Naomi Klein

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pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

Kleptocracy Free-For-All Baghdad gang of contractors descended on New Orleans Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2007), 506. The company FEMA paid $5.2 million to build a base camp for emergency workers Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2007), 495. FEMA paid Shaw $175 per square foot to install blue tarps on damaged roofs, even though tarps themselves provided by the government… Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2007), 496. In November 2005, the Republican-controlled Congress announced that it needed to cut $40 billion from the federal budget… Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Toronto: Alfred A.

Exploding the Box “Madness” “Leap Manifesto Gets Poor Marks for Timing and Content, Otherwise Fine,” Editorial, Globe and Mail (Toronto), September 15, 2015, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/​opinion/​editorials/​leap-manifesto-gets-poor-marks-for-timing-and-content-otherwise-fine/​article26373885/. “National suicide” Conrad Black, “Conrad Black: Few Will Support Naomi Klein’s Revolution, Thankfully Sparing Us from National Suicide,” National Post (Toronto), September 19, 2015, http://news.nationalpost.com/​full-comment/​conrad-black-few-will-support-naomi-kleins-revolution-thankfully-sparing-us-from-national-suicide. National poll on Leap: majority of Liberals, NDPs, Greens; 20 percent of Conservatives EKOS Politics, “Wise Crowds and the Future,” EKOSPolitics.com, April 26, 2016, http://www.ekospolitics.com/​index.php/​2016/​04/​wise-crowds-and-the-future/. Utopia—Back by Popular Demand Alicia Garza: “whether it be Occupy Wall Street…” “Inauguration 2017 Special Coverage w/ Angela Davis, Naomi Klein, Ralph Nader & More,” transcript of live video coverage, Democracy Now!

Canec, Richard Seagerc, and Yochanan Kushnir, “Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and Implications of the Recent Syrian Drought,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (2015), 3241–46. John Kerry: drought was a factor in tensions in Syria US Department of State, “Remarks at the Milan Expo 2015,” press release, October 17, 2015, accessed from https://groups.google.com/​forum/​#!topic/​wanabidii/​Xp6wYBlQIOg. Eyal Weizman: “astounding coincidence” Naomi Klein, “Let Them Drown,” London Review of Books 38, no. 11 (June 2, 2016), https://www.lrb.co.uk/​v38/​n11/​naomi-klein/​let-them-drown. Eyal Weizman and Fazal Sheikh, The Conflict Shoreline: Colonialism as Climate Change in the Negev Desert (Göttingen, Germany: Steidl, 2015), 99. Center for Naval Analyses: “The Middle East has always been associated with two natural resources…” CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2007), accessed from https://www.scribd.com/​document/​4097167/​National-Security-the-Threat-of-Climate-Change.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

Brands are experiences, and brand experiences need to be “staged.”40 Good Morning America’s former producer Shelley Ross actually had a script for her stars that cast anchor Charles Gibson as “Dad,” and hence “Patriarch,” with Diane Sawyer as “the lover of all culture” and newsreader Robin Roberts as “the best friend.”41 Naomi Klein has reported in depth in her No Logo on what she calls these “‘brand vision’ epiphanies,” which she found under every marketing stone she turned over. Polaroid is no longer a camera but a “social lubricant,” IBM sells “business solutions” not computers, Swatch markets time rather than watches, and Diesel Jeans is a lifestyle “movement.” The idea is to embody a set of values, to deploy “attribute brands”—not to actually manufacture something, but, as Naomi Klein insists Tommy Hilfiger is doing, to be “in the business of signing his name.”42 Many brands today revolve around celebrities and personalities, from those like Michael Jordan and Larry King who are the brand, to those like Richard Branson (Virgin) and Phil Knight (Nike) and Bill Gates (Microsoft) who by turning a product into a celebrity reputation have, to a considerable degree, Martha Stewart style, become the brand.

They get up in the morning, put on their Levi’s and Nikes, grab their caps, backpacks, and Sony personal CD players, and head for school.”48 There are French citoyens and Ibo tribesmen and Iraqi Sunnis and Brazilian patriots, but kids are kids are kids. If their countries and tribes and religions can be made to appear as secondary to their global market tastes and youth-branded appetites as children, capitalism need not be impeded by pluralism. A global consumer economy in a world of differentiated cultures depends on the ability to sell uniform goods. According to Naomi Klein, the question is quite precisely: “What is the best way to sell identical products across multiple borders? What voice should advertisers use to address the whole world at once? How can one company accommodate cultural difference while still remaining internally coherent?”49 The business guru James U. McNeal, who has written what admirers call the “bible for all children’s marketers,”50 has a compelling answer: In general, it appears that before there is a geographic culture, there is a children’s culture; that children are very much alike around the industrialized world.

American establishments may use “high culture” international branding in their attempt to go upscale: French table wines that are pedestrian in Paris or Brussels may lend the appearance of class to a hotel dining room in Iowa City or Detroit. The object is to displace traditional ascriptive identities associated with place and birth that are divisive and hence unsuited to the global marketplace—a twenty-something Turkish Kurd who is a Muslim—through contrived brand identities without borders: a twenty-something MTV-watching Pepsi drinker. Naomi Klein was one of the first to confront branding critically, observing in the mid-1990s that “what most global ad campaigns are still selling most aggressively is the idea of the global teen market—a kaleidoscope of multi-ethnic faces blending into one another: Rasta braid, pink hair, henna hand painting, piercing and tattoos, a few national flags, flashes of foreign street signs, Cantonese and Arabic lettering and a sprinkling of English words, all over the layered samplings of electronic music.”


pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

Henriksen , The Israeli Approach to Irregular Warfare, 40. 95 Imri Tov, ‘Economy in a Prolonged Conflict: Israel 2000–2003’, Strategic Assessment 6: 1, 2003, available at www.tau.ac.il. 96 USA Today, ‘US Military Employs Israeli Technology in Iraq War’, 24 March 2003. 97 Bernel Goldberg, ‘Introduction to WTCTA Breakfast Series: Israeli Investment and Trade Opportunities with the Pacific Northwest’, 4 May 2007, Tacoma, WA. 98 Naomi Klein, ‘Laboratory for a Fortressed World’, The Nation, 14 June 2007. 99 Donald Snyder, ‘Israel’s Technology Creates an Investment Goliath’, Fox Business. com, 16 January 2008. 100 Goldberg, ‘Israeli Investment and Trade Opportunities with the Pacific Northwest’. 101 Fairfax County Ecibiomic Development Authority, ‘Special Event: United States-Israel HLS Technologies Conference and B2B (Business to Business) Meetings between Israeli and US Companies’, 16–18 January 2007, available at www.fairfaxcountyeda.org. 102 Naomi Klein, ‘Laboratory for a Fortressed World’. 103 Israel High-Tech Investment Report, February 2008, available at www.ishitech.co.il. 104 Klein, ‘Laboratory for a Fortressed World’. 105 Jeffrey Larsen and Tasha Pravecek, ‘Comparative US-Israeli Homeland Security’, The Counterproliferation Papers, Future Warfare Series no. 34, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: United States Air Force Counterproliferation Center. 106 See Israeli Export and Economic Cooperation Institute, undated, at www.export.gov.il. 107 Klein, ‘Laboratory for a Fortressed World’. 108 Rafael Corporation, ‘Anti-Terror Homeland Security Solutions’, brochure, undated, available at www.rafael.co.il. 109 Ali Kravitz, ‘US Homeland Security Market Beckons’, Jerusalem Post, 18 January 2007. 110 James Carafano, Jonah Czerwinski, and Richard Weitz, ‘Homeland Security Technology, Global Partnerships, and Winning the Long War’, The Heritage Foundation, 5 October 2006, available at www.heritage.org. 111 Consuella Pockett, ‘The United States and Israeli Homeland Security: A Comparative Analysis of Emergency Preparedness Efforts’, Counterproliferation Papers Future Warfare Series no. 33, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: United States Air Force Counterproliferation Center, 150. 112 Ibid., 147. 113 State of Israel Ministry of Public Security, ‘Israel-USA Homeland Security Cooperation’, undated, available at www.mops.gov.il. 114 Joe Charlaff, ‘Joint Israeli-American Initiative to Streamline Homeland Security Management’, Israel 21c, 28 November 2004, available at www.usistf.org. 115 Fairfax County Economic Development Authority conference. 116 Ali Kravitz, ‘US Homeland Security Market Beckons’. 117 Defensoft.com press release. 118 Fairfax County Economic Development Authority conference. 119 Laura Goldman, ‘Israeli Technology to Keep US Borders Safe’, Israel21c.org, 15 Oct 2006. 120 Irreversible Consequences: Racial Profiling and Lethal Force in the ‘War on Terror’, briefing paper, New York University School of Law, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, 2006, 5. 121 Ibid., 13. 122 Nick Vaughan-Williams, ‘The Shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes: New Border Politics?’

Such states of exception are declared not only to constitute the geographies of permanent violence that sustain the dominant economy but also to create what Achille Mbembe calls ‘death worlds’ – spaces such as Palestine, where vast populations are forced to exist as the living dead.92 In this way, states of emergency support broader geographies of accumulation through dispossession, which, while as old as colonialism, prove especially useful for neoliberal globalization. Here we confront the complex political economies of the new military urbanism and their central integration into what Naomi Klein has diagnosed as the tendency within contemporary neoliberal capitalism to engineer and/or to profit from catastrophic ‘natural’ or political-economic shocks.93 At issue is the character of what could be called the ‘new state spaces’ of war and violence, and their relation to political violence and contemporary geographies of dispossession.94 Citing the systematic Israeli bulldozing of homes and towns in Palestine, the similar erasure of Fallujah and other loci of Iraqi resistance, and the widespread erasure of informal settlements across the globe as city authorities entrepreneurially reorganize urban spaces, Kanishka Goonewardena and Stefan Kipfer point to ‘an ominously normalised reality experienced by the “damned of the earth” after the “end of history”’.

New York: Routledge, 2003. 74 Simon Dalby ‘A Critical Geopolitics of Global Governance’, International Studies Association. 75 See Matt Hidek, ‘Networked Security in the City: A Call to Action for Planners’, Planners Network, 2007; Katja Franko, Analysing a World in Motion: Global Flows Meet ‘‘Criminology of the Other’’’, Theoretical Criminology 1: 2, 2007, 283–303 76 Amy Kaplan, ‘Homeland Insecurities: Reflections on Language and Space’, Radical History Review 85, 2003, 82–93. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid. 79 Paul Gilroy, ‘‘Where Ignorant Armies Clash by Night’’: Homogeneous community and the planetary aspect’, International Journal of Cultural Studies 6: 3, 2003, 266. 80 Ibid, 261. 81 Lorenzo Veracini, ‘Colonialism Brought Home: On the Colonialization of the Metropolitan Space’, Borderlands 4: 1, 2005. 82 Sally Howell and Andrew Shryock, ‘Cracking Down on Diaspora: Arab Detroit and America’s ‘‘War on Terror’’’, Anthropological Quarterly 76:3, 2003, 443–62. 83 Jennifer Hyndman, ‘Beyond Either/Or: A Feminist Analysis of September 11th, ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, February 2006. 84 Tim Watson, ‘Introduction: Critical Infrastructures After 9/11’, Postcolonial Studies 6, 109–11. 85 Ibid. 86 Allen Feldman, ‘Securocratic Wars of Public Safety’, 330–50. 87 Tony Blair, statement to the Press Association, 7 July 2005, quoted in Angharad Closs-Stephens, ‘7 million Londoners, 1 London’: National and Urban Ideas of Community in the Aftermath of the 7th July Bombings’, Alternatives 32: 2, 2007, 155–76. 88 Close-Stephens, ‘7 Million Londoners, 1 London’. 89 Paul Gilroy, ‘Multiculture in Times of War: An Inaugural Lecture Given at the London School of Economics’, Critical Quarterly 48:4, 29. 90 Ibid. 91 John Gray, ‘A Shattering Moment in America’s Fall from Power’, Observer, 28 October 2008. 92 Achille Mbembe, ‘Necropolitics’ Public Culture 15: 1, 2003, 11–40. 93 Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, London: Allen Lane, 2007. 94 The term ‘new state spaces’ comes from the pioneering book of that title by Neil Brenner, New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 95 Goonewardena and Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide’. 96 See Chapter 9 and also Stephen Graham, ‘Switching Cities Off: Urban Infrastructure and US Air Power’, City 9: 2, 2005. 97 Kipfer and Goonewardena ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism’. 98 UN HABITAT, State of the World Cities 2006/7, Nairobi: United Nations, xi. 99 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, New York: Grove, 2004. 100 Goonewardena and Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide’, 28. 101 See Chapter 11. 102 Eyal Weizman, Hollow Land, London: Verso, 2007. 103 Eyal Weizman, ‘Lethal Theory’, LOG Magazine April 2005, 74. 104 Goonewardena and Kipfer, ‘Postcolonial Urbicide’, 28. 105 Ibid., 29. 106 ‘Predatory planning’ can be defined as ‘the intended process of dispossession through aggressive, global-powered planning processes and use of multiple redevelopment tactics (building blocks), in the wake of existing trauma.


pages: 278 words: 82,069

Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, John Meriwether, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Stiglitiz 191 View from Asia by Walden Bello 196 Born-Again Democracy by William Greider 199 The Suicide Solution by Barbara Ehrenreich 207 The Great Depression II by Nicholas von Hoffman 210 We’re All Minskyites Now by Robert Pollin 213 The Bailout: Bush’s Final Pillage by Naomi Klein 217 Part Four: The Road to Recovery How to Fix Our Broken Economy by Jeffrey Madrick 225 Ending Plutocracy: A 12-Step Program by Sarah Anderson and Sam Pizzigati 234 Trust but Verify by James K. Galbraith and William K. Black 244 King George and Comrade Paulson by Ralph Nader 247 A Big Government Bailout by Howard Zinn 249 Water the Roots by Rev. Jesse L. Jackson 253 America Needs a New New Deal by Katrina vanden Heuvel and Eric Schlosser 255 What Do We Want? An Emergency Town Hall Featuring William Greider, Francis Fox Piven, Doug Henwood, Arun Gupta and Naomi Klein. Moderated by Christopher Hayes 260 The Global Perspective by Will Hutton 270 How to End the Recession by Robert Pollin 287 In Praise of a Rocky Transition by Naomi Klein 297 Acknowledgments 301 List of Contributors 303 Preface The year 2008 will live in infamy in the annals of American economic history.

Moderated by Nation Washington editor Christopher Hayes, the panel featured national correspondent William Greider, famed author of the classic book on the Fed, Secrets of the Temple; Frances Fox Piven, longtime poor people’s activist and author of many books, including The Breaking of the American Social Compact; contributing editor Doug Henwood, author of Wall Street; Arun Gupta, activist and editor of the Indypendent newspaper; and columnist Naomi Klein, author of the bestseller, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Following is an edited transcript of their discussion. Chris Hayes: There are a lot of technical questions about this crisis that I don’t think we’re going to be able to resolve tonight: what’s a credit default swap and how does it work, for example. But the key two political questions a lot of us are asking are: how do we fit what is happening now into our political understanding, into our power analysis—what has led us to the moment we’re in politically?

People don’t want to confront the need for organization and the need to have a clear ideology because once you do that, it leads to political battles. And that is not necessarily a bad thing, but without an ideology, something to counter the neoliberal ideology, we can’t really say what we’re for, we can’t say who the agent of change is, we don’t have anything to organize around. So I think that is really one of the biggest tasks ahead. … Naomi Klein: As Doug Henwood said, crises are not new, and we may be in uncharted territory but we have experienced these bursting bubbles before. I want to talk about two recent crises that have something to teach us. One of them is the Asian financial crisis in 1997–98, and the other is the Argentina economic meltdown in December 2001. In The Shock Doctrine, I have a chapter about the Asian financial crisis.


pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

addicted to oil, Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, WikiLeaks, working poor

To our elders and mentors, who remind us that the struggle has always been urgent, and that justice is a journey, not a destination. To everyone doing their part to co-create a better world, which the tar sands industry has no place in. The editors’ proceeds from this book will be donated to frontline grassroots environmental justice groups and campaigns. Table of Contents List of Contributors Foreword NAOMI KLEIN AND BILL MCKIBBEN Introduction: Drawing a Line in the Tar Sands TONY WEIS, TOBAN BLACK, STEPHEN D’ARCY, AND JOSHUA KAHN RUSSELL Part I: Tar Sands Expansionism 1. Petro-Capitalism and the Tar Sands ANGELA V. CARTER 2. Assembling Consent in Alberta: Hegemony and the Tar Sands RANDOLPH HALUZA-DELAY 3. The Rise of Reactionary Environmentalism in the Tar Sands RYAN KATZ-ROSENE 4. Canadian Diplomatic Efforts to Sell the Tar Sands YVES ENGLER 5.

He teaches and has published widely in sociology, environmental education, geography, and leisure studies, and co-edited How the World’s Religions are Responding to Climate Change: Social Scientific Investigations (Routledge). Ryan Katz-Rosene is a PhD candidate in Geography at Carleton University in Ottawa. His research interests include critical perspectives on growth, energy, and transportation, and environmental political economy. Naomi Klein is an award-winning journalist, syndicated columnist, and author of the international bestsellers The Shock Doctrine and No Logo (both with Picador). Melina Laboucan-Massimo is a member of the Lubicon Cree First Nation in Alberta, Canada, and an Indigenous and environmental activist. She has worked with Redwire Media Society, the Indigenous Environmental Network, and, most recently, as a tar sands, climate, and energy campaigner with Greenpeace.

Will Wooten is an online organizer with the Tar Sands Blockade, a progressive political activist, and a freelance writer based in Texas. Jess Worth is a co-founder of the UK Tar Sands Network. She is a former co-editor of the award-winning magazine New Internationalist, and was a member of the campaign organization People & Planet. Lilian Yap is a doctoral student in Political Science at York University, analyzing the nature of “green work” and the recycling sectors in Toronto and Buenos Aires. Foreword NAOMI KLEIN AND BILL McKIBBEN The fight over the tar sands is among the epic environmental and social justice battles of our time, and one of the first that managed to marry quite explicitly concern for frontline communities and immediate local hazards with fear for the future of the entire planet. It began, of course, with many years of resistance from Indigenous people in the Athabasca region to the destruction of their ancestral landscapes and to the calamitous health conditions they faced.


pages: 246 words: 74,341

Financial Fiasco: How America's Infatuation With Homeownership and Easy Money Created the Economic Crisis by Johan Norberg

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, price stability, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail

His book In Defense of Global Capitalism, originally published in Swedish in 2001, has since been published in over 20 different countries. He is also the author of Nar manniskan skapade varlden, 2006 (When Mankind Created the World), the coauthor of Ett annat Sverige ar mojligt, 2006 (Another Sweden Is Possible), and Global rattvisa ar mojlig, 2001 (Global Justice Is Possible), the coauthor of Allt om Naomi Kleins nakenchock, 2008 (Naomi Klein's Baseless Shock) and the coeditor of Frihetens klassiker, 2003 (The Classics of Freedom), all of which are available only in Swedish at this time. His personal website is http://www.johannorberg.net/. He wrote and hosted Globalisation Is Good, a documentary for Channel Four in Britain. Norberg's articles and opinion pieces appear regularly in both Swedish and international newspapers, and he is a regular commentator and contributor on television and radio around the world discussing globalization and free trade.

The costs appear to outweigh the benefits."38 But it is not certain that the Treasury Department felt the ban to be a failure, because its main intention in introducing it had been to build crisis awareness and come across as strong and active. An official admitted to the New York Times that Treasury did not expect any practical results. It was a symbolic action "to scare the hell out of everybody," as that official put it 39 As such, it was successful beyond expectations. Socialism for the Rich In her book The Shock Doctrine, Canadian writer Naomi Klein claimed that politicians and economists exploit crises to scare voters so that they can push through unpopular liberalizations, tax cuts, and privatizations. A look at the history of government in the Western world shows her to be right that politicians exploit crises, though seldom to liberalize and reduce the size of the state but rather to increase government control, public spending, and their own power.4o The Great Depression of the 1930s is one example of that; the week following the fall of Lehman Brothers in September 2008 is another.

Chanos, "Short Sellers Keep the Markets Honest"; Tsang, "Short Sellers under Fire." 36. Donovan, "Investment Bankers of the World, Unite!" 37. Oakley, "Short-Selling Ban Has Minimal Effect." 38. Younglai, "SEC's Cox Regrets Short-Selling Ban." 39. Nocera, "Alarm Led to Action." 40. For critical scrutiny of her book, see Norberg, "The Klein Doctrine" (and for more exhaustive treatment of the issue in Swedish, Benulic and Norberg, Allt oni Naomi Kleins nakenchock). 41. The next administration thinks along similar lines. On November 19, 2008, Barack Obama's chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, treated the Wall Street Journal CEO Council to a description of the opportunity to create new political projects and regulate financial markets: "You never want a serious crisis to go to waste.... This crisis provides the opportunity for us to do things that you could not do before."


pages: 343 words: 101,563

The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

pet theory of the socialist Left: Degrees of emphasis vary, of course, but you can find forms of the “fossil capitalism” argument in Vaclav Smil’s Energy and Civilization, along with Andreas Malm’s Fossil Capital and Jason Moore’s Capitalism in the Web of Life. Can capitalism survive climate change?: Moore raises this question in Capitalism in the Web of Life, and it is discussed at some length in Benjamin Kunkel, “The Capitalocene,” London Review of Books, March 2, 2017. Klein memorably sketched out: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007). the island of Puerto Rico: Naomi Klein, The Battle for Paradise: Puerto Rico Takes On the Disaster Capitalists (Chicago: Haymarket, 2018). Maria could cut Puerto Rican incomes: This comes from Hsiang and Houser’s “Don’t Let Puerto Rico Fall into an Economic Abyss,” The New York Times, September 29, 2017. carbon emissions have exploded: According to the International Energy Agency, total global emissions were 32.5 gigatons in 2017, up from 22.4 in 1990.

Trade will surely endure, perhaps even thrive, as indeed it did before capitalism—individuals making trades and exchanges outside a single totalizing system to organize the activity. Rent-seeking, too, will continue, with those who can scrambling to accumulate whatever advantages they can buy—the incentive only increasing in a world more barren of resources, and more mournful of recent apparent abundance, now disappeared. This last is more or less the model that Naomi Klein memorably sketched out in The Shock Doctrine, in which she documents just how monolithically the forces of capital respond to crises of any kind—by demanding more space, power, and autonomy for capital. The book is not primarily about the response of financial interests to climate disasters—it focuses more on political collapse and crises of the technocrats’ own making. But it does give a very clear account of what kind of strategy to expect from the world’s money elite in a time of rolling ecological crisis.

“man against nature”: This is one of the archetypal “conflict narratives.” Other examples range from Robinson Crusoe to Life of Pi. the richest 10 percent: Oxfam, “Extreme Carbon Inequality,” December 2015, www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/mb-extreme-carbon-inequality-021215-en.pdf. many on the Left: The argument is a pervasive one, in part because it is so persuasive, but has been made with special flair by Naomi Klein in This Changes Everything and The Battle for Paradise; Jedediah Purdy in After Nature but perhaps more strikingly in his essays and exchanges published in Dissent; and of course Andreas Malm in Fossil Capital. the socialist countries: History is not a much better guide, with Left industrialization during Stalin’s Five Year Plan or Mao’s Great Leap Forward, or even Venezuela under Hugo Chávez not offering a more responsible approach than anything that was happening in the West.


pages: 924 words: 198,159

Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army by Jeremy Scahill

air freight, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, Columbine, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, stem cell, urban planning, zero-sum game

See: www.nixoncenter.org/publications/Program%20Briefs/vol6no19 Bremer.htm. 5 See Marsh & McLennan Web site www.mmc.com/about/history.php. 6 L. Paul Bremer, “What Now? Crush Them; Let Us Wage Total War on Our Foes,” Wall Street Journal, September 13, 2001. 7 Fox Special Report with Brit Hume transcript, “Terrorism Hits America,” Fox News, September 11, 2001. 8 Naomi Klein, “Downsizing in Disguise,” The Nation, June 23, 2003. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 L. Paul Bremer, My Year in Iraq, pp. 6-7. 12 Knut Royce (Newsday), “Diplomat Expected to Take Charge in Iraq; Bremer to Replace Garner as Leader of Postwar Transition,” Seattle Times, May 2, 2003. 13 Naomi Klein, “Downsizing in Disguise,” The Nation, June 23, 2003. 14 Romesh Ratnesar with Simon Robinson, “Life Under Fire,” Time, July 14, 2003. 15 David Leigh, “General Sacked by Bush Says He Wanted Early Elections,” Guardian, March 18, 2004. 16 Mike Allen, “Expert on Terrorism to Direct Rebuilding,” Washington Post, May 2, 2003. 17 Bremer, My Year in Iraq, p. 8. 18 Scott Wilson, “Bremer Adopts Firmer Tone for U.S.

When Blackwater first came out, it was barely reviewed and TV news was so afraid of lawsuits that the book was nearly shut out. Fast-forward to this autumn, when the Iraqi government accused Blackwater of massacring civilians in downtown Baghdad. Suddenly the book looked prescient and we learned that the same press corps that had cheered on the war had also missed the biggest story in the war zone: that Iraq is more than a failed occupation; it’s a radical experiment in corporate rule.”—Naomi Klein, The Guardian (London) “Andy McNab couldn’t have invented this prescient tale of the private army of mercenaries run by a Christian conservative millionaire who, in turn, bankrolls the president. A chilling expose of the ultimate military outsource.” —Christopher Fowler, The New Review’s “Best Books of 2007” “Fascinating and magnificently documented . . . Jeremy Scahill’s new book is a brilliant exposé and belongs on the reading list of any conscientious citizen.”

“But we’ve seen this enormous escalation of this industry so that now it’s billions and billions of dollars. This is definitely an expansion.”189 The U.S. government pays contractors as much as the combined taxes paid by everyone in the United States with incomes under $100,000, meaning “more than 90 percent of all taxpayers might as well remit everything they owe directly to [contractors] rather than to the [government],” according to a 2007 investigative report in Vanity Fair.190 As journalist Naomi Klein put it, “According to this radical vision, contractors treat the state as an ATM, withdrawing massive contracts to perform core functions like securing borders and interrogating prisoners, and making deposits in the form of campaign contributions.”191 “I think it’s extraordinarily dangerous when a nation begins to outsource its monopoly on the use of force and the use of violence in support of its foreign policy or national security objectives,” said veteran U.S. diplomat Joe Wilson, who served as the last Ambassador to Iraq before the 1991 Gulf War.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Development agencies have long been trying to solve the problem of global poverty by tinkering around the edges of our economic system. The idea has always been to keep the basic logic of capitalism – exponential growth – in place while trying to make it a little bit less destructive than it otherwise might be. But the climate change emergency forces us to discard this approach and think seriously about the logic of capitalism itself. As Naomi Klein puts it in her most recent book, This Changes Everything, ‘Our economic system and our planetary system are at war.62 What the climate needs to avoid collapse is a contraction in humanity’s use of resources; what our economic model demands to avoid collapse is unfettered expansion. Only one of these sets of rules can be changed, and it’s not the laws of nature.’ But it’s not just that capitalism itself appears to be in conflict with the pressing need to stave off a planetary emergency.

., p. 298. 42 ‘By the time they left …’ Angus Maddison, The World Economy, OECD, 2006. 43 ‘And, as in India …’ Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts. 44 ‘In the middle of the …’ Paul Bairoch, Economics and World History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995). 45 ‘Even as late as 1800 …’ Paul Bairoch, ‘The Main Trends in National Economic Disparities since the Industrial Revolution’, in Paul Bairoch and Maurice Levy-Leboyer (eds), Disparities in Economic Development since the Industrial Revolution (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1975), pp. 3–17. 46 ‘Indian artisans enjoyed a better …’ Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, pp. 292–3. 47 ‘From 1872 to 1921 …’ According to figures cited in Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, pp. 311–12. 48 ‘Ten million Congolese perished …’ Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (London: Pan Books, 2006), pp. 225–33. 49 ‘And the costs of caring …’ Harold Wolpe, ‘Capitalism and cheap labor power in South Africa: from segregation to apartheid’, Economy and Society 1(4), 1972, pp. 425–56; J. S. Crush et al., South Africa’s Labor Empire: A History of Black Migrancy to the Gold Mines (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991). 50 ‘From the late 15th …’ I am indebted to Naomi Klein for the concept of the sacrifice zone. 51 ‘By contrast, incomes in Western …’ Ha-Joon Chang, Bad Samaritans (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008), p. 25. 52 ‘At the end of this …’ Thomas Piketty, Capital in the 21st Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014), p. 69. 53 ‘This agenda became particularly clear …’ The Roosevelt Corollary was initially established to allow the US to respond militarily if Europeans invaded Latin America, which happened in 1902 when Britain, Germany and Italy blockaded Venezuela to demand debt repayment. 54 ‘The first was that the …’ One reason for this is that manufactured commodities have greater ‘elasticity of demand’, meaning that their prices rise as incomes rise.

But protectionism in the US, which was difficult to dislodge at the time, precluded this option – so they chose instead to deepen ISI, while negotiating for the best possible terms. See Sylvia Maxfield and James Nolt, ‘Protectionism and the Internationalization of Capital’, International Studies Quarterly 34(1), 1990, pp. 49–81. 21 ‘When President Dwight Eisenhower took …’ My grasp of this narrative owes much to Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine (London: Allen Lane, 2007) and Noel Maurer, The Empire Trap: The Rise and Fall of US Intervention to Protect American Property Overseas, 1893–2013 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013). 22 ‘Operation Ajax was one of …’ The first successful attempt by the United States to overthrow a foreign government was in Cuba in 1933, when the US backed Fulgencio Batista in his uprising against the revolutionary government of Gerardo Machado.


pages: 304 words: 96,930

Starbucked: A Double Tall Tale of Caffeine, Commerce, and Culture by Taylor Clark

Berlin Wall, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deskilling, Edmond Halley, fear of failure, Honoré de Balzac, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, McJob, McMansion, Naomi Klein, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route

In fact, if you read a comment by a Starbucks employee and he or she doesn’t mention the “Starbucks Experience,” the phrase “surprise and delight,” or the company mission statement, something has gone horribly wrong. Because once Starbucks figured out what its customers wanted, it never went off-message again. Phase 2: Salivating at the Dinner Bell That Starbucks would seek to become — in the liberal social critic Naomi Klein’s words — “the coffee shop that wants to stare deep into your eyes and ‘connect’ ” was no surprise, given the tenor of the time. After the minor cataclysm known as “Marlboro Friday” sent Wall Street into a panic, every American company with a pulse scrambled to infuse itself with a lofty “purpose.” On April 2, 1993, Philip Morris announced that, because of competition from generic brands, it was slashing the price of a pack of Marlboros by 20 percent, a previously unthinkable defeat.

Some of the shrewdest independents have even stolen one of the chain’s signature moves, to great effect. “These guys at Starbucks are seriously good at locating coffee bars,” wrote one of them, David Schomer of Seattle’s Espresso Vivace, in a primer on how to compete with Starbucks. “Just open your coffee bar next to one.” As Schomer knows, in a side-by-side comparison, customers will often choose quality and uniqueness over efficiency and uniformity. Naomi Klein, creator of the antichain “No Logo” movement, has lambasted Starbucks over its habit of clustering stores and opening next to mom and pops, but in the coffee-house business, a cluster of cafés can do better as a group than each café would alone. Just as a thicket of restaurants or gas stations will amplify business for everyone by forming a nexus people instinctively gravitate toward when they think food or gas, a Starbucks and an independent can work in tandem to draw more coffee drinkers.

For more on Starbucks’s marketing and the story of the “Big Dig,” see Scott Bedbury and Stephen Fenichell, A New Brand World: 8 Principles for Achieving Brand Leadership in the 21st Century (New York: Viking, 2002); and Kim Murphy, “More Than Coffee, a Way of Life,” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 1996. Page 92. The story of Starbucks hypnotizing “hip young people” comes from Ruth Shalit, “Hypnotizing Slackers for Starbucks, and Other Visionary Acts of Marketing Research,” Salon.com, September 28, 1999. Page 93. Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Picador, 2002). David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000). Page 94. Howard Schultz and Dori Jones Yang, Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time (New York: Hyperion, 1997). Page 96. David Shields, “The Capitalist Communitarian,” New York Times Magazine, March 24, 2002.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

He is about to learn that the world is a lot bigger than our neighborhood. Photograph © Suzanne DeChillo/The New York Times/Redux NAOMI KLEIN is an award-winning journalist and the author of the critically acclaimed #1 international bestseller The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism and No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, which The New York Times called “a movement bible.” Klein is a contributing editor for Harper’s magazine, a reporter for Rolling Stone, and a syndicated columnist for The Nation and The Guardian. She is a member of the board of directors of 350.org and a Puffin Foundation Writing Fellow at The Nation Institute. MEET THE AUTHORS, WATCH VIDEOS AND MORE AT SimonandSchuster.com authors.simonandschuster.com/Naomi-Klein ALSO BY NAOMI KLEIN The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate We hope you enjoyed reading this Simon & Schuster eBook

James, 53 Woolworth, 16 workers, see labor; trade unions in Industrial Revolution, 171 public sector, 157 work hours, shorter, 93–94 World Academy of Sciences, 257 World Bank, 47–48, 59, 81, 152, 180, 219, 359 austerity promoted by, 77 on carbon tax, 114 free market ideology and, 62 new coal projects opposed by, 348–49 on 2 degrees Celsius limit, 12–13 World Conference Against Racism (2001), 414 World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere, 55, 73–74 World Economic Forum, 112 World Future Council, 97 World Health Organization, 351 world markets, liberation of, 20–21 World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, 444n World Resources Institute, 196, 226 World Trade Organization (WTO), 5, 16, 19, 39, 76, 77, 80, 84 green energy programs challenged by, 64–65, 68–73, 126 worldview: communitarian, 36, 59, 182, 460, 461, 462, 466 dominance-based, 36–37, 41, 44, 56–57, 59–60, 75, 177, 184, 186, 424, 462 extractivist, see extractivism regenerative, 23, 25, 60–61, 182, 395, 396, 424, 442–48 World War I, collective sacrifice in, 16, 115 World War II: collective sacrifice in, 16–17, 115–16 social programs in wake of, 10 World Wildlife Fund, 84, 196, 264 World Wind Energy Association, 132 World Wrestling Entertainment, 212n Wretched of the Earth, The (Fanon), 459 Wright, Malcolm, 290 Wright, Wayne, 68 Wyoming, 215, 320 Xcel Energy, 98–99 Xeni Gwet’in First Nation, 345 Yale University, 36, 56 Yanza, Luis, 291 Yara, 135 Yasuní-ITT initiative, 410 Yasuní rainforest, 408–11 Yergin, Daniel, 311 Yoshitani, Miya, 155–56 Young, Neil, 383–84 Youngstown, Ohio, 329 zero-carbon energy sources, 18, 128 zero-carbon public services, 19–20 zero-waste design, 16 Zimbabwe, famine in, 272 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2014 by Naomi Klein All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information address Simon & Schuster Subsidiary Rights Department, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. First Simon & Schuster hardcover edition September 2014 SIMON & SCHUSTER and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster, Inc. The Simon & Schuster Speakers Bureau can bring authors to your live event. For more information or to book an event, contact the Simon & Schuster Speakers Bureau at 1-866-248-3049 or visit our website at www.simonspeakers.com. Interior design by Joy O’Meara Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Klein, Naomi, 1970– This changes everything : capitalism vs. the climate / Naomi Klein.—First Simon & Schuster hardcover edition.

Blockadia: The New Climate Warriors 10. Love Will Save This Place: Democracy, Divestment, and the Wins So Far 11. You and What Army? Indigenous Rights and the Power of Keeping Our Word 12. Sharing the Sky: The Atmospheric Commons and the Power of Paying Our Debts 13. The Right to Regenerate: Moving from Extraction to Renewal Conclusion  The Leap Years: Just Enough Time for Impossible Acknowledgments About Naomi Klein Notes Index For Toma “We need to remember that the work of our time is bigger than climate change. We need to be setting our sights higher and deeper. What we’re really talking about, if we’re honest with ourselves, is transforming everything about the way we live on this planet.” —Rebecca Tarbotton, Executive Director of the Rainforest Action Network, 1973–20121 “In my books I’ve imagined people salting the Gulf Stream, damming the glaciers sliding off the Greenland ice cap, pumping ocean water into the dry basins of the Sahara and Asia to create salt seas, pumping melted ice from Antarctica north to provide freshwater, genetically engineering bacteria to sequester more carbon in the roots of trees, raising Florida 30 feet to get it back above water, and (hardest of all) comprehensively changing capitalism.”


The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan

Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl

People should confront corporations directly, in the streets and through nongovernmental organizations and community coalitions , they say, rather than relying on governments to forge solutions. "We should be directly pointing the finger at businesses, not even bothering with the governments," says Anita Roddick,19 reflecting a widely held view that is also expressed by antiglobalization activist and pundit Naomi Klein: "We see corporations as the most powerful Page 151 political entities of our time, and we are responding to them as citizens , citizens to political organizations. . . . The corporation has become the new site of protest. . . . Rather than protesting on the doorsteps of governments on Sunday afternoon when no one is there, they're protesting outside of the Niketown on Fifth Avenue." Though the movement against corporate rule would be impossible , even senseless, without robust nongovernmental institutions, community activism, and political dissent, the belief these can be a substitute for government regulation, rather than a necessary complement to it, is dangerously mistaken.

As Jonathan Chait recently observed about the Bush administration in The New Republic, "Government and business have melded into one big 'us' " (as cited by Paul Krugman, "Channels of Influence," The New York Times, March 25, 2003). Robert Monks says, "Particularly since the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, it probably is clear that the heads of large corporations have more impact on your life and the lives of citizens around the world than the head of any country." 51. Interviews with Chris Komisarjevsky and Clay Timon. For an excellent critical discussion of branding and its implications for society, see Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (Toronto: Knopf Canada, 2000). More generally, the notion that corporations are persons-individuals- Back Matter Page 7 176 NOTES has served throughout history to obscure, in both law and public opinion, the fact that corporations exercise the collective economic power of vast numbers of shareholders and thus are profoundly more powerful than the rest of us. 52.

And today I think that corporations are externalizing a lot of costs onto the community, whether it's the cost of burning up employees by increasing the work time, by working them for a few years and then throwing them out, by not paying the full cost of the labor that employees give to a firm, by coming into a community, getting all sorts of grants, and then turning around and leaving it in worse shape than they entered. All of those things externalize the cost onto the community of the corporation." 19. Quoted in Editorial, The Sunday Herald (Scotland), August 26, 2001. 20. Interview with Naomi Klein. 21. Interview with Noam Chomsky. 22. Indeed, from the perspective of its supposed beneficiaries, the regulatory system was imperfect from the beginning. Historically, regulation was a compromise, supported by many among the business elite, between business 's desire for freedom from controls and calls for more radical change. As Harvard's Elaine Bernard points out, "It wasn't the labor movement and the reformers who proposed regulation.


pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

There are critics of economic inequality who are largely indifferent to its impact on opportunity and want to level down society even if it means crippling economic progress. In their popular critique of economic inequality, The Spirit Level, Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett tell us that “we need to limit economic growth severely in rich countries,” because “[o]nce we have enough of the necessities of life, it is the relativities which matter.”13 Similarly, best-selling author Naomi Klein argues that to truly deal with the problem of inequality, we must reject capitalism altogether, give up on the idea of economic progress, and embrace a decentralized agrarian form of socialism.14 Left-wing radio host Thom Hartmann will settle merely for banning billionaires: “I say it’s time we outlaw billionaires by placing a 100% tax on any wealth over $999,999,999. Trust me, we’ll all be much better off in a nation free of billionaires.”15 Should We Be Suspicious of Inequality?

Not according to Piketty. In every case, Piketty acknowledges that “these very high brackets never yield much” in the way of tax revenues. That is not the point. The point, he says, is “to put an end to such incomes and large estates.”78 The most consistent alarmists—those who value equality above all else—openly admit that they do not care about freedom and progress. Best-selling author Naomi Klein argues that to truly deal with the problem of inequality, we must reject capitalism altogether, give up on the idea of economic progress, and embrace a decentralized agrarian form of socialism.79 In The Spirit Level, Wilkinson and Pickett reach a similar conclusion, telling us that “we need to limit economic growth severely in rich countries.” Would this mean greater human suffering? Absolutely not, they say.

We Can Choose Otherwise,” Washington Monthly, November/December 2014, http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/novemberdecember_2014/features/conclusion_slow_growth_and_ine052716.php (accessed April 12, 2015). 11. Obama, “Remarks by the President on Economic Mobility.” 12. Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, pp. 513, 517. 13. Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009), pp. 225–26. 14. Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014). 15. Thom Hartmann, “The No Billionaires Campaign,” OpEdNews, July 18, 2012, http://www.opednews.com/populum/printer_friendly.php?content=a&id=153218 (accessed April 12, 2015). 16. Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality, p. 8. 17. Obama, “Remarks by the President on Economic Mobility.” 18.


pages: 537 words: 99,778

Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky

activist lawyer, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, different worldview, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor

Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-1-78026-085-3 Contents Preface Staughton Lynd Foreword Eileen Myles Anonymous Introduction Amy Schrager Lang & Daniel Lang/Levitsky The Politics of the Impossible Information Desk Richard Kim The Audacity of Occupy Wall Street Ira Livingston Darth Vader and Occupy Wall Street: A Twitter Essay Naomi Klein The Most Important Thing in the World Media Declaration of the Occupation of New York City Occupy Student Debt Campaign Pledges & Principles The Mortville Declaration of Independence Council of Elders Occupy Wall Street Statement of Solidarity UAW Local 2865 Resolution in Support of Occupy Oakland General Strike American Library Association Occupy Wall Street Library Resolution & Press Statement jóvenes en resistencia alternativa Solidarity Statement: We walk by asking, we reclaim by Occupying Organization of Women’s Freedom in Iraq Message of Solidarity to Occupy Wall Street Comrades from Cairo Response to OWS Egypt Delegation Proposal Library Barbara Kingsolver Another American Way Angus Johnston What I Saw at #OccupyWallStreet Last Night, and What I Saw When I Left Adrienne Maree Brown from liberty plaza; let it breathe Adrienne Maree Brown, Jenny Lee, Yusef Shakur, et al One Step in Building the ‘Occupy/Unify’ Movement in Detroit Keguro Macharia Occupy DC (Hasty Notes) Jaime Omar Yassin Occupy Oakland Day Four: Wherein I speak to some folks, and the General Assembly debates MoveOn’s move in Facilitation Anne Tagonist Heirs to the Autonomen DeColonize LA Statement Larisa Mann On Occupy Wall Street Hannah Chadeyane Appel The Bureaucracies of Anarchy (Parts 1 & 2) Sonny Singh Occupying Process, Processing Occupy: Spokes Council musings by one POC Safer Spaces Jaime Omar Yassin Occupy Oakland: Hugs Are Also an Option Occupy Boston Women’s Caucus Statement A Bunch of Trans Women Occupiers OWS Must Resist Cis-Supremacy and Trans-Misogyny Aaron Bady Society Must Be Defended From Rats Occupy Wall Street Safer Spaces Working Group Transforming Harm & Building Safety: Confronting sexual violence at Occupy Wall Street and beyond People of Color Bruce A Dixon Occupy Where?

Ira Livingston, by contrast, in Twitter-inspired 140-character lines echoing the way information circulates about Occupy, meditates on the impossibility of inhabiting neoliberal late capitalism. Deploying the fantasies of omnipotence that in US commercial culture carry fascist overtones, but in lived experience provide the possibility for social agency, he considers how we move from a sudden sense of political vitality to an active political stance. Naomi Klein, recalling the successful direct action that shut down the 1999 World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle and the less successful subsequent actions at international financial institution summits that followed, addresses the difference that unlimited time and a changed target makes. The Audacity of Occupy Wall Street Richard Kim 2 November 2011 A few years ago, Joe Therrien, a graduate of the NYC Teaching Fellows program, was working as a full-time drama teacher at a public elementary school in New York City.

. ♦ (Acknowledgments: Many thanks to Thad Ziolkowski for insight into the VW ad, Jennifer Miller for citing Dread Scott, and apologies to Jayna for the Woody Guthrie references!) bullybloggers.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/darth-vader-and-occupy-wall-street-a-twitteressay-by-ira-livingston/trackback/ I’LL BELIEVE CORPORATIONS ARE PEOPLE WHEN TEXAS EXECUTES ONE The Most Important Thing in the World Naomi Klein 6 October 2011 I was honored to be invited to speak at Occupy Wall Street on Thursday night. Since amplification is (disgracefully) banned, and everything I say will have to be repeated by hundreds of people so others can hear (aka ‘the human microphone’), what I actually say at Liberty Plaza will have to be very short. With that in mind, here is the longer, uncut version of the speech. I love you.


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Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

For, in its own way, al-Qaeda was also attacking an American-dominated, capitalist global order. The original antiglobalizers had been outflanked by a much more violent, ruthless, and radical rejectionist movement. The critics of globalization were so diverse that it is impossible to pick a single figure to exemplify the movement. They ranged all the way from a Nobel Prize–winning economist like Joseph Stiglitz to fulminating journalists like Naomi Klein to—at the extreme end—terrorist movements like al-Qaeda. The antiglobalization crowd included far-left radicals who despised global capitalism and far-right radicals who believed that globalization was an excuse for the creation of a single world government. Some argued that globalization was destroying the livelihoods of Western workers by subjecting them to merciless competition from Asians laboring for less than a dollar a day.

South Korea and Thailand were two of the biggest victims of the Asian economic crisis, but the South Koreans only had to look across the border to North Korea to be reminded that economic isolation offered far worse and more devastating prospects. The Thais could perform the same exercise by looking across their western border into isolated, dictatorial, impoverished Burma, where a military junta had violently repressed the country’s democracy movement in 1990. What Joseph Stiglitz and Naomi Klein put their fingers on was a feeling that globalization was a project that benefited elites more than ordinary people. It was certainly true that the globalization consensus seemed firmest in places where the international political and business elite gathered, such as the World Economic Forum in Davos. It was also true that there were some common themes to the complaints made about globalization in countries as different as the United States, China, India, and Russia.

Mark Leonard, Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century (London: Fourth Estate, 2005), p. 7. 16. THE ANTIGLOBALIZERS: FROM THE ASIAN CRISIS TO 9/11 1. Philippe Legrain, Open World: The Truth about Globalisation (London: Abacus, 2002), 17. 2. Quoted in Derek Chollet and James Goldgeier, America Between the Wars: From 11/9 to 9/11 (New York: PublicAffairs, 2008), 256. 3. Ibid., 257. 4. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine (New York: Henry Holt, 2007). 5. Quoted in Legrain, Open World, 25. 6. Cited in William Greider, Come Home America: The Rise and Fall (and Redeeming Promise) of Our Country (New York: Rodale, 2009), 70. 7. Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (London: Penguin, 2002), 4. 8. Ibid., 21. 9. Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck, American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing (New York: ReganBooks, 2001), 59. 10.


pages: 261 words: 64,977

Pity the Billionaire: The Unexpected Resurgence of the American Right by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, bonus culture, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, financial innovation, housing crisis, invisible hand, Kickstarter, money market fund, Naomi Klein, obamacare, payday loans, profit maximization, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, union organizing, Washington Consensus, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Over the last four decades, Thatcher’s ideological comrades brought their free-market plans to countries all around the globe, remaking the souls of Chileans, Argentines, Poles, and Iraqis as the opportunities presented. Societies were “transformed,” all right: dynamited, bulldozed, privatized, swept away. And in the classic 2007 account of this particular chapter in civilization’s development, the journalist Naomi Klein explains that it often happened in the aftermath of crises: hurricanes, military coups, civil wars. An entire program of market-based reforms would be installed all of a sudden as a sort of “shock therapy” when traditional social systems had been knocked off balance.8 Let me repeat, before we proceed, that what I am describing were the acts of conservatives: professional economists using crisis to impose what they knew to be the correct social model—the market model—on nations that were not really interested in it.

An entire program of market-based reforms would be installed all of a sudden as a sort of “shock therapy” when traditional social systems had been knocked off balance.8 Let me repeat, before we proceed, that what I am describing were the acts of conservatives: professional economists using crisis to impose what they knew to be the correct social model—the market model—on nations that were not really interested in it. Also: that this really happened, that the economists talked about it openly. To hear the resurgent Right tell it, however, the only place where you’ll find such ruinous strategies in discussion are in the war rooms of the sneaky Left, as they plot to destroy the free market itself. In a curious inversion of Naomi Klein’s argument, the rejuvenated Right fastened on a single flippant 2008 remark from then-incoming White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel—“You never want a serious crisis to go to waste”—and convinced itself on the basis of this one clue that a cadre of left-wingers were planning all manner of offenses against democracy including, in some tellings, the overthrow of capitalism itself, with the financial crisis as a pretext.

According to political scientist David Campbell and sociologist Robert Putnam, Tea Party activists tended to be highly partisan Republicans before the Tea Party conquered the headlines in 2009. See Campbell and Putnam, “Crashing the Tea Party,” New York Times, August 16, 2011. 7. See, for example, http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/blogs/Examiner-Opinion-Zone/matthew-vadum-The-Lefts-Blueprint-for-perpetual-power-94527604.html. 8. See Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine (New York: Metropolitan, 2007), pp. 6–7. 9. Glenn Beck, The Overton Window, p. 147. 10. Ibid., pp. 74, 276, 286, 296–97, and again on 303–4. 11. FEMA’s plans also would have outlawed strikes. See Jack Anderson’s column on the subject, September 25, 1984. See also Alfonso Chardy, “Reagan Advisers Ran ‘Secret’ Government,” Miami Herald, July 5, 1987. 12. According to the historian David Caute, the act included a measure “providing for camps in times of national emergency, invasion or insurrection to detain without trial anyone who had been a member of the Communist Party since January 1, 1949.”


pages: 274 words: 66,721

Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Shaped the Modern World - and How Their Invention Could Make or Break the Planet by Jane Gleeson-White

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, business cycle, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, source of truth, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile

Employing the rhetoric of religion, Ahrens describes the high priest of the quants, James Simons, who works ‘in a form of high math decipherable to a handful of humans on the planet. As such, practitioners of the rare mathematic arts can become the powerful priests of investing, thanks to their strange and obscure language, much the way the medieval church trafficked in Latin’. The antics of the share market and its mathematical wizards manipulate not only the wealth of individuals and corporations, they also dramatically shape the political life of nations. Naomi Klein gives a stark example of the impact of markets on politics. Following the election of Nelson Mandela as President of South Africa, ‘Every time a top party official said something that hinted that the ominous Freedom Charter might still become policy, the market responded with a shock, sending the rand into free fall. The rules were simple and crude, the electronic equivalent of monosyllabic grunts: justice—expensive, sell; status quo—good, buy.’

A grand plan to remake their country—a plan which had been conceived in the aftermath of the civil war—was carried out after the tsunami had ruined the beaches where the fishermen lived. International organisations, including the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, arrived to ‘plot Sri Lanka’s entry into the world economy’, as Naomi Klein puts it. Before the makeover overseen by these organisations, the men’s small-scale fishing had been their livelihood, giving them enough to feed their families. But their subsistence fishing did not contribute to economic growth as measured by the GDP figures used by organisations such as the World Bank and so it was expendable. The land where their huts had been was converted to more profitable use—in money terms—and they were left without a means to feed their children.

p. 218 ‘how Harold of Salisbury borrowed money . . .’ Carruthers and Espeland, op. cit., p. 57. p. 219 ‘accounts are used to . . .’ Ibid., p. 47. p. 220 ‘Most are idiot savants brought . . .’ Frank Ahrens, ‘For Wall Street’s math brains, miscalculations’, Washington Post, 21 August 2007. p. 220 ‘Math’s universal principles . . .’ Ibid. p. 221 ‘Every time a top party official said something . . .’ Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine, Penguin Books, Camberwell, 2007, p. 207. p. 222 Economist Raj Patel points out that . . . The discussion of the corporation draws extensively on Raj Patel, The Value of Nothing, Black Inc., Melbourne, 2009, p. 41. p. 222 Enron is revealed as having behaved . . . Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money: A financial history of the world, Penguin Books, Melbourne, 2008, p. 172.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Stockholm: Bonniers, 2009, p. 15. 4 ‘Hearing to receive testimony on the impacts of sequestration and/or full-year continuing resolution of the Department of Defense’, US Senate, Committee on Armed Services, Washington DC, 12 February 2013. http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/13-03%20-%202-12-13.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2016). 5 ‘Pope criticizes globalization, denies he is Marxist’, TeleSUR, 11 January 2015. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Pope-Criticizes-Globalization-Denies-he-is-Marxist-20150111-0015.html (accessed on 12 April 2016). 6 Suzanne Goldenberg, ‘Naomi Klein: “We tried it your way and we don’t have another decade to waste” ’, Guardian, 14 September 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/sep/14/naomi-klein-interview-capitalism-vs-the-climate (accessed on 12 April 2016). 7 John Gray, Heresies: Against Progress and Other Illusions. London: Granta UK, 2004, p. 32. 8 Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Paris: OECD, 2003, p. 262. 1 Food 1 Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels. London: J. Walker, 1819, p. 148. 2 Christer Byström, ‘Nödår’, section in ‘Sidensjös historia fore år 1900’, http://web.comhem.se/chby/sidensjo/sidensjo.htm (accessed on 12 April 2016). 3 FAO, The State of Food and Agriculture 1947.

General Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, recently testified before US Congress: ‘I will personally attest to the fact that . . . [the world] is more dangerous than it has ever been.’4 Pope Francis claims that globalization has condemned many people to starve: ‘It is true that in absolute terms the world’s wealth has grown, but inequality and poverty have arisen.’5 On the political left, activist Naomi Klein argues our civilization is ‘on a collision course’, and that we are ‘destabilising our planet’s life support system’.6 On the right, philosopher John Gray thinks that human beings are ‘homo rapiens’, a predatory and destructive species that is approaching the end of civilization.7 I used to share their pessimism. When I began to shape my worldview in Sweden in the 1980s, I found modern civilization hard to stomach.


pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

In his 2014 book, Oil and Honey, McKibben sees future climate change as portending “an endless chain of disasters that will turn civilization into a never-ending emergency response drill.” McKibben’s prescription is a turn away from global consumerism toward the organic and local, to “a nation of careful, small-scale farmers who can adapt to the crazed new world with care and grace, and who don’t do much more damage in the process.” Fierce progressive activist Naomi Klein in her newest screed, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, declares, “Our economic system and our planetary system are now at war.” Klein asserts that the progressive values and policies she advocates are “currently being vindicated, rather than refuted, by the laws of nature.” Climate science, she further claims, has given progressives “the most powerful argument against unfettered capitalism” ever.

In addition, the researchers note, beliefs about the risks of climate change “come to bear meanings congenial to some cultural outlooks but hostile to others.” In this case, Egalitarian/Communitarians, who are generally eager to rein in what they regard as the unjust excesses of technological progress and commerce, see carbon rationing as an effective tool to achieve that goal. This view is distilled in Naomi Klein’s book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate. Not surprisingly, Hierarchical/Individualists are highly suspicious when proposals involving carbon rationing just happen to fit the cultural values and policy preferences of Egalitarian/Communitarians. Kahan and his colleagues at the Yale Cultural Cognition Project suggest the Hierarchical/Individualists discount scientific information about climate change because it is strongly associated with the promotion of carbon rationing as the exclusive policy remedy for the problem.

Given those figures, the ITIF’s estimate of what it would take to develop cheap zero-carbon technologies looks like a bargain. The Climate Change Bottom Line Despite the current pause in global warming and the real failings in climate computer model projections, the balance of the scientific evidence suggests that man-made climate change could become a significant problem by the end of this century. As we have seen, political progressives and environmentalists like Naomi Klein fervently promote the “climate crisis” as a pretext for radically transforming the world’s economy in ways that ratify their own ideological predilections. Thus they advocate the imposition of vast top-down regulatory schemes that ultimately amount to various forms of carbon and energy rationing. As a response, lots of supporters of free markets and economic growth tend to underplay the science that suggests the possibility that continued unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases could have really undesirable effects on the planet’s climate by the end of the century.


pages: 233 words: 75,712

In Defense of Global Capitalism by Johan Norberg

anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, capital controls, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Gini coefficient, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, open economy, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, union organizing, zero-sum game

Anti-globalists characterize the free zones as havens for slave-driving and inhuman working conditions. There are indeed abuses and scandals in some quarters, and resolute action is needed to prohibit them. Mostly, abuse and scandal happen in poor dictatorships, and so, instead of freedom having ‘‘gone too far,’’ it has not gained a foothold. In her book No Logo, which quickly became popular in anticapitalist circles, Canadian activist Naomi Klein claims that Western companies have created terrible working conditions in such zones. But she does not offer any proof. She has only heard a few rumors of bad conditions in one Philippine export-processing zone, which she admits having traveled to only because it was one of the worst. When the OECD tried to obtain an overall picture of these zones, it found that they had multiplied job opportunities for the poor, and that wages there were higher than in the rest of the country.

The presence of multinational corporations in oppressive governments can very often be an aid to the pursuit of democracy, because those corporations are sensitive to pressure from Western consumers, which has a direct impact on sales. It can be easier to influence Nigerian politics by boycotting Shell than by trying to bring pressure to bear on the Nigerian government. This is hinted at in the subtitle of Naomi Klein’s book No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. Klein points out that the big corporations have tried to create a special positive aura for their trademarks through many decades of advertising and goodwill. But by doing so they have also shot themselves in the foot. The trademarks, being their biggest asset, are hugely sensitive to adverse publicity. It can take a company decades to build up a trademark but only a few weeks for activists to demolish it.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Trade and Core Labor Standards (Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2000). 15. ‘‘Foreign Friends,’’ The Economist, January 8, 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Survey of OECD Work on International Investment, Working Paper on International Investment (Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1998), http://www.oecd.org/pdf/M000013000/M00013315.pdf. 16. Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (New York: Picador USA, 2000). Klein finds it repugnant that firms exploit people’s need to belong, to share in a group identity. But if this is a basic need, then surely it is a good thing that an identity should be freely chosen from among a range of options, rather than merely inherited. I would rather see people arguing about whether a Mac or a PC is best than about whether being black or white is best.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

“This is the only civilized solution,” he told the Observer newspaper.13 In 2014, even the world’s leading economic think-tank, the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, urged higher taxes for the rich to help the bottom 40 percent of the population. When establishment magazine Foreign Policy publishes an article by the US managing editor of the Financial Times, Gillian Tett, which closes expressing a wish for an “honest debate” about “wealth redistribution,” it is clear that the world has gone a little mad.14 Canadian journalist Naomi Klein coined the term “disaster capitalism” in her best-selling 2007 book, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, in which she observes that privatization, government deregulation, and deep cuts to social spending are often imposed after megadisasters, man-made or natural, “all before victims of war or natural disaster [are] able to regroup and stake their claims to what [is] theirs.” The aim of privatizing government itself has existed for decades, but the attacks of September 11, 2001, accelerated the process in the United States because the Bush administration saw its “war on terror” as a boon for the private sector.

Make sure that wars, including those started for tenuous reasons, last as long as possible to ensure ongoing work for mercenaries, guards, and intelligence officials. Industries such as mining, construction, and security feed off each other. It is a global gravy train—when one country is sucked dry, it moves off to the next lucrative destination. During a visit to Greece in 2013 to investigate the reality of extreme austerity and those workers resisting it, Canadian writer Naomi Klein issued a stark warning: “We really are in a midst of what I’ve come to think of as a final colonial pillage for the hardest to reach natural resources in some of the most beautiful protected parts of the world using some of the most dangerous and damaging extractive practices.”3 Nothing remains untouched. “The privatisation of everything,” writes Arundhai Roy, “has also meant the NGO-isation of everything.”

Thanks to my Australian publisher, Melbourne University Press, for continuing to back my vision. Louise Adler, Elisa Berg, Sally Heath, Paul Smitz, and Penelope White have all contributed hugely to the vision in your hands. I continue to be inspired by a range of journalists and groups whose work informs my own: Julian Assange and WikiLeaks, Pratap Chatterjee, Glenn Greenwald, Amy Goodman, the late and great Michael Hastings, Naomi Klein, Dahr Jamail, Chelsea Manning, George Monbiot, Greg Palast, John Pilger, Jeremy Scahill, Edward Snowden, and Matt Taibbi. Alison Martin is a truly unique woman who constantly challenges, provokes, and loves me. Her intelligence, insights, and warmth run through this book. Our life journey together is one of the best damn things to ever happen to me. Thank you, my love. My parents Violet and Jeffrey give me endless support, backing, and love.


pages: 428 words: 126,013

Lost Connections: Uncovering the Real Causes of Depression – and the Unexpected Solutions by Johann Hari

basic income, Berlin Wall, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, gig economy, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, open borders, placebo effect, precariat, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Rat Park, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, The Spirit Level, twin studies, universal basic income, urban planning, zero-sum game

More Praise for Lost Connections ‘Wise, probing and deeply generous, Hari has produced a book packed with explosive revelations about our epidemic of despair. Yes, it is about depression but it is also about the way we live now – and the havoc perennial isolation is wrecking on our collective mental health and general wellbeing’ NAOMI KLEIN ‘An important, convention-challenging, provocative and supremely timely read. It is about time we looked at mental health through the prism of society rather than, simply, medicine. This brilliant book helps us do that’ MATT HAIG ‘A beautiful book from the person that brilliantly once said “the opposite of addiction is connection” and who now explores and offers some solutions to our disconnection’ JEMIMA KHAN ‘This is one of those extraordinary books that you want all your friends to read immediately – because the shift in world-view is so compelling and dramatic that you wonder how you’ll be able to have conversations with them otherwise.

To be kept up to date on new developments in depression and anxiety, you can (a) Follow this book’s Facebook page: www.facebook.com/thelostconnections (b) Follow Johann on Twitter: www.twitter.com/johannhari101 (c) Sign up to receive occasional e-mail updates at www.thelostconnections.com/updates Acknowledgments You can’t write a book like this without being helped by a huge number of people. I want to thank first of all Eve Ensler, who is not just an extraordinary friend and the best person to explore ideas with that you could hope for, but an inspiration for how to fight against injustice with joy rather than rage. In the same vein, I thank my friend Naomi Klein, who is the greatest model I know for how to think deeply about complex questions without diluting or betraying their complexity. The people I owe the greatest debt to, when it comes to this book, are the social scientists who conducted the research on which it is based, and who patiently answered all my questions and endless requests to see if I had really understood what they were saying. The social sciences are one of the most underappreciated ways in which the world is made better.

If you kept your hand on the stove, it would burn This image comes from Stephen Grosz’s wonderful book The Examined Life: How We Lose and Find Ourselves (London: Vintage, 2015). Depression and anxiety might, in one way, be the sanest reaction you have. Mark Fisher talks about this interestingly in his excellent book Capitalist Realism: Is There No Alternative? (Winchester, UK: O Books, 2009)—see pp. 18–20. You have to turn now to all the other wounded people around you, and find a way to connect with them This idea—that we need to come home—was influenced by Naomi Klein’s writing in This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate (London: Penguin, 2015), and Avi Lewis’s film of the same name. Index Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, here advertisements benefits of restricting/banning, here people’s claim not to be affected by, here power to create materialistic desires, here, here alertness, heightened, in periods of loneliness, here, here Amish communities, here brutal theology of, here concept of heaven in, here connection to people in, here conscious choice to lead slowed life, here lifestyle of, here low levels of depression in, here as one pole of collectivist-individualist spectrum, here and Rumspringa, here Anda, Robert, here, here animals baboon status hierarchies, here captive, depression in, here, here antidepressants author as evangelist for, here, here, here, here author’s decision to stop taking, here author’s first prescription for, here, here author’s need for increasing doses of, here author’s realization of need for, here debate about role of placebo effect, here lifestyle changes as, here longterm use, unknown effects of, here most-prescribed, here ongoing depression despite, as typical, here, here, here, here specific action of, as unknown, here, here trial-and-error method for choice of, here widespread use of, here See also drug testing of antidepressants; side effects of antidepressants anxiety, and depression, as paired disorders with single origin, here Aspiration Index, here baboon troops status hierarchies in, here stress of low-status members, here Baltimore Bicycle Works cooperative structure of, here founding of, here origin of idea for, here worker satisfaction at, here, here, here Barbour, Allen, here Barrett, Fred, here Beachey, Lauron, here Beecher, Henry, here behavioral treatments for depression importance of supervision in, here See also Bromley-by-Bow Center; social prescribing Behncke, Isabel background of, here depression of, while confined indoors, here, here on depression on captive animals, here, here on disconnection from natural world as cause of depression, here, here mountain climb with author, here, here, here, here, here, here study of bonobos, here Berkman, Lisa, here Berlin, author’s visit to, here See also Kotti neighborhood biological causes of depression, here See also genetic causes of depression; neuroplasticity biophilia, in humans, here bio-psycho-social model of depression, here as currently-accepted model, here limited clinical use of today, here psychiatrists’ focus on biological component of, here bonobos Behncke’s study of, here captive, depression in, here, here brain, physical changes caused by altered environment (neuroplasticity), here, here brain scan, of depressed/anxious person, here Bregman, Rutgers, here, here British civil service, work-related depression in, here Bromley-by-Bow Center (London) development of non-drug treatments for depression, here doctors’ humility at, here holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment, here prescribing of activities rather than drugs, here use of chemical antidepressants at, here Brown, George memories of relative’s suicide, here ongoing research of, here research on environmental causes of depression, here, here impact of, here, here training as anthropologist, here business, hierarchical, as relatively new type, here Cacciatore, Joanne on grief, cultural misunderstanding of, here, here, here on grief as necessary, here, here relationship between grief and depression, here stillborn baby, grief caused by, here as traumatic bereavement specialist, here Cacioppo, John on human need for connection to tribe, here, here, here, here on loneliness vs. being alone, here research on loneliness and depression, here, here, here on snowball effect in depression, here, here on social media and loneliness, here call centers, stressful work in, here Cambodia, community-based approach to depression in, here Carhart-Harris, Robin, here Cash, Hilarie, here Caspi, Avshalom, here Cates, Jim, here, here Celexa, drug testing on, here Cengiz, Nuriye background of, here, here and bonding of Kotti residents, here, here eviction of, here friends made during Kotti protest, here and involvement with others as treatment for depression, here and Kotti neighborhood protest, here, here, here neighbors’ efforts to help, here protests against evictions, here suicide threat by, here, here Chandler, Michael on medicalized view of depression, here research on invisibility of future for depressed persons, here, here, here research on Native American/First Nations suicide rates, here Chasing the Scream (Hari), here, here chemical imbalance model of depression and Age of Prozac, here author as evangelist for, here, here, here, here author’s discovery of, here author’s eventual questioning of, here author’s search for alternative explanation, here, here, here as characteristic of materialistic society, here and confusion of grief with depression, here as confusion of symptom with cause, here, here, here falsity of, here, here, here, here lack of evidence for, here origin of theory, here pharmaceutical industry support for, here, here, here as product of medicalized view of emotions, here, here psychological effects on depressed persons, here, here, here reasons for persistence of, here as standard view of medical community, here, here, here, here triumph over reactive model, here United Nations statement on, here and Western individualism, here See also endogenous model of depression childhood trauma of author, healing effect of discussing, here child’s tendency to blame self for, here health effects of repressing, here as often hidden by victim, here childhood trauma, as cause of depression, here, here, here doctors’ reluctance to accept, here patients’ difficult accepting, here psychological mechanisms of, here research on, here childhood trauma, as cause of obesity, here doctors’ reluctance to accept, here childhood trauma, overcoming in psychedelic drug experiences, here, here, here through acknowledgment of trauma, here Clausen, Matthias, here, here, here Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), as treatment for depression, here Cohen, Sheldon, here confession, healing effects of, here cooperatives as democratic form of business, here, here higher growth in, here human need for connection to tribe and, here, here and incentive to work, here limited research on, here as once-common form of business, here and regaining control over work, here See also Baltimore Bicycle Works Coppen, Alex, here cortisol high blood levels in low-status baboons, here high saliva levels with increased loneliness, here coupsticks, in Crow culture, here Crow nation confinement to reservation, here culture of, here culture, unhealthy, as cause of depression, here, here, here and need for large changes, here, here and undermining of stigma attached to depression, here See also depression, causes of Cunningham, Lisa depression of, here and non-drug treatments for depression, here depression and anxiety, as paired disorders with single origin, here bipolar (manic), biological component of, here bowed-down posture characteristics of, here, here in captive animals, here, here chronic, in author’s childhood and youth, here as form of grief, here, here high incidence in Western cultures, here measurement of, here as once-taboo subject, here, here painfulness of, here as type of submission response, here and unhappiness, continuum between, here depression, causes of author’s reluctance to begin research into, here, here disconnection as common thread in, here limited data on, here non-chemical, as commonly ignored, here See also bio-psycho-social model of depression; childhood trauma; endogenous model of depression; environmental causes of depression; future, hopeful/secure; genetic causes of depression; natural world, disconnection from; neuroplasticity and depression; people, disconnection from; reactive model of depression; status and respect, disconnection from; values, meaningful, disconnection from; work, meaningful, disconnection from derealization, as symptom of depression, here Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and confusion of grief with depression, here and “grief exception,” here symptoms of depression in, here dopamine imbalance of, as cause of depression, lack of evidence for, here, here and Internet addiction, here drug testing as corrupt process, here low threshold for drug approval in, here standard format for, here drug testing of antidepressants as corrupt process, here drug companies’ suppression of unfavorable results, here fundamental problems with, here Kirsch and Sapirstein review of, here, here Kramer’s critiques of, here limited effect shown in, here researchers’ awareness of limited effectiveness, here on side effects, here drug use, widespread, here health effects of, here DSM.


pages: 385 words: 133,839

The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink by Michael Blanding

carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

Page 69 “We don’t know how”: Morris, “Roberto Goizueta and Jack Welch: The Wealth Builders.” Page 69 Coke’s annual spending on advertising: Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (New York: Picador, 1999), 471. Page 69 alienating many: Hays, 123–124; Pendergrast, 400. NOTES 3 10 Page 69 “move the needle”: Zyman, 3–5, 118, 172. Page 69 “The sole purpose of marketing”: Zyman, 11. Page 69 “spending to sell” . . . “we poured on more”: Zyman, 15. Page 69 The domestic ad budget rose: Klein, No Logo, 471. Page 70 It was Zyman’s job: Zyman, 138. Page 70 “These are the consumers”: Zyman, 125. Page 70 “dimensionalizing” . . . at every occasion: Zyman, 124, 129. Page 70 compete for Coke’s vast advertising war chest: Zyman, 207. Page 71 Hollywood powerhouse Creative Artists Agency: Naomi Klein, No Logo, 59. Page 71 computer-generated family of polar bears: Matthew Grimm, “Coke Plans to Put Its Polar Bears to Work,” Adweek, June 21, 1993; Dottie Enrico, “Coke’s Polar Bear Is a Papa Bear,” USA Today, December 8, 1994.

“It’s one thing when your stock drops 10 percent because of a mistake your company has made . . . but it’s something else . . . when it drops because of a business with totally different financial and social dy­ namics.” For the next four hours, he patiently explained why people might not pay for a Marlboro but they would pay for a Coke. And he was right. Coke’s stock righted itself in a few weeks. As Naomi Klein recounts in her book No Logo, the real lesson of “Marl­ boro Friday” was that companies needed to invest more money in brand­ ing, not less. The companies that succeeded after the recession of the early 1990s were those that wrapped consumers in their products, creating not just an association with their product but a complete lifestyle—think Star­ bucks, Disney, Apple, Calvin Klein, and Nike.

NOTES 343 Page 219 owned some 50 million Coke shares: “SunTrust Sells Coca-Cola Shares It’s Held 88 Years,” CNBC.com, May 15, 2007, http://www.cnbc.com/id/18677410. Page 220 casualties of a globalizing economy: See Klein, No Logo. Page 220 protests at the WTO meetings: For an activists’ perspective on the event, see David Solnit and Rebecca Solnit, The Battle of the Story of the Battle of Seattle (Edinburgh, Scotland: AK Press, 2009). Page 220 patchouli-scented caravan of activists: See Naomi Klein, Fences and Windows: Dis­ patches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate (New York: Picador, 2002). Page 220 removed Coke from its campus: Lovell, “Students Call for Coke Boycott”; “Boycott Killer Coke!” Colombia Action Network. Page 220 Bard College in upstate New York followed suit: Lovell, “Students Call for Coke Boycott”; Baran, “Stop Killer Coke!” Page 221 “Unfortunately, Bard College officials”: Lovell, “Students Call for Coke Boycott.”


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

When a Pentagon contract manager, Charles Smith, confronted Kellogg, Brown & Root, at the time a Halliburton subsidiary, about an extra billion dollars of unexplained war billings, he was summarily replaced by—you guessed it—an outsourced auditing company. The more expensive war gets, the less is available for social services and infrastructure at home. The poorer people get, the more easily they can be persuaded that foreign enemies greedy for oil profits and obsessed with religious violence are the real problem. The daily toll of bodies begins to feel less relevant than the escalating price at the pump. As Naomi Klein amply demonstrated in her book on the extension of war profiteering to other industries, Disaster Capitalism, human life is no longer even a valid component of the global business plan. It’s not really part of the equation. While privatized war provides direct evidence of the way market forces working within particular institutional structures can end up promoting conflict, with all the human and material waste that this implies, Klein sees the same essential dynamic at play elsewhere.

Britney Spears’s latest breakdown and the invasion of Iraq are both treated as major media events deserving of equal time and space. In the face of all this, the hippest way out is to adopt the attitude of amused and quizzical cynicism worn by Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart. Besides, no matter how critical of corporatism some entertainers and journalists might be, the impact of their arguments is undercut by their dependence on corporatized media for dissemination. Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart work for Viacom. Naomi Klein writes for a division of the German publisher Verlagsgruppe, and this book is published by a subsidiary of Bertelsmann. We all have mortgages to pay. Even most progressive journalism—just like the kind that emerged in the early 1900s—tends to frighten and isolate the middle classes rather than bring them out of their homes to improve their communities. Populists such as CNN’s Lou Dobbs, and others speaking out on behalf of working stiffs, stoke more rage and discontent than thoughtful engagement.

Ari Wallach Felipe Ribeiro Andrew Mayer Fernando Cervantes Bernard Lietaer Armanda Lewis Howard Rheingold David Pescovitz John Merryman Jonathan Taylor Propaganda Lance Strate John Leland John Rogers Darren Sharp Jules Marshall Amy Sohn Christina Amini Jason Liszkiewicz Jeff Newelt Kevin Werbach Xeni Jardin Timothy Mohn Anaid Gomez-Ortigoza Matthew Burton Max Brockman Josh Klein Russel Weinberger Jeff Gordiner Helen Churko Getachew Mengistie Courtney Turco Justin Vogt Joost Raessens Nancy Hechinger Rachel Dretzen Benjamin Kirshbaum Barak Goodman Ken Miller Naomi Klein David Feuer Kate Norris and, most of all, Barbara and Mamie Rushkoff NOTES CHAPTER ONE Once Removed: The Corporate Life-Form 4 Most history books recount For the best descriptions of late Middle Ages and Renaissance life and commerce, see Fernand Braudel, The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992), and Carlo M.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Just at the time that these emissions reports were coming out, the Financial Times euphorically suggested that the United States was entering a new age of plenty and might have a century of energy independence, even global hegemony, ahead of it thanks to the new techniques of extracting fossil fuels from shale rock and tar sands.32 Leaving aside the debates about whether these predictions are right or wrong, celebrating this prospect is like saying, “Fine, let’s commit suicide.” I’m sure the people who write such articles have read the same climate change reports I have and take them seriously. But their institutional role makes such positions a social or cultural necessity. They could make different decisions, but that would require real rethinking of the nature of our institutions. The propaganda barrage has been effective. As Naomi Klein writes in the Nation, “A 2007 Harris poll found that 71 percent of Americans believed that the continued burning of fossil fuels would cause the climate to change. By 2009 the figure had dropped to 51 percent. In June 2011 the number of Americans who agreed was down to 44 percent—well under half the population. According to Scott Keeter, director of survey research at the Pew Research Center for People and the Press, this is ‘among the largest shifts over a short period of time seen in recent public opinion history.’”33 A significant majority of Americans still think climate change is a serious problem, but it’s true that it has declined.

Fiona Harvey, “World Headed for Irreversible Climate Change in Five Years, IEA Warns,” Guardian (London), 9 November 2011. 30. Ibid. 31. Ibid. See also Andrew Revkin, “High Odds of Hot Times,” New York Times, Dot Earth blog, 20 May 2009. See also David Chandler, “Climate Change Odds Much Worse than Thought,” MIT News, 19 May 2009. 32. Edward Luce, “America Is Entering a New Age of Plenty,” Financial Times (London), 20 November 2011. 33. Naomi Klein, “Capitalism vs. the Climate,” Nation, 28 November 2011. 34. Clifford Krauss and Jad Mouawad, “Oil Industry Backs Protests of Emissions Bill,” New York Times, 18 August 2009. 35. Davis Asman, Interview with Ron Paul, Fox Business, 4 November 2009. 7. Learning How to Discover 1. William James, The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1 (New York: Henry Holt, 1918), p. 488. 2. Bill Keller, “Diplomats and Dissidents,” New York Times, 13 May 2012. 3.


Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? by Bill McKibben

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Flynn Effect, Google Earth, Hyperloop, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, life extension, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart meter, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, supervolcano, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Y2K, yield curve

We need to speed up that rhythm, and done right, the fight against inequality meshes powerfully with the fight against more existential threats such as climate change. That’s why, at 350.org, we talk a great deal about “climate justice,” convinced that it’s both right and smart to work most closely with communities on the front lines of environmental damage. It’s why we’re excited by efforts such as the Poor People’s Campaign, or the Leap Manifesto that Naomi Klein produced with an assortment of labor unions and indigenous people. It’s all the same struggle. But for this book, the rapid rise in poverty and inequality will primarily serve as a marker of who we are right now and how we got here; what we care about; how we understand the world. And for those purposes, the most important part of this “we” is the people in power, either formal or informal, who have allowed this poverty and inequality to shoot up over the last four decades.

After a remarkable display of indigenous unity at the Standing Rock protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline, Koch-funded legislators passed “anti-protester bills” in one statehouse after another, all designed to discourage that brand of dissent. (In Oklahoma, trespassing near “critical infrastructure facilities” now can get you ten years in prison.)4 The same is true around the world, from Duterte’s Philippines to Erdogan’s Turkey to Maduro’s Venezuela to Putin’s Russia, where protest is often lethal. But the oligarchs face a fight at every turn. As Naomi Klein has said, if we can’t get a serious carbon tax from a corrupted Congress, we can impose a de facto one with our bodies. And in so doing, we buy time for the renewables industry to expand—maybe even fast enough to catch up a little with the physics of global warming. I recount all this not to boast—as I say, we’re not winning, and in any event, I’m not much of a leader. (Having helped get things started, I’ve found it a relief and a pleasure to turn the spotlight toward the young, diverse, and remarkable organizers around the world.)

I can’t begin to say how much their willingness to fight means to me: every one of them realizes that this is a battle against long odds, with no guarantee of victory (indeed, a guarantee of at least some defeats), and yet they persevere with creativity and passion and love. I spend the most time with my colleagues at 350.org, of course, and it has been a great privilege to watch the young people who launched it grow into full adulthood—the weddings, and the birth announcements, are happy days on the calendar every year. To work with people whom one loves and admires is a great privilege. Day to day, my ace colleague Vanessa Arcara keeps me going. Naomi Klein, Jane Mayer, and Rebecca Solnit read this book in draft form; each of them has been instrumental in shaping my thinking over the years, and the world owes them great thanks for their reporting and writing. Marcy Darnovsky also brought her sharp eye to bear on the chapters about genetic engineering, for which I am very grateful. Marcy and her colleague Rich Hayes helped me extensively fifteen years ago when I wrote a book on human genetic engineering called Enough; I’ve crossed my own tracks several times in this volume.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

It goes unsaid why this might be a good idea – the lightning talk is mostly to pitch the micro-electronics lab Mitch will be running in the basement throughout the congress. But I know why I like it. Every time I visit London there are more TVs. The latest ones coat the walls of the escalator halls in the capital’s most-used underground stations, making me long for the static paper ads I once found so intrusive. Naomi Klein writes about the corporate takeover of “public” space in her best-selling anti-globalisation polemic No Logo. Mitch Altman’s device is the logical (and slightly less risky) extension of the activities of urban guerrillas like Adbusters, who reclaim public space by making midnight alterations to the billboards of major brands in order to turn them into satirical art. When I was growing up, it was activism like this that looked most relevant to me.

If what’s interesting about internet freedom is this idea of creating digital public spaces where we can debate whatever issues are relevant. And if what’s exciting about internet freedom is that countries that don’t have conventional public spaces could now have digital public spaces, then we have to recognise, those aren’t public spaces. Those are private spaces; those are corporate-controlled spaces.” * * * In No Logo, Naomi Klein details exactly what’s wrong with the real-world emergence of pseudo-public space in corporate America: The conflation of shopping and entertainment found at the superstores and theme-park malls has created a vast grey area of pseudo-public private space. Politicians, police, social workers and even religious leaders all recognize that malls have become the modern town square. But unlike the old town squares, which were and still are sites for community discussion, protests and political rallies, the only type of speech that is welcome here is marketing and other consumer patter.


The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable by Amitav Ghosh

Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, carbon footprint, Donald Trump, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning

So if it is the case that the last, but perhaps most intransigent way that climate change resists literary fiction lies ultimately in its resistance to language itself, then it would seem to follow that new, hybrid forms will emerge and the act of reading itself will change once again, as it has many times before. PART II HISTORY 1 In accounts of the history of the present climate crisis, capitalism is very often the pivot on which the narrative turns. I have no quarrel with this: as I see it, Naomi Klein and others are right to identify the currently dominant model of capitalism as one of the principal drivers of climate change. However, I believe that this narrative often overlooks an aspect of global warming that is of equal importance: empire and imperialism. While capitalism and empire are certainly dual aspects of a single reality, the relationship between them is not, and has never been, a simple one: in relation to global warming, I think it is demonstrably the case that the imperatives of capital and empire have often pushed in different directions, sometimes producing counter-intuitive results.

Howe in ‘This Is Nature; This Is Un-Nature: Reading the Keeling Curve’, Environmental History 20, no. 2 (2015): 286–93, 290. 174 ‘implement their demands’: Ingolfur Blühdorn, ‘Sustaining the Unsustainable: Symbolic Politics and the Politics of Simulation’, Environmental Politics 16, no. 2 (2007): 251–75, 264–65. 174 First World War: Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy, loc. 2998. 175 ‘They only consume’: Roy Scranton, Learning to Die in the Anthropocene: Reflections on the End of a Civilization (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2015), Kindle edition, loc. 640. 175 ‘legislation and governance’: Ibid. 175 ‘the modern world’: Adam B. Seligman et al., Ritual and Its Consequences, loc. 171. 176 ‘mere representation’: Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, thesis 1. 176 ‘reestablishes its rule’: Ibid, thesis 18; my italics. 177 ‘moral issue’: Naomi Klein makes a powerful case for enframing climate change as a moral issue in her magisterial This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (New York: Knopf, 2014). See also the following interview with Michael Mann: http://paulharrisonline.blogspot.in/2015/07/michael-mann-on-climate-change.html. 178 opposite side: I am following here the use of the word sincerity in Adam B. Seligman et al., Ritual and Its Consequences. 179 acted upon: As Rachel Dyer notes, ‘all the stuff about changing the light-bulbs and driving less, although it is useful for raising consciousness and gives people some sense of control over their fate, is practically irrelevant to the outcome of this crisis.’


pages: 354 words: 105,322

The Road to Ruin: The Global Elites' Secret Plan for the Next Financial Crisis by James Rickards

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, cellular automata, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, jitney, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Pierre-Simon Laplace, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, price anchoring, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, reserve currency, RFID, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, stocks for the long run, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transfer pricing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

In October 2015, the UN issued: For a detailed study in the relationship between climate change and the use of public finance for global climate change infrastructure spending, see “The Financial System We Need,” United Nations Environment Program, October 2015, download available, accessed August 7, 2016, www.unep.org/newscentre/Default.aspx?DocumentID=26851&ArticleID=35480, ix. UN project adviser Andrew Sheng: Xiao Geng and Andrew Sheng, “How to Finance Global Reflation,” Project Syndicate, April 25, 2016, accessed August 7, 2016, www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/sdr-reserve-currency-fight-deflation-by-andrew-sheng-and-xiao-geng-2016-04. Naomi Klein’s 2007 book, The Shock Doctrine: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007). Shock doctrine is an ideal tool: Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies: Volume 1, The Spell of Plato, 157–59. the Open Society Foundations: Ibid. CHAPTER 3: DESERT CITY OF THE MIND “Keynes asked me what I was advising”: Somary, The Raven of Zurich, 146–47. LANL is the crown jewel: Extensive information about Los Alamos National Laboratory, including history, operations, security protocols, and a virtual tour, is available at the laboratory’s website, “Los Alamos National Laboratory,” accessed August 9, 2016, http://lanl.gov.

Global tax schemes to finance climate infrastructure solutions will be imposed. Information sharing and global cooperation will leave corporations and wealthy individuals without shelter. Coordinated action in the form of global wealth extraction will displace the former practice of sovereign economic competition. Global power elites will share the spoils. The elite agenda is settled. Elites now await a new shock. The Shock Doctrine Naomi Klein’s 2007 book, The Shock Doctrine, popularized a technique elites use to advance hidden agendas. Elites formulate plans for the world order they wish to see. They wait for an exogenous shock, a natural disaster or financial crisis, then use fear created by shock to advance their vision. New policy is presented to mitigate the fear. The policy is a way to advance the plan for world order. The idea is simple, yet applying shock doctrine involves decades of persistent effort.


pages: 379 words: 109,223

Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business by Ken Auletta

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, corporate raider, crossover SUV, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, Google Glasses, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, NetJets, Network effects, pattern recognition, pets.com, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, éminence grise

A 2016 study of Western Europe for the World Federation of Advertisers, based in Brussels, concluded that each euro spent on advertising equates to seven euros of economic value. Predicting the exact impact of advertising on consumer behavior is not an exact science—though this book will demonstrate that going forward data will yield better evidence—but by anyone’s measure, advertising and marketing packs a mighty economic wallop. Naomi Klein chose to measure the impact of advertising in a very different way. In her book No Logo,* first published in 2000, she portrayed advertising “as the most public face of a deeply faulty economic system” that promoted sweatshops to produce their often unhealthy products, and that propped up global companies that held sway over politicians to advance globalism, which exported jobs. Her harsh critique of advertising as addictively manipulative was echoed sixteen years later by Tim Wu, whose book The Attention Merchants* argues that by demanding their content be “free” and refusing to pay subscriptions or micropayments, consumers invite intrusive ads and receive inferior journalism and content.

Evidence of advertising fatigue is found in ad blockers and in Nielsen data that says half of those who watch TV shows they have recorded on their DVR devices skip past the ads. The anxiety of the advertising community is revealed in the gibberish or verbal smokescreens they now employ. Just before the millennium, advertisers began to refer to themselves as “brand stewards,” as if the brand had a soul. Nike, as an amused Naomi Klein observed, announced that its mission was to “enhance people’s lives through sports and fitness”; Polaroid said it was selling “a social lubricant,” not a camera; IBM was promoting “business solutions, not computers.” All this begs a fundamental question that comes up often in the advertising and marketing community: Are they sufficiently alarmed about the menace they face? There is a lot of brave talk, but it’s reasonable to wonder to what extent much of the community is simply kidding itself, living, as Robert Louis Stevenson once wrote, not “in the external truth among salts and acids, but in the warm, phantasmagoric chamber of his brain, with the painted windows and storied wall

As comfortable interrogating a network executive as he is interviewing a software genius or bottling a human tornado like Ted Turner, Auletta builds his media-technology books the way a mason builds a wall—upon a firm foundation, one brick at a time and as level as the horizon.” He and his wife live in Manhattan. What’s next on your reading list? Discover your next great read! * * * Get personalized book picks and up-to-date news about this author. Sign up now. * Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Picador, 2000). * Tim Wu, The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016). * Randall Rothenberg, Where the Suckers Moon: An Advertising Story (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994). * Bob Levenson, Bill Bernbach’s Book: A History of the Advertising That Changed the History of Advertising (New York: Villard Books, 1987)


pages: 227 words: 71,675

Rules for Revolutionaries: How Big Organizing Can Change Everything by Becky Bond, Zack Exley

battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, declining real wages, Donald Trump, family office, fixed income, full employment, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, income inequality, Kickstarter, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, plutocrats, Plutocrats, randomized controlled trial, Skype, telemarketer, union organizing

—Jim Hightower, author of Swim Against the Current “Bernie Sanders’s presidential run was a spectacular wake-up call, revealing the huge number of Americans willing to fight for radical change. That includes a great many who didn’t sign up for the political revolution this time around, which is good news: Our movements can learn how to go even bigger and broader. We can win—but only if we continue to develop the kinds of tactics, tools, and vision laid out in this vitally important book, perhaps the first to explore how to organize at the true scale of the crises we face.” —Naomi Klein, author of This Changes Everything and The Shock Doctrine “Climate activists around the world watched Bernie’s vibrant volunteer network with envy and wondered whether we, too, could build that level of engagement absent a candidate and national election. Bond and Exley answer that question: Yes, we can! Everyone who wants to solve climate change—or any other big issue—should read this book and get started.”

Here’s the fundamental problem with trying to launch the revolution on foundation money: The stewards of all those foundation billions are not going to pay you to overthrow the system. The people running the nonprofits participating in the coalition are not going to support you when you try to blow everything up. They can’t because they are dependent on that money—and money almost always comes with at least one string attached: the one that says you can’t blow everything up. When it comes to climate change—as Naomi Klein brilliantly documented in her book This Changes Everything—some of the largest environmental groups and their supporting industry of consultants are deeply in the pockets of big corporations and their charitable arms. The plans they propose simply don’t call for change as fast as we need it. And in this case, gradual change means catastrophe. At the robber baron summit for creating a new group to fight climate change, the donors didn’t come right out and tell the campaigners to set their sights low.


pages: 247 words: 68,918

The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Finally, for tribal, ethnic, or sectarian groups—whether Croats, Kurds, or Northern Ireland’s Catholics—achievement of an independent nation-state remains the most tangible form of universal recognition. The Multinational Menace No organization has been singled out as a threat to the nation-state more often or with more theatrical flair than the multinational corporation. In her 2000 book, No Logo, author Naomi Klein warned that “corporations have grown so big they have superseded government.”8 For a more colorful obituary of the nation-state, look back to one of the great American films of the 1970s. If you were around in 1976 to see Network when it was first released, you probably remember Ned Beatty as Arthur Jensen, standing in a darkened corporate boardroom and thundering at Peter Finch’s disturbed and cowering network news anchor, Howard Beale:You are an old man who thinks in terms of nations and peoples.

But none of these organizations has eroded the sovereign power of its member states. 7 The best recent reports on China’s system of censorship include Rebecca MacKinnon, “China’s Censorship 2.0: How Companies Censor Bloggers,” First Monday blog, vol. 14, no. 2-2 Feb. 2009; Race to the Bottom: Corporate Complicity in Chinese Internet Censorship, Human Rights Watch, Aug. 2006; and Journey to the Heart of Internet Censorship, Reporters Without Borders, Oct. 2007. 8 Naomi Klein, No Logo (Toronto: Knopf, 1999), xxiii. 9 Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh, The Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Policy Studies, Dec. 2000), based on statistics from Forbes magazine. 10 Frances Maguire, “The New Masters of the Universe,” Banker, Jan. 2, 2006. 11 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge (New York/Geneva). 12 These critics had plenty of vivid stories to make their charges stick: Union Carbide’s chemical plant in Bhopal, India, which accidentally released tons of toxic gas in December 1984, killing several thousand people over a period of several years; the Exxon Valdez oil spill that badly damaged Alaska’s Prince William Sound in March 1989; the reported use of poorly paid and treated workers, and even child labor, in footwear factories producing shoes for Nike, Puma, Reebok, and Adidas in countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Vietnam; Philip Morris’s allegedly aggressive marketing of carcinogenic cigarettes in developing countries; and the refusal of big pharmaceutical companies to allow patented HIV/AIDS drugs to be reproduced cheaply in the African countries that arguably needed them most.


pages: 482 words: 122,497

The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank

affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

Not only would privatization have changed the soul; it would have permanently reversed the political valence of the famous “third rail of American politics,” transforming Social Security overnight from the bane of the business community into its most powerful weapon. Touch Wall Street and you’re dead. The longing for permanent victory over liberalism is not unique to the Anglo-Saxon world. In country after country, business elites have come up with ingenious ways to limit the public’s political choices. One of the most effective of these has been massive public debt. Naomi Klein, a journalist who has traveled the world documenting the great shift to the right, finds that in case after case, the burden of enormous debts—often piled up by dictatorships or other noxious regimes—forced democratic countries to accept a laissez-faire system that they otherwise found deeply distasteful. Regardless of who borrowed the money and the appalling ways in which it was spent, these debts had to be repaid—and repaying them, in turn, meant that a nation had to agree to restructure its economy the way the bankers preferred: by deregulating, privatizing, and cutting spending.6 The American version of the debt trick is the vast federal deficit that magically reappears whenever conservatives take the driver’s seat.

John Tierney, “From FEMA to WEMA,” New York Times, September 20, 2005. 29. Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (1904; reprint, New York: Sagamore Press, 1957), p. 4. Lincoln Steffens, The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1931), p. 413. 30. “In one place on Earth, the theory would finally be put into practice in its most perfect and uncompromised form,” writes Naomi Klein. “A country of 25 million would not be rebuilt as it was before the war; it would be erased, disappeared. In its place would spring forth a gleaming showroom for laissez-faire economics, a utopia such as the world had never seen.” Klein, “Baghdad Year Zero: Pillaging Iraq in Pursuit of a Neocon Utopia,” Harper’s, September 2004. “[Paul] Bremer had come to Iraq to build not just a democracy but a free market,” writes Rajiv Chandrasekaran, the Washington Post reporter, in Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone (New York: Knopf, 2006).

Conservatives must establish their own doctrine and declare their victories permanent, not only in foreign policy, but in domestic policy as well. A revolution is not successful unless it succeeds in preserving itself.” Hart, The Third Generation, p. 158. 2. On breaking the cycle of nationalization and privatization, see John Burton, “Privatization: The Thatcher Case,” Managerial and Decision Economics, 8 (1987). On the privatization of housing, see Naomi Klein, Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), p. 135. Eradicating Labor Party socialism: Richard A. Melcher, “Thatcher’s Revolution: Act III,” Business Week, May 25, 1987. 3. The quotes cited here are drawn from the following essays, most of them available on the Web site of Americans for Tax Reform. “Crush the structures”: Norquist, “The 2000 Elections Will Decide the Democrats’ Future,” American Spectator, April 1999.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

A parallel authority was set up to resolve disputes: Ibid., see Discussion of the Cassation Commission, pages 28 and 30. But despite their good intentions: Ibid, 29–31. The Somali diaspora: France Lamy, “Mapping Towards Crisis Relief in the Horn of Africa,” Google Maps, August 12, 2011, http://google-latlong.blogspot.com/2011/08/mapping-towards-crisis-relief-in-horn.html. The journalist Naomi Klein: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2007). hundreds of thousands were killed: “Paul Farmer Examines Haiti ‘After the Earthquake,’ ” NPR, July 12, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/07/12/137762573/paul-farmer-examines-haiti-after-the-earthquake. The Haitian government believes: “Haiti,” New York Times, updated August 26, 2012, http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/haiti/index.html.

All it takes is a bit of creativity, plenty of bandwidth and the will to innovate. 1 These difficulties were compounded by the fact that the United States set up operational headquarters in Saddam Hussein’s former palaces, which had been turned into electronically shielded bunkers by the paranoid dictator. 2 We take these duties from a list of the ten functions of the state in the book Fixing Failed States, by Clare Lockhart and Ashraf Ghani, the founders of the Institute for State Effectiveness. 3 The journalist Naomi Klein famously called these actors “disaster capitalists” in her provocative book The Shock Doctrine. Klein argues that neo-liberal economics advocates seek to exploit a postcrisis environment to impose free-market ideals, usually to the detriment of the existing economic order. Like psychological shock therapy, this free-market fundamentalism uses the appearance of a “blank slate” to violently reshape the economic environment. 4 Estimates on the death toll of the Haitian earthquake vary widely.


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The Case for Space: How the Revolution in Spaceflight Opens Up a Future of Limitless Possibility by Robert Zubrin

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, battle of ideas, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, cosmic microwave background, cosmological principle, discovery of DNA, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gravity well, if you build it, they will come, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kuiper Belt, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, more computing power than Apollo, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, off grid, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, private space industry, rising living standards, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment

“Carbon Dioxide Fertilization Greening the Earth, Study Finds,” NASA, https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/carbon-dioxide-fertilization-greening-earth (accessed November 17, 2018). 7. Russ George, “We Can Bring Back Healthy Fish in Abundance Almost Everywhere,” personal website, http://russgeorge.net/2014/04/11/bring-back-fish-everywhere/ accessed November 17, 2018). 8. NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/giovanni_user_images#iron_bloom_northPac (accessed November 17, 2018). 9. Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism against the Climate (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014); Naomi Klein, “Geoengineering: Testing the Waters,” New York Times, October 28, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/opinion/sunday/geoengineering-testing-the-waters.html?pagewanted=all (accessed January 25, 2019). 10. Margaret Munro, “Ocean Fertilization: ‘Rogue Climate Hacker’ Russ George Raises Storm of Controversy,” Vancouver Sun, October 18, 2012. 11.

For example, Silvia Ribeiro, of the international environmental watchdog ETC group, objected to it on the basis that it might undermine the case for carbon rationing. “It is now more urgent than ever that governments unequivocally ban such open-air geoengineering experiments. They are a dangerous distraction providing governments and industry with an excuse to avoid reducing fossil fuel emissions.” Writing in the New York Times, Naomi Klein, the author of a book on “how the climate crisis can spur economic and political transformation,” said that “at first,…it felt like a miracle.”9 But then she was struck by a disturbing thought: If Mr. George's account of the mission is to be believed, his actions created an algae bloom in an area half of the size of Massachusetts that attracted a huge array of aquatic life, including whales that could be “counted by the score.”


pages: 258 words: 74,942

Company of One: Why Staying Small Is the Next Big Thing for Business by Paul Jarvis

Airbnb, big-box store, Cal Newport, call centre, corporate social responsibility, David Heinemeier Hansson, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, follow your passion, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Inbox Zero, index fund, job automation, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, passive investing, Paul Graham, pets.com, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, uber lyft, web application, Y Combinator, Y2K

If done poorly, this practice can create problems ranging from low ethical standards and unfair wages to vast amounts of waste as a side effect of manufacturing. In the beginning of separating branding from production, large companies believed that great fortunes could be made by achieving the lowest common denominator in production, and in recent years that belief has been propelled by the forces of globalization. According to author and activist Naomi Klein, however, globalization has had negative effects on workers, including poor conditions, low salaries, and unfair treatment. Klein believes that a new movement, one very much in line with the mind-set of companies of one, is breaking away from global brands with questionable morals that focus on maximizing profits over people, and that this movement will shift businesses toward slower, smaller, or on-demand strategies, making them more “fair” in all senses of the word.

McIntyre, “The 10 Most Hated Companies in America,” 24/7WallSt, January 13, 2012, http://247wallst.com/special-report/2012/01/13/the-10-most-hated-companies-in-america/3/. 120didn’t answer support requests on social media: Anna Drennan, “Consumer Study: 88% Less Likely to Buy from Companies Who Ignore Complaints in Social Media,” Conversocial, December 19, 2011, http://www.conversocial.com/blog/consumer-study-88-less-likely-to-buy-from-companies-who-ignore-complaints-in-social-media. 121 don’t align with their actions: Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales, “The Value of Corporate Culture,” September 2013, http://economics.mit.edu/files/9721. 121“commitment drift”: Maryam Kouchaki, Elizabeth Doty, and Francesca Gino, “Does Your Company Keep Its Promises? Revealing and Addressing Commitment Drift in Business,” Harvard University, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, July 21, 2014, https://ethics.harvard.edu/blog/does-your-company-keep-its-promises-revealing-and-addressing-commitment-drift. 8. Scalable Systems 127 low salaries, and unfair treatment: Naomi Klein, No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need (New York: Haymarket Books, 2017), 113. 129 return on investment of 3,800 percent: Jordie van Rijn, “National Client Email Report 2015,” Data & Marketing Association, 2015, https://dma.org.uk/uploads/ckeditor/National-client-email-2015.pdf. 130 26 percent more likely to be opened: Campaign Monitor, “The New Rules of Email Marketing,” https://www.campaignmonitor.com/resources/guides/email-marketing-new-rules/. 130 segmented automation emails: “Q1 2017 Email Trends and Benchmarks Show Increase in Desktop Open Rates,” Epsilon, July 24, 2017, http://pressroom.epsilon.com/q1-2017-north-america-email-trends-and-benchmarks-show-increase-in-desktop-open-rates-2/,7,11. 9.


The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly

airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

To reduce international threats and improve the prospects for individuals in such polities, alternative institutional arrangements supported by external actors, such as de facto trusteeships and shared sovereignty, should be added to the list of policy options. He concludes: “De facto trusteeships, and especially shared sovereignty, would offer political leaders a better chance of bringing peace and prosperity to the populations of badly governed states.” Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice appointed Stephen Krasner to be head of policy planning at the State Department on February 4, 2005. As Naomi Klein wrote in The Nation on May 2, 2005, the U.S. State Department has an interesting new office: On August 5, 2004, the White House created the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization, headed by former U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Carlos Pascual. Its mandate is to draw up elaborate “post-conflict” plans for up to twenty-five countries that are not, as of yet, in conflict….

-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in 2003 drew up one of the most radical free-market reforms ever attempted anywhere. Stanford economist John McMillan likened it to the “big-bang” free-market programs that had failed in the ex-Communist countries. The Economist wrote in 2003 that the intention of the CPA for Iraq was to “abruptly transform its economy into a virtual free trade zone.2 Naomi Klein wrote in September 2004 in Harper’s magazine about the attempt to transform Iraq from the blank slate of post-invasion “Year Zero” into a “neocon utopia.” CPA chief Paul Bremer announced the layoffs of five hundred thousand soldiers and state workers, the privatization of two hundred state enterprises, no restrictions on foreign investment in the nonoil sector, minimal taxes, and no import tariffs.

Krishnan, “Professor Kingsfield Goes to Delhi: American Academics, the Ford Foundation, and the Development of Legal Education in India,” William Mitchell College of Law Working Paper no. 3, March 2005. CHAPTER 9. INVADING THE POOR 1.Quoted in http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/USRA_Imperialism_Justify.htm. 2.John McMillan, “Avoid Hubris: And Other Lessons for Reformers,” Stanford University mimeograph, July 2004. 3.Naomi Klein, “Baghdad Year Zero: Pillaging Iraq in Pursuit of a Neocon Utopia,” Harper’s, September 2004. 4.Ferguson, Colossus, p. 300. 5.Stephen Kinzer, Blood of Brothers: Life and War in Nicaragua, New York: Penguin, 1991, p. 364. 6.Lynn Horton, Peasants in Arms: War and Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1988, p. 166. 7.The quote is from a Reagan speech made in 1986. 8.World Bank, Country Assistance Strategy, 2002. 9.Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, p. 179. 10.Horton, Peasants in Arms, p. 201. 11.Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, pp. 144–45. 12.Robert Kagan, A Twilight Struggle: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977–1990, New York: Free Press, 1996, pp. 210, 212. 13.Ibid., p. 218; Kinzer, Blood of Brothers, pp. 97–98 14.Horton, Peasants in Arms, pp. 233–35. 15.Ibid., pp. 267–69. 16.Ibid., pp. 281–82. 17.IMF, Article IV Report, February 2003, executive summary. 18.World Bank, Country Assistance Strategy, December 18, 2002. 19.Worth H.


Adam Smith: Father of Economics by Jesse Norman

"Robert Solow", active measures, Andrei Shleifer, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, loss aversion, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, scientific worldview, seigniorage, Socratic dialogue, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Veblen good, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working poor, zero-sum game

For many on the right of politics, he is a founding figure of the modern era: the greatest of all economists, an eloquent advocate of the freedom of the individual and the staunch enemy of state intervention, in a world released from the utopian delusions of communism and socialism. For many on the left, he is something very different: the true source and origin of so-called market fundamentalism, author of ‘the textbook on contemporary capitalism’ according to the activist and writer Naomi Klein, the prime mover of a materialist ideology that is sweeping the world and corrupting real sources of human value, an apologist for wealth and inequality and human selfishness—and a misogynist to boot. One thing is certain, however: in an era in which economists and economics have become ever more influential, Adam Smith is regarded as by far the most influential economist who has ever lived.

., in David Hume, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, ed. Eugene F. Miller, Liberty Fund [1777] 1987 TMS: The Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie, Liberty Fund [1759–90] 1982 WN: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. R. H. Campbell, A. S. Skinner, and W. B. Todd, 2 vols., Liberty Fund [1776] 1981 INTRODUCTION ‘The textbook on contemporary capitalism’: from Naomi Klein, Sydney Peace Prize Lecture 2016, excerpted in The Nation, 14 November 2016. Smith is also deemed to be the origin of ‘Selfish Capitalism’ by the psychologist and writer Oliver James in his Selfish Capitalism, Random House 2008 Survey of economists: William L. Davis, Bob Figgins, David Hedengren and Daniel B. Klein, ‘Economics Professors’ Favorite Economic Thinkers, Journals, and Blogs (along with Party and Policy Views)’, Econ Journal Watch, 8.2, May 2011; JSTOR survey, see Avner Offer and Gabriel Söderberg, The Nobel Factor, Princeton University Press 2016, Ch. 5 Pushkin: Eugene Onegin, I.7 Banknotes: in 2016 it was announced that Smith’s image would be succeeded on the £20 note by that of J.

Cohen, Karl Marx’s Theory of History, Princeton University Press 1978 explores these issues in detail and with great clarity and sophistication Loss of institutions as a result of development of economic theory: see e.g. Peter Boettke, ‘Hayek’s Epistemic Liberalism’, Liberty Fund Review, September 2017. See also Murray Milgate and Shannon C. Stimson, After Adam Smith: A Century of Transformation in Politics and Political Economy, Princeton University Press 2009, Ch. 13 Critique of ‘neoliberalism’: see e.g. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine, Penguin 2008, and Paul Mason, Postcapitalism: A Guide to our Future, Penguin 2015. For a vigorous defence and reclamation of the word ‘neoliberal’, see Madsen Pirie, The Neoliberal Mind: The Ideology of the Future, Adam Smith Institute 2017. For initiatives to create a more inclusive public understanding of capitalism, see the work of the Coalition for Inclusive Capitalism, www.inc-cap.com Keynes and uncertainty: the fundamental impact of distinguishing uncertainty from risk and treating uncertainty as a radical part of nature is explored within Keynes’s work by Hyman P.


pages: 556 words: 141,069

The Profiteers by Sally Denton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche

Advocating a preemptive attack against Iraq, Shultz drew the analogy that “if there is a rattlesnake in the yard, you don’t wait for it to strike before you take action in self-defense.” Shultz neglected to disclose to his readers that he was a member of the board of directors of Bechtel, which was positioned to make billions of dollars in postwar reconstruction contracts. “Since his role was at arm’s length from the administration, he was able to whip up hysteria about the imminent danger posed by Saddam, entirely free from any burden of proof or fact,” wrote Naomi Klein, author of Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Nor were the riches now flowing limited to Iraq. Bechtel landed the contract to “remove the remains of the twin towers” after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. But the fact that Bechtel was also considered for the billion-dollar ground zero cleanup barely made the headlines. CHAPTER THIRTY More Powerful Than the US Army “Every so often Bechtel emerges a little into the limelight, blinks, and then retreats,” a writer for the Economist observed about the world’s largest construction firm.

The last public policy recommendation of neocon mentor Milton Friedman—the “grand guru of the movement for unfettered capitalism and the man credited with writing the rulebook for the contemporary, hypermobile global economy”—was to turn the tragic 2005 New Orleans hurricane into a financial bonanza for a handful of corporations. One of the deadliest hurricanes in American history, Katrina was the catastrophe that “Uncle Miltie,” as his powerful followers called the famous ninety-three-year-old economist, had been seeking for decades. In one of her groundbreaking and controversial books, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Naomi Klein described the free-market global economic strategy that the Friedmanites had been perfecting since the 1970s: “waiting for a major crisis, then selling off pieces of the state to private players while citizens were still reeling from the shock, then quickly making the ‘reforms’ permanent.” Katrina formed in the Gulf of Mexico in August 2005, causing severe destruction in the Bahamas and along the Gulf Coast.

“access to information”: George Arzt, “Koch Blasts Caspar,” New York Post, August 18, 1983. “hostility to the State” . . . “a secret supergovernment” . . . “fabrication” . . . “not to reveal details”: “The Koch-Weinberger Letters: An Exchange of Rejoinders on the Mideast,” New York Times, November 9, 1983. CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: ULTIMATE INSIDERS “young pup” . . . “feet” . . . “cluster of geniuses”: Rumsfeld, quoted in Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007), 65. See also Klein, 611, n. 5. “preference for uniformed”: Morris, “Undertaker’s Tally” (Part 1). “After the Iranian”: St. Clair, “Bechtel, More Powerful Than the U.S. Army,” 7. “unpaid government employee” . . . “simply wanted to be helpful”: Rumsfeld, Known and Unknown, 13. “almost daily use”: Julian Borger, “Rumsfeld ‘Offered to Help Saddam’: Declassified Papers Leave the White House Hawk Exposed over His Role During the Iran-Iraq War,” Guardian (Manchester, UK), December 31, 2002.


A Paradise Built in Hell: Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster by Rebecca Solnit

Berlin Wall, Burning Man, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, David Graeber, different worldview, dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, Loma Prieta earthquake, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, South of Market, San Francisco, Thomas Malthus, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, War on Poverty, yellow journalism

After panic has subsided—so the popular image suggests—many people are hysterical, or so stunned that they are helpless. Others turn to looting, pillaging, or other forms of selfish, exploitative behavior. The aftermath is widespread immorality, social conflict, and mental derangement.” Later, he described another stereotype: “that disasters render people a dazed and helpless mass completely dependent on outside aid for guidance and organization.” Those beliefs have yet to die. Naomi Klein’s 2007 book The Shock Doctrine is a trenchant investigation of how economic policies benefiting elites are thrust upon people in times of crisis. But it describes those people in all the old, unexamined terms and sees the aftermath of disaster as an opportunity for conquest from above rather than a contest of power whose outcome is sometimes populist or even revolutionary. She speaks of disasters as creating “these malleable moments, when we are psychologically unmoored and physically uprooted” and describes one recent disaster as being akin to torture in producing “profound disorientation, extreme fear and anxiety, and collective regression.”

Still the resemblances and ties between disaster and revolution matter. If a revolution is a disaster—which many who oppose them would heartily endorse—it is so because a disaster is also a utopia of sorts; the two phenomena share aspects of solidarity, uncertainty, possibility, and the upending of the ordinary systems governing things—the rupture of the rules and the opening of many doors. Naomi Klein’s Shock Doctrine explores one side of the impact of disaster: the scramble for power on the side of the powerful, of authorities, institutions, and capitalism. It is a scramble because multiple parties or facets of society are contending for power and legitimacy, and sometimes the other side—the people, civil society, social justice—wins. Not easily—in Nicaragua, Somoza strengthened his hold temporarily, but the same earthquake that gave him his opportunity intensified resolve and brought on the revolution.

This report is unpublished, but is available from the research center. 106 “From oral histories obtained later from key officials involved”: Ibid., 30. 106 “there are mass panics and wild stampedes. People trample one another”: Charles Fritz, “Disaster,” in Contemporary Social Problems: An Introduction to the Sociology of Deviant Behavior and Social Disorganization, ed. Robert K. Merton and Robert A. Nisbet (New York: Harcourt, 1961), 672. 107 “these malleable moments, when we are psychologically unmoored and physically uprooted”: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 21. 107 “profound disorientation, extreme fear and anxiety, and collective regression”: Ibid., 42. Klein is talking about the effects of the September 11, 2001, disaster on New Yorkers. 107 In a public talk: Sponsored by City Lights Books and held at the First Unitarian Church, San Francisco, September 26, 2007.


pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

., “In the Climate Casino: An Exchange,” New York Review of Books, April 26, 2012. 51. Climate justice: Foreman 2013. 52. Klein vs. carbon tax: C. Komanoff, “Naomi Klein Is Wrong on the Policy That Could Change Everything,” Carbon Tax Center blog, https://www.carbontax.org/blog/2016/11/07/naomi-klein-is-wrong-on-the-policy-that-could-change-everything/; Koch brothers vs. carbon tax: C. Komanoff, “To the Left-Green Opponents of I-732: How Does It Feel?” Carbon Tax Center blog, https://www.carbontax.org/blog/2016/11/04/to-the-left-green-opponents-of-i-732-how-does-it-feel/. Economists’ statement on climate change: Arrow et al. 1997. Recent arguments for the carbon tax: “FAQs,” Carbon Tax Center blog, https://www.carbontax.org/faqs/. 53. “Naomi Klein on Why Low Oil Prices Could Be a Great Thing,” Grist, Feb. 9, 2015. 54. The problem with “climate justice” and “changing everything”: Foreman 2013; Shellenberger & Nordhaus 2013. 55.

But as the economist William Nordhaus points out, this is a rash gamble in what he calls the Climate Casino.50 If the status quo presents, say, an even chance that the world will get significantly worse, and a 5 percent chance that it will pass a tipping point and face a catastrophe, it would be prudent to take preventive action even if the catastrophic outcome is not certain, just as we buy fire extinguishers and insurance for our houses and don’t keep open cans of gasoline in our garages. Since dealing with climate change will be a multidecade effort, there’s plenty of time to back off if temperature, sea level, and ocean acidity happily stop rising. Another response to climate change, from the far left, seems designed to vindicate the conspiracy theories of the far right. According to the “climate justice” movement popularized by the journalist Naomi Klein in her 2014 bestseller This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate, we should not treat the threat of climate change as a challenge to prevent climate change. No, we should treat it as an opportunity to abolish free markets, restructure the global economy, and remake our political system.51 In one of the more surreal episodes in the history of environmental politics, Klein joined the infamous David and Charles Koch, the billionaire oil industrialists and bankrollers of climate change denial, in helping to defeat a 2016 Washington state ballot initiative that would have implemented the country’s first carbon tax, the policy measure which almost every analyst endorses as a prerequisite to dealing with climate change.52 Why?

See sex differences; women mental health and illness cognitive behavioral therapy, 175, 282 depression, 280–83, 284, 476n74 disease mongering/concept creep, 281–2 drugs for, 281, 282 and freedom, 285 paradox of, 282 as percentage of global burden of disease, 282 rates of depression and anxiety, 282–3, 476n74 See also anxiety; suicide mental models, 22–3 Mercier, Hugo, 380 Merton, Robert, xvii–xviii methane (natural gas), 136, 143, 147, 183 methodological naturalism, 421–2 Mexican-American War (1946–48), 163 Mexico agriculture in, 76 homicide rates in, 169, 170, 172 literacy in, 236 Mexican Revolution, 199 social spending in, 109 Trump and immigration from, 336 women’s rights in, 222 Meyer, Bruce, 116 microwave ovens, 252 Midas, King, 299 Middle Ages accidental death rates in, 180–81 belief in external forces, 9–10 cost of artificial light in, 253, 253 homicide in, 43, 168 poverty and, 79–80 private militias as ubiquitous in, 197 racism and slavery of, 397 middle class globalization and effects on, 112, 113, 118–19, 339, 340 worldwide increase of, 86, 459–60n18 Middle East and North Africa carbon emissions of, 144 communist governments in, 200 education in, 236–7, 237 emancipative values in, 227–8, 227, 439 imperialist interventions in, 439 literacy and, 236 refugees from, and European populism, 338 See also Arab countries; Muslim countries; individual countries Milanović, Branko, 104–5, 111, 112, 113 military governments, 200 military spending, 162, 467n18 Millennials, 225 depression and, 476n74 digital technology and, 244 happiness and, 273 as increasingly liberal, 217 low voter turnout in Trump’s election, 343 secularization and, 437 suicide and, 280 well-being of, 283 Miller, George, 314 Mill, John Stuart, 373, 417 Milošević, Slobodan, 447 mind-body dualism, 3, 22, 422, 427 mining safety and working conditions, 185, 230 minority rights, populist disregard for, 333, 340 misanthropy of cultural criticism, 34, 247, 446 of traditional environmentalism, 122, 134, 154 Mishima, Yukio, 446 Missouri, capital punishment in, 211 mobile phones/smartphones, 94–5, 257, 331 Mokyr, Joel, 82–3, 332 Molière, 411 Monbiot, George, 264 Mongolia, 85, 86 Monitoring the Future (youth survey), 185 monotonicity, 44 Montefiore, Hugh, 465n76 Montesquieu, 8, 10, 12, 13, 223 Monty Python’s Flying Circus, 392 Mooney, Chris, 387 Moore, Patrick, 465n76 Moore’s Law, 46, 298, 330 morality as balancing desires conflicting with others’, 414 basis of, 412–15, 419 capital punishment abolition and, 211–12, 213 deontological, 416–18 evolution as selecting for, 415 humanism and, 395, 410 impartiality and, 412–13, 415 progress in, as cumulative, 327 relativists vs. realists, 429–30 and safety regulations, 190 social contracts against harm, 27–8 sympathy and, 415 utilitarian, 415–19 and violence, vulnerability to, 414–15 See also theism and theistic morality moral sense abstract reasoning and honing of, 243 deficits in, 26, 140 root-causism and, 169–70 sacrifice and, 140–41 Morgenthau, Hans, 309 Morrison, Philip, 308 Morton, Oliver, 154 Moss, Jonathan, 402 Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 178 motor vehicles accident deaths, 42, 176–8, 177 deaths in, vs. terrorist deaths, 192, 193 decline in demand for, 135 drunk driving, 178 robotic cars, 180 safety, development of, 177–8, 190 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 200 Mozambique, escape from poverty of, 85, 86 Mozgovoi, Aleksandr, 479n93 Mueller, John, 205–6, 263, 305, 310–311, 313 Mugabe, Robert, 91 Mukherjee, Bharati, 284 Muller, Richard, 313 multiethnic communities, 405, 448, 450 multiverse theory, 424–5 Munroe, Randall, 127, 128, 430, 489n52 music, 260, 407 Musk, Elon, 296 Muslim countries atheists in, 435 cohorts, 442, 491n106 cruel punishments in, 439, 440 emancipative values weakest in, 223, 227–8, 227, 240, 439, 442 female genital mutilation in, 439 fertility decreasing in, 126, 436 homosexuality as crime in, 223, 439, 440 “honor killings” of women in, 439 and humanism, lack of progress in, 439–42 humanistic revolution in, 442–3, 491n106 human rights violations and, 439 separation of mosque and state, 441 theocracies and, 201 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 418–19 women’s rights in, 222, 439, 442, 491n106 See also Arab countries; Islam; Islamist extremists; Muslims Muslims conspiracy theories and, 67, 336 hate crimes targeting, 219–20, 220 literal readings of Quran, 440, 490n96 percentage of world population, 436 sharia law and, 440, 490n96 as strongly religious, 440 Trump and immigration of, 336 Mussolini, Benito, 445, 446, 447, 491n118 Mutar, Faisal Saeed Al-, 442 Myanmar (Burma), 203, 419 Myhrvold, Nathan, 477n20 Naam, Ramez, 298, 477n20 Nabokov, Vladimir, 261 Nader, Ralph, 177 Nagel, Thomas, 351–2, 412, 413, 427, 429, 482n4, 488n43 Nalin, David, 64 Namazie, Maryam, 443 Namibia, 203 NASA, 295, 300 Nasr, Amir Ahmad, 443 Nasrin, Taslima, 443 nationalism as counter-Enlightenment value, 30–31, 448 political ideologies and, 31 romantic nationalism, 165–6, 447, 448, 449–51 Russian, 159 vs. social contract, 31 See also populism National Science Foundation, 356–7, 387 nation-states cyber-sabotage accomplished by, 304 as putative units of group selection, 31, 448, 450 romantic nationalism, 165, 447, 448, 449–51 tribalism and, 450 natural disaster deaths, 187–9, 188 destruction of civilizations, 295–6 extinction of human species, 294–5 natural gas (methane), 136, 143, 147, 183 naturalism, 392, 421–2, 486n17 Natural Resources Defense Council, 465n76 natural selection, 18–19 homeostasis discovered by, 22 human intelligence and, 297 humanism and, 413–14 reality as selection pressure, 355 See also evolution nature competition and arms races in, 19, 24–5 environmentalism, traditional view of, 122 purpose in, science as refuting, 8, 24, 394–5, 434–5 as robust, 133 Romanticism and, 30, 121 See also natural selection Nawaz, Maajid, 443 Nazi Germany Christianity of, 430 counter-Enlightenment ideology of, 397 eugenics and, 399 Holocaust, 161, 397, 399, 430 intellectual fans of, 447 Nietzsche as influence on, 445 public health invoked by, 399 “scientific racism” of, 397–8 See also Germany; Hitler, Adolf Negativity bias, 47–8, 293 Negroponte, John, 310 Nemirow, Jason, 140 neo-fascism, 419, 448, 451 neo-reaction, 419, 451 Nepal, 203 Netherlands commerce, embrace of, 84–5 emancipative values in, 225–7, 226, 227 happiness ranking of, 475n30 homicide rates in, 169, 170 life expectancy in, 95 literacy in, 236 populism repudiated in, 338–9 secularization and, 436 social spending in, 108 New Deal, 107–8 New England, homicide rates in, 169, 170 New Peace, 43 New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, 317, 318 Newton, Sir Isaac, 24 New York City, 172, 286–7, 380 New York Times, 44, 50, 74, 97, 151, 280, 292, 373, 409, 420 New Zealand economic freedom in, 365, 483n39 education in, 237 and escape from poverty, 85 happiness and, 451, 475n30 IQ gains in, 241, 241 secularization and, 437, 438–9 social spending in, 365, 483n39 well-being and, 438–9, 451 women’s rights in, 222 Nicaragua, 158 Niebuhr, Reinhold, 311 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 443–7 cultural pessimism, advocate of, 39–40, 406 intellectuals and artists as fans, 445, 446–7, 452 quotations from, 444–5 See also romantic heroism Niger, 203 Nigeria democratization of, 203 famine in, 73 killings by Boko Haram in, 162 polio in, 65 secularization and, 436 terrorist deaths in, 193 Nisbet, Robert, 40 Nixon, Richard, 119 Nobel Peace Prize, 203, 232, 240, 316 Nomani, Asra, 443 Non-Proliferation Treaty (1970), 316–17 No Nukes concert and film (1979), 147 nonviolent resistance, success rate of, 405 non-Western Enlightenments, 29–30, 419, 439, 442–3, 456n2 Norberg, Johan, 54–5, 68, 79, 125, 203–4 Nordhaus, Ted, 122, 141–2, 147, 253–4 Nordhaus, William, 138, 253 Nordic countries egalitarian income distribution in, 98 emancipative values in, 225–7, 226, 227 environment of, 130 and escape from poverty, 85 forced sterilization laws of, 399 human rights in, 208, 208 Norma Rae (film), 113 Norris, Pippa, 224, 340 North, Douglass, 83 North Korea Arduous March, 78 as autocratic, 201–2 conflict with South Korea, 158 democratization and, 206 famine in, 78 human rights in, 208, 208 nuclear weapons and, 317, 320 poverty in, 90 Norvig, Peter, 477n20 Norway emancipative values in, 225–7, 226, 227 happiness ranking of, 475n30 human rights in, 208, 208 income per capita in, 271 populism and, 341 nostalgia, 48, 113, 256 Nozick, Robert, 99 nuclear power, 144–5, 146–50, 330, 465n76 nuclear war, 307–321 balance of terror, 315 ban on (Global Zero), 315–17, 320–21 close calls, 310, 312–13, 318, 479nn93,95 deterrence and, 312, 314–15, 317 fear, failure to mobilize public, 308–311, 479n80 Graduated Reciprocation in Tension-Reduction (GRIT), 318, 320 historical pessimism and, 308 and international relations, 312, 315 launch on warning (hair trigger), 315, 319–20 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), 315 nations with capacity, 313, 317–18, 318 New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), 317, 318 no-first-use pledge, 320 Non-Proliferation Treaty (1970), 316–17 nuclear winter, 308, 310 probability of nuclear war, 312–13 proliferation limited, 313 reduction of arsenal, 317–19, 318, 480nn113,117,121 second-strike capacity, 315, 319 security dilemma (Hobbesian trap) of, 315 Trump and, 336–7 nuclear weapons arms race during Cold War, 291, 308, 311 complacency about, 286 Hiroshima bombing, 305 Manhattan Project and development of, 314 terrorism as threat, 310–311, 313–14 treaty banning atmospheric testing, 133–4 uranium extracted for power plants, 149, 317 Nunn, Sam, 316, 319 Nussbaum, Martha, 248, 264, 413 Nye, Bill, 434 Nyerere, Julius, 447 Obama, Barack approval rating on departure, 338 bullying as issue for, 49 conspiracy theories about, 336, 358 farewell speech and Enlightenment, 338, 481n30 as first African American U.S. president, 214 health care and, 109 on income inequality, 97 on “now” as best time to be born, 37 and nuclear weapons, 316, 319, 320–21, 336–7 racism and, 217 Republican obstructionism and, 432 theoconservatives and, 449 Obamacare, 109 Obama, Michelle, 214 obesity epidemic, 69 objective measurement actuarial formulas outperforming experts, 403–4 as goal of scientific literacy, 403–5 as morally enlightened, 43 Naomi Klein’s dismissal of, 139 resisters of scientific thinking objecting to, 403 See also data occupational safety and accident deaths, 185–7, 187 Occupy Wall Street, 97 Oceania, postcolonial governments of, 201 oceans acidification of, 137, 138, 153 and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, 136, 150 deep-sea vents as biological energy source, 19 desalination of water, 129, 149 fisheries, 325 geoengineering and, 150, 152–3 marine conservation areas, 132–3, 133 sea level rise, 137, 138 species extinctions and, 463n32 Oklahoma City bombing (1995), 194 Olds, Jacqueline, 274 O’Neill, Eugene, 446 O’Neill, William, 286 Ono, Yoko, 166 On the Waterfront (film), 113 opioid overdoses, 184–5 Oppenheimer, J.


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

.… The key will be luring middle-class families into the rebuilt city, making it so attractive to them that they will move in, even knowing that their blocks will include a certain number of poor people. Given how the recovery has progressed these past ten years, it’s tempting to wonder if New Orleans politicians used Brooks’s column as a playbook. Katrina became the perfect opportunity for politicians to institute what author and activist Naomi Klein calls “shock doctrine capitalism,” using the chaos provided by the crisis to push through the reforms Brooks suggests: dismantling institutions that served the poor, and making the city more accommodating to an influx in capital. The result is a city that feels richer than before, but also unfriendly to those who do not fit into its new economy. Bigard is one of those people. New Orleans has the highest percentage of native-born residents of any city in the United States.

one black New Orleanian named Henry Glover: Elahe Izadi, “Post-Katrina Police Shooting Death Reclassified as a Homicide,” Washington Post, April 1, 2015. Police also shot and killed two unarmed people: Associated Press, “New Orleans Police Officers Jailed over Katrina Shootings Get New Trial,” The Guardian, September 17, 2013. “These are some of the 40,000 extra troops”: “Military Due to Move in to New Orleans,” CNN.com, September 2, 2005. Before Katrina, the New Orleans public school system: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007), 6. “This is a tragedy”: Milton Friedman, “The Promise of Vouchers,” Wall Street Journal, December 5, 2005. Research from Tulane University: Adrienne Dixson, “Whose Choice? A Critical Race Perspective on Charter Schools,” in The Neoliberal Deluge: Hurricane Katrina, Late Capitalism, and the Remaking of New Orleans, ed.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

“The Hong Kong Blondes claim to have found significant security holes within Chinese government computer networks, particularly systems related to satellite communications.” It would look awfully strange if cDc did not print its own scoop. Besides, Misha thought the piece might raise awareness, and he had been solidly behind media pranks in the past. He smoothed out Laird’s interview and published it on the cDc site. After the Wired News piece, Naomi Klein got in touch. The rising Canadian journalist saw the Toronto angle and was especially interested in China. Clinton had been working to normalize relations and de-emphasize human rights, and he had just conducted the first presidential visit to the nation since the Tiananmen massacre. “She thinks we’re this righteous politicized hacking machine out for world peace or somethin’.… Anyway, we’re gonna get a lot of miles outa this baby,” Laird wrote to the group.

“Laird wrote that the conversation had taken place”: Oxblood Ruffin, “The Longer March,” July 15, 1998, www.cultdeadcow.com/cDc_files/cDc-0356.html. “As leader of the Hong Kong Blondes”: Arik Hesseldahl, “Hacking for Human Rights?,” Wired News, July 14, 1998, www.cultdeadcow.com/news/wired/19980714/. “Clinton had been working to normalize relations”: “President Clinton’s Visit to China in Context,” Human Rights Watch, n.d., www.hrw.org/legacy/campaigns/china-98/visit.htm. “Klein’s wide-eyed write-up”: Naomi Klein, “Computer Hacking New Tool of Political Activism,” Toronto Star, July 23, 1998, reprinted at www.cultdeadcow.com/news/newspapers/toronto_star72398.txt. Klein also wrote about the Blondes in her book No Logo, in which she explained that she had confirmed the legitimacy of the Laird-Wong interview with the “subject” of that piece. Klein declined repeated interview requests. “Was releasing Back Orifice to the public immoral?”


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

To the contrary, it was an unstable compound, the 269 TO SERVE GOD AND WAL - M ART product in part of impressive agglomerations of power and money.21 But it was also the progeny of pragmatic responses to real needs, of idealistic hope in redemption, and of the elevation of serÂ�vice from its devalued position in the broader culture. The ideological work required to attach these human impulses to the market or contain them within a narrow defiÂ�niÂ�tion of the sacred was breathtaking. Surveying the free-market transitions imposed in places like postKatrina New Orleans and post-invasion Iraq, Naomi Klein rightly draws attention to what she terms “diÂ�sasÂ�ter capÂ�italism,” or “the orchestrated raids on the public sphere in the wake of catastrophic events.”22 Quoting the free market’s most inÂ�fluÂ�enÂ�tial recent spokesman, she offers us Milton Friedman’s instructions for social change: “Only a crisis—acÂ�tual or perceived—,” wrote the Nobel Prize–winning economist in 1962, “produces real change.

This summary of neoliberalism draws heavily on James Ferguson, “Introduction,” Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006), 1–23; Nancy Folbre, The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values (New York: New Press, 2001); David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); and Robert Kuttner, Everything for Sale: The Virtues and Limits of Markets (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997). 3. Elizabeth A. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945–60, History of Communication (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007); Kim Phillips-Fein, “Top-Down Revolution: Businessmen, Intellectuals, and Politicians Against the New Deal, 1945–1964,” Enterprise & Society (2006): 686–94; Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007). 312 NOTES TO PAGES 127 – 1 3 1 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

See, for example, Elizabeth Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945–1960 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995); Kim Phillips-Fein, Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan (New York: W.W. Norton, 2009); James K. Galbraith, The Predator State: How Conservatives Abandoned the Free Market and Why Liberals Should, Too (New York: Free Press, 2008). 22. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 6. 23. Milton Friedman, quoted in Klein, Shock Doctrine, 6. 24. Liza Featherstone, “Down and Out in Discount America,” The Nation, January 8, 2005, 11–15; Steven Greenhouse, “Workers at Pork Plant in North Carolina Vote to Â�Unionize After a 15-Year Fight,” NYT, December 13, 2008, A10; George Packer, “The Hardest Vote,” New Yorker, October 13, 2008; Michael Luo and Karen Ann Cullotta, “Even Workers Surprised by the Success of Factory Sit-In,” NYT, December 13, 2008, A9; Carolyn Crist, “Group Seeks Higher Wage,” Red and Black [University of Georgia], February 29, 2008; www.econjustice.org. 349 Acknowledgments It takes a village to write a book, and I only wish the virtual village I have depended on for this one could be gathered into a single small town, maybe in the Ozarks.


pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, post-work, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

There are also numerous books by left-wing journalists and scholars that counter that the mainstream media is not liberal but conservative. See, for example, Eric Alterman, What Liberal Media? The Truth about Bias and the News (New York: Basic Books, 2003); and Edward Herman, The Myth of the Liberal Media (New York: Peter Lang, 1999). 55 See David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1996). 56 For a description of the “social centers” in Italy, see Naomi Klein, Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate (New York: Picador, 2002), 224-27. 57 For a useful summary of grievances across the world, see Samir Amin and François Houtart, eds., Mondialisation des résistences: L’état des luttes (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2002). 58 The literature on the 2000 U.S. presidential election is voluminous and growing. For an excellent analysis that focuses on the role of the media and the dangers it poses for democracy, see Douglas Kellner, Grand Theft 2000: Media Spectacle and a Stolen Election (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001).

For a list of protests against the IMF in the global south, see Jessica Woodroffe and Mark Ellis-Jones, “States of Unrest: Resistance to IMF Policies in Poor Countries,” in the newsletter World Development Movement Report (London, September 2000). 79 See Jeffrey St. Clair, “Seattle Diary: It’s a Gas, Gas, Gas,” New Left Review, no. 238 (November-December 1999): 81-96. 80 See Mike Moore’s personal description of the successful path of the WTO from Seattle to Doha, A World Without Walls: Freedom, Development, Free Trade and Global Governance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 81 The articles that Naomi Klein wrote as she traveled among the various globalization protest movements give a beautiful picture of their commonality and coherence. See Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate (New York: Picador, 2002). 82 Social democrats (ever since the famous Bernstein debate) have insisted on the contradiction between reform and revolution, emphasizing the reasonableness of the former and the absurdity of the latter.

See “Many Roads to Morning: Rethinking Nonviolence,” in Webs of Power, 206-36. 132 It is unclear in Slavoj Žižek’s provocative book Repeating Lenin (Zabreb: Arkzin, 2001) whether he is advocating repeating, as we are, the democratic goals of Lenin’s project without the vanguard leadership of the Bolshevik Party or whether he is, on the contrary, advocating just such an elitist form of political leadership. 133 Clarisse Lispector, The Passion according to G. H., trans. Ronald Sousa (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988), 3. 134 Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, act 4, scene 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It would be impossible here to thank all of those who helped us in the course of writing this book. We would like simply to acknowledge those who read the entire manuscript and gave us comments: Naomi Klein, Scott Moyers, Judith Revel, and Kathi Weeks. aA bricoleur is someone who constructs by piecing things together ad hoc, something like a handyman.


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After Zionism: One State for Israel and Palestine by Antony Loewenstein, Ahmed Moor

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, drone strike, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, land reform, Naomi Klein, one-state solution, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, young professional

The slaughter of Gaza – nearly four hundred children killed in a brutally efficient twenty-two days – had wakened American Jews. There was my new friend, Code Pink’s Medea Benjamin, who had worked all her life on global political issues, but who grew up in a Zionist family and had long been held by that allegiance to say as little as possible about Israel. Horrified by Gaza, she had now thrown herself into the question and was doing more than anyone else to help the Gazans, defying the Israeli siege. Naomi Klein, the bestselling author, was also galvanised by Gaza. In an appearance on the West Bank after the onslaught, she had apologised to Palestinians for her “cowardice” in not being more forthright before. These women were pioneers, but the entire community was in tumult over the question of Zionism. Even liberal Zionists were disturbed by what they saw. And it was foolish to deny that Jews were important in American society; we made up a significant portion of the liberal establishment, from newspaper columnists to university presidents to the hedge fund managers and real estate magnates who paid for all the non-profits.

He has written for the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Huffington Post, the Guardian and Al Jazeera English and is currently pursuing a master’s degree in Public Policy at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. “Nothing will change until we are capable of imagining a radically different future. By bringing together many of the clearest and most ethical thinkers about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, this book gives us the intellectual tools we need to do just that. Courageous and exciting.” Naomi Klein, author of The Shock Doctrine To our parents, and the Palestinians and Israelis who deserve better First published 2012 by Saqi Books Copyright © Antony Loewenstein and Ahmed Moor Copyright for individual texts rests with the authors ISBN 978-0-86356-816-9 eISBN 978-0-86356-839-8 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.


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Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

Corporation’s Role in Egypt’s Brutal Crackdown,” Huffington Post, January 28, 2011, http​://www.h​uffingto​n-pos​t.com/t​imothy-k​arr/one-u​s-corp​oration​s-role​-_​b_​815​281.html. 4 After thirty-three years of active service: In The Shock Doctrine, Naomi Klein argues that Kenneth Minihan is responsible for implementing the “disaster capitalism complex,” defined as “a fully fledged new economy in homeland security, privatised war and disaster reconstruction tasked with nothing less than building and running a privatised security state, both at home and abroad.” Similarly, in his book Spies for Hire, investigative journalist Tim Shorrock traces the subservience of public to private interests in the intelligence-contracting industry, an industry that specifically “serves the needs of government and its intelligence apparatus.” Shorrock writes, “In the past, Minihan said, contractors ‘used to support military operations; now we participate [in them]. We’re inextricably tied to the success of their operations.’ ” Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2007); and Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008). 13: A ZERO DAY NO MORE 1 In the aftermath of the 2011 revolution: The chaos that followed the collapse of regimes in Egypt and Libya helped pry open secretive security apparatuses, revealing the extent of their international linkages.


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No Shortcuts: Organizing for Power in the New Gilded Age by Jane F. McAlevey

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, feminist movement, hiring and firing, immigration reform, informal economy, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, precariat, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, The Chicago School, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Ramirez and Potter devoted 2007 to making a handheld amateur video about the school closings, going around the city interviewing teachers, parents, and kids. By late 2007, these teachers had formed a citywide study group on the closings, inviting other teachers to join through informal activist networks.28 The Caucus of Rank-and-File Educators (CORE) Forms Evolving out of the study group, whose first collective read in 2008 was Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine,29 two more important groups were developed: the Caucus of Rank-and-File Educators (CORE), inside of the Chicago Teachers Union, and soon after that the Grassroots Education Movement (GEM), a CORE-inspired coalition created with community-based organizations to fight school closings, gentrification, and racism.30 The Shock Doctrine had just been published, and Klein was shaping an analysis about mass school closures, capitalism, and racism.

New York City has yet to recover from this ugly moment in the teachers’ union history. 14.Sue Garza and George Schmidt, author interviews, September 2014. 15.Robert Michels, Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchic Tendencies of Modern Democracies, New York, NY: The Free Press, softcover edition, 1968. 16.George Schmidt, author interview, February 2015. 17.Illinois State General Assembly, Chicago School Reform Amendatory Act, Public Act 89-0015, 1995. 18.Although the idea was set up in the Amendatory Act, it would take one more year and some specific enabling legislation before the first charter schools opened in Illinois. 19.Illinois State General Assembly, ibid. 20.George Schmidt, author interview, October 2014. 21.http://www2.ed.gov/news/staff/bios/duncan.html. 22.CPS Stats & Facts, produced annually by the Chicago public schools. 23.Tracy Dell Angela, “South Side Faces School Shake Up,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2004. 24.The schools could also be “independent contract” schools or small schools, which, like charters, were placed outside the union’s purview. 25.Maureen Kelleher, “Rocky Start for Renaissance 2010,” Catalyst Chicago, October 1, 2004. 26.Angela Stich, “School Spirit,” NewCity Chicago blog, November 22, 2004. 27.Amisha Patel of the Grassroots Collaborative and Madeline Talbot, longtime leader of the Chicago branch of ACORN, author interviews, September and October, 2014. 28.Alexander Bradbury, Mark Brenner, Jenny Brown, Jane Slaughter, and Samantha Winslow, How to Jump-Start Your Union: Lessons from the Chicago Teachers, Detroit: Labor Notes, 2014. 29.Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine, New York: Picador, a division of Henry Holt Books, 2007. 30.GEM’s initial community partners included KOCO, the Pilsen Alliance, Blocks Together, Parents United for Responsible Education (PURE), Designs for Change, Teachers for Social Justice, and a mix of random Local Schools Council (LSC) activists. Bradbury, et al., How to Jump-Start your Union. 31.Kristine Mayle, author interview, September 2014. 32.Jackson Potter, author interview, October 2014. 33.Uetricht, ibid. 34.Sarah DeClerk, staff member of the Canadian Union of Public Employees, author interview, May 2014 (CUPE, which represents noneducation staff in the B.C. schools, was the only union in British Columbia to support the B.C. teachers); Kevin Millsep, Vancouver school board member during the teachers’ strike, author interview, May 2014. 35.CTU Union website biography. 36.Author interviews with George Schmidt, October 2014 and January 2015. 37.CTU Union website biography, retrieved February 12, 2014. 38.Jesse Sharkey, author interview, September 2014. 39.Jackson Potter, author interview, October 2014; see also Uetricht, ibid. 40.Madeline Talbot, author interviews, September 2014 and January 2015. 41.Uetricht, ibid.


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Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Our real world of humans, soil, and aquifers replenish themselves more slowly than the impatience of capital can accommodate. “Housing starts” can accelerate only as fast as the market for new homes. When the marketplace isn’t being artificially goosed by speculators, humans just can’t keep up with the housing industry’s need for excuses to cut down more forests, irrigate more land, and construct more homes. Moreover, as Naomi Klein has more than demonstrated in her book This Changes Everything, climate change is a direct result of an expansionist economy: the physical environment can’t service the pace of capital while also sustaining human life.19 Economic philosopher John Stuart Mill identified this problem as far back as the 1800s. “The increase of wealth is not boundless,” he wrote.20 He believed that growth wasn’t a permanent feature of the economy because nothing can grow forever.

.: Belknap Press, 2014). 15. Robert Slater, Jack Welch and the GE Way (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998). 16. Ben Steverman, “Manipulate Me: The Booming Business in Behavioral Finance,” bloomberg.com, April 7, 2014. 17. Morgan House, “5 Alan Greenspan Quotes That Make You Wonder,” fool.com, October 15, 2008. 18. Michael Lewis, The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine (New York, London: W. W. Norton, 2011). 19. Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014). 20. John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1909), IV.6.2. 21. Ibid., IV.6.7. 22. David Dayen, “America’s Ugly Economic Truth: Why Austerity Is Generating Another Slowdown,” salon.com, October 21, 2014. 23.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

Its transnational nature and reliance on non–state actors who can use digital media to override borders—Julian Assange, the founder of WikiLeaks, is a prime example—means it lacks true historic precedent. Climate change is another factor that makes our current crisis distinct from any other. It is doubtful that this group of roving criminals and kleptocrats are the climate skeptics they purport to be. It is far more likely that they are, as Naomi Klein phrases it, “disaster capitalists” who see opportunity in a dying planet, and who will spare no expense in pursuit of their own preservation.16 Throughout this book, I describe how digital media has transformed state repression and citizen protest, and how globalization allowed organized crime to proliferate on an unparalleled scale. I explain that mafia networks have long been accomplices of dictatorships (and sometimes democracies).

Sarah Kendzior, “How State Politicians Are Quietly Working to Steal the 2016 Election,” Quartz, May 20, 2016, https://qz.com/687408/how-local-politicians-are-quietly-working-to-steal-the-us-presidential-election/. 14.   Sarah Kendzior, “Welcome to Donald Trump’s America,” Foreign Policy, August 3, 2016, https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/08/03/welcome-to-donald-trumps-america/. 15.   Sarah Kendzior, “Be Afraid: Trump May Have Bought the Fourth Estate,” Globe and Mail, September 9, 2016, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/be-afraid-trump-may-have-bought-the-fourth-estate/article31789981/. 16.   Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2007). 17.   Sarah Kendzior, “We Are Heading Into Dark Times—This Is How to Be Your Own Light,” De Correspondent, November 18, 2016, https://thecorrespondent.com/5696/were-heading-into-dark-times-this-is-how-to-be-your-own-light-in-the-age-of-trump/1611114266432-e23ea1a6. 18.   Anna Politkovskaya, A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 216. 1.


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The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

The 1980s also saw the spectacular growth of environmental organizations around the world and strong campaigning against corporate pollution, with individual companies targeted rather than just a general push for regulation. This was the birth of campaigns targeting brands, with activists deliberately using a company’s focus on its brand as a point of vulnerability, as they did with Nike over sweatshops. Writer Naomi Klein noted: “Brand image, the source of so much corporate wealth, is also, it turns out, the corporate Achilles’ heel.”13 The more a company is a brand image, the more vulnerable it becomes to activist campaigns targeting that image. This was also the era when the seriousness of fighting for environmental protection came into sharp focus, with the murder of a Greenpeace activist by a Western government.

Graham Turner, A Comparison of the “Limits to Growth” with 30 Years of Reality, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, 2008 (Canberra, Australia: CSIRO, 2005). Available online at http://www.csiro.au/files/files/plje.pdf. 11. Ingrid Eckerman, The Bhopal Saga—Causes and Consequences of the World’s Largest Industrial Disaster (India: Universities Press, 2005). 12. I first heard of this phrase in 1999 when used by John Passacantando, then of Ozone Action and later of Greenpeace. 13. Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Picador, 2002), 343. CHAPTER 3: A VERY BIG PROBLEM 1. Principle 15, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992. Available online at http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm. 2. Article 2, Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992. Available online at http://unfcc.int. 3. Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2010). 4.


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Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

Together with Firestone, Standard Oil, and Phillips Petroleum, GM eliminated their competition, buying and then ripping up entire street car systems in 45 cities between 1936 and 1950.28 The car system we have today is, in a thousand ways, a creature of the year-in-and-yearout decisions of these corporations and of government, including especially the choice to invest what is a comparatively very small amount in public transportation. As the various stimulus bills made their way through Congress in 2009 with the urgent prompt of the economic crisis, it was hardly surprising, then, that the government targeted much of the money to “shovelready” projects, which were most often roads and bridges—infrastructure for the car system. This is an example of what Naomi Klein has called “disaster capitalism,” the phenomenon in which companies garner their most massive profits in extreme or crisis conditions such as wars, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and housing price collapses.29 While most people saw the crisis of 2008 as comeuppance for the car industry (and it certainly was unpleasant for the tens of thousands of laid-off auto workers), it in fact helped the car industry—both directly through bailout money and indirectly (and more importantly) through massive new road and road repair subsidies that will help sustain the car system far into the future.

Center for Responsive Politics, analysis of FEC data; Ken Dilanian, “Carmakers Funnel More Funds to Democrats,” USA Today, June 14, 2007. Andrew Ross Sorkin, “As Political Winds Shift, Detroit Charts New Course,” New York Times, May 20, 2009. By 1969, 600,000 people were working in local, state, and federal governments exclusively on the planning, maintaining, and repairing of roads. James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s ManMade Landscape (New York: Free Press, 1993). Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007). Surface Transportation Policy Project, “The $300 Billion Question: Are We Buying a Better Transportation System?” January 2003. www.transact.org/report.asp?id=223. CHAPTER 2 1. 2. 3. While the Mercedes sponsorship should lead us to take this claim with a grain of salt, 36 percent of a random sample of Americans with cars who were surveyed said they loved their cars.


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

In 2004, research by the American Psychological Association concluded that children under age eight accept advertiser messages as truthful, accurate, and unbiased, which is thought to be a strong cause for unhealthy eating habits and the current youth obesity epidemic. When graffiti irritated subway commuters, the authorities ripped out an entire train fleet and threw it in the sea. But the negative side effects of advertising are being largely ignored. Ads are messing with our heads. “The underlying message is that culture is something that happens to you,” says Naomi Klein in No Logo. “You buy it at the Virgin Megastore or Toys ‘R’ Us and rent it at Blockbuster Video. It is not something in which you participate, or to which you have the right to respond.” But for advertising’s evil twin, graffiti, responding is a specialty. The Bubble Bursts We’ve become inundated by a daily onslaught of ads, and street artists are taking notice. “The government, more and more, is whoring the public domain to big business,” Mark Jenkins tells me.

Jennifer Scott, Heidi D’Agostino, “Beyond Stereotypes,” findings of the 2005 Dove Global study, Dove Campaign For Real Beauty, February 2006. http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/ DoveBeyondStereotypesWhitePaper.pdf. American Psychological Association, “Television Advertising Leads to Unhealthy Habits in Children; Says Apa Task Force,” February 23, 2004. http://www.apa .org/releases/childrenads.html. Notes | 259 Page 126 Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Picador, 2000), p. 178. Donella H. Meadows, “The Global Citizen,” Alertnet.org, May 15, 2000. http://www.sustainabilityinstitute.org/dhm_archive/index.php?display_article= vn8491asned. Page 127 Kalle Lasn, interview by author, May 24, 2006 (other quotes from Lasn that appear throughout this chapter are taken from the same interview). Pages 128–129 Ji Lee, interview by author, June 29, 2006 (other quotes from Lee that appear throughout this chapter are taken from the same interview).


Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomsky, Laray Polk

American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

With the publication of 9/11 in November 2001, inarguably one of the most significant books on the subject, he became as widely read and as an essential a voice internationally as other political philosophers throughout history. That book, like the present volume, was composed from interviews. Chomsky has written and lectured widely on linguistics, philosophy, intellectual history, contemporary issues, international affairs, and US foreign policy. In 2010 Chomsky, Eduardo Galeano, Michael Hardt, Naomi Klein, and Vandana Shiva became signatories to United for Global Democracy, a manifesto created by the international Occupy movement. Laray Polk was born in Oklahoma in 1961 and currently lives in Dallas, Texas. She is a multimedia artist and writer. Her articles and investigative reports have appeared in the Dallas Morning News, D Magazine, and In These Times. As a 2009 grant recipient from the Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute, she produced stories on the political entanglements and compromised science behind the establishment of a radioactive waste disposal site in Texas, situated in close proximity to the Ogallala Aquifer.


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Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

One of these economic interests, imputed to multinational corporations, is the effort to create a division of labor so as to keep labor costs to a minimum. In the case of the enlarged EU, a hierarchy based on a division of labor seems to have unfolded. Eastern Europe’s part in transnationalism has been construed by antiglobalization and nationalist critics as primarily economic in nature: the region serves as a sweatshop for western member states. This is a provocative claim to make. According to Naomi Klein, “Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic are the postmodern serfs, providing low-wage labor for the factories where clothes, electronics, and cars are produced for 20–25 per cent of the cost of making them in Western Europe.” This is a cheap-labor substitution economy. As she asked about the 74 Chapter 3 EU, “How do you stay open to business and closed to people? Easy: First you expand the perimeter.

See Craig Calhoun, “The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travelers: Toward a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism,” South Atlantic Quarterly 101, no. 4 (2002). For a different perspective, see Seyla Benhabib, Another Cosmopolitanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). 51. Calhoun, “The Class Consciousness,” 872–73. 52. Calhoun, “The Class Consciousness,” 885. 53. Hedetoft, The Global Turn, 5. 54. Naomi Klein, “The Rise of the Fortress Continent,” The Nation, February 3, 2003. Metacultural Presumptions of European Elites 81 55. Angela Merkel (speech at at the official ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Treaties of Rome, March 25, 2007), www.eu2007.de/ en/News/Speeches_Interviews/March/0325BKBerliner.html. 56. Merkel, speech. 57. Ernst Hirsch Ballin, “European Identity and Interreligious Dialogue,” in The Cultural Diversity of European Unity: Findings, Explanations and Reflections from the European Values Study, eds.


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Freedom by Daniel Suarez

augmented reality, big-box store, British Empire, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, corporate personhood, digital map, game design, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RFID, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the scientific method, young professional

Now the razorbacks were all around The Major--trapping him in a circle of swords. The razorback nearest Boerner raised one sword, and Boerner hung his leather jacket upon it. He rolled up his shirtsleeves and grinned at The Major. "I do so enjoy my vork. . . ." Further Reading You can learn more about the technologies and themes explored in Freedom through the following books: Omnivore's Dilemma by Michael Pollan, Penguin Press The Shock Doctrine by Naomi Klein, Metropolitan Books When the Rivers Run Dry by Fred Pearce, Beacon Press The Shadow Factory by James Bamford, Doubleday When Corporations Rule the World by David C. Korten, Kumarian Press & Berrett-Koehler Publishers The Transparent Society by David Brin, Basic Books Wired for War by P. W. Singer, Penguin Press The Populist Moment by Lawrence Goodwyn, Oxford University Press Wikinomics by Don Tapscott and Anthony D.

Singer, Penguin Press The Populist Moment by Lawrence Goodwyn, Oxford University Press Wikinomics by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Portfolio Brave New War by John Robb, John Wiley & Sons Acknowledgments This book was quite a journey. Dramatizing the sweeping socio-economic and technological transformation of civilization required a little research. I'd like to extend my profound gratitude to: James Bamford, David Brin, Ian Cheney, Curt Ellis, Deborah Koons Garcia, Lawrence Goodwyn, Naomi Klein, David C. Korten, Fred Pearce, Michael Pollan, John Robb, and P. W. Singer whose published works informed this story in ways both great and small. The research and innovations of the following groups and institutions also aided greatly in the creation of this book: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, the people and State of Iowa, and the Ames Research Center.


pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

In good times, bankers are capitalists. During crises, bankers are socialists. In every crisis, policy makers argue that people’s life savings and pension entitlements are at risk if the system is not bailed out. No one asks who put them at risk in the first place. Bankers’ excuses are of someone having murdered their parents seeking clemency on the grounds that he is an orphan. The social activist Naomi Klein termed it disaster capitalism.15 Having unknowingly underwritten a system allowing banks to generate vast private profits, ordinary men and women were forced to bear the cost of bailing out banks. As his friend Dink tells author Joe Bageant: “Sounds like a piss-poor solution to me, cause they’re just throwing money we ain’t got at the big dogs who already got plenty. But hell what do I know?”16 On CBS’s 60 Minutes, Bernanke defended the policy: “I come from Main Street.

PBS Newshour “How big is too big to fail?” (15 December 2009) (www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec09/schultz_12-15.html). 13. Mervyn King, Governor of the Bank of England, Speech to the CBI Dinner (20 January 2009), East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham. 14. Senator Jim Bunning, Statement to the Senate Banking Committee on the Federal Reserve Monetary Policy Report (15 July 2008), Senate Banking Committee. 15. Naomi Klein (2008) The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Picador, New York. 16. Joe Bageant (2007) Deer Hunting with Jesus: Despatches from America’s Class War, Scribe Publications, Melbourne: viii. 17. F. Scott Fitzgerald (1973) The Great Gatsby, Penguin Books, London: 186. 18. Quoted in Charles P. Kindelberger (1978) Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crisis, Basic Books, New York: 130. 19.

Henry Kaufman (2009) The Road to Financial Reformation: Warnings, Consequences, Reforms, John Wiley, New Jersey. John Kay (2004) The Truth About Markets: Why Some Nations Are Rich But Most Remain Poor, Penguin Books, London. John Kay (2009) The Long and the Short of It: Finance and Investment for Normally Intelligent People Who Are Not in the Industry, Erasmus, London. Charles P. Kindelberger (1978) Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crisis, Basic Books, New York. Naomi Klein (2008) The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Picador, New York. Jonathan A. Knee (2007) The Accidental Investment Banker, John Wiley, Chichester. Richard C. Koo (2008) The Holy Grail of Macro Economics: Lessons from Japan’s Great Recession, John Wiley, Singapore. Jesse Kornbluth (1992) Highly Confident: The Crime and Punishment of Michael Milken, William Morrow & Co. Inc, New York.


pages: 662 words: 180,546

Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown by Philip Mirowski

"Robert Solow", Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, constrained optimization, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, loose coupling, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, sealed-bid auction, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, working poor

The purpose of chapter 1 was to suggest that a few subsequent years’ experience has vexed and discomfited almost everyone involved, and that political progress demands that this calamity be better understood. It may be the case that even those who feel they have a good working knowledge of political theory need to revisit the entire question of neoliberalism, if only to better focus upon the incongruity of the neoliberals coming out of the crisis stronger than when they were paving the way for its onset. It is one thing to glibly appeal to a nefarious “Shock Doctrine” (see Naomi Klein), it is another to comprehend in detail how the reckoning was evaded: something here dubbed the “Shock Block Doctrine.” Neoliberalism is alive and well; those on the receiving end need to know why. Questions as to its existence, its efficacy, and its vulnerability to refutation lie at the heart of the concerns that motivate this chapter. Neoliberal initiatives and policies still carry the day, and more to the point, most people still understand their own straitened circumstances through the lens of what can only be regarded as neoliberal presumptions.

These suggest a degree of coherence and stability deriving from both continuity of intellectual tradition and persistence of community boundary work, the sum total of which is capable of supporting analytical generalizations about the movement. Clearly, neoliberals do not navigate with a fixed static Utopia as the astrolabe for all their political strivings. They could not, since they don’t even agree on such basic terms as “market” and “freedom” in all respects, as we shall observe below. One can even agree with Brenner et al. and Naomi Klein that crisis is the preferred field of action for neoliberals, since that offers more latitude for introduction of bold experimental ‘reforms’ that only precipitate further crises down the road.68 Nevertheless, Neoliberalism does not dissolve into a gormless empiricism or random pragmatism. There persists a certain logic to the way it approaches crises; and that is directly relevant to comprehending its unexpected strength in the current global crisis.

Latter-day followers of Galbraith bring various counterexamples to the table, such as the recent policy to suppress cigarette advertising in the United States, but to no avail.86 Curiously enough, given that it bulks so large in everyday life, the average person still ardently believes that all that expenditure and all that effort to manage their desires is essentially impotent, and by implication, wasted. Neoliberals, as one might expect, have come to concoct a much more plausible justification of the phenomenon. They have carefully read and absorbed their leftist critics, from Thorstein Veblen to Naomi Klein, and far from rejecting them outright, they openly use their ideas to render the process of persuasion both more unconscious and more effective.87 Neoliberals have pioneered the signal innovation of importing the double-truth character of their project into the everyday lives of the common man. The modern hidden persuaders have gladly nurtured the conviction of the average person that he is more clever than those who seek to manipulate him in order to render him all the more open to that manipulation; the set of techniques predicated on this inversion has been dubbed “murketing.”


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Despite fuzziness as to what exactly defines the elite (Wealth? Status measured some other way? Particular professions?), the notion of a resurgent elite further strengthening its hold on government is very much alive. In 2008, days after the massive US bank bailout was announced and a few short weeks after the collapse of Lehman Brothers and the rescue of the insurance giant American International Group (AIG), the critic Naomi Klein described the era as “a revolt of the elites . . . and an incredibly successful one.” She argued that both the long neglect of financial regulation and the sudden bailout reflected elite control over policy. And she suggested that a common trend in the concentration of power linked together major countries with seemingly opposed political and economic systems. “I see a drift toward authoritarian capitalism that is shared in [the United States], Russia and China,” Klein told an audience in New York.

Mills, White Collar: The American Middle Classes. 27. Mills, The Power Elite. 28. Eisenhower’s speech is available online at http://www.h-net.org/~hst306/documents/indust.html. 29. Domhoff, Who Rules America? Challenges to Corporate and Class Dominance. 30. Christopher Lasch, “The Revolt of the Elites: Have They Canceled Their Allegiance to America?” Harper’s, November 1994. 31. Klein’s talk is available online at http://fora.tv/2008/10/20/Naomi_Klein_and_Joseph_Stiglitz_on_Economic_Power#fullprogram. 32. Simon Johnson, “The Quiet Coup,” Atlantic, May 2009, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/05/the-quiet-coup/7364/. See also Johnson and Kwak, 13 Bankers. CHAPTER FOUR 1. Interview with Javier Solana, Washington, DC, May 2012. 2. Larkin, Collected Poems. 3. William Odom, “NATO’s Expansion: Why the Critics Are Wrong,” National Interest, Spring 1995, p. 44. 4.


pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, iterative process, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Parag Khanna, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stocks for the long run, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, undersea cable, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Yet it is far from clear that American legislators are ready to take on the liabilities implied by a further extension of public insurance. Total non-insured damages arising from hurricanes in 2005 are likely to end up costing the federal government at least $109 billion in post-disaster assistance and $8 billion in tax relief, nearly three times the estimated insurance losses.6 According to Naomi Klein, this is symptomatic of a dysfunctional ‘Disaster Capitalism Complex’, which generates private profits for some, but leaves taxpayers to foot the true costs of catastrophe.7 In the face of such ruinous bills, what is the right way to proceed? When insurance fails, is the only alternative, in effect, to nationalize all natural disasters - creating a huge open-ended liability for governments? Of course, life has always been dangerous.

Scruggs, ‘Hurricane Katrina: Issues and Observations’, American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Judicial Symposium, ‘Insurance and Risk Allocation in America: Economics, Law and Regulation’, Georgetown Law Center, 20-22 September 2006. 4 Details from http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/PublicSafety/Hurricane_Katrina_Recovery.shtml, http://katrina.louisiana.gov/index. html and http://www.ldi.state.la.us/HurricaneKatrina.htm. 5 Peter Lattman, ‘Plaintiffs Laywer Scruggs is Indicted on Bribery Charges’, Wall Street Journal, 29 November 2007; Ashby Jones and Paulo Prada, ‘Richard Scruggs Pleads Guilty’, ibid., 15 March 2008. 6 King, ‘Hurricane Katrina’, p. 4. 7 Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York, 2007). 8 http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastdec.shtml. 9 John Schwartz, ‘One Billion Dollars Later, New Orleans is Still at Risk’, New York Times, 17 August 2007. 10 Michael Lewis, ‘In Nature’s Casino’, New York Times Magazine, 26 August 2007. 11 National Safety Council, ‘What are the Odds of Dying?’: http:// www.nsc.org/lrs/statinfo/odds.htm.


pages: 414 words: 121,243

What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

It sounds as if he thinks feminists were the tools of the CIA, but the ‘hegemonic’ did not mean the policies of this or that US administration but the liberal order of markets, intellectual freedom, democracy and human rights per se. This was not just the view of one little-read academic reviewing the work of another. Foucault himself argued that liberal democracy was the worst form of tyranny. The Enlightenment that Westerners imagined had freed them had in fact enslaved them in insidious ways that Westerners were too stupid to see – with the exception of French philosophers. In Naomi Klein’s No Logo, the best-selling leftish book of the millennium, modern ‘capitalism’ was an almost supernatural force. ‘In ways both insidious and overt,’ she wrote, ‘this corporate obsession with brand identity is waging a war on public and individual space: on public institutions such as schools, on youthful identities, on the concept of nationality and on the possibilities for unmarketed space.’ The idea that, with the exception of impressionable children, most self-confident citizens in free societies can cope with advertising was beyond her.

Scott Armstrong, ‘Unintelligible Management Research and Academic Prestige’, Interfaces, vol. 10, no. 2, April 1980, pp. 80–6. 99 ‘No one denies the need’ Denis Dutton, ‘Language Crimes: A Lesson in How Not to Write, Courtesy of the Professoriate’, Wall Street Journal, 5 February 1999. 100 ‘artificially difficult style’ Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin (eds), Critical Terms for Literary Study, 2nd edn, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1995. 101 ‘Ah – so that’s it’ Ophelia Benson, ‘Bad Writing’, butterfliesandwheels.com 102 ‘Narayan’s preoccupations with’ Azfar Hussain, Review of Uma Narayan, Dis/locating Cultures/Identities, Traditions, and Third World Feminism, 1997, Rocky Mountain E-Review, vol. 54, no. 2, Fall 2000. 103 ‘would be exceedingly…Yes’ Robert Conquest: Reflections on a Ravaged Century, London: John Murray, 1999, pp. 9–11. 106 ‘There is no such’ Quoted in Richard Wolin, The Seduction of Unreason, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004, p. 287. 107 ‘an Islamic movement’ Wesley Yang, ‘The Philosopher and the Ayatollah’, Boston Globe, 12 June 2005. 109 ‘In ways both’ Naomi Klein, ‘Introduction’, in No Logo, London: Flamingo, 2000. 110 ‘Disneyland is presented’ Quoted in Wolin, The Seduction of Unreason, p. 305. 111 ‘In Butler, resistance’ Martha Nussbaum, ‘The Professor of Parody’, New Republic, 22 February 1999. 114 ‘The ideas of’ J. M. Keynes, ‘Concluding Notes’, in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, London: Macmillan & Co., 1936. 115 ‘wrong to force’ Simon Blackburn, ‘The Lie of the Land’, Financial Times, 28 July 2006. 117 who ‘demonised’ Mugabe John Vidal, ‘Monster of the Moment’, Guardian, 1 July 2005. 119 ‘They operate on’ John Lloyd, The Protest Ethic, London: Demos, 2001, p. 11. 125 ‘Its cloying self-regard’ Ian McEwan, Saturday’, London: Jonathan Cape, 2005, p. 72.


pages: 767 words: 208,933

Liberalism at Large: The World According to the Economist by Alex Zevin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, Columbine, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, desegregation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, hiring and firing, imperial preference, income inequality, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norman Macrae, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Covers carrying the image of a poor child with dark skin and raised eyes became a visual trope in pro-globalisation pieces. See ‘The Case for Globalisation’, 23 September 2000. 49.‘Pro Logo: The Case for Brands’, 8 September 2001; Naomi Klein, 15 September 2001. ‘Pro Logo’ argued that brands were a blessing, ensuring quality, convenience, choice and consumer protection and accountability. And people liked them. A letter from Klein appeared the next week. But this was buried in the issue of 15 September 2001. The next time she merited a verbal flogging, she had been demoted to a small column in the business section where the level of threat she now posed was indicated by the title, ‘Face Value: Why Naomi Klein Needs to Grow Up’, 9 November 2002. 50.‘Americans without Bank Accounts: Into the Fold’, 6 May 2006. El Banco de Nuestra Comunidad ‘seemed to be getting it right’, Emmott wrote in 2006.

These would ‘not give that Indian child a better life’, and ‘tying trade to rules that forbid her from working will not help her either: that way lies greater poverty, not a better education.’48 In a sign of how concerned Crook and other editors were about the growth of anti-globalization sentiment in these years (a fact obscured by what came after), on 11 September 2001 – the day two planes crashed into the World Trade Center in Manhattan – the Economist on newsstands had nothing to do with Middle Eastern terrorists. In red, white and black, the cover read ‘Pro Logo’, and savaged the Canadian activist Naomi Klein for her ‘utterly wrong-headed’ No Logo (1999), the best-selling ‘bible of the anti-globalisation movement’.49 For his part, Emmott spied untrammelled vistas for financial innovation until the end. In his last signed piece in 2006, he hailed US banks for entering sectors served only by payday lenders and pawnbrokers. Citibank signed an agreement with 7-Eleven to put cash machines in 5,500 stores, while credit card companies ‘targeted the unbanked and under-banked’ – poor minorities and immigrants, who stood to gain from access to cheaper credit.


pages: 154 words: 48,340

What We Need to Do Now: A Green Deal to Ensure a Habitable Earth by Chris Goodall

blockchain, carbon footprint, decarbonisation, energy transition, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, smart grid, smart meter

My own website, Carbon Commentary (www.carboncommentary.com), also has useful updates on climate issues, along with source notes for this book. GREEN NEW DEALS Ann Pettifor, The Case for the Green New Deal (Verso, 2019). The UK-based economist looks at how countries can best allocate capital towards projects that improve low carbon infrastructure. Jonathan Ford in the Financial Times summarised Pettifor’s conclusions by saying that ‘she sees the nation state as eminently capable of financing decarbonisation’. Naomi Klein, On Fire: The Burning Case for a Green New Deal (Allen Lane, 2019). Klein brings a transatlantic perspective and a more radical emphasis on changing the very structure of our economies. She argues that conventional capitalism is incapable of dealing with the threat from climate breakdown. In this book I have tried to argue for a more moderate stance, not because of any faith in the ethical standards of corporations, but rather a conviction that rapid growth of zero carbon alternatives depends on the managerial and innovation skills of conventional large companies.


pages: 436 words: 76

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

Lewis's industrial sector would need to develop many activities at once. Development required the simultaneous establishment of a shoe factory, a clothing factory, a bicycle factory. Shoe workers could use their income to buy clothes and bicycles, and bicycle workers would buy shoes. A planning agency could coordinate this simultaneous development. Fifty years later, anticapitalist journalist and author Naomi Klein visited a shoe factory in the Philippines. 11 She did not find it a pleasant experience, and no sensitive person from a rich state would. Most employees of the factory were young women, daughters of peasant families. They worked long hours under tight discipline for low wages, living in small dormitories shared by four or six people. They had been lured by bright lights, depressed by lack of opportunities in their remote villages, encouraged to send money back to support their families.

Its equipment regularly failed because of lack of maintenance and shortages of spare parts. Workers and managers stole from the plant. The Morogoro plant was designed like a modern Western shoe factory, with aluminium walls and no ventilation system, inappropriate for the Tanzanian climate. The Morogoro shoe factory never operated at more than 5% of capacity and never exported a single shoe. It closed in 1990. Naomi Klein did not need to go to the Philippines to see the unpleasantness of early-stage industrialization. She could have read accounts of conditions in English factories during the industrial revolution, or Korean economic development in the 1950s. What she saw Culture and Prosperity { 281} in the Philippines was Rostow's "takeoff" as it had been in England and Korea. It would be wonderful-and very profitable-if the technology, capital, and equipment used productively in rich states could be transferred to poor countries that have not simultaneously evolved a matching set of social, cultural, and political institutions.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

I was describing them in the very last pages of my book Emergence, which celebrated the power of decentralized networks in many different fields, in nature and in culture: in the distributed intelligence of ant colonies, or city neighborhoods, in the neural networks of the human brain—and, increasingly, on the new platforms of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Emergence was not explicitly a political book, but I included the Seattle protests on the last pages as a nod toward a future in which social change would increasingly be shaped by these leaderless networks. I was not alone in sensing a meaningful connection between the Seattle protesters and the decentralized peer networks of the digital age. Writing in The Nation at the time, Naomi Klein had observed, “What emerged on the streets of Seattle and Washington was an activist model that mirrors the organic, interlinked pathways of the Internet.” It seemed clear to some of us at that early stage that the model of information sharing that the Internet had popularized was too potent and protean not to spawn offline organizational structures that emulated its core qualities. Seattle seemed just a preview of coming attractions; as the Internet grew to become the dominant communications medium of our age, social movements would increasingly look like the Internet, even when they were chanting slogans in the middle of a city park.


pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

4chan, AGPL, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WikiLeaks

<crisiscommons.org/about-us> Contesting the Shock Doctrines This type of external interest and action was previously reserved to human rights organization, media companies, governments and multinational corporations—all organizations that work in a pre y hierarchical and centralized manner. Now we see a new model emerge—a distributed networked collaboration of interested individuals contributing digital labor, not just money. The political vacuum presented by these natural or man made crises leave room for a strong active force that o en enforces a new political and economic reality. In her book titled The Shock Doctrine, author Naomi Klein describes how governments and businesses have exploited instances of political and economic instabilities in recent decades to dictate a neo-liberal agenda. In each case the interested powers were the first on the scene, imposing rigid rules of engagement and coordination, and justifying enforcement by the need to restore order. 101 In contrast, the activists are providing the tools and the know how for data production and aggregation.


pages: 182 words: 53,802

The Production of Money: How to Break the Power of Banks by Ann Pettifor

Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, the market place, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail

After the bailouts, politicians faced a vast policy vacuum. G8 politicians, led by Britain’s Gordon Brown, at first co-operated at an international level to stabilise the system. That co-operation and an internationally co-ordinated stimulus quickly evaporated. Worldwide, politicians and policy-makers fell back on, or were once more talked into, orthodox policies for stabilisation, most notably fiscal consolidation. As Naomi Klein had warned, many in the finance sector quickly understood the crisis as an opportunity to reinforce the global financial system’s grip on elected governments and markets. After some hesitation they jumped at this opportunity, in contrast to much of the Left, or the social democratic parties. No fundamental changes were made to the international financial architecture. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision tinkered with post-crisis reforms, but made no suggestions for structural changes to the international financial architecture and system.


pages: 190 words: 56,531

Where We Are: The State of Britain Now by Roger Scruton

bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, Corn Laws, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Fellow of the Royal Society, fixed income, garden city movement, George Akerlof, housing crisis, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, old-boy network, open borders, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, sceptred isle, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, web of trust

The anonymity of the global economy goes hand in hand with a certain spectral quality – a sense that the agents behind every transaction are not creatures of flesh and blood who live in communities but discarnate corporations, who take no real responsibility for producing what they sell but who merely stick their brand on it, so claiming a rent on producer and consumer alike. It is difficult to articulate this complaint, though it has been made, with varying degrees of sarcasm, by a century of writers from Thorstein Veblen to Naomi Klein – the argument advancing step by step in order to accommodate the latest move towards anonymity. This economy is not dislocated, as the nineteenth-century socialists imagined, but unlocated. Yet it is for this very reason that it troubles us. Economic activity has become detached from the building of communities. We do not know the people who produce our goods; we do not know under what conditions they work, what they believe in or what they hope for.


Affluenza: When Too Much Is Never Enough by Clive Hamilton, Richard Denniss

call centre, delayed gratification, experimental subject, full employment, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, mega-rich, Naomi Klein, Own Your Own Home, post-materialism, post-work, purchasing power parity, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, wage slave

Marketing goes much further than delivering a plethora of messages to assault our eyes and ears: it imbues almost everything and is impossible to escape. Indeed, Western culture can be described as a marketing culture and, as we will see, the advent of the marketing society is strongly correlated with the rise in depression, anxiety, obesity and a range of other disorders. The marketing culture is indispensable to the daily spread of affluenza. In her book No Logo, Naomi Klein describes the process whereby producers of consumer goods progressively offload all aspects of the actual manufacturing process by contracting out, especially to factories in the Third World. They concentrate their efforts on creating and sustaining the intangible features of consumer products that give them most of their value, that is, the brand. Marketing has become the foundation on which large corporations are now built.


On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Stephen Hawking

Reading and feeling enlightened by those books really played a big part in changing my vision of life and what it was supposed to mean. I started with reading Chomsky and slowly became very interested in anything that had to do with Israel/Palestine. Reading Edward Said, Mahmoud Darwish, Ghassan Kanafani, John Berger, Tanya Reinhart, Ilan Pappé, Norman Finkelstein, Noam Chomsky, Kurt Vonnegut, Arundhati Roy, Naomi Klein . . . all became part of my daily routine. Books changed me and I think that they are, more than anything else, one of the best tools we can use to learn, reflect on, and truly understand the world we are living in. They are a bridge between languages, continents, and people. A book will accompany you and will stay with you, it will mark you like nothing else. You will go back to it, quote it, argue about it.


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

See Larry Diamond, “Facing Up to the Democratic Recession,” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 1 (2015): 141–55, https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2015.0009. 63. Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007); Erik Olin Wright, Envisioning Real Utopias (London: Verso, 2010); Wendy Brown, Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005); Gerald F. Davis, Managed by the Markets: How Finance Re-shaped America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 64. Immanuel Wallerstein et al., Does Capitalism Have a Future? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013); Erik Olin Wright, Envisioning Real Utopias (London: Verso, 2010); Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism Vs. the Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015); Wendy Brown, Edgework: Critical Essays on Knowledge and Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005); Davis, Managed by the Markets; Wolfgang Streeck, “On the Dismal Future of Capitalism,” Socio-Economic Review 14, no. 1 (2016): 164–70; Craig Calhoun, “The Future of Capitalism,” Socio-Economic Review 14, no. 1 (2016): 171–76; Polly Toynbee, “Unfettered Capitalism Eats Itself,” Socio-Economic Review 14, no. 1 (2016): 176–79; Amitai Etzioni, “The Next Industrial Revolution Calls for a Different Economic System,” Socio-Economic Review 14, no. 1 (2016): 179–83. 65.

—Andrew Keen, author of How to Fix the Future “From the very first page I was consumed with an overwhelming imperative: everyone needs to read this book as an act of digital self-defense. With tremendous lucidity and moral courage, Zuboff demonstrates not only how our minds are being mined for data but also how they are being rapidly and radically changed in the process. The hour is late and much has been lost already—but as we learn in these indispensable pages, there is still hope for emancipation.” —Naomi Klein, author of This Changes Everything and No Logo, and Gloria Steinem Chair in Media, Culture, and Feminist Studies at Rutgers University “Zuboff is a strikingly original voice, simultaneously bold and wise, eloquent and passionate, learned and accessible. Read this book to understand the inner workings of today’s digital capitalism, its threats to twenty-first-century society, and the reforms we must make for a better tomorrow.”


pages: 236 words: 62,158

Marx at the Arcade: Consoles, Controllers, and Class Struggle by Jamie Woodcock

4chan, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, anti-work, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, butterfly effect, call centre, collective bargaining, Columbine, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, John Conway, Kickstarter, Landlord’s Game, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Oculus Rift, pink-collar, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, union organizing, unpaid internship, V2 rocket

Radically independent, we seek to drive a wedge into the risk-averse world of corporate book publishing. Our authors include Noam Chomsky, Arundhati Roy, Rebecca Solnit, Angela Y. Davis, Howard Zinn, Amy Goodman, Wallace Shawn, Mike Davis, Winona LaDuke, Ilan Pappé, Richard Wolff, Dave Zirin, Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, Nick Turse, Dahr Jamail, David Barsamian, Elizabeth Laird, Amira Hass, Mark Steel, Avi Lewis, Naomi Klein, and Neil Davidson. We are also the trade publishers of the acclaimed Historical Materialism Book Series and of Dispatch Books.


pages: 314 words: 69,741

The Internet Is a Playground by David Thorne

anti-globalists, late fees, Naomi Klein, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

Recently, we have been planning an event in which we intend to hop nonstop from Adelaide to Sydney to raise not only awareness for the sport of hopping but also funds for a new charity we have set up called The Roz Knorr Hopping Foundation, which will provide poor people with no legs a single artificial leg and accompanying hopping instructional video inspiringly titled “Never Give Up Hop.” Regards, David From: Roz Knorr Date: Wednesday 14 October 2009 11:16 a.m. To: David Thorne Subject: Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Adelaide loser You wouldn’t know the first thing about charity or giving back to the community. People from Adelaide don’t do anything for the underprivileged in society. Go read Naomi Klein’s 1999 book “No Logo” and join the ant-globalist movement & start defacing corporate posters in public places with political statements, or visit a sweat shop with 7 year olds in Mexico & blog about it. Until then you are just another selfish parasite taking from this planet. Watch your back. I leave for New York in my private plain this afternoon so I don’t have any time for anymore of your pathetic hick town nonsense.


pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, Kickstarter, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

Thanks also to my buddies Ali Gharib, Garrett Ordower, Hani Sabra and Dan Coughlin for always reminding me to not take life so seriously. Michael Ratner and Karen Ranucci have been so generous in their support and with their love for so many years. Thank you also to the great Michael Moore for giving me one of my first “real” jobs and for always supporting my work. Oliver Stone and John Cusack have offered support, encouragement and wisdom at key moments. My dear friend Naomi Klein has always been there for me through good times and bad. She and Avi Lewis are a great force for justice. Anamaria Segura and Phil Tisne have brightened my life. Muchas gracias also to Jorge and Clemencia Segura for all of their love and support. Wallace Segura is a scholar among scholars. Emma Kelton-Lewis and Daniel Avery have been tremendously generous in their personal support, as have Claire and Rennie Alba.

Allen, Principal,” Chertoff Group, accessed October 5, 2012, http://chertoffgroup.com/bios/charles-allen.php. 18 “happy to pull the trigger”: 9/11 Commission Report, p. 211. 18 September 4 meeting: Ibid., p. 213. 18 three years to implement: Ibid. 18 “‘broad covert action program’”: Ibid., p. 214. 18 “Only a crisis”: Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, 40th anniv. ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), Preface, 1982, p. xiv. 18 mentored Rumsfeld: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007), p. 14. 18 Cheney, sought his counsel: Nina Easton, “Why Is Dick Cheney Smiling?” Money.CNN.com, November 25, 2007. 19 “When that crisis occurs”: Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, Preface, 1982, p. xiv. 19 “a new Pearl Harbor”: “Rebuilding America’s Defenses,” p. 51. 19 “duty to use his bully pulpit”: Feith, War and Decision, p. 51. 19 “all necessary and appropriate force”: Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Those Responsible for the Recent Attacks Launched Against the United States, Pub.

Paul Bremer III, “Crush Them; Let Us Wage Total War on Our Foes,” op-ed, Wall Street Journal, September 13, 2001. 110 “running the occupation”: Ambassador L. Paul Bremer III, with Malcolm McConnell, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York: Threshold Editions, 2006), pp. 6–7. 111 “paramount authority figure”: Ibid., p. 2. 111 brainchild: Ibid., p. 37. Bremer describes Defense Secretary Rumsfeld as giving him his “marching orders” to proceed with de-Baathification, with Feith doing the groundwork. 111 “Order 1”: Naomi Klein, “Baghdad Year Zero,” Harper’s, September 2004. 111 “450,000 enemies”: David Rieff, “Blueprint for a Mess,” New York Times Magazine, November 2, 2003. 111 “We are going to fight them”: Transcript, Interview with L. Paul Bremer III, Breakfast with Frost, BBC, June 29, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/breakfast_with_frost/3029904.stm. 111 “My fellow Americans”: Transcript, “Remarks by the President from the USS Abraham Lincoln,” May 1, 2003. 111 were killed: Ann Scott Tyson, “Anatomy of the Raid on Hussein’s Sons,” Christian Science Monitor, July 24, 2003. 111 “the phrase ‘guerrilla war’”: Transcript, “DoD News Briefing—Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

One of the cornerstones of New Paradigm thinking, and one that's survived the bust, is the curious doctrine that "brand equity"—the financial value that stock markets assign to names Hke Nike and Mickey Mouse—is a kind of capital, like a lathe or even a piece of software. It's easy to see how even privately held assets of that more conventional sort can contribute to social wealth; unless they belong to a bomb factory, their produce can make people better off (even if the profits they generate are appropriated by a handful of managers and shareholders). But a "brand," as Naomi Klein (1999, p. 22) put it in No Logo, is a kind of "collective hallucination." Branders put a positive spin on these mass delusions. Ad agency Young & Rubicam identified them as "the new reH-gion," a source of "meaning" (Tomkins 2001). Today's brand builders, said Y&R, "could be compared to the missionaries who spread Christianity and Islam around the world."The best brands offer a set of uncompromising belief; among those names, Y&R disclosed, are Calvin Klein, MTV, and Gatorade.


pages: 269 words: 77,042

Sex, Lies, and Pharmaceuticals: How Drug Companies Plan to Profit From Female Sexual Dysfunction by Ray Moynihan, Barbara Mintzes

business intelligence, clean water, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader

Bizarre as it may sound, the idea that a drug company would play a role in ‘disease development’ is backed up by observations from another industry insider, this one with expertise in the practice known as ‘condition branding’.2 The advertising expert Vince Parry famously revealed how drug companies are sometimes involved in ‘fostering the creation’ of medical disorders, giving a little known condition renewed attention, helping redefine or rename an old disease, or sometimes assisting in the creation of a whole new one. The branding expert has said that as part of his high-level work for drug companies he will sit down with medical experts to try to ‘create new ideas about illness and conditions’. As the Canadian writer Naomi Klein told us in her classic No Logo, corporations are no longer just selling products, they are selling brands, and brands are about lifestyles and concepts, not commodities.3 These revelations about drug company plans to accelerate the development of a disease, in order to test and sell drugs for it, herald the opening of a new chapter in the story of the modern medical marketplace, where the corporate sector now works together with leading medical experts to help tell us who’s sick and who’s in need of the industry’s latest cures.


pages: 254 words: 72,929

The Age of the Infovore: Succeeding in the Information Economy by Tyler Cowen

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Flynn Effect, framing effect, Google Earth, impulse control, informal economy, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, neurotypical, new economy, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, selection bias, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind

The association of diversity with national boundaries or with regional geography is built into a great deal of the contemporary discussion of globalization, both among scholars and in the popular arena. If the nation of France becomes more like the nation of Germany, there is a presumption that “cultural diversity” has gone down. When people in Bangkok started wearing blue jeans and thus neglected native modes of dress, a wide array of commentators, from Naomi Klein to Benjamin Barber, suggest that such instances show a decline in cultural diversity. These writers asked how much one geographical region differs from another, and using that benchmark, they judged the progress of cultural diversity. But why should we focus on the form of diversity that lines up so closely with physical space, national boundaries, and “face time”? Many of the most important forms of human diversity, including neurodiversity, don’t line up with geography in any simple way.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Global celebrities can do nothing more important than inspire their own kind in every country they can reach. The most important heroes are local ones. It’s cynical to claim that celebrities divert attention from those truly responsible for atrocities or poverty when they attempt to shine the spotlight on precisely those who are in charge—and it’s naïve to think those who are responsible on paper will act responsibly in practice. Author and activist Naomi Klein dismisses the “Bono-ization” of protest because it is less dangerous and less powerful than street protests. But the trouble with this logic is that the rich have never stormed their governments on behalf of the poor. That some intellectuals and politicians feel insecure about the prominence of celebrities pressuring them while educating the masses is deeply disturbing. They should instead be encouraging anyone with resources and influence to chip in, since they know how little they are doing themselves.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Davis, Jemima Pierre, Vilna Bashi Treitler, Imani Bazzell, Helen Neville, Cheryl Harris, Karen Flynn, Alondra Nelson, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Mireille Miller-Young, bell hooks, Brittney Cooper, Catherine Squires, Barbara Smith, and Janell Hobson, some of whom I have never met in person but whose intellectual work has made a profound difference for me for many years. I deeply appreciate the work and influence of Isabel Molina, Sandra Harding, Sharon Traweek, Jean Kilbourne, Naomi Wolfe, and Naomi Klein too. Herbert Schiller’s and Vijay Prashad’s work has also been important to me. I was especially intellectually sustained by a number of friends whose work I respect so much, who kept a critical eye on my research or career, and who inspired me when the reality of how women and girls are represented in commercial search would deplete me (in alphabetical order): André Brock, Ergin Bulut, Michelle Caswell, Sundiata Cha-Jua, Kate Crawford, Jessie Daniels, Christian Fuchs, Jonathan Furner, Anne Gilliland, Tanya Golash-Boza, Alex Halavais, Christa Hardy, Peter Hudson, John I.


pages: 373 words: 80,248

Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle by Chris Hedges

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cal Newport, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, social intelligence, statistical model, uranium enrichment

Will we radically transform our system to one that protects the ordinary citizen and fosters the common good, that defies the corporate state, or will we employ the brutality and technology of our internal security and surveillance apparatus to crush all dissent? There were some who saw it coming. The political philosophers Sheldon S. Wolin, John Ralston Saul, and Andrew Bacevich, writers such as Noam Chomsky, Chalmers Johnson, David Korten, and Naomi Klein, and activists such as Bill McKibben, Wendell Berry, and Ralph Nader warned us about our march of folly. In the immediate years after the Second World War, a previous generation of social critics recognized the destructive potential of the rising corporate state. Books such as David Riesman’s The Lonely Crowd, C. Wright Mills’s The Power Elite, William H. White’s The Organization Man, Seymour Mellman’s The Permanent War Economy: American Capitalism in Decline, Daniel Boorstin’s The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, and Reinhold Niebuhr’s The Irony of American History have proved to be prophetic.


pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla

British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

As far as large distributors are concerned, the global giant Wal-Mart has also started providing FT products (see Box 3.3). How can labelling initiatives trade with actors whose economic, social and environmental practices are criticised worldwide? How can it be that they work hand in hand with actors often considered as responsible for the low remuneration received by producers and workers in the South and the North? Naomi Klein’s No Logo (2009) is without a doubt the best-known book among those that exposed these contradictions. In France, Christian Jacquiau’s investigation (2006) fits perfectly into this framework. Hence the hostile reception from the Fairtrade sphere. Fair Trade: a concept of variable geometry Looking at it closely, it is essentially the notion of Fair Trade as defined and implemented by FLO which is considered problematic by alterglobalist critics.


pages: 263 words: 79,016

The Sport and Prey of Capitalists by Linda McQuaig

anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, diversification, Donald Trump, energy transition, financial innovation, Kickstarter, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, payday loans, profit motive, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing

Praise for Linda McQuaig On The Trouble with Billionaires A devastating expose … An indispensable read. — Naomi Klein Magnificent — the book of the moment. — George Monbiot, UK journalist and columnist for the Guardian I don’t know another book that illuminates the epic crime behind the current “economic crisis” as concisely, vividly and truthfully … — John Pilger, UK-based journalist and documentary filmmaker A narrative that moves along at the clip of a detective novel. I adore this book with its policy smarts and folksy style. — Ellie Kirzner, NOW Magazine This book is chock-full of hard economic facts — yet it’s as readable as a crime novel. Come to think of it, this is a crime novel — except that it’s true. — Jim Stanford, economist and CBC–TV commentator Cutting commentary on disproportionate wealth by one of Canada’s most provocative journalists and a leading Canadian tax expert


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

You may recall his comment that three things are important in politics; the first is money—and he couldn’t recall the others. Money has always played a relatively large role in our nation’s politics. Donations from executives were helpful in the political career of Ronald Reagan and contributed to the Chicago School’s success in promoting deregulation. Friedman allowed his ideology to be exploited by executive suites, providing a fig leaf of respectability for their emerging narcissism. Writer Naomi Klein explains Friedman’s role in resurrecting laissez-faire economics this way: “If Friedman’s close friend Walter Wriston, head of Citibank, had come forward and argued that the minimum wage and corporate taxes should be abolished, he naturally would have been accused of being a robber baron. And that’s where the Chicago School came in. It quickly became clear that when Friedman, a brilliant mathematician and skilled debater, made those same arguments, they took on an entirely different quality.

It is no accident that Soros’ Quantum fund is named in honor of physicist Werner Heisenberg. 39 John Kay, “How economics lost sight of the real world,” Financial Times, April 21, 2009. 40 Joseph Stiglitz, “Bleakonomics,” New York Times, September 30, 2007. 41 John Plender, “Capitalism in convulsion: Toxic assets head toward the public balance sheet,” Financial Times, September 19, 2008. 42 Nouriel Roubini, “Anglo-Saxon model has failed,” Financial Times, February 9, 2009. 43 Richard Thaler, “Markets can be wrong and the price is not always right,” Financial Times, August 4, 2009. 44 Ken Silverstein, “Labor’s Last Stand,” Harper’s Magazine, July 2009. 45 Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007), 68. 46 David E. Hoffman, The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2009), 41. 47 See David Frum, Comeback: Conservatism That Can Win Again (New York: Broadway Books, 2008). 48 See Simon Johnson, “The Quiet Coup,” The Atlantic, May 2009. 49 Christine Mattauch, “The Secret Lobbyists,” Handelsblatt, February 28, 2011.


pages: 334 words: 82,041

How Did We Get Into This Mess?: Politics, Equality, Nature by George Monbiot

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, dematerialisation, demographic transition, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, land reform, land value tax, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, peak oil, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, urban sprawl, wealth creators, World Values Survey

Thank you too to my assistant Ketty Hughes; my agents James Macdonald Lockhart and Antony Harwood; the editor and commissioner of this book, Leo Hollis, whose idea it was; and the many friends (and opponents) with whom I have debated the issues it contains. September 2015 Notes Introduction 1Thomas Piketty, 2014, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 2Susan Jacoby, 2008, The Age of American Unreason: Dumbing Down and the Future of Democracy, Old Street Publishing, London. 3David Harvey, 2005, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, Oxford; Naomi Klein, 2007, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Penguin Books, London. 4Isaiah Berlin, 1958, Two Concepts of Liberty, published in Isaiah Berlin, 1969, Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 5Fred Block and Margaret Somers, 2014, The Power of Market Fundamentalism: Karl Polanyi’s Critique, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 6Amartya Sen, 1981, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1.


pages: 261 words: 81,802

The Trouble With Billionaires by Linda McQuaig

"Robert Solow", battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vanguard fund, very high income, wealth creators, women in the workforce

In a major investigative report in Rolling Stone, environmental activist Bill McKibben cited figures showing that fossil fuel companies currently have proven reserves of oil, gas ‌and coal worth $27 trillion.6 If the world were to reduce carbon emissions enough to keep the temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius (which the international community has agreed is the critical threshold), 80 per cent of those reserves would have to stay in the ground! McKibben notes that this means the fossil fuel industry would ‘be writing off $20 trillion in assets’ – not something corporate moguls are wont to do, especially when it involves their core business. As author Naomi Klein puts it, ‘with the fossil-fuel industry, wrecking the planet is their business model. It’s what they do.’ Given the stakes, it was almost inevitable that the opposition to climate change mounted by the fossil fuel lobby would be a campaign staggering in its size, scope and sophistication. At the same time, the campaign to tackle climate change was also considerably more sophisticated than the campaign to save the ozone layer, and was backed up by a more rigorous scientific process and a more engaged global public, including tens of millions of people who came to appreciate the enormity of the stakes for humanity.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Whenever artists sign on with brands, their creativity and creditability are grafted on to the good or service being plugged. The aim is to bypass or short-circuit viewer defenses by intimately associating with creative elements that people find appealing—to “engage target consumers in captive locations for extended periods of time through the power of emotional connections,” as the CEO of a leading media research firm put it. Given our populist sensibilities, advertisements, as writers Thomas Frank and Naomi Klein have observed, can no longer just tell us what to buy. Instead they offer us what appear to be gifts—like Wolf’s artist profiles—while slyly taking something—our attention or “mindshare”—in return. In this context it’s common for companies to fancy themselves patrons—modern-day Medicis, they’ve been called—giving needy creators a boost. But there are limits to what they’re willing to support.


pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The range of arguments is vast. Supporters of globalization include Martin Wolf with his Why Globalization Works (Yale University Press, New Haven, 2004) and Thomas Friedman’s The World is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century (Farrar, Strauss, Giroux, New York, 2005). Its detractors – using varying arguments – include Joseph Stiglitz (Globalization and its Discontents [Penguin, London, 2003]), Naomi Klein (No Logo [Fourth Estate, New York, 1999]) and Noreena Hertz (The Silent Takeover [The Free Press, New York, 2002]). My sense, however, is that many of these books are written as if the West is still pulling the strings – either governments or corporations. This book suggests otherwise. CHAPTER 1: WIMBLEDON, THE OLYMPICS AND SCARCITY 1. Source: Washington Post, 23 January 2007. 2. Given on 6 December 2006, the full speech is available at http://www.hm-treasury gov.uk/prebud_pbr06_speech.htm.


pages: 312 words: 84,421

This Chair Rocks: A Manifiesto Against Ageism by Ashton Applewhite

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Downton Abbey, fixed income, follow your passion, ghettoisation, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, obamacare, old age dependency ratio, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning, white picket fence, women in the workforce

Currently, I blog at This Chair Rocks, speak widely and am the voice of Yo, Is This Ageist?. I’ve written for Harper’s, Playboy, and many other publications. I have also been on staff at the American Museum of Natural History since 2000, where I write about everything under the sun. In 2015, I was honored to be included in Salt Magazine’s list of the world’s 100 most inspiring women—along with Angelina Jolie, Elizabeth Warren, Amal Clooney, Aung San Suu Kyi, Naomi Klein, and other remarkable activists—committed to social change.


pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, circulation of elites, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kenneth Arrow, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, mass incarceration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

.… Even those of us who considered ourselves pessimists were basically optimists: we thought that bullish investors might face a rude awakening, but that it would all have a happy ending.” But the experience of the fail decade has made Krugman profoundly skeptical of elite opinion and what he derisively calls Very Serious People. He now approvingly cites such insurrectionist heroes as the radical author Naomi Klein, something that would have been unthinkable a decade before. The insurrectionists not only think there is something fundamentally broken about our current institutions and the social order they hold up, but they believe the only way to hold our present elites accountable is to force them to forfeit their authority. Insurrectionists see the plummeting of trust in public institutions as a good thing if it can act as a spur for needed upheaval and change.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

I’ve benefitted immensely from personal conversations – and in some cases collaborations – with Giorgos Kallis, Kate Raworth, Daniel O’Neill, Julia Steinberger, John Bellamy Foster, Ian Gough, Ajay Chaudhary, Glen Peters, Ewan McGaughey, Asad Rehman, Bev Skeggs, David Graeber, Sam Bliss, Riccardo Mastini, Jason Hirsch, Federico de Maria, Peter Victor, Ann Pettifor, Lorenzo Fioramonti, Peter Lipman, Joan Martinez-Alier, Martin Kirk, Alnoor Ladha, Huzaifa Zoomkawala, Patrick Bond, Rupert Read, Fred Damon, Wende Marshall, The Rules team, my editors at the Guardian, Foreign Policy, Al Jazeera and other outlets, where I first worked out many of the ideas that appear in this book, and of course my agent Zoe Ross, and Tom Avery, my editor at Penguin, who were willing to give this idea a platform. I’ve also learned from and been inspired by the writings of many others: Silvia Federici, Jason Moore, Andreas Malm, Naomi Klein, Kevin Anderson, Tim Jackson, Juliet Schor, Vandana Shiva, Arturo Escobar, George Monbiot, Herman Daly, Kate Aronoff, Robert Macfarlane, Abdullah Öcalan, Ariel Salleh, David Wallace-Wells, Nnimmo Bassey, Robin Wall Kimmerer, Timothy Morton, Daniel Quinn, Carolyn Merchant, Vijay Prashad, David Harvey, Maria Mies, Gustavo Esteva, André Gorz, Serge Latouche, Bill McKibben, Jack D. Forbes, Philippe Descola, David Abrams, Kofi Klu, Bruno Latour, Suzanne Simard, Murray Bookchin, and Ursula Le Guin.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Instead he backed the International Monetary Fund, which had been a primary culprit in its hubris, bailed out the banks and appointed Larry Summers as his principal economic adviser, the man who devised the policy responsible for the sub-prime housing crisis. Obama never tried to reach out to the precariat, even though many in it had been hopeful that he would do so. The social democratic imagination could not empathise with real predicaments. In the United States and elsewhere, anger grew at some of the corrupt aspects of the globalisation era. Recall the systemic use of subsidies. Naomi Klein among others has called the globalisation era ‘crony capitalism’, revealing itself not as a huge ‘free market’ but as a system in which politicians hand over public wealth to private players in exchange for political support. Ironically, far-right groups captured the anti-corporatist backlash. If the state has been captured by cronyism, why should anyone support a ‘strong state’? Old-style social democrats are unable to respond with conviction because they accepted the neo-liberal construction and did nothing to support the precariat that grew in its shadow.


pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

The Seattle protests of 1999 were characterized by an extraordinary form of distributed organization: smaller affinity groups representing specific causes—anti-Nike critics, anarchists, radical environmentalists, labor unions—would operate independently for much of the time, only coming together for occasional “spokescouncil” meetings, where each group would elect a single member to represent their interests. As Naomi Klein reported in The Nation, “At some rallies activists carry actual cloth webs to symbolize their movement. When it’s time for a meeting, they lay the web on the ground, call out ‘All spokes on the web,’ and the structure becomes a street-level boardroom.” To some older progressives, steeped in the more hierarchical tradition of past labor movements, those diverse “affinity groups” seemed hopelessly scattered and unfocused, with no common language or ideology uniting them.


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

Erik Rauch, “Productivity and the Workweek,” http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/users/rauch/worktime (accessed December 9, 2012); John de Graaf, “Affluenza Cure Calls for Political Action: Different Standards for Workweek an Opportunity,” special to the Denver Post, October 29, 2001. 49. For a more artistic way of saying pretty much the same thing, see the Flobots’ “Handlebars” video at www.youtube.com/watch?v=HLUX0y4EptA (accessed December 9, 2012). 50. Naomi Klein, “Geoengineering: Testing the Waters,” New York Times, Opinion, October 27, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/opinion/sunday/geoengineering-testing-the-waters.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& (accessed December 9, 2012). 51. Division for Science Policy and Sustainable Development at UNESCO, “UNESCO Science Report: The Current Status of Science around the World,” Executive Summary (UNESCO Publishing, 2010), http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001898/189883e.pdf (accessed December 9, 2012). 52.


pages: 326 words: 88,905

Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban decay, wage slave, white flight, women in the workforce

But if, like Sacco, you distrust all history that does not have a face, a name, and a voice behind it, you will find more to call you to action in the voices that speak from the decimated landscapes of America’s deepest poverty, which we (like Dickens’s ‘telescopic philanthropists’) know even less well than we do the sufferings of peoples halfway around the world. Together, Sacco and Hedges might just have created a form that can speak across divides unbridgeable without the supplement of graphic narrative.” —Public Books “ . . . a bleak, fist-shaking look at the effects of global capitalism in the United States.” —Joe Gross, Austin American-Statesman “This is a book that should warm the hearts of political activists such as Naomi Klein or the nonagenerian Pete Seeger. And cause apoplexy among the Tea Party and its fellow travellers. . . . Sure, it’s a polemic, but it’s a polemic with a human face.” —Globe and Mail (Canada) “Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt is a harrowing account of the exploited American underclass. . . . It is their stories that shape Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt to be a mesmeric indictment of an America that has failed its populace. . . .


pages: 324 words: 93,606

No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy by Linsey McGoey

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, American Legislative Exchange Council, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, cashless society, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, effective altruism, Etonian, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, germ theory of disease, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, wealth creators

., The Logic of the Gift: Toward an Ethic of Generosity (London and New York: Routledge, 1997); see also Jacques Derrida, Given Time: Counterfeit Money (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992). 36Pierre Bourdieu, ‘Marginalia – Some Additional Notes on the Gift,’ in Schrift, The Logic of the Gift, 231–2. 37Mark Dowie, American Foundations: An Investigative History (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001), ix. 38Barry Ellsworth, ‘Koch Brothers’ Lies Tear at Very Fabric of American Society’, 2 August 2014, allvoices.com. 39Liza Featherstone, ‘On the Wal-Mart Money Trail’, The Nation, 21 November 2005. 40Foundation Center, ‘Top 100 US Foundations by Asset Size’, at foundationcenter.org. 41Clare O’Connor, ‘Report: Walmart’s Billionaire Waltons Give Almost None of Own Cash to Foundation’, Forbes, 6 March 2014. 42Interview with James Love, available at fireintheblood.com. 43Francesca Sawaya, ‘Philanthropy, Patronage, and Civil Society: Experiences From Germany, Great Britain and North America’, American Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1 (2008), 203. CHAPTER ONE 1Alec MacGillis, ‘Scandal at Clinton Inc’., New Republic, 22 September 2013. 2Quotes from www.clintonfoundation.org. 3Branson’s shortfall was described in Naomi Klein’s compelling book, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (London: Allen Lane, 2014). The CGI does maintain what they term a “commitment to action” webpage listing how many pledges have been fulfilled or not, but there is no penalty if a pledge is not carried out. 4Nicholas Confessore and Amy Chozick, ‘Unease at Clinton Foundation Over Finance and Ambitions’, New York Times, 13 August 2013. 5‘Integrated Activist Defense’, teneoholdings.com. 6My description is indebted to Andy Hoffman’s National Magazine Award–nominated analysis of Clinton and Guistra’s partnership.


pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

. —, Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century (London, 2008). Fred Kaplan, Lincoln: The Biography of a Writer (New York, 2008). Thomas Keneally, Lincoln (London, 2003). Frank Kermode, The Age of Shakespeare (London, 2004). Parag Khanna, The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order (London, 2008). Mark Kishlansky, A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603–1714 (London, 1996). Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (London, 2007). James Kynge, China Shakes the World (London, 2006). Mark Leonard, What Does China Think? (London, 2008). Seth Lerer, Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language (New York, 2007). John Lukacs, Five Days in London (New Haven, 2001). —, Five Days in London: May 1940 (New Haven, 2001). Robert McCrum, William Cran and Robert MacNeil, The Story of English (London, 1986).


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

The texts, signs, and messages that flow through global communications networks do not carry a clear and unambiguous celebration of ideas and ideologies we might lazily label Western, such as consumerism, individualism, and secularism.61 These commercial pipelines may instead carry texts that overtly criticize 110 TH E G OOGL IZATION OF US and threaten the tenets of global capitalism, such as albums by the leftist rock band Rage against the Machine, films by Michael Moore, and books by Naomi Klein. Time Warner does not care if the data inscribed on the compact discs it sells simulates the voice of Madonna or of Ali Farka Touré. What flows from North to South does not matter as much as how it flows, how much revenue the flows generate, and who uses and reuses them. In this way, the Googlization of us has profound consequences. It’s not so much the ubiquity of Google’s brand that is troubling, dangerous, or even interesting: it’s that Google’s defaults and ways of doing spread and structure ways of seeking, finding, exploring, buying, and presenting that influence (though they do not control) habits of thought and action.


pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

This son told him to double the feed, so that at least some food would spill over to the smaller pigs. That, the farmer knew, would be too expensive. So he asked the advice of his daughter, who had not gone to college. She replied, “Get the pigs out of the trough.” If you are an American, your future depends on us doing just that. Notes 1. Martin Fackler, “Japan Goes from Dynamic to Disheartened,” New York Times, October 17, 2010. 2. Naomi Klein, “Capitalism vs. the Climate,” Nation, November 28, 2011. 3. “Bank Bailouts Supporter Palin Criticizes TARP as ‘Crony Capitalism,’ ‘Slush Fund . . . Just As We Had Been Warned About,’ ” Media Matters, February 6, 2010, http://mediamatters.org/mmtv/201002060024. 4. John Nichols, “Rick Perry’s Attack on Democracy,” Nation, October 10, 2011, http://www.thenation.com/article/163548/rick-perrys-attack-democracy. 5.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Here was the hard core of the student protest movement: dedicated eco-warriors, veterans of suicidal sit-downs in front of tanks in Gaza, the demobbed Clown Army and, as my host put it, ‘the Situationist Taliban’. Did they know this had all been done before? They had a vague idea. I watched their eyes widen—sixty of them, cross-legged on the Jane Austen–era floorboards—as I explained the debates between Proudhon, Blanqui, Marx and Garibaldi in the years before 1871, scarcely needing to draw out the parallels with Climate Camp, the Black Bloc, Naomi Klein and the Zapatistas. Afterwards, a few of us wedged ourselves into the nearby Museum Tavern, where Marx had been a regular. There was @spitzenprodukte and @benvickers_, both art activists; @dougald—the inventor of the term ‘collapsonomics’; @digitalmaverick, a schoolteacher and ‘moodle evangelist’; and Tim, who’d dedicated his life to fighting for human rights in the Niger Delta. The discussion buzzed: is it the technology, the economics, the mass psychology or just the zeitgeist that’s caused this global explosion of revolt?


Corbyn by Richard Seymour

anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, first-past-the-post, full employment, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, liberal world order, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Philip Mirowski, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, working-age population, éminence grise

Scheuerman, Carl Schmitt: The End of Law, Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999; Renato Christi, Carl Schmitt and Authoritarian Liberalism: Strong State, Free Economy, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1998; Perry Anderson, ‘The Intransigent Right’ in Spectrum: from right to left in the world of ideas, Verso, 2005, pp. 15–16; and Renée Sallas, ‘Friedrich von Hayek, Leader and Master of Liberalism’, El Mercurio, 12 April 1981. On the role of neoliberals in the Pinochet dictatorship, see David Harvey, Neoliberalism: A Short History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 7–9; Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007, pp. 77–87; Greg Grandin, ‘The Road from Serfdom: Milton Friedman and the Economics of Empire’, Counterpunch, 17 November 2006. And on the underlying assumptions of neoliberal thought with regard to state and economy, see: Philip Mirowski, Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown, London: Verso, 2013; Philip Mirowski, ‘On the Origins (at Chicago) of some Species of Neoliberal Evolutionary Economics’, in Robert van Horn, Philip Mirowski and Thomas A Stapleford, eds., Building Chicago Economics: New Perspectives on the History of America’s Most Powerful Economics Program, Cambridge University Press, 2011. 26James M.


pages: 891 words: 253,901

The Devil's Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America's Secret Government by David Talbot

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, information retrieval, Internet Archive, land reform, means of production, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation

After blasting away these negative thoughts, Cameron sought to replace them with “good ones,” through what he called “psychic driving”—playing taped messages encouraging positive behavior to his nearly comatose victims for between sixteen and twenty hours a day, week after week, as they slipped in and out of consciousness. In one case, a patient underwent reprogramming in Cameron’s Sleep Room for 101 days. The people who came to Cameron were generally seeking relief from everyday psychological ailments like depression and anxiety, even for help dealing with marital problems. But as author Naomi Klein later wrote, Cameron’s “shock and awe warfare on the mind” brought only much deeper misery to the patients—many of them women—in his care. “Though he was a genius at destroying people, he could not remake them,” Klein observed. “A follow-up study conducted after Cameron left the Allan Memorial Institute found that 75 percent of his former patients were worse off after treatment than they were before they were admitted.”

: Dalessio and Silberstein, Wolff’s Headache and Other Pain, 4. 306“potentially useful secret drugs”: McCoy, A Question of Torture, 45–46. 306Joan has disturbing memories: Author interview with Joan Talley. 307“I have just understood the nature”: AMD letter to father, AWD correspondence. 308Cameron saw himself as an iconoclastic innovator: Rebecca Lemov, “Brainwashing’s Avatar: The Curious Career of Dr. Ewen Cameron,” Grey Room 45 (Fall 2011): 61–87. 308“shock and awe warfare on the mind”: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 31. 308“he was a genius at destroying people”: Ibid., 47. 309“like prisoners of the Communists”: Ibid., 37. 309Kastner would come to think of the doctor: Ibid., 26. 309Orlikow could not remember her husband: The Scotsman (Edinburgh), Jan. 6, 2006. 310“a terrible mistake”: Klein, Shock Doctrine, 42. 310the work of Cameron . . . lives on at the agency: Ibid., 39. 310“He thought my brother could do better”: Author interview with Joan Talley. 310“I wish I could help him”: Penfield letter, Feb. 22, 1959, AWD correspondence, Princeton. 310She felt “joy”: Letter to MB, Nov. 1, 1961, Clover Dulles papers, Schlesinger Library. 311“endlessly patient in general”: DePue interview with Joan Talley. 311“the hands of a person who thinks”: Clover Dulles journals, Schlesinger Library. 312Dulles arranged for his niece: Author interview with Joan Talley. 312“walking on the bottom of the sea”: Letter to MB, Clover Dulles correspondence, Schlesinger Library. 312recommended that she see Dr.


pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

The end of growth will no doubt alter the prospects of both rich and poor, in both absolute and relative terms. Those with privilege will no doubt struggle to maintain it, while the poor, driven to desperation by generally worsening economic conditions, may in increasing numbers of instances organize or even revolt in order to increase their share of a shrinking pie. In her 2008 book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Canadian anti-globalization author and activist Naomi Klein argued that modern neo-liberal capitalism thrives on disasters, in that politicians and corporate leaders take advantage of natural calamities and wars to ram though programs for privatization, free trade, and slashed social spending — programs that are inherently unpopular and would have little chance of adoption in ordinary times.51 Klein’s thesis seems confirmed in the present instance: the end of growth is presenting societies with an ongoing economic crisis, and we have already seen how, in the US, well-heeled investors and executives have benefited from government bailouts while millions of workers have lost jobs and homes.


pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, off grid, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

The catalogue of injustice, violence, prejudice and inequality that still besets us? I could fill this book again if I did. But as far as books go, that market is pretty much covered. In The Rational Optimist, Matt Ridley recalls browsing the current affairs section of an airport bookshop and, despite volumes on offer from authors as diverse a Noam Chomsky, Barbara Ehrenreich, Al Franken, Al Gore, John Gray, Naomi Klein, George Monbiot and Michael Moore, not seeing a single optimistic volume. ‘All argued to a greater or lesser degree that (a) the world is a terrible place (b) it’s getting worse (c) it’s mostly the fault of commerce and (d) a turning point has been reached,’ he lamented. I think Ridley is being a bit harsh on those books. I interpret them as heartfelt calls to action: dire warnings followed by suggestions about what to do to make things better.


pages: 407 words: 104,622

The Man Who Solved the Market: How Jim Simons Launched the Quant Revolution by Gregory Zuckerman

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, automated trading system, backtesting, Bayesian statistics, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blockchain, Brownian motion, butter production in bangladesh, buy and hold, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, computerized trading, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, Flash crash, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, illegal immigration, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, More Guns, Less Crime, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, obamacare, p-value, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine

There were signs the initiative was helping public schools retain the kinds of teachers who previously had bolted for private industry. One can see contradictions, even hypocrisies, in some of Simons’s life decisions. Renaissance spent years legally converting short-term gains into long-term profits, saving its executives billions of dollars in taxes, even as Simons decried a lack of spending by the government on basic education in science, mathematics, and other areas. Some strident critics, including author and activist Naomi Klein, have questioned the growing influence of society’s “benevolent billionaires,” who sometimes single-handedly allocate resources and determine priorities in the nonprofit world at a time of stretched government budgets. Simons also can be criticized for hiring waves of top scientists and mathematicians for his hedge fund, even while lamenting about the talent that private industry siphoned from the public sphere and how many schools are unable to retain top teachers.


pages: 338 words: 104,684

The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and the Birth of the People's Economy by Stephanie Kelton

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, COVID-19, Covid-19, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discrete time, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Food sovereignty, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, liquidity trap, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, urban planning, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, zero-sum game

A ‘must-read’ that is sure to influence many aspects of policymaking going forward.” —Mohamed El-Erian, chief economic advisor, Allianz “In a world of epic, overlapping crises, Stephanie Kelton is an indispensable source of moral clarity. Whether you’re all in for MMT, or merely MMT-curious, the truths that she teaches about money, debt, and deficits give us the tools we desperately need to build a safe future for all. Read it—then put it to use.” —Naomi Klein, author of On Fire: The Burning Case for a Green New Deal “Kelton’s game-changing book on the myths around government deficits is both theoretically rigorous and empirically entertaining. It reminds us that money is not limited, only our imagination of what to do with it. After you read it you will never think of the public purse as a household economy again. Read it!” —Mariana Mazzucato, author of The Value of Everything: Making and Taking in the Global Economy “The Deficit Myth is a triumph.


Fortunes of Change: The Rise of the Liberal Rich and the Remaking of America by David Callahan

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, automated trading system, Bernie Sanders, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, carried interest, clean water, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Thorp, financial deregulation, financial independence, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, income inequality, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, medical malpractice, mega-rich, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, NetJets, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, working poor, World Values Survey

The Bush team played to type, as a war cabinet made up largely of multimillionaires and dominated by three former CEOs— Bush, Cheney, and Rumsfeld—embarked on imperial adventures. The Clinton era was quieter but also confirmed populist fears. An administration heavy with wealthy Wall Streeters, Robert Rubin most notably, put globalization on a fast track and removed trade barriers to make the world flatter in ways that benefited corporations while leaving U.S. workers to be steamrolled by foreign competition. In the view of critics such as Naomi Klein, the rich have turned the world into one big zone of plunder, with multinational corporations moving like locusts to suck wealth from developing countries. All the while, oblivious to the suffering of billions, the wealthy treat foreign countries as playgrounds, bopping around in carbon-spewing private jets to places like Cabo San Lucas, Cannes, and Dubai. In any given issue of Vanity Fair, there are stories about Johnny Depp’s private island in the Caribbean or photos of George Clooney at his villa I 103 c05.indd 103 5/11/10 6:19:28 AM 104 fortunes of change on Lake Como or mention of the billionaire-owned mega-yachts that trawl the seas.


pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

A host of oftentimes brutal laws designed to undermine whatever resistance people maintained against the demands of wage labor accompanied the dispossession of peasants’ rights, even before capitalism had become a significant economic force.68 Once capitalism has become a significant economic force, subordination to capital by political or blatantly military means tends to get displaced or remain in effect in the economically underdeveloped regions of the globe, whereas subordination by economic means tends to prevail in the over­ developed regions. With the new, neoliberal economic order, however, as both Naomi Klein and David Harvey have shown,69 forms of so-called primitive accumulation reappear in even the most overdeveloped econo­ mies—so that in the United States, for example, a regime of expanded ac­ cumulation by economic means alternates with a regime of accumulation by blatantly military means, as we saw in chapter 2. In any case, the key effect of the enforced destitution characteristic of so-called primitive accumulation in any of its forms is to render laborers more and more completely dependent on capital for their very survival.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

The common view was that banks were invulnerable. After all, they were among the wealthiest institutions on the planet. They were literally "where the money was." How can a bank's share price go down? Later, as bank after bank failed and had to be rescued by the taxpayer, the general public was shocked. The only possible cause must have been corruption and fraud. For sure, corruption and fraud were present. As Naomi Klein lucidly explained in her 2007 book "The Shock Doctrine", any crisis is an opportunity for the mega-bandits to move in and empty the coffers. It's certain that some groups knew that banks would collapse and bet heavily on that. The crisis was long in the making. It was fully predictable; indeed, it was inevitable. Here's why. Let's rewind 30 years and see how the banks work. We're in 1980, and banks are the shining cornerstones of modern society.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

., ‘Monitoring EU Emerging Infectious Disease Risk Due to Climate Change’, Science 336:6080 (2012), 418–19; Frank Biermann and Ingrid Boas, ‘Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Change’, Global Environmental Politics 10:1 (2010), 60–88; Jeff Goodell, The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities and the Remaking of the Civilized World (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2017); Mark Lynas, Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet (Washington: National Geographic, 2008); Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014); Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction, op. cit. 10 Johan Rockström et al., ‘A Roadmap for Rapid Decarbonization’, Science 355:6331, 23 March 2017. 11 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Global Food: Waste Not, Want Not (London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2013), 12. 12 Paul Shapiro, Clean Meat: How Growing Meat Without Animals Will Revolutionize Dinner and the World (New York: Gallery Books, 2018). 13 ‘Russia’s Putin Says Climate Change in Arctic Good for Economy’, CBS News, 30 March 2017; Neela Banerjee, ‘Russia and the US Could be Partners in Climate Change Inaction,’ Inside Climate News, 7 February 2017; Noah Smith, ‘Russia Wins in a Retreat on Climate Change’, Bloomberg View, 15 December 2016; Gregg Easterbrook, ‘Global Warming: Who Loses—and Who Wins?’


pages: 573 words: 115,489

Prosperity Without Growth: Foundations for the Economy of Tomorrow by Tim Jackson

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hans Rosling, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, Philip Mirowski, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, secular stagnation, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, universal basic income, Works Progress Administration, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Praise for the second edition of Prosperity without Growth ‘It is hard to improve a classic, but Jackson has done it… a clearly written yet scholarly union of moral vision with solid economics.’ Herman Daly, author of Steady-State Economics ‘I remember exactly where I was when I first read Prosperity without Growth. It cuts through the intellectual clamour with clarity, courage – and hope.’ Naomi Klein, author of This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate ‘Tim Jackson’s Prosperity without Growth systematises and renders tangible an essential project few believed to be practical: recovering the dream of shared prosperity and human development through decoupling it from the bandwagon of growth. Essential reading for those refusing to succumb to a dystopic future.’ Yanis Varoufakis, Professor of Economics, University of Athens ‘One of the most important essays of our generation: both visionary and realistic, rooted in careful research and setting out difficult but achievable goals, it gives what we so badly need – an alternative to passivity, short-term selfishness and cynicism.’


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

But, as Antonia Juhasz points out in “Global Uprising: The Web of Resistance,” the world’s peoples seem to be deciding that the struggle to create a democratic alternative to corporate globalization is preferable to living perpetually in the shadow of empire. Notes 1. Niall Ferguson, “Welcome the New Imperialism,” Guardian, October 31, 2001. 2. Stephen Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (New York: Wiley, 2003), p. 209. 3. John Perkins, Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2004), pp. 14-15. 4. Naomi Klein, “Not Neo-Con, Just Plain Greed,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), December 20, 2003. 5. 2006 World Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2006). 6. Ha-Joon Chang, Kicking Away the Ladder: How the Economic and Intellectual Histories of Capitalism Have Been Re-Written to Justify Neo-Liberal Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). 7. See www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/printnews.php?


pages: 433 words: 124,454

The Burning Answer: The Solar Revolution: A Quest for Sustainable Power by Keith Barnham

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, carbon footprint, credit crunch, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Naomi Klein, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, uranium enrichment, wikimedia commons

I am aware that there are some Americans, of whom a number are very powerful, who are strongly opposed to the solar revolution. They fear that it will impact on the profits of the fossil-fuel industry. Their influence on Congress during the administrations of George W. Bush was exposed by Robert F. Kennedy Jr in Crimes Against Nature, where he described the “corrosive effect of corporate cronyism.” The politics has been brought up to date by Naomi Klein in her book This Changes Everything. Her arguments are summarised by her equally memorable phrase “capitalism versus the climate.” The Burning Answer is complementary to both of these excellent political tracts. It explains how renewable technologies work and how PV is similar to the technology of the semiconductor revolution that has changed all our lives. It describes how an all-renewable electricity supply has been demonstrated with existing technology in Germany and the advantages of PV power and wind power being complementary.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hedonic treadmill, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Efforts to control and marginalize the poor and working-class majority seem to be necessary concomitants to an upward redistribution of wealth. Nash, “Poverty and Politics in Early American History,” in Down and Out in Early America, ed. Billy G. Smith (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004), 36–37, fn 107; Stephen Pimpare, The New Victorians: Poverty, Politics, and Propaganda in Two Gilded Ages (New York: The New Press, 2004). See also Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007). 4 Robert E. Cray Jr., Paupers and Poor Relief in New York City and Its Rural Environs, 1700–1830 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), 78. 5 Although states in the Midwest had pension and other relief programs for the blind in the late nineteenth century, and by 1919 fourteen states had some such provision (the first was in 1866 in the city of New York), by 1920 Colorado was the best place to be if you were blind, since the greatest number of its blind residents received some form of state relief.


pages: 497 words: 123,778

The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It by Yascha Mounk

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, basic income, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The solution to the ills of undemocratic liberalism is to abolish tutelary institutions, to boot elites out of power, and to put the people back in charge.126 This basic set of intellectual instincts manifests itself in debates about a large range of issues and holds a significant amount of sway on both the far left and the far right. It fuels arguments against trade treaties as well as central banks. And it animates the language of Donald Trump as well as Jill Stein, and Stephen Bannon as well as Naomi Klein. The problem with all this is that it caricatures the origin, the operation, and the purpose of these institutions. It is true that political elites are overly comfortable with technocratic institutions that so happen to give them a lot of power. It is obvious that financial elites spend a lot of money and effort to mold these institutions to their own advantage. And there can be little doubt that funding streams favor some ideas over others, helping to set narrow bounds on the range of “serious” opinion.127 And yet, the history of most institutions that constrain the popular view is much more complicated than its detractors are willing to admit.


pages: 415 words: 127,092

Dawn of Detroit by Tiya Miles

British Empire, European colonialism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, profit motive, trade route, urban planning, white flight

Bald, Great Fire, 15; Bald, Detroit’s First, 242. 78. William Hull to James Madison, August 3, 1805, as quoted in Farmer, History of Detroit, 490. 79. David Braithwaite, “Brigadier General William Hull: His Military and Political Story,” Hull Family Association Journal 15:1 (Autumn 2004): 96–99, 97. 80. Mr. Gentle as quoted in Farmer, History of Detroit, 491; Bald, Detroit’s First, 241. 81. Bald, Detroit’s First, 243. 82. See Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Picador, 2007). 83. Bald, Great Fire, 12. Elijah Brush, James May, and John Anderson to the President of the United States, 1806, LMS/Alexander D. Fraser Papers, 1800–1816, BHC, DPL. 84. Bald, Great Fire, 16. Kenneth R. Fletcher, “A Brief History of Pierre L’Enfant and Washington D.C.,” Smithsonian.com, April 30, 2008. Accessed May 13, 2016. 85.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

To understand modern authoritarianism (and, some would argue, modern capitalism as well), we need insights from both thinkers. The rigidity of thought suggested by the Orwell-Huxley coordinate system leads many an otherwise shrewd observer to overlook the Huxleyan elements in dictatorships and, as disturbingly, the Orwellian elements in democracies. This is why it has become so easy to miss the fact that, as the writer Naomi Klein puts it, “China is becoming more like [the West] in very visible ways (Starbucks, Hooters, cellphones that are cooler than ours), and [the West is] becoming more like China in less visible ones (torture, warrantless wiretapping, indefinite detention, though not nearly on the Chinese scale).” It seems fairly noncontroversial that most modern dictators would prefer a Huxleyan world to an Orwellian one, if only because controlling people through entertainment is cheaper and doesn’t involve as much brutality.


pages: 513 words: 141,963

Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari

Airbnb, centre right, failed state, glass ceiling, global pandemic, illegal immigration, mass incarceration, McJob, moral panic, Naomi Klein, placebo effect, profit motive, RAND corporation, Rat Park, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, Steven Pinker, traveling salesman, War on Poverty

If you spot any, please e-mail me at chasingthescream@gmail.com and I will post them on the website and have them corrected in any future editions. On the first of each month, for a year after this book is published, I will post questions from readers and go through them, and I will go through any requests for corrections and lay out my thinking on whether they are correct. To save the best for last—I am especially indebted to Elton John, David Furnish, and Andrew Sullivan, the fairy godfathers of gays everywhere; Jemima Khan, Naomi Klein, and Eve Ensler, the fairy godmothers of lefties everywhere; and Barbara Bateman, my own personal fairy godmother. I couldn’t have done this without you. Notes Any quote not listed here was said directly to the author and can be heard on the book’s website: www.chasingthescream.com/audio Introduction 1 This has been independently verified by the publisher of this book through contact with my ex-boyfriend and through the public writings of my relative. 2 This account of my own drug use has been independently verified by the publisher of this book with the doctor who treated me all through this period and after. 3 Shortly before this, I was involved in a journalistic controversy.


pages: 545 words: 137,789

How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, asset allocation, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, different worldview, diversification, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, incomplete markets, index fund, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, zero-sum game

.”: Milton and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose (New York: Avon Books, 1971), 195. 80 “If one storekeeper . . .”: Ibid., 212. 80 “The consumer is protected . . .”: Ibid., 215. 81 “if we continue to grant . . .”: Ibid., xx. 81 “The two ideas . . .”: Ibid., 297. 81 “Reagan was especially . . .”: Martin Anderson, Revolution (San Diego: Harcourt, 1988), 172. 82 “due almost entirely . . .”: Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007), 591. 83 “From 1973 to 1995 . . .”: Friedman, Two Lucky People, 408. 83 “What’s the single most important . . .”: Quoted in Daniel Yergin amd Joseph Stanislaw, Commanding Heights (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), 150–51. 7. THE COIN-TOSSING VIEW OF FINANCE 88 Bachelier’s theory of speculation: See Peter L.


pages: 460 words: 131,579

Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

This idea has plenty of support among management gurus. Kenichi Ohmae has published a succession of books hammering home the argument, such as The Borderless World (1990) and The End of the Nation State (1995). (For all his celebration of “borderlessness,” Ohmae’s fame depended on his ability to explain America to Japan and Japan to America.) The left has also jumped on the “borderless” bandwagon. Naomi Klein and various “Kleinians” like Noreena Hertz have long argued that the world’s biggest multinational companies are bigger than all but a handful of nation-states.10 These multinational giants are the real masters of the universe, the argument goes; governments are mere playthings by comparison, constantly adjusting their policies to attract foreign investment and to prevent domestic companies from fleeing abroad.


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

Although the strategy has not been widely adopted in the business world, it has become a very common method for taking care of tasks in protests, with the help of digital technologies to coordinate them. For an early invocation of the term in reference to networked social movements, see Jesse Hirsh of the “TAO collective”—a Canadian-based collective that provided free technical support, e-mail, and web hosting especially to dissidents and movements—who referred to their efforts as “geek adhocracy.” Recounted in Naomi Klein, “The Vision Thing,” Nation, June 22, 2000, https://www.thenation.com/article/vision-thing/. 3. See especially W. Lance Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg, “The Logic of Connective Action,” Information, Communication and Society 15, no. 5 (2012): 739–68. 4. “Egypt: The Legacy of Mohammed Mahmoud Street,” BBC News, November 19, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-20395260; also conceptually reintroduced in the context of social movements and digital technology by scholars of the early internet, including in the book Smart Mobs by Howard Rheingold. 5.


pages: 409 words: 138,088

Moondust: In Search of the Men Who Fell to Earth by Andrew Smith

British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, full employment, game design, Haight Ashbury, Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mark Shuttleworth, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan

There was all that ‘We came in peace for all mankind’ stuff, but they literally were part of the military-industrial complex – it was the same companies designing and making the military hardware and all that. If you were an antiwar hippy protester, they looked like the same group of people.” So I seemed to have happened upon a space Country Joe McDonald, who went on to tell me about the Foundation’s recent “Return to the Moon” conference and their sophisticated “jujitsu” lobbying model (an idea I first heard being used by environmental groups in Naomi Klein’s antiglobalization tract No Logo); about being part of MirCorp, the private, Amsterdam-based company partly run by people who’d marched against the war in their youth, which actually managed to lease the Mir space station from the Russian government for a brief period, only to be brutally “taken out” by the dark forces of the space establishment; about testifying before Congress and meeting high-level Russian officials in Moscow; about the various flashpoints within the organization, and all in a language that I understood.


pages: 469 words: 142,230

The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World by Oliver Morton

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Elon Musk, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, late capitalism, Louis Pasteur, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, renewable energy transition, Scramble for Africa, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus

If, on the other hand, you keep focused on the industrial Anthropocene, you can see human interference in the earth-system not as an unavoidable consequence of being an upright, imaginative, tool-using ape, but as the effect of a particular way of organizing the lives of such apes – industrial capitalism, a social and political contingency inextricable from the rise of fossil fuels. If you think, in the words of Naomi Klein’s book This Changes Everything, that capitalism is at war with the climate, you will not want a good Anthropocene – you will hold out for no Anthropocene at all. This is not a subject where people can simply agree to disagree – or impose their wills on each other through the more general mechanisms of politics. The Anthropocene derives a significant part of its rhetorical power from the idea that it can be defined with the same sort of procedures and precision as other geological periods.


pages: 504 words: 147,660

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters With Addiction by Gabor Mate, Peter A. Levine

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, corporate governance, epigenetics, ghettoisation, impulse control, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, phenotype, placebo effect, Rat Park, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, twin studies, Yogi Berra

[In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts] reads not only as a lively textbook analysis of the physiological and psychological causes of drug addiction, but also as an investigation into his heart and mind.” The Globe and Mail “Gabor Maté’s connections—between the intensely personal and the global, the spiritual and the medical, the psychological and the political—are bold, wise and deeply moral. He is a healer to be cherished and this exciting book arrives at just the right time.” Naomi Klein, author of No Logo and The Shock Doctrine “It seems odd to use the word ‘beautiful’ to describe a book that focuses frequently, in graphic, unrelenting detail, on the lives of some of the most hopeless outcasts of our society: the hard-core street addicts with whom Dr. Gabor Maté works. Yet that’s the word that came repeatedly to mind as I read In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts. It’s not only the grace of Maté’s writing, though that’s certainly a great part of it.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

For more on the histories, theories, prospects, and limitations of “culture jamming,” see Mark Dery, Culture Jamming: Hacking, Slashing and Sniping in the Empire of Signs (Westfield, nJ: Open Magazine pamphlet Series, 1993); lisa prothers, “Culture Jamming with pedro Carvajal,” Bad Subjects, no. 37 (1998); Kalle lasn, Culture Jamming: The Uncooling of America, 1st ed. (new york: Eagle Brook, 1999); naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (new york: picador, 2000), esp. 279–310; Duncombe, “Stepping Off the Sidewalk”; andrew Boyd and Stephen Duncombe, “The Manufacture of Dissent: What the left Can learn from las vegas,” Journal of Aesthetics and Protest 1, no. 3 (2004): 34–47; Christine Harold, “pranking rhetoric: ‘Culture Jamming’ as Media activism,” Critical Studies in Media Communication 21, no. 3 (2004): 189–212; Jo littler, “Beyond the Boycott,” Cultural Studies 19, no. 2 (2005): 227–252; vince Carducci, “Culture Jamming: a Sociological perspective,” Journal of Consumer Culture 6, no. 1 (2006): 116–138; M.


pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The generation that has experienced more peace, freedom, leisure time, education, medicine, travel, movies, mobile phones and massages than any generation in history is lapping up gloom at every opportunity. In an airport bookshop recently, I paused at the Current Affairs section and looked down the shelves. There were books by Noam Chomsky, Barbara Ehrenreich, Al Franken, Al Gore, John Gray, Naomi Klein, George Monbiot and Michael Moore, which all argued to a greater or lesser degree that (a) the world is a terrible place; (b) it’s getting worse; (c) it’s mostly the fault of commerce; and (d) a turning point has been reached. I did not see a single optimistic book. Even the good news is presented as bad news. Reactionaries and radicals agree that ‘excessive choice’ is an acute and present danger – that it is corrupting, corroding and confusing to encounter ten thousand products in the supermarket, each reminding you of your limited budget and of the impossibility of ever satisfying your demands.


The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten

Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, different worldview, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, shared worldview, social intelligence, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey

Stephen Baker and Manjeet Kripalani, “Sofware: Will Outsourcing Hurt America’s Supremacy?” Business Week, March 1, 2004, 84–94. 43. “Inside the New China,” Fortune, October 4, 2004, 92. 44. Engario and Roberts, “China Price.” 45. Argentina: Hope in Hard Times was produced by Mark Dworkin and Melissa Young. For information see http://www.movingimages.org/ page22.html. The Take was produced by Avi Lewis and Naomi Klein. See http:// www.nfb.ca/ webextension/thetake/. Chapter 4: The Opportunity 1. As quoted by Philip H. Duran, “Eight Indigenous Prophecies,” http://home.earthlink.net/ ~phil-duran/prophecies.htm. 2. Thomas Berry, The Great Work (New York: Bell Tower, 1999), 201. 3. This characterization of the organizer cells is from John Feltwell, The Natural History of Butterflies (New York: Facts on File, 1986), 23. 4.


pages: 538 words: 145,243

Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman

anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

In addition to Appelbaum, “Giant Transnational Contractors,” particularly useful works include Charles Fishman, The Wal-Mart Effect: How the World’s Most Powerful Company Really Works—and How It’s Transforming the American Economy (New York: Penguin, 2006); Lichtenstein, The Retail Revolution; and Xue Hong, “Outsourcing in China: Walmart and Chinese Manufacturers,” in Anita Chan, ed., Walmart in China (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011). 39.For a pioneering critical look at modern branding, see Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (New York: Picador, 1999). Lüthje, “Electronics Contract Manufacturing,” 230 (Nishimura quote); Marcelo Prince and Willa Plank, “A Short History of Apple’s Manufacturing in the U.S.,” The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 6, 2012, http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2012/12/06/a-short-history-of-apples-manufacturing-in-the-u-s/; Peter Burrows, “Apple’s Cook Kicks Off ‘Made in USA’ Push with Mac Pro,” Dec. 19, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-12-18/apple-s-cook-kicks-off-made-in-usa-push-with-mac-pro; G.


pages: 486 words: 150,849

Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise

Buckley and Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan in the 1950s and ’60s, increasingly well-known economists for the cognoscenti (the Austrian Friedrich Hayek) and the masses (Milton Friedman) who both got Nobels in the mid-1970s as credible right-wing think tanks appeared. Then in 1980 the empire struck back, and victory was theirs. The economic left, during its decades in the wilderness, produced its own new think tanks (such as the Economic Policy Institute in the 1980s and the American Antitrust Institute in the ’90s) and its celebrated promoters: Buckley equivalents (Thomas Frank, Naomi Klein) as well as the Friedmanesque popular economists Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman, with their Nobels in the 2000s. In the very same week at the beginning of 2011, the centrist Democratic Leadership Council disbanded and the Occupy Wall Street protest was announced. At that moment as well, the star economist Thomas Piketty, French rather than Austrian, was starting to focus people’s attention on the very rich—“transforming the economic discourse,” Krugman has said, especially after his remarkable 2014 bestseller Capital in the Twenty-first Century.


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, different worldview, do-ocracy, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

The activists are anti-capital, anti-neoliberalism and anti-war; they are for human rights, biological and cultural diversity and the free movement of ideas and peoples across borders. They have no parties, no leaders and no centralized bureaucracy. Using the latest information technology, they organize and co-ordinate campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience across the globe. There can be no doubt that as a decentralized, leaderless network of self-organizing and autonomous groups, the international Global Justice Movement is very anarchistic. As Naomi Klein has observed, there is a general consensus that ‘building community-based decision-making power — whether through unions, neighbourhoods, farms, villages, anarchist collectives or aboriginal self-government — is essential to countering the might of the multinational corporations’.68 Anarchists have been involved in the World Social Forums, first held in Porto Alegre in Brazil in 2001, with the slogan ‘Another World is Possible’, and in the first European Social Forum in Florence in 2002, which defined itself as ‘Against the War, Against Racism, Against Neo-liberalism’.

See also his Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology (Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2004) 64 See Benjamin Franks, Rebel Alliances: The Means and Ends of Contemporary British Anarchisms (Edinburgh: AK Press, 2006); Zerzan, Running on Emptiness, op. cit., p. 162 65 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Brian Massumi (Continuum, 1999), p. 74 66 See Erlich, ‘How to Get from Here to There: Building Revolutionary Transfer Culture’, Reinventing Anarchy, Again, op. cit., p. 352 67 See Séan M. Sheehan, Anarchism (Reaktion, 2003), pp. 7–12, 150 68 Naomi Klein, ‘Does Protest Need a Vision?’, New Statesman (3 July 2000) 69 In Bill Weinberg, Homage to Chiapas (Verso, 2002), p. 198. See also Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos, Ya Basta! Ten Years of the Zapatista Uprising, ed. Ziga Vodovnik (Edinburgh: AK Press, 2004) 70 In Subcomandante Marcos, Our Word Is Our Weapon, ed. Juan Ponce de León (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002) SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY This select bibliography consists mainly of the works consulted, as a definitive bibliography of anarchism would run to several volumes.


pages: 497 words: 161,742

The Enemy Within by Seumas Milne

active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, éminence grise

Socialist Review ‘The Enemy Within is a tribute to every NUM member and Women Against Pit Closures activist who has fought over the past decade to save pits and miners’ jobs and to sustain mining communities.’ 1995 NUM Annual Report ‘Part detective thriller and part political primer, The Enemy Within … should be read by every trade unionist.’ NUCPS Journal ‘The definitive account of the strike – the best book on the Thatcher era.’ Naomi Klein, author of The Shock Doctrine Seumas Milne is a columnist and Associate Editor at the Guardian and the paper’s former Comment Editor. He was previously the Guardian’s Labour Editor and a winner of the What the Papers Say Scoop of the Year Award. He studied economics and politics at Oxford and London universities and worked as a staff journalist on the Economist. He is the author of The Revenge of History and co-author of Beyond the Casino Economy.


pages: 684 words: 173,622

Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief by Lawrence Wright

Albert Einstein, call centre, Columbine, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism

The methods that Cameron used to erase his patients’ memories certainly meet the definition of torture. Electroshock therapy was administered to break the “patterns” of personality; up to 360 shocks were administered in a single month in order to make the subject hyper-suggestible. On top of that, powerful drugs—uppers, downers, and hallucinogens—were fed to the incapacitated patients to increase their disorientation. According to author Naomi Klein, who wrote about these experiments in The Shock Doctrine, when Cameron finally believed he had achieved the desired blank slate, he placed the patients in isolation and played tape-recorded messages of positive reinforcement, such as “You are a good mother and wife and people enjoy your company.” Some patients were put into an insulin coma to keep them from resisting; in that state they were forced to listen to such mantras up to twenty hours a day.


Termites of the State: Why Complexity Leads to Inequality by Vito Tanzi

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Andrew Keen, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, experimental economics, financial repression, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, urban planning, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

It is clear, from Keynes’s other comments in the same essay, that he was comparing the Russian experiment with the American developments in the 1920s, a decade that would end with the disaster of the Great Depression. Economic Role of State between World Wars 29 Keynes’s pessimism about the future of capitalism, as it was practiced in the United States in the 1920s, was obvious. To some extent it anticipated the pessimism expressed by some recent writers, such as, for example, Naomi Klein in some of her books (2007, 2014), as well as several economists, including Piketty in his 2014, bestselling book. In the views of these modern critics and of those who had taken part in the “Occupy Wall Street” movements a few years earlier, modern capitalism is clearly not “leading to a destination far better than our present place” for many people and workers. In the United States and in some other countries workers’ wages have stagnated for decades, the income distribution has become less even, and, in the views of these critics, our grandchildren will not live in a world as good as the present one.


pages: 579 words: 183,063

Tribe of Mentors: Short Life Advice From the Best in the World by Timothy Ferriss

23andMe, A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, dematerialisation, don't be evil, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fear of failure, Gary Taubes, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Google Hangouts, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, helicopter parent, high net worth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, index fund, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Plants grow, trusting nature to provide nutrition; animals thrive in the wild despite dangerous conditions. This book reminded me to have faith at a low point in my life, hence I share it as widely as possible to pull others out of their misery. I was greatly influenced by Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland in my formative years. I still live my life wide-eyed in childlike wonder. Even though it was heavy for me at 15, I was greatly impacted by Salman Rushdie’s Shame. It made me kinder. Naomi Klein’s No Logo made me reassess consumerism and greed. What purchase of $100 or less has most positively impacted your life in the last six months (or in recent memory)? In my case, it would be buying a pro subscription to my IMDb account, enabling people from all over the world to find me easily. How has a failure, or apparent failure, set you up for later success? Do you have a “favorite failure” of yours?


pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Hughes and Gudrun Wacker, eds, China and the Internet: Politics of the Digital Leapforward (London: Routledge, 2003), Chapter 3; and Wang Xiaodong, ‘Chinese Nationalism under the Shadow of Globalisation’, lecture at the London School of Economics and Political Science, 7 February 2005. 83 . Interview with Yu Zengke, Beijing, 22 May 2006. 84 . Zheng Yongnian, Will China Become Democratic?, pp. 198-9, 212. 85 . www.china.org.cn/english/2005/Oct/145718.htm (accessed 15/6/08). 86 . Zheng Yongnian, Will China Become Democratic?, pp. 126-7. 87 . ‘Tiananmen Recedes in Hong Kong’, International Herald Tribune, 5 June 2008. 88 . Naomi Klein, ‘Police State 2.0’, Guardian, 3 June 2008. 89 . Edward Wong, ‘A Bid to Help Poor Rural China Catch Up’, International Herald Tribune, 13 October, 2008; ‘On Solid Ground’, South China Morning Post, 23 February, 2008. 90 . Zheng Yongnian, Will China Become Democratic?, p. 256. 91 . Howard W. French, ‘Letter from China’, International Herald Tribune, 15 June 2006. 92 . Zheng Yongnian, Will China Become Democratic?


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Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq by Thomas E. Ricks

business process, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

O'Hern discussed his depression after his platoon suffered casualties in a posting on www.companycommand.com on September 1,2003. 202 "When I got to Washington": The Bremer statement is from the interview posted on Frontline's Web site. CHAPTER 10: THE CFA: "CAN'T PRODUCE ANYTHING" In writing this chapter I relied heavily on more than thirty oral histories posted on the Web site of the U.S. Institute of Peace. The quotations in this chapter from Kraham, Raphel, Sammons, Coyne, Bachar, Dehgan, and Crandall are from that valuable collection. 203 "my time as an ice cream truck driver": This quotation appeared in Naomi Klein, "Baghdad Year Zero," Harper's (September 2004). 204 "The tour length for most civilians": This comment by Synnott is in his article "State-Building in Southern Iraq," Survival (summer 2005). 207 "Time off for me": Diamond's recollection isfromhis Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (Times Books, 2005). 209 "What this means is that for the first nine months": Krohn's memory of his time with the CPA was in his article "The Role of Propaganda in Fighting Terrorism," Army (December 2004).