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Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum
air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
My question had to be narrower, more rooted in time and place. It was about the object. “Not ideas about the thing but the thing itself,” as Wallace Stevens wrote. Not, where did the Internet begin? But, where was its first box? And that, at least, was clear. In the summer of 1969, a machine called an interface message processor, or IMP, was installed at the University of California–Los Angeles, under the supervision of a young professor named Leonard Kleinrock. He’s still there, a little less young, but with a boyish smile and a website that seemed to encourage visitors. “You’ll want to meet me in my office,” he replied when I emailed. “The original site of the IMP is just down the hall.” We made arrangements. But it wasn’t until I settled into my cramped seat on the plane to Los Angeles, surrounded by tired consultants in wrinkled shirts and aspiring starlets in sunglasses, that the full implications of my journey sank in: I was going to visit the Internet, flying three thousand miles on a pilgrimage to a half-imagined place.
The excitement of the occasion would have been unmistakable, even if the full historic implications were not: this was the first piece of the Internet. But while the grad students were celebrating outside, their professor was stuck upstairs, alone in the large office he had recently expanded in a fit of empire building, shuffling papers on a Saturday afternoon. This I can picture precisely, because when I walked in forty-one years later, Leonard Kleinrock was still sitting there, sprightly at seventy-five, wearing a starched pink shirt, black slacks, and a BlackBerry clipped to a polished leather belt. His face was tanned and his hair was full. A brand-new laptop was open on his desk and he was yelling into a speakerphone: “It’s not catching!” On the other end, the disembodied voice of a tech support person responded slowly and patiently. Click here.
They came up with the answer down the road, in the heart of Silicon Valley—in a basement, in fact. Only Connect For a couple of years at the beginning of the millennium—during the quiet time after the Internet bubble burst but before it inflated again—I lived in Menlo Park, California, a supremely tidy suburb in the heart of Silicon Valley. Menlo Park is a place rich in a lot of things, Internet history among them. When Leonard Kleinrock recorded his first “host-to-host” communication—what he likes to call “the first breath of the Internet’s life”—the computer on the other end of the line was at the Stanford Research Institute, barely a mile from our apartment. A few blocks past there is the garage where Larry Page and Sergey Brin first housed Google, before they moved into real offices above a Persian rug store in nearby Palo Alto.
Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins by Garry Kasparov
3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, clean water, computer age, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, Freestyle chess, Gödel, Escher, Bach, job automation, Leonard Kleinrock, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, rolodex, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game
In 2010, I was in Israel as a guest speaker at the Dan David Prize ceremony in Tel Aviv. Every year, the Dan David Foundation and Tel Aviv University give out prizes that “recognize and encourage innovative and interdisciplinary research that cuts across traditional boundaries and paradigms.” Leonard Kleinrock of UCLA was there to receive in the category of “The Future—Computers and Telecommunications.” As a slideshow presented the audience with a summary of Kleinrock’s achievements, I excitedly whispered to my wife, Dasha, “That’s him! That’s the guy who sent the ‘l’ and the ‘o’!” On October 29, 1969, Leonard Kleinrock’s lab sent the very first letters over ARPANET from his computer at UCLA to another machine at Stanford. They attempted to send the word “login” but the system crashed after the first two letters had gone through. A month later, a permanent link between the machines was in place.
Then the 1973 Mansfield Amendment limited DARPA appropriations to projects with direct military application, a heavy blow to government support of basic research in the sciences and a death blow to relatively unproductive fields like AI was turning out to be, at least in the eyes of the Defense Department. They wanted expert systems for recognizing bomb targets, not machines that could talk. Leonard Kleinrock was still at UCLA, but he turned out to be our neighbor on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. He was gracious enough to share with me some of his thoughts on why and how ARPA (as he always insisted on calling it) fell from grace as an engine for AI and other tech innovation. His first conclusion was not surprising: the growing government bureaucracy stifled communication and innovation. “It got big,” he told me over lunch.
The era when giant multinational companies like Bell and government programs like DARPA would pour money into basic research and experimental projects is over. R&D budgets have been slashed over the years as investors take a skeptical view of anything that doesn’t feed the bottom line. Government-backed research tends to favor specific gadgets to fit an existing need, not ambitious, open-ended missions to answer big questions like Leonard Kleinrock’s “How do we get every computer in the world to talk to each other?” The Oxford Martin School at Oxford University has collected quite a few of these exceptional people, and also encourages the sort of interdisciplinary associating and free-associating that has gone out of fashion in this era of specialization, benchmarks, and ninety-page grant applications. As a senior visiting fellow there since 2013, I’ve had the privilege to meet many of these brilliant people, including Nick Bostrom, the author of Superintelligence, and other faculty and researchers at his Future of Humanity Institute.
Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
“Only connect”: Forster, Howards End. “handheld, portable, real cellular phone”: Martin Cooper, “Inventor of Cell Phone: We Knew Someday Everybody Would Have One,” interview with Tas Anjarwalla, CNN, July 9, 2010. The message was “login”—or would have been: Leonard Kleinrock tells the story in a 2014 video interview conducted by Charles Severence and available at “Len Kleinrock: The First Two Packets on the Internet,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uY7dUJT7OsU. portentous and Old Testament despite himself: Says UCLA’s Leonard Kleinrock, “We didn’t plan it, but we couldn’t have come up with a better message: short and prophetic.” The tiles on the floor of UCLA’s Boelter Hall, if their colors are interpreted as binary 0s and 1s and parsed as ASCII characters, spell out the phrase “LO AND BEHOLD!”
Phone calls use what’s called “circuit switching”: the system opens a channel between the sender and the receiver, which supplies constant bandwidth between the parties in both directions as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching makes plenty of sense for human interaction, but as early as the 1960s it was clear that this paradigm wasn’t going to work for machine communications. As UCLA’s Leonard Kleinrock recalls, I knew that computers, when they talk, they don’t talk the way I am now—continuously. They go blast! and they’re quiet for a while. A little while later, they suddenly come up and blast again. And you can’t afford to dedicate a communications connection to something which is almost never talking, but when it wants to talk it wants immediate access. So we had to not use the telephone network, which was designed for continuous talking—the circuit switching network—but something else.
Credit for this tribute goes to architect Erik Hagen. See, e.g., Alison Hewitt, “Discover the Coded Message Hidden in Campus Floor Tiles,” UCLA Newsroom, July 3, 2013, http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/a-coded-message-hidden-in-floor-247232. rooted in the Greek protokollon: See, e.g., the Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=protocol. “They go blast! and they’re quiet”: Leonard Kleinrock, “Computing Conversations: Len Kleinrock on the Theory of Packets,” interview with Charles Severance (2013). See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsgrtrwydjw as well as http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/co/2013/08/mco2013080006.html. “utter heresy”: Jacobson, “A New Way to Look at Networking.” “So little boy went away”: Kleinrock, “Computing Conversations.” would become known as packet switching: The term “packet switching” comes from Donald W.
Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
In response, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created (so was NASA) and, tellingly, located inside the Department of Defense. One of the issues of the day was the idea that a nuclear blast (I’ve learned never to trust anyone that pronounces it nu-cu-ler) would wipe out the phone network and all communications lines and disable the command and control structure of U.S. defense. The president could order a launch, but if no one could get the message, what would be the use? In 1961, Leonard Kleinrock at MIT proposed a PhD thesis called “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets,” and this provided the theory and proof for packet switching, although it wasn’t called packet switching, not yet, and it was still a theory. The North American Aerospace Defense Command or NORAD was in charge of early warning and control. It didn’t want no stinking 144 HOW WE GOT HERE theories, it wanted something it could use.
In September of 1969, an IMP was set up at UCLA and in October, another was set up at Engelbart’s office in the Stanford Research Institute. They were connected by a 50-kilobit per second connection that AT&T provided. One can imagine that AT&T was not at all enthusiastic about the project, since packet switching endangered the phone network. But there was probably pressure to act patriotically - plus the government paid good money. Leonard Kleinrock, the MIT theorizer, of course joined the ARPANET project, since it was his theory being implemented. I sat next to him at a dinner in 2000, and he gladly recounted the story: He was at UCLA and on the phone to Stanford. “OK, we are about to send an ‘L’, let me know when you see it,” Kleinrock told the Stanford folks. “There it is, we got an ‘L’, (sound of applause in the background)” “OK, OK, just a second, hold on, we are going to send an ‘O’.”
The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig
AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game
., Telephone Almanac, foreword (1941). 16 Interview with Paul Baran. 17 Ibid. 18 Peter Huber, Orwell's Revenge: The 1984 Palimpsest (New York: Free Press; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994), 268-69; Huber, Kellogg, and Thorne, 416. 19 And the decision was reversed by the D.C. circuit. Hush-a-Phone Corp. v. United States, 238 F. 2d 266 (D.C. Cir., 1956). 20 The idea is developed in Kleinrock's dissertation: Leonard Kleinrock, Message Delay in Communication Nets with Storage (1962, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology), which was later published in a modified form. See Leonard Kleinrock, Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). See also John Naughton, A Brief History of the Future: The Origins of the Internet (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999), 92, 118-19 (discussing other earlier contributors to the Internet). 21 Baran attributes to him the discovery of the term.
If you digitized a conversation—translating it from waves to bits—and then chopped the resulting stream into packets, these packets could flow independently across a network and create the impression of a real-time connection on the other end. As long as they flowed fast enough, and the computers at both ends were quick, the conversation encoded in this packet form would seem just like a conversation along a single virtual wire across the ocean. Baran was probably not the first person to come up with this idea—MIT loyalists insist that that was Leonard Kleinrock.20 And he was also not the only person working on the idea in the early 1960s. Independently, in England, Donald Davies was developing something very similar.21 But whether the first, or the only, doesn't really matter for our purposes here. What is important is that Baran outlined a telecommunications system fundamentally different from the dominant design, and that different telecommunications system would have effected a radically different evolution of telecommunications.
Running Money by Andy Kessler
Andy Kessler, Apple II, bioinformatics, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business intelligence, buy low sell high, call centre, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, family office, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, interest rate swap, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, Marc Andreessen, margin call, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, pets.com, railway mania, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Toyota Production System, zero-sum game
It was lunchtime at George Gilder’s Telecosm conference, and we were waiting for the featured speaker, Gary Winnick of Global Crossing, to explain how he sends billions of packets per second under the Atlantic Ocean. George Gilder has hosted his Telecosm conference for years. Tech luminaries like Carver Mead, Bob Metcalfe and Paul Allen were regulars. “I don’t know what the ﬁrst packet was,” I confessed. My tablemate turned out to be Leonard Kleinrock, a UCLA professor, according to his name tag. It turned out that he had been at the creation. Since the 1978 introduction of the Apple II computer, to the 1981 announcement of the IBM PC, the world has been ﬂooded with smaller, cheaper and faster computers. More than 100 million new ones get sold every year. But today, these are no islands—the power of these computers is in their ability to communicate.
The telephone network, which is optimized for your talks with 184 Running Money Mom, was the medium for computer communications. No one thought this out; it just happened that phone lines were running everywhere, so as computers were placed in the same everywhere, they used the phone network to communicate. The problem is that from the very beginning, the phone network cut corners. Fortunately, the Cold War gave us packets. “It was the fall of 1969,” Leonard Kleinrock started. I think I was watching The Munsters back then. “We had the ﬁrst IMP from BBN. I think it cost ARPA around $10,000. Which doesn’t seem like much until you remember that a Volkswagen Beetle cost $2000.” “We?” I asked. “Oh, sorry, UCLA.” “Was Lew Alcindor involved in all of this?” “Who?” “Never mind. Could you translate the acronyms?” “So anyway, this Interface Message Processor was a modiﬁed Honeywell 516 minicomputer.
Just Listen: Discover the Secret to Getting Through to Absolutely Anyone by Mark Goulston M. D., Keith Ferrazzi
Thanks are due as well to leaders whose most valuable resource is their time, but who nevertheless make time to talk with me: Scott Adelson (Houlihan Lokey); Sharon Allen (Deloitte); Angela Braley (Wellpoint); Jeffrey Berg (ICM); Mike Critelli (Pitney Bowes); Bob Eckert (Mattel); Werner Erhard; Jonathan Fielding (L.A. County Public Health); Jim Freedman (Barrington Associates); Bill George (former CEO, Medtronic and Harvard Business School); Marshall Goldsmith; Jim Goodnight (SAS); Peter Guber (Mandalay); Mark Victor Hansen (Chicken Soup); Frances Hesselbein (Leader to Leader Institute); Leonard Kleinrock (UCLA); Mike Leven (Georgia Aquarium); Jim Mazzo (Advanced Medical Optics); Ivan Misner (BNI); Omar Noorzad (Tri-Cities Regional Center); Tom O’Toole (Hyatt); Bill Quicksilver (Manatt); Carla Sanger (LA’s Best); Scott Scherr (Ultimate Software); Jim Sinegal (Costco); Sir Martin Sorrell (WPP); Bob Sutton (Stanford); Larry Thomas (Guitar Center); Raymond Tye (United Liquors); William Ury (Harvard); David Wan (Harvard Business Publications); and Duane Wall (White & Case).
Television disrupted: the transition from network to networked TV by Shelly Palmer
barriers to entry, call centre, commoditize, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, James Watt: steam engine, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management
For those of you who were not tech-savvy in the early days of the Internet, the difference between the public Internet and an online service were profound. The Internet The public Internet was first proposed by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in the early 1960s. It was conceived as a global network of computers to allow the sharing of scientific and military research. The project was conscripted by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 and through the work of several now legendary scientists, like Lawrence Roberts, Leonard Kleinrock and Bob Kahn, evolved into the global network of computers it is today. That network, now called the Internet (or simply, the Net) is the transport system that packets of data travel over. Your e-mail, music and video files all live on individual storage devices (like the hard drive in your computer) and get from place to place over the public Internet. This is not to be confused with the World Wide Web.
An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, off grid, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize
Vint Cerf: old school, meticulous, playful – and smart as hell. I’m hoping Vint can give me the big picture on our increasing interconnectedness. After all, he was in at the ground floor of the Internet and now works on the top one. He’s a man with a career-length view on the technology, which for a technology as young as the Net is about the longest view you can have. As a graduate student, Cerf worked under Professor Leonard Kleinrock, who in 1969 oversaw the first computer-to-computer message to be sent using the ‘packet switching’ method that underlies the Internet. Actually, it was two-thirds of a message. Another of Kleinrock’s students, Charley Kline, hoped to send a three-letter message ‘LOG’ to a receiving machine (this being the code for logging on to that computer). The ‘L’ and the ‘O’ worked but the ‘G’ crashed the system.
air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP
Technological protocols and cultural pipedreams aligned and collided. The drug and music countercultures and the early technological innovators informed and inspired each other – and were often the very same people. The acronymic utopias enabled by internet technologies such as TCP/IP aren’t so different from those offered by LSD: equality, connectedness, awareness of life as a sum greater than its parts. In the early 1960s, American computer scientist Leonard Kleinrock of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Paul Baran of the Rand Corporation, and, later, Britain’s Donald Davies, a physician at the UK’s National Physical Library in Teddington, independently conceived of the same way to send data around a telephone network efficiently by splitting it into chunks and routing it through nodes around the network to later arrive, reassembled, in the right place.
Writing on the Wall: Social Media - the First 2,000 Years by Tom Standage
Bill Duvall, British Empire, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, New Journalism, packet switching, place-making, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, yellow journalism
It was the evening of October 29, 1969, and Charley Kline, a twenty-one-year-old student at the University of California, Los Angeles, was working late in the computer lab. UCLA had an SDS Sigma 7 computer, a mainframe that filled an entire room. Several people sitting at separate terminals could use this giant computer at the same time, and Kline could be found writing code on it at all hours of the day and night. That evening Leonard Kleinrock, the professor in charge of the computer lab, asked Kline to help him test a new device that would link the Sigma 7 to another computer at the Stanford Research Institute, four hundred miles away in Menlo Park, California. The project to link computers in this way had begun when Bob Taylor, an official at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the research arm of the U.S. Department of Defense, became frustrated by the proliferation of computer terminals in his office.
Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon
air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy
Bringing together two different computers was one thing, but the project for which Roberts had been pulled away from Lincoln to work at ARPA was another, much greater challenge. Interconnecting a matrix of machines, each with distinct characteristics, would be exceedingly complicated. To pull it off was probably going to require calling on every expert Roberts knew in every area of computing and communications. Fortunately, Roberts’s circle of colleagues was wide. One of his best friends from Lincoln Laboratory, with whom he had worked on the TX-2, was Leonard Kleinrock, a smart and ambitious engineer who had attended MIT on a full scholarship. If anyone influenced Roberts in his earliest thinking about computer networks, it was Kleinrock. Kleinrock’s dissertation, proposed as early as 1959, was an important theoretical work that described a series of analytical models of communication networks. And in 1961, while working with Roberts, Kleinrock had published a report at MIT that analyzed the problem of data flow in networks.
The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop
Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process, zero-sum game
This process would be repeated until all the incoming packets were deemed acceptable, at which point the receiving computer would string them together and reconstruct the original message. Complicated? Perhaps, said Roberts. But the basic techniques were well un- derstood; people had been segmenting the data on tape drives and other error- prone media for more than a decade. And more to the point, the use of packets in networking had been thoroughly analyzed in the 1962 Ph.D. thesis of Roberts's MIT classmate Leonard Kleinrock/- who was now at UCLA. He and Kleinrock had discussed the issues extensively when he was planning the 1 965 experiment, Roberts said. And the experiment itself had proved that the packet idea would work: the packets arriving on the other side had been reconstructed quite well. Now, those first two conclusions were comparatively straightforward, said Roberts. Taken together, however, they led to a third issue that was not straightfor- ward at all: routing, or getting the data packets where they were supposed to go.
Corbato, OH 162; Stephen Crocker, OH 233; William Crowther, OH 184; Don- ald Watts Davies, OH 8, OH 189; Jack Bonnell Dennis, OH 177; MIChael L. Dertouzos, OH 164; J. Presper Eckert, OH 11, OH 13, OH 193; Robert M. Fano, OH 165; Edward Feigenbaum, OH 14, OH 157;Jay Forrester, OH 16; Howard Frank, OH 188; Bernard A. Galler, OH 236; Herman H. Goldstine, OH 18, OH 19; Frank Heart, OH 186; George H. Hellmeler, OH 226; Charles Herzfeld, OH 208; Cuthbert C. Hurd, OH 261; Robert E. Kahn, OH 158, OH 192; Leonard Kleinrock, OH 190;J. C. R. LICklIder, OH 150; Stephen Lukasik, OH 232; John William Mauchly, OH 26, OH 44; Kathleen Mauchly, OH 11 ;John McCarthy, OH 156; Alexander A. McKenzie, OH 185; Marvin L. Minsky, OH 179; Allen Newell, OH 227; Bernard More OlIver, OH 097; Severo Ornstein, OH 183, OH 258; RaJ Reddy, OH 231; Dennis Ritchie, OH 239; Lawrence G. Roberts, OH 159; Douglas T. Ross, OH 65, OH 178;Jack P.
Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, business climate, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, complexity theory, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, Edward Thorp, horn antenna, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, James Watt: steam engine, Karl Jansky, knowledge economy, Leonard Kleinrock, Metcalfe’s law, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Picturephone, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, traveling salesman, uranium enrichment, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
INTERVIEWS Rod Alferness Phil Anderson Joe Baker Norma Barzman Walter Brown Alan Chynoweth Steven Chu Edward E. David Gerry DiPiazza Phil DiPiazza Irwin Dorros Robert Dynes George Eberhardt Chuck Elmendorf Joel Engel Alan English Gary Feldman Bill Fleckenstein Dick Frenkiel Robert Gallager Ted Geballe Randy Giles Eugene Gordon Robert Gunther-Mohr David Hagelbarger Ira Jacobs Bill Jakes Mary Jakes William Keefauver Jeong Kim Leonard Kleinrock Herwig Kogelnik Henry Landau Arthur Lewbel Tingye Li Sandy Liebsman Bob Lucky John MacChesney Max Mathews John Mayo Brock McMillan Debasis Mitra Cherry Murray Michael Noll Doug Osheroff Joe Parisi Arno Penzias Henry Pollak Ian Ross John Rowell Mannfred Schroeder Betty Shannon David Slepian Neil Sloane Dave Stark Morris Tanenbaum Robert Von Mehren SELECTED ORAL HISTORIES William O.
Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
After the initial stages of planning, most of the collaborative effort was taken on by the Network Working Group (NWG), a more formal reorganization of the informal committees of contractors decided by Larry Roberts (Norberg and O'Neill 1996, 167). In fact, Roberts organized the network implementation around three different teams with various contracts and links between them: the NWG itself; 6 Leonard Kleinrock and his team of graduate students (in- cluding Steve Crocker, Vint Cerf, and Jon Postel) at UCLA, which was to be- ARPANET, E-matl, and est 185 come the Network Measurement Center (NMC); and finally, Douglas Engel- bart and his staff, which was to become the Network Information Center (NIC). Early in the history of the NWG, Elmer Shapiro insisted that "the work of the group should be fully documented."
barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, creative destruction, Donald Davies, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust
From 1984 to 1986 the IAB was the Internet Advisory Board; in 1986, its name changed to the Internet Activities Board; in 1992 it changed once again, this time to the Internet Architecture Board. See Internet Architecture Board, “A Brief History of the Internet Advisory/Activities/Architecture Board,” http://www.iab.org/about/history/ (accessed January 3, 2012). 26 Internet Architecture Board, “A Brief History”; Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry Roberts, and Stephen Wolff, “A Brief History of the Internet,” http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml (accessed September 25, 2013); Kahn interview, Charles Babbage Institute; Vinton Cerf (1990), “The Internet Activities Board,” RFC 1160, http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1160 (accessed September 25, 2013); Ed Krol (1993), “FYI on ‘What Is the Internet?’”
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Behind the development of the Internet there was the scientific, institutional, and personal networks cutting across the Defense Department, National Science Foundation, major research universities (particularly MIT, UCLA, Stanford, University of Southern California, Harvard, University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of California at Berkeley), and specialized technological think-tanks, such as MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, SRI (formerly Stanford Research Institute), Palo Alto Research Corporation (funded by Xerox), ATT’s Bell Laboratories, Rand Corporation, and BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman). Key technological players in the 1960s–1970s were, among others, J. C. R. Licklider, Paul Baran, Douglas Engelbart (the inventor of the mouse), Robert Taylor, Ivan Sutherland, Lawrence Roberts, Alex McKenzie, Robert Kahn, Alan Kay, Robert Thomas, Robert Metcalfe, and a brilliant computer science theoretician Leonard Kleinrock, and his cohort of outstanding graduate students at UCLA, who would become some of the key minds behind the design and development of the Internet: Vinton Cerf, Stephen Crocker, Jon Postel, among others. Many of these computer scientists moved back and forth between these various institutions, creating a networked milieu of innovation whose dynamics and goals became largely autonomous from the specific purposes of military strategy or supercomputing linkups.