City Beautiful movement

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pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Here and in the chapters to follow, the 1911 mapping of the city’s streets, buildings, and sewer and water lines is taken as definitive for 1910–16. See Cassius W. Kelly, ed., Atlas of New Haven (Boston: Walker, 1911). 73. Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted, “Report of the Civic Improvement Committee” (New Haven Civic Improvement Committee, 1910). 74. The City Beautiful Movement crested at about this time. On its high-water mark, see Daniel H. Bennett and Edward H. Burnham, Plan of Chicago (1909) (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993). See also William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989). 75. Gilbert and Olmsted, “Report of the Civic Improvement Committee,” 13 –14. 76. In making these estimations, I have done what I suppose the 1910 researchers to have done. This is to assume a linear rate of growth over the Census interval during which the city passed from fewer than 108,000 to more than 108,000, then to place the date at the appropriate year.

To timidity, to ‘the weak hand of uncertain purpose’ to obstinacy and selfishness, as well as to the absence of a principle, do cities owe the insignificance of many of their streets and thoroughfares.”18 This was a root-and-branch rejection of the political regime that Frank Rice and Isaac Ullman were running, a fact which would limit the practical impact of Seymour’s initiative on the city’s future. Seymour’s view was derivative of the City Beautiful movement then at high tide, and this vision harked back to the pre-industrial (or by 1910 anti-industrial) vision that will be recalled from Amos Doolittle’s account of New Haven in 1824 (Chapter 2). Thus did architect Cass Gilbert congratulate New Haveners on having inherited something as beautiful 80 F A B R I C O F E N T E R P R I S E as the original Green, and warn them about the old city having been “encroached upon in recent years by so-called ‘modern improvements’ and buildings . . . erected regardless of the environment and without harmony of style.”19 At a public meeting, called in response by then-mayor John P.

The one clearly defined case study of possibly transformative policy in Rice’s reign appeared in the issuance of the report on improvements issued at the end of his first year in office. In December 1910 Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted’s Report of the Civic Improvement Committee found its way to Rice’s desk. This was a selfconfident document funded by the most prominent families in the city and backed intellectually by the national City Beautiful movement.27 The sponsors of the project—contributors of $100 each—were a who’s who of the city’s business and intellectual elite. The list began with Governor Rollin Woodruff, Eli Whitney III, and Isaac Ullman and ran to multiple representatives of leading families such as the Farnams, Englishes, Pardees, and Trowbridges. Among ninety-three “specific recommendations and suggestions” on subjects large and small, the report proposed the following transformational changes in the city of New Haven: 205 U R B A N I S M • Reworking the railroad infrastructure • Giving city government control of the harbor • Limiting building heights, so as to even out development of commercial construction • Creating a grand downtown thoroughfare and a modest subway beneath the nine squares • Creating a railroad station plaza with something resembling the Washington Mall running from Union Station to the near edge of the commercial core of downtown • Widening major street rights-of-way between 85 and 100 feet • Instituting a systematic plan to reduce automotive and trolley congestion in the central business district • Separating storm and sanitary sewers • Greatly expanding the park system • Establishing playgrounds within five minutes’ walk of every home • Eliminating rear tenement housing The mayor did his best to ignore the document.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

City planners wisely advocated the separation of such factories from residential areas, with dramatic results. Cities such as London, Paris, and Barcelona, which in the mid-nineteenth century had been virtually unfit for human habitation, were transformed within decades into national treasures. Life expectancies rose significantly, and the planners, fairly enough, were hailed as heroes. The successes of turn-of-the-century planning, represented in America by the City Beautiful movement, became the foundation of a new profession, and ever since, planners have repeatedly attempted to relive that moment of glory by separating everything from everything else. This segregation, once applied only to incompatible uses, is now applied to every use. A typical contemporary zoning code has several dozen land-use designations; not only is housing separated from industry but low-density housing is separated from medium-density housing, which is separated from high-density housing.

Real estate developers, whom Americans entrust to build their communities, adhere to regulations set by government policy. If the public sector does not actively involve itself, with vision and power, private action cannot be anything but self-interested and chaotic. This state of affairs may seem inevitable, but the first quarter of the twentieth century provides evidence of an alternative. The City Beautiful movement was a period of urban rebuilding and new-town construction in which civic pride, beauty, and community were a consensus agenda, promoted to an optimistic populace by wise leaders at both the local and federal levels. Of course, some things have changed since the enlightened building of that progressive era—the development of new transportation and communication technologies, enormous social flux, and the globalization of markets—but our governments would do well to acknowledge that these changes have only intensified the need for properly designed communities.

Its intellectual underpinnings can be found in the turn-of-the-(twentieth-)century writings of Ebenezer Howard, Raymond Unwin, Camillo Sitte, Hermann Josef Stübben, and the other wonderfully unspecialized planners and designers of the progressive era. They understood that the physical creation of community was the work of generalists, to be undertaken by artists and scholars rather than by single-minded engineers and technocrats. Their legacy, the sparkling downtowns of the City Beautiful movement and the elegant suburbs of the teens and twenties, appropriately redefined town planning as Civic Art.dx Indeed, we are equally indebted to the places that these planners created, many of which were brought to our attention by Robert A. M. Stern and John Massengale’s early 1980s book and exhibition, The Anglo-American Suburb. Our excitement upon first discovering these neglected masterpieces is difficult to imagine now, but at the time it was quite palpable, as many of them had been discredited or simply ignored by the dominant modernist ethos.


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

A remarkable series of expositions followed the Chicago fair-the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in 1901 (where President McKinley was shot), the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle in 1910, and the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 1915, among others. They served as demonstration projects for a manner of heroic urban planning that would evolve into the City Beautiful movement in America, a concerted effort to bring focus and unity where chaos, visual squalor, or monotony had reigned, and to do it on a scale not seen since the Baroque period. The City Beautiful movement might be viewed as just another architectural fad. And given its rather short life span of two decades, it probably was, though it left us with some of our most beautiful and enduring public monuments. lVorld Wall. effectively swept it away. In a demoralized Western' world, classicism, and all the "eternal verities" it supposedly symbol­ ized, stood discredited.

Such towns were made up of so-called "cracker cottages," wood-framed dwellings with deep roof overhangs, ample windows, and broad porches, designed for ventilation and shade in a hot climate. Duany and Plater-Zyberk, then in their early thirties, had become obsessed with classic town planning of the early twentieth century, especially as practiced in England by Raymond Unwin and in America by John Nolen. Unwin and Nolen had raised town planning to a high art in the days of the City Beautiful movement. What's more, their ideas actually got built. Nolen designed hundreds of major civic projects, including Madison, the Wisconsin state capital. Automobiles entered B E T T E R P L A C E S the scene at the height of their careers and they found ways to accom­ modate them without compromising their standards of good civic de­ sign. "Urban planning reached a level of competence in the 1920s that was absolutely mind-boggling," Duany told me. 3 "We're not up to their ankles.

. , 221, 222 anathyrosis construction, 64 "animatronic" puppets, 225 Annapolis, Md., 258 anti-urban bias, 39, 156 Arab Oil Embargo, 108-9, 195, 273 arboretums, 158 Arcadian ideal, 42-43, 56 architecture, 33, 34, 59 Adam style of, 152 "aliveness" and, 252 anathyrosis construction and, 64 arboretums and, 158 balloon-frame construction and, 54, 161-63 "bathing rooms" and, 160 Bauhaus and, 71-73 Beaux Arts, 62-64 City Beautiful movement and, 67 Columbian Exposition and, 61-66 corporate, 81-82 "deadness" and, 252 factory, 67-70 "follies" and, 157 Frank Lloyd Wright and, 164-65 Georgian, 150-53 Gothic, 156-57 Grecian, 42 Greek Revival and, 153-56 International Style of, 73-76 of Los Angeles, Calif. , 207, 209-10 lost skills of, 245-46 mass production and, 163-64 neoclassical, 76 pattern language and, 249-53 Postmodern, 81-84 I N D E X architecture (cont.) in postwar era, 78-80 Purism and, 72-73 Radiant City concept and, 73, 78-80 Railroad Romanesque, 62 Romanticism and, 152-53 in Seaside, Fla. , 253-57 Shingle Style of, 63, 243 skyscrapers and, 65, 66, 75, 80 socialism and, 70-71 Spanish Colonial style of, 209 structural steel and, 65, 66 tenements and, 36 Traditional Neighborhood Devel­ opment and, 253-60 Victorian, 159 villas and, 158-59 Arendt, RandalL 262-64, 266, 267 Armour Institute, 77 Arroyo Seco Parkway (Los Angeles, Calif. ), 212 art, 34, 123 civic, 66�7, 113 decorative, 72, 73 industrialism and, 40-41 socialism and, 70-71 Art Deco, 72 assembly line, 89, 92, 191 AT&T Building (New York, N .


pages: 431 words: 106,435

How the Post Office Created America: A History by Winifred Gallagher

British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, white flight, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Some of its greatest achievements during its zenith were particular boons for the long-underserved agrarian population, but other important advances benefited rural and urban Americans alike. 13 REDEFINING “POSTAL” JUST AS THE POST in its golden age did much to develop rural America’s physical and social landscape, it also contributed to the progressive City Beautiful movement, which flourished between 1890 and 1920. Its sponsors attempted to counter urban ugliness and squalor with grand architecture that glorified the public commons and fostered civic pride. The palatial new post offices designed for big cities combined beauty, utility, and grandeur to celebrate both the government’s commitment to the people’s good and the Post Office Department’s importance to civic life. No less than Egyptian pyramids or French cathedrals, these heroic American buildings illustrate an institution’s peak and a culture’s moment in time. Like the new national parks, the buildings of the City Beautiful movement were aesthetic antidotes to the Industrial Revolution’s environmental toxins.

• • • IF THERE’S A PHYSICAL SYMBOL of what the combination of the post at its peak, the mighty railroad, and the Progressive Era’s politics had achieved by the early twentieth century, it must be the James A. Farley Post Office, in New York City. (First known as the Pennsylvania Terminal, then the General Post Office Building, it was later renamed for President Franklin Roosevelt’s powerful postmaster general.) This treasure of the City Beautiful movement, built in 1912 by the prestigious architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, proclaims itself to be the epicenter of the busiest, most important city in the United States—perhaps the world. The building sprawls across two full blocks of prime Manhattan real estate, on Eighth Avenue between 31st and 33rd Streets; its five stories wrap around a great central courtyard that flooded its work spaces with glorious natural light.

., 270 Butterfield, Daniel, 125 Butterfield, John, 125, 127, 172 Butterfield, Malinda, 125 Butterfield Overland Mail Company, 3, 124–27, 130, 131, 137, 172 Calhoun, John, 61, 76 California, 120–24, 130–31, 137, 139 California Penny Post Company, 121–22 Campbell, John, 18–19 cards: greeting, 96–99 postcards, 212–13 Carnegie, Andrew, 184 Carney, William, 158 Carson, Kit, 115 Carter, Jimmy, 263 censorship, 76, 143–44, 211–12, 219, 237 Central Overland California and Pike’s Peak Express Company, 130–31, 137 Charles II, King, 15 Chase, Salmon, 149 Chicago, Ill., 4, 248–49 Chicago Tribune, 237 China, 100, 238 Citizens’ Stamp Advisory Committee, 263 City Beautiful movement, 201–2, 214 Civil Service Commission, 192–93, 196 Civil War, 3, 29, 42, 59, 76, 113, 125, 127, 130, 137, 141–48, 153–56, 158, 159–60, 173, 174, 182, 183, 198–99, 211 soldiers’ letters in, 145, 147–48, 150 U.S. Custom House and, 103 Clark, Harrison W., 194 Clay, Henry, 84 Claypole, George W., 157 Clift, Montgomery, 149 Clinton, George, 231 Cochise, 127 Cody, William “Buffalo Bill,” 132, 138–39 Cohen, Robert, 259 Collins, E.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

The clearest inspiration for the Concourse was Paris’s Champs-Élysées, which is shorter but wider than the Grand Concourse; at its widest point, north of 161st Street, the Grand Concourse is “only” 180 feet from curb to curb. The Champs-Élysées has occupied the same Parisian acreage since the 1600s, but the Grand Concourse is very much a nineteenth-century creation. Like the Good Roads Movement, it was a child of the 1890s, one of America’s purest examples of what came to be known as the “City Beautiful” movement, a reformist crusade marketed as a Progressive answer to the evils of late-nineteenth-century cities: tenements, slums, and corruption. Which was, as it happens, also how Progressives saw the automobile itself. Like other tributes to the reform-minded movement, such as the World’s Columbian Exposition that dominated the Chicago skyline in 1893, Washington’s Capitol Mall, and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia, the Grand Concourse featured extremely wide roads, including a central thoroughfare fifty feet wide, two thirty-five-foot-wide access roads, eight-foot-wide medians, and twenty-foot-wide sidewalks, all of them heavily planted with gardens.

Like other tributes to the reform-minded movement, such as the World’s Columbian Exposition that dominated the Chicago skyline in 1893, Washington’s Capitol Mall, and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia, the Grand Concourse featured extremely wide roads, including a central thoroughfare fifty feet wide, two thirty-five-foot-wide access roads, eight-foot-wide medians, and twenty-foot-wide sidewalks, all of them heavily planted with gardens. It also shared with them a common history of replacing poor neighborhoods by the simple expedient of moving their occupants, well, anywhere else. Whatever its built-in contradictions—the most beautiful cities, it turns out, aren’t always the most livable, and roads wider than a football field aren’t what you might call pedestrian friendly—the City Beautiful movement, like the Grand Concourse itself, was unashamedly urban. Construction on the Grand Concourse began in 1894 and finished fifteen years later, in 1909. By the 1930s, with a subway line running under the boulevard, the three-hundred-plus neo-Tudor, Art Deco, and Art Moderne apartment buildings that lined it had become an extremely attractive place for immigrant families that had graduated from entry-level neighborhoods like the Lower East Side or Bensonhurst.

See Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority; Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority Carter, Jimmy, 137 Central Park, and justification for reopening to traffic, 48–51 Charleston, South Carolina, 180, 242 transportation network in, 166–170 Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA), 168 Chattanooga, Tennessee, 190–191 Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA), 190–191 Chicago, Illinois, 85, 191, 200 walkability in, 148–151 Chicago Department of Transportation, 148 Chicago Municipal Code of 1922, 151 Chicago Pedestrian Plan, 148 Chicago-to-Miami Dixie Highway, 14 China, cars in, 80, 83 Cities decline of, 19–22, 33, 44 European, 44, 103, 176 and limited-access roads, 20–21, 29n, 31, 33, 35, 50, 61–62 See also Urban living City: Rediscovering the Center (Whyte), 143 City Beautiful movement, 27–28, 29 The City in History (Mumford), 20 CityMapper, 195 Civil rights, 36, 214 Civit, Adria, 121–122 Clean Air Act of 1970, 50 Columbia, Maryland, 159 Columbia University, Earth Institute, 235 Columbus, Ohio, 242 walkability in, 131–134 Columbus Healthy Places program, 132–134 Community, and traffic, connection between, 100–101 Community density, 242 and political choice, 224–225, 227 and prosperity, 105 Commuting by car and commuting time, increase in, 80–82 cost of, 103–104 and physical and mental stress, 93–94 versus walking or public transit, 93–97 Commuting effect, 81 Complete Streets, 131–132, 151–152.


pages: 162 words: 61,105

Eyewitness Top 10 Los Angeles by Catherine Gerber

Berlin Wall, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, East Village, Frank Gehry, haute couture, Mahatma Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, transcontinental railway

The institute evolved from an arts and crafts school founded in 1891 by the famous Amos G. Throop, changing its focus to science after astronomer George E. Hale became a board member in 1907. d Map F2 • 1200 E California Blvd • 626-395-6811 • Campus open anytime • Free guided tours: 2pm Mon–Fri (no tours during the winter break & on rainy days) • www.caltech.edu Civic Center * Pasadena This grand complex was inspired by the early 20th-century City Beautiful movement. It Rose Bowl 88 Sign up for DK’s email newsletter on traveldk.com Exploring Historic Pasadena Morning consists of three European-style Beaux-Arts structures stretching along a central axis – the Main Library, the Civic Auditorium, and the City Hall. Architect Myron Hunt designed the public library. d Map F1 • City Hall, 100 N Garfield Ave, 626-744-4000 • Civic Auditorium, 300 E Green St, 626-449-7360 • Library, 285 E Walnut St, 626-744-4052 Street Bridge ( Colorado The graceful arches of this restored 1913 bridge straddle the Arroyo Seco (Spanish for “dry brook”), a natural ravine that comes down from the San Gabriel Mountains.

Onizuka Memorial 78 ATMs 141 Audiences Unlimited 58, 140 Autopia 31 Avalon 36 Avalon Casino 36 Avalon Hotel 147 Avenues of Art & Design 102, 104 Avila Adobe 20, 21 Avila, Don Francisco 20 B B&Bs 151 Babe & Ricky’s Inn 61 Baltimore, David 88 Banana Republic 53 Bang Improv Studios 55 banking 141 Banning, Phineas 39, 127 Banning Residence Museum 127 The Bar at the Hotel Bel-Air 61 Bar Marmont 65, 105, 106 Barnes & Noble 135 Barneys New York 65 Barnsdall, Aline 97 bars 60–61, 100, 106 Barnsdall Park 40 Basketball Courts 122 Beach Architecture 122 beach hotels 145 Beach House at Hermosa Beach 145 beaches 44–5 Beachwood Drive 95 Beard Papa 10 Beauty Bar 100 Behind-the-Scenes-Tour 128 Bel-Air 9, 110–115 Believe in the Magic 31 Belmont Brewing Co 131 Belmont Shore 129 Belvedere 115 Bergamot Station Arts Center 117 Best Western Hollywood Hills 149 Best Western Jamaica Bay Inn 145 Best Western Marina Pacific Hotel & Suites 145 Beverly Center 53 Beverly Garland Holiday Inn 149 Beverly Hills 8, 42, 110–115 Beverly Hills Civic Center 111 Beverly Hills Hotel 111, 146 Beverly Hills, Westwood, & Bel-Air 110–115 map 110 restaurants 115 tourist attractions 114 Beverly Laurel Motor Hotel 148 Beverly Wilshire 144 Biddy Mason Park 107 Big Blue Bus 137 Big Red Cars 25, 87 Big Thunder Railroad 31 Bijan 114 Bing Theater at LACMA 57 Bissell House 151 Bistro 45 93 Blue Bayou 30 Blue Café 61 Blue Line 137 Blue on Blue 61 boat tours 138 Bob Baker Marionette Theater 51 Bodhi Tree Bookstore 108 Bonsai Court 23 Book Soup 65 Boone Gallery 23 Border Grill 125 Borofsky, Jonathan 78 Boulle, André-Charles 13 Bowl Museum 95 Bradbury Building 41 Brewery Arts Complex 84, 85 The Bridge 56 Broadway Historic Theater District 77 Bronson Caves 29 budget hotels & hostels 148 budget travel 140 Bullocks Wilshire Building 84 Bunker Hill Steps 73, 77 Bunny Museum 63 buses 136, 137 business hotels 150 C Cabrillo Beach 45, 124 Cabrillo Marine Aquarium 45, 51, 127, 129 Cadillac Hotel 145 Café Santorini 89, 93 Café Stella 101 Cal Mar Hotel Suites 149 Calder, Alexander 43, 78 California Adventure 30, 32, 33, 34, 50 California African American Museum 81, 83 California Institute of Technology (CalTech) 88 Cinerama Dome 96 CineSpace 100 City Beautiful movement 88 City Hall Beverly Hills 111 Downtown 72 Pasadena 89 City Pass Hollywood 140 CityWalk 27 Ciudad 66, 79 Civic Auditorium 89 Cloughertys, the 63 Club Spaceland 61 Coast Starlight 136 Cobras & Matadors 109 Coca-Cola Bottling Plant 77 The Cole House 91 Cole’s 79 The Comedy & Magic Club 55 Comedy Store 55, 105 Conga Room 19, 60, 100 consulates 135 Cooper, Alice 96 “Corporate Head” 78 Court of Religions 43 Crafts & Folk Art Museum (CAFAM) 105 Creative World 81 credit cards 141 crime-prone areas 139 Critter Country 30 Crossroads of the World 96 Crunch Gym 47 Crustacean 115 Curtains up for California!


pages: 716 words: 192,143

The Enlightened Capitalists by James O'Toole

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, desegregation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, end world poverty, equal pay for equal work, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, means of production, Menlo Park, North Sea oil, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, Vanguard fund, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

For the rest of his life, Milton Hershey would concentrate on the chocolate business.4 Milton’s fascination with chocolate had begun just before he met Kitty, when he was an enthusiastic frequent attendant at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. There, awed by Daniel Burnham’s farsighted “White City” design of the fairgrounds and buildings, Milton became an early advocate of the era’s City Beautiful movement, vowing someday to create a model city for his employees with lush parks and wide boulevards. Furthermore, Milton enthusiastically embraced Burnham’s famous advice, “Make no small plans.” While in Chicago, it seems quite likely Milton also visited nearby Pullman, Illinois, where George Pullman provided housing for some twelve thousand of his railway-car factory workers and their families.5 While that company town was well planned and offered its residents many modern amenities, Pullman went far beyond being paternalistic in the benevolent mode of Robert Owen and William Lever.

There, beginning in 1903, he set about constructing a giant modern factory, one of the first to be air-conditioned. The factory offered workers large, clean restrooms equipped with showers and a bright lunchroom. Employee safety was stressed, and a nurse was always in attendance. Adjacent to the factory, he began work on a model town to house the thousands of men and women he envisaged hiring. Drawing inspiration from Lever’s Port Sunlight and Burnham’s City Beautiful movement, Hershey hired engineers, architects, landscape gardeners, and others to design a model town, draw up a street grid, and begin to lay its infrastructure. Hershey wanted the latest, best, and most beautiful of everything from sewer lines to community buildings. His well-planned town would have green open spaces, a public park, a zoo, a library, a swimming pool, and a hospital. All its two-story homes would have indoor plumbing, electricity, and central heating.

Penney and, 34–35 John Lewis Partnership, 120 manager partnerships, 35–37 Marks & Spencer and, 210 origins of, 35 Woolworths, 210 See also specific companies Chaparrel Steel, 286, 424 Chapman, William, 209, 223 Chappell, Kate, 360, 365, 366–67, 368, 372 Chappell, Tom, 342, 404, 428, 431 attempts to “do good while doing well,” 361–64, 365 awards and kudos, 368 Christian values and managerial philosophy, 360, 361, 428 company ownership and, 365, 368, 369–70 compared to De Pree, 365–66 contradictions of, 367–68 critics of, 373–74 intentionality of business virtue, 365 “the middle way” of pursuing “profit and the common good,” 368–70 motive for selling the business, 372 Ramblers Way, 372 sells to Colgate, 371–75, 395, 403, 427 The Soul of a Business, 361–62, 367–68 storytelling to convey company culture, 365–66 Tom’s of Maine and, 360–75 “Tom’s of Maine Statement of Beliefs,” 363 Charles V, Emperor, xxv, xxvi Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition, 76 Machinery Building, 77 Chick-fil-A, 464 child labor Asian subcontracting and, 203 fortunes built on, 23 J&J’s prohibition on, 148 Lever Bros. prohibition on, 57 Nike’s contractors and, 425 Owen’s reforms and, 13, 22–23 textile mills and, 3–4, 5–6, 12 Chouinard, Malinda, 402 Chouinard, Yves, 395, 404, 428 as billionaire, 403 as the “capitalist cat,” 403 critics of, 401 the “eminence green,” 401, 403 management practices, 402 Patagonia and, 400–403 Churchill, Winston, 59, 473 Ciepley, David, 434 Circle, The (Eggers), 449–50 Citigroup, 260 City Beautiful movement, 78 City National Bank, Miami, Fla., 44, 45 Clemens, Samuel, xxxii “The Gilded Age,” 31 Cleveland, Ohio, 418–19 Clif Bar & Company, 457 Clinton, Bill, 174 Close, Chuck, 322, 326–27 CoBank, 416 Cohen, Ben, 376–94, 426, 427, 428, 436, 464 background and personal life, 376–77 Cherry Garcia flavor, 387 company ownership and, 380, 436 discord and, 390 founding of Ben & Jerry’s, 377 handles sales of Ben & Jerry’s, 379 hires Fred “Chico” Lager, 381 learning the business, 377–79 as marketing maven, 379, 381, 389 social activism and, 387–88, 394, 451 social responsibility and, 383 Unilever and, 394 Cole, Margaret, 18 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 10 Colgate-Palmolive Company acquires Tom’s of Maine, 371–75, 392 short-termism of executives, 374 “social audit,” 372 traditional business model, 374 Collins, David, 168, 170, 172 Columbus, Ind., 313, 315 architects designing buildings for, 315 community relations Arco and, 312 Ben & Jerry’s and, 378, 383, 386, 387, 388, 393 Body Shop and, 351, 352, 359 CDC and, 250, 252 cooperatives and, 415 Friedman on, 439, 507n13 Hershey and, 83, 90 J&J and, 157, 161 John Lewis Partnership and, 122, 131, 132 Kodak and, 328 Levi Strauss and, 183–85, 200, 201–2 Lincoln Electric and, 110, 113, 116 Marks & Spencer and, 213 Nucor and, 273 Penney and, 46 SRC Holdings and, 409 SWA and, 296 Tom’s of Maine and, 362, 365, 366, 370, 371, 374 Unilever and, 66 Wegman’s Food Markets and, 397 Companies with a Conscience (Scott and Rothman), 497n29 competitive advantage economies of scale and, 37 employee benefits and, xlii ethical behavior and, xlii Kelleher and SWA’s culture, 295 Nucor’s “mini-mills,” 266 Penney’s and, 37–40, 48 social engagement activities as, 443 Condition of the Working Class in England, The (Engels), 5 Conniff, Richard, 467 Conscious Capitalism (CC) movement, xxxix, 452–56 “consensus management,” 126 Container Store, 455 contingent workforces, 473–76 Control Data Corporation (CDC), 243–63, 395, 424 acquisitions and diversifications, 247–48 antitrust suit against IBM, 245–46 Berg and management of, 257–58 City Venture Corporation created, 254 Commercial Credit Corporation and, 247, 260 community relations, 250, 252 Control Data Institute (CDI) learning centers, 255–56 Cray departs, 246 employee day-care center, 252–53 Employment Preparation Service created for training, 253–54 expansion and growth, 257 failure as a consequence of virtuous practices, 260–62, 327, 427 failure of company, 260–61, 395 Fair Break, 254 founding of, 244 gaffs in Iran and South Africa, 256–57 headquarters, Minneapolis, 248 incorporation of, 244 inner-city plants closed, 260 layoffs at, 260 Medlab, 254 minority hiring at, 251–54 Norris leaves, 258–60 Norris’s attention on social mission, 261 Norris’s business model, 249–54 Norris’s ideas and, 248 peripherals of, 247–48 Perlman as CEO, 260 plants opened in high-poverty areas, 251–54 PLATO education technology, 254–57, 260, 261 poor financial performance, 259 Price and management of, 257–58, 260 profits and, 250 remnants of the company, 260 Rural Ventures, Inc., 254 selling off of subsidiaries, 260 size, revenue, and profits (1970), 247 social responsibility and, 249, 250–51, 254 stock of, 248 success of, 245 Ticketron and, 248, 260 training and, 252, 253–54, 255 United School Services of America and, 257 women hired at, 251, 252 Cook, Lodwrick, 312 Cook, Tim, 444, 463–64 Cooper, Francis D’Arcy, 64 Co-Operative Bank, 417 cooperative movement, 29, 41, 133, 415, 417–18 cooperatives, 415–19, 440, 476 artist co-ops, 416 B corporation movement and, 458 business practices of, 415 Cleveland Model, 418–19 community relations, 415 consumer co-ops, 416 credit unions, 419 critics of, 417 employment numbers, 418 examples of, 415–16 financing problems for, 417 governance issues, 417 idealism and, 416–17 ignored by financial media and business schools, 415 Mondragón, Spain and, 417, 418, 440 mutual companies, 419 new, in the U.S., 419 in the UK, 418 Co-Opportunity Natural Foods, 415 corporate citizenship, 312, 439, 443 consortia of enlightened capitalists and, 451–56 corporate philanthropy, 54, 250, 307, 311, 312–13, 439, 466 corporations/corporate capitalism, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xx, xxxvi, xxxix, 46, 396, 437 activist investors and, xli, 447 agency theory and, 424, 439 Anglo-American vs.


pages: 342 words: 90,734

Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski

additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional

In the case of Central Park, the competition for the design was held in 1858, and by the following summer work was sufficiently advanced that a program of free concerts was inaugurated and daily attendance in the park reached as high as 100,000. The following winter, the frozen lake was ready to receive skaters. New Yorkers still skate in Central Park in the winter and boat on the lake in the summer. What is striking about Olmsted’s parks is their endurance. Generally, American cities have proved impervious to planning. The City Beautiful movement lasted three decades after its birth in 1900, but except in Washington its grand plans remained largely incomplete. Today, only forty years after urban renewal we are demolishing public housing projects, and some cities have even dismantled urban freeways. The fad for pedestrian malls closed to traffic was likewise fleeting. Yet in the 140 years since Central Park was built, no one has ever suggested that it was a mistake.

black migration to Cabrini-Green in Harold Washington Library Center in Robert Taylor Homes in South Park in Chicago Housing Authority Chicago Loop Chicago Sun-Times Chicago Tribune, Cabrini-Green competition of Chirac, Jacques Christiani, Rudolf Christiani & Nielsen Chrysler Building Chung, Myung-Whun Cincinnati, Ohio, Tocqueville on cities: atrium hotels in automobiles and building heights in burden of poverty on college cultural capital of decline of manufacturing in density of downtowns in, see downtowns empowerment zones and evolution of Interstate system and multiplexes and opposing interests of tourists and residents in planned, see planned communities preservation movement and quality of life in shrinking populations of sprawl and, see sprawl suburban-style housing in suburbs and; see also metro areas as tourist destinations underclass in urban renewal in cities, downsizing of divestiture in housing abandonment and impact on poor and minorities of legal and bureaucratic obstacles to neighborhood consolidation in population decline and and sense of community Cities Without Suburbs (Rusk) City and State magazine City Beautiful movement city planning Le Corbusier and parks and sprawl and Wright and civic infrastructure civic monuments Cividale, Italy Civilisation (TV show) Clark, Kenneth class, use of space and classicism Cleveland, Ohio Clinton, Bill, Executive Order 12977 of Codman, Ogden, Jr. Cohen, David in municipal union negotiations Coignet, Edmond college cities Cologne Colonne de Juillet Columbia, Md.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

A popular 1916 textbook, Ancient Times: A History of the Ancient World, by James Breasted, gave students a narrative of civilization to which Christianity was peripheral. In 1816, despite the overweening obsession with classical antiquity, Breasted’s dislodgement of the Christian faith would have been less popular. It might even have been scandalous. In 1916, it was within the academic mainstream.11 The ethos and architecture of the Chicago World’s Fair redefined the American city as well as the American university. It launched the City Beautiful movement, which consisted of large-scale planning, grand buildings, open spaces and neoclassicism run amok. Nowhere was the effect more meaningful than in the nation’s capital. The only planned city in the United States, Washington once had a Tiber Creek. The city had been envisioned from the start as the Rome of the Western Hemisphere. The Capitol Building, a work in progress from 1793 to 1863, was no Athenaeum.

Nevertheless, the destruction of the old Pennsylvania Station was a cruel act of erasure, and the buildings that were put up in its place, the current Penn Station and Madison Square Garden, had none of the cultural significance and none of the civic grandeur that McKim’s building had so proudly communicated. The disappearance of the neoclassical Penn Station sparked a movement to preserve historic buildings in the United States that was quite different in intent from the McMillan Plan, from the Chicago World’s Fair and from the City Beautiful movement. McKim’s Penn Station, backward-looking as its architectural style was, was still the epitome of a forward-looking modern building when it went up. So too was the National Mall a modern public space as it evolved, designed as a step on the advance of modern civilization, as the visible evidence of progress. Penn Station’s destruction reminded Americans of the need to preserve a pre-modern architecture, and by 1963 the neoclassical style was no longer acceptably modern.


A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America in the 19th Century by Witold Rybczynski

California gold rush, City Beautiful movement, clean water, David Brooks, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, New Urbanism, place-making, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban renewal

They are at odds with his later reputation as a proponent of winding streets and picturesque planning. He was nothing if not pragmatic. Indeed that was the strength of this plan. It is not a geometric diagram nor a theoretical construction imposed on the city. Unlike his San Francisco plan, it does not depend on a single idea. Nor, despite his respect for Ellicott, did Olmsted produce a version of European neo-baroque planning such as would later be revived by the City Beautiful movement. He was no historicist. Instead, his highly original plan was a complex and refined network of parks, parkways, avenues, and public spaces that represented a degree of sophistication in city planning previously unknown in the United States. He distributed parks throughout the city to make recreation space more accessible. Elsewhere, broad avenues and parkways brought trees and greenery into the congested grid of streets.

., 217, 221, 253, 286, 287, 290, 298–302 fire in, 310–11 parks in, 299–302, 308, 311, 315–16, 355, 360, 386–92 World’s Columbian Exposition in, 340, 386–99 Chicago River, 302 Chicago Times, 299 Children’s Aid Society, 104, 134, 150, 269, 355, 373 children’s magazines, 136, 138 Childs, Emery E., 290, 291, 292, 298–99, 300 China, 48–55 Chinese immigrants, 229, 232, 251, 252 cholera, 32, 78, 81, 85, 188, 262 Christian Citizen, 66 Christian Commission, 215, 217 Christian Examiner, 141 Church, Frederic Edwin, 309–10, 311 Churchman, 31 Cincinnati, Ohio, 215, 217, 253 City Beautiful movement, 289 civilization, FLO’s views on, 253, 254, 256, 258, 285, 297 Civil War, U.S., 197–226, 303 end of, 248 Sanitary Commission and, see Sanitary Commission, U.S. start of, 197 see also specific battles and generals Clark, Abby, 56, 59 Clark, Galen, 235, 238, 257, 368 Clark’s, Calif., 235–36, 257 classicism, 374, 399 Cleveland, Horace, 163, 315, 320, 348, 355 Clifton, N.Y., 276, 284, 292, 303–4, 309 Clough, Arthur Hugh, 191 Code Noir, 122 Codman, Henry Sargent, 354, 357, 368–69, 370 death of, 392, 400 as FLO’s partner, 385–87, 389–92 Colfax, Schuyler, 256, 299 College of California, 245, 250, 262–63, 269, 280, 292, 349 Collinsville, Conn., 39 Compromise of 1850, 106, 107 Condit, Frances, 56 Confederacy, 196–97, 200–201, 208–12, 214, 237–38, 303 Congregationalism, Congregationalist, 25, 63–64, 71 Congregationalist, 31 Congress, U.S., 22, 101, 105, 125, 238, 320, 321 see also House of Representatives, U.S.; Senate, U.S.


pages: 208 words: 69,863

Assassination Vacation by Sarah Vowell

airport security, Bob Geldof, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, Frank Gehry, gun show loophole, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, white picket fence

LEWIS MUMFORD Sticks and Stones: A Study of American Architecture and Civilization, 1924 In 1904, Theodore Roosevelt’s secretary of war, William Howard Taft, sent his fellow Republican, architect Daniel Burnham, to the Philippines (where Taft had recently served as the new U.S. territory’s governor). Burnham’s assignment was to draw a new plan for the city of Manila. Burnham had been the mastermind behind the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. That fair was an architectural watershed. The “White City,” a neoclassical enclave on the shores of Lake Michigan, would spark what came to be known as the City Beautiful movement of urban design, involving Greco-Roman buildings and monuments erected on geometric street grids among grand boulevards and restful, pretty parks. After the success of the fair, Chicago businessmen hired Burnham to draw up new plans for the lakefront and eventually the city as a whole. Before he did, like so many artists and architects of his generation, Burnham took off on a European study trip, where he got religion — pagan religion.


pages: 219 words: 67,173

Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America by Sam Roberts

accounting loophole / creative accounting, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, New Urbanism, the High Line, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, Y2K

TERMINAL CITY LOOKING NORTH OVER THE OLD SMOKY YARDS,” William Wilgus recalled years later, “I idly sketched one day in 1902 an annex of office buildings.” What he envisioned would become Terminal City, or the Grand Central Zone. Whatever the name, it was destined to be transformed within a decade into some of the most valuable real estate in the world and an unlikely showcase for the flourishing City Beautiful Movement that had captured the public’s imagination through the model “White City” a decade earlier at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Among the movement’s protagonists was the architect Daniel Burnham, who had designed the beloved Flatiron Building off Madison Square in Manhattan and was invited to submit plans in the competition to design Grand Central Terminal. Burnham’s encompassing credo was “make no little plans.


pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Throughout American history, political leaders and groups have used Washington, as both city and capital, to fulfill national goals, set an example, provide a prototype.7 Americans have marched in Washington seeking women’s suffrage, veterans’ bonuses, and to stop the Vietnam War.8 Southern members of Congress correctly recognized that intense efforts to abolish slavery in the District signified a national struggle, prompting them to redouble efforts to protect slavery in the border states.9 During Reconstruction, Congress used the District as a “proving ground” for national legislation.10 After World War II, the District’s racial segregation tarnished America’s democratic ideals, and Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both regarded desegregation of the District as a Cold War necessity.11 Washington has also served as a model and laboratory for urban planning and practices. After the Civil War, the city’s business elite tapped Congressional interest in creating a world-class capital to modernize the city’s infrastructure.12 In 1902, Washington became a showcase for the City Beautiful movement through the McMillan Plan, which sought to create “the capital of a new kind of America—clean, efficient, orderly and, above all, powerful.” In 1926, Congress created the National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Responsible for providing a coordinated plan for metropolitan Washington, Commission members have also historically recognized their responsibility to make the capital region “worthy of the nation.”13 In the 1930s, New Deal officials used Washington to devise national public housing programs; postwar redevelopment and slum razing in Washington was also supposed to serve as a national model.14 In light of this history as political terrain and potent symbol, it’s not surprising that Washington served as a measure of national preparedness for nuclear war.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In the messy realm where public life, leisure, and politics collide, enlightened talk in the Palais-Royal about the right for all to enjoy happiness contributed to a revolution that would eventually see Louis Philippe II lose his head. Moral Renovations Since the Enlightenment, architectural and city planning movements have increasingly promised to nurture the mind and soul of society. Members of the City Beautiful movement were explicit in their assurances. Daniel Burnham, designer of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, proclaimed that beauty itself could reform society and conjure new virtue from citizens. His showpiece was a model city of gleaming white Beaux Arts monuments scoured clean of any signs of poverty. For the rest of central Chicago, Burnham proposed a City Beautiful: an overlay of grand avenues and elegant buildings that would restore to the city “a lost visual and aesthetic harmony, thereby creating the physical prerequisite for the emergence of a harmonious social order.”


pages: 428 words: 134,832

Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

Gracious apartment living, first pioneered in such Gilded Age upper-income buildings as the Stuyvesant Apartments (1869) on Eighteenth Street and the Dakota (1884) on Seventy-second, encouraged a dense, class-mixed urban environment, where working families lived within walking distance of their employers. The addition of Frederick Law Olmsted’s Central Park—based on the “People’s Garden” in Liverpool, the first public urban park—provided a welcome respite from the gridiron, and more block-sized parks were being created all the time. The wealthy Progressives of the City Beautiful movement successfully lobbied for civic art and enduring public monuments inspired by Classical architecture (and against ads in the subway—a battle they lost). Indoor plumbing, electric lights, and improvements in public health made the city a cleaner, more pleasant place to live. The trend was global: along with the Eixample of Barcelona, the Champs-Elysées in Paris, the Gold Coast in Chicago, the Recoleta in Buenos Aires, and the Bund in Shanghai, Fifth Avenue became a proving ground for the latest manifestations of elegant urbanism.


pages: 603 words: 186,210

Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried

Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

When the railroad bypassed it in 1880, Santa Fe was forced to do what so many American cities would attempt a century later after losing their manufacturing base—it reinvented itself as a place to visit, a getaway, an escape. It was becoming a haven for health seekers, artists, writers, archaeology buffs, nonpracticing cowboys and cowgirls, and, of course, tourists. Some saw it as a little Paris, a place where the light was also “just different”—but in a distinctly American way. In fact, as a response to the City Beautiful movement that was sweeping America’s urban areas, Santa Fe created its own nickname: “The City Different.” Santa Fe, more than any other place in the Southwest, already offered what the Grand Canyon had lacked: “something conventional,” in Ford’s words, for tourists to do. It had wonderful shopping, restaurants, and galleries in its small, soulful adobe downtown—which was kept soulful and adobe by a 1912 city plan urging architects to employ the Pueblo Revival and Territorial styles exclusively, so the city would always appear unified and in-scale.


How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

“It appears to me”: Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward, 2000–1887 (Boston, 1888), 157–58. “miles of broad streets,” etc.: Ibid., 52. Burnham: The classic biographies are Charles Moore, Daniel H. Burnham: Architect, Planner of Cities (Boston, 1921), and Thomas S. Hines, Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner, rev. ed. (Chicago, 1979). On the connections between Bellamy and Burnham, see Mario Manieri-Elia, “Toward an ‘Imperial City’: Daniel H. Burnham and the City Beautiful Movement,” in The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal, ed. Giorgio Cuicci et al., trans. Barbara Luigia La Penta (1973; Cambridge, MA, 1979), 1–142. “megalomania”: Louis H. Sullivan, The Autobiography of an Idea (1924; New York, 1954), 288. twenty-one million tickets: Reid Badger, The Great American Fair: The World’s Columbian Exposition and American Culture (Chicago, 1979), 131.


pages: 760 words: 218,087

The Pentagon: A History by Steve Vogel

Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, cuban missile crisis, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

The builders of the federal city had followed the general layout drawn by the French engineer, but over the course of the nineteenth century much of the grandeur envisioned in the plan was marred by a hodgepodge of buildings, depots, carriageways, and clusters of trees that filled in open spaces and destroyed vistas. Celebrations of Washington’s centennial in 1900 triggered a rediscovery of L’Enfant and his vision for a monumental city. L’Enfant’s champions were inspired by the burgeoning “City Beautiful” movement then coming into fashion in architectural and civic circles around the country, the notion that the beautification of a city could boost personal morals, cultural values, and economic growth. In this vein, the Senate created the McMillan Commission, an illustrious committee including architectural luminaries such as Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. The commission issued a momentous report in 1902 that recommended Washington be restored in accordance with L’Enfant’s vision.


Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood

1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

In 37 years, the hall has continued to draw big-name performers like Duke Ellington and the Grateful Dead and successful local acts, in every genre from punk and indie rock to jazz, blues, and world music. Civic Center To the immediate southwest of the grubby Tenderloin stands San Francisco’s grandest architectural gesture: the complex of Beaux Arts buildings known as CIVIC CENTER. This cluster was the brainchild of brilliant urban planner Daniel Burnham, a follower of the “City Beautiful” movement, whose central tenet was that utopian cities in vaguely classical style would be so beautiful that they’d inspire civic loyalty and upstanding morals in even the most impoverished 111 San Francisco’s homeless SoMa, the T e n d e rl oi n , and C i v i c C e nte r San Francisco’s most intractable social problem is homelessness, an issue that’s clear even to casual tourists. Downtown, much of Market Street west of Hallidie Plaza is filled with vagrants day or night, drawn here by the social service administration buildings that sit on the blocks between Sixth and Eighth streets.