City Beautiful movement

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The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

A remarkable series of expositions followed the Chicago fair-the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in 1901 (where President McKinley was shot), the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle in 1910, and the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 1915, among others. They served as demonstration projects for a manner of heroic urban planning that would evolve into the City Beautiful movement in America, a concerted effort to bring focus and unity where chaos, visual squalor, or monotony had reigned, and to do it on a scale not seen since the Baroque period. The City Beautiful movement might be viewed as just another architectural fad. And given its rather short life span of two decades, it probably was, though it left us with some of our most beautiful and enduring public monuments. lVorld Wall. effectively swept it away. In a demoralized Western' world, classicism, and all the "eternal verities" it supposedly symbol­ ized, stood discredited.

Such towns were made up of so-called "cracker cottages," wood-framed dwellings with deep roof overhangs, ample windows, and broad porches, designed for ventilation and shade in a hot climate. Duany and Plater-Zyberk, then in their early thirties, had become obsessed with classic town planning of the early twentieth century, especially as practiced in England by Raymond Unwin and in America by John Nolen. Unwin and Nolen had raised town planning to a high art in the days of the City Beautiful movement. What's more, their ideas actually got built. Nolen designed hundreds of major civic projects, including Madison, the Wisconsin state capital. Automobiles entered B E T T E R P L A C E S the scene at the height of their careers and they found ways to accom­ modate them without compromising their standards of good civic de­ sign. "Urban planning reached a level of competence in the 1920s that was absolutely mind-boggling," Duany told me. 3 "We're not up to their ankles.

. , 221, 222 anathyrosis construction, 64 "animatronic" puppets, 225 Annapolis, Md., 258 anti-urban bias, 39, 156 Arab Oil Embargo, 108-9, 195, 273 arboretums, 158 Arcadian ideal, 42-43, 56 architecture, 33, 34, 59 Adam style of, 152 "aliveness" and, 252 anathyrosis construction and, 64 arboretums and, 158 balloon-frame construction and, 54, 161-63 "bathing rooms" and, 160 Bauhaus and, 71-73 Beaux Arts, 62-64 City Beautiful movement and, 67 Columbian Exposition and, 61-66 corporate, 81-82 "deadness" and, 252 factory, 67-70 "follies" and, 157 Frank Lloyd Wright and, 164-65 Georgian, 150-53 Gothic, 156-57 Grecian, 42 Greek Revival and, 153-56 International Style of, 73-76 of Los Angeles, Calif. , 207, 209-10 lost skills of, 245-46 mass production and, 163-64 neoclassical, 76 pattern language and, 249-53 Postmodern, 81-84 I N D E X architecture (cont.) in postwar era, 78-80 Purism and, 72-73 Radiant City concept and, 73, 78-80 Railroad Romanesque, 62 Romanticism and, 152-53 in Seaside, Fla. , 253-57 Shingle Style of, 63, 243 skyscrapers and, 65, 66, 75, 80 socialism and, 70-71 Spanish Colonial style of, 209 structural steel and, 65, 66 tenements and, 36 Traditional Neighborhood Devel­ opment and, 253-60 Victorian, 159 villas and, 158-59 Arendt, RandalL 262-64, 266, 267 Armour Institute, 77 Arroyo Seco Parkway (Los Angeles, Calif. ), 212 art, 34, 123 civic, 66�7, 113 decorative, 72, 73 industrialism and, 40-41 socialism and, 70-71 Art Deco, 72 assembly line, 89, 92, 191 AT&T Building (New York, N .


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

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agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Here and in the chapters to follow, the 1911 mapping of the city’s streets, buildings, and sewer and water lines is taken as definitive for 1910–16. See Cassius W. Kelly, ed., Atlas of New Haven (Boston: Walker, 1911). 73. Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted, “Report of the Civic Improvement Committee” (New Haven Civic Improvement Committee, 1910). 74. The City Beautiful Movement crested at about this time. On its high-water mark, see Daniel H. Bennett and Edward H. Burnham, Plan of Chicago (1909) (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993). See also William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989). 75. Gilbert and Olmsted, “Report of the Civic Improvement Committee,” 13 –14. 76. In making these estimations, I have done what I suppose the 1910 researchers to have done. This is to assume a linear rate of growth over the Census interval during which the city passed from fewer than 108,000 to more than 108,000, then to place the date at the appropriate year.

To timidity, to ‘the weak hand of uncertain purpose’ to obstinacy and selfishness, as well as to the absence of a principle, do cities owe the insignificance of many of their streets and thoroughfares.”18 This was a root-and-branch rejection of the political regime that Frank Rice and Isaac Ullman were running, a fact which would limit the practical impact of Seymour’s initiative on the city’s future. Seymour’s view was derivative of the City Beautiful movement then at high tide, and this vision harked back to the pre-industrial (or by 1910 anti-industrial) vision that will be recalled from Amos Doolittle’s account of New Haven in 1824 (Chapter 2). Thus did architect Cass Gilbert congratulate New Haveners on having inherited something as beautiful 80 F A B R I C O F E N T E R P R I S E as the original Green, and warn them about the old city having been “encroached upon in recent years by so-called ‘modern improvements’ and buildings . . . erected regardless of the environment and without harmony of style.”19 At a public meeting, called in response by then-mayor John P.

The one clearly defined case study of possibly transformative policy in Rice’s reign appeared in the issuance of the report on improvements issued at the end of his first year in office. In December 1910 Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted’s Report of the Civic Improvement Committee found its way to Rice’s desk. This was a selfconfident document funded by the most prominent families in the city and backed intellectually by the national City Beautiful movement.27 The sponsors of the project—contributors of $100 each—were a who’s who of the city’s business and intellectual elite. The list began with Governor Rollin Woodruff, Eli Whitney III, and Isaac Ullman and ran to multiple representatives of leading families such as the Farnams, Englishes, Pardees, and Trowbridges. Among ninety-three “specific recommendations and suggestions” on subjects large and small, the report proposed the following transformational changes in the city of New Haven: 205 U R B A N I S M • Reworking the railroad infrastructure • Giving city government control of the harbor • Limiting building heights, so as to even out development of commercial construction • Creating a grand downtown thoroughfare and a modest subway beneath the nine squares • Creating a railroad station plaza with something resembling the Washington Mall running from Union Station to the near edge of the commercial core of downtown • Widening major street rights-of-way between 85 and 100 feet • Instituting a systematic plan to reduce automotive and trolley congestion in the central business district • Separating storm and sanitary sewers • Greatly expanding the park system • Establishing playgrounds within five minutes’ walk of every home • Eliminating rear tenement housing The mayor did his best to ignore the document.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

City planners wisely advocated the separation of such factories from residential areas, with dramatic results. Cities such as London, Paris, and Barcelona, which in the mid-nineteenth century had been virtually unfit for human habitation, were transformed within decades into national treasures. Life expectancies rose significantly, and the planners, fairly enough, were hailed as heroes. The successes of turn-of-the-century planning, represented in America by the City Beautiful movement, became the foundation of a new profession, and ever since, planners have repeatedly attempted to relive that moment of glory by separating everything from everything else. This segregation, once applied only to incompatible uses, is now applied to every use. A typical contemporary zoning code has several dozen land-use designations; not only is housing separated from industry but low-density housing is separated from medium-density housing, which is separated from high-density housing.

Real estate developers, whom Americans entrust to build their communities, adhere to regulations set by government policy. If the public sector does not actively involve itself, with vision and power, private action cannot be anything but self-interested and chaotic. This state of affairs may seem inevitable, but the first quarter of the twentieth century provides evidence of an alternative. The City Beautiful movement was a period of urban rebuilding and new-town construction in which civic pride, beauty, and community were a consensus agenda, promoted to an optimistic populace by wise leaders at both the local and federal levels. Of course, some things have changed since the enlightened building of that progressive era—the development of new transportation and communication technologies, enormous social flux, and the globalization of markets—but our governments would do well to acknowledge that these changes have only intensified the need for properly designed communities.

Its intellectual underpinnings can be found in the turn-of-the-(twentieth-)century writings of Ebenezer Howard, Raymond Unwin, Camillo Sitte, Hermann Josef Stübben, and the other wonderfully unspecialized planners and designers of the progressive era. They understood that the physical creation of community was the work of generalists, to be undertaken by artists and scholars rather than by single-minded engineers and technocrats. Their legacy, the sparkling downtowns of the City Beautiful movement and the elegant suburbs of the teens and twenties, appropriately redefined town planning as Civic Art.dx Indeed, we are equally indebted to the places that these planners created, many of which were brought to our attention by Robert A. M. Stern and John Massengale’s early 1980s book and exhibition, The Anglo-American Suburb. Our excitement upon first discovering these neglected masterpieces is difficult to imagine now, but at the time it was quite palpable, as many of them had been discredited or simply ignored by the dominant modernist ethos.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

The clearest inspiration for the Concourse was Paris’s Champs-Élysées, which is shorter but wider than the Grand Concourse; at its widest point, north of 161st Street, the Grand Concourse is “only” 180 feet from curb to curb. The Champs-Élysées has occupied the same Parisian acreage since the 1600s, but the Grand Concourse is very much a nineteenth-century creation. Like the Good Roads Movement, it was a child of the 1890s, one of America’s purest examples of what came to be known as the “City Beautiful” movement, a reformist crusade marketed as a Progressive answer to the evils of late-nineteenth-century cities: tenements, slums, and corruption. Which was, as it happens, also how Progressives saw the automobile itself. Like other tributes to the reform-minded movement, such as the World’s Columbian Exposition that dominated the Chicago skyline in 1893, Washington’s Capitol Mall, and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia, the Grand Concourse featured extremely wide roads, including a central thoroughfare fifty feet wide, two thirty-five-foot-wide access roads, eight-foot-wide medians, and twenty-foot-wide sidewalks, all of them heavily planted with gardens.

Like other tributes to the reform-minded movement, such as the World’s Columbian Exposition that dominated the Chicago skyline in 1893, Washington’s Capitol Mall, and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia, the Grand Concourse featured extremely wide roads, including a central thoroughfare fifty feet wide, two thirty-five-foot-wide access roads, eight-foot-wide medians, and twenty-foot-wide sidewalks, all of them heavily planted with gardens. It also shared with them a common history of replacing poor neighborhoods by the simple expedient of moving their occupants, well, anywhere else. Whatever its built-in contradictions—the most beautiful cities, it turns out, aren’t always the most livable, and roads wider than a football field aren’t what you might call pedestrian friendly—the City Beautiful movement, like the Grand Concourse itself, was unashamedly urban. Construction on the Grand Concourse began in 1894 and finished fifteen years later, in 1909. By the 1930s, with a subway line running under the boulevard, the three-hundred-plus neo-Tudor, Art Deco, and Art Moderne apartment buildings that lined it had become an extremely attractive place for immigrant families that had graduated from entry-level neighborhoods like the Lower East Side or Bensonhurst.

See Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority; Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority Carter, Jimmy, 137 Central Park, and justification for reopening to traffic, 48–51 Charleston, South Carolina, 180, 242 transportation network in, 166–170 Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA), 168 Chattanooga, Tennessee, 190–191 Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA), 190–191 Chicago, Illinois, 85, 191, 200 walkability in, 148–151 Chicago Department of Transportation, 148 Chicago Municipal Code of 1922, 151 Chicago Pedestrian Plan, 148 Chicago-to-Miami Dixie Highway, 14 China, cars in, 80, 83 Cities decline of, 19–22, 33, 44 European, 44, 103, 176 and limited-access roads, 20–21, 29n, 31, 33, 35, 50, 61–62 See also Urban living City: Rediscovering the Center (Whyte), 143 City Beautiful movement, 27–28, 29 The City in History (Mumford), 20 CityMapper, 195 Civil rights, 36, 214 Civit, Adria, 121–122 Clean Air Act of 1970, 50 Columbia, Maryland, 159 Columbia University, Earth Institute, 235 Columbus, Ohio, 242 walkability in, 131–134 Columbus Healthy Places program, 132–134 Community, and traffic, connection between, 100–101 Community density, 242 and political choice, 224–225, 227 and prosperity, 105 Commuting by car and commuting time, increase in, 80–82 cost of, 103–104 and physical and mental stress, 93–94 versus walking or public transit, 93–97 Commuting effect, 81 Complete Streets, 131–132, 151–152.


pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Throughout American history, political leaders and groups have used Washington, as both city and capital, to fulfill national goals, set an example, provide a prototype.7 Americans have marched in Washington seeking women’s suffrage, veterans’ bonuses, and to stop the Vietnam War.8 Southern members of Congress correctly recognized that intense efforts to abolish slavery in the District signified a national struggle, prompting them to redouble efforts to protect slavery in the border states.9 During Reconstruction, Congress used the District as a “proving ground” for national legislation.10 After World War II, the District’s racial segregation tarnished America’s democratic ideals, and Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both regarded desegregation of the District as a Cold War necessity.11 Washington has also served as a model and laboratory for urban planning and practices. After the Civil War, the city’s business elite tapped Congressional interest in creating a world-class capital to modernize the city’s infrastructure.12 In 1902, Washington became a showcase for the City Beautiful movement through the McMillan Plan, which sought to create “the capital of a new kind of America—clean, efficient, orderly and, above all, powerful.” In 1926, Congress created the National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Responsible for providing a coordinated plan for metropolitan Washington, Commission members have also historically recognized their responsibility to make the capital region “worthy of the nation.”13 In the 1930s, New Deal officials used Washington to devise national public housing programs; postwar redevelopment and slum razing in Washington was also supposed to serve as a national model.14 In light of this history as political terrain and potent symbol, it’s not surprising that Washington served as a measure of national preparedness for nuclear war.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

In the messy realm where public life, leisure, and politics collide, enlightened talk in the Palais-Royal about the right for all to enjoy happiness contributed to a revolution that would eventually see Louis Philippe II lose his head. Moral Renovations Since the Enlightenment, architectural and city planning movements have increasingly promised to nurture the mind and soul of society. Members of the City Beautiful movement were explicit in their assurances. Daniel Burnham, designer of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, proclaimed that beauty itself could reform society and conjure new virtue from citizens. His showpiece was a model city of gleaming white Beaux Arts monuments scoured clean of any signs of poverty. For the rest of central Chicago, Burnham proposed a City Beautiful: an overlay of grand avenues and elegant buildings that would restore to the city “a lost visual and aesthetic harmony, thereby creating the physical prerequisite for the emergence of a harmonious social order.”


pages: 760 words: 218,087

The Pentagon: A History by Steve Vogel

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, cuban missile crisis, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

The builders of the federal city had followed the general layout drawn by the French engineer, but over the course of the nineteenth century much of the grandeur envisioned in the plan was marred by a hodgepodge of buildings, depots, carriageways, and clusters of trees that filled in open spaces and destroyed vistas. Celebrations of Washington’s centennial in 1900 triggered a rediscovery of L’Enfant and his vision for a monumental city. L’Enfant’s champions were inspired by the burgeoning “City Beautiful” movement then coming into fashion in architectural and civic circles around the country, the notion that the beautification of a city could boost personal morals, cultural values, and economic growth. In this vein, the Senate created the McMillan Commission, an illustrious committee including architectural luminaries such as Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. The commission issued a momentous report in 1902 that recommended Washington be restored in accordance with L’Enfant’s vision.

The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs

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City Beautiful movement, Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

South End 206 West End 272, 287, 315 Boswell, James 143 Breines, Simon 346 Bridgman, Thomas 233 Bronx (NY) i49ff, 175, 204 Bronx Park 90 Brooklyn (NY) 46, 76, 77, 175, I96ff, 203, 262, 442 Brooklyn Heights 203, 207, 211 Buffalo (NY) 393 Bumham, Daniel 245 Buses 345ff, 365, 367 Caracas 399 Carnegie Hall (NY) 1675, 254 Cather, Willa 247 Celler Dwellers' Tenant Emergency Committee 136 Centers of use 130, 377, 386 Central business districts 165 Central heating 303 Central Park (NY) 90, 109, 265, 269 Central Park West (street) (NY) i78ff Chatham Village (Pittsburgh housing project) 64ff, 73, 80, 84 Cheever, John 261 Chessmen i67ff, 17 iff, 174 Chicago 5, 15, 44ff, no, 114, 192, 400, 426 Back-of-the-Yards 131, 132, 133, 138, 193, 211, 271, 297ff, 308, 424 crime 32 Hyde Park-Kenwood 44ff, 192 Children, see Interior courtyards; Parks; Safety Cincinnati 94, 169, 348 Cities (defined) 30, 143 Citizens' Union 420 City as a whole neighborhood ii7ff City Beautiful (movement) 245, 93, 170, 374 City planning (Conventional) chap i; 46, 6;, 74, 78, 84, 88, 90, ii4ff, 156, 171, 177, 183, 202, 2i9ff, 241, 258, 290, 32iff, 373ff, 408,4175,435,443 Civic and cultural centers 4, 24, 101, 161, i68ff, 172, 258, 261, 350, 393, 402ff Clay, Grady 161,195 Cleveland 24, no, 204 Code enforcement 207, 3035, 316, 333 Codes 331, 333, see also Zoning Cohen, Stuart 196 Colan, Mr. 66 Columbia Ejcposition (Chicago) 24,173 Columbia University 109, see also New York, Momingside Heights Columbus Avenue (NY) i78ff Comfort stations 70 Commerce, see Stores Index [451 Committee of Neighbors to Get the Clock on Jefferson Market Courthouse Started 136, 387 Communication (for public contact) chap 3; 131,411 Company town 18,444 Competitive diversion 25iff Concentration, see Density Connecticut General Life Insurance Co. 145-6 Consolidated Edison Tower (NY) 386 Constable, Stuart 95 Consumers' Union 118 Coordination, administrative 4175 Corlears Hook (NY housing project) 48,71,94,108 Comacchia, Joe 39, 51, 60 Covington (Ky) 1695 Credit blacklisting 11, 127, 295ff, 314,326,332 Cresswell, H.


pages: 603 words: 186,210

Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

When the railroad bypassed it in 1880, Santa Fe was forced to do what so many American cities would attempt a century later after losing their manufacturing base—it reinvented itself as a place to visit, a getaway, an escape. It was becoming a haven for health seekers, artists, writers, archaeology buffs, nonpracticing cowboys and cowgirls, and, of course, tourists. Some saw it as a little Paris, a place where the light was also “just different”—but in a distinctly American way. In fact, as a response to the City Beautiful movement that was sweeping America’s urban areas, Santa Fe created its own nickname: “The City Different.” Santa Fe, more than any other place in the Southwest, already offered what the Grand Canyon had lacked: “something conventional,” in Ford’s words, for tourists to do. It had wonderful shopping, restaurants, and galleries in its small, soulful adobe downtown—which was kept soulful and adobe by a 1912 city plan urging architects to employ the Pueblo Revival and Territorial styles exclusively, so the city would always appear unified and in-scale.