: The Rise of the Deal and the Decline of the American Dream by Nicholas Lemann

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Black-Scholes formula, buy and hold, capital controls, computerized trading, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Irwin Jacobs, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, universal basic income, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor

Fama developed, again through complicated statistical means, what he called the “efficient market hypothesis,” which holds that well-functioning financial markets will set the price of a stock accurately, and therefore analysts who try to learn about individual companies in detail in order to decide whether their stocks are overpriced or underpriced are essentially wasting their time. All these people—Hayek, Friedman, Markowitz, Sharpe, Modigliani, Miller, and Fama—wound up as Nobel laureates in economics. Back then, they were complete outsiders to the actual world of finance. The year that Mike Jensen came to Chicago, Thomas Kuhn’s book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which introduced the idea of paradigm shifts, was published. Jensen wasn’t widely read outside of economics, but Kuhn’s book was a touchstone for him, something he quoted regularly for decades because he felt he had landed in the middle of a paradigm shift. Everything that everyone had always believed about this particular universe was wrong, and now, a small group of outsiders, widely considered eccentric or even crazy by other economists, let alone by people who worked on Wall Street, was demolishing the existing edifice of ideas and replacing it with a radically different one.


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Strategy: A History by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Black Swan, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, defense in depth, desegregation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, endowment effect, Ford paid five dollars a day, framing effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, lateral thinking, linear programming, loose coupling, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mental accounting, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, unemployed young men, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Galbraith, The Affluent Society (London: Pelican, 1962), 16–27. 11. Sal Restivo, “The Myth of the Kuhnian Revolution,” in Randall Collins, ed., Sociological Theory (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), 293–305. 12. Aristides Baltas, Kostas Gavroglu, and Vassiliki Kindi, “A Discussion with Thomas S. Kuhn,” in James Conant and John Haugeland, eds., The Road Since Structure (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 308. 13. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 5, 16–17. For an accessible intellectual biography see Alexander Bird, “Thomas S. Kuhn (18 July 1922–17 June 1996),” Social Studies of Science 27, no. 3 (1997): 483–502. See also Alexander Bird, Thomas Kuhn (Chesham, UK: Acumen and Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000). 14. Kuhn, Scientific Revolutions, 77. 15.


The Unicorn's Secret by Steven Levy

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, card file, East Village, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, index card, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

Ira moved into Peckham’s house while waiting to move into a new apartment he had rented, and the two renewed their friendship. “We are closer than ever and a deep understanding has developed between the two of us,” Ira wrote. “He needs the companionship, understanding, and constant stimulation (he has told me this a number of times quite recently) that I provide.” Among the books that fired Ira’s imagination in this period were Alan Watts’s Psychotherapy East and West and Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The latter, introducing the concept of paradigm shifts—those earth-shattering changes in the way we view the world, generated by new discoveries—particularly entranced Ira. He believed that when the next paradigm shift came, he would be among the few who perceived it right away, squaring off against the old guard defending obsolete truth. He would eventually meet and befriend the authors of both those books, a habit that he was increasingly cultivating.


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The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The reaction against auto-mobility gained steam with the warning whistle of rising greenhouse gas emissions and the observations of climate change. In some debates in some cities, initiatives might center less around reducing car use and more around enhancing other transport options.8 Either way, less has changed than one would expect given the revolution in information technologies over the same period. Transport discussions now make new assumptions. Borrowing from Thomas Kuhn's popular 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, discussions ring of a "paradigm shift." Transport practitioners are encountering anomalies for which the universally accepted paradigms now have difficulty explaining.9 In the second decade of the new millennium, transport is becoming interesting (again?). Such resurgence is precisely why the two of us wrote this book. Revolutionary technical advances are taking root; evolutionary social forces are responding and changing how people access and exchange goods.


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The Clockwork Universe: Saac Newto, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern WorldI by Edward Dolnick

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Arthur Eddington, clockwork universe, complexity theory, double helix, Edmond Halley, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, lone genius, music of the spheres, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, scientific worldview, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Bernard Cohen discusses in detail Newton’s use of calculus in the “Introduction” to his translation of the Principia, pp. 122–27. 298 “Newton’s geometry seems to shriek”: Roche, “Newton’s Principia,” in Fauvel et al., eds., Let Newton Be!, p. 50. 299 “By the help of the new Analysis”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 424. 299 “There is no letter”: Cohen, “Introduction,” p. 123. 300 “As we read the Principia”: Chandrasekhar, “Shakespeare, Newton, and Beethoven.” CHAPTER 51. JUST CRAZY ENOUGH 301 Molière long ago made fun: Thomas Kuhn famously cited Molière in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, p. 104. 302 “We are all agreed that your theory is crazy”: Bohr made the remark to Wolfgang Pauli and added, “My own feeling is that it is not crazy enough.” Dael Wolfle, ed., Symposium on Basic Research (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1959), p. 66. 302fn In time, this bewilderment: J. J. MacIntosh, “Locke and Boyle on Miracles and God’s Existence,” p. 196. 303 “He claims that a body attracts”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 273. 303 “Mysterious though it was”: John Henry, “Pray do not Ascribe that Notion to me: God and Newton’s Gravity,” in Force and Popkin, eds., The Books of Nature and Scripture, p. 141. 303 “even if an angel”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 291. 304 If the sun suddenly exploded: Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe (New York: Norton, 1999), p. 56. 305 “so great an absurdity”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 505. 305 “To tell us that every Species”: From the end of Opticks, quoted in Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, p. 259. 306 “as if it were a Crime”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 779. 306 “Ye cause of gravity”: Ibid., p. 505. 306 “I have not been able to discover”: Cohen’s translation of the Principia, p. 428.



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Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

You can take the story of science over the past couple of generations as being about loosening the idea that science has a firm, unambiguous grip on the truth: • Karl Popper in 1934 gave us a way to cleanly separate science from pseudo-science by telling us that a truly scientific statement is falsifiable—that is, there is a way to prove it false.47 “Chewing gum quickly dissolves in human saliva” can be shown to be false, and thus is a scientific statement. “Chewing gum likes to be chewed” cannot be shown to be false and is therefore not scientific. What places a statement within the realm of science is not that we know it is true but that there is some conceivable way we could prove it to be false. • Thomas Kuhn in 1962 published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which itself revolutionized our idea of science. Kuhn argued that science was not simply a progressive march of discoveries that build on prior hard-won discoveries, bringing us ever closer to the truth. Rather, it turns out that the questions science asks, the facts it takes as relevant, and the explanations it gives all occur within an overarching scientific “paradigm” such as Aristotelian, Newtonian, or Einsteinian physics.


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Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler

"Robert Solow", 3Com Palm IPO, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, impulse control, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, late fees, law of one price, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market clearing, Mason jar, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, More Guns, Less Crime, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, New Journalism, nudge unit, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, presumed consent, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game


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The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve


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The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

"Robert Solow", airport security, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, global pandemic, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Laplace demon, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pets.com, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Andrew Gelman and Cosma Tohilla Shalizi, “Philosophy and the Practice of Bayesian Statistics,” British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, pp. 1–31, January 11, 2012. http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/research/published/philosophy.pdf. 63. Although there are several different formulations of the steps in the scientific method, this version is mostly drawn from “APPENDIX E: Introduction to the Scientific Method,” University of Rochester. http://teacher.pas.rochester.edu/phy_labs/appendixe/appendixe.html. 64. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Kindle edition). 65. Jacob Cohen, “The Earth Is Round (p<.05),” American Psychologist, 49, 12 (December 1994), pp. 997–1003. http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~maccoun/PP279_Cohen1.pdf. 66. Jeff Gill, “The Insignificance of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing,” Political Research Quarterly, 52, 3 (September 1999), pp. 647–674. http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~jgill/papers/hypo.pdf. 67.


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The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game


pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor

bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

And that’s that and you can’t talk your way out of it. HARVEY GRAHAM, SMOKING—THE FACTS, PUBLISHED BY THE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL ASSOCIATION, 1957 We like to think of scientific knowledge as cumulative, that ideas once established as true cannot be undone. But the reality is that facts can come undone, there is forgetfulness, and not every good thing flourishes. That was part of the insight of Thomas Kuhn’s great Structure of Scientific Revolutions: our views of the world change not so much by steady pilings-on of fact but rather by gestalt shifts in how we see the world. Science advances by leaping over the canyons of dried-up ideas, which also means that a certain kind of forgetting—or unlearning—is key to any scientific change. Old points of view must be abandoned, the strange becomes familiar, the familiar strange.


pages: 614 words: 174,226

The Economists' Hour: How the False Prophets of Free Markets Fractured Our Society by Binyamin Appelbaum

"Robert Solow", airline deregulation, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, starchitect, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

I do sincerely hope that no government speaker would use words implying that the government subscribes to such an antiquated doctrine.” Macmillan was sympathetic to Keynes; his family’s publishing firm, Macmillan, was the British publisher of Keynes’s works. 60. The document is commonly known as the Radcliffe Report. See Report of the Committee on the Working of the Monetary System (London: HMSO, 1959), 489. 61. Thomas Kuhn’s classic book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), concluded that adherents of a scientific paradigm rarely change their minds. A new paradigm instead takes hold as the older generation is replaced. 62. Paul Douglas, a leading professor of economics at the University of Chicago, was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1948 as a Democrat from Illinois, becoming one of the first economists to serve in Congress.


pages: 741 words: 199,502

pages: 850 words: 254,117

Basic Economics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, air freight, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, barriers to entry, big-box store, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cross-subsidies, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, late fees, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, payday loans, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty

{1011} Karl Marx, Capital (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1909), Volume II, Chapter XXI. {1012} John Kenneth Galbraith, American Capitalism (White Plains, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1980), p. 68. {1013} Herbert Stein, Presidential Economics, second edition (Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1988), p. 113. {1014} Thomas Sowell, “Samuel Bailey Revisited,” Economica, November 1970, pp. 402–408. {1015} Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, second edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 17. {1016} Jacob Viner, The Long View and the Short: Studies in Economic Theory and Policy (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1958), p. 79. {1017} Karl Marx, Capital, Volume III, pp. 310–311; Karl Marx, “Wage Labour and Capital,” Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1955), Volume I, Section V, p. 99


pages: 363 words: 109,374

50 Psychology Classics by Tom Butler-Bowdon

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, delayed gratification, fear of failure, feminist movement, global village, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Necker cube, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

This evolved perhaps because the brain and nervous system involve so many different systems and a grand illusion is necessary to tie them all together. To survive, to be social, to mate, we need to have the experience of being an autonomous being who is in charge. However, the part of us that is in charge is in fact only a small part of our whole being; the rest carries on automatically, zombie like. Weird and wonderful cases Ramachandran refers to Thomas Kuhn and his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which noted that science tends to sweep the unusual cases under the carpet until they can be fitted into established theories. But Ramachandran’s view turns this on its head: We can get closer to generalities by solving the strange cases. Consider just three he discusses: Hemi-neglect patients are indifferent to objects and events in the left side of the world, sometimes even indifferent to the left side of their own bodies.


pages: 522 words: 162,310

Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

In 1961 the French philosopher Michel Foucault published Madness and Civilization, echoing the new skepticism of the concept of mental illness, and by the 1970s he argued that rationality itself is a coercive “regime of truth,” oppression by other means. Foucault’s suspicion of reason became deeply and widely embedded in American academia. The following year a young UC Berkeley professor of science history, Thomas Kuhn, published a groundbreaking book called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In the way of Szasz and Laing, psychiatrists discrediting psychiatry, Kuhn had trained as a physicist. His book was not polemical like the antipsychiatrists’, much broader in scope, both a popular bestseller and one of the most intellectually influential books of the age. Appearing when it did, it fed the new skepticism about science and scientists and, by extension, about rationality as propounded by elites, the mainstream, the Establishment.


pages: 397 words: 109,631

pages: 574 words: 164,509

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey, zero-sum game


pages: 398 words: 108,026

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change by Stephen R. Covey

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, knowledge worker, the map is not the territory, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

THE POWER OF A PARADIGM SHIFT Perhaps the most important insight to be gained from the perception demonstration is in the area of paradigm shifting, what we might call the" Aha!" experience when someone finally "sees" the composite picture in another way. The more bound a person is by the initial perception, the more powerful the" Aha!" experience is. It's as though a light were suddenly turned on inside. The term paradigm shift was introduced by Thomas Kuhn in his highly influential landmark book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn shows how almost every significant breakthrough in the field of scientific endeavor is. first a break with tradition, with old ways of thinking, with old paradigms. For Ptolemy, the great Egyptian astronomer, the earth was the center of the universe. But Copernicus created a paradigm shift, and a great deal of resistance and persecution as well, by placing the sun at the center.


pages: 410 words: 114,005

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What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, yield curve

Often seen as a center of radical Islam, Iran is also the birthplace of the Reformist Movement of Islam (led by the recently deceased Grand Ayatollah Montazeri), which moves beyond textual literalism and posits democracy, human rights, and nonviolence as central to the societal affairs of Muslims. A Modern Iran, at Last In the late 1970s the philosopher Thomas Kuhn coined the phrase “paradigm shift” in his seminal book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He was referring to the phenomena of scientists detecting a need to change their underlying presumptions and worldviews in order to better explain (instead of discarding) surprising experimental results. Arguably, a similar phenomenon is under way that is changing global perceptions of Iranian society. In the aftermath of the June 12, 2009 elections and the spontaneous outbreak of widespread protests, vivid images were broadcast by global media outlets depicting a modern Iranian polity demanding its democratic rights.


pages: 756 words: 120,818

The Levelling: What’s Next After Globalization by Michael O’sullivan

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, cloud computing, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, global value chain, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, liberal world order, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, private military company, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, tulip mania, Valery Gerasimov, Washington Consensus


pages: 404 words: 134,430

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Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game


pages: 532 words: 133,143


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