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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, congestion charging, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, invention of movable type, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, new economy, price discrimination, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Shenzhen was a fishing village, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Vickrey auction
Furthermore, since the rich do more of most things, externality charges often redistribute money in a desirable way. In the case of congestion charging, the truth is striking: in the United Kingdom, poor people do not drive—they bicycle, walk, or take the bus. The poorest tenth of the population spends almost seven times less on fuel than the richest tenth, as a percentage of their much smaller income. The total spending on fuel by the richest 10 percent is at least thirty times more than by the poorest 10 percent. The conclusion is that congestion charging not only improves efficiency, it also redistributes money by raising more tax from the rich. That’s nice for the defenders of congestion charging in Britain, but useless in the United States, where the poor still drive a lot and so pay larger amounts of tax as a percentage of their incomes.
In the case of roads, the government could scrap the vehicle ex-cise duty, which is a large up-front tax, while starting to levy congestion charges on each trip. This would capture the efficiency benefits of a congestion charge without having major effects on distribution. It is possible to neutralize much of the redistribution caused by the externality charge, while keeping its efficiency-boosting effects. This is a variant of the lump-sum tax on Tiger Woods proposed in chapter 3: we can use lump-sum taxes to redistribute without destroying efficiency. Having met the attack from the redistributive flank, the economist must face the other way and deal with the enthusiastic charge from the moral high ground of environmentalism. Not every environmentalist opposes pollution and congestion charges, but some do. The reason is that they feel that pollution should simply be illegal, rather than illegal for the poor and affordable for • 89 • T H E U N D E R C O V E R E C O N O M I S T the rich.
It is true that the rich are more likely to be able to pay a congestion charge, but they will not ignore it. Perhaps they will be careful to make one trip to the store rather than two, or even walk to the local shop rather than drive to somewhere farther away. Externality charges make other alternatives look more attractive, both to rich and to poor. More fundamentally, we must not confuse the strictness of the externality regulation with the method of the regulation. A congestion charge can be set at one dollar a day, or ten dollars a day, or a thousand dollars a day. What we know is that whatever society decides about the seriousness of the externality, externality charges are the most efficient way to deal with it. Well-designed congestion charges, for instance, are the most efficient way to achieve any given reduction of road use.
The politics of London: governing an ungovernable city by Tony Travers
In the preparation of budgets and key policies, the board only found out about key The Greater London Authority 103 decisions after they had been made by the mayor’s office in conjunction with senior officers at TfL. GLA officers were also by-passed by mayoral advisers. The development of the Mayors’s congestion charging policy provides a good case study. A consultation paper was worked up and published by the late summer of 2000 by a small number of GLA and TfL staff tightly controlled by the mayor’s closest advisers. The consultation paper was published before the board of TfL had seen or approved it. Subsequent development work was undertaken within TfL by officials working closely with the mayor. Neither the TfL board nor the overwhelming majority of GLA staff were involved in the propagation and early implementation of congestion charging. Similarly, when the mayor – as chair of TfL – decided to change key TfL staff, such as the original head of street management and the equivalent bus director, he did so operating through his office not via the board.
The major reports during 2000 to 2003 were skewed towards the environment (topics included graffiti; the mayor’s waste strategy; the mayor’s green spaces policy; the transportation of nuclear waste; recycling; and the mayor’s air quality strategy) and transport (including: congestion charging (twice); buses in outer London; safer routes home; bus services more generally; and the mayor’s transport strategy). There were also reports on regeneration funding, London weighting, housing for key workers; the GLA elections; future priorities for the Underground and the organization of major events. This issue is further considered in Chapter 8. Clearly some of the assembly’s work was driven by the need to consider mayoral initiatives (such as congestion charging) or policies (such as the strategies). Scrutiny was also possible at question time with the mayor and in other forums. However, there is no doubt the assembly found it difficult to find a role for itself that caught the public imagination.
Because the assembly and the mayor made an unofficial deal about their respective staffing needs (that is, the assembly allowed the mayor to create an office which was far larger than the legislation had envisaged, while the assembly received additional staff support) there was little public scrutiny of key mayoral appointments. Finally, there was clearly a reasonable amount of goodwill within the assembly towards the mayor who clearly had a complex job in setting up the new authority. Scrutiny committees that concentrated on published mayoral policy such as congestion charging and the draft transport policy found it easier to challenge the mayor and his functional bodies than those that undertook more general inquiries. The scrutiny of congestion charging had the advantage of massive expertise in its appointment of external adviser (it chose Martin Richards, who had been managing director of a company that had specialized in official research projects about road pricing). The committee took evidence from TfL and GLA officers, experts in a range of disciplines and, finally, from the mayor.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
For forty years since William Vickrey introduced the idea, congestion charging has appealed to economists who think that people should pay for the social costs of their actions. One person’s driving creates congestion for everyone, so a tax on driving is a good way to use roads more wisely. Ken Livingstone was fearless, as usual, and congestion charges appealed to him for reasons beyond the economists’ customary love of efficiency. Livingstone saw congestion charging as a means of helping the environment by moving people out of cars and into subways. He also saw it as progressive legislation, as drivers tend to be rich and bus riders tend to be poor. By taxing drivers and spending the proceeds on public transit, Livingstone was playing to less wealthy supporters. The congestion charge immediately had a dramatic impact on London’s streets.
Census Bureau, Census 2000, H30, Units in Structure, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 215 only 17 percent of Poundbury’s homes are apartments: Watson, Learning from Poundbury, 19. 215 pay £5 each time they entered an inner corridor of London: Leape, “London Congestion Charge.” 215 congestion charging has appealed to economists: For instance, Vickrey, “Congestion Theory,” 251; Vickrey, “Pricing of Urban Street Use”; Vickrey, “Pricing in Urban and Suburban Transport”; and Walters, “Private and Social Cost of Highway Congestion.” 215 by moving people out of cars and into subways: Behar, “Livingstone Wins Fight.” 215 He also saw it as progressive legislation: Giles, “A Logical Effort to Ease the London Gridlock”; see also: “Traffic Decongestant,” Economist, Feb. 15, 2003. 216 greater than 20 percent reduction in driving: Lewis Smith, “Traffic Still Light.” 216 congestion dropped by 30 percent over the next two years: Leape, “London Congestion Charge.” 216 postmodernist Number 1 Poultry Building: Lillyman et al., Critical Architecture, 143. 216 Climate Group’s Low Carbon Champions Award: “London Leaders Lauded,” www.edie.net/news/news_story.asp?
Vickrey’s insight, inspired by the city around him, is another example of self-protecting urban innovation. Decades before E-ZPass, Vickrey recommended an electronic system for imposing these congestion charges, and he suggested that charges rise during rush hours, when congestion is worse. Decades of experience have proven Vickrey right. Building more roads almost never eliminates traffic delays, but congestion pricing does. In 1975, Singapore adopted a simple form of congestion pricing, charging motorists more for driving in the central city. Now the system is electronic and sophisticated and keeps that city traffic-jam free. In 2003, London adopted its own congestion charge and also saw traffic drop significantly. So why is congestion pricing so rare in the United States? Because politics trumps economics. Imposing a new fee on thousands of motorists is unpopular, and as a result, millions of hours of valuable time are needlessly lost by drivers stalled in traffic.
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
All these alternatives to the car are much more efficient in terms of space use and it is desirable to encourage the more efficient space users and at the same time discourage the less efficient. This can be done by introducing a congestion charge. London introduced congestion charging in February 2003. It was introduced against a background of considerable controversy and media opposition by a strong mayor (Ken Livingstone) supported by an election victory in the mayoral race where congestion charging was a declared aim. It is now regarded as a great success and is currently being implemented in Stockholm. The recently published three-year review of the congestion charge provides evidence of the main results. Congestion levels are down by 30% when the 2004/5 situation is compared with 2002. Bus service reliability is up. Bus patronage is up 14%.
Unless solutions are found to congestion problems in Beijing, Delhi, Shanghai and Mumbai, the economy of these cities will suffer serious loss of productivity and competitive advantage and will cease to be an attractive proposition for inward investment. Congestion is a problem that can be managed and the model for effective intervention is London. The recommendation That Beijing and Delhi adopt a London-style congesting charging regime as soon as possible and that this be then rolled out to the largest 5 cities in each country. The rationale Congestion is largely the result of an increase in demand for an underpriced resource. In this case the resource is road space. It is also the result of public policy that produces large allocations of public finance for road space, e.g. Beijing’s 5 ring roads. A congestion charge or road pricing regime acts as a price signal to encourage a different pattern of use of road space. In many urban areas of the world (including Beijing) average trip length is less than 10km and can easily be achieved by public transport and, in some case, by walking and cycling.
Higher levels of mobility do confer benefits but it can never be acceptable to promote the interest of the mobile above all other interests regardless of the consequences. A second case study illustrates the same point. Congestion in London is a major headache for businesses, motorists and the Mayor of London who quite understandably wants to be associated with alleviating such a serious problem. The London congestion charge has made a difference and reduced vehicle numbers and congestion but congestion is creeping up again and giving the Mayor severe reputational problems. His response has been to reduce crossing times for pedestrians at over 500 traffic light controlled pedestrian crossings: “Green Man time has been reduced at 568 crossings across London since 2010. Reduced crossing times encourage pedestrians to take greater risks.
Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional
Since then, little new road capacity has been created, which has limited further car use even as the population has grown. In fact, bus and cycle lanes and pedestrian areas have reduced space for cars; parking controls in both in the inner suburbs and central area constrain car use since you can’t drive unless you’re sure of somewhere to park at the end—which makes supermarkets with parking attractive for the weekly shop; and in central London a pioneering congestion charging zone levies a fixed fee for entry during working hours. So despite increasing numbers of people and rising incomes, the net result is that number of car trips in London has held steady at about ten million a day over the past twenty years. And because the population has increased, this means that the proportion or share of all trips that are by car has declined from 50 per cent in the early 1990s to 38 per cent in 2011.
Accordingly, it is generally accepted that to ‘lock in’ the traffic reduction arising from smarter choices initiatives, it is necessary to put in place some ‘hard’ measures, the effect of which cannot be avoided, such as reduction in road space for cars through more pavement for pedestrians or more lanes for buses and bicycles. Other possibilities are adjusting traffic signals to constrain traffic, and congestion charging, as in central London. Of course, if you reduce road space for cars you don’t get the benefit of congestion reduction, although you do achieve reduced carbon emissions. Whatever measures adopted to lock in the traffic reduction, the question that remains is why bother with the ‘soft’ smarter choice measures, given it is the ‘hard’ constraints that do the job? In London, where the share of journeys by car is on a long‑run downward trend, as explained in Chapter 2, it has been the ‘hard’ impact of limited road space that has been responsible, with more pedestrian space particularly popular.
The Newbury Bypass, built in 1995‑98 after vigorous resistance by protestors, was probably the last new major road to be constructed across greenfield land. So the philosophy then changed to ‘demand management’. We could not build our way out of congestion, it was generally agreed, so we would need to manage demand for road travel (more on this in Chapter 6). The main idea for achieving this is ‘road pricing’, also known as ‘congestion charging’ and implemented in central London. By charging for use of road space, particularly when congested with traffic, some people decide not to travel, or to travel at others times, leaving more room for those who travel needs are more pressing. Air travel already uses something like demand management to set fares—known as ‘yield management’, the now familiar flexible pricing introduced by the budget airlines and adopted generally for short‑haul flights.
Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men
But here, one recent example is not so reassuring. Since 2003, London has levied a modest “congestion charge” on vehicles driving into the central business district. The idea is to pare traffic and boost use of public transportation. Under the Geneva Conventions governing diplomatic immunity that also gave us our parking tickets data, diplomats are not obliged to pay this charge, but most diplomats in London do so, nonetheless. One major exception is the U.S. diplomatic corps, which has the dubious honor of accumulating the greatest number of outstanding fines for nonpayment of the congestion charge—a cumulative total far exceeding $1 million since 2003. And which countries are the United States’s peers in the game of dodging the congestion charge? Nigeria, Angola, and Sudan—all high-corruption countries that fall in the top fifteen in New York City parking tickets.
See also under Darfur Suharto, Bambang, 23 Suharto, Mandala Putra (Tommy), 22–24; Bimantara Citra and, 33–36; Lamborghini and, 40–41 Suharto, President, 22, 33–36, 40 Suharto, Tutut, 23 Tanzania, 139–46 tariffs: China and, 60–64, 221n4, 221n6; dispersion of, 72–73; smuggling and, 58–64, 220n3; United States and, 73–74 Tehelka, 21 Tilford, Earl, 169 Transparency International, 18, 66, 66b, 81, 216n11 Tuareg, 126–27 Udry, Chris, 126 Uganda, 115–16, 142, 175, 208 United Kingdom, political connections in, value of, 48–49 239 I N DEX United States: attitudes towards, 96–100; Canada and, 94–95; Civil War and, 173–74, 230n12; Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 164–65; global warming and, 127–29; London congestion charge and, 96; political connections in, value of, 49–52, 219n15, 219n17; smuggling and, 73–75; Vietnam bombing and, 159–61, 164–70 Vietnam, 159–74; literacy and, 171; postwar recovery and, 167–73, 229n7; U.S. bombing of, 159–61, 164–70, 228n3. See also Quang Tri (Vietnam) West End Corporation (WEC), 21, 26–27 White Man’s Burden (Easterly), 13–14 witch killing, 139–46; economic factors and, 141–46; elderly women and, 139; pensions and, 144–45; South Africa and, 144, 227n10; traditional healers and, 145–46; young children and, 142–43 Wizard of the Crow (Ngugi), 1 Wolfowitz, Paul, 102, 157, 197 World Bank, 197; Chad and, 156–58; corruption index of, 84, 87–89 Yang, Dean, 199–200 Wei, Shang-Jin, 61–62 Weinstein, David, 162 Zoellick, Robert, 197 240
The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker
banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, millennium bug, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K
The 2000 Transport Act gave councils the same power to charge for road use that London’s new government had: any revenues produced had to be spent on public transport. But when pro-charging Ken Livingstone declared himself a candidate for London mayor, the official Labour candidate Frank Dobson (following the Number Ten line) did a swerving volte-face and took against congestion charging. Blair emphasized the risks of using the very powers his government had introduced. Once the London congestion charge worked, he changed his mind. By then precious momentum had been lost. Votes on charging schemes came and went in Manchester and Edinburgh where, in a welter of local circumstances, residents rejected opportunities to reconcile urban living with reduced emissions. At least roads were safer. The downward trend in accidents continued.
The Office of Fair Trading later found that the big five operators, including Stagecoach and Arriva, were overcharging as they carved up territories. Such cities as Leeds, Aberdeen and Cardiff became the fiefdoms of a single company. The cost of bus and coach fares rose 17 per cent above inflation between 1997 and 2010. London showed how successful an overarching public transport authority with power and money could be. Mayor Livingstone expanded the bus network and improved frequencies, spending the proceeds from his new congestion charge and then some. In the capital, Margaret Thatcher’s silly adage about anyone over twenty-six using a bus being a failure was disproved: many more people of all social groups took to the bus. Use rose by a third in the five years from 2000. Labour was on course to meet its target of achieving 12 per cent growth in bus and light rail use in England by 2010, but only because the number of bus journeys was increasing in London (which accounted for 44 per cent of bus use in England).
., 1 Gallagher, Liam, 1 Gallagher, Noel, 1 gambling, 1 gangmasters, 1, 2 gas, 1 Gates, Bill, 1 Gateshead, 1 Gaza, 1 GCHQ, 1 GCSEs, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gehry, Frank, 1 Geldof, Bob, 1 gender reassignment, 1 General Teaching Council, 1 genetically modified crops, 1 Germany, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 economy and business, 1, 2, 3, 4 and education, 1, 2 and health, 1, 2 Ghana, 1 Ghandi’s curry house, 1 Ghent, 1 Gladstone, William Ewart, 1, 2 Glaister, Professor Stephen, 1 Glasgow, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gleneagles summit, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 globalization, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and crime, 1 and foreign policy, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 and migration, 1, 2 Gloucester, 1 Goldacre, Ben, 1 Good Friday agreement, 1 Goodwin, Sir Fred, 1 Goody, Jade, 1 Gormley, Antony, 1 Gould, Philip, 1 grandparents, and childcare, 1 Gray, Simon, 1 Great Yarmouth, 1 Greater London Authority, 1, 2 Greater London Council, 1 green spaces, 1 Greenberg, Stan, 1 Greengrass, Paul, 1 Greenspan, Alan, 1, 2 Greenwich, 1 Gregg, Paul, 1 Guardian, 1, 2, 3 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wage campaign, 1, 2 Livingstone, Ken, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Livni, Tzipi, 1 Loaded magazine, 1 local government, 1, 2, 3 and elected mayors, 1 Lockerbie bomber, 1 London, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 bombings, 1, 2 congestion charge, 1, 2 detention of foreign leaders, 1 G20 protests, 1 Iraq war protests, 1, 2 mayoral election, 1, 2 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 London Array wind farm, 1 Longannet, 1 Longfield, Anne, 1 Lord-Marchionne, Sacha, 1 Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 1 lorry protests, 1, 2 Lowry Museum, 1 Lumley, Joanna, 1 Luton, 1, 2, 3, 4 Lyons, Sir Michael, 1 Macfadden, Julia, 1 Machin, Professor Stephen, 1, 2 Maclean, David, 1 Macmillan, Harold, 1 Macmillan, James, 1 McNulty, Tony, 1 Macpherson, Sir Nick, 1 Macpherson, Sir William, 1 McQueen, Alexander, 1 Madrid, 1, 2, 3 Major, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Malaya, 1 Malloch Brown, Mark, 1 Manchester, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 club scene, 1, 2 and crime, 1, 2 Gorton, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and local government, 1 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 Manchester Academy, 1 Manchester 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Deal, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 New Deal for Communities, 1, 2 New Forest, 1 Newcastle upon Tyne, 1, 2 Newham, 1, 2 newspapers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Nigeria, 1 Nightingale, Florence, 1 non-doms, 1 North Korea, 1 North Middlesex Hospital, 1 North Sea oil and gas, 1 Northern Ireland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Northern Rock, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Norway, 1 Nottingham, 1, 2 NSPCC, 1 nuclear power, 1 Number Ten Delivery Unit, 1 nurses, 1, 2, 3, 4 Nutt, Professor David, 1 NVQs, 1 O2 arena, 1 Oakthorpe primary school, 1, 2 Oates, Tim, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2 obesity, 1, 2 Octagon consortium, 1 Office for National Statistics, 1, 2 Office of Security and Counter Terrorism, 1 Ofsted, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ofwat, 1 Oldham, 1, 2, 3, 4 O’Leary, Michael, 1 Oliver, Jamie, 1, 2 Olympic Games, 1, 2, 3 Open University, 1 O’Reilly, Damien, 1, 2 orthopaedics, 1 Orwell, George, 1, 2 outsourcing, 1, 2, 3, 4 overseas aid, 1, 2 Oxford University, 1 paedophiles, 1, 2, 3 Page, Ben, 1, 2 Pakistan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Palestine, 1, 2 parenting, 1 absent parents, 1 lone parents, 1, 2 teenage parents, 1 Paris, 1, 2 Park Lane, 1 Parkinson, Professor Michael, 1 particle physics, 1 party funding, 1, 2, 3 passport fraud, 1 Passport Office, 1 Patch, Harry, 1 Payne, Sarah, 1, 2 Peach, Blair, 1 Pearce, Nick, 1 Peckham, 1, 2 Aylesbury estate, 1 Peel, Sir Robert, 1 pensioner poverty, 1, 2 pensions, 1, 2 occupational pensions, 1, 2 pension funds, 1, 2 private pensions, 1 public-sector pensions, 1 state pension, 1, 2 Persian Gulf, 1 personal, social and health education, 1 Peterborough, 1 Peugeot, 1 Philips, Helen, 1 Phillips, Lord (Nicholas), 1, 2 Phillips, Trevor, 1 Pilkington, Fiona, 1 Pimlico, 1 Pinochet, Augusto, 1 Plymouth, 1, 2 Poland, 1, 2 police, 1 and demonstrations, 1 numbers, 1, 2, 3 in schools, 1, 2, 3 pornography, 1 Portsmouth FC, 1, 2 Portugal, 1 post offices, 1 Postlethwaite, Pete, 1 poverty, 1, 2, 3 see also child poverty; pensioner poverty Premier League, 1 Prescott, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 press officers, 1 Preston, 1 Prevent strategy, 1 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), 1, 2 prisons, 1, 2 Private Finance Initiative (PFI), 1, 2 probation, 1, 2 property ownership, 1 prostitution, 1, 2, 3 Public Accounts Committee, 1 public sector reform, 1, 2 public service agreements, 1 public spending, 1, 2, 3 and the arts, 1 and science, 1 Pugh, Martin, 1 Pullman, Philip, 1 QinetiQ, 1 Quality and Outcomes Framework, 1 quangos, 1, 2 Queen, The, 1 Quentin, Lieutenant Pete, 1, 2 race relations legislation, 1 racism, 1, 2 RAF, 1, 2, 3 RAF Brize Norton, 1 railways, 1 Rand, Ayn, 1 Rawmarsh School, 1 Raynsford, Nick, 1 Reckitt Benckiser, 1 recycling, 1 Redcar, 1 regional assemblies, 1, 2 regional development agencies (RDAs), 1, 2, 3 regional policy, 1 Reid, John, 1 Reid, Richard, 1 religion, 1, 2 retirement age, 1, 2 right to roam, 1 Rimington, Stella, 1 Rio Earth summit, 1 road transport, 1 Rochdale, 1, 2 Roche, Barbara, 1 Rogers, Richard, 1 Romania, 1, 2 Rome, 1 Rooney, Wayne, 1 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1 Rosetta Stone, 1 Rosyth, 1 Rotherham, 1, 2, 3 Royal Opera House, 1 Royal Shakespeare Company, 1 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 1 Rugby, 1 rugby union, 1 Rumsfeld, Donald, 1 rural affairs, 1, 2 Rushdie, Salman, 1 Russia, 1, 2 Rwanda, 1 Ryanair, 1, 2 Sainsbury, Lord David, 1 St Austell, 1 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1, 2 St Pancras International station, 1 Salford, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sanchez, Tia, 1 Sandwell, 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 1, 2 Savill, Superintendent Paul, 1 Saville, Lord, 1 savings ratio, 1 Scandinavia, 1, 2, 3 Scholar, Sir Michael, 1 school meals, 1, 2 school uniforms, 1 school-leaving age, 1 schools academies, 1, 2, 3, 4 building, 1 class sizes, 1 comprehensive schools, 1, 2 faith schools, 1, 2, 3, 4 grammar schools, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 nursery schools, 1 and PFI, 1, 2, 3 police in, 1, 2, 3 primary schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 private schools, 1, 2 secondary schools, 1, 2, 3 in special measures, 1 special schools, 1 specialist schools, 1 and sport, 1 science, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scotland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 electricity generation, 1 and health, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scottish parliament, 1, 2 Section 1, 2 security services, 1 MI5, 1, 2, 3 Sedley, Stephen, 1 segregation, 1 self-employment, 1 Sellafield, 1 Serious Organized Crime Agency, 1 sex crimes, 1 Sex Discrimination Act, 1 Shankly, Bill, 1 Sharkey, Feargal, 1 Shaw, Liz, 1 Sheen, Michael, 1 Sheffield, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Sheringham, 1 Shetty, Shilpa, 1 Shipman, Harold, 1 shopping, 1 Short, Clare, 1 Siemens, 1 Siena, 1 Sierra Leone, 1, 2 Skeet, Mavis, 1 skills councils, 1 slavery, 1 Slough, 1 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Chris, 1 Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 Smith, John, 1, 2 Smithers, Professor Alan, 1, 2 smoking ban, 1, 2 Snowden, Philip, 1 social care, 1, 2, 3 Social Chapter opt-out, 1 social exclusion, 1, 2 Social Fund, 1 social mobility, 1, 2 social sciences, 1 social workers, 1 Soham murders, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solihull, 1, 2 Somalia, 1, 2 Souter, Brian, 1 South Africa, 1 South Downs, 1 Spain, 1, 2, 3 special advisers, 1 speed cameras, 1 Speenhamland, 1 Spelman, Caroline, 1 Spence, Laura, 1 sport, 1, 2 see also football; Olympic Games Sri Lanka, 1, 2 Stafford Hospital, 1 Staffordshire University, 1 Standard Assessment Tests (Sats), 1, 2, 3 Standards Board for England, 1 statins, 1, 2, 3 stem cell research, 1 STEM subjects, 1 Stephenson, Sir Paul, 1 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 1, 2 Stevenson, Lord (Dennis), 1 Stevenson, Wilf, 1 Steyn, Lord, 1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 1 Stockport, 1 Stonehenge, 1 Stoppard, Tom, 1 Straw, Jack, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 student fees, 1 Stuff Happens, 1 Sudan, 1, 2 Sugar, Alan, 1 suicide bombing, 1 suicides, 1 Sun, 1, 2 Sunday Times, 1, 2 Sunderland, 1, 2 supermarkets, 1, 2 Supreme Court, 1, 2 Sure Start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 surveillance, 1, 2 Sutherland, Lord (Stewart), 1 Swansea, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Swindon, 1 Taliban, 1, 2 Tallinn, 1 Tanzania, 1 Tate Modern, 1 Taunton, 1 tax avoidance, 1, 2, 3 tax credits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 council tax credit, 1 pension credit, 1, 2, 3 R&D credits, 1 taxation, 1, 2 10p tax rate, 1 capital gains tax, 1, 2 corporation tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 council tax, 1, 2 fuel duty, 1, 2, 3 green taxes, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 income tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 inheritance tax, 1, 2 poll tax, 1 stamp duty, 1, 2, 3 vehicle excise duty, 1 windfall tax, 1, 2, 3 see also National Insurance; VAT Taylor, Damilola, 1 Taylor, Robert, 1 teachers, 1, 2, 3 head teachers, 1, 2 salaries, 1, 2 teaching assistants, 1, 2 teenage pregnancy, 1, 2, 3 Teesside University, 1 television and crime, 1 and gambling, 1 talent shows, 1 television licence, 1, 2, 3 Territorial Army, 1 terrorism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Terry, John, 1 Tesco, 1, 2, 3, 4 Tewkesbury, 1 Thames Gateway, 1 Thameswey, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Thatcherism, 1, 2, 3 theatre, 1 Thornhill, Dorothy, 1 Thorp, John, 1 Tibet, 1 Tilbury, 1 Times, The, 1 Times Educational Supplement, 1, 2 Timmins, Nick, 1 Titanic, 1 Tomlinson, Mike, 1 Topman, Simon, 1, 2 torture, 1, 2 trade unions, 1, 2, 3 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 1, 2, 3 tramways, 1 transport policies, 1, 2 Trident missiles, 1, 2, 3 Triesman, Lord, 1 Turkey, 1, 2 Turnbull, Lord (Andrew), 1 Turner, Lord (Adair), 1, 2, 3 Tweedy, Colin, 1 Tyneside Metro, 1 Uganda, 1 UK Film Council, 1 UK Sport, 1 UK Statistics Authority, 1 unemployment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 United Nations, 1, 2, 3 United States of America, 1, 2 Anglo-American relationship, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and child poverty, 1 and clean technologies, 1 economy and business, 1, 2, 3 and education, 1, 2, 3 and healthcare, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 and internet gambling, 1 and minimum wage, 1 universities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and migration, 1 and terrorism, 1 tuition fees, 1 University College London Hospitals, 1 University for Industry, 1 University of East Anglia, 1 University of Lincoln, 1 Urban Splash, 1, 2 Vanity Fair, 1 VAT, 1, 2, 3 Vauxhall, 1 Venables, Jon, 1 Vestas wind turbines, 1 Victoria and Albert Museum, 1 Waitrose, 1 Waldfogel, Jane, 1 Wales, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 Walker, Sir David, 1 walking, 1, 2 Walsall, 1 Wanless, Sir Derek, 1 Wanstead, 1 Warm Front scheme, 1 Warner, Lord Norman, 1 Warsaw, 1 Warwick accord, 1 water utilities, 1 Watford, 1 welfare benefits child benefit, 1, 2 Employment Support Allowance, 1 and fraud, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing benefit, 1 incapacity benefit, 1, 2 Income Support, 1 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 1, 2, 3 and work, 1, 2 Welsh assembly, 1, 2 Wembley Stadium, 1 Westfield shopping mall, 1 Wetherspoons, 1 White, Marco Pierre, 1 Whittington Hospital, 1 Wiles, Paul, 1 Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett, 1 Williams, Professor Karel, 1 Williams, Raymond, 1 Williams, Rowan, 1 Wilson, Harold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Wilson, Sir Richard, 1 wind turbines, 1, 2 Winslet, Kate, 1 winter fuel payments, 1 Wire, The, 1 Woking, 1, 2 Wolverhampton, 1 Woolf, Lord, 1 Wootton Bassett, 1, 2 working-class culture, 1 working hours, 1, 2 World Bank, 1 Wrexham, 1 Wright Robinson School, 1, 2, 3 xenophobia, 1 Y2K millennium bug, 1 Yarlswood detention centre, 1 Yeovil, 1 Yiewsley, 1 York, 1, 2, 3, 4 Young Person’s Guarantee, 1 Youth Justice Board, 1 Zimbabwe, 1, 2 About the Author Polly Toynbee is the Guardian’s social and political commentator.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
‘Will it come as any surprise that after [Combat Zones That See] is battle tested abroad’, asks Packer, ‘it may very well be implemented in the US?’118 Anticipatory vigilance and surveillance which are targeted to car use in homeland cities will be much easier to implement when those cities are already building the large surveillance systems necessary for road-pricing and congestion-charging initiatives. In London, for example, a highly successful congestion charge has done much to reduce car traffic, promote cycling, and improve air quality and the quality of urban life in central London. On the ‘polluter pays’ principle, it is also being used as a mechanism to penalize SUV drivers. Simultaneously, however, some ‘mission creep’ is going on: the surveillance infrastructure that makes road pricing in London possible has now been drafted into the UK’s apparently insatiable appetite for new means of digital surveillance by the state.
CITIZEN SOLDIERS The fifth key trait of the new military urbanism is the way its claims to legitimacy are fused with militarized veins of popular, urban, electronic and material culture. Very often, for example, the military tasks of tracking, surveillance and targeting do not require completely new technological systems. Instead, they simply appropriate the systems that operate in cities to sustain the latest means of digitally organized travel and consumption. Thus, as in central London, congestion-charging zones quickly morph into security zones. Internet interactions and transactions provide the basis for data-mining in efforts to root out supposedly threatening behaviours. Dreams of smart cars help bring into being robotic weapons systems. Satellite imagery and GPS support new styles of civilian urban life based on the use of the very US Air Force structures that facilitate ‘precision’ urban bombing.
Crucially, the volume of data in this ‘calculative background’ is so vast that only automated algorithms can deem what or who is considered normal and thus deserving of protection, and what or who is considered abnormal and thus a malign threat to be targeted. Such control technologies increasingly blur into the background of urban environments, urban infrastructures and urban life. Layered over and through everyday urban landscapes, bringing into being radically new styles of movement, interaction, consumption and politics, in a sense they become the city. Examples include new means of mobility (congestion charging, smart highways, Easyjet-style air travel), customized consumption (personalized Amazon.com pages) and ‘swarming’ social movements (social networking, smart and flash mobs). Discussions about ‘homeland security’ and the high-tech transformation of war emphasize the need to use some of those very techniques and technologies – high-tech surveillance, data-mining, computerized algorithms – to try to continually track, identify and target threatening Others within the mass of clutter presented by our rapidly urbanizing and increasingly mobile world.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar
They ensnare buses, stealing time and certainty from transit riders. They squeeze bicycles and endanger pedestrians. Cities intent on building more variety, freedom, sharing, and sustainability in mobility have no choice but to confront the privilege of private cars. Demand, Supply, and Surprise Some brave cities have tinkered with the economics of demand. In 2003 the London mayor Ken Livingstone adopted the world’s most geographically extensive congestion charge on vehicles entering the heart of the city on weekdays.* The system uses automatic license plate recognition cameras to identify and charge most private vehicles entering the city core, with exemptions for emergency vehicles, taxis, and residents. The fee started at a hefty £5 but has since been bumped to £10. After three years, the charge had reduced traffic in the core by a quarter and was pulling in £122 million a year.
It showed that travel behavior really is elastic: when people start paying the true cost of driving (which, in London’s case, includes pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and the burden imposed on other users by drivers using a disproportionate share of road space), they find other ways of moving. Demand management is catching on around the world. In Stockholm, the charge for driving into the core climbs as you approach rush hour and falls back to nothing during slack hours. This encourages people to delay their drive until road space is not so scarce. The alternative—public transit—is financed in part by those road and congestion charges. After a brief experiment, in 2006 the citizens of Stockholm voted to make the system permanent because it made their lives easier. Meanwhile, the southern Chinese powerhouse of Guangzhou has introduced an auction and lottery system for license plates that is expected to halve the number of new cars on the road. This represented a real sacrifice, considering the fact that Guangzhou is one of China’s main auto manufacturing hubs, but its problems of pollution and congestion were too great to ignore any longer.
Not one of its programs was directed at the crisis of climate change, but the city offered tangible proof of the connection between urban design, experience, and the carbon energy system. It suggested that the green city, the low-carbon city, and the happy city might be exactly the same destination. Other cities have also realized that boosting quality of life and reducing their environmental footprints are complementary goals and should be part of the same plan. You can experience one without realizing you are accomplishing the other. Take London’s congestion charge, which has been touted as a powerful greenhouse-gas-reduction strategy.† But this was not its purpose. The charge was a response to a host of issues that Londoners felt were much more pressing than future climate change. There was so much traffic that people couldn’t get to work. It was killing Londoners’ quality of life and costing the city in productivity. People were incredibly frustrated about spending so much time on the road.
Rush Hour by Iain Gately
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise
Anyone hoping that people will abandon their cars for recumbent tricycles or their latter-day equivalent is deluded. Most commuters in the developed world travel on four wheels. The figure ranges from 87 per cent in America to 39 per cent in Japan. Over two-thirds of Britons commute by car, and only 16.4 per cent of them use public transport, with the remainder walking, cycling or riding motorbikes. Even in London, which introduced congestion charging in 2003 to deter drivers, 29.8 per cent of its commuters travelled by car in 2013, which is more than on any other single form of transport.*3 This isn’t simply because of perverse desires to expend hydrocarbons and cook the planet: driving, more often than not, is the only way. Here’s an example from life. I live in Bishop’s Waltham, a medieval market town in Hampshire. It was once the seat of the Bishops of Winchester, in whose palace Henry V prepared himself before leaving for France and the Battle of Agincourt, and where Queen Mary I waited for King Philip of Spain to arrive in the country for their wedding.
Index a Achen Motor Company 315 Acton 43, 46 Acts of Parliament 17 Acworth, Sir William Mitchell 73 aeroplanes 307 America cars 90–101 commuting 224–5 railways 66–80 American Automobile Association (AAA) 198, 209–10 American Bicycle Co. 91 American Motors 120 American School Bus Council (ASBC) 236 Andrade, Claudio 279, 280 Apple 295–6 Australia 232 autobahn 103, 109, 151, 166 b Bagehot, Walter 59 Balfour, A.J. 65 Barter, David Obsessive Compulsive Cycling Disorder 168 Bazalgette, Joseph 60 Beeching, Dr Richard cuts 137, 146, 158, 313, 328 Beerbohm, Max 58 Beijing 160, 161 Metro 160, 162 Benz, Karl 90 Bern, Switzerland 86, 87 Besant, Sir Walter 57 Best Friend of Charleston crash 69 Betjeman, John 109, 135, 272–3 bicycle Boris bikes 167 Brompton 167 commuting in Britain 101, 138–9, 166–8, 216–17 commuting in Europe 166, 222 Flying Pigeon 161–2 penny farthing 101 Raleigh 139 Rover 101–2 Birmingham HS2 329 number 8 bus 141 Birt, William 61 Bishop’s Waltham 313, 327 Blake, William Marriage of Heaven and Hell 104 Booth, Henry 27 Boris bikes 167 Boston 69, 97 Boston and Worcester Line 72 Botley station, Hampshire 1, 2, 3–5, 7, 313, 334 Bowser, Sylvanus Freelove 95 Brazil 279 British Telecom 291–3 Bromley 23, 46 Brompton bike 167 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 331 Buchanan, Professor Sir Colin Traffic in Towns 145–6 buses 48, 140–41, 235–6, 275–6 c California High Speed Rail (CHSR) 330, 331 Callan Automobile Law 95 carriages (railway) 29–30, 54, 55 in America 71–3 in France 83–4 WCs 33, 72, 226–7 women-only 188–9 ‘workmen’s trains’ 33–4, 60, 61, 83 cars 89–92, 195 commuting in America 101, 113, 116–17 in Britain 107, 142–4, 249–52 in communist countries 151–2 in Italy 149–50 congestion 192–5 congestion charge 312 driverless 316–17, 320–27 ownership 97–8, 100, 103, 125 radio 119, 255–8 SUVs 204–8 Central Railroad of Long Island 76 C5 (electric tricycle) 309–11 Chaplin, William James 15 Cheap Trains Act 61 Chesterton, G.K. 57, 105, 109 Chicago Automobile Club 96–7, 256 Great Fire of 1871 79 Oak Park suburb 79–80 Park Forest suburb 113–15 China 160–62, 314–15 Chrysler 119, 160 Churchill, Winston 308–9 City and South London Railway 54–5, 62 Clean Air Act 286–7 Cobbett, William 334 Collins, Wilkie Basil 52 commuting (car) see cars commuting (cycling) see cycling commuting (rail) comic representation of 137 commuter etiquette 72–3, 82, 249 extreme commuting 233–4 in America 66–80 in France 81–7 in Germany 80, 86–7 in Japan 177–84 in the 1950s 136 in Victorian times 33–9, 42 food in England 36–7, 247 in France 84–5 origin of the term 67 overcrowding 171–83 coronations 140 County Durham 14 Coventry 102 Crawshay, William 35 Croton Falls 66 Croydon 56 Cultural Revolution (China) 161 Cunarders 140 cycling commuting in Britain 101, 138–9, 166–8, 216–17 commuting in Europe 166, 222 Cyclists’ Touring Club 102–3 d Dagenham 107 Dahl, Roald 129, 135–6 Daimler, Gottlieb 90 Dalai Lama 210 Darwin, Charles 13, 32 Daudet, Alphonse 83–4 Daumier, Honoré The Third-Class Carriage 83 The New Paris 86 Landscapists at Work 86 Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 317, 318 Delhi 211–13 Deng Xiaoping 161, 162 Denmark 222, 288 Detroit 110, 121, 123–4 ‘Detroit by the Volga’ 153 Dickens, Charles 12, 25, 50 food 36–7, 84–5, 247 Mugby Junction 84–5 Great Expectations 12 Our Mutual Friend 50 train travel in America 70, 71, 74 Diggins, John 3 Docklands Light Railway (DLR) 279 Downing, Andrew Jackson 66 driverless cars 316–17, 320–27 driving schools 215–16 driving tests New York State 94–5 UK 216 Duluth, Minnesota 79–80 e Ealing, London 38, 40, 42, 46, 56 Eden, Emily 58 Edinburgh 13, 14, 16, 329 Edmondson, Brad 314 Einstein, Albert 87 Eliot, William G.
Proctor 78–9 Kobbé, Gustav 76–7 KPMG (multinational firm) 321, 322, 325 l Lambretta 150 Lancaster, Sir Osbert Pillar to Post 108–9 Lardner, Dionysius 22 Levassor, Emile Constant 90 Levitt, William Jaird 112 Levittown, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 122, 123, 158, 224 Lewes 18 List, Friedrich 80 Liverpool 15, 22, 26, 223 Liverpool, Crosby & Southport Railway 22 Liverpool and Manchester Railway 15, 24, 27 Liverpool Street Station 34 Local Government Act 63 locomotives 21, 30, 70, 134 Best Friend of Charleston 69 Iron Duke 4–2–2 Sultan38, 70 Rocket 24 tank engine 28 Locomotives on Highways Act 89 London 13, 15, 16, 18–19, 20 congestion charge 312 cycling to work 166–8 North Circular road 108, 147 orbital roads 147 Second World War 129–34 traffic jams 192–5 Tube 242–3, 245, 261–79 London Bridge station 24 London City Council Act 64 London and Birmingham Railway 12, 26 London and Greenwich Railway 21 London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) 134 London and Southampton Railway 15 London and South Western Railway (LSWR) 16–17, 21–2, 26, 43 Richmond Line 34 workmen’s tickets 62 London Transport 129 London Waterloo station 1, 4, 130, 277, 334, 335–6 Long Island 75–6 m Maglevs 231–2, 329 Manchester 13–14, 15, 138 trams 140 Mao Zedong 148, 160 Marchetti, Cesare 230–32, 329 Meiji Restoration 177–8 Mercedes 326 Metropolitan Line 53–6, 171–6 Metropolitan and District Line 54 Metropolitan Railway 53–4, 62–3 Extension 55 Mexico City 192–3 migalkas 214, 215 Mills, Magnus 264, 268–9, 276–7 Milton Keynes 321 Milwaukee 315 Mini 144, 150 Mitchell, William 282 mobile phones, use of on trains 238, 239 Morris 106, 107, 151 Moscow cars 156 public transport 157 motor scooters 149–50 Vespa 149–50 Lambretta 150 motorbikes 162–4 motorways in Britain 145 Mumbai 184–91 Mumbai Southern Railway 184–8 Mumford, Lewis 122 Musk, Elon 330–32 n Nahum the Elkoshite 192 Nash Motors 119 National City Lines 99 Necropolis Line 335 Nederlandse Spoorwegen 227, 246 Nelson, Brendan 267–8 New Jersey 259 New Jersey Railroad 76–7 New York 66–9 cholera 67 driving tests 94 horse-drawn transport 93–4 Levittown 112–14, 122–3 road rage 199 subway 246 White Plains 116 New York and Harlem Railroad 66 Newcastle 245–6 Nilles, Jack 283–5, 290 Nizhny Novgorod 153 North Circular 108, 147 Northampton 18 o omnibuses 46–8 ‘man at the back of the’ 59 Okunakayama Kogen station 183 Oshkosh machine 90, 91 p Paddington station 37 Pascal, Blaise 218 Passenger Focus (UK rail watchdog) 226, 262 Paterson and Hudson River Railroad 67 Peach, Samuel 39 Pecqueur, Constantin 86 Pennsylvania Main Line 75 penny-farthing 101 Perth 232 Philadelphia 75 Piaggio, Enrico 149 Pichette, Patrick 294–5, 319 Pisarski, Dr Alan 315 Pittsburgh Spur 127 Plymouth 118 pneumatic railways 331 Poincaré, Henri 86–7 Pope, Colonel Albert A. 91 pornography 184, 243, 244 Porter, Roy 41 Pullman Palace Car Company private carriages 73 r Rae, John B. 110 railways (see also underground railways and entries for individual railway companies) coming of 14 nationalization 133–5 passenger journeys 21 pneumatic 331 railway sandwich 36–7, 85, 247 railway time 26–7, 85–7 resentment of 18–20 vocabulary and expressions 39 Railway Passengers’ Assurance Company 224 Railway Regulation Act 33 Raleigh 139 Rapaille, Clotaire 205–6 reading (on trains) 32, 36, 73, 82, 130, 240 Japanese text novels 240 Kindle 241 Reading station 23 Rickenbacker, Eddie 307–8 road rage 192–217 Romney, George 120 Rover bicycles 101–2 cars 102 Scarab 107 Roy, Raman 289–90, 305 Ruskin, John 20, 51, 93 Russia 152–60 cars 152–7 Moscow Metro 157 railways 158 reverse commuting 159 road rage 213–15 RYNO (single-wheeled scooter) 312 s San Francisco 128, 224, 289, 330, 331 season ticket 23, 46, 56, 67, 75, 136, 220, 223 Second Great Awakening 79 Second World War 109, 110, 111, 129–34 Blitz 129 poster campaign 130–31, 193 Segway Personal Transporter 311–12 sexual harassment 180, 181, 188–9 Shap 18 Shillibeer, George 47 Shrewsbury 16 Sinclair, Sir Clive 309–10 Sloan, Alfred P. 118 Slough 109 Smiles, Samuel 12 SNCF 329 Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) 105, 106–7, 142 South Devon Railway Company 331 South West Rail 3 South West Trains 271 Southend Arterial Road 108 Southport 22–3 SpaceX 330 Special Roads Bill 139, 145 Staplehurst rail disaster 25 Starley, John Kemp 101 steam trains 15, 17, 18 carriages 29–30, 54, 55 locomotives Best Friend of Charleston 69 Iron Duke 4–2–2 Sultan 38, 70 Rocket 24 tank engine 28 workmen’s trains 33–4, 60, 61, 83 steamboats 21 Steinbeck, John East of Eden 94 The Grapes of Wrath 100 Stephenson, George Rocket 24 Stern, Howard 257, 259 Stevenson, Robert Louis 336 Stewart, Alexander T. 76 Stockton and Darlington Railway 14–15, 24 Stockwell station 55 Surbiton 43, 46 Suez Crisis 143 Surrey 44, 223 SUVs 204–8, 330 Swedish ‘moose test’ 325–6 t Tanzania Hazda tribe 232, 238 telecommuting 282-96, 302, 315, 319 Tesla Motors 330 Tessimond, Arthur Seymour John 136 texting 239 TGV 329 Thailand 164–5 Thomas, T.M. 49 Thoreau, Henry David 71 Tocqueville, Alexis de 306 Toffler, Alvin 285–6 Tottenham 62 traffic light 125 Trafford Park Ford factory 103 train crashes Best Friend of Charleston 69 Staplehurst 25 Versailles 81–2 trams 64–5, 80, 104 models of 140 nationalization 139–40 Tramways Act 64 Transport for London 166, 248 Trollope, Anthony 36 Tube, the 242–3, 245, 261–79 Turcotte, Martin 225–6 u underground railways 53–6, 171–6 Beijing Metro 160, 162 Moscow Metro 157–8 New York subway 246 Osaka Metro 181 Paris RER 329 São Paulo Metro 279 Tokyo Metro 178–83 Tube (London) 242–3, 245, 261–79 Union Ferry Company 68 v Vanderbilt, Tom 250 Vaughan, Paul 135 Verma, Rakesh 211 Versailles train crash 81–2 Vespa 149–50 Victoria Line 278, 279 Volga 155 Volkswagen 151 Volvo 318, 321 w Wales 291 walking 216–17, 231, 232 Waterloo station 1, 4, 130, 277, 334, 335–6 Webb, Philip 44 Webb, Thomas 4 Wells, H.G. 88–9, 307 Wemmick, John 12–13 West Ashfield 273–4 West Japan Line 184 Westmorland 18 Whitman, Walt 67–8 Whyte, William H. 113 Willesden 55–6 Wilson, Charles Erwin 100 Wonder Coach (between London and Shrewsbury) 16, 26 Wordsworth, William 18, 236 workmen’s trains 33–4, 60, 61, 83 Wright, Frank Lloyd 79 y Yahoo 296–8 YouTube 179, 213, 319 About this Book Each working day 500 million people across the planet experience the miracle and misery of commuting.
business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs
On the one hand, such information can be used to track vehicles as they cross a city and provide inputs into intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and on the other to cross-reference details to a database of vehicle owners in order to administer fines and penalties for traffic violations. For example, in relation to the latter, the licence plate details of all vehicles entering the congestion charge zone in London are scanned and matched to a database of those that have paid the congestion charge. Those who have not paid within a 24-hour period are automatically fined through a process of automated management (the system has the autonomy to issue fines free of human oversight). The system can similarly be used in conjunction with speed cameras to issue tickets to speeding drivers. In other cases, automated surveillance has been facilitated by the use of machine-readable identification codes to enrol what were anonymous activities into the net of surveillance.
One of the clearest examples related to governance is control creep. Control creep is where the data generated for one form of governance is appropriated for another (Innes 2001). This has mostly clearly occurred with respect to security, particularly in the post 9/11 era, with airline industry data and government administrative data being repurposed for profiling and assessing the security risk of passengers (Lyon 2003b). Similarly, road traffic and congestion charge cameras in London have been repurposed for security tasks, rather than simply monitoring traffic offences (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a). A commercial example of control creep is in-car navigation systems in rental vehicles being repurposed from helping drivers find their way to monitoring and fining those that drive out of state or off-road (Elliott 2004). Control creep systematically undermines the rationale for data minimisation and its roll-out poses clear threats to civil liberties, with all citizens – both innocent and guilty – subject to its gaze and disciplinary action.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
In the UK, a similar government-run system: James Bridle (18 Dec 2013), “How Britain exported next-generation surveillance,” Medium, https://medium.com/matter-archive/how-britain-exported-next-generation-surveillance-d15b5801b79e. Jennifer Lynch and Peter Bibring (6 May 2013), “Automated license plate readers threaten our privacy,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2013/05/alpr. It enforces London’s: The police also get access to the data. Hélène Mulholland (2 Apr 2012), “Boris Johnson plans to give police access to congestion charge cameras,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2012/apr/02/boris-johnson-police-congestion-charge. automatic face recognition: Dan Froomkin (17 Mar 2014), “Reports of the death of a national license-plate tracking database have been greatly exaggerated,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/03/17/1756license-plate-tracking-database. the FBI has a database: US Federal Bureau of Investigation (15 Sep 2014), “FBI announces full operational capability of the next generation identification system,” http://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-announces-full-operational-capability-of-the-next-generation-identification-system.
They’re looking for stolen vehicles and drivers with outstanding warrants and unpaid tickets. Already, the states’ driver’s license databases are being used by the FBI to identify people, and the US Department of Homeland Security wants all this data in a single national database. In the UK, a similar government-run system based on fixed cameras is deployed throughout the country. It enforces London’s automobile congestion charge system, and searches for vehicles that are behind on their mandatory inspections. Expect the same thing to happen with automatic face recognition. Initially, the data from private cameras will most likely be used by bounty hunters tracking down bail jumpers. Eventually, though, it will be sold for other uses and given to the government. Already the FBI has a database of 52 million faces, and facial recognition software that’s pretty good.
additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
In San Diego, refuse trucks run on methane extracted from the landfills they deliver to. Reykjavik is pioneering hydrogen-powered public transport. In Germany, they are greening the roofs of their tower blocks to grow food, encourage birdlife, collect rainfall and cool the streets below. Toronto air-conditions its buildings in summer with cold water from the depths of Lake Ontario. My city, London, has its congestion charge to end gridlock and reduce its carbon footprint. New York plans to copy it. And the developing world isn’t far behind. The southern Brazilian city of Curitiba pioneered bus-only roads, and then recruited the city’s poor to recycle its garbage by offering groceries and bus passes in exchange. The air in two of south Asia’s biggest and most polluted mega-cities, Delhi and Dhaka, has been transformed by switching tens of thousands of buses and motorized rickshaws to compressed natural gas.
abortions, Manila 154 Abramovitch, Roman 222 Acer 160, 163, 165 Africa Darfur droughts 335 desertification 108, 334–8 fertility rates 366 Homo sapiens evolution 328–9 land management 334 tourism 320–1 Agarwal, Ravi 291 Agnes 71–2 Agrocel 129, 131 AIDS clinics 73–4 demographic effects 72–3, 366 elderly carers 71–2, 73–4 societal effects 72–3 air freighting organic food 102 plant food imports 101, 111–12 air travel Buncefield fuel depot explosion 236 CO2 emissions 233, 236–7 Kyoto Protocol 236–7 reducing 357 short-haul flights 233 total emissions 306–7 UK airports 236–7 Akter, Nazma 143 Alaska caribou migration routes 217–20 climate changes 218–19 oil 214–20 Prudhoe Bay 214–20 racial issues 216–17 Albania, sage 57–8 Alexander, Christopher 347 allotments 342 aluminium environmental footprint 195–6 properties 191–2 recycling 199–200, 256, 285–6 Rio Tinto Aluminium 192–4 smelting 192, 194–7, 226 Ambrose, Stanley 327, 329–30 AMG Resources, steel recycling 256 Amnesty International 276 Anglo American, metal mining 203 antimony, China 205 apples, Kazakhstan 90–1 Aquaculture Certification Council 69 Aral Sea climate change 150 drying up 146–7 pollution 150 Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) cocoa 96 palm oil 78 Asda 142 Associated British Foods 80 Association for Responsible Mining 246–7 Asustek 161–4 auctions coffee 31–2 fish 49 Australia aluminium 192–8 Brisbane 303–4 coal 230 cotton 119–22 droughts 120 eco-projects 345 Gladstone 192–7 Kyoto Protocol 198 Melbourne 345 tea tree oil 59–60 Ausubel, Jesse 347–8 Awaj Foundation 141–2 Badger brewery see Hall and Woodhouse bananas 84, 86–9 Banc d’Arguin marine national park 50–2 fishing permits 51–2 WWF 51, 54 Bangladesh Awaj Foundation 141–2 banking system 68 child labour 143 corruption in 65 deltas 62–3, 66, 70 Dhaka 138–45, 345 family sizes 364 female emancipation 144–5 garment workshops 138–44 Khulna 63–4, 67–8 King prawns 62–70 land grabbing 64–5 wages 142–3 Bangladesh Frozen Food Exporters Association 67 barley malts, beer 38–9 Barry Callebaut 96 Bazalgette, Joseph 254 beaches, over-cleansing 263 Beckton sewage treatment works 254 beer barley malts 38–9 brewery closures 37 Hall and Woodhouse 37–9 herb 39 ingredients 38–9 local brews 36–7 summer ales 39 water for 38 yeasts 39 Bertrand, Nick 350 BHP Billiton 203 Bihar 289 bio-capacities 317–18 biodiesel, European Union laws 77 Biodiversity (formerly International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) 84 biodiversity loss, and sugar 83 biofuels 82, 355 burying CO2 with 357 and palm oil 77 threat of 341 bismuth 207 black tiger prawns see king prawns books carbon footprint 312–13 research for 313 Borneo, rainforest clearances 169, 172 Box, John 350 BP, targetneutral scheme 305 Brasilia 347 bread Lighthouse 42 processes 42 stoneground wholemeal flour 42–4 yeasts 42 breweries, closures 37 Brisbane 303–4 British Airways, carbon offsets 304–5 British Trust for Ornithology 262 Broadacre City, Lloyd Wright 346–7 Brown, Gordon, eco-cities 350 brownfield sites development of 351 wildlife 350–1 ‘built environment’ emissions CO2 emissions 242 domestic greenhouse gases 242–4 Buncefield fuel depot explosion 236 Bunting, Madeleine 365–6 Burden, Graham 122, 128 cabbages 89 Cafédirect coffee 27–30 and fairtrade philosophy 35 prices paid 31–2 CAI (Computer Aid International) 299–300 Caldwell, Jack 365 Cameron, David 45, 103, 359 Cameron, Ray 219–20 Cameroon cocoa 94–7 cotton 136 slash-and-burn agriculture 95 carbon footprint books 312–13 calculating 371 publishing 313 carbon offsets see also CO2 emissions aircraft emissions 303–4, 306–8 availability 304–5 British Airways 304–5 Climate Care 308, 310, 312 costs 308 definitions 305 forest maintenance 308–9 Kyoto Protocol 304, 311 Orbost estate 305–6 programme range 304–5 Sky 305 Carbon Trust 241–2 CarbonNeutral Company 305–6, 311 cardamom 58 Cargill cocoa 96 cotton 123 palm oil 78 Sun Valley chickens 78–9 caribou, migration routes 217–20 cement 240 cereals, for meat production 340 CETC (China Electronics Technology Group Corporation) 272 Chang, Mage 165 charities, textile recycling 266–9 cheese 40–1 Chen, David 162, 163–4 Cheng, Sammy 159, 163–4, 165, 371 Cheng, Shengchan 280–2 Cheung, Yan 284–5, 371 chickens free-range organic 39–40, 41 soya fed 79 child labour Bangladesh 143 computer recycling 288–90 cotton industry 124 India 124, 288–91 Ivory Coast 97 Pakistan 124 China see also Shenzhen; Suzhou aluminium recycling 285–6 antimony 205 computer industry 160–1, 165, 167 deforestation 171–2 ginger 58 mobile phones 271–2 one-child policy 364 paper recycling 280–2, 284–5 plastic bottle recycling 256–7, 282–3 power stations 358 Qiaotou 179 recycling ethos 282–4 small commodities markets 177–80 tin 205 traditional medicines 181–3 Yiwu 177–80 Zhangjiagang 169, 171 zinc 205 China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) 272 Chinatext, cotton 123 Chococo 99 chocolate see also cocoa fairtrade 98 gourmet 99 UK introduction 93–4 world-wide consumption 94 Christmas decorations 178 chromium, Kazakhstan 205 cinnamon 58 cities see London; mega-cities; urban farming city metabolism 239–40 civil wars 208–10 Clean Air – Cool Planet 305 Climate Care 308, 310, 312 climate changes Alaska 218–19 economic implications 358 Mount Toba eruption 326–7 cloves 58 CO2 emissions see also carbon offsets accumulation 316 air travel 233, 236–7 built environment’ 242–4 burying with biofuels 357 cement 240 coaches and buses 235 coal-fired power stations 228–9, 356 global reductions 370–1 global warming 354–5 Heathrow airport 235–6 targets 357 train travel 232–3 coaches and buses 235 coal-fired power stations 228, 356 CO2 emissions 228–9, 356 Drax 228–30 imports for 229–31 Coastal Development Partnership, Kulna 63 Cockerill, Ian 19 cocoa Archer Daniels Midland 96 Barry Callebaut 96 Cameroon 94–7 Cargill 96 fairtrade 98 history 93–4 Ivory Coast 97 middlemen 96–7 Nestlé 96 price crashes 96 processing 98 smallholdings 94–6 western discovery of 93 coffee auctions 31–2 Cafédirect 27–30 cooperatives 28–30 fairtrade 32–4 global trading 31 Kilimanjaro 27–9 organic farming 30 prices 28–9, 31–3 roasting 33–4 shipments to London 33 Starbucks 30 coltan see tantalum community projects fairtrade coffee 32 fairtrade cotton 131, 133–4 Compal 165–6 Computer Aid International (CAI) 299–300 computer components 160–4, 161–4 metals for 205, 207–8 computer recycling 288–91 child labour 288–90 copper recovery process 288–90 illegal imports 291–2 computers, reuse 297–300 Computers for Schools Kenya 297–300 conferences, ecological footprints 318 congestion charge, London 345 Congo 276–7 conservation, herbs 56 consumption, globalized 7–10 contraception Philippines 153–5 religious attitudes to 153–4, 364–5 cooking, energy expenditure 103 copper production 203, 204 recovery 288–90 Cory, household waste management 251–3, 261 cotton Australia 119–22, 124 Cameroon 136 Chinatext 123 Cragill 123 Dreyfus 123 Dunavant 123 fairtrade 128–30, 134 genetic modification 125, 132–3 India 124–5, 128–31, 133 Maral Overseas 133–4, 135–7 Marks & Spencer 122, 132 Pakistan 124 Plexus 123 Reinhart 123 social costs 126–7 spinning and knitting 136–7 USA 124–6 Uzbekistan 124, 147–8, 151 world production 123–4 Cotton Australia 120 Crossness sewage treatment works 254–5 Culham nuclear-fusion research reactor 226 Cure, Lynne 251 Dairy Crest 40 dairy industry, depression of 40 Dar es Salaam innovative enterprises 278–9 Milonge brothers 264–7 mitumba 264–7 Phones for Africa 278 textiles recycling 266–9 wildlife sculptures 278–9 debt slavery, Mauritania 186 deforestation consequences, China 171–2 Delhi computer recycling 292 LNG transport 345 Mandoli 287–92 Dell computers 160, 163, 165, 166 demography see also population growth AIDS 72–3 and migration 367–8 desertification 334–5 reversals 108, 335–8 Dhaka garment workshops 138–45 LNG transport 345 Dickens, Charles, Our Mutual Friend 253–4 domestic environment greenhouse gases 242–4 zero-carbon homes 244 domestic recycling 251 Drax coal-fired power station 228–30 Dreyfus, cotton 123 Driefontein goldmine 15–18 droughts Australia 120 Darfur 335 Dubai electronic waste trading 291 gold smuggling 21 mitumba trading 266 dump, burn and offset 303–4 Dunavant, cotton 123 Duncan, Anne 194 Dyson, Tim 365 e–waste brokers, Environment Agency 296 Earth, ecological statistics 315 eco-efficiency 316 town planning 349 eco-projects mega-cities 345 urban transport 345 ecological footprints see also CO2 emissions conferences 318 European 317 global 317–18 Homo sapiens 333 urban 314–15 Edwards, Rob 305 elderly carers, South Africa 71–2, 73–4 electricity see also power stations aluminium smelting 192, 196–7, 199, 226 cooking 103 domestic use 242 from incinerators 261 ‘green tariffs’ 311 imported 227 National Grid 226–7 renewable sources 227–8 world–wide consumption 315–16 electronic waste European Union directive 277, 293–4, 296 landfill 287 metals recovery 288–92 UK recycling 293–6 Ely 184–7 EMR (European Metal Recycling) 295 endangered species, traditional medicines 181–3 energy intensive production, agribusiness 102–3 Environment Agency, e-waste brokers 296 Environment and Development, International Institute for 103, 339 environmental footprint mega-cities 344–5 personal contributions 242–4 public services 241–2 environmental impact aluminium smelting 195–6 metal mining 203–4 oil extraction 220–2 environmental protectionism 359 Essissima, Joseph 94–5 ethical trading, supermarkets 70 Europe fertility rates 366–7 global footprint 317 European Metal Recycling (EMR) 295 European Union beaches directive 263 biofuel additives 77 electronic waste directive 277, 293–4, 296 fishing rights 53 sugar beet 81–2 waste export ban 258–9 Eurostar 232–3 Evans, Dicky 104 evolution, Homo sapiens 328–31 Excel Crop Care, G.
Shroff 131–2 extremism, humanity 5 fairtrade 371 brands 32 chocolate 98 coffee 34 community projects 32 cotton 128–30, 134–5 jewellery 245–7 Fairtrade Foundation 32, 103–4 famines, inefficient dealing with 340 farming see also urban farming energy intensive production 102–3 livestock 211 Nigeria 335–6 water usage 341 favelas Brasilia 347 Rio 114–16, 349 women’s power in 114–16 female emancipation Bangladesh 144–5 population growth 369–70 fertility rates Africa 366 Bangladesh 364 China 364 Europe 366–7 global decline 369 Iran 364 Muslim states 366 fertilizer, from sewage 255 fishing depletion of natural stocks 49, 50, 51, 53 fresh-fish auctions 49 Mauritania 50–2, 53–4 poaching 51–2 preference for line 54 Senegal 52–3, 54 ‘sustainable’ 53 trawlers vs pirogues 52 world-wide 49–50 flour stoneground wholemeal 42–4 wheat for 43–4 Fonebak 277 food see also plant foods cooking 103 imports 100–2 ‘food patriotism’, David Cameron 45, 103, 359 food production, and population growth 340 Forest Stewardship Council approved paper 312 tropical hardwoods 175 Forest Trends 170, 175 forests as carbon offsets 309 maintenance 308–9 Foundation for Adolescent Development 154 Fox, Richard, Homegrown 111 Foxconn, mobile phones 271–2 Friends of the Earth 101, 350 Frison, Emile 84 fruit pickers, immigrant 46–7 fuels, greenest 355–7 Gala, coffee roasting 33–4 Gandhi, Mahatma 360 Gap 141, 142 garlic 89 garment workshops Dhaka 138–44 H&M 140 gas domestic use 242 power stations 227 Siberia 223–5 storage projects 227 gas power, public transport 345 Gazprom 222–4 UK takeovers by 224 gemstones, finance for corrupt regimes 208–9 genetic modification bananas 88–9 cotton 125, 132–3 genetic resources, plant foods 89–92 ginger, China 58 Girardet, Herbert 239–40 Gladstone aluminium smelting 193–7 ecology 192–3 power station 193, 196–7 glass, recycling 255–6 global footprints comparative 317–18 world-wide 317 global warming CO2 emissions 354–5 threat of 354–5 globalization coffee trading 31 consumption 7–10 gold certificates of origin 247 ethically sourced 245–7 extraction process 18 in history 20–1 hoarding 21–2, 134 origins 15 power of 21–2 prices 19, 21 smuggling 21 South Africa 14–22, 205 gold mining access shafts 14–15 Fanakalo language 17 quartz containing 22 recruitment for 17–18 safety 16–17 smuggling 17 Gold Standard 21 Goodall, Chris, How to Live a Low-Carbon Life 244 Gottmann, Jean 351 gourmet chocolate 99 grain growing, water for 211 green beans food miles issue 111–12 Homegrown 104–6, 108–11 hygiene 107 Machakos 104–13 Marks & Spencer 105, 107, 109 smallholdings 104–6, 109 traceability 107, 112–13 Green Gold 246 greenhouse gases see CO2 emissions; nitrogen oxides Grimsby, fresh-fish auctions 49 Grosvenor, paper reprocessing 257–60 Gujarat Agrocel 129–31 organic cotton 129–32 water supplies 130–1 H&M 140, 142 hafnium 208 Hall, Peter 347, 349 Hall and Woodhouse brewery 37–9 Hammond, Geoff 317 Hanson, Jim 355 Harris, Frances 336 Haupt, Melville 19 heat-island effect 348 Heathrow airport CO2 emissions 235–7 fuel supplies 236 land use efficiency 237–8 noise issues 238 HelpAge International 72 herbs in beers 39 conservation 56 oregano 55–6 sage 57–8 thyme 56 Hewitt, Geoff 119–21 Hewlett-Packard 160, 163, 165 Hickey, Dan 120 Hindu philanthropy 133–4 ‘hobbits’ (Homo floresiensis) 325, 328, 331 extinction 332 Homegrown, green beans 104–6, 108–11 hominids see Homo erectus; Homo floresiensis; Homo sapiens; Neanderthals Homo erectus 325, 327, 331 extinction 332 Homo floresiensis (‘hobbits’) 325, 328, 331 extinction 332 Homo sapiens African evolution 328–9 artistic evolution 330–1 common characteristics 5–6 conspicuous consumption 333 cultural evolution 329–30 ecological footprint 333 future of 372 geographical spread 331–2 ice age survival 332–3 social evolution 330 survival skills 332 urbanization 344 virtual extinction 325, 328–9 volcanic winters 325, 328–30, 331 household waste see also sewage collections 251 food growing on 341 landfill sites 261 Thames barge transport 252–3 transfer stations 251–2 How to Live a Low-Carbon Life, Chris Goodall 244 human rights see also child labour Mauritania 184–5 Uzbekistan 147, 151–2 humanity, extremism 5 Humphries, Rick 193–4, 197–8 Hurn airport 237–8 hydroponics 342 IBM 163, 165 ice ages, Homo sapiens’ survival 332–3 immigrant fruit pickers conditions 46–7 pay 47 imports air miles 101 carbon footprints 101–2 plant foods 100–2 incinerators electricity generation from 261 pollution from 260–1 India Bihar 289 cardamom 58 child labour 124 computer recycling 288–92 cotton 124–5, 129–31, 133–5 Delhi 287–92 gold hoarding 134 Hindu philanthropy 133–4 Maral Overseas 133–4, 133–5, 135–7 Toxics Link 290–1 water shortages 130–1, 133 indium, uses 207 Indonesia palm oil 76–7 rainforest clearances 172–3 innovative enterprises, Tanzania 278–9 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 354–5 International Crisis Group 151 International Institute for Environment and Development 103, 339 International Institute for Tropical Agriculture 95, 335 Iqbal Ahmed see also king prawns business empire 61–2, 68–70 Iran, family sizes 364 iron see also steel extraction 205 Italy, rocket 56, 90 Ivory Coast, cocoa 97 JCPenney 141 jewellery, fairtrade 245–7 Joynson-Hicks, Paul, Phones for Africa 277–8 just-in-time assembly 166 retailing 106 Kazakhstan apples 90–1 chromium 205 Keen, David 209–10 Kenya coffee 27–34 Computers for Schools 297–300 desertification reversals 108, 338–9 farm outputs 338–9 German presence in 34–5 green beans 104–13 Khosa, Veronica, AIDS clinics 73–4 Khulna, king prawn industry 63–4, 67–8 Kilimanjaro coffee 27–30 Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union (KNCU) 30–3 king prawns certification scheme needed 69 fry hatcheries 65–6 introduction to UK 62 landowner threats 64–5 middlemen 66–8 organic farming 64 processing plants 67 Seamark 62, 68 sustainability 69–70 Kinyua, Patrick 106–7 Kirkham, Ruth 40 Klor, Babubhai 131 KNCU (Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union) 30–3 Kombe, Jackson 29–30 Kyoto Protocol air travel 236–7 Australia 198 carbon offsets 304, 311 Ministry of Defence 242 Lagavulin, Islay single malt Scotch 44–5 Lamb, Harriet 103–4 land, multiple functions for 316 landfill sites heavy metals 287 household waste 261 Lea Valley 349 Leach, Matthew 260 Letterewe, Scotland 321–2 Lighthouse bakery 42 line-fishing 54 Lister, John 43–4 livestock farming 211 Lloyd Wright, Frank, Broadacre City 346–7 local food 36–7, 45 Logitech 160–1 London congestion charge 345 greenhouse gases 242 household waste 251–3, 261 Lea Valley 349 materials recycling 255–6 MI6 headquarters 241 public services 241–2 sewage 23–4, 254, 261–3 Wandsworth Prison 241 water ring-main 241 London Wildlife Trust 350 Ma, Cheng Liang 352–3 McDonald’s 79, 102–3 Machakos desertification reversals 338–9 green beans from 104–13 Macharia, John 108–9 Madagascar, vanilla 58–9 Mahesh, Priti 290–1 Makinga, Norman 297–9 Malaysia, palm oil 76–7 malnutrition 340 Mandela, Nelson 320 Mandoli, computer recycling 288–91 Manila abortions 154 contraception 153–5 Foundation for Adolescent Development 154 prostitution 153, 155 manures, changes to natural 335–6 Marakele wildlife park 320 Maral Overseas, cotton 133–4, 135–7 margarine from palm oil 76 from whale oil 75 marine national parks, Banc d’Arguin 50–2 Marks & Spencer Blue Horizon jeans 145 cotton 122, 132, 142, 145 fairtrade coffee 32 fairtrade cotton 128, 134–5 green bean imports 105, 107, 109 materials ‘rucksacks’ 204–5 Mauritania debt slavery 186 fishing 50–4 racial structure 185–6 slavery 184–5 meat production 340 mega-cities 344 absorption of urban centres 351–3 eco-projects 345 environmental footprint 344–5 recycling mantra, necessity for 346 wildlife in 349–50 Melbourne, eco-projects 345 Melgar, Junice 154–5 metals see also aluminium; gold antimony 205 bismuth 207 chromium 205 copper 203, 204 global corporations 203 hafnium 208 indium 207 iron/steel 205 materials ‘rucksacks’ 204–5 mining footprint 203–4 mobile phones 273–5 palladium 207 platinum 205, 207 recycling 210, 256, 288, 290–1, 295 rising demands 206 ruthenium 207–8 tantalum 273–6 terbium 208 tin 205, 276–7 waste ores 204–5 world demand for 202–3 zinc 205 Mgase, Jacob Rumisha 28–9 middlemen traders cocoa 96–7 king prawns 66–8 Milonge, Boniface 264 Milonge, Geoffrey market sales 266–7 mitumba imports 264–5 Urafiki market 267–8 Milton Keynes 347 Ministry of Defence, Kyoto Protocol 242 mitumba Dar es Salaam 264–7 Dubai 266 mobile phones assembly 271–2 Foxconn 271–2 Nokia 271, 272 Phones for Africa 277–8 reuse 277–8 toxic chemicals in 272–5 world-wide usage 270–1 money laundering, International Crisis Group 151 Morocco, phosphates 206 Morris, Tim 37–9 Mortimore, Michael 338 Moshi coffee auctions 31–2 curing plant 33 motherboards 161–4 motor cars catalytic converters 207 and urban design 346–7 Motorola 276 Murray, Craig 147–8 Musili, Tom, Computers for Schools Kenya 297–300 Muslim states, fertility rates 366 Musyoki, Jacob 104–6, 113 National Grid 226–7 natural resources, consumption rates 314–15 Neanderthals 325, 328 extinction 332 and Homo sapiens 329 Nellie, Flower-stall Girl 153, 155, 371 Nestlé cocoa 96 fairtrade coffee 32 New Guinea, tropical hardwoods 170, 171 Nicholson-Lord, David 348 Niemeijer, David 337, 339 Niger, reversing desertification 337 Nigeria, crop/livestock integration 335–6 Nine Dragons, paper recycling 284–5 nitrogen oxides, ozone production 307 NKD 143 Nokia, mobile phones 271, 272, 276 Novelis, aluminium recycling 199–200 Noyabr’sk, oilfields 221–2 nuclear power stations 227, 355–6 waste from 356 nuclear-fusion research reactors, Culham 226 offices, ecological footprints 315 oil Alaska 215–20 Siberia 220–2 Orbost, carbon offsets 305–6 oregano 55–6 organic farming bananas 87 coffee 30 crop/livestock integration 336 king prawns 64 Nigeria 335–6 organic food, air freighted 102 overconsumption 360 Padulosi, Stefano 56, 90–2 Pakistan, cotton 124 palladium, source 207 palm oil 75–8 and biofuels 77 rainforest clearances for 76–7 paper burning 260 Chinese recycling 280–2, 284–5 Forest Stewardship Council approved 312 manufacture 260 recycling 257–60 sustainable sources 312 Papua New Guinea, rainforest clearances 169, 173–5 pathogen risks, urban farming 343 Paul Reinhart 123 peanuts 89–90 Pendolinos 233 people smuggling, to Canary Islands 55 personal footprints 4–5, 242–4, 318 city metabolism 240 pesticides banana diseases 87 cotton 124–5, 130 natural 87, 130 Pethick, John 262 Philippines see Manila Phones for Africa, Tanzania 278 phosphates fertilizers 205–6 Morocco 206 phthalates, mobile phones 273 pineapples 89 pistachios 91 plankton, carbon offsets 310 plant foods see also foods by name air-miles issues 111–12 ancient varieties 89–90 benefits of local 45 carbon footprint 101–2 energy intensive production 102–3 extinctions 84 genetic resources 89–92 mutations 85–6 seasonality 100, 105 UK imports 100–2, 111–12 wild 55–60, 89–90 plastic bottles (PET), recycling 256–7, 282–3 platinum South Africa 205 uses for 207 Plexus, cotton 123 plywood Chinese originated 175–6 from illegal logging 169, 174–5 poaching, fisheries 51–2 pollution imprint of 333 incinerators 260–1 Siberia 221–2 pomegranates, Turkmenistan 91–2 population growth average family size 361, 362 family-planning policies 364–5 female attitudes 365–6 female emancipation 369–70 fertility rates 366–7 and food production 340 limiting 360–1 longevity 362–3 mortality rates 366, 367 potential diminution 363–4 stabilization 368–9 twentieth century 361–2 power stations China 358 coal-fired 228–31, 356 natural gas 227 nuclear 227, 355–6 tidal 355 wave 355 wind 355 Poynton, Scott 175, 176 prawns see king prawns prostitution, Manila 153, 155 Prudhoe Bay 214–20 public services, environmental footprint 241–2 public transport, gas powered 345 publishing, carbon footprint 313 Qiaotou 179 rainforest clearances Borneo 172 consequences 77–8 illegal logging 170–1 Indonesia 172–3 logging concessions 173–4 for palm oil 76–7 Papua New Guinea 170, 173–5 slash-and-burn agriculture 95 for soya beans 78 ‘sustainability’ audits 174 tropical hardwoods 169–70, 175 recycling 10 see also reuse aluminium 199–201, 256, 285–6 centres 255 computers 288–91 domestic 251 economics 210 electronic waste 294–5 ethos 282–4 glass 255–6 metals 210, 256, 288, 290–1, 295 paper 257–60 plastic bottles 256–7 steel 210, 256 textiles 264–9 Rees, William 315 Register, Roger 347 Rehfish, Mark 262 Renner, Michael 209 retailing just-in-time 106 traceability 107 reuse computers 297–300 mobile phones 277–8 Rhine, damaged ecology 321 Rimbunan Hijau, logging concessions 173–4 Rio de Janiero favelas 114–16, 349 Rosinha 114 Rio Tinto, metal mining 203 Rio Tinto Aluminium environmental claims 198 Gladstone 192–4 Tasmania 197 rivers, wildlife in clean 262–3 Rivoli, Pietra 269 Roberts, Tony 299–300 rocket, Italian 56, 90 Rosinha, Women’s Association of 114–16 Roszak, Theodore 368 Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation 80–1 rubbish see household waste Russia coal exports 229–30 gas 224–5 oil 220–2 Siberia 220–1 ruthenium 207–8 S & A Produce, strawberry pickers 46–8 sage, Albanian 57–8 Sahara, efforts to reverse spread 334 Sainsbury’s 47 Salam, M.
Underground, Overground by Andrew Martin
Livingstone wanted the job, to the annoyance of Blair, whose idea of a London mayor was a benign elder statesman who had outgrown political squabbling. Frank Dobson was selected as the official Labour candidate for mayor, but in the election of 2000 Livingstone stood against him as an independent, and won. Here he was in charge of transport again. He had the power to set fares and to introduce road pricing for London, and this he did, by his introduction of the central London Congestion Charge, with the money raised going into public transport. The Tube being ‘at capacity’, he improved the bus network so as to accommodate as many as possible of the motorists who would now leave their cars at home. (London buses now provide a de luxe service – they’re regular and well maintained – and almost half the people using them pay nothing to do so, being under eighteen or of pensionable age.
C. 20–1, 85, 101, 127, 128, 132 Barlow, Peter William 95 Barlow, William Henry 95 Barman, Christian 157, 160–1, 179, 186, 213 Barnes, Julian 72, 259 Barnett, Henrietta 176 Baron’s Court 60 bars 39, 40 Battersea 274 Battersea Power Station 141 Bayswater 36, 57, 114 see also Queensway Bayswater, Paddington & Holborn Bridge Railway 26 Beaumont, Maureen 196 Beck, Harry 66, 199–203, 270 Behave Yourself (Roberts) 214–15 Bell, John 44 Belsize Park 220, 230 Bendy Bus 242 Bennett, Arnold xi, 30, 80–1, 166, 172, 280 Berger, John 153–4 Bethnal Green 229–30, 255 Betjeman, John 267 Aldersgate station 33 Central Line 119 City & South London 104 commuters 167 District Line 59 Epping-Ongar line 209 Marylebone station 75, 78 Metroland 169, 170–2, 174 South Kentish Town 264 Betjeman (Wilson) 170 Betjeman Country (Delaney) 172–3 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 42 Big Tube 105, 120–5, 130, 158, 159, 182, 191, 206 Birmingham, Peggy and Jack 232 Bishop’s Road 37 Bishopsgate 57 see also Liverpool Street Black, Jeremy 166 Black, Misha 270 Blackfriars 61, 111 Blackpool 84 Blair, Tony 249, 251, 252, 259 Blake, Neil 268 Blake Hall 209 Blakemore Hotel 58 Bleeding London (Nicholson) 165 Blomfield, Arthur 54–5 Boat Race 60, 80 bombs air-raid shelters 224–33 Edgware Road 69 Bond Street 117, 274 Borough 104 Boston Manor 189 Bradley, Simon 55 Bramwell MD 153 Brent Cross 178 bridges 52, 54, 55, 60, 80, 81 Briggs, Thomas 16–17 Brighton 84 British Gas 249 British Museum 152, 263 British Rail 76, 113, 123 British Railways 234 British Transport Commission 233–4, 239 Brittain, Vera 232–3 Bromley 244 Bromley-by-Bow 59, 244 Brompton & Piccadilly Circus Railway 150 see also Great Northern Piccadilly and Brompton Railway Brompton Road 183 Brown, Mike 277 Bruce-Partington Plans, The (Conan Doyle) 63 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 42, 86, 88, 89 Brunel, Marc 86–90, 95 Buchanan Report 242–3 Buckhurst Hill 208 Buckingham Palace 261 Buffalo Bill’s British Wild West (Gallop) 60 Bull & Bush 144, 176 Bulwer-Lytton, Edward 97 Burnt Oak 178 Bus We Loved, The (Elborough) 17–18, 157 buses East London Line 92 Gladstone 34 horse-drawn 20–1, 84–5 Livingstone 252 London Transport 192 petrol-driven 148, 149 Pick 223 Routemaster 242 Shillibeer 18–20, 102 UERL 158, 191 Bushey Heath 206 C cable railways 94, 99 Calson Old Face 161 Camden 146, 175, 177, 178, 274 Camden Town 144, 230, 274 Canada Water 93, 250 Canary Wharf (complex) 249, 251 Canary Wharf (station) 250, 251 Canning Town 250 Cannon Street 48 car ownership 240 carriages 1938 stock 211 Big Tube 122 Central Line 114, 116, 117 City & South London Railway 99, 102–3, 104 Metropolitan Railway 38, 51, 77–8 Waterloo & City Railway 112 Yerkes Tubes 147 see also seats Carvel, John 241 Cassel, Sir Ernest 115–16 Castle, Barbara 239 Castling, Harry 82 celebrities 259 Central Line 4, 9, 113–20 Bank 105, 106, 220, 221 colour 199 and Crossrail 275 Epping 76 Epping-Ongar 201, 208–10 Holborn 263 on map 204 New Works programme 205, 207–8, 233 postcards 117 smell 119 stations 116–17, 207–8 Stratford 250 train frequency 115, 118 trains 114–15, 137, 147, 211 Tube Upgrade 255–6 and Waterloo & City Line 113 Central London Railway 101, 113, 114, 115–19, 133, 157–8, 159 Chalfont & Latimer 76, 77 Chalk Farm 146, 220 Chambers, Ajit 263 Chancery Lane 115, 116, 230 Channel tunnel 75 Chapman, Herbert 117 Charing Cross 48, 144, 152, 217 Jubilee Line 153, 240, 247, 249 music 228 Northern Line xii, 133, 175, 181 see also Embankment Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway 129, 130, 133, 144, 148, 157–8, 175 and City & South London 177–81 Golders Green 175–7 South Kentish Town 263–4 see also Northern Line Charmley, Keith 260 Cheap Trains Act 1883 47 Chelsea 274 Chelsea Monster 134, 139–41, 143 Chemin de Fer du Nord 73 Chesham 76–7, 150 Children of Light (Weightman) 83 Chiltern Court 172–3 Chiltern Railways 78 Chorleywood 76 Christie, Agatha 137–8 church interval 142 Churchill, Winston 80, 156, 192, 222–3, 231 Circle Line 48, 52, 66–7 Baker Street 37 colour 66–7 cut-and-cover 28 direction of travel 67 and District Line 61 Edgware Road 68–9 and Hammersmith & City Line 49 Leinster Gardens 59 on map 200 Paddington 37 train frequency 67–8 urban myths 67 see also Inner Circle Citizen Ken (Carvel) 241 City & South London Railway 98–108, 148, 157–8, 159, 175 centenary 271 crest 3 and Hampstead Tube 177–81 Moorgate 3, 122 trains 147 tunnelling 131 see also Northern Line City of London 11, 12, 13, 16, 21, 106, 166 Big Tube 121 Central Line 116 Metropolitan Railway 26–7, 35 Morgan Tube 133 New Road 17–18 Pearson’s plan 25–6 City of London & Southwark Subway 98–9 City Thameslink 57 City Widened Lines 51–7, 121 Clapham 99 Clapham Common 81, 105, 179, 230 Clapham North 105, 230 Clapham South 230 classes 38, 45–7, 101, 123 Clouded Yellow, The 153 Cockfosters 182, 279 Colindale 178, 179 Coming Race, The (Bulwer-Lytton) 97 Coming Up for Air (Orwell) 170 Commercial Railway 13 Conan Doyle, Arthur 63 Congestion Charge 252 Connor, J. E. 263 Conspirator 153 Cooper, Austin xiii Corporation of London 10, 13, 22, 25, 27, 110, 113 Covent Garden xiii, 165, 261 Cowan, Paul 196–7 Cranley Gardens 206 Creep 137, 249 Cromwell Curve 62–3 Croome, Desmond F. 123, 127, 147, 261 Cross, Mr 257–8 Crossrail 17, 255, 274–5 Crouch End 205, 206 culex molestus 228 Cunningham, Granville C. 97, 119 Curwen, Harold 161 cut-and-cover lines v, 6, 28 air-raid shelters 228–9 District Line 79 electrification 134 glass roofs 31, 33 on map 204 Metropolitan Railway 28, 75 pigeons 259–60 trains 33, 45 tunnels 35–6 Cutler, Horace 241 D Daily Express 149 Daily Mail 41, 101, 118 Davies, Philip 22 Day, Robin 197 Day (Epstein) 188–9 de Vries, Jean 202–3 dead man’s handle 103–4 Death Line xiv, 153 deep-level lines see Tubes Delaney, Frank 172–3 Demuth, Tim 198 Deptford Power Station 84 Design and Industries Association 160, 161, 186 Designed for London (Green) 187 Development (Loan Guarantees and Grants) Act 1929 182 Diary of a Nobody, The (Grossmith) 167 Dickens, Charles 13–14, 15, 22 Dickens, Monica 242 disability discrimination legislation 213, 216 Discoveries and Inventions of the Nineteenth Century (Routledge) 36 ‘District Dave’s London Underground Site’ 45 District Line v, 8–9, 28, 59–62, 134, 158 bomb 69 Brunel tunnel 90 and Circle Line 68 colour 199, 200 and Crossrail 275 and East London Railway 91 Edgware Road 68 electrification 126, 135 expansion 71, 79–81, 179 Gladstone’s funeral train 33 Hammersmith 50 Heathrow 184 hustlers 214 Inner Circle 64–6, 91 Leinster Gardens 59 on maps 66 and Metropolitan Railway 57 moquette 6, 270 Paddington 37 passenger numbers 64, 84 and Piccadilly Line 182 roundel 159 Southend 198 trains 210, 212 Westminster 261 “District Line, The” (Milburn) 59 District Railway see Metropolitan District Railway Dobson, Frank 252 Docklands 249 Docklands Light Railway (DLR) 92, 250, 277, 279 Doddinghurst 209–10 Dollis Brook Viaduct 205 Dollis Hill xii, 247 Dombey and Son (Dickens) 13–14, 15 Doré, Gustave 52, 54 Dover Street 231 see also Green Park Down Street 183, 231–2 Drain, The see Waterloo & City Line Drayton Park 121, 122, 124, 125 Dreiser, Theodore 141 drinking 73 bars 39, 40 drunks 258 drivers communications 216, 217 Victoria Line 235–6 E Ealing Broadway 66, 71, 80, 120, 207 Earl’s Court xiii, 60, 79, 217, 261 Early Tube Railways (Pennick) 131 East Finchley 179 East London Line 64, 90–4 East London Railway Company 90 East Putney 81 Eastenders 59 Edgware 69, 178, 206 Edgware Road (Bakerloo Line) 69, 143, 232 Edgware Road (Circle, District and Hammersmith & City Lines) 68–70 Edgware Road (Metropolitan Railway) 18, 31 Eisenhower, General 230 Elborough, Travis 17–18, 157 Electric Lighting Act 1882 84 Electrical Multiple Units 112–13, 119, 147, 211 electricity 82–3 Betjeman 171–2 Central Line 118–19 Chelsea Monster 139–41 electrocution 137–9 signalling 136–7 electrification 86, 125, 134, 135–6 City & South London Railway 99–101, 103 East London Railway 91 Epping-Ongar line 209 LNER 205–6 Metropolitan Line 44, 56, 76, 126, 135, 141, 171, 233 Elephant & Castle 98, 99, 130, 143, 261 Eleven Minutes Late (Engel) 15 Elgin Marbles 152 Eliot, T.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
Cycling among Londoners jumped 20 percent and air pollution fell about 12 percent. The fee has already generated over a billion dollars in revenue, much of which has been invested in mass transit. London now has hundreds of new buses, providing almost thirty thousand more daily trips than before the charge. Bus reliability has jumped by 30 percent and bus delays have dropped by 60 percent.37 Before introduction of the congestion charge, Londoners were evenly divided on the concept. When last polled, pros beat cons by 35 percent.38 And in the subsequent mayoral election, largely a referendum on the pricing scheme, Livingstone was reelected by a broad margin. London is not alone in its embrace of congestion pricing. São Paulo, Shanghai, Singapore, Stockholm, and Sydney39 have all introduced similar measures, with varying, but all generally positive, results.
Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 9. 31. Ibid., 13. 32. Newman, Beatley, and Boyer, 117. 33. Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution, 81. 34. Witold Rybczynski, Makeshift Metropolis, 83. 35. Jeff Speck, “Six Things Even New York Can Do Better.” 36. Ken Livingstone, winner commentary by Mayor of London, World Technology Winners and Finalists. 37. Data taken alternately from two sources: Ibid., and Wikipedia, “London Congestion Charge.” 38. Ibid. 39. Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Discipline, 71. 40. Wikipedia, “New York Congestion Pricing.” 41. Ibid. 42. Ibid. 43. Nozzi, op. cit. 44. Bernard-Henri Lévy, American Vertigo. 45. Ivan Illich, Toward a History of Needs. 46. Ibid., 119. 47. Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and Speck, 91n. 48. Catherine Lutz and Anne Lutz Fernandez, Carjacked, 145. STEP 2: MIX THE USES 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 10. 2.
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar
World Bank, “Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must Be Avoided,” report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, November 1, 2012. 19. Ibid. 20. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report.” 21. Jim Robbins, “Building an Ark for the Anthropocene,” New York Times, September 27, 2014. 22. “London Congestion Charge,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_congestion_charge. 23. “Living Sustainably,” Cornell University, https://living.sas.cornell.edu/live/community/sustainability.cfm. 24. U.S. PIRG Education Fund, “Millennials in Motion: Changing Travel Habits of Young Americans and the Implications for Public Policy,” October 14, 2014, www.uspirg.org/reports/usp/millennials-motion. 25. INET Logistics, “The Next Gold Mine: The Industrialisation of Road Freight Transport,” www.inet-logistics.com/en/news/inet-in-the-news/news/the-next-gold-mine_-the-industrialisation-of-road-freight-transport. 26. uShip website, www.uship.com. 27.
Do kids with toy cars get traffic jams in their rooms? That’s a nice idea. Then go down another level and start thinking of other things to do with traffic jams and see if they apply to kids playing with toy cars. My kid has got so many cars that his bedroom looks like the M25 during rush hour. He’s six. He’s already got road rage. Mind you I did dock his pocket money to pay the congestion charge. As you can see, this is a much more fruitful way of using joke-webs. Question: Why do I find it hard to make joke-webs work when I’m on my own? Answer: That might be because when you do a group joke-web, you talk each stage through, which makes you think each stage through. If you do a joke-web on your own and just glance at the result you could miss loads of jokes. The answer is to be a crazy joke writer, say things out loud even if you are on your own and the joy is, because you’re on your own no-one is judging you.
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor
The planet-shaped hole is the book that needs to be written on bringing the environmental and social determinants of health agendas together. Sustainable development has taught us the importance of equity between generations as well as within. And I would argue that discussions on preserving the planet must take equity within this generation into account – within and between countries. For example, congestion charging – charging you if you drive your car into the central city – is a good ‘green’ tax. But like all consumption taxes it tends to be regressive, in that it takes a higher proportion of a poor person’s income than of a rich person’s. I have raised this in environmental circles and been told: don’t spoil a perfectly good tax by worrying about equity. I am tempted to retort: don’t damage equity with your perfectly good taxes.
., here Colombia, here, here Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, here Commission on Global Governance for Health, here, here Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH), here Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Closing the Gap; European Review of Social Determinants and the Health Divide; Fair Society, Healthy Lives communism, and health outcomes, here congestion charging, here contraception, here, here cooking stoves, here Copenhagen, here cortisol, here, here Costa Rica, here, here life expectancy, here, here, here, here, here, here pre-school education, here cotton farmers, here, here Coubertin, Baron Pierre de, here crèches, here crime, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here fear of, here, here, here see also delinquency; gangs Cuba, here life expectancy, here, here, here, here, here, here pre-school education, here, here cultural sensitivity, here Czech Republic, here, here, here Daily Mail, here Daily Telegraph, here Deaton, Angus, here debt repayments, here, here delinquency, here, here, here, here dementia, here democracy, and freedom, here Democratic Republic of Congo, here Denmark, here, here, here social mobility, here, here depression, here, here, here deprivation, European measure of, here, here development states, here diabetes, here, here, here, here and adverse childhood experience, here, here in Australian aboriginals, here Dickens, Charles, here, here, here, here, here, here diet and disease, here Mediterranean, here ‘difference principle’, here disability, and life expectancy, here disempowerment, here, here, here, here Dominican Republic, here, here, here Dostoevsky, Fyodor, here Drèze, Jean, here, here, here, here drug regimens, adherence to, here drug use, here, here, here, here, here, here and adverse childhood experience, here Duflo, Esther, here, here, here Dylan, Bob, here Easterly, William, here Ebola, here economic growth, here, here economic inequality, see income inequalities Economist, here, here, here education and cash-transfer schemes, here and fertility rates, here Finnish system,, here, here, here, here gender equity in, here and intimate partner violence, here and life expectancy, here, here and material deprivation, here and measures of ill-health, here pre-school, here, here, here, here social gradient in, here university education, here, here, here, here, here, here, here women and secondary education, here women and tertiary education, here Egypt, obesity levels, here, here, here, here Eisenhower, Dwight D., here employment conditions, here see also unemployment empowerment, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and education, here and health behaviours, here political, here and social participation, here England, see United Kingdom English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), here, here English Review, see Fair Society, Healthy Lives epigenetics, here equality of opportunity, here, here, here Estonia, here, here Ethiopia, here, here European Central Bank, here, here, here European Review of Social Determinants and the Health Divide, here, here, here, here, here, here Evans, Robert, here Evelyn, John, here Everington, Sam, here exercise, see physical activity Experience Corps, here Fair Society, Healthy Lives, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here fairness (definition), here fecklessness, here, here, here, here fertility rates, here Financial Times, here Finland, here, here, here, here education system, here, here, here, here gender equity in education, here fire fighters, here, here, here Fitzgerald, F.
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
In many cities the taxi industry is slow to change, but the fact that taxis are managed at a city level does mean that the service can be tuned for the demands and traditions of each city, so that taxis have become iconic in cities such as New York and London. The taxi service is just one part of a larger traffic management problem that cities continually struggle with, and municipal governance allows it to be balanced with other parts of the urban transit landscape such as bus services and subway services, and to fit in with other management techniques such as congestion charging. The sheer number of cities around the world also means that transit innovations can be and are imitated from city to city, such as the municipal car-sharing and bike-sharing programs that have blossomed in cities around the world over the last decade. From balancing consumer and driver interests, to providing predictable pricing, to ensuring individual cars are safe and that the system as a whole fits into the puzzle that is urban traffic, there is more to transit than a simple market exchange.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
There will still be peak times for journeys, so even if most journeys are undertaken in communal cars, many of them will be parked up during off-peak hours. And traffic will still have to halt at intersections every now and then if pedestrians are ever going to be able to cross the road. Not every pedestrian crossing can have a bridge or an underpass. Nevertheless, machine-driven cars will be more efficient consumers of road space than human drivers. Traffic conditions are not fixed fates which once imposed can never improve. A congestion charge has significantly reduced traffic flows in London, and the switch to almost-silent hybrid taxis has made walking the streets of Manhattan an even better experience than it used to be.[cxcix] In any case, more efficient road use is not required to justify the introduction of self-driving cars. The horrendous death and injury toll imposed by human drivers is sufficient, together with the liberation from the boredom and the waste of time caused by commuting.
Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo
Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning
Inspired by the example of Hong Kong, developed with great success by the British and then handed back to China, he developed the concept of “charter cities.” Countries would hand over an empty strip of territory to a foreign power, who would then take the responsibility for developing a new city with good institutions. Starting from scratch, it is possible to establish a set of good ground rules (his examples range from traffic congestion charges to marginal cost pricing for electricity, and of course include legal protection of property rights). Because no one was forced to move there and all new arrivals are voluntary—the strip was empty to start with—people would not have any reason to complain about the new rules. One minor drawback with this scheme is that it is unclear that leaders in poorly run countries would willingly enter into an agreement of this sort.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city
In 1999, Newman and Kenworthy, citing a 1995 study published in the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, concluded that “there is no guarantee that congestion pricing will simultaneously improve congestion and sustainability.” They mentioned several ways in which congestion pricing can defy the expectations of its supporters, among them by causing motorists to “drive exactly as they always have if the congestion charge is covered by their firms (e.g., a majority of London’s peak-hour commuters have company cars and perks)” and by causing them to “drive more as they shift to ‘rat-running’ through suburban streets to avoid congestion-priced streets.”46 Advocates of congestion pricing usually argue that traffic jams waste gasoline, since cars stalled in traffic burn fuel when they’re not moving.j That’s true, but the energy waste and carbon output attributable to idling cars is vastly smaller than the energy waste and carbon output attributable to the overall transportation network, which generates waste both directly (by encouraging unnecessary driving) and indirectly (by encouraging forms of development that can be sustained only through huge new energy inputs and an ever-expanding web of energy-hungry infrastructure).
Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens
4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law
If you visit busy stations like Kings Cross, you can see dozens of cameras covering the turnstiles and stuck to the roof like colonies of hanging fruit bats. The London "ring of steel" was originally built to defend against IRA attacks on the capital. It has morphed over time from physical measures against car bombers to today's all-seeing blanket of cameras. Part of the infrastructure came together with the congestion charge in 2003, which gave the city the motive and opportunity to track every car's movement. At the time, tracking cars by reading their plates was cutting edge technology. Today it's cheap and widespread. If you drive, you are tracked. On CCTV, Privacy International says: CCTV is a seductive technology. In a public policy domain which is notoriously rubbery, CCTV has a solid, "Sexy," and powerful image.
The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred
airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, new economy, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, trade liberalization, ultimatum game
This is true, but it does not support the argument for increasing overall happiness by extending freedom of choice. On the contrary, when individual choices have external effects, governments regularly intervene to restrict or override consumer sovereignty. Smoking has harmful external effects on non-smokers, so cigarettes are heavily taxed; my decision to drive into central London increases the traffic level others must suffer, so I must pay a ‘congestion charge’ tax. And there is a distinctive type of external effect that is almost unique to the public services. Normally we consume goods or services only up to the point where the perceived benefit outweighs the price. But public services are often free, so there is no incentive for self-restraint. The resulting tendency to overuse free services imposes costs on others. When hypochondriacs rush to their doctor at the onset of a cold, this reduces the amount of time the doctor has to deal with more serious illnesses.
We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater
1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar
Another scheme, GoLoco, aims to use the power of social networking to revive the flagging culture of sharing cars for commuting. At the moment we have just either very public forms of mass transit – buses and trains – or private cars and cycles. Zipcar and GoLoco’s approach, allowing people to make flexible use of shared transport resources, will become more attractive as more US cities introduce congestion charges to reduce car usage. In the Netherlands, a police inspector in Utrecht has created a system for citizens to help the police in solving crimes, not unlike the approach Rob McKewan took at Goldcorp, and a social-networking site has been created to help people look after one another’s ageing parents: you can sign up to look up someone’s parents in Rotterdam and someone else in the network will reciprocate by looking in on yours in Maastricht.
The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K
Kintinuous Kiva Klapper, Leora Kline, Patrick Knack Kochan, Tom Kopecky, Karen Kremer, Michael Krieger, Mike Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul Kurzweil, Ray Kuznets, Simon labor: capital replacement of churn in crowdsourcing of demand elasticity and digital partnerships with digitization and; see also “winner-take-all” markets incentives for input limits on non-digitized recessions and skill matrix for see also employment; productivity; wages labor, skilled: benefits of technology for contribution of immigration to creation of labor, unskilled: declining wages of technology’s replacement of Laeven, Luc Lakhani, Karim land taxes Leiserson, William Leonard, John Leontief, Wassily Levine, Uri Levy, Frank Lickel, Charles LIDAR Liebling, A. J. Lindbergh, Charles LinkedIn Lionbridge living standards, calculation of Lohr, Steve London, congestion charging in Longitude Prize Loria, Roberto Luca, Michael Ludd, Ned Luddite Fallacy Lusardi, Annamaria Lyft machine-to-machine (M2M) communication Macintosh Madigan, Kathleen Mandel, Michael Mankiw, Greg manufacturing: automation in importance of infrastructure to inelastic demand in organizational coinventions in U.S. employment in wages in maps, digital Marberry, Mike Marbles, Jenna Mariel boatlift Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl massive online open courses (MOOCs) McAfee, Andrew McCarthy, John McDevitt, Ryan McFadden, Daniel McKinsey Mechanical Turk medicine: AI use in automation in diagnostic Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center “meta-ideas,” Michel, Jean-Baptiste Microsoft Milgrom, Paul military, U.S., robot use by Minsky, Marvin MIT, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab at Mitchell, Tom Mitra, Sugata MITx Monster.com Montessori, Maria Monthly Labor Review Moore, Gordon Moore’s Law in business in computing persistence of spread of Moravec, Hans Moravec’s paradox Morris, Ian mortgages Mullis, Kary multidimensional poverty index Munster, Gene Murnane, Richard Murray, Charles music, digitization of Nader, Ralph Narrative Science NASA National Academy of Sciences National Association of Realtors National Bureau of Economic Research National Review Nature of Technology, The (Arthur) Neiman, Brent New Digital Age, The (Schmidt and Cohen) New Division of Labor, The (Levy and Murnane) Newell, Al new growth theory New York Times Next Convergence, The (Spence) Nike Nixon, Richard Nordhaus, William numbers: development of large Occupy movement oDesk Oh, Joo Hee Olshansky, S.
The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good by Robert H. Frank
carbon footprint, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, congestion charging, corporate governance, deliberate practice, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, Plutocrats, plutocrats, positional goods, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, smart grid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, winner-take-all economy
Jacoby, “Probabilistic Forecast for 21st Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (without Policy) and Climate Parameters,” MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Report 169, January 2009. 5. “Climate Change Policy and CO2 Emissions from Passenger Vehicles,” Congressional Budget Office, October 6, 2008, http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/98xx/doc9830/1006-ClimateChange_Brief.pdf. 6. http://inhofe.senate.gov/. 7. Jonathan Leape, “The London Congestion Charge,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(4), Fall 2006: 157–176. 8. Henry Goldman, “New York City Council Approves Manhattan Traffic Fees,” Bloomberg.com, April 1, 2008, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?sid=at9mizGXi 7y4&pid=newsarchive. 9. Keith Bradsher, High and Mighty, New York: Public Affairs, 2002. 10. Jonathan Gruber and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Do Cigarette Taxes Make Smokers Happier?”
Fuller Memorandum by Stross, Charles
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Beeching cuts, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, congestion charging, dumpster diving, finite state, Firefox, HyperCard, invisible hand, land reform, linear programming, peak oil, security theater, sensible shoes, side project, telemarketer, Turing machine
I am not, myself, a witness: so this is, to some extent, a work of imaginative reconstruction. Visualize the scene: a side street not far from Piccadilly Circus in London, an outrageously busy shopping district crammed on both sides with fashion chains and department stores. Even the alleys are lined with bistros and boutiques, tidied up to appeal to the passing trade. Pedestrians throng the pavements and overflow into the street, but vehicle traffic is light--thanks to the congestion charge--and slow--thanks to the speed bumps. Here comes a red-haired woman, smartly dressed in a black skirt, houndstooth-check jacket, medium heels. She's holding a violin case in one hand, her face set in an expression of patient irritation beneath her makeup: a musician heading to a recital, perhaps. She looks slightly uncomfortable, out-of-sorts as she weaves between a pair of braying office workers, yummy mummies pushing baby buggies the size of lunar rovers, a skate punk in dreads, and a beggar woman in hijab.
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog
The concept of externalities is useful because it directs our attention to such unintended side effects. If you weren’t focused on externalities, you might think that the way to reduce traffic congestion was to build more roads. That might work, but another way, and a potentially more efficient way, is to implement policies that force drivers to pay the cost of their negative externalities by charging a fee to use roads, particularly at peak times. Congestion charges, such as those implemented in London and Singapore, are designed to do exactly that. If I have to pay to go into town during rush hour, I may stay home unless my need is pressing. Keeping externalities firmly in mind also reminds us that in complex, integrated systems, simple interventions designed to bring about a particular desirable effect will potentially have many more consequences, both positive and negative.
The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms
Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, land reform, loss aversion, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population
Just over a century later, research across all the European capitals into traffic speed put London at the bottom of the league. The average traffic speed, door to door, was 11.8mph.2 The extraordinary aspect of this loss of 0.2mph in a century is that it comes, not just after billions spent on traffic management and urban motorways – on the North and South Circular roads and the M25 – but after the congestion charge introduced by Mayor Ken Livingstone in 2003. Traffic speeds in cities are one of the jokes of the modern age. There is hardly a city in the world where traffic has not choked people’s road space and lungs. But the amazing consistency of London traffic speed implies that, despite all that spending, some other factor is at work here – some other hidden hand. The man who helped uncover what it was and helped to popularize the answer was one of the most 66 THE NEW ECONOMICS unusual transport planners of the century.
Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson
Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar
Norwich Union is already conducting trials of a similar idea in the UK, whereby risks are calculated in real time and payment is made monthly in arrears bundled up with other services such as route planning and emergency roadside assistance. Another idea already taking off is the pay-as-you-go car. The notion that everyone needs their own vehicle is beginning to sound faintly ridiculous, especially in cities, where lack of parking spaces and congestion charging are making other forms of public or group transport more logical. A number of companies are springing up offering car-sharing services of one type or another. In the US companies like Zipcar are growing at breakneck speed, partly because small organizations and businesses are trying to cut costs, and car 168 FUTURE FILES sharing makes more sense than traditional auto rental or taxis. In Switzerland 2% of drivers already use such schemes, while in the UK organizations like City Car Club are renting cars to people for as little as £4 ($8) an hour — including fuel.
When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King
Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population
The most obvious way to offer a social contract is to commit to a period of budget deficit reduction associated with the ring-fencing of expenditure that might benefit younger generations: that means continued support for education, infrastructure and children’s health but a serious reduction in public 244 4099.indd 244 29/03/13 2:23 PM Avoiding Dystopia spending elsewhere, including a substantial reduction in, say, defence spending or social benefits. That won’t be easy: either services will shrink or, instead, they will have to be paid for privately (indeed, with the spread of new technologies, services that hitherto have been provided out of the public purse could easily be charged for: London’s Congestion Charge could not possibly have worked without the technologies that automatically read number plates and charge (and fine) drivers according to their trips into central London). Ultimately, however, it’s a choice between benefits today – which will damage our long-term prospects – or investment for tomorrow. A NEW MONETARY FRAMEWORK Monetary policy alone cannot solve the Western world’s economic ills.
Reinventing the Bazaar: A Natural History of Markets by John McMillan
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, Deng Xiaoping, experimental economics, experimental subject, fear of failure, first-price auction, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, George Gilder, global village, Hernando de Soto, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job-hopping, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, land reform, lone genius, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market friction, market microstructure, means of production, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, proxy bid, purchasing power parity, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Stewart Brand, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, yield management
Increasing the alcohol tax, the data show, significantly reduces highway fatalities.2 “If you drive a car I’ll tax the street,” goes a line in the Beatles song “Taxman.” Even congestion can be taxed. In 1963, William Vickrey, who later won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work on auctions, proposed a plan for pricing urban car travel in Washington, D.C. Roadside receptors would scan each car that passed, sending the data to a central computer, which would calculate the congestion charge and bill the driver.3 The fee would be larger when the congestion was greater, and zero when there was none. Futuristic as the proposal seemed at the time, technology has caught up with Vickrey’s imagination. Singapore has put Vickrey’s idea into practice, charging drivers for the use of certain roads at peak times. Every car contains a dashboard unit into which the driver inserts a prepaid card.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
He had read it and peppered me about congestion pricing. He didn’t like it, or so it seemed. It was unfair, unworkable, and likely would hurt business. I countered and parried and thought I gained some ground but it was hard to tell. His first term came and went with nary a mention of congestion pricing. In 2003, however, things changed. Mayor Ken Livingstone turned London into the first Western city to implement congestion charging, as they called it.f I was jealous, of course. Congestion pricing was invented in New York decades before by a professor at Columbia but London beat us to it. Competition is a powerful thing, especially to a man like Mike Bloomberg. After London beat New York in the competition for hosting the 2012 Olympics, the mayor got, shall we say, motivated. In 2007 he took up the cause. He got about as far as anyone, which is to say, not very far.
Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional
The policy was later dropped in favor of a mandatory emissions test.7 Good policy uses incentives to some positive end. London has dealt with its traffic congestion problems by applying the logic of the market: It raised the cost of driving during the hours of peak demand. Beginning in 2003, the city of London began charging a £5 ($8) congestion fee for all drivers entering an eight-square-mile section of the central city between 7:00 a.m. and 6:30 p.m.8 In 2005, the congestion charge was raised to £8 ($13), and in 2007, the size of the zone for which the fee must be paid was expanded. Drivers are responsible for paying the charge by phone, Internet, or in selected retail shops. Video cameras were installed in some 700 locations to scan license plates and match the data against records of motorists who have paid the charge. Motorists caught driving in central London without paying the fee are fined £80 ($130).
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
Cities Can Prepare for Atomic War,” Life, December 18, 1950, 85. 73Light, From Warfare to Welfare, 164. 74Galison, “War Against the Center,” 14–26. 75World Energy Outlook 2011 (Paris: International Energy Agency, 2011). 76Realizing the Potential of Energy Efficiency: Targets, Policies, and Measures for G8 Countries (Washington, DC: United Nations Foundation, 2007), http://www.globalproblems-globalsolutions-files.org/unf_website/PDF/realizing_potential_energy_efficiency.pdf. 77Buno Berthon, “Smart Cities: Can They Work?,” The Guardian Sustainable Business Energy Efficiency Hub, blog, June 1, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/amsterdam-smart-cities-work. 78Blake Alcott, “Jevons’ Paradox,” Ecological Economics 45, no. 1 (2005): 9-21. 79Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998), 169. 80Michele Dix, “The Central London Congestion Charging Scheme—From Conception to Implementation,” 2002, http://www.imprint-eu.org/public/Papers/imprint_Dix.pdf, 2. 81Robert J. Gordon, “Does the ‘New Economy’ Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past?” (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000), http://www.nber.org/papers/w7833. Chapter 10. A New Civics for a Smart Century 1Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man under Socialism (Portland, ME: Thomas B.
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Return to beginning of chapter TRAVELLING RESPONSIBLY Britons share their compact and increasingly crowded island with around 33 million cars, vans, buses and lorries – that’s more than one vehicle for every two people. Traffic congestion and carbon emissions are serious problems that are only now beginning to be tackled head-on. In the past, the government’s response to overcrowded roads has been to build more of them; today, politicians have been forced to look at other approaches. While London has its congestion charge, Sustrans (www.sustrans.org.uk) – a group focused on sustainable transport – is busy creating a national network of cycle routes; and Worcester, Peterborough and Darlington have been chosen as showcase sustainable transport towns, with government-funded projects to promote cycling, walking and public transport as realistic alternatives to car use. * * * COSTS FOR KIDS Taking your children into museums and historic sites can be absolutely free, half-price, or just a bit cheaper than the adult cost, so we’ve detailed kids’ rates (as well as adult prices) throughout this book.
In 2000 the modern metropolis got its first Mayor of London (as opposed to the Lord Mayor of the City of London), an elected role covering the City and all 32 urban boroughs. The position was taken in 2008 by Boris Johnson, a Conservative known for his unruly shock of blond hair, appearances on TV game shows and controversial editorials in Spectator magazine. One thing the bicycle-riding mayor will have to contend with is the city’s traffic snarls. A congestion charge on cars entering the central city had initial success when introduced by his predecessor, but rush-hour congestion has now increased to pre-charge levels. July 2005 was a roller-coaster month for London. Snatching victory from the jaws of Paris (the favourites), the city won its bid to host the 2012 Olympics and celebrated with a frenzy of flag-waving. The following day, the party abruptly ended as suicide bombers struck on three tube trains and a bus, killing 52 people.
EasyBus (www.easybus.co.uk) minibuses head from Victoria and Baker St to Luton (return from £12, allow 1¼ hours, departing every 30 minutes). A black taxi costs around £95 to/from central London, minicabs around £55. Car Don’t even think about it. Driving in London is a nightmare: traffic is heavy, parking is either impossible or expensive and wheel-clampers keep busy. If you drive into central London from 7am to 6pm on a weekday, you’ll need to pay an £8 per day congestion charge (visit www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/to register) or face a hefty fine. If you’re hiring a car to continue your trip, take the tube to Heathrow and pick it up from there. Public Transport Although locals love to complain about it, London’s public transport is excellent, with tubes, trains, buses and boats conspiring to get you anywhere you need to go. Transport for London (TFL; www.tfl.gov.uk) is the glue that hinges the network together.
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
In 2000 the modern metropolis got its first Mayor of London (as opposed to the Lord Mayor of the City of London), an elected role covering the City and all 32 urban boroughs. The position was taken in 2008 by Boris Johnson, a Conservative known for his unruly shock of blond hair, appearances on TV game shows and controversial editorials in Spectator magazine. One thing the bicycle-riding mayor will have to contend with is the city’s traffic snarls. A congestion charge on cars entering the central city had initial success when introduced by his predecessor, but rush-hour congestion has now increased to precharge levels. July 2005 was a roller-coaster month for London. Snatching victory from the jaws of Paris (the favourites), the city won its bid to host the 2012 Olympics and celebrated with a frenzy of flag waving. The following day, the party abruptly ended as suicide bombers struck on three tube trains and a bus, killing 52 people.
London Waterbus Company (Map; 7482 2660; www.londonwaterbus.com, single/return £6.50/9) and Jason’s Trip (Map; 7286 3428; www.jasons.co.uk; opposite 60 Blomfield Rd W9; single/return £7.50/8.50) both run canal boat journeys between Camden Lock and Little Venice; see websites for times. London has some 40 miles of inner-city canals, mostly built in the 19th century. Return to beginning of chapter Car Don’t even think about it. Driving in London is a nightmare: traffic is heavy, parking is either impossible or expensive and wheel-clampers keep busy. If you drive into central London from 7am to 6pm on a weekday, you’ll need to pay an £8 per day congestion charge (visit www.tfl.gov.uk to register) or face a hefty fine. If you’re hiring a car to continue your trip, take the tube to Heathrow and pick it up from there. Return to beginning of chapter Outdoor England * * * WALKING CYCLING OTHER ACTIVITIES * * * A post box welcomes you to Great LangdaleClick here, Lakes District National Park What’s the best way to get off the beaten track as you travel around England?
The Mammoth Book of the Best of Best New SF by Gardner Dozois
back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K
“Jesus, what the hell is that?” “Proper Russian vodka, comrade,” she smiled, and took another. “Nathan went through to join Murray last week,” she said sourly. “Nathan? Your brother Nathan?” “Only by DNA, and I’m not even certain of that after this. Little prick. Mary and the kids went with him.” “Why?” “Why do any of them go? War in Iraq, crap public transport, psycho Bush threatening North Korea, the congestion charge, council tax. The real world, in other words, that’s what he’s running away from. He thinks he’s going to be living in some kind of tropical tax haven with fairies doing all the hard work, the dumb shit.” “I’m sorry. What did your mum say? She must be devastated.” Abbey growled, and took another slug. “She says she’s glad he’s gone; that he and the grandkids deserve a fresh start somewhere nice.