death of newspapers

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pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers,, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy

Newspapers: A Failure to Adapt There is no question newspapers have serious problems, but those problems are business problems and cannot be solved by additional legal rights.To listen to some in the newspaper business, the industry was destroyed by Internet search engines. As we shall see, the decline in the newspaper business has been going on for a long time, well before the advent of the Internet, and involves loss of advertising revenue made possible by artificial, analog scarcity. Newspapers’ revenue losses, while substantial, have nothing to do with copying their content, and therefore nothing to do with copyright laws.

The next big short-term drop occurred in the period 1989 to 1993, the latter date being the date the World Wide Web was opened up for free to the public. Television, both over the air and cable, by contrast, began with zero advertising market share in 1949, and went up to 26 percent in 2009. Direct mail has also gone up, from 15 percent in 1949 to 22 percent in 2009. The decline in newspaper advertising thus 150 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT occurred most sharply before the introduction of the Web, while other media, especially cable television, have gained at newspapers’ expense. One important reason for newspapers’ decline in advertising revenue versus other media is the decline in the amount of time consumers spend with newspapers.

Media Usage and Consumer Spending Media Unit 2005 2006 Total Hours 3,543 3,530 Television Broadcast Television Network stations Independent stations Cable, Satellite & RBOC TV Services Basic cable, satellite & RBOC TV Premium cable, satellite & RBOC TV Broadcast and satellite radio Recorded music Out-of-home media Consumer magazines Consumer books Videogames Home video Yellow Pages Box office Pure-play mobile services In-flight entertainment Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours 1,659 679 582 97 980 Hours 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 projection projection projection projection projection 3,532 3,559 3,569 3,596 3,624 1,673 676 599 77 997 1,686 676 603 73 1,010 1,704 678 604 74 1,027 1,714 673 598 75 1,041 1,728 673 598 75 1,055 1,742 669 593 76 1,073 807 835 849 865 877 891 913 Hours 173 161 161 162 164 164 159 Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours 805 196 130 124 107 73 63 12 12 9 1 778 186 133 121 108 76 62 13 12 12 1 769 171 137 119 108 82 64 13 13 16 1 768 165 141 117 108 90 66 13 13 21 2 760 168 145 114 109 91 68 13 13 28 2 758 174 149 112 109 94 70 12 14 33 2 751 185 154 110 110 100 70 12 14 38 2 152 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT It should be no surprise that advertisers have gone with media that have an increase in consumer viewing rather than with media that are declining in consumer viewing. Newspapers are in decline and therefore so are their advertising revenue. This is the market at work, and is not the fault of others, especially Internet companies. Laws cannot force people to spend more time reading newspapers. People are estimated to spend somewhat over one minute a day reading news online versus twenty-five minutes a day reading hard copy newspapers.

pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton


3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers,, Internet of things, John Gruber, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

I’ve been to all-day talks and fifty-person meetings with everyone from the CEO to a lowly intern and all the players in between. I’ve also attended conferences as a panel member with other journalists and publishers to discuss this very topic. Depending on who is in the room, these conversations usually start out lamenting the death of newspapers and magazines and quickly move to asking how we will ever be able to charge people to access news online. I have heard over and over that young people won’t pay for anything. Movie producers, publishers, and musicians argue that kids have been raised to think content is free and they have a God-given right to take it.

pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management

By the end of 2005, the company had indexed 8 billion Web pages in 116 languages; its revenues soared to $6.1 billion and its net income to $1.5 billion. Meanwhile, the tide was running against traditional media. In December of 2005, 77 percent of Americans had Internet access at work and 37 percent of all adults had high-speed access to the Internet. The slight but steady decline in newspaper circulation suddenly steepened in 2004 and 2005. The circulation of daily newspapers would plunge 6.3 percent between 2003 and 2006, with Sunday circulation falling 8 percent. Newspaper advertising revenues, which had grown on average in the high single digits since 1950, beginning in 2001 fell in four of the next seven years, and in 2006 began to fall more steeply.

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Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott


barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

The critic’s inky, pulpy native habitat, a sometimes mean and shabby place but a home all the same, is threatened, like so much else, by the blindingly rapid rise of digital media, which has already, in a little more than a decade, decisively transformed the world of print and may yet kill it off entirely. Farseeing media mystics and hardheaded business analysts routinely show up on social media, on television, and between hard covers to prophesy the death of newspapers, the evolution of books and magazines into e- and app versions of their former selves, and the imminent obsolescence of all the old ways of doing things. Their visions grow less outlandish and more self-evident every day. There is no question that the world of printed discourse, in which criticism has occupied a small but well-appointed corner, is undergoing enormous change.

pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal


1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Colts, 1958, and the Birth of the Modern NFL (National Football League); Howard Bryant’s The Last Hero: A Life of Henry Aaron; David Maraniss’ Rome 1960: The Olympics that Changed the World; and, boldest of all, Fred Kaplan’s 1959: The Year that Changed Everything. Or, as a Boston Globe columnist wrote in 2005, “This has to be the Golden Age of Apocalyptic Presentiments. The death of newspapers. The death of glaciers. An Atlantic Monthly writer The Resurgence of Utopianism 191 recently speculated on the death of death” because of healthy habits.10 Ironically, a genuine and profound change in the common conceptualization of technology has not been sufficiently appreciated. Whereas throughout most of the twentieth century science and technology were commonly conceived as the solution to widely acknowledged large-scale problems such as poverty, education, irrigation, and water and electrical power, in recent decades science and technology have increasingly come to be viewed as the fulfillment on a small scale of individual needs and desires, ranging from birth control pills to online college degrees to virtual travel to cyberspace relationships.

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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater


1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics,, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

This view might offer some comfort to people who are worried about the web: we might have more time to get used to the web than we initially thought. The changes it brings might be evolutionary rather than disruptive. Yet if the Edgerton view is correct it would also mean that the changes we have seen in just the first decade of the mass adoption of the web – the complete upheaval in the music recording industry, the savage decline in US newspapers, the disappearance of many youth magazines, the quick creation of new media giants like Google – these might just be the tip of an iceberg. We have another fifty years of change of this kind to come and the scale of the upheavals may be even greater as the technology becomes widely adopted and gains momentum.

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The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick


Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter,, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

.♦ In England a writer for The Morning Chronicle described the thrill of receiving his first report across the Cooke-Wheatstone telegraph line, the first instalment of the intelligence by a sudden stir of the stationary needle, and the shrill ring of the alarum. We looked delightedly into the taciturn face of our friend, the mystic dial, and pencilled down with rapidity in our note-book, what were his utterances some ninety miles off.♦ This was contagious. Some worried that the telegraph would be the death of newspapers, heretofore “the rapid and indispensable carrier of commercial, political and other intelligence,”♦ as an American journalist put it. For this purpose the newspapers will become emphatically useless. Anticipated at every point by the lightning wings of the Telegraph, they can only deal in local “items” or abstract speculations.

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Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff


affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional

As an independent publication run by the Bancroft family’s Dow Jones company since 1902, the Journal’s articles described only the process through which Time Warner’s “brands” would be updated, its divisions made more efficient, and its overpaid staff trimmed down. Within a few years, however, it was The Wall Street Journal fending off an unsolicited $5 billion offer from Rupert Murdoch. A pervasive feeling among investors that print publications were imperiled by the Internet had led to a decline in all newspaper stock prices—making the Journal an easy target, even though its website was one of the few profitable online newspaper ventures, earning far more than its print edition. All of a sudden the tables were turned. Editors who had long argued for free-market principles now saw the benefit in keeping a company small and independent—especially after it had gained over a hundred years of reputation and competency in its field.

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With a Little Help by Cory Doctorow


autonomous vehicles, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, death of newspapers, don't be evil, game design, Google Earth, high net worth, margin call, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sensible shoes, skunkworks, Skype, traffic fines, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban planning, Y2K

The problem is, every now and then there's an unanticipated seismic shift in the world, something that changes everything and creates a corner we can't see around. The most recent of these was the potent combination of digital information and global connectivity that transformed the end of the 20th century. I like to call it "The Internet," and mark my words, it's going to be very big. The struggling record industry, the death of the newspaper, the rise of LOLCats - these are just warning shots. Everything is going to get swallowed up eventually, and it's all going to get loud and messy and complicated. Forget space travel, this is the future we need to imagine now, and quickly, before it overtakes us. 29 Luckily, we have Cory Doctorow; he thinks about the Internet, a lot.

The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten


Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

Television was transforming how people used their time and related to the world. Beginning about 1960, passive forms of participation in public life began displacing more active forms. People were patronizing Wake-Up Call 219 fast-food outlets, professional sporting events, and gambling casinos with greater frequency. There were corresponding declines in voter participation, newspaper readership, Parent Teacher Association membership, union membership, frequency of family meals, philanthropic giving, and perceptions of honesty and morality.3 Relationships among people were not so much changing as simply eroding. People were feeling increasingly vulnerable and disconnected.

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The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind


23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

Total workforce data from American Society of News Editors <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 176 ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. 177 George Brock, Out of Print: Newspapers, Journalism, and the Business of News in the Digital Age (2013), 149. 178 ‘Internet Overtakes Newspapers as News Outlet’, Pew Research Center, 23 Dec. 2008 <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 179 Andrea Caumot, ‘12 trends shaping digital news’, Pew Research Center, 16 Oct. 2013 <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 180 ‘Internet Access—Households and Individuals 2014’, Office for National Statistics, 7 Aug. 2014 <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 181 ‘The Internet Economy on the Rise: Progress since the Seoul Declaration’, OECD, Sept. 2013. 182 ‘Digital News Report 2014’, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 183 Eric Alterman, ‘Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper’, New Yorker, 31 Mar. 2008. 184 ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. 185 ‘Amid Criticism, Support for Media’s “Watchdog” Role Stands Out’, Pew Research Center, 8 Aug. 2013 < > (accessed 7 March 2015). 186 Clay Shirky, ‘Last Call: The End of the Printed Newspaper’, Medium, 19 Aug. 2015 <> (accessed 7 March 2015). 187 The Evening Standard in London, for example, was making annual losses of £30 million before 2009.

Allen, Woody, ‘Mechanical Objects’, Standup Comic, 1964–1968, transcript at <> (accessed 23 March 2015). Alloway, Tracy, and Arash Massoudi, ‘Goldman Sachs leads $15m financing of data service for investors’, Financial Times, 23 Nov. 2014 <> (accessed 8 March 2015). Alterman, Eric, ‘Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper’, New Yorker, 31 Mar. 2008. Andersen, Erika, ‘Why Writing a Book is Good Business’, Forbes, 12 Oct. 2012 <> (accessed 8 March 2015). Andersen, Michael, ‘Four crowdsourcing lessons from the Guardian’s (spectacular) expenses-scandal experiment’, NiemanLab, 23 June 2009 <> (accessed 8 March 2015).

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What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis


23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The blockbuster strategy always was a gamble; as it continues, it is a bigger gamble than ever. The mass market’s hold over the economy diminishes. The mass market was a short-lived phenomenon. It began with the large-scale adoption of television in the mid-1950s—and the consequent death of second and third newspapers in most American cities, yielding one-size-fits-all mass products in both broadcast and print. It was in the mid-1980s, in the age of the remote control, that I became the TV critic at People magazine, the last great mass magazine launched in America. In its first decade, the magazine was pretty much a piece of cake to run: Put a star in a big show on the cover and watch it sell.

pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele


3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart,, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

In each of these previous events, professional journalists working in the mainstream media played a crucial and even iconic role in delivering and distributing the news to a mass audience. In the case of President Kennedy’s assassination, Walter Cronkite’s broadcasts on CBS News came to stand as a shared cultural experience for millions of Americans. Who was not moved watching the great journalist choke up while announcing the president’s death? The names of two respected newspaper journalists—Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein—likewise became indelibly linked to the Watergate scandal. Network television footage of crowds at the Berlin Wall in the darkness of November 9, 1989, provided unforgettable, collective images of the end of the Cold War, echoing President Reagan’s powerful rhetoric a few years earlier: “Mr.

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The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan


1960s counterculture, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application

But its mastery at optimizing its pages for Google Web Search has made it a frequent user destination for news and much more effective than many of the sources that it aggregates. 43. Todd Gitlin, “Journalism’s Many Crises,” OpenDemocracy, May 20, 2009,; Leonard Downie and Michael Schudson, “The Reconstruction of American Journalism,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 2009, 28–51; John Nichols, “The Death and Life of Great American Newspapers,” Nation, April 6, 2009, 11; Zachary M. Seward, “How the Associated Press Will Try to Rival Wikipedia in Search Results,” Nieman Journalism Lab, August 13, 2009; Zachary M. Seward, “Google CEO Eric Schmidt Envisions the News Consumer of the Future,” Nieman Journalism Lab, November 4, 2009. 44.

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Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city,, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Adler, Moshe. 1985. “Stardom and Talent.” American Economic Review 75 (1):208–12. Alicke, Mark D., and Olesya Govorun. 2005. “The Better-Than-Average Effect.” In The Self in Social Judgment, ed. M. D. Alicke, D. A. Dunning, and J. I. Krueger. 85–106. Alterman, Eric. 2008. “Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper.” The New Yorker, March 31. Anderson, Philip W. 1972. “More Is Different.” Science 177 (4047):393–96. Andreozzi, Luciano. 2004. “A Note on Paradoxes in Economics.” Kyklos 57 (1):3–20. Aral, Sinan, Lev Muchnik, and Arun Sundararajan. 2009. “Distinguishing Influence-Based Contagion from Homophily-Driven Diffusion in Dynamic Networks.”

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MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams


accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Amanda Ernst, “Huffington Post’s Traffic More Than Doubles Year Over Year,” mediabistro (January 19, 2010). 2. Huffington Post Company Profile, CrunchBase (April 28, 2010). 3. Erick Schonfeld, “The Huffington Post Starts to Give Out Badges to Readers,” TechCrunch (April 29, 2010). 4. Jonah Peretti as reported in “The Death and Life of the American Newspaper,” The New Yorker (March 23, 2008). 5. Andrew Lipsman, “Huffington Post Defies Expectations, Reaches New Heights Post-Election,” Comscore (June 4, 2009). 6. Sam Stein, “Bailed-Out Firms Distributing Cash Rewards: ‘Please Do Not Call It A Bonus,’” The Huffington Post (February 11, 2009). 7.

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